Sample records for buried quaternary valleys

  1. Gravity field separation and mapping of buried quaternary valleys in Lolland, Denmark using old geophysical data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, M.J.; Olsen, Henrik; Ploug, C.;


    In this paper we utilise the old industrial data for planning new surveys. The overall purpose is a detailed mapping of possible aquifers for the island of Lolland, Denmark. This is done through detection and modelling of the buried quaternary valleys, which either can serve as potential aquifers...

  2. Testing MODFLOW-LGR for simulating flow around Buried Quaternary valleys - synthetic test cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Troels Norvin; Christensen, Steen

    In Denmark the water supply is entirely based on ground water. In some parts of the country these resources are found in buried quaternary tunnel valleys. Intensive mapping has shown that the valleys typically have a complex internal hydrogeology with multiple cut and ­fill structures. The admini...... on the results we will evaluate how to use the method to re­fine a regional scale model covering an area north of the town of Aarhus, Denmark. The area, which contains several buried valleys, is marked with a red square on the map.......­finement (LGR) method developed for MODFLOW-2005 for simulation of groundwater flow in areas containing buried valleys. The tests are conducted as comparative analysis between simulations made with a globally refi­ned model, a locally re­fined model, and a globally coarse model, respectively. Based...

  3. Landslide Buries Valley of the Geysers (United States)


    Geysers are a rare natural phenomena found only in a few places, such as New Zealand, Iceland, the United States (Yellowstone National Park), and on Russia's far eastern Kamchatka Peninsula. On June 3, 2007, one of these rare geyser fields was severely damaged when a landslide rolled through Russia's Valley of the Geysers. The landslide--a mix of mud, melting snow, trees, and boulders--tore a scar on the land and buried a number of geysers, thermal pools, and waterfalls in the valley. It also blocked the Geyser River, causing a new thermal lake to pool upstream. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this infrared-enhanced image on June 11, 2007, a week after the slide. The image shows the valley, the landslide, and the new thermal lake. Even in mid-June, just days from the start of summer, the landscape is generally covered in snow, though the geologically heated valley is relatively snow free. The tree-covered hills are red (the color of vegetation in this false-color treatment), providing a strong contrast to the aquamarine water and the gray-brown slide. According to the Russian News and Information Agency (RIA) [English language], the slide left a path roughly a kilometer and a half (one mile) long and 200 meters (600 feet) wide. Within hours of the landslide, the water in the new lake inundated a number of additional geysers. The geysers directly buried under the landslide now lie under as much as 60 meters (180 feet) of material, according to RIA reports. It is unlikely that the geysers will be able to force a new opening through this thick layer, adds RIA. Among those directly buried is Pervenets (Firstborn), the first geyser found in the valley, in 1941. Other geysers, such as the Bolshoi (Greater) and Maly (Lesser) Geysers, were silenced when buried by water building up behind the new natural dam. According to Vladimir and Andrei Leonov of the Russian Federation Institute of

  4. Ancient buried valleys in the city of Tallinn and adjacent area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaher, Rein


    Full Text Available The distribution, morphology, fillings, and origin of buried valleys are discussed. The direction of the valleys varies from NW to NE. Within the Viru-Harju Plateau the valleys have a more or less symmetric profile, but asymmetric profiles are dominating in the pre-klint area. They are mainly filled with glacial (till, glaciofluvial (sand, gravel, and pebbles, glacio­lacustrine (varved clay, and marine (fine-grained sand deposits. The Tallinn valley with its tributary valleys (Saku and Sausti and fore-klint branches (Harku, Lilleküla, and Kadriorg looks like a river system. The fore-klint branches extend over 20 km in the Gulf of Finland. They are probably tributaries of the ancient river Pra-Neva. Most likely, the formation of valleys was continuous, starting from pre-Quaternary river erosion, and was sculptured by variable processes during the ice ages and influenced by flowing water during the interglacial periods.

  5. Modelling the effect of buried valleys on groundwater flow: case study in Ventspils vicinity, Latvia (United States)

    Delina, Aija; Popovs, Konrads; Bikse, Janis; Retike, Inga; Babre, Alise; Kalvane, Gunta


    Buried subglacial valleys are widely distributed in glaciated regions and they can have great influence on groundwater flow and hence on groundwater resources. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of the buried valleys on groundwater flow in a confined aquifer (Middle Devonian Eifelian stage Arukila aquifer, D2ar) applying numerical modelling. The study area is located at vicinity of Ventspils Town, near wellfield Ogsils where number of the buried valleys with different depth and filling material are present. Area is located close to the Baltic Sea at Piejūra lowland Rinda plain and regional groundwater flow is towards sea. Territory is covered by thin layer of Quaternary sediments in thicknesses of 10 to 20 meters although Prequaternary sediments are exposed at some places. Buried valleys are characterized as narrow, elongated and deep formations that is be filled with various, mainly Pleistocene glacigene sediments - either till loam of different ages or sand and gravel or interbedding of both above mentioned. The filling material of the valleys influences groundwater flow in the confined aquifers which is intercepted by the valleys. It is supposed that glacial till loam filled valleys serves as a barrier to groundwater flow and as a recharge conduit when filled with sand and gravel deposits. Numerical model was built within MOSYS modelling system (Virbulis et al. 2012) using finite element method in order to investigate buried valley influence on groundwater flow in the study area. Several conceptual models were tested in numerical model depending on buried valley filling material: sand and gravel, till loam or mixture of them. Groundwater flow paths and travel times were studied. Results suggested that valley filled with glacial till is acting as barrier and it causes sharp drop of piezometric head and downward flow. Valley filled with sand and gravel have almost no effect on piezometric head distribution, however it this case buried valleys

  6. Bedrock mapping of buried valley networks using seismic reflection and airborne electromagnetic data (United States)

    Oldenborger, G. A.; Logan, C. E.; Hinton, M. J.; Pugin, A. J.-M.; Sapia, V.; Sharpe, D. R.; Russell, H. A. J.


    In glaciated terrain, buried valleys often host aquifers that are significant groundwater resources. However, given the range of scales, spatial complexity and depth of burial, buried valleys often remain undetected or insufficiently mapped. Accurate and thorough mapping of bedrock topography is a crucial step in detecting and delineating buried valleys and understanding formative valley processes. We develop a bedrock mapping procedure supported by the combination of seismic reflection data and helicopter time-domain electromagnetic data with water well records for the Spiritwood buried valley aquifer system in Manitoba, Canada. The limited spatial density of water well bedrock observations precludes complete depiction of the buried valley bedrock topography and renders the water well records alone inadequate for accurate hydrogeological model building. Instead, we leverage the complementary strengths of seismic reflection and airborne electromagnetic data for accurate local detection of the sediment-bedrock interface and for spatially extensive coverage, respectively. Seismic reflection data are used to define buried valley morphology in cross-section beneath survey lines distributed over a regional area. A 3D model of electrical conductivity is derived from inversion of the airborne electromagnetic data and used to extrapolate buried valley morphology over the entire survey area. A spatially variable assignment of the electrical conductivity at the bedrock surface is applied to different features of the buried valley morphology identified in the seismic cross-sections. Electrical conductivity is then used to guide construction of buried valley shapes between seismic sections. The 3D locus of points defining each morphological valley feature is constructed using a path optimization routine that utilizes deviation from the assigned electrical conductivities as the cost function. Our resulting map represents a bedrock surface of unprecedented detail with more

  7. Buried paleoindian-age landscapes in stream valleys of the central plains, USA (United States)

    Mandel, R.D.


    A systematic study of late-Quaternary landscape evolution in the Central Plains documented widespread, deeply buried paleosols that represent Paleoindian-age landscapes in terrace fills of large streams (> 5th order), in alluvial fans, and in draws in areas of western Kansas with a thick loess mantle. Alluvial stratigraphic sections were investigated along a steep bio-climatic gradient extending from the moist-subhumid forest-prairie border of the east-central Plains to the dry-subhumid and semi-arid shortgrass prairie of the west-central Plains. Radiocarbon ages indicate that most large streams were characterized by slow aggradation accompanied by cumulic soil development from ca. 11,500 to 10,000??14C yr B.P. In the valleys of some large streams, such as the Ninnescah and Saline rivers, these processes continued into the early Holocene. The soil-stratigraphic record in the draws of western Kansas indicates slow aggradation punctuated by episodes of landscape stability and pedogenesis beginning as early as ca. 13,300??14C yr B.P. and spanning the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary. The development record of alluvial fans in western Kansas is similar to the record in the draws; slow aggradation was punctuated by multiple episodes of soil development between ca. 13,000 and 9000??14C yr B.P. In eastern Kansas and Nebraska, development of alluvial fans was common during the early and middle Holocene, but evidence shows fan development as early as ca. 11,300??14C yr B.P. Buried soils dating between ca. 12,600 and 9000??14C yr B.P. were documented in fans throughout the region. In stream valleys across the Central Plains, rapid alluviation after ca. 9000??14C yr B.P. resulted in deeply buried soils that may harbor Paleoindian cultural deposits. Hence, the paucity of recorded stratified Paleoindian sites in the Central Plains is probably related to poor visibility (i.e., deep burial in alluvial deposits) instead of limited human occupation in the region during the terminal

  8. Estimated Thickness of Quaternary Sediment in the Wood River Valley aquifer system, South-Central Idaho (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is the estimated thickness of Quaternary sediment of the Wood River Valley aquifer system. This isopach map was constructed by subtracting the estimated...

  9. The Quaternary Silver Creek Fault Beneath the Santa Clara Valley, California (United States)

    Wentworth, Carl M.; Williams, Robert A.; Jachens, Robert C.; Graymer, Russell W.; Stephenson, William J.


    The northwest-trending Silver Creek Fault is a 40-km-long strike-slip fault in the eastern Santa Clara Valley, California, that has exhibited different behaviors within a changing San Andreas Fault system over the past 10-15 Ma. Quaternary alluvium several hundred meters thick that buries the northern half of the Silver Creek Fault, and that has been sampled by drilling and imaged in a detailed seismic reflection profile, provides a record of the Quaternary history of the fault. We assemble evidence from areal geology, stratigraphy, paleomagnetics, ground-water hydrology, potential-field geophysics, and reflection and earthquake seismology to determine the long history of the fault in order to evaluate its current behavior. The fault formed in the Miocene more than 100 km to the southeast, as the southwestern fault in a 5-km-wide right step to the Hayward Fault, within which the 40-km-long Evergreen pull-apart basin formed. Later, this basin was obliquely cut by the newly recognized Mt. Misery Fault to form a more direct connection to the Hayward Fault, although continued growth of the basin was sufficient to accommodate at least some late Pliocene alluvium. Large offset along the San Andreas-Calaveras-Mt Misery-Hayward Faults carried the basin northwestward almost to its present position when, about 2 Ma, the fault system was reorganized. This led to near abandonment of the faults bounding the pull-apart basin in favor of right slip extending the Calaveras Fault farther north before stepping west to the Hayward Fault, as it does today. Despite these changes, the Silver Creek Fault experienced a further 200 m of dip slip in the early Quaternary, from which we infer an associated 1.6 km or so of right slip, based on the ratio of the 40-km length of the strike-slip fault to a 5-km depth of the Evergreen Basin. This dip slip ends at a mid-Quaternary unconformity, above which the upper 300 m of alluvial cover exhibits a structural sag at the fault that we interpret as

  10. Buried valleys within the Standing Rock Indian Reservation, Sioux County, North Dakota, and Corson County, South Dakota (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains information about the buried valleys within the Standing Rock Indian Reservation, Sioux County, North Dakota, and Corson County, South...

  11. Mapping the late Quaternary evolution of the lower Mississippi Valley (United States)

    Haugerud, R. A.; Simon, K. M.; James, T. S.


    The lower Mississippi Valley (LMV) extends from Cape Girardeau to Natchez and from Little Rock to Memphis. Extensive Quaternary terraces within the LMV have been considered to reflect downstream changes in base level (global sea level) and (or) upstream changes in water and sediment input because of glaciation. We suggest that the first-order control on terrace development was glacial-isostatic adjustment (GIA). Observed variation in heights of Quaternary alluvial surfaces at Memphis is 50 m (Rittenour et al., 2007). GIA modeling by Clark et al. (1994) predicted vertical displacement of as much as 130 m at Memphis over the last 18,000 years. ICE-5G models predict smaller displacement and reinforce the viability of GIA as the primary cause of LMV aggradation and incision. Existing analyses of LMV terraces are built on geomorphic maps by Saucier and colleagues (1974, 1994; Autin et al., 1991) that were interpreted from aerial photographs and inch-to-the-mile contour maps. Geomorphic mapping from high-resolution DEMs is more accurate, more rapid, and more reproducible than mapping from aerial photography and intermediate-resolution contours. Working from lidar DEMs (1-5 m XY resolution) and the 10 m National Elevation Dataset (NED) DEM largely derived from 1:24,000 scale contours, Haugerud is mapping the geomorphology of the LMV at ~1:500,000 scale. Goals are to explore the GIA-terrace hypothesis and improve the geomorphic and stratigraphic context for studies of New Madrid seismicity. Mapping leads to several observations: 1. The Holocene floodplain of the Mississippi River onlaps older surfaces. The river appears to be filling a hole created by collapse of the Laurentide forebulge. Continued filling of this accommodation space will, barring human intervention, enable the river to abandon its course through Thebes Gap in favor of a lower-elevation route through Oran Gap. 2. Within Holocene meander belts, younger levee crests are higher than older levee crests. The

  12. Quaternary Geochronology, Paleontology, and Archaeology of the Upper San Pedro River Valley, Sonora, Mexico (United States)

    Gaines, E. P.


    This poster presents the results of multi-disciplinary investigations of the preservation and extent of Quaternary fossil-bearing strata in the San Pedro River Valley in Sonora, Mexico. Geologic deposits in the portions of the San Pedro Valley in southern Arizona contain one of the best late Cenozoic fossil records known in North America and the best record of early humans and extinct mammals on the continent. The basin in the U.S. is one of the type locations for the Blancan Land Mammal Age. Hemiphilian and Irvingtonian fossils are common. Rancholabrean remains are widespread. Strata in the valley adjacent to the international border with Mexico have yielded the densest concentration of archaeological mammoth-kill sites known in the western hemisphere. Despite more than 60 years of research in the U.S., however, and the fact that over one third of the San Pedro River lies south of the international boundary, little has been known about the late Cenozoic geology of the valley in Mexico. The study reported here utilized extensive field survey, archaeological documentation, paleontological excavations, stratigraphic mapping and alluvial geochronology to determine the nature and extent of Quaternary fossil-bearing deposits in the portions of the San Pedro Valley in Sonora, Mexico. The results demonstrate that the Plio-Pleistocene fossil -bearing formations known from the valley in Arizona extend into the uppermost reaches of the valley in Mexico. Several new fossil sites were discovered that yielded the remains of Camelids, Equus, Mammuthus, and other Proboscidean species. Late Pleistocene archaeological remains were found on the surface of the surrounding uplands. AMS radiocarbon dating demonstrates the widespread preservation of middle- to late- Holocene deposits. However, the late Pleistocene deposits that contain the archaeological mammoth-kill sites in Arizona are absent in the valley in Mexico, and are now known to be restricted to relatively small portions of

  13. Hydraulic relationships between buried valley sediments of the glacial drift and adjacent bedrock formations in northeastern Ohio, USA (United States)

    Seyoum, Wondwosen Mekonnen; Eckstein, Yoram


    Buried valleys are ancient river or stream valleys that predate the recent glaciation and since have been filled with glacial till and/or outwash. Outwash deposits are known to store and transmit large amounts of groundwater. In addition to their intrinsic hydraulic properties, their productivity depends on their hydraulic relationships with the adjacent bedrock formations. These relationships are examined using a steady-state three-dimensional groundwater flow model through a section of a buried valley in northeastern Ohio, USA. The flow domain was divided into five hydrostratigraphic units: low-conductivity (K) till, high-K outwash, and three bedrock units (Pottsville Formation, Cuyahoga Group and Berea Sandstone). The model input was prepared using the data from well logs and drilling reports of residential water wells. The model was calibrated using observed heads with mean residual head error of 0.3 m. The calibrated model was used to quantify flux between the buried valley and bedrock formations. Mass balance was calculated to within an error of 2-3 %. Mass balance of the buried valley layer indicates that it receives 1.6 Mm3/year (≈40 % of the total inflow) from the adjacent bedrock aquifers: Pottsville Formation contributes 0.96 Mm3/year (60 %) while the Berea Sandstone 0.64 Mm3/year (40 %).

  14. Quaternary Glaciations in the Rio Mendoza Valley, Argentine Andes (United States)

    Espizua, Lydia E.


    In the Rio Mendoza valley, five Pleistocene drifts and one Holocene drift are distinguished by multiple relative-age criteria, including surface-rock weathering, development of rock varnish, moraine morphology, soil-profile development, and stratigraphic relationships. Several absolute ages suggest a preliminary chronology. During the oldest (Uspallata) glaciation, a system of valley glaciers flowed 110 km from the Andean drainage divide and 80 km from Cerro Aconcagua to terminate at 1850 m. Drift of this ice advance is older than a widespread tephra dated by fission-track at 360,000 ± 36,000 yr. During the Punta de Vacas advance, ice terminated at 2350 m, while during the subsequent Penitentes advance, the glacier system ended at 2500 m. A travertine layer overlying Penitentes Drift has U-series age of 24,200 ± 2000 yr B.P. The distribution of Horcones Drift, which is inferred to represent the last glacial maximum, delimits an independent ice stream that flowed 22 km down Horcones valley to 2750 m. A later readvance (Almacenes) reached 3250 m. Confluencia Drift is considered to be Neoglacial in age and extends downvalley to 3300 m. The moraine sequence is compared with those studied by Caviedes (1972) along Rio Aconcagua on the Chilean flank of the Andes.

  15. Origin, Extent, and Thickness of Quaternary Geologic Units in the Willamette Valley, Oregon (United States)

    O'Connor, Jim E.; Sarna-Wojcicki, Andrei M.; Wozniak, Karl C.; Polette, Danial J.; Fleck, Robert J.


    Stratigraphic and chronologic information collected for Quaternary deposits in the Willamette Valley, Oregon, provides a revised stratigraphic framework that serves as a basis for a 1:250,000-scale map, as well as for thickness estimates of widespread Quaternary geologic units. We have mapped 11 separate Quaternary units that are differentiated on the basis of stratigraphic, topographic, pedogenic, and hydrogeologic properties. In summation, these units reflect four distinct episodes in the Quaternary geologic development of the Willamette Valley: 1) Fluvial sands and gravels that underlie terraces flanking lowland margins and tributary valleys were probably deposited between 2.5 and 0.5 million years ago. They are the oldest widespread surficial Quaternary deposits in the valley. Their present positions and preservation are undoubtedly due to postdepositional tectonic deformation - either by direct tectonic uplift of valley margins, or by regional tectonic controls on local base level. 2) Tertiary and Quaternary excavation or tectonic lowering of the Willamette Valley accommodated as much as 500 m (meters) of lacustrine and fluvial fill. Beneath the lowland floor, much of the upper 10 to 50 m of fill is Quaternary sand and gravel deposited by braided channel systems in subhorizontal sheets 2 to 10 m thick. These deposits grade to gravel fans 40 to 100 m thick where major Cascade Range rivers enter the valley and are traced farther upstream as much thinner valley trains of coarse gravel. The sand and gravel deposits have ages that range from greater than 420,000 to about 12,000 years old. A widely distributed layer of sand and gravel deposited at about 12 ka (kiloannum, thousands of years before the present) is looser and probably more permeable than older sand and gravel. Stratigraphic exposures and drillers' logs indicate that this late Pleistocene unit is mostly between 5 and 20 m thick where it has not been subsequently eroded by the Willamette River and its

  16. Using SOTEM Method to Detect BIF Bodies Buried Under Very Thick and Conductive Quaternary Sediments, Huoqiu Deposit, China (United States)

    Chen, Weiying; Xue, Guoqiang; Khan, Muhammad Younis; Li, Hai


    Huoqiu iron deposit is a typical Precambrian banded iron-formation (BIF) field which is located in the North China Craton (NCC). To detect the deep ore bodies around Dawangzhuang Village in Yingshang County, north of the Huoqiu deposit field, electromagnetic methods were tested. As the ore bodies are buried under very thick conductive Quaternary sediments, the use of EM methods is a great challenge. Short-offset transient electromagnetic method (SOTEM) was applied in the area as we wanted to test due to its detection depth and resolution. A 2D model was first built according to the geology information and magnetic measurement results. Then, 2D forward and 1D inversion were carried out using FDTD and Occam's algorithm, respectively. The synthetic modeling results helped us with the survey design and interpretation. Two 1400-m-long survey lines with offset of 500 and 1000 m were laid perpendicular to the BIF's strike, and the transmitting parameters were selected by a test measurement at the vicinity of a local village. Finally, the structure of survey area and BIF bodies were determined based on the 1D inversion results of real data, and showed a consistency with the subsequent drill results. Our application of SOTEM in detecting hidden BIF buried under very thick conductive layer has shown that the method is capable of penetrating great depth more than 1000 m even in a very conductive environment and will be an effective tool for deep resources investigation.

  17. Using SOTEM Method to Detect BIF Bodies Buried Under Very Thick and Conductive Quaternary Sediments, Huoqiu Deposit, China (United States)

    Chen, Weiying; Xue, Guoqiang; Khan, Muhammad Younis; Li, Hai


    Huoqiu iron deposit is a typical Precambrian banded iron-formation (BIF) field which is located in the North China Craton (NCC). To detect the deep ore bodies around Dawangzhuang Village in Yingshang County, north of the Huoqiu deposit field, electromagnetic methods were tested. As the ore bodies are buried under very thick conductive Quaternary sediments, the use of EM methods is a great challenge. Short-offset transient electromagnetic method (SOTEM) was applied in the area as we wanted to test due to its detection depth and resolution. A 2D model was first built according to the geology information and magnetic measurement results. Then, 2D forward and 1D inversion were carried out using FDTD and Occam's algorithm, respectively. The synthetic modeling results helped us with the survey design and interpretation. Two 1400-m-long survey lines with offset of 500 and 1000 m were laid perpendicular to the BIF's strike, and the transmitting parameters were selected by a test measurement at the vicinity of a local village. Finally, the structure of survey area and BIF bodies were determined based on the 1D inversion results of real data, and showed a consistency with the subsequent drill results. Our application of SOTEM in detecting hidden BIF buried under very thick conductive layer has shown that the method is capable of penetrating great depth more than 1000 m even in a very conductive environment and will be an effective tool for deep resources investigation.

  18. Late Quaternary tectonic landforms and fluvial aggradation in the Saryu River valley: Central Kumaun Himalaya (United States)

    Kothyari, Girish Ch.; Luirei, Khayingshing


    The present study has been carried out with special emphasis on the aggradational landforms to explain the spatial and temporal variability in phases of aggradation/incision in response to tectonic activity during the late Quaternary in the Saryu River valley in central Kumaun Himalaya. The valley has preserved cut-and-fill terraces with thick alluvial cover, debris flow terraces, and bedrock strath terraces that provide signatures of tectonic activity and climate. Morphostratigraphy of the terraces reveals that the oldest landforms preserved south of the Main Central Thrust, the fluvial modified debris flow terraces, were developed between 30 and 45 ka. The major phase of valley fill is dated between 14 and 22 ka. The youngest phase of aggradation is dated at early and mid-Holocene (9-3 ka). Following this, several phases of accelerated incision/erosion owing to an increase in uplift rate occurred, as evident from the strath terraces. Seven major phases of bedrock incision/uplift have been estimated during 44 ka (3.34 mm/year), 35 ka (1.84 mm/year), 15 ka (0.91 mm/year), 14 ka (0.83 mm/year), 9 ka (1.75 mm/year), 7 ka (5.38 mm/year), and around 3 ka (4.4 mm/year) from the strath terraces near major thrusts. We postulate that between 9 and 3 ka the terrain witnessed relatively enhanced surface uplift (2-5 mm/year).

  19. Glacial meltwater impounding: Evidence from the late Quaternary glaciogenic sediments in the Sangla valley, district Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R K Ganjoo; M N Koul


    Sangla valley is situated at an altitude of ∼3500m above mean sea level and lies in the Kinnaur district of Himachal Pradesh. It is fed by river Baspa, a tributary of river Sutlej, that entrenches through the Quaternary glaciogenic deposits before emerging out of the valley and joining the river Sutlej at Karcham. The unstratified to stratified glaciogenic deposits consist of large boulders to fine silt and are classified into four major depositional facies on the basis of sedimentary texture and depositional environment. The facies — basal conglomerates, debris flow, water/sheet flow and laminites — represents the change in the environment of deposition from glaciofluvial to lacustrine and also the extent of the glacier to the valley floor during late Quaternary.

  20. Modelling a real-world buried valley system with vertical non-stationarity using multiple-point statistics (United States)

    He, Xiulan; Sonnenborg, Torben O.; Jørgensen, Flemming; Jensen, Karsten H.


    Stationarity has traditionally been a requirement of geostatistical simulations. A common way to deal with non-stationarity is to divide the system into stationary sub-regions and subsequently merge the realizations for each region. Recently, the so-called partition approach that has the flexibility to model non-stationary systems directly was developed for multiple-point statistics simulation (MPS). The objective of this study is to apply the MPS partition method with conventional borehole logs and high-resolution airborne electromagnetic (AEM) data, for simulation of a real-world non-stationary geological system characterized by a network of connected buried valleys that incise deeply into layered Miocene sediments (case study in Denmark). The results show that, based on fragmented information of the formation boundaries, the MPS partition method is able to simulate a non-stationary system including valley structures embedded in a layered Miocene sequence in a single run. Besides, statistical information retrieved from the AEM data improved the simulation of the geology significantly, especially for the deep-seated buried valley sediments where borehole information is sparse.

  1. Micromorphological investigations of the Late Quaternary loess-paleosol sequences of the Kashmir Valley, India (United States)

    Dar, Reyaz Ahmad; Chandra, Rakesh; Romshoo, Shakil Ahmad; Kowser, Nazia


    The loess-paleosol sequences of the Karewa Group preserve a valuable repository of the Late Quaternary climatic changes and the landscape evolution history of the Karewa Basin of Kashmir Valley in their lithological and pedogenic records. Three representative loess-paleosol sections at Shankerpora (SP), Khan Sahib (KS) and Pattan (PT) localities were chosen for detailed lithostratigraphic fieldwork and micromorphological observations of thin sections. Lithostratigraphic analysis revealed lateral and vertical variation in thickness and number of paleosol profiles from south-west to north-west of the Karewa Basin suggesting the availability of land-surface for periodic loess deposition. The SP section is marked by 6 (SP-S6, S7, S8, S9, S10, S12), KS section by 3 (KS-S2, S4, S5) and PT section by 2 (PT-S1, S3) thick mature paleosol profiles. Theses paleosols have well developed 'Ah' and 'Btk' horizons representing prolonged land-surface stability when pedogenic processes outpace loess deposition. On the other hand comparatively thin to thick paleosol profiles represent weak to moderate pedogenic maturity indicating short stratigraphic breaks with rapid loess deposition. Micromorphological observations of thin sections suggested that clay illuviation and CaCO3 accumulation have operated within the paleosol profiles. CaCO3 features are often associated with clay coatings suggesting decalcification of carbonates followed by clay illuviation. Pedogenic CaCO3 probably resulted from the precipitation of the soil solution near the average depth of wetting front. The pedogenic CaCO3, illuvial clay, mottles, iron manganese features, pedal microstructure and blocky aggregates reveal variation in the pedogenic maturity among and within the loess-paleosol sections. The morphological (both micro- and macro-morphological) attributes of loess-paleosols suggest variation of climatic conditions during the Late Quaternary period in the Karewa Basin of Kashmir Valley, India.

  2. Estimated Altitude of the Consolidated Rock Surface Underlying Quaternary Sediments of the Wood River Valley aquifer system, South-Central Idaho (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is the estimated altitude of the consolidated rock surface underlying Quaternary sediment of the Wood River Valley aquifer system. This surface is...

  3. Late Quaternary paleoenvironmental records from the Chatanika River valley near Fairbanks (Alaska) (United States)

    Schirrmeister, Lutz; Meyer, Hanno; Andreev, Andrei; Wetterich, Sebastian; Kienast, Frank; Bobrov, Anatoly; Fuchs, Margret; Sierralta, Melanie; Herzschuh, Ulrike


    Perennially-frozen deposits are considered as excellent paleoenvironmental archives similar to lacustrine, deep marine, and glacier records because of the long-term and good preservation of fossil records under stable permafrost conditions. A permafrost tunnel in the Vault Creek Valley (Chatanika River Valley, near Fairbanks) exposes a sequence of frozen deposits and ground ice that provides a comprehensive set of proxies to reconstruct the late Quaternary environmental history of Interior Alaska. The multi-proxy approach includes different dating techniques (radiocarbon-accelerator mass spectrometry [AMS 14C], optically stimulated luminescence [OSL], thorium/uranium radioisotope disequilibria [230Th/U]), as well as methods of sedimentology, paleoecology, hydrochemistry, and stable isotope geochemistry of ground ice. The studied sequence consists of 36-m-thick late Quaternary deposits above schistose bedrock. Main portions of the sequence accumulated during the early and middle Wisconsin periods. The lowermost unit A consists of about 9-m-thick ice-bonded fluvial gravels with sand and peat lenses. A late Sangamon (MIS 5a) age of unit A is assumed. Spruce forest with birch, larch, and some shrubby alder dominated the vegetation. High presence of Sphagnum spores and Cyperaceae pollen points to mires in the Vault Creek Valley. The overlying unit B consists of 10-m-thick alternating fluvial gravels, loess-like silt, and sand layers, penetrated by small ice wedges. OSL dates support a stadial early Wisconsin (MIS 4) age of unit B. Pollen and plant macrofossil data point to spruce forests with some birch interspersed with wetlands around the site. The following unit C is composed of 15-m-thick ice-rich loess-like and organic-rich silt with fossil bones and large ice wedges. Unit C formed during the interstadial mid-Wisconsin (MIS 3) and stadial late Wisconsin (MIS 2) as indicated by radiocarbon ages. Post-depositional slope processes significantly deformed both, ground

  4. A High-Resolution Aeromagnetic Survey to Identify Buried Faults at Dixie Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Richard Paul; Grauch, V. J. S.; Blackwell, David D.


    Preliminary results from a high-resolution aeromagnetic survey (200m line spacing) acquired in Dixie Valley early in 2002 provide confirmation of intra-basin faulting based on subtle surface indications. In addition the data allow identification of the locations and trends of many faults that have not been recognized at the surface, and provide a picture of intrabasin faulting patterns not possible using other techniques. The data reveal a suite of northeasterly-trending curving and branching faults that surround a relatively coherent block in the area of Humboldt Salt Marsh, the deepest part of the basin. The producing reservoir occurs at the north end of this coherent block, where rampart faults from the northwest side of the valley merge with anthithetic faults from the central and southeast parts of the valley.

  5. The influence of time on the magnetic properties of late Quaternary periglacial and alluvial surface and buried soils along the Delaware River, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary E Stinchcomb


    Full Text Available Magnetic susceptibility of soils has been used as a proxy for rainfall, but other factors can contribute to magnetic enhancement in soils. Here we explore influence of century- to millennial-scale duration of soil formation on periglacial and alluvial soil magnetic properties by assessing three terraces with surface and buried soils ranging in exposure ages from <0.01 to ~16 kyrs along the Delaware River in northeastern USA. The A and B soil horizons have higher Xlf, Ms, and S-ratios compared to parent material, and these values increase in a non-linear fashion with increasing duration of soil formation. Magnetic remanence measurements show a mixed low- and high-coercivity mineral assemblage likely consisting of goethite, hematite and maghemite that contributes to the magnetic enhancement of the soil. Room-temperature and low-temperature field-cooled and zero field-cooled remanence curves confirm the presence of goethite and magnetite and show an increase in magnetization with increasing soil age. These data suggest that as the Delaware alluvial soils weather, the concentration of secondary ferrimagnetic minerals increase in the A and B soil horizons. We then compared the time-dependent Xlf from several age-constrained buried alluvial soils with known climate data for the region during the Quaternary. Contradictory to most studies that suggest a link between increases in magnetic susceptibility and high moisture, increased magnetic enhancement of Delaware alluvial soils coincides with dry climate intervals. Early Holocene enhanced soil Xlf (9.5 – 8.5 ka corresponds with a well-documented cool-dry climate episode. This relationship is probably related to less frequent flooding during dry intervals allowing more time for low-coercive pedogenic magnetic minerals to form and accumulate, which resulted in increased Xlf. Middle Holocene enhanced Xlf (6.1 – 4.3 ka corresponds with a transitional wet/dry phase and a previously documented incision

  6. Lidar-Based Mapping of Late Quaternary Faulting Along the Grizzly Valley Fault, Walker Lane Seismic Belt, California (United States)

    Hitchcock, C. S.; Hoirup, D. F.; Barry, G.; Pearce, J.; Glick, F.


    The Grizzly Valley fault (GVF) is located within the northern Walker Lane, a zone of right-lateral shear between the Sierra Nevada and the Basin and Range in Plumas County. The GVF extends southeasterly from near Mt. Ingalls along the eastern side of Lake Davis. It may partially connect with the Hot Creek fault within Sierra Valley and extend south to Loyalton with an overall approximate length of 50 km. Comparison of high-resolution topography developed from LiDAR data with published bedrock geologic mapping documents the presence of geomorphic features that provide information on fault activity of the GVF. Field mapping verified tectonically deformed and offset late Quaternary surfaces identified on bare-earth LiDAR imagery across the GVF within glacial deposits on the eastern margin of Lake Davis, and alluvial deposits in Sierra Valley. Along the GVF, conspicuous geomorphic and hydrologic features include scarps in alluvial surfaces, elongated depressions aligned with adjacent linear escarpments, truncated bedrock spurs, closed depressions, linear swales, right-lateral deflections of creeks and river courses, and shutter ridges, as well as springs and linear seeps consistent with right-lateral strike-slip faulting. The discontinuous nature of observed fault traces combined with the apparent down-to-the-west offset of alluvial surfaces at the southern and northern ends of the eastern margin of Lake Davis are consistent with a broad bend or step over in the fault. Scarp profiles of apparently faulted surfaces extracted from LiDAR data document vertical offsets of up to 14 m. Our study suggest that the GVF is an oblique, right-lateral fault that has been active in the late Quaternary. This study complements on-going investigations by DWR to assess the impact of seismic hazards on State Water Project infrastructure.

  7. Human Dispersals Along the African Rift Valley in the Late Quaternary (United States)

    Tryon, C. A.; Faith, J. T.; Peppe, D. J.


    Climate- and tectonic-driven environmental dynamics of the East African Rift System (EARS) during the Quaternary played an important role in the demographic history of early Homo sapiens, including expansions of modern humans across and out of Africa. Human forager population size, geographic range, and behaviors such as hunting strategies and residential mobility likely varied in response to changes in the local and regional environment. Throughout the Quaternary, floral and faunal change was linked at least in part to variations in moisture availability, temperature, and atmospheric CO2, which in addition to uplift and faulting, contributed to the expansion and contraction of a number of large lakes that served as biogeographic barriers to many taxa. This is particularly clear for the Lake Victoria basin, where biogeographic, geological, and paleontological evidence documents repeated expansion and contraction of the ranges of species in response to lake level and vegetation change. Across much of eastern Africa, the topography of the rift facilitated north-south dispersals, the timing of which may have depended in part on the expansion and contraction of the equatorial forest belt. Dispersal potential likely increased during the more arid periods of the late Quaternary, when the roles of lakes and forests as dispersal barriers was reduced and the extent of low net primary productivity dry grasslands increased, the latter requiring large home ranges for human foragers, conditions suitable for range expansions within H. sapiens.

  8. Geomorphological map and preliminary analysis of Quaternary sediments in the Planica-Tamar valley (Julian Alps, NW Slovenia) (United States)

    Novak, Andrej; Šmuc, Andrej


    The Planica-Tamar valley is located in the Julian Alps in north-west Slovenia. The Planica-Tamar valley represents typical mountain glacial valley bounded by steep, mainly carbonate cliffs with some glacial deposits still preserved. The valley is currently being filled with numerous Holocene sediments deposited by rock falls, landslides, mass gravity flows and fluvial flows. These deposits are forming active or inactive interfingering talus slopes, alluvial and debris-flow fans, all of them with a complex history of sedimentation and erosion forming unconformity bounded sedimentary units. In order to make a thorough analysis of these deposits a detailed geomorphological map in a scale of 1:10 000 has been made. Six different types of sedimentary deposits were defined and mapped. These are moraines, lacustrine sediments, fluvio-glacial deposits, talus slopes, debris fans and alluvial fans. Other mapped features also include shape of ravines, their depths, ridges and direction of sedimentary flow. Additionally areas of active, semi-active and inactive sedimentation were marked. Moraines forms a ridge in the bottom of the valleys and are composed of unconsolidated, poorly sorted, subangular grains ranging from clay size to a few cubic meters big blocks. Lacustrine sediments are represented by laminated well sorted sand and silt, while fluvio-glacial deposits are composed of washed out subrounded sands and gravels. Talus slope deposits are characterised by clast-supported poorly sorted very angular gravel. Debris flow fans are represented by extremely poorly sorted matrix-supported gravels with grain size ranging from clay to few cubic meters big blocks. Alluvial fans are composed by variety of sedimentary textures. Sediments at the fan apex are clast-supported poorly sorted very angular gravels with up to a few cubic meters big block. In the middle part of the fan the sieve deposits are common, while in the distal parts a few centimeters thick layers of sand and

  9. Soil development on Late Quaternary river terraces in a high montane valley in Bhutan, Eastern Himalayas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tshering Dorji,; Caspari, T.; Bäumler, R.; Veldkamp, A.; Jongmans, A.G.; Kado Tshering,; Tsheten Dorji,; Baillie, I.


    We examined the geochemistry and micromorphology of the soils on a suite of morphologically well-defined and visually distinct fluvial terraces, up to 40 m elevation above the current riverbed, at Thangbi in the upper Bumthang Valley, Bhutan. The alluvia forming each of the terraces are lithological

  10. Late Quaternary MIS 6-8 shoreline features of pluvial Owens Lake, Owens Valley, eastern California (United States)

    Jayko, A.S.; Bacon, S.N.


    The chronologic history of pluvial Owens Lake along the eastern Sierra Nevada in Owens Valley, California, has previously been reported for the interval of time from ca. 25 calibrated ka to the present. However, the age, distribution, and paleoclimatic context of higher-elevation shoreline features have not been formally documented. We describe the location and characteristics of wave-formed erosional and depositional features, as well as fluvial strath terraces that grade into an older shoreline of pluvial Owens Lake. These pluvial-lacustrine features are described between the Olancha area to the south and Poverty Hills area to the north, and they appear to be vertically deformed -20 ?? 4 m across the active oblique-dextral Owens Valley fault zone. They occur at elevations from 1176 to 1182 m along the lower flanks of the Inyo Mountains and Coso Range east of the fault zone to as high as -1204 m west of the fault zone. This relict shoreline, referred to as the 1180 m shoreline, lies -20-40 m higher than the previously documented Last Glacial Maximum shoreline at -1160 m, which occupied the valley during marine isotope stage 2 (MIS 2). Crosscutting relations of wave-formed platforms, notches, and sandy beach deposits, as well as strath terraces on lava flows of the Big Pine volcanic field, bracket the age of the 1180 m shoreline to the time interval between ca. 340 ?? 60 ka and ca. 130 ?? 50 ka. This interval includes marine oxygen isotope stages 8-6 (MIS 8-6), corresponding to 260-240 ka and 185-130 ka, respectively. An additional age estimate for this shoreline is provided by a cosmogenic 36Cl model age of ca. 160 ?? 32 ka on reefal tufa at ???1170 m elevation from the southeastern margin of the valley. This 36Cl model age corroborates the constraining ages based on dated lava flows and refines the lake age to the MIS 6 interval. Documentation of this larger pluvial Owens Lake offers insight to the hydrologic balance along the east side of the southern Sierra

  11. Quaternary glaciation in the Nubra and Shyok valley confluence, northernmost Ladakh, India (United States)

    Dortch, Jason M.; Owen, Lewis A.; Caffee, Marc W.


    Three glacial stages (Deshkit 1, Deshkit 2 and Dishkit 3 glacial stages) are identified in the Nubra and Shyok valleys in northernmost Ladakh, northwest India, on the basis of geomorphic field mapping, remote sensing, and 10Be terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide surface exposure dating. The glacial stages date to ˜ 45 ka (Deshkit 1 glacial stage), ˜ 81 ka (Deshkit 2 glacial stage) and ˜ 144 ka (Deshkit 3 glacial stage). A mean equilibrium line altitude depression of ˜ 290 m for the Deshkit 1 glacial stage was calculated using the area accumulation ratio, toe-to-headwall ratio, area-altitude, and area-altitude balance ratio methods. Comparison of glaciation in the Nubra and Shyok valleys with glaciations in the adjacent Central Karakoram of northern Pakistan and northern side of the Ladakh Range of northern India indicates that glaciation was synchronous on Milankovitch timescales across the region during MIS-6, but differed greatly in extent, with more extensive glaciation in the Karakoram than the morphostratigraphically equivalent glaciation on the northern slopes of the Ladakh Range. This highlights the strong contrast in the extent of glaciation across ranges in the Himalaya-Tibetan orogen, necessitating caution when correlating glacial successions within and between mountain ranges.

  12. Along-strike Deformation in Quaternary Valleys of Tropical NW Borneo: Implications for Active Tectonics, Seismicity and Geomorphology (United States)

    Sautter, B.; Mathew, M. J.; Menier, D.; Pubellier, M. F.; Sapin, F.; Siddiqui, N.


    In the wee hours of 5th June, 2015, NW Borneo was jolted by a 6.0 magnitude earthquake, caused by fault movement at a shallow depth of 10 km. The quake that originated from near the foot of the picturesque Mount Kinabalu, Sabah, was felt as far as 350 km away from the epicentre and has produced more than 90 aftershocks to date; ranging in magnitudes from 1.6 to 5.2. Although the geologically complex NW Borneo has experienced more than 60 mainshocks and numerous aftershocks since 1970 to present; research pertaining to active tectonics, morphotectonics analysis and subsequent geomorphic response to resulting transient dynamic topography remains inadequate.Here, we show evidences of active tectonics in tropical Sabah, NW Borneo, using morphometric indices, geomorphic indicators and report our results of morphotectonic analysis and consequent feedback of landscape and topography. Results from stream length gradient index, normalized channel steepness index and spatial distribution of hypsometric integral showed evidences of fault rejuvenation during Quaternary and recent periods. River longitudinal profiles showed the presence of several knickpoints indicating fault reactivations as the study area lacks lithological contrasts and similar climatic conditions along the channel reach. Field survey revealed the presence of highly elevated Quaternary fluvial terraces illustrating recent and important tectonic uplift rates in the trend of the exhumation rates calculated on Mt. Kinabalu by means of thermochronology. The uplifted terraces show a positive correlation with geomorphic analysis along the main valleys and other areas of active tectonics. Our analysis show the competition between important uplifts related to the dynamics of the NW Borneo Wedge and active normal faulting. These faults are in trend to the major earthquakes that occurred recently in this area, which have a normal faulting mechanism. The cause of the mechanism for recent tectonism and/or decoupling

  13. Persistence time series analyses, complexity applied to natural hazards and the Quaternary lake history of the Lerma Valley, NW Argentina (United States)

    Malamud, Bruce D.

    This dissertation explores the Quaternary history of a NW Argentina valley, persistence in synthetic self-affine time series, and complexity applied to natural hazards. Chapter one is an introduction. Chapter two examines the Lerma Valley in NW Argentina, today an externally drained basin which in the past was partially closed and contained a large fresh-water lake. Using geologic fieldwork laboratory work, and historical data analysis, we find that the lake was extant 1-50 ky during the period 0.78-0.1 Ma, had a surface area of 800-1300 kmsp2 and sedimentation rates of 1-10 m/ky. Modern denudation rates could supply enough sediment from the drainage to account for these rates, and the modern hydrologic regime could fill the lake with water in less than 500 years. Chapter three provides a framework to examine persistence techniques in self-affine time series. By using the Fourier spectral method, a white noise is appropriately filtered so that its power spectral density (S) depends upon frequency (f) according to S˜ fsp{-beta}. We examine fractional noises and walks with {-}3≤beta≤ 5 and Gaussian and log-normal distributions. The persistence analyses compared include autocorrelation, semivariogram, rescaled-range, Fourier power spectrum, extreme-value, and wavelet power spectrum. The last two are applied for the first time. In chapter four, self-organized critical (SOC) models are compared with actual events. The models have power-law noncumulative frequency-size distributions with exponent about 1.0, and the actual data have exponents 1.3-1.5 (forest-fires) and 2.3-3.3 (landslides). Actual forest fires are compared here for the first time with the forest-fire model; their robustness in one indicator of SOC behavior. Chapter five examines recurrence intervals of floods using power-law statistics applied to partial-duration series and the federally adopted log-Pearson type 3 (LP3) distribution applied to annual series. The great Mississippi River flood of 1993

  14. Statistical analyses of soil properties on a quaternary terrace sequence in the upper sava river valley, Slovenia, Yugoslavia (United States)

    Vidic, N.; Pavich, M.; Lobnik, F.


    Alpine glaciations, climatic changes and tectonic movements have created a Quaternary sequence of gravely carbonate sediments in the upper Sava River Valley, Slovenia, Yugoslavia. The names for terraces, assigned in this model, Gu??nz, Mindel, Riss and Wu??rm in order of decreasing age, are used as morphostratigraphic terms. Soil chronosequence on the terraces was examined to evaluate which soil properties are time dependent and can be used to help constrain the ages of glaciofluvial sedimentation. Soil thickness, thickness of Bt horizons, amount and continuity of clay coatings and amount of Fe and Me concretions increase with soil age. The main source of variability consists of solutions of carbonate, leaching of basic cations and acidification of soils, which are time dependent and increase with the age of soils. The second source of variability is the content of organic matter, which is less time dependent, but varies more within soil profiles. Textural changes are significant, presented by solution of carbonate pebbles and sand, and formation is silt loam matrix, which with age becomes finer, with clay loam or clayey texture. The oldest, Gu??nz, terrace shows slight deviation from general progressive trends of changes of soil properties with time. The hypothesis of single versus multiple depositional periods of deposition was tested with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) on a staggered, nested hierarchical sampling design on a terrace of largest extent and greatest gravel volume, the Wu??rm terrace. The variability of soil properties is generally higher within subareas than between areas of the terrace, except for the soil thickness. Observed differences in soil thickness between the areas of the terrace could be due to multiple periods of gravel deposition, or to the initial differences of texture of the deposits. ?? 1991.

  15. Moderate rates of late Quaternary slip along the northwestern margin of the Basin and Range Province, Surprise Valley fault, northeastern California (United States)

    Personius, Stephen F.; Crone, Anthony J.; Machette, Michael N.; Mahan, Shannon; Lidke, David J.


    The 86-km-long Surprise Valley normal fault forms part of the active northwestern margin of the Basin and Range province in northeastern California. We use trench mapping and radiocarbon, luminescence, and tephra dating to estimate displacements and timing of the past five surface-rupturing earthquakes on the central part of the fault near Cedarville. A Bayesian OxCal analysis of timing constraints indicates earthquake times of 18.2 ± 2.6, 10.9 ± 3.2, 8.5 ± 0.5, 5.8 ± 1.5, and 1.2 ± 0.1 ka. These data yield recurrence intervals of 7.3 ± 4.1, 2.5 ± 3.2, 2.7 ± 1.6, and 4.5 ± 1.5 ka and an elapsed time of 1.2 ± 0.1 ka since the latest surface-rupturing earthquake. Our best estimate of latest Quaternary vertical slip rate is 0.6 ?? 0.1 mm/a. This late Quaternary rate is remarkably similar to long-term (8-14 Ma) minimum vertical slip rates (>0.4-0.5 ± 0.3 mm/a) calculated from recently acquired seismic reflection and chronologic and structural data in Surprise Valley and the adjacent Warner Mountains. However, our slip rate yields estimates of extension that are lower than recent campaign GPS determinations by factors of 1.5-4 unless the fault has an unusually shallow (30°-35°) dip as suggested by recently acquired seismic reflection data. Coseismic displacements of 2-4.5 ± 1 m documented in the trench and probable rupture lengths of 53-65 km indicate a history of latest Quaternary earthquakes of M 6.8-7.3 on the central part of the. Surprise Valley fault.

  16. Processes of Terrace Formation on the Piedmont of the Santa Cruz River Valley During Quaternary Time, Green Valley-Tubac Area, Southeastern Arizona (United States)

    Lindsey, David A.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.


    In this report we describe a series of stepped Quaternary terraces on some piedmont tributaries of the Santa Cruz River valley in southeastern Arizona. These terraces began to form in early Pleistocene time, after major basin-and-range faulting ceased, with lateral planation of basin fill and deposition of thin fans of alluvium. At the end of this cycle of erosion and deposition, tributaries of the Santa Cruz River began the process of dissection and terrace formation that continues to the present. Vertical cutting alternated with periods of equilibrium, during which streams cut laterally and left thin deposits of channel fill. The distribution of terraces was mapped and compiled with adjacent mapping to produce a regional picture of piedmont stream history in the middle part of the Santa Cruz River valley. For selected tributaries, the thickness of terrace fill was measured, particle size and lithology of gravel were determined, and sedimentary features were photographed and described. Mapping of terrace stratigraphy revealed that on two tributaries, Madera Canyon Wash and Montosa Canyon Wash, stream piracy has played an important role in piedmont landscape development. On two other tributaries, Cottonwood Canyon Wash and Josephine Canyon Wash, rapid downcutting preempted piracy. Two types of terraces are recognized: erosional and depositional. Gravel in thin erosional terraces has Trask sorting coefficients and sedimentary structures typical of streamflood deposits, replete with bar-and-swale surface topography on young terraces. Erosional-terrace fill represents the channel fill of the stream that cuts the terrace; the thickness of the fill indicates the depth of channel scour. In contrast to erosional terraces, depositional terraces show evidence of repeated deposition and net aggradation, as indicated by their thickness (as much as 20+ m) and weakly bedded structure. Depositional terraces are common below mountain-front canyon mouths where streams drop their

  17. Sedimentary architecture and chronostratigraphy of a late Quaternary incised-valley fill: A case study of the late Middle and Late Pleistocene Rhine system in the Netherlands (United States)

    Peeters, J.; Busschers, F. S.; Stouthamer, E.; Bosch, J. H. A.; Van den Berg, M. W.; Wallinga, J.; Versendaal, A. J.; Bunnik, F. P. M.; Middelkoop, H.


    This paper describes the sedimentary architecture, chronostratigraphy and palaeogeography of the late Middle and Late Pleistocene (Marine Isotope Stage/MIS 6-2) incised Rhine-valley fill in the central Netherlands based on six geological transects, luminescence dating, biostratigraphical data and a 3D geological model. The incised-valley fill consists of a ca. 50 m thick and 10-20 km wide sand-dominated succession and includes a well-developed sequence dating from the Last Interglacial: known as the Eemian in northwest Europe. The lower part of the valley fill contains coarse-grained fluvio-glacial and fluvial Rhine sediments that were deposited under Late Saalian (MIS 6) cold-climatic periglacial conditions and during the transition into the warm Eemian interglacial (MIS 5e-d). This unit is overlain by fine-grained fresh-water flood-basin deposits, which are transgressed by a fine-grained estuarine unit that formed during marine high-stand. This ca. 10 m thick sequence reflects gradual drowning of the Eemian interglacial fluvial Rhine system and transformation into an estuary due to relative sea-level rise. The chronological data suggests a delay in timing of regional Eemian interglacial transgression and sea-level high-stand of several thousand years, when compared to eustatic sea-level. As a result of this glacio-isostatic controlled delay, formation of the interglacial lower deltaic system took only place for a relative short period of time: progradation was therefore limited. During the cooler Weichselian Early Glacial period (MIS 5d-a) deposition of deltaic sediments continued and extensive westward progradation of the Rhine system occurred. Major parts of the Eemian and Weichselian Early Glacial deposits were eroded and buried as a result of sea-level lowering and climate cooling during the early Middle Weichselian (MIS 4-3). Near complete sedimentary preservation occurred along the margins of the incised valley allowing the detailed reconstruction presented

  18. Deep reaching versus vertically restricted Quaternary normal faults: Implications on seismic potential assessment in tectonically active regions: Lessons from the middle Aterno valley fault system, central Italy (United States)

    Falcucci, E.; Gori, S.; Moro, M.; Fubelli, G.; Saroli, M.; Chiarabba, C.; Galadini, F.


    We investigate the Middle Aterno Valley fault system (MAVF), a poorly investigated seismic gap in the central Apennines, adjacent to the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake epicentral area. Geological and paleoseismological analyses revealed that the MAVF evolved through hanging wall splay nucleation, its main segment moving at 0.23-0.34 mm/year since the Middle Pleistocene; the penultimate activation event occurred between 5388-5310 B.C. and 1934-1744 B.C., the last event after 2036-1768 B.C. and just before 1st-2nd century AD. These data define hard linkage (sensu Walsh and Watterson, 1991; Peacock et al., 2000; Walsh et al., 2003, and references therein) with the contiguous Subequana Valley fault segment, able to rupture in large magnitude earthquakes (up to 6.8), that did not rupture since about two millennia. By the joint analysis of geological observations and seismological data acquired during to the 2009 seismic sequence, we derive a picture of the complex structural framework of the area comprised between the MAVF, the Paganica fault (the 2009 earthquake causative fault) and the Gran Sasso Range. This sector is affected by a dense array of few-km long, closely and regularly spaced Quaternary normal fault strands, that are considered as branches of the MAVF northern segment. Our analysis reveals that these structures are downdip confined by a decollement represented by to the presently inactive thrust sheet above the Gran Sasso front limiting their seismogenic potential. Our study highlights the advantage of combining Quaternary geological field analysis with high resolution seismological data to fully unravel the structural setting of regions where subsequent tectonic phases took place and where structural interference plays a key role in influencing the seismotectonic context; this has also inevitably implications for accurately assessing seismic hazard of such structurally complex regions.

  19. Integrating geomorphological mapping, InSAR, GPR and trenching for the identification and investigation of buried sinkholes in the mantled evaporite karst of the Ebro Valley (NE Spain) (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Francisco; Galve, Jorge Pedro; Lucha, Pedro; Bonachea, Jaime; Castañeda, Carmen


    The first and most important step in sinkhole hazard analysis is the construction of a cartographic sinkhole inventory. The effectiveness of the mitigation measures and the reliability of the susceptibility and hazard maps will depend on the completeness and accuracy of the sinkhole inventories on which they are based. Sinkhole data bases preferably should include information on the following aspects: (1) Precise location of the sinkholes edges. (2) Morphometric parameters. (3) Geomorphological and hydrological context. (4) Genetic type; that is subsidence mechanisms and material affected by subsidence. (5) Chronology; this information is essential to calculate probability of occurrence values. (6) Active or inactive character. (7) Kinematical regime (gradual, episodic or mixed). (8) Current and/or long-term subsidence rates. (9) Evolution of the subsidence and its relationship with causal factors. Sinkholes are generally mapped using conventional geomorphological methods like aerial photographs, topographic maps and field surveys. However, the usefulness of these methods may be limited in areas where the geomorphic expression of sinkholes has been obliterated by natural processes or anthropogenic fill. Additionally, gaining data on some of the practical aspects indicated above requires the application of other techniques. In this contribution we present the main findings learnt through the construction of a sinkhole inventory in a terrace of the Ebro River valley (NE Spain). The study area covers around 27.5 ha and is located west of Zaragoza city. The bedrock consists of subhorizontal evaporites including gypsum, halite and glauberite. The terrace is situated at 7-10 m above the channel and the alluvium, 10-30 m thick, is composed of unconsolidated gravels and subordinate fines. Previous studies carried out in this sector of the valley reveal that: (1) Three main types of sinkholes may be differentiated: cover collapse, cover and bedrock collapse, and cover and

  20. Quaternary origin and genetic divergence of the endemic cactus Mammillaria pectinifera in a changing landscape in the Tehuacán Valley, Mexico. (United States)

    Cornejo-Romero, A; Medina-Sánchez, J; Hernández-Hernández, T; Rendón-Aguilar, B; Valverde, P L; Zavala-Hurtado, A; Rivas-Arancibia, S P; Pérez-Hernández, M A; López-Ortega, G; Jiménez-Sierra, C; Vargas-Mendoza, C F


    The endemic Mexican cactus, Mammillaria pectinifera, shows low dispersal capabilities and isolated populations within the highly dissected landscape of Tehuacán Valley. These characteristics can restrict gene flow and act upon the genetic divergence and speciation in arid plants. We conducted a phylogeographic study to determine if the origin, current distribution, and genetic structure of M. pectinifera were driven by Quaternary geomorphic processes. Sequences of the plastids psbA-trnH and trnT-trnL obtained from 66 individuals from seven populations were used to estimate genetic diversity. Population differentiation was assessed by an analysis of molecular variance. We applied a stepwise phylogenetic calibration test to determine whether species origin and genetic divergence among haplotypes were temporally concordant with recognizable episodes of geomorphic evolution. The combination of plastid markers yielded six haplotypes, with high levels of haplotype diversity (h = 0.622) and low nucleotide diversity (π = 0.00085). The populations were found to be genetically structured (F(ST) = 0.682; P < 0.00001), indicating that geographic isolation and limited dispersal were the primary causes of genetic population differentiation. The estimated origin and divergence time among haplotypes were 0.017-2.39 and 0.019-1.237 mya, respectively, which correlates with Pleistocene tectonics and erosion events, supporting a hypothesis of geomorphically-driven geographical isolation. Based on a Bayesian skyline plot, these populations showed long term demographic stability, indicating that persistence in confined habitats has been the main response of this species to landscape changes. We conclude that the origin and haplotype divergence of M. pectinifera were a response to local Quaternary geomorphic evolution.

  1. Geometry of the Paleo-Nueces River Incised-Valley, Corpus Christi Bay, Texas as it Relates to Quaternary Sea Level History (United States)

    Lugrin, L.; Gulick, S. S.; Goff, J. A.


    CHIRP subbottom seismic data were collected on the 2009 and 2011 Marine Geophysics Field courses at the University of Texas at Austin within the Corpus Christi Bay along the central Texas coast in order to study the geometry of the ancestral Nueces River incised valley and its evolution over Quaternary sea level history. Since the late Pleistocene, the Nueces River valley experienced a gradual infill due to sea level rise, interrupted by two major flooding events that represent periods of rapid sediment influx. These flooding events are recognizable based on abrupt changes in seismic facies. Discontinuous, chaotic fluvial lag deposits present underneath a fairly continuous, stratified, sub-horizontal estuarine coastal plain facies mark what is interpreted to be the Pleistocene/Holocene unconformity. Above the P/H boundary, oyster reefs thrive within the estuary until capped by a strong reflector, marking the second flooding surface that allowed enough incoming sediment to discontinue oyster reef growth. The estuarine deposits within the paleo-Nueces river valley exhibit a landward migration as the Holocene transgression proceeded. As infill continued, the bay-head delta prograded seaward and the flood-tidal delta extended progressively further up the estuary until the central estuarine basin was capped. The earlier flooding events provide strong reflectors that can be linked to the draining of Lake Agassiz around 8.2 k.a.. This event flooded the Gulf of Mexico with freshwater, and interrupted the estuarine infilling of the Nueces paleo-channel. Cores from previous studies have found at least two species of oyster reefs in Corpus Christi Bay: euryhaline species Crassostrea virginica, and Ostrea equestris, a species known to thrive in higher salinity waters. The presence of both species at the flooding boundary suggests the sudden pulse of freshwater mixed with higher salinity oceanic water. The second flooding surface is interpreted to be associated with an increase

  2. Late Quaternary floods and droughts in the Nile valley, Sudan: new evidence from optically stimulated luminescence and AMS radiocarbon dating (United States)

    Williams, M. A. J.; Williams, F. M.; Duller, G. A. T.; Munro, R. N.; El Tom, O. A. M.; Barrows, T. T.; Macklin, M.; Woodward, J.; Talbot, M. R.; Haberlah, D.; Fluin, J.


    Our results show that the late Pleistocene Nile in northern Sudan was shifting position and actively aggrading at 145 ± 20 kyr, 83 ± 24 kyr, 32 ± 8 kyr and 20.7 ± 0.2 kyr and indicate, for the first time, a phase of high-energy flow in the White Nile at 27.8 ± 3.2 kyr, with still high but somewhat reduced flow in that river at 13.3 kyr, 10 kyr and 4.8-4.0 kyr. Beach ridges associated with a 386 m strandline of the White Nile have OSL ages of 27.5 ± 2.7 kyr and 14.5 ± 1.6 kyr. The Holocene terraces and former channels of the main Nile have ages of 11 kyr, 6.5-5.0 kyr and 4.8-4.0 kyr, after which there was a general decline in flood discharge. The now arid main Nile valley in northern Sudan was significantly wetter during the early to middle Holocene, with a lake up to 450 km 2 in area, fed by an overflow channel from the early Holocene Nile between 9.5 kyr and 7.5 kyr. Previously stable late Pleistocene dunes were reactivated at intervals during the Holocene, with five samples from the White Nile valley indicating brief phases of Holocene dune activity at 9.9 ± 2.0 kyr, 9.0 ± 2.8 kyr, 6.6 ± 0.9 kyr, 4.8 ± 0.9 kyr and 2.9 ± 0.5 kyr, the earliest of which occurred within periods of generally wetter climate and higher Nile flow. The youngest freshwater shells on the Khor Abu Habl alluvial fan west of the White Nile correspond to a time of regionally wetter climate between 1.7 and 1.0 kyr. Our results suggest that millennial scale climatic instability may have been characteristic of Holocene climates in this region.

  3. Late Quaternary (Holocene) landscape evolution of a monsoon-influenced high Himalayan valley, Gori Ganga, Nanda Devi, NE Garhwal (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Owen, Lewis A.; Sharma, Milap C.; Finkel, Robert C.


    The Garhwal Himalaya provides an excellent natural laboratory in which to examine landscape evolution in a monsoon-influenced high mountain environment. Geomorphic and sedimentological analysis and 10Be cosmogenic radionuclide (CRN) surface exposure dating of moraines, fans, and river and strath terraces in the Gori Ganga Valley of Nanda Devi, NE Garhwal, indicate that fans and river terraces developed rapidly by debris flow and flood processes during periods of deglaciation. These phases of high sediment transfer occurred at ˜1-2, ˜4-5, and ˜7-8 ka. Fan incision rates, subsequent to major times of resedimentation after each glacial advance, are between ˜19 and 57 mm/year. This contrasts with bedrock incision rates, based on mid-Holocene strath terraces, of ˜5 mm/year. These rates indicate that despite episodes of rapid denudation and resedimentation linked to glacial activity in this region, the background rates of denudation are similar to those for other regions of the Himalaya, averaging several millimeters per year. Furthermore, these data show the importance of climatic controls on landscape evolution and suggest a strong monsoonal control on the dynamics of earth surface processes in this region.

  4. Geomorphology of the Urümqi River Valley and the uplift of the Tianshan Mountains in Quaternary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周尚哲; 焦克勤; 赵井东; 张世强; 崔建新; 许刘兵


    The Shaerqiaoke Gravel, more than 400 m in thickness, on the north piedmont of the Tianshan Mountains, is located at the exit of the Urümqi River Valley and belongs to the Molasse construction of the Tianshan Mountains. Another uplift event with the tectonic boundary expansion ended the deposition of the Shaerqiaoke Gravel, and resulted in folding, faulting and down-erosion in the frontier of the deposit. The ESR dating indicates that the top of the Shaerqiaoke Gravel accumulated before 1148 kaBP, probably responding to the Kunlun-Huanghe movement of the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau. After that time, erosion-deposition cycle occurred and 9 terraces developed. The TL and ESR dating techniques were employed to date these terraces, and the results indicate that Terrace 3 was formed at MIS 6. Terrace 2 at Houxia also developed simultaneously. Terraces 5 and 6 were accumulated in 338 kaBP and 562-591 kaBP, respectively. The oldest glaciation, named Gao Wangfeng, correlates to MIS 12.

  5. Spatially and temporally varying Quaternary uplift rates of the Gerecse Hills, Northern Pannonian Basin, using dated geomorphological horizons in the Danube valley (United States)

    Ruszkiczay-Rüdiger, Zsófia; Fodor, László; Csillag, Gábor; Braucher, Régis; Kele, Sándor; Novothny, Ágnes; Thamó-Bozsó, Edit; Virág, Attila; Molnár, Gábor; Madarász, Balázs; Aster Team


    The assessment of Quaternary vertical deformation rates of uplifted, low altitude hilly regions is based mainly on the dating of paleo-surfaces that can be related to reference levels through several stages of landscape evolution. Regarding the Gerecse Hills (NE part of the Transdanubian Range, Hungary), situated to the south of the incised Danube River the all-time base-level of the river provides a suitable reference level, because the intracontinental setting of the study area makes it insensitive of the global sea level changes. The terrace sequences of the Hungarian part of the Danube valley preserve a record of varying tectonic uplift rates along the river course and throughout several climate stages. The Gerecse Hills consists mainly of Triassic carbonatic rocks and a thin Paleogene and Neogene siliciclastic cover. The Danube is escorted by a set of Quaternary river terraces and higher planation surfaces, which may be of Pliocene age. The terraces are covered by alluvial sediments frequently capped by travertine and/or loess. To establish the chronology of these terraces, we rely on U-series data of travertines and on new in situ produced cosmogenic nuclides data combined with luminescence (OSL and postIR-IRSL) ages from the lower terraces. In situ produced cosmogenic 10Be concentrations were measured in samples distributed along vertical depth profiles to enable the determination of both the exposure duration and the denudation rate at each studied locality. We used Monte Carlo approach to model the denudation rate-corrected exposure ages. Burial age determinations were performed using cosmogenic 26Al/10Be nuclide ratios. Post-IR IRSL measurements were carried out on K-feldspar and OSL measurements on quartz grains to determine the ages of sediment deposition. The highest dated horizon (˜115 m above the river) provided a preliminary burial age of ˜2.7 Ma, which is in accordance with the possible time span of sedimentation deduced from the occurrence of

  6. 3 D numerical simulation on leakage of buried natural gas pipeline in valley area%山谷地区埋地天然气管道泄漏三维数值模拟∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新; 马贵阳; 杨玉林; 刘伟; 张月


    针对山谷地区埋地天然气泄漏问题,建立三维泄漏模型,将管道模型建立于土壤下,给出山谷地区风随海拔高度变化边界条件,在此基础上对山谷地区高含硫天然气泄漏问题进行六组模拟。结果表明:六组工况下硫化氢的危险区域全部大于甲烷的危险区域,突显出天然气泄漏问题中硫化氢的危害性之大。风速对危险范围的影响很大,在山谷地形条件下危险范围大小与风速大小成反比,且风速越大,危险范围越小。三个泄漏口方向中漏口斜向上45°时空气中泄漏气体的总质量分数最大,扩散的范围最大,但部分范围内并未达到泄漏气体的危险浓度,危险范围比实际扩散范围要小,漏口斜向下45°时危险区域是最大的,漏口水平介于中间。%Aiming at the problems in leakage and dispersion of buried gas pipeline in valley area, a three-dimen-sional leakage mode was established with building the pipeline model under the soil. The boundary conditions of wind changes with altitude in the valley area were given, on this basis, 6 sets of simulation were made on leakage of natural gas with high hydrogen sulfide in the valley area. The results showed that:the danger zones of hydrogen sulfide are all greater than those of methane in the 6 sets of conditions, which highlighted the dangers of hydrogen sulfide in natural gas leakage problem. Wind speed has much effect on the danger range, under the condition of valley terrain, the size of danger range is inversely proportional to wind speed, the larger the wind speed, the smal-ler the risk. In the three directions of leakage hole, when the direction of leakage hole is 45° oblique to upward, the total mass fraction of leaking gas in the air is the maximum, and the diffusion range is the largest, but in some range, it does not reach the dangerous concentration of leaking gas, and the danger range is smaller than the practi

  7. Sedimentary architecture and chronostratigraphy of a late Quaternary incised-valley fill : A case study of the late Middle and Late Pleistocene Rhine system in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, J.; Busschers, F. S.; Stouthamer, E.; Bosch, J. H A; Van den Berg, M. W.; Wallinga, J.; Versendaal, A. J.; Bunnik, F. P M; Middelkoop, H.


    This paper describes the sedimentary architecture, chronostratigraphy and palaeogeography of the late Middle and Late Pleistocene (Marine Isotope Stage/MIS 6-2) incised Rhine-valley fill in the central Netherlands based on six geological transects, luminescence dating, biostratigraphical data and a

  8. Geomorphic and paleoseismic evidence for late Quaternary deformation in the southwest Kashmir Valley, India: Out-of-sequence thrusting, or deformation above a structural ramp? (United States)

    Madden, C.; Ahmad, S.; Meigs, A.


    In the northwest Himalaya, partitioning of Indian-Eurasian convergence across multiple active structures, including a fold at the deformation front, and the Riasi thrust 60 km to the north, suggests that strain is partially accommodated by out-of-sequence thrusting. Deformation of the Plio-Pleistocene Karawa deposits (KD) and latest Pleistocene fluvial terraces on the southwest side of the Kashmir Valley (KV) indicate that deformation also occurs 100 km north of the deformation front. A historical record of 13 earthquakes in the valley over the last millennium, including damaging earthquakes in 1555 and 1885, further suggests that the KV is a locus of active deformation. We use geomorphic mapping, terrace profiling, paleoseismic trenching, and radiometric dating to constrain the extent, timing, rate and style of deformation in the KV. Tectonic geomorphic mapping on high-resolution satellite imagery reveals a series of discontinuous scarps, which we call the Balapora fault (BF), cutting the KD and younger terraces over 45-60 km south of the Jehlum River. Near the north end of the BF, only the highest three of six strath terraces that cross the fault along the Shaliganaga River are deformed, and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages on the highest undeformed terrace show that the fault has not moved there in 50 +/-3 ka. To the south, a flight of five strath terraces along the Sasara River have been uplifted by the BF. Correlating soil and loess stratigraphy from the youngest deformed terrace dated terraces in nearby drainages suggests that deformation has occurred since ~50 ka. Further south, along the Rembiara River (RR), the BF deforms two regionally extensive terraces. Using an OSL age of 51 +/-11 ka collected from fluvial deposits a few meters above the lower strath, and a measured strath elevation above the river of 19 +/- 1 m at the fault, we calculate an average incision rate of 0.3-0.5 mm/yr. An exposure on the left bank of the RR reveals that the BF

  9. Extensive Quaternary glaciations in eastern Turkey (United States)

    Yeşilyurt, Serdar; Akçar, Naki; Doǧan, Uǧur; Yavuz, Vural; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Vockenhuber, Christof; Schlunegger, Fritz; Schlüchter, Christian


    During cold periods in the Quaternary, global ice volume increased and as a result valley glaciers advanced and the vice versa occurred during the warm periods. Quaternary glacier fluctuations had been also recorded in the Turkish mountains. Recently, the chronology of Late Quaternary advances in the northern and western Turkish mountains was reconstructed by surface exposure dating. However, these advances in the eastern Turkey are not dated yet. In this study, we investigated paleoglaciations in Kavuşşahap Mountains, which is located to the south of Lake Van in eastern Turkey. These mountains are one of the extensively glaciated areas in Turkey. Glacial activity is evidenced by more than 20 U-shaped valleys. For instance, one of the prominent and well-preserved glacial landscapes of Turkey is situated in the Narlıca valley system. Lateral and terminal moraines in the valley system indicate more than 10 glacial advances. To build their chronology, 39 erratic carbonaceous boulders were sampled for surface exposure dating with cosmogenic 36Cl. We also reconstructed the ice margin reconstruction of the Narlıca paleoglacier using the accumulation area ratio and area-altitude balance ratio approaches. We estimated an equilibrium line altitude (ELA) of ca. 2900 m above sea level based on the maximum ice extend, which implied ca. 800 m decrease in the ELA during the Late Quaternary in comparison to the lower bound of the modern ELA estimate. The first results of the surface exposure dating will be presented.

  10. Plasmonics in buried structures


    Romero, I. T.; García de Abajo, Francisco Javier


    We describe plasmon propagation in silica-filled coupled nanovoids fully buried in gold. Propagation bands and band gaps are shown to be tunable through the degree of overlap and plasmon hybridization between contiguous voids. The effect of disorder and fabrication imperfections is thoroughly investigated. Our work explores a novel paradigm for plasmon photonics relying on plasmon modes in metal-buried structures, which can benefit from long propagation distances, cancelation of radiative los...

  11. Buried Craters of Utopia (United States)


    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-365, 19 May 2003Beneath the northern plains of Mars are numerous buried meteor impact craters. One of the most heavily-cratered areas, although buried, occurs in Utopia Planitia, as shown in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image. The history of Mars is complex; impact craters provide a tool by which to understand some of that history. In this case, a very ancient, cratered surface was thinly-buried by younger material that is not cratered at all. This area is near 48.1oN, 228.2oW; less than 180 km (112 mi) west of the Viking 2 lander site. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  12. Plasmonics in buried structures. (United States)

    Romero, I; García de Abajo, F J


    We describe plasmon propagation in silica-filled coupled nanovoids fully buried in gold. Propagation bands and band gaps are shown to be tunable through the degree of overlap and plasmon hybridization between contiguous voids. The effect of disorder and fabrication imperfections is thoroughly investigated. Our work explores a novel paradigm for plasmon photonics relying on plasmon modes in metal-buried structures, which can benefit from long propagation distances, cancelation of radiative losses, minimum crosstalk between neighboring waveguides, and maximum optical integration in three-dimensional arrangements.

  13. The Activity of Liaocheng-Lankao Buried Fault During the Quaternary——An Important Buried Active Fault in the Eastern China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Hongfa; Wang Xuechao; Hao Shujian; Zhang Hui; Guo Shunmin; Li Jinzhao; Li Hongwu; Lin Yuanwu; Zhang Wanxia


    On the basis of locating by the geochemical prospecting, shallow seismic sounding, drilling,geological profiling, and neogeochronological dating, we first found out the dislocation amount along the Liaocheng-Lankao buried fault since the Quaternary and the age of its latest activity phase and determined that the upper break point by the fault dislocation reaches 20 m below the surface. The latest activity phase was in the early Holocene and the fault is a shallow-buried active fault. An average dislocation rate along the fault is 0.12 mm/a since the Quaternary.Thus, it is a buried active fault with intermediate to strong movement strength in the eastern China.

  14. Late Quaternary landscape evolution in the Great Karoo, South Africa: Processes and drivers. (United States)

    Oldknow, Chris; Hooke, Janet; Lang, Andreas


    The Great Karoo spans the north-central part of South Africa at a major climatic boundary. The characteristics, sequences, spatial patterns and drivers of river response to Late Quaternary climate changes in this region remain unclear due to the fragmentary alluvial/colluvial stratigraphic record and the lack of dated palaeoclimatic archives. Dendritic gully networks incised into deep deposits (up to 6 m) of colluvium and alluvium in the upper Sundays River catchment expose a legacy of "cut and fill" features. In 1st order tributaries, these are predominantly discontinuous palaeochannels and flood-outs with localised palaeosols, whereas in 2nd & 3rd order tributaries there are: 1) incised palaeo-geomorphic surfaces, 2) semi-continuous inset terrace sequences, 3) buried palaeo-gully topography. Using a combination of field mapping, logging of sediment outcrops, soil micromorphological and grain size analysis, mineral magnetic measurements and radiometric dating (OSL & 14C), we derive a stratigraphic evolution model which demonstrates a) the number of phases of incision, aggradation and pedogenesis, b) the spatial and temporal extent of each phase and c) the drivers of alluviation and associated feedbacks. Our reconstruction of regional valley alluviation indicates four distinct terrace units of contrasting depositional age. The base of the succession reflects slow aggradation under periglacial conditions associated with the Last Glacial Maximum. Subsequent channel entrenchment, causing terrace abandonment (T1) occurred in the deglacial period when vegetation and rainfall were in anti-phase. Re-instatement of connectivity with deep upland colluvial stores resulted in the injection of a pulse of sediment to valley floors, triggering compartmentalised backfilling (aggradation of T2) which propagated upstream as far as the second order drainage lines. This backfilling restructured the local hydrology, which, in concert with enhanced summer-rainfall, contributed to a

  15. Human impact on late Quaternary landscapes in the Central Spanish Pyrenees (United States)

    Hirsch, F.; Raab, T. A.


    Like the Alps in Central Europe the Pyrenees in Southeast Europe are well known for their glacial history. Within the scope of the ongoing research project Post-LGM pedogenesis and geomorphodynamics in the Aragonese Pyrenees, Spain, funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), we are studying the landscapes in the Gallego valley and the Aragon valley formed during the late Quaternary period. The aim of this research is to describe and characterize the soil development since the retreat of the valley glaciers from the LGM-moraines which are supposed to have an age of up to 60 ka yrs. To these purposes soil profiles are excavated in sediments and landforms of different ages (LGM to Holocene) and different genesis (glacigenic, glacifluvial, fluvial, gravitational). The soil profiles are arranged as catenas and provide insight into the pedo-stratigraphy of moraines, fluvial terraces, glacis and alluvial fans. Our preliminary results show that besides geogenic process past human land use must be considered as a main trigger of landscape development during the late Holocene. Truncated soil profiles in the backslopes and the correlate sediments of soil erosion burying soil horizons in the footslopes clearly indicate one or even more periods of re-shaping the landforms after deglaciation. Considerable amounts of small charcoal and tile fragments in the translocated sediments hint to an anthropogenic agent. The disturbance in the soil profiles and sediments is visible in the field and by micromorphology. Although 14C and OSL datings on the base of the correlate sediments of soil erosion indicate at least one phase of erosion and redeposition at the end of the 17th century, the onset of afresh pedogenic processes in the correlate sediments of soil erosion indicate young soil formation.

  16. Subsurface and petroleum geology of the southwestern Santa Clara Valley ("Silicon Valley"), California (United States)

    Stanley, Richard G.; Jachens, Robert C.; Lillis, Paul G.; McLaughlin, Robert J.; Kvenvolden, Keith A.; Hostettler, Frances D.; McDougall, Kristin A.; Magoon, Leslie B.


    Gravity anomalies, historical records of exploratory oil wells and oil seeps, new organic-geochemical results, and new stratigraphic and structural data indicate the presence of a concealed, oil-bearing sedimentary basin beneath a highly urbanized part of the Santa Clara Valley, Calif. A conspicuous isostatic-gravity low that extends about 35 km from Palo Alto southeastward to near Los Gatos reflects an asymmetric, northwest-trending sedimentary basin comprising low-density strata, principally of Miocene age, that rest on higher-density rocks of Mesozoic and Paleogene(?) age. Both gravity and well data show that the low-density rocks thin gradually to the northeast over a distance of about 10 km. The thickest (approx 4 km thick) accumulation of low-density material occurs along the basin's steep southwestern margin, which may be controlled by buried, northeast-dipping normal faults that were active during the Miocene. Movement along these hypothetical normal faults may been contemporaneous (approx 17–14 Ma) with sedimentation and local dacitic and basaltic volcanism, possibly in response to crustal extension related to passage of the northwestward-migrating Mendocino triple junction. During the Pliocene and Quaternary, the normal faults and Miocene strata were overridden by Mesozoic rocks, including the Franciscan Complex, along northeastward-vergent reverse and thrust faults of the Berrocal, Shannon, and Monte Vista Fault zones. Movement along these fault zones was accompanied by folding and tilting of strata as young as Quaternary and by uplift of the modern Santa Cruz Mountains; the fault zones remain seismically active. We attribute the Pliocene and Quaternary reverse and thrust faulting, folding, and uplift to compression caused by local San Andreas Fault tectonics and regional transpression along the Pacific-North American Plate boundary. Near the southwestern margin of the Santa Clara Valley, as many as 20 exploratory oil wells were drilled between 1891


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>20112526Bai Daoyuan (Hunan Institute of Geology Survey,Changsha 410011,China); Liu Bo Quaternary Tectonic-Sedimentary Characteristics and Environmental Evolution of Linli Sag,Dongting Basin (Journal of


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>20111129 Bai Daoyuan(Hunan Institute of Geological Survey,Changsha 410011,China);Li Chang’an Quaternary Tectonic-Sedimentary Characteristics and Environmental Evolution of Anxiang Sag in Dongting Basin and Its West Periphery(Journal of Earth Sciences and Environment,ISSN1672-6561,CN61-1423/P,32(2),2010,p.120-129,6 illus.,1 table,48 refs.)Key words:Quaternary,sedimentary environment,structural evolution,Dongtinghu Basin Detailed geologic mapping and bore data was conducted to study on the Quaternary tectonic and sedimentary characteristics and environmental evolution of Anxiang Sag and its west periphery of Dongting Basin,which provided new materials for Quaternary geology of Jianghan-Dongting Basin.The sag trends north-south direction and is surrounded by normal faults.The thickness of Quaternary deposits in the sag is commonly 100~220 m with maximun thickness of 300 m,and from lower to upper,the Quaternary strata is composed of Early Pleistocene Huatian Formation and Miluo Formation,Middle Pleistocene Dongtinghu Formation

  19. Valley Fever (United States)

    Valley Fever is a disease caused by a fungus (or mold) called Coccidioides. The fungi live in the soil ... from person to person. Anyone can get Valley Fever. But it's most common among older adults, especially ...

  20. Second Quaternary dating workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The second Quaternary dating methods workshop was held at Lucas Heights and sponsored by ANSTO and AINSE. Topics covered include, isotope and thermoluminescence dating, usage of accelerator and thermal ionisation mass spectrometry in environmental studies emphasizing on the methodologies used and sample preparation

  1. Delineation of tunnel valleys across the North Sea coastline, Denmark based on reflection seismic data, boreholes, TEM and Schlumberger soundings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Theis Raaschou; Jørdensen, Flemming; Christensen, Steen

    Buried tunnel valleys are elongated depressions eroded into the substratum during the Pleistocene glaciations. Nine such valleys are mapped on- and offshore in a 300 km2 area located at the Danish North Sea coast. The delineation of the buried valleys is based on an extensive data set consisting ......, preferred orientations, and morphology support that three of the tunnel valleys cross the North Sea coastline. It is suggested that the nine valleys were formed during at least six events that occurred through one or more pre-Weichselian glaciations...

  2. 47 CFR 32.2423 - Buried cable. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buried cable. 32.2423 Section 32.2423... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2423 Buried cable. (a) This account shall include the original cost of buried cable as well as the cost of other material...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>20050939 An Chengbang (Key Lab. of Western Chinese Environment System, Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000, China); Feng Zhaodong Humid Climate During 9-3. 8 KaBP in the Western Part of Chinese Loess Plateau (Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology, ISSN0256-1492, CN37-1117/P, 24 (3), 2004, p. 111-116, 3 illus. , 1 table, 40 refs. , with English abstract)

  4. Theory buried under heavy description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian B. Martin Ph.D.


    Full Text Available In journalism when a reporter puts the main news or point of the story deep down in the text, we say she’s buried the lead, the lead being the main point of the story and usually the first paragraph. In Children in Genocide: extreme traumatization and affect regulation, psychoanalyst Suzanne Kaplan buries her theory. Her study of the after effects of trauma among Holocaust survivors who were children during their persecution and survivors of atrocities during the Rwandan atrocities of the 1990s, is filled with highly descriptive material from the many interviews that serve as data. An interesting grounded theory is peeking out from under all the disciplinary discourse and historical background one must read through to get to what grounded theory readers will consider the juicy parts: concepts on affect regulation in trauma survivors.

  5. Partitioning the Quaternary (United States)

    Gibbard, Philip L.; Lewin, John


    We review the historical purposes and procedures for stratigraphical division and naming within the Quaternary, and summarize the current requirements for formal partitioning through the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS). A raft of new data and evidence has impacted traditional approaches: quasi-continuous records from ocean sediments and ice cores, new numerical dating techniques, and alternative macro-models, such as those provided through Sequence Stratigraphy and Earth-System Science. The practical usefulness of division remains, but there is now greater appreciation of complex Quaternary detail and the modelling of time continua, the latter also extending into the future. There are problems both of commission (what is done, but could be done better) and of omission (what gets left out) in partitioning the Quaternary. These include the challenge set by the use of unconformities as stage boundaries, how to deal with multiphase records in ocean and terrestrial sediments, what happened at the 'Early-Mid- (Middle) Pleistocene Transition', dealing with trends that cross phase boundaries, and the current controversial focus on how to subdivide the Holocene and formally define an 'Anthropocene'.

  6. Cyanines Bearing Quaternary Azaaromatic Moieties


    Sbliwa, Wanda; Matusiak, Grazyna; Bachowska, Barbara


    Selected cyanines bearing quaternary azaaromatic moieties are presented, showing their monomers, dimers and polymers, as well as their possible applications. Cyanines having NLO properties are also briefly described.

  7. BATATA: a buried muon hodoscope (United States)

    Sánchez, F.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Paic, G.; Salazar, M. E. Patiño; D'Olivo, J. C.; Molina, R. Alfaro


    Muon hodoscopes have several applications, ranging from astrophysics to fundamental particle physics. In this work, we present a detector dedicated to the study, at ground level, of the main signals of cosmic-ray induced showers above 6 PeV. The whole detector is composed by a set of three parallel dual-layer scintillator planes buried at fix depths ranging from 120 g/cm2 to 600 g/cm2 and by a triangular array of water cerenkov detectors located nearby on ground.

  8. Magnetism of quaternary sediments (United States)

    Heller, Friedrich

    Magnetism of Quaternary sediments was the topic of a well-attended symposium held during the 13th INQUA (International Union of Quaternary Research) congress in Beijing, China, August 2-9. More than 40 papers were delivered by scientists from Belgium, England, France, Germany, Japan, New Zealand, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, the United States, the Soviet Union, Yugoslavia, and other countries. The host country contributed to a productive session that was part of the first large scientific meeting to take place in Beijing after the June 4, 1989, upheaval.Nearly half of the studies focused on paleomagnetic and rock magnetic properties of loess in Alaska, Central Asia, China, and New Zealand. Magnetostratigraphic polarity dating was done at some sections in the western (Shaw et al.) and central Chinese loess plateau (Bai and Hus; Wang and Evans; Yue). The interpretation of the polarity pattern found in the western loess plateau still is not unambiguous. In the central part, certain polarity boundaries, such as the Brunhes/Matuyama (B/M) boundary, are found in slightly different stratigraphic positions (Hus et al.; Yue). In deep-sea sediments the lock-in depth of natural remanent magnetization (NRM) at the B/M boundary seems to be a linear function of sedimentation rate (de Menocal et al.). Although the magnetization process in the Chinese loess is not well understood, detailed records of polarity transitions have been reported for the B/M and the Jaramillo R→N transition (Ma et al.; Rolph).


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>20122603 Chen Yixin ( College of Urban and Environmental Sciences,Peking University,Beijing 100871,China );Zhang Mei Fluvial Incision Process and Its Tectonic Implications of Golmud River since Last Glaciation Maximum ( Acta Geographica Sinica,ISSN0375-5444,CN11-1856 / P,66 ( 11 ), 2011,p.1540-1550,5illus.,5tables,40refs. ) Key words:river terraces,erosion surfaces,incised valleys,Qinghai Province

  10. Locating a buried earth penetrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caffey, T.W.H.


    The purpose of this work was to assist the recovery of a buried earth penetrator by locating the vertical projection of the penetator upon the surface within a horizontal radius error of one meter. The penetrator will carry a small coil which is driven by an alternating current to form a magnetic dipole. Five measurements of the magnetic field vector upon the surface of the earth are shown to be sufficient for determining not only the xyz-coordinates of the dipole, but also the orientation of the dipole axis. The theory, computation process, and field tests are comprehensively described. Results of 26 field tests with the dipole at 9 different combinations of location and orientation are given. Average radial and vertical location errors are 0.27 m and -0.05 m, respectively, while the mean errors in the tilt and orientation angles of the dipole axis are 3 degrees and 8 degrees, respectively. The results are applied to the design of a locating system for a Pershing II penetrator which contains a recessed, rear-mounted coil.

  11. Approaches of Buried Object Detection Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagashree R N


    Full Text Available This paper describes the different art of buried object detection technology and algorithms. This detection of buried object finds application in many areas, importantly in the Landmine detection which is of growing concern due to the danger of buried landmines to people’s lives, economic growth and development. This paper describes and analyzes different technology available. The approaches discussed are Electrical Impedance Tomography, X-ray backscatter, Infrared Systems, Acoustics/seismic systems; Neutron based Method and finally Ground-Penetrating Radar with two commonly available approaches: Least squares and SVD approach. Finally, the paper concludes highlighting the need to improve the way this information is processed and compared.

  12. Significance of Quaternary and Experimental Fluvial Systems to Interpretation of the Stratigraphic Record (United States)

    Blum, M. D.; Martin, J. M.


    Studies of Quaternary and experimental fluvial systems provide significant insight for interpretation of fluvial deposits in the stratigraphic record, ranging from measurement of processes and relevant scales of key architectural elements, to process-based understanding of fluvial systems in sequence stratigraphic models. One key advantage for Quaternary and experimental systems is they commonly provide the ability to test, in a classical verification or falsification sense, interpretations, models and their alternatives that were developed from the stratigraphic record alone. First, scaling relationships developed from Quaternary fluvial deposits can be utilized to constrain interpretations of ancient strata, as well as predict the scale of channel fills, channel-belt sand bodies, and incised valleys. Scaling relationships are defined by power laws, with absolute dimensions that scale to drainage area, water flux, and sediment flux. Width-to-thickness ratios for channel fills range from 10-20:1, whereas channel-belt sand bodies upstream from backwater effects commonly range from 70-300:1, and 20-40:1within the backwater zone, where channel migration is limited. Quaternary incised valleys range from 25-150 m in thickness, and ~5-100 km in width, with width-to-thickness ratios of ~500-800. Scales of Quaternary channel fills and channel-belt sand bodies overlap are consistent with compilations from the ancient record. However, even the smallest Quaternary incised valleys reside in the uppermost part of the domain of published ancient valleys, with ancient examples overlapping significantly with modern channel fills and channel belts. We suggest that many ancient examples have been overinterpreted because of a lack of objective criteria for differentiating channel fills, channel belts, and incised valleys. Second, incised valleys have long played a key role in sequence-stratigraphic interpretations. For incised valleys in the stratigraphic record, either in outcrop or

  13. American burying beetle site records : Valentine NWR (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is specific site records of American burying beetle on Valentine Nationl Wildlife Refuge to date. It includes a map of site location. A discussion...

  14. Depositional and provenance record of the Paleogene transition from foreland to hinterland basin evolution during Andean orogenesis, northern Middle Magdalena Valley Basin, Colombia (United States)

    Moreno, Christopher J.; Horton, Brian K.; Caballero, Victor; Mora, Andrés; Parra, Mauricio; Sierra, Jair


    The Central Cordillera and Eastern Cordillera of the northern Andes form the topographic flanks of the north-trending Magdalena Valley Basin. Constraining the growth of these ranges and intervening basin has implications for Andean shortening and the transformation from a foreland to hinterland basin configuration. We present sedimentological, paleocurrent, and sandstone petrographic results from Cenozoic type localities to provide insights into the tectonic history of the northern Middle Magdalena Valley Basin of Colombia. In the Nuevo Mundo Syncline, the mid-Paleocene transition from marine to nonmarine deposystems of the Lisama Formation corresponds with a paleocurrent shift from northward to eastward transport. These changes match detrital geochronological evidence for a contemporaneous shift from cratonic (Amazonian) to orogenic (Andean) provenance, suggesting initial shortening-related uplift of the Central Cordillera and foreland basin generation in the Magdalena Valley by mid-Paleocene time. Subsequent establishment of a meandering fluvial system is recorded in lower-middle Eocene strata of the lower La Paz Formation. Eastward paleocurrents in mid-Paleocene through uppermost Eocene fluvial deposits indicate a continuous influence of western sediment source areas. However, at the upper middle Eocene (˜40 Ma) boundary between the lower and upper La Paz Formation, sandstone compositions show a drastic decrease in lithic content, particularly lithic volcanic fragments. This change is accompanied by a facies shift from mixed channel and overbank facies to thick, amalgamated braided fluvial deposits of possible fluvial megafans, reflecting changes in both the composition and proximity of western sediment sources. We attribute these modifications to the growing influence of exhumed La Cira-Infantas paleohighs in the axial Magdalena Valley, features presently buried beneath upper Eocene-Quaternary basin fill along the western flank of the Nuevo Mundo Syncline. In

  15. Geological and geomorphological evolution of a sedimentary periglacial landscape in Northeast Siberia during the Late Quaternary



    A wide variety of environmental records is necessary for analysing and understanding the complex Late Quaternary dynamics of permafrost-dominated Arctic landscapes. A NE Siberian periglacial key region was studied in detail using sediment records, remote sensing data, and terrain modelling, all incorporated in a geographical information system (GIS). The study area consists of the Bykovsky Peninsula and the adjacent Khorogor Valley in the Kharaulakh Ridge situated a few kilometres southeast o...

  16. Characteristics of Quaternary deposits near Songjianghe Town on west slope of Changbai Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xi-kui; LI Jun-min; ZHANG Hong-yan


    On the basis of field survey, microscope sighting, TL dating and scanning electron microscope analysis, the characteristics of Quaternary deposits near Songjianghe Town on the west slope of Changbai Mountain are analyzed and described. There were two phases of volcanism during Mid-Late Quaternary. One occurred before 15.22 × 104 aB.P. and the other happened between 14.27 × 104 aB.P. and 1.41 × 104 aB.P. Volcanism is a landform-making process which makes the rough relief in the studied area become higher and higher. Flow water is a main erosion agency and it cuts into the basalts making river valleys. The Quaternary fluvial deposits distributed on terraces first come from the weathered debris of basement rocks, then they are transported and deposited by flow water. After 1.41 × 104 aB.P, the river water quickly cuts into the newly formed basalts making a deep valley. Volcanism in the studied area is a main landform-making event in Mid-Late Quaternary.

  17. Proposal to redefine the Quaternary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The following proposal has been circulated, via the Executive of the International Union for Quaternary Research (INQUA), to all INQUA members for discussion. It also appears on the ICS web site ( Comments may be sent to John Clague, President of INQUA (, and Brad Pillans(

  18. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration stakeholder involvement model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaupanger, R.M.; Kostelnik, K.M.; Milam, L.M.


    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is a program funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development. BWID supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that together form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. Stakeholder participation in the DOE Environmental Management decision-making process is critical to remediation efforts. Appropriate mechanisms for communication with the public, private sector, regulators, elected officials, and others are being aggressively pursued by BWID to permit informed participation. This document summarizes public outreach efforts during FY-93 and presents a strategy for expanded stakeholder involvement during FY-94.

  19. Response of the Apodi-Mossoró estuary-incised valley system (NE Brazil to sea-level fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helenice Vital


    Full Text Available This study focuses on the Quaternary sea level changes in the Apodi-Mossoró Estuary and adjacent shelf, Northeastern Brazil, based on the analysis of high-resolution seismic profiles, integrated with echosounder, SRTM and satellite image data. We use these data to develop a relative stratigraphy. An incised-valley extending from the Apodi-Mossoró Estuary onto the shelf dominates the investigated area. In very shallow waters (down to 10 m depth the channel lies mainly in a NW-SE direction, changing to NE-SW in waters below10 m, in the form of a J-shaped valley. The southern flank of the shallow channel presents an abrupt morphology, probably determined by a residual scarp due to neotectonic reactivation of a pre-existing fault. This incised-valley can be correlated with a former river valley formed during the late Pleistocene fall in sea-level. The base-level change related to this drop in sea level can be regionally expressed on seismic lines as a laterally-continuous stratigraphic surface named Horizon I, interpreted as representing the sub-aerial exposure of the continental shelf. Many incised valleys were excavated on this exposed shelf, including that of the Apodi-Mossoró Estuary and its incised valley system. This incised valley has lain buried since the Holocene transgression. The Holocene sediments present sub-horizontal layers, or they have filled the incised valley with oblique features.Este estudo utiliza a integração de dados sísmicos de alta resolução, batimétricos, SRTM e imagens de satélite para desenvolvimento da estratigrafia relativa visando entender as variações do nível do mar durante o Quaternário no estuário do rio Apodi-Mossoró e plataforma adjacente, nordeste do Brasil. A principal feição identificada foi um canal submerso, na plataforma interna, parcialmente preenchido, provavelmente relacionado com o sistema de vales incisos formado durante o rebaixamento do nível do mar no Pleistoceno. O canal

  20. Detection of Buried Objects : The MUD Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quesson, B.A.J.; Vossen, R. van; Zampolli, M.; Beckers, A.L.D.


    The aim of the Mine Underwater Detection (MUD) project at TNO is to experimentally investigate the acoustic and magnetic detection of explosives underwater, buried in a soft sediment layer. This problem is relevant for the protection of harbors and littoral assets against terrorist attacks and for t

  1. Detection of buried mines with seismic sonar (United States)

    Muir, Thomas G.; Baker, Steven R.; Gaghan, Frederick E.; Fitzpatrick, Sean M.; Hall, Patrick W.; Sheetz, Kraig E.; Guy, Jeremie


    Prior research on seismo-acoustic sonar for detection of buried targets [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103, 2333-2343 (1998)] has continued with examination of the target strengths of buried test targets as well as targets of interest, and has also examined detection and confirmatory classification of these, all using arrays of seismic sources and receivers as well as signal processing techniques to enhance target recognition. The target strengths of two test targets (one a steel gas bottle, the other an aluminum powder keg), buried in a sand beach, were examined as a function of internal mass load, to evaluate theory developed for seismic sonar target strength [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103, 2344-2353 (1998)]. The detection of buried naval and military targets of interest was achieved with an array of 7 shaker sources and 5, three-axis seismometers, at a range of 5 m. Vector polarization filtering was the main signal processing technique for detection. It capitalizes on the fact that the vertical and horizontal components in Rayleigh wave echoes are 90 deg out of phase, enabling complex variable processing to obtain the imaginary component of the signal power versus time, which is unique to Rayleigh waves. Gabor matrix processing of this signal component was the main technique used to determine whether the target was man-made or just a natural target in the environment. [Work sponsored by ONR.

  2. 7 CFR 1755.505 - Buried services. (United States)


    ... and Drawings for Service Installations at Customer Access Locations. The wire used for buried services... has been reached by management to provide joint occupancy services, the services may be installed... (11) Experience indicates that there are objections from many owners of buildings covered...

  3. Saline Valley (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Figure 2 These images of the Saline Valley area, California, were acquired March 30, 2000 and cover a full ASTER scene (60 by 60 km). Each image displays data from a different spectral region, and illustrates the complementary nature of surface compositional information available as a function of wavelength. This image displays visible and near infrared bands 3, 2, and 1 in red, green, and blue (RGB). Vegetation appears red, snow and dry salt lakes are white, and exposed rocks are brown, gray, yellow and blue. Rock colors mainly reflect the presence of iron minerals, and variations in albedo. Figure 1 displays short wavelength infrared bands 4, 6, and 8 as RGB. In this wavelength region, clay, carbonate, and sulfate minerals have diagnostic absorption features, resulting in distinct colors on the image. For example, limestones are yellow-green, and purple areas are kaolinite-rich. Figure 2 displays thermal infrared bands 13, 12 and 10 as RGB. In this wavelength region, variations in quartz content appear as more or less red; carbonate rocks are green, and mafic volcanic rocks are purple. The image is located at 36.8 degrees north latitude and 117.7 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  4. Quaternary tectonic faulting in the Eastern United States (United States)

    Wheeler, R.L.


    Paleoseismological study of geologic features thought to result from Quaternary tectonic faulting can characterize the frequencies and sizes of large prehistoric and historical earthquakes, thereby improving the accuracy and precision of seismic-hazard assessments. Greater accuracy and precision can reduce the likelihood of both underprotection and unnecessary design and construction costs. Published studies proposed Quaternary tectonic faulting at 31 faults, folds, seismic zones, and fields of earthquake-induced liquefaction phenomena in the Appalachian Mountains and Coastal Plain. Of the 31 features, seven are of known origin. Four of the seven have nontectonic origins and the other three features are liquefaction fields caused by moderate to large historical and Holocene earthquakes in coastal South Carolina, including Charleston; the Central Virginia Seismic Zone; and the Newbury, Massachusetts, area. However, the causal faults of the three liquefaction fields remain unclear. Charleston has the highest hazard because of large Holocene earthquakes in that area, but the hazard is highly uncertain because the earthquakes are uncertainly located. Of the 31 features, the remaining 24 are of uncertain origin. They require additional work before they can be clearly attributed either to Quaternary tectonic faulting or to nontectonic causes. Of these 24, 14 features, most of them faults, have little or no published geologic evidence of Quaternary tectonic faulting that could indicate the likely occurrence of earthquakes larger than those observed historically. Three more features of the 24 were suggested to have had Quaternary tectonic faulting, but paleoseismological and other studies of them found no evidence of large prehistoric earthquakes. The final seven features of uncertain origin require further examination because all seven are in or near urban areas. They are the Moodus Seismic Zone (Hartford, Connecticut), Dobbs Ferry fault zone and Mosholu fault (New York

  5. A New Quaternary Strand of the Karakoram Fault System, Ladakh Himalayas (United States)

    Bohon, W.; Hodges, K.; Arrowsmith, R.; Tripathy, A.


    The NW-SE striking, dextral Karakoram fault system stretches for more than 1200 km from the Pamirs of Central Asia at least as far southeast as the Kailas area of Tibet. Estimates for the total lateral displacement along the fault system range from 150-1000 km, and estimated Quaternary rates of slip range from 1 to 30 mm/yr. In the Ladakh region of NW India (~ 33°28’N, 78°45’E), the fault system expresses as northern and southern strands bounding the Pangong Range. Studies of ductile deformation fabrics along these strands suggest that slip began in the Miocene, and Brown et al. (2002) documented Quaternary right-lateral slip along the northern strand at ~4 mm/yr on the basis of offset geomorphic features. The lack of documented Quaternary offset along the southern strand has led most researchers to assume that Quaternary slip on the Karakoram fault system in this region was partitioned exclusively to the northern strand. Our summer 2009 field work in the Pangong Range and adjacent Nubra Valley provides the first documentation of significant Quaternary activity along the southern strand. In the valley between the villages of Tangste (34°01’ N, 78°10’ E) and Durbuk (34°06’ N, 78°07’), the fault is visible high on the northeastern mountain side as a break in slope with offset Quaternary paleosurfaces and beheaded and offset stream channels, the largest of which have been displaced by as much as 250 m. Field mapping north of Durbuk, near the town of Tangyar (34°15’N, 77°52’E), shows that the southern strand continues northwest and cuts across the landscape as a sinuous, continuous trace with shutter ridges, offset alluvial fan surfaces, and sag ponds developed along its length. In this region, the northern and southern strands are linked by a Quaternary, E-directed thrust fault that places high-grade metamorphic rocks over poorly consolidated Quaternary alluvium. The partitioning of dextral slip between two strands of the Karakoram system

  6. 47 CFR 32.6423 - Buried cable expense. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buried cable expense. 32.6423 Section 32.6423... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6423 Buried cable expense. (a) This account shall include expenses associated with buried cable. (b) Subsidiary record...

  7. Synthesis of Chitosan Quaternary Ammonium Salts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A series of N-alkyl or N-aryl chitosan quaternary ammonium salts were prepared via Schiffs base intermediates. Quaternization of N-substituted chitosan derivatives was carried out using methyl iodide to produce water-soluble cationic chitosan quaternary ammonium salt. The products were characterized by IR, 1HNMR and elemental analysis. The degree of substitution of chitosan quaternary ammonium salt was calculated by elemental analysis.

  8. Valley evolution of the Lower Rhine in LGM, Lateglacial and Early Holocene.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, K.M.; Hoek, W.Z.; Stouthamer, E.; Geurts, A.H.; Janssens, M.; Kasse, C.; Busschers, F.S.; Hijma, M.P.; Erkens, G.


    The impact of transient climate change, for example at glacial-interglacial transitions, on the alluvial valley of the lower reaches of larger river systems has become a classic topic of fluvial geomorphology and quaternary geological study. The process of contraction of Holocene river activity into

  9. Energy valley in transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwayen, Barbara


    The Energy Valley foundation was born in 2004. It functions as a catalyst and platform for private and public organisations. It has a supporting and facilitating role in realising projects on energy conservation and sustainable energy. The Energy Valley a

  10. Rift Valley Fever (RVF) (United States)

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Rift Valley Fever (RVF) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an acute, fever-causing viral disease ...

  11. Buried caldera of mauna kea volcano, hawaii. (United States)

    Porter, S C


    An elliptical caldera (2.1 by 2.8 kilometers) at the summit of Mauna Kea volcano is inferred to lie buried beneath hawaiite lava flows and pyroclastic cones at an altitude of approximately 3850 meters. Stratigraphic relationships indicate that hawaiite eruptions began before a pre-Wisconsin period of ice-cap glaciation and that the crest of the mountain attained its present altitude and gross form during a glaciation of probable Early Wisconsin age.

  12. Multiple instance learning for buried hazard detection (United States)

    Rice, Joseph; Pinar, Anthony; Havens, Timothy C.; Webb, Adam; Schulz, Timothy J.


    Buried explosives hazards are one of the many deadly threats facing our Soldiers, thus the U.S. Army is interested in the detection and neutralization of these hazards. One method of buried target detection uses forward-looking ground-penetrating radar (FLGPR), and it has grown in popularity due to its ability to detect buried targets at a standoff distance. FLGPR approaches often use machine learning techniques to improve the accuracy of detection. We investigate an approach to explosive hazard detection that exploits multi-instance features to discriminate between hazardous and non-hazardous returns in FLGPR data. One challenge this problem presents is a high number of clutter and non-target objects relative to the number of targets present. Our approach learns a bag of words model of the multi-instance signatures of potential targets and confuser objects in order to classify alarms as either targets or false alarms. We demonstrate our method on test data collected at a U.S. Army test site.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F.V. Perry


    Basaltic volcanism poses a potential hazard to the proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository because multiple episodes of basaltic volcanism have occurred in the Yucca Mountain region (YMR) in the past 11 Ma. Intervals between eruptive episodes average about 1 Ma. Three episodes have occurred in the Quaternary at approximately 1.1 Ma (5 volcanoes), 350 ka (2 volcanoes), and 80 ka (1 volcano). Because Yucca Mountain lies within the Basin and Range Province, a significant portion of the pre-Quaternary volcanic history of the YMR may be buried in alluvial-filled basins. An exceptionally high-resolution aeromagnetic survey and subsequent drilling program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began in 2004 and is gathering data that will enhance understanding of the temporal and spatial patterns of Pliocene and Miocene volcanism in the region (Figure 1). DOE has convened a ten-member expert panel of earth scientists that will use the information gathered to update probabilistic volcanic hazard estimates originally obtained by expert elicitation in 1996. Yucca Mountain is a series of north-trending ridges of eastward-tilted fault blocks that are bounded by north to northeast-trending normal faults. Topographic basins filled with up to 500 m of alluvium surround it to the east, south and west. In the past several decades, nearly 50 holes have been drilled in these basins, mainly for Yucca Mountain Project Site Characterization and the Nye County Early Warning Drilling Program. Several of these drill holes have penetrated relatively deeply buried (300-400 m) Miocene basalt; a Pliocene basalt dated at 3.8 Ma was encountered at a relatively shallow depth (100 m) in the northern Amargosa Desert (Anomaly B in Figure 1). The current drilling program is the first to specifically target and characterize buried basalt. Based on the new aeromagnetic survey and previous air and ground magnetic surveys (Connor et al. 2000; O'Leary et al. 2002), at least eight

  14. Summary of Quaternary geology of the Municipality of Anchorage, Alaska (United States)

    Schmoll, H.R.; Yehle, L.A.; Updike, R.G.


    Quaternary geology of the Upper Cook Inlet region is dominated by deposits of glacier retreats that followed repeated advances from both adjacent and more distant mountains. At several levels high on the mountains, there are remnant glacial deposits and other features of middle or older Pleistocene age. Late Pleistocene lateral moraines along the Chugach Mountain front represent successively younger positions of ice retreat from the last glacial maximum. As the trunk glacier retreated northeastward up the Anchorage lowland, Cook Inlet transgressed the area, depositing the Bootlegger Cove Formation and Tudor Road deposits. The glacier then readvanced to form the latest Pleistocene Elmendorf Moraine, a prominent feature that trends across the Anchorage lowland. Extensive alluvium was deposited both concurrently and somewhat later as Cook Inlet regressed. Mountain valleys contain (1) locally preserved moraines possibly of early Holocene age; (2) poorly preserved moraine remnants of older late Holocene age; and (3) well-preserved moraines formed mainly during the Little Ice Age. Glaciers still occupy large parts of the mountains, the upper ends of some mountain valleys, and small cirques. Holocene landslide deposits, including those formed during the great Alaska earthquake of 1964, occur throughout the area, especially along bluffs containing the Bootlegger Cove Formation.

  15. Novel Quaternary Quantum Decoder, Multiplexer and Demultiplexer Circuits (United States)

    Haghparast, Majid; Monfared, Asma Taheri


    Multiple valued logic is a promising approach to reduce the width of the reversible or quantum circuits, moreover, quaternary logic is considered as being a good choice for future quantum computing technology hence it is very suitable for the encoded realization of binary logic functions through its grouping of 2-bits together into quaternary values. The Quaternary decoder, multiplexer, and demultiplexer are essential units of quaternary digital systems. In this paper, we have initially designed a quantum realization of the quaternary decoder circuit using quaternary 1-qudit gates and quaternary Muthukrishnan-Stroud gates. Then we have presented quantum realization of quaternary multiplexer and demultiplexer circuits using the constructed quaternary decoder circuit and quaternary controlled Feynman gates. The suggested circuits in this paper have a lower quantum cost and hardware complexity than the existing designs that are currently used in quaternary digital systems. All the scales applied in this paper are based on Nanometric area.

  16. Quaternary Magmatism in the Cascades - Geologic Perspectives (United States)

    Hildreth, Wes


    Foreward The Cascade magmatic arc is a belt of Quaternary volcanoes that extends 1,250 km from Lassen Peak in northern California to Meager Mountain in Canada, above the subduction zone where the Juan de Fuca Plate plunges beneath the North American Plate. This Professional Paper presents a synthesis of the entire volcanic arc, addressing all 2,300 known Quaternary volcanoes, not just the 30 or so visually prominent peaks that comprise the volcanic skyline. Study of Cascade volcanoes goes back to the geological explorers of the late 19th century and the seminal investigations of Howel Williams in the 1920s and 1930s. However, major progress and application of modern scientific methods and instrumentation began only in the 1970s with the advent of systematic geological, geophysical, and geochemical studies of the entire arc. Initial stimulus from the USGS Geothermal Research Program was enhanced by the USGS Volcano Hazards Program following the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens. Together, these two USGS Programs have provided more than three decades of stable funding, staffing, and analytical support. This Professional Paper summarizes the resultant USGS data sets and integrates them with the parallel contributions of other investigators. The product is based upon an all-encompassing and definitive geological database, including chemical and isotopic analyses to characterize the rocks and geochronology to provide the critical time constraints. Until now, this massive amount of data has not been summarized, and a systematic and uniform interpretation firmly grounded in geological fact has been lacking. Herein lies the primary utility of this Cascade volume. It not only will be the mandatory starting point for new workers, but also will provide essential geological context to broaden the perspectives of current investigators of specific Cascade volcanoes. Wes Hildreth's insightful understanding of volcanic processes and his uncompromising scientific integrity make him

  17. Paleomagnetic dating of tectonically influenced Plio-Quaternary fan-system deposits from the Apennines (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Saroli


    Full Text Available The Roveto Valley is a narrow, elongated, NW-trending depression filled with continental Plio-Quaternary deposits that outcrop at different topographic elevations. A morpho-lithostratigraphic succession of the continental deposits has been defined in order to reconstruct the geological Quaternary evolution of the area. These deposits do not contain materials suitable for biostratigraphic dating; therefore, in order to determine their chronology, three different units were sampled for magnetostratigraphic investigations. Paleomagnetic results demonstrated that standard demagnetization techniques are effective in removing secondary remanence components and in isolating the characteristic remanent magnetization, allowing us to determine, for each cycle, whether it was deposited before or after the Brunhes-Matuyama geomagnetic reversal at 781 ka. Preliminary rock magnetic analyses indicated that magnetite is the main magnetic carrier and that hematite, which gives the pink colour to the matrix, is in the superparamagnetic grain-size range and thus does not retain any paleomagnetic remanence.

  18. Late Quaternary rates of stream incision in Northeast Peloponnese, Greece (United States)

    Karymbalis, Efthimios; Papanastassiou, Dimitrios; Gaki-Papanastassiou, Kalliopi; Ferentinou, Maria; Chalkias, Christos


    This study focuses on defining rates of fluvial incision for the last 580±5 kyr along valley systems of eight streams that drain the eastern part of the northern Peloponnese. The streams are developed on the uplifted block of the offshore-running Xylokastro normal fault, one of the main faults bounding the southern edge of the Gulf of Corinth half-graben, and have incised a set of ten uplifted marine terraces having an amphitheatric shape. These terraces range in age from 60±5 kyr to 580±5 kyr and have been mapped in detail and correlated with late Pleistocene oxygen-isotope stages of high sea-level stands by previous studies. The terraces were used in this paper as reference surfaces in order to define fluvial incision rates at the lower reaches of the studied streams. To evaluate incision rates, thirty-three topographic valley cross-sections were drawn using fieldwork measurements as well as using a highly accurate (2×2 cell size) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) at specific locations where streams cut down the inner edges of the marine terraces. For each cross-section the ratio of valley floor width to valley height (Vf) and long-term mean stream incision rates were estimated for the last 580±5 kyr, while rock uplift rates were estimated for the last 330±5 kyr. The geomorphic evolution of the valleys on the uplifted block of the Xylokastro fault has been mainly driven by the lithology of the bedrock, sea level fluctuations during the late Quaternary, and incision of the channels due to the tectonic uplift. Stream incision rates range from 0.10±0.1 mm/yr for the last 123±7 kyr to 1.14±0.1 mm/yr for the last 310±5 kyr and are gradually greater from east to west depending on the distance from the trace of the fault. Downcutting rates are comparable with the rock uplift rates, which range from 0.4±0.02 mm/yr to 1.49±0.12 mm/yr, over the last 330±5 kyr.

  19. Groundwater Quality in Mura Valley (Slovenia) (United States)

    Zajc Benda, T.; Souvent, P.; Bračič Železnik, B.; Čenčur Curk, B.


    Groundwater quality is one of the most important parameters in drinking water supply management. For safe drinking water supply, the quality of groundwater in the water wells on the recharge area has to be controlled. Groundwater quality data will be presented for one test area in the SEE project CC-WaterS (Climate Change and Impacts on Water Supply) Mura valley, which lies in the northeastern part of Slovenia. The Mura valley is a part of the Pannonian basin tectonic unit, which is filled with Tertiary and Quaternary gravel and sand sediments. The porous aquifer is 17 m thick in average and recharges from precipitation (70 %) and from surface waters (30 %). The aquifer is the main source of drinking water in the area for almost 53.000 inhabitants. Most of the aquifer lies beneath the agricultural area what represents the risk of groundwater quality. The major groundwater pollutants in the Mura valley are nitrates, atrazine, desethyl-atrazine, trichloroethane and tetrachloroethene. National groundwater quality monitoring is carried out twice a year, so some polluting events could be missed. The nitrate concentrations in the past were up to 140 mg/l. Concentration trends are decreasing and are now below 60 mg/l. Concentrations of atrazine and desethyl-atrazine, are decreasing as well and are below 0,1 µg/l. Trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene were detected downstream of main city in Mura valley, in the maximum concentrations of 280 μg/l in June 2005 (trichloroethene) and 880 μg/l in October 1997 (tetrachloroethene). So, it can be summarized that the trends for most pollutants in the Mura valley are decreasing, what is a good prediction for the future. Input estimation of the total nitrogen (N) (mineral and organic fertilizers) in the Mura valley shows, that the risk of leaching is enlarged in the areas, where the N input is larger than 250 kg/ha, this is at 6,3 % of all agricultural areas. Prediction for the period 2021-2050 indicates that the leaching of N

  20. Virtual environmental applications for buried waste characterization technology evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The project, Virtual Environment Applications for Buried Waste Characterization, was initiated in the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program in fiscal year 1994. This project is a research and development effort that supports the remediation of buried waste by identifying and examining the issues, needs, and feasibility of creating virtual environments using available characterization and other data. This document describes the progress and results from this project during the past year.

  1. Tectonic control on the Late Quaternary hydrography of the Upper Tiber Basin (Northern Apennines, Italy) (United States)

    Benvenuti, Marco; Bonini, Marco; Moroni, Adriana


    We examine the intramontane Upper Tiber Basin in the Northern Apennines (central Italy), where sub-orthogonal fault systems forced river deviation and the abandonment of alluvial fans since the late Middle Pleistocene. Archaeological material, spanning the Middle Palaeolithic-Iron Age, was collected mostly from the surface of the Late Quaternary alluvial landforms and related deposits (MUP and HOL units). This information contributed to the partial dating of seven major stages of drainage development. Normal faults parallel and transverse to the basin trend were active at different times and conditioned the valley pattern of the Middle (MUP1-2)-Late (MUP3) Pleistocene Tiber, Singerna, Sovara and Tignana rivers, which still flow today into the basin. The MUP1 and the MUP3 fans were beheaded by the displacement of their feeder valleys along the basin-transverse Carmine and Montedoglio faults. In some cases, the former feeder rivers underwent stream piracy but their courses mostly deviated in response of the topographic gradient created by faulting, as well as through the incision of new valleys that exploited the lithological contrast along the fault lines. The MUP3 Tignana fan was abandoned mostly due to the activity of the basin-parallel, dip-slip Sansepolcro fault. Subsidence driven by the basin-parallel Anghiari and Sansepolcro fault systems also provided the accommodation space for the MUP3 and HOl1-2 Afra fans between Late Pleistocene and early-mid Holocene. This study exemplifies the interplay between longitudinal and transverse fault systems, and the Late Quaternary hydrographic evolution of an extensional basin settled in the axial zone of an active fold-and-thrust belt. Although the faulting has interacted with the forcing exerted by the Late Quaternary climate fluctuations on the basin drainage systems, the tectonic rates are sufficiently high to represent the prime controller on base-level change and drainage routing patterns.

  2. Geology and water resources of Owens Valley, California (United States)

    Hollett, Kenneth J.; Danskin, Wesley R.; McCaffrey, William F.; Walti, Caryl L.


    that is structurally separated into the Bishop Basin to the north and the Owens Lake Basin to the south. These two structural basins are separated by (1) a bedrock high that is the upper bedrock block of an east-west normal fault, (2) a horst block of bedrock (the Poverty Hills), and (3) Quaternary basalt flows and cinder cones that intercalate and intrude the sedimentary deposits of the valley fill. The resulting structural separation of the basins allowed separate development of fluvial and lacustrine depositional systems in each basin. Nearly all the ground water in Owens Valley flows through and is stored in the saturated valley fill. The bedrock, which surrounds and underlies the valley fill, is virtually impermeable. Three hydrogeologic units compose the valley-fill aquifer system, a defined subdivision of the ground-water system, and a fourth represents the valley fill below the aquifer system and above the bedrock. The aquifer system is divided into horizontal hydrogeologic units on the basis of either (1) uniform hydrologic characteristics of a specific lithologic layer or (2) distribution of the vertical hydraulic head. Hydrogeologic unit 1 is the upper unit and represents the unconfined part of the system, hydrogeologic unit 2 represents the confining unit (or units), and hydrogeologic unit 3 represents the confined part of the aquifer system. Hydrogeologic unit 4 represents the deep part of the ground-water system and lies below the aquifer system. Hydrogeologic unit 4 transmits or stores much less water than hydrogeologic unit 3 and represents either a moderately consolidated valley fill or a geologic unit in the valley fill defined on the basis of geophysical data. Nearly all the recharge to the aquifer system is from infiltration of runoff from snowmelt and rainfall on the Sierra Nevada. In contrast, little recharge occurs to the system by runoff from the White and Inyo Mountains or from direct precipitation on the valley floor. Ground wat

  3. Late Quaternary changes in climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmgren, K.; Karlen, W. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Physical Geography


    This review concerns the Quaternary climate with an emphasis on the last 200 000 years. The present state of art in this field is described and evaluated. The review builds on a thorough examination of classic and recent literature. General as well as detailed patterns in climate are described and the forcing factors and feed-back effects are discussed. Changes in climate occur on all time-scales. During more than 90% of the Quaternary period earth has experienced vast ice sheets, i.e. glaciations have been more normal for the period than the warm interglacial conditions we face today. Major changes in climate, such as the 100 000 years glacial/interglacial cycle, are forced by the Milankovitch three astronomical cycles. Because the cycles have different length climate changes on earth do not follow a simple pattern and it is not possible to find perfect analogues of a certain period in the geological record. Recent discoveries include the observation that major changes in climate seem to occur at the same time on both hemispheres, although the astronomical theory implies a time-lag between latitudes. This probably reflects the influence of feed-back effects within the climate system. Another recent finding of importance is the rapid fluctuations that seem to be a normal process. When earth warmed after the last glaciation temperature jumps of up to 10 deg C occurred within less than a decade and precipitation more than doubled within the same time. The forcing factors behind these rapid fluctuations are not well understood but are believed to be a result of major re-organisations in the oceanic circulation. Realizing that nature, on its own, can cause rapid climate changes of this magnitude put some perspective on the anthropogenic global warming debate, where it is believed that the release of greenhouse gases will result in a global warming of a few C. To understand the forcing behind natural rapid climate changes appears as important as to understand the role

  4. A Buried Vertical Filter for Micro and Nanoparticle Filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, S.J.; Shen, C.; Sarro, P.M.


    This paper presents a silicon micromachined filter for micro- and nanoparticles. The filter is vertical and completely buried beneath the surface. The buried aspect allows additional features to be integrated above the filter, while the vertical aspect allows the creation of highly uniform pores and

  5. Buried injector logic, a vertical IIL using deep ion implantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouthaan, A.J.


    A vertically integrated alternative for integrated injection logic has been realized, named buried injector logic (BIL). 1 MeV ion implantations are used to create buried layers. The vertical pnp and npn transistors have thin base regions and exhibit a limited charge accumulation if a gate is satura

  6. Including Arbitrary Antenna Patterns in Microwave Imaging of Buried Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meincke, Peter; Kim, Oleksiy S.; Lenler-Eriksen, Hans-Rudolph


    A linear inversion scheme for microwave imaging of buried objects is presented in which arbitrary antennas are accounted for through their plane-wave transmitting and receiving spectra......A linear inversion scheme for microwave imaging of buried objects is presented in which arbitrary antennas are accounted for through their plane-wave transmitting and receiving spectra...

  7. VIPMOS-A novel buried injector structure for EPROM applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijburg, Rutger C.; Hemink, Gertjan J.; Middelhoek, Jan; Wallinga, Hans; Mouthaan, Ton J.


    A buried injector is proposed as a source of electrons for substrate hot electrons injection. To enhance the compatibility with VLSI processing, the buried injector is formed by the local overlap of the n-well and p-well of a retrograde twin-well CMOS process. The injector is activated by means of p

  8. Summary and evaluation of existing geological and geophysical data near prospective surface facilities in Midway Valley, Yucca Mountain Project, Nye County, Nevada; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, J.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swan, F.H.; Wesling, J.R.; Bullard, T.F.; Perman, R.C.; Angell, M.M.; DiSilvestro, L.A. [Geomatrix Consultants, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)


    Midway Valley, located at the eastern base of the Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada, is the preferred location of the surface facilities for the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. One goal in siting these surface facilities is to avoid faults that could produce relative displacements in excess of 5 cm in the foundations of the waste-handling buildings. This study reviews existing geologic and geophysical data that can be used to assess the potential for surface fault rupture within Midway Valley. Dominant tectonic features in Midway Valley are north-trending, westward-dipping normal faults along the margins of the valley: the Bow Ridge fault to the west and the Paintbrush Canyon fault to the east. Published estimates of average Quaternary slip rates for these faults are very low but the age of most recent displacement and the amount of displacement per event are largely unknown. Surface mapping and interpretive cross sections, based on limited drillhole and geophysical data, suggest that additional normal faults, including the postulated Midway Valley fault, may exist beneath the Quaternary/Tertiary fill within the valley. Existing data, however, are inadequate to determine the location, recency, and geometry of this faulting. To confidently assess the potential for significant Quaternary faulting in Midway Valley, additional data are needed that define the stratigraphy and structure of the strata beneath the valley, characterize the Quaternary soils and surfaces, and establish the age of faulting. The use of new and improved geophysical techniques, combined with a drilling program, offers the greatest potential for resolving subsurface structure in the valley. Mapping of surficial geologic units and logging of soil pits and trenches within these units must be completed, using accepted state-of-the-art practices supported by multiple quantitative numerical and relative age-dating techniques.

  9. Silicon Valley Ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph Leu


    @@ It is unlikely that any industrial region of the world has received as much scrutiny and study as Silicon Valley. Despite the recent crash of Internet and telecommunications stocks,Silicon Valley remains the world's engine of growth for numerous high-technology sectors.

  10. Rift Valley Fever Virus (United States)

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-transmitted virus or arbovirus that is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. In the last decade, Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks have resulted in loss of human and animal life, as well as had significant economic impact. The disease in livestock is primarily a...

  11. Haemoragisk Rift Valley Fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, Christian; Thybo, Søren


    A case of fatal hemorrhagic Rift Valley fever during an epidemic in Kenya's North Eastern Province in January 2007 is described.......A case of fatal hemorrhagic Rift Valley fever during an epidemic in Kenya's North Eastern Province in January 2007 is described....

  12. Evaluating the Age of Buried Ice in Antarctica Using Ashfall Deposits: New Insights from Deposit Morphology, Grain Shape, and LA-ICP-MS Trace-Element Geochemistry (United States)

    Lewis, A. R.; Marchant, D. R.


    Dating of buried ice in the western Dry Valleys region relies on 40Ar/39Ar analysis of ashfall deposits within sublimation tills that rest directly on stagnant glacier ice. The oldest ice so dated is >8.1 Ma. The fundamental assumption is that dated ashes are in-situ and have not been transported from surface deposits elsewhere in the Dry Valleys region. Given that the surface of sublimation tills shows well-developed patterned ground, the presumption of ground stability and long-term preservation of in-situ ashfall is questioned. As a test of ground stability, we examined ash-deposit morphology, grain shape, and glass-shard trace-element geochemistry from several ashfall deposits used to provide limiting ages on buried ice and tills in the western Dry Valleys. Detailed field analyses show that ashfall that collects in sublimation tills over buried ice occurs in one of three morphologic settings: surface troughs that delineate sand-wedge polygons, void spaces in gravel-and-cobble lags that overlie active sand wedges, and 1 to 2-cm-wide thermal contraction cracks. Post-depositional sublimation of underlying ice may distort initial deposit morphology through uneven surface lowering. Microscopic analyses of concentrated ashfall deposits that lack detrital sand grains show highly angular glass shards that preserve delicate hair-like spires and thin bubble-wall vesicles. Grain edges are sharp with no chipped, fractured, or pitted surfaces. In contrast, ash deposits containing detrital sand grains show subangular to subrounded shard morphologies with concave fractures and pits on grain edges, all of which are suggestive of abrasion during transport. In such deposits, grains preserving delicate bubble walls and hair-like spires are conspicuously absent. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry shows that glass shards within each ashfall deposit have uniform trace-element geochemical signatures. If ashfall were eroded and transported after initial

  13. Reconnaissance study of late quaternary faulting along cerro GoDen fault zone, western Puerto Rico (United States)

    Mann, P.; Prentice, C.S.; Hippolyte, J.-C.; Grindlay, N.R.; Abrams, L.J.; Lao-Davila, D.


    The Cerro GoDen fault zone is associated with a curvilinear, continuous, and prominent topographic lineament in western Puerto Rico. The fault varies in strike from northwest to west. In its westernmost section, the fault is ???500 m south of an abrupt, curvilinear mountain front separating the 270- to 361-m-high La CaDena De San Francisco range from the Rio A??asco alluvial valley. The Quaternary fault of the A??asco Valley is in alignment with the bedrock fault mapped by D. McIntyre (1971) in the Central La Plata quadrangle sheet east of A??asco Valley. Previous workers have postulated that the Cerro GoDen fault zone continues southeast from the A??asco Valley and merges with the Great Southern Puerto Rico fault zone of south-central Puerto Rico. West of the A??asco Valley, the fault continues offshore into the Mona Passage (Caribbean Sea) where it is characterized by offsets of seafloor sediments estimated to be of late Quaternary age. Using both 1:18,500 scale air photographs taken in 1936 and 1:40,000 scale photographs taken by the U.S. Department of Agriculture in 1986, we iDentified geomorphic features suggestive of Quaternary fault movement in the A??asco Valley, including aligned and Deflected drainages, apparently offset terrace risers, and mountain-facing scarps. Many of these features suggest right-lateral displacement. Mapping of Paleogene bedrock units in the uplifted La CaDena range adjacent to the Cerro GoDen fault zone reveals the main tectonic events that have culminated in late Quaternary normal-oblique displacement across the Cerro GoDen fault. Cretaceous to Eocene rocks of the La CaDena range exhibit large folds with wavelengths of several kms. The orientation of folds and analysis of fault striations within the folds indicate that the folds formed by northeast-southwest shorTening in present-day geographic coordinates. The age of Deformation is well constrained as late Eocene-early Oligocene by an angular unconformity separating folDed, Deep

  14. Compact Buried Ducts in a Hot-Humid Climate House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, Dave [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)


    "9A system of compact, buried ducts provides a high-performance and cost-effective solution for delivering conditioned air throughout the building. This report outlines research activities that are expected to facilitate adoption of compact buried duct systems by builders. The results of this research would be scalable to many new house designs in most climates and markets, leading to wider industry acceptance and building code and energy program approval. The primary research question with buried ducts is potential condensation at the outer jacket of the duct insulation in humid climates during the cooling season. Current best practices for buried ducts rely on encapsulating the insulated ducts with closed-cell spray polyurethane foam insulation to control condensation and improve air sealing. The encapsulated buried duct concept has been analyzed and shown to be effective in hot-humid climates. The purpose of this project is to develop an alternative buried duct system that performs effectively as ducts in conditioned space - durable, energy efficient, and cost-effective - in a hot-humid climate (IECC warm-humid climate zone 3A) with three goals that distinguish this project: 1) Evaluation of design criteria for buried ducts that use common materials and do not rely on encapsulation using spray foam or disrupt traditional work sequences; 2) Establishing design criteria for compact ducts and incorporate those with the buried duct criteria to further reduce energy losses and control installed costs; 3) Developing HVAC design guidance for performing accurate heating and cooling load calculations for compact buried ducts.

  15. Physical subdivision and description of the water-bearing sediments of the Santa Clara Valley, California (United States)

    Wentworth, Carl M.; Jachens, Robert C.; Williams, Robert A.; Tinsley, John C.; Hanson, Randall T.


    A thick Quaternary alluvial section fills a sedimentary basin beneath the Santa Clara Valley, California, located within the San Andreas Fault system at the south end of San Francisco Bay. This section consists of an upper sequence about 1,000 feet thick containing eight sedimentary cycles and a lower fine-grained unit as thick as several hundred feet. Together these constitute the Quaternary Santa Clara Basin. The section overlies an irregular unconformity with more than 1,200 feet of relief cut into the underlying bedrock. This stratigraphy is determined through study of new wells and seismic reflection profiles, together with a sample of the many thousands of water wells in the valley. It represents a major change and improvement in understanding of the basin, particularly with regard to the upper cyclic sequence, which forms a large groundwater system that is an important resource in the San Francisco Bay region.

  16. Dynamics of nival and glacial slope processes in the Baksan and Teberda river basins from radiocarbon dating of buried soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Solomina


    Full Text Available Radiocarbon and tree-ring dating of the soil horizons, buried in the slope and fluvioglacial deposits in Baksan and Teberda valleys, bring evidence of the reduction of the avalanche activity, stabilization of the slopes and soil formation on their surfaces. In the Baksan section three such horizons are identified, while in the Teberda section only one. The radiocarbon dates of the two thickest soil horizons in the Baksan section are 170±50 BP (1650–1890 CE and 380±60 BP (1430–1650 CE. The dendrochronological date of the wood (after 1677 in the upper layer of the buried soil horizon in the in the Dombai section probably indicate the increase of the river runoff and debris flow activity in relation with the glacier advance in the upperstream of Ammanauz river. However it is also close to the Terskoye earth quake occurred in 1688. The radiocarbon dates of the buried soils cluster in three groups (270–290, 340–440, 1280–1440 yrs BP. It is possible that their burial is connected to the climatic (increase in precipitation, especially extreme ones or seismic causes.

  17. Injection of radioactive waste by hydraulic fracturing at West Valley, New York. Volume 2. Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Results of a preliminary study are presented of the technical feasibility of radioactive waste disposal by hydraulic fracturing and injection into shale formations below the Nuclear Fuel Services Incorporated site at West Valley, New York. At this time there are approximately 600,000 gallons of high level neutralized Purex waste, including both the supernate (liquid) and sludge, and a further 12,000 gallons of acidic Thorex waste stored in tanks at the West Valley facilities. This study assesses the possibility of combining these wastes in a suitable grout mixture and then injecting them into deep shale formations beneath the West Valley site as a means of permanent disposal. The preliminary feasibility assessment results indicated that at the 850 to 1,250 feet horizons, horizontal fracturing and injection could be effectively achieved. However, a detailed safety analysis is required to establish the acceptability of the degree of isolation. The principal concerns regarding isolation are due to existing and possible future water supply developments within the area and the local effects of the buried valley. In addition, possible future natural gas developments are of concern. The definition of an exclusion zone may be appropriate to avoid problems with these developments. The buried valley may require the injections to be limited to the lower horizon depending on the results of further investigations.

  18. Buried plastic scintillator muon telescope (BATATA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfaro, R. [Inst. de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F., C.P. 04510 (Mexico); De Donato, C.; D' Olivo, J.C.; Guzman, A.; Medina-Tanco, G. [Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F., C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Moreno Barbosa, E. [Fac. de Ciencias Fisico Matematicas, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Paic, G.; Patino Salazar, E. [Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F., C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Salazar Ibarguen, H. [Fac. de Ciencias Fisico Matematicas, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Sanchez, F.A., E-mail: federico.sanchez@nucleares.unam.m [Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F., C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Supanitsky, A.D. [Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F., C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Valdes-Galicia, J.F. [Inst. de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F., C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Vargas Trevino, A.D.; Vergara Limon, S. [Fac. de Ciencias de la Electronica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Villasenor, L.M. [Inst. de Fisica y Matematicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas Hidalgo Morelia (Mexico); Observatorio Pierre Auger, Av. San Martin Norte 304 (5613) Malarguee, Prov. Mendoza (Argentina)


    Muon telescopes have multiple applications in the area of cosmic ray research. We are currently building such a detector with the objective of comparing the ground penetration of muon vs. electron-gamma signals originated in cosmic ray showers. The detector is composed by a set of three parallel dual-layer scintillator planes, buried at fixed depths ranging from 120 to 600g/cm{sup 2}. Each layer is 4m{sup 2} and is composed by 49 rectangular strips of 4cmx2m, oriented at a 90{sup 0} angle with respect to its companion layer, which gives an xy-coincidence pixel of 4x4cm{sup 2}. The scintillators are MINOS extruded polystyrene strips, with an embedded Bicron BC92 wavelength shifting (WLS) fibers, of 1.5 mm in diameter. Light is collected by Hamamatsu H7546B multi-anode PMTs of 64 pixels. The front-end (FE) electronics works in counting mode and signals are transmitted to the surface DAQ stage using low-voltage differential signaling (LVDS). Any strip signal above threshold opens a GPS-tagged 2{mu}s data collection window. Data, including signal and background, are acquired by a system of FPGA (Spartan 2E) boards and a single-board computer (TS7800).

  19. Buried plastic scintillator muon telescope (BATATA) (United States)

    Alfaro, R.; de Donato, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Guzmán, A.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Moreno Barbosa, E.; Paic, G.; Patiño Salazar, E.; Salazar Ibarguen, H.; Sánchez, F. A.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Valdés-Galicia, J. F.; Vargas Treviño, A. D.; Vergara Limón, S.; Villaseñor, L. M.; Auger Collaboration


    Muon telescopes have multiple applications in the area of cosmic ray research. We are currently building such a detector with the objective of comparing the ground penetration of muon vs. electron-gamma signals originated in cosmic ray showers. The detector is composed by a set of three parallel dual-layer scintillator planes, buried at fixed depths ranging from 120 to 600g/cm2. Each layer is 4m2 and is composed by 49 rectangular strips of 4cm×2m, oriented at a 90∘ angle with respect to its companion layer, which gives an xy-coincidence pixel of 4×4cm2. The scintillators are MINOS extruded polystyrene strips, with an embedded Bicron BC92 wavelength shifting (WLS) fibers, of 1.5 mm in diameter. Light is collected by Hamamatsu H7546B multi-anode PMTs of 64 pixels. The front-end (FE) electronics works in counting mode and signals are transmitted to the surface DAQ stage using low-voltage differential signaling (LVDS). Any strip signal above threshold opens a GPS-tagged 2μs data collection window. Data, including signal and background, are acquired by a system of FPGA (Spartan 2E) boards and a single-board computer (TS7800).

  20. Buried waste containment system materials. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidner, J.R.; Shaw, P.G.


    This report describes the results of a test program to validate the application of a latex-modified cement formulation for use with the Buried Waste Containment System (BWCS) process during a proof of principle (POP) demonstration. The test program included three objectives. One objective was to validate the barrier material mix formulation to be used with the BWCS equipment. A basic mix formula for initial trials was supplied by the cement and latex vendors. The suitability of the material for BWCS application was verified by laboratory testing at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A second objective was to determine if the POP BWCS material emplacement process adversely affected the barrier material properties. This objective was met by measuring and comparing properties of material prepared in the INEEL Materials Testing Laboratory (MTL) with identical properties of material produced by the BWCS field tests. These measurements included hydraulic conductivity to determine if the material met the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements for barriers used for hazardous waste sites, petrographic analysis to allow an assessment of barrier material separation and segregation during emplacement, and a set of mechanical property tests typical of concrete characterization. The third objective was to measure the hydraulic properties of barrier material containing a stop-start joint to determine if such a feature would meet the EPA requirements for hazardous waste site barriers.

  1. Buried nanoantenna arrays: versatile antireflection coating. (United States)

    Kabiri, Ali; Girgis, Emad; Capasso, Federico


    Reflection is usually a detrimental phenomenon in many applications such as flat-panel-displays, solar cells, photodetectors, infrared sensors, and lenses. Thus far, to control and suppress the reflection from a substrate, numerous techniques including dielectric interference coatings, surface texturing, adiabatic index matching, and scattering from plasmonic nanoparticles have been investigated. A new technique is demonstrated to manage and suppress reflection from lossless and lossy substrates. It provides a wider flexibility in design versus previous methods. Reflection from a surface can be suppressed over a narrowband, wideband, or multiband frequency range. The antireflection can be dependent or independent of the incident wave polarization. Moreover, antireflection at a very wide incidence angle can be attained. The reflection from a substrate is controlled by a buried nanoantenna array, a structure composed of (1) a subwavelength metallic array and (2) a dielectric cover layer referred to as a superstrate. The material properties and thickness of the superstrate and nanoantennas' geometry and periodicity control the phase and intensity of the wave circulating inside the superstrate cavity. A minimum reflectance of 0.02% is achieved in various experiments in the mid-infrared from a silicon substrate. The design can be integrated in straightforward way in optical devices. The proposed structure is a versatile AR coating to optically impedance matches any substrate to free space in selected any narrow and broadband spectral response across the entire visible and infrared spectrum.

  2. Ice-sheet dynamics through the Quaternary on the mid-Norwegian continental margin inferred from 3D seismic data. (United States)

    Montelli, A; Dowdeswell, J A; Ottesen, D; Johansen, S E


    Reconstructing the evolution of ice sheets is critical to our understanding of the global environmental system, but most detailed palaeo-glaciological reconstructions have hitherto focused on the very recent history of ice sheets. Here, we present a three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the changing nature of ice-sheet derived sedimentary architecture through the Quaternary Ice Age of almost 3 Ma. An extensive geophysical record documents a marine-terminating, calving Fennoscandian Ice Sheet (FIS) margin present periodically on the mid-Norwegian shelf since the beginning of the Quaternary. Spatial and temporal variability of the FIS is illustrated by the gradual development of fast-flowing ice streams and associated intensification of focused glacial erosion and sedimentation since that time. Buried subglacial landforms reveal a complex and dynamic ice sheet, with converging palaeo-ice streams and several flow-switching events that may reflect major changes in topography and basal thermal regime. Lack of major subglacial meltwater channels suggests a largely distributed drainage system beneath the marine-terminating part of the FIS. This palaeo-environmental examination of the FIS provides a useful framework for ice-sheet modelling and shows that fragmentary preservation of buried surfaces and variability of ice-sheet dynamics should be taken into account when reconstructing glacial history from spatially limited datasets.

  3. Surface slip during large Owens Valley earthquakes

    KAUST Repository

    Haddon, E. K.


    The 1872 Owens Valley earthquake is the third largest known historical earthquake in California. Relatively sparse field data and a complex rupture trace, however, inhibited attempts to fully resolve the slip distribution and reconcile the total moment release. We present a new, comprehensive record of surface slip based on lidar and field investigation, documenting 162 new measurements of laterally and vertically displaced landforms for 1872 and prehistoric Owens Valley earthquakes. Our lidar analysis uses a newly developed analytical tool to measure fault slip based on cross-correlation of sublinear topographic features and to produce a uniquely shaped probability density function (PDF) for each measurement. Stacking PDFs along strike to form cumulative offset probability distribution plots (COPDs) highlights common values corresponding to single and multiple-event displacements. Lateral offsets for 1872 vary systematically from approximate to 1.0 to 6.0 m and average 3.31.1 m (2 sigma). Vertical offsets are predominantly east-down between approximate to 0.1 and 2.4 m, with a mean of 0.80.5 m. The average lateral-to-vertical ratio compiled at specific sites is approximate to 6:1. Summing displacements across subparallel, overlapping rupture traces implies a maximum of 7-11 m and net average of 4.41.5 m, corresponding to a geologic M-w approximate to 7.5 for the 1872 event. We attribute progressively higher-offset lateral COPD peaks at 7.12.0 m, 12.8 +/- 1.5 m, and 16.6 +/- 1.4 m to three earlier large surface ruptures. Evaluating cumulative displacements in context with previously dated landforms in Owens Valley suggests relatively modest rates of fault slip, averaging between approximate to 0.6 and 1.6 mm/yr (1 sigma) over the late Quaternary.

  4. Purge at West Valley (United States)

    Mack, Warren


    Tells how the adviser of the student newspaper at West Valley College (Saratoga, California) was dismissed after the newspaper published stories based on investigations into alleged wrongdoings by administration members. (GW)

  5. Geometry of Valley Growth

    CERN Document Server

    Petroff, Alexander P; Abrams, Daniel M; Lobkovsky, Alexander E; Kudrolli, Arshad; Rothman, Daniel H


    Although amphitheater-shaped valley heads can be cut by groundwater flows emerging from springs, recent geological evidence suggests that other processes may also produce similar features, thus confounding the interpretations of such valley heads on Earth and Mars. To better understand the origin of this topographic form we combine field observations, laboratory experiments, analysis of a high-resolution topographic map, and mathematical theory to quantitatively characterize a class of physical phenomena that produce amphitheater-shaped heads. The resulting geometric growth equation accurately predicts the shape of decimeter-wide channels in laboratory experiments, 100-meter wide valleys in Florida and Idaho, and kilometer wide valleys on Mars. We find that whenever the processes shaping a landscape favor the growth of sharply protruding features, channels develop amphitheater-shaped heads with an aspect ratio of pi.

  6. Study on the Late Quaternary Incised-valley Sequence Feature of the Changjiang Delta Estuary and Favorable Geological Conditions for Biogas Reservoir Formation%长江三角洲河口地区晚第四纪下切河谷层序特征与生物气成藏有利地质条件研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐振宇; 方朝刚; 殷启春; 滕龙


    依据对江苏省启东市和海门市钻孔地层岩心沉积特征的研究,结合两个钻孔83个有机碳含量样品、28个渗透率样品的测试值和钻孔周边18个静力触探孔试气效果统计,讨论了晚第四纪以来长江三角洲河口地区的层序地层特征及生物气的勘探前景。研究表明,晚第四纪以来长江三角洲河口地区LG海侵旋回只保留了底部的河流相沉积,PG海侵旋回自下而上依次发育河流相、浅海相、三角洲相和河流相、强潮河口湾相两套不同的沉积组合。亚间冰期( LG)海侵旋回只保留了底部侵蚀面,冰后期( PG)海侵旋回发育一套完整的海侵-海退旋回,底部侵蚀面为该层序的底界面,最大海泛面则发育在浅海相中沉积物最细、海相性最强的淤泥质黏土层中。研究区生物气的生储盖条件优越、试气效果好,为后期的生物气勘探与开发提供了优越的条件。%On the basis of analysis on the sedimentary characteristics of drilling cores located in Qidong city and Haimen city of Jiangsu province and test values of 83 organic carbon content samples and 28 permeability samples and gas production test effect statistics of 18 cone penetration test holes, the Changjiang delta estuary sequence stra-tigraphic character and the biogenic gas exploration prospect in later Quaternary are discussed.The research shows that only fluvial deposition reserved at the progressive cycle telophase of subinterglaciation( LG) , while the regres-sive cycle postglacial period( PG) contains two sets of depositional combination including fluvial facies, shallow se-aphase, delta phase and fluvial facies, strong tide estuarine facies from top to bottom.The erosion surface at the bottom is reserved only in the progressive cycle telophase of subinterglaciation( LG) while a set of complete trans-gression-regression cycle is developed in the regressive cycle postglacial period(PG).The erosion


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Rui-jie; CHEN Yuan; HASI Eerdun; YUE Xing-ling


    Quaternary aeolian environment researches were mainly conducted by analyzing the information carri-ers, extracting valuable evidences about aeolian environment changes, so to presume and reconstruct paleoenviron-ments. This paper formulated progress in Quaternary aeolian environment research using dune-morphological records,sedimentological records and bio-fossils records, as well as advances about chronology; presented that people shouldpay more attention to further synthetic study of multi-types of records including dune morphology, size, formationtime, sediment supply, and their relations with wind regime in future, especially the research on dating method.

  8. Climate predictors of late quaternary extinctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogués-Bravo, David; Ohlemüller, Ralf; Batra, Persaram


    Between 50,000 and 3,000 years before present (BP) 65% of mammal genera weighing over 44 kg went extinct, together with a lower proportion of small mammals. Why species went extinct in such large numbers is hotly debated. One of the arguments proposes that climate changes underlie Late Quaternary...... extinctions, but global quantitative evidence for this hypothesis is still lacking. We test the potential role of global climate change on the extinction of mammals during the Late Quaternary. Our results suggest that continents with the highest climate footprint values, in other words, with climate changes...

  9. Catalytic enantioselective synthesis of quaternary carbon stereocentres (United States)

    Quasdorf, Kyle W.; Overman, Larry E.


    Quaternary carbon stereocentres--carbon atoms to which four distinct carbon substituents are attached--are common features of molecules found in nature. However, before recent advances in chemical catalysis, there were few methods of constructing single stereoisomers of this important structural motif. Here we discuss the many catalytic enantioselective reactions developed during the past decade for the synthesis of single stereoisomers of such organic molecules. This progress now makes it possible to incorporate quaternary stereocentres selectively in many organic molecules that are useful in medicine, agriculture and potentially other areas such as flavouring, fragrances and materials.

  10. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. 172.165... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. The food additive, quaternary ammonium chloride combination, may be safely used in food in accordance with...

  11. Buried nodules and associated sediments from the central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banerjee, R.; Iyer, S.D.; Dutta, P.

    Buried nodules from siliceous sediments in the central Indian Basin are morphologically variable and mineralogically consist of d-MnO2 incipient todorokite. Compositionally they are weakly diagenetic. The sediment coarse fractions ( 63 mu m...

  12. A Review of Celestial Burying Ground in Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Celestial burying ground ,also called “Mandala”,is where life leaves and comes.A huge piece of stone hidden in high mountains is surrounded by burning plants that give up smoke going up into the air.

  13. Late Quaternary stratigraphic development in the lower Luni, Mahi and Sabarmati river basins, western India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Jain; S K Tandon; S C Bhatt


    This study reviews the Quaternary alluvial stratigraphy in three semi-arid river basins of western India i.e., lower Luni (Rajasthan), and Mahi and Sabarmati (Gujarat alluvial plains). On the basis of OSL chronologies, it is shown that the existing intra-valley lithostratigraphic correlations require a revision. The sand, gravel and mud facies are present during various times in the three basins, however, the fluvial response to climate change, and the resulting facies associations, was different in the Thar desert as compared to that at the desert margin; this makes purely lithostratigraphic correlations unviable. It is further shown that the rivers in the Thar desert were more sensitive to climate change and had small response times and geomorphic thresholds as compared to the desert-margin rivers. This is illustrated during the early OIS 1, when the Luni river in the Thar desert was dynamic and showed frequent variations in fluvial styles such as gravel bedload braided streams, sand-bed ephemeral streams and meandering streams, all followed by incision during the early Holocene. The coeval deposits in Sabarmati, however, only show a meandering, floodplain-dominated river. Late Quaternary alluvial deposits in these basins unconformably overlie some older deposits that lack any absolute chronology. Based on the facies types and their associations, and the composition and architecture of the multistoried gravel sheets in the studied sections, it is suggested that older deposits are of pre-Quaternary age. This hypothesis implies the presence of a large hiatus incorporating much of the Quaternary period in the exposed sections.

  14. Gravity survey in the San Luis Valley area, Colorado (United States)

    Gaca, J. Robert; Karig, Daniel E.


    During the summers of 1963 and 1964, a regional gravity survey covering 6,000 square miles of the San Luis Valley and surrounding areas was made to determine subsurface basement configurations and to guide future crustal studies. The San Luis Valley, a large intermontane basin, is a segment of the Rio Grande trough, a reef system characterized by volcanism, normal faulting, and tilted fault blocks. The gravity data, accurate to about 0.5 mgal, were reduced to complete-Bouguer anomaly values. The Bouguer-anomaly gravity map delineates a series of en-echelon gravity highs in the central and western San Luis Valley. These gravity highs are interpreted as horsts of Precambrian rock buried by basin fill. A series of en-echelon gravity lows along the eastern edge of the Valley is interpreted as a graben filled with sedimentary and igneous rock estimated to be up to 30,000 ft thick. The relatively high regional gravity over the Sangre de Cristo Mountains suggests that these mountains are locally uncompensated. A subcircular gravity low in the Bonanza area is interpreted as an indication of low-density volcanic rocks within a caldera structure.

  15. Dynamic Pressure of Seabed around Buried Pipelines in Shallow Water


    Changjing Fu; Guoying Li; Tianlong Zhao; Donghai Guan


    Due to the obvious nonlinear effect caused by the shallow waves, the nonlinear wave loads have a great influence on the buried pipelines in shallow water. In order to ensure their stability, the forces on the pipelines that resulted from nonlinear waves should be considered thoroughly. Based on the Biot consolidation theory and the first-order approximate cnoidal wave theory, analytical solutions of the pore water pressure around the buried pipelines in shallow water caused by waves are first...

  16. Data fusion for the detection of buried land mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, G.A.; Sengupta, S.K.; Schaich, P.C.; Sherwood, R.J.; Buhl, M.R.; Hernandez, J.E.; Kane, R.J.; Barth, M.J.; Fields, D.J.; Carter, M.R.


    The authors conducted experiments to demonstrate the enhanced delectability of buried land mines using sensor fusion techniques. Multiple sensors, including imagery, infrared imagery, and ground penetrating radar, have been used to acquire data on a number of buried mines and mine surrogates. The authors present this data along with a discussion of the application of sensor fusion techniques for this particular detection problem. The authors describe the data fusion architecture and discuss some relevant results of these classification methods.

  17. Classification of Target Buried in the Underground by Radar Polarimetry


    Moriyama, Toshifumi; Nakamura, Masafumi; Yamaguchi, Yoshio; Yamada, Hiroyoshi; Boerner, Wolfgang-M.


    This paper discusses the classification of targets buried in the underground by radar polarimetry. The subsurface radar is used for the detection of objects buried beneath the ground surface, such as gas pipes, cables and cavities, or in archeological exploration operation. In addition to target echo, the subsurface radar receives various other echoes, because the underground is inhomogeneous medium. Therefore, the subsurface radar needs to distinguish these echoes. In order to enhance the di...

  18. Compact Buried Ducts in a Hot-Humid Climate House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, D. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)


    A system of compact, buried ducts provides a high-performance and cost-effective solution for delivering conditioned air throughout the building. This report outlines research activities that are expected to facilitate adoption of compact buried duct systems by builders. The results of this research would be scalable to many new house designs in most climates and markets, leading to wider industry acceptance and building code and energy program approval.

  19. The use of HVSR measurements for investigating buried tectonic structures: the Mirandola anticline, Northern Italy, as a case study (United States)

    Tarabusi, G.; Caputo, R.


    The Mirandola anticline represents a buried fault-propagation fold which has been growing during Quaternary due to the seismogenic activity of a blind segment belonging to the broader Ferrara Arc. The last reactivation occurred during the May 2012 Emilia sequence. In correspondence with this structure, the thickness of the marine and continental deposits of the Po Plain foredeep is particularly reduced. In order to better define the shallow geometry of this tectonic structure, and hence its recent activity, we investigated in a depth range which is intermediate between the surficial morphological observations and seismic profiles information. In particular, we carried out numerous passive seismic measurements (single-station microtremor) for obtaining the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio. The results of a combined analysis of the peak frequency and its amplitude nicely fit the available geological information, suggesting that this low-cost geophysical technique could be successfully applied in other sectors of wide morphologically flat alluvial plains to investigate blind and completely buried potential seismogenic structures.

  20. The linkages among hillslope-vegetation changes, elevation, and the timing of late-Quaternary fluvial-system aggradation in the Mojave Desert revisited


    J. D. Pelletier


    Valley-floor-channel and alluvial-fan deposits and terraces in the southwestern US record multiple episodes of late-Quaternary fluvial-system aggradation and incision. Perhaps the most well-constrained of these episodes took place from the latest Pleistocene to the present in the Mojave Desert. One hypothesis for this episode – i.e., the paleovegetation-change hypothesis (PVCH) – posits that a reduction in hillslope vegetation cover associated with the transition from Pleist...

  1. Geophysical characterization of buried active faults: the Concud Fault (Iberian Chain, NE Spain) (United States)

    Pueyo Anchuela, Óscar; Lafuente, Paloma; Arlegui, Luis; Liesa, Carlos L.; Simón, José L.


    The Concud Fault is a 14-km-long active fault that extends close to Teruel, a city with about 35,000 inhabitants in the Iberian Range (NE Spain). It shows evidence of recurrent activity during Late Pleistocene time, posing a significant seismic hazard in an area of moderate-to-low tectonic rates. A geophysical survey was carried out along the mapped trace of the southern branch of the Concud Fault to evaluate the geophysical signature from the fault and the location of paleoseismic trenches. The survey identified a lineation of inverse magnetic dipoles at residual and vertical magnetic gradient, a local increase in apparent conductivity, and interruptions of the underground sediment structure along GPR profiles. The origin of these anomalies is due to lateral contrast between both fault blocks and the geophysical signature of Quaternary materials located above and directly south of the fault. The spatial distribution of anomalies was successfully used to locate suitable trench sites and to map non-exposed segments of the fault. The geophysical anomalies are related to the sedimentological characteristics and permeability differences of the deposits and to deformation related to fault activity. The results illustrate the usefulness of geophysics to detect and map non-exposed faults in areas of moderate-to-low tectonic activity where faults are often covered by recent pediments that obscure geological evidence of the most recent earthquakes. The results also highlight the importance of applying multiple geophysical techniques in defining the location of buried faults.

  2. Palladium-Catalyzed Asymmetric Quaternary Stereocenter Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gottumukkala, Aditya L.; Matcha, Kiran; Lutz, Martin; de Vries, Johannes G.; Minnaard, Adriaan J.


    An efficient palladium catalyst is presented for the formation of benzylic quaternary stereocenters by conjugate addition of arylboronic acids to a variety of beta,beta-disubstituted carbocyclic, heterocyclic, and acyclic enones. The catalyst is readily prepared from PdCl2, PhBOX, and AgSbF6, and pr

  3. Palladium-catalyzed asymmetric quaternary stereocenter formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gottumukkala, A.L.; Matcha, K.; Lutz, M.; de Vries, J.G.; Minnaard, A.J.


    An efficient palladium catalyst is presented for the formation of benzylic quaternary stereocenters by conjugate addition of arylboronic acids to a variety of β,β-disubstituted carbocyclic, heterocyclic, and acyclic enones. The catalyst is readily prepared from PdCl2, PhBOX, and AgSbF6, and provides

  4. Pathline-calibrated groundwater flow models of Nile Valley aquifers, Esna, upper Egypt (United States)

    Brikowski, Tom H.; Faid, Abdallah


    Strongly concentrated agriculture along the River Nile in Egypt, combined with hydrologic changes related to the construction of the Aswan High Dam in the 1970's, has led to increasing salinization and waterlogging of agricultural areas. Successful control and remediation of these problems requires accurate understanding of the shallow Quaternary aquifers within the Nile Valley. While extensive conceptual models have been developed by the Egyptian RIGW, published numerical models have yet to incorporate all features of the conceptual model. In particular, marine affinity of some shallow groundwaters within the valley (Cl -as the predominant anion) indicates significant leakage from deeper Cretaceous aquifers into the shallow Quaternary aquifers, a feature that is not present in current models. In this study, groundwater profile modeling incorporating the bedrock leakage demonstrates that its shallow appearance requires hydraulic separation of surficial from deep-recharged zones of the Quaternary aquifer. This separation occurs near the boundary between reclaimed and traditional agricultural lands, which is also the primary site of waterlogging. Apparently, excessive recharge presumed to occur beneath the reclaimed lands does not penetrate deeply, and therefore might be easily remediated with shallow drains. Profound similarities exist between the Nile Valley salinization cases and the occurrence of shallow 'nuisance water' in desert southwestern U.S. cities (e.g. Las Vegas). The U.S. experience with this problem may provide useful guidance in addressing Nile Valley salinization and waterlogging issues in the future. In general, irrigation-related recharge from the reclaimed lands in the Nile Valley may have a much more localized impact on traditional lands than previously thought.

  5. Soils and late-Quaternary landscape evolution in the Cottonwood River basin, east-central Kansas: Implications for archaeological research (United States)

    Beeton, J.M.; Mandel, R.D.


    Temporal and spatial patterns of landscape evolution strongly influence the temporal and spatial patterns of the archaeological record in drainage systems. In this geoarchaeological investigation we took a basin-wide approach in assessing the soil stratigraphy, lithostratigraphy, and geochronology of alluvial deposits and associated buried soils in the Cottonwood River basin of east-central Kansas. Patterns of landscape evolution emerge when stratigraphic sequences and radiocarbon chronologies are compared by stream size and landform type. In the valleys of high-order streams (???4th order) the Younger Dryas Chronozone (ca. 11,000-10,000 14C yr B.P.) was characterized by slow aggradation accompanied by pedogenesis, resulting in the development of organic-rich cumulic soils. Between ca. 10,000 and 4900 14C yr B.P., aggradation punctuated by soil formation was the dominant process in those valleys. Alluvial fans formed on the margins of high-order stream valleys during the early and middle Holocene (ca. 9000-5000 14C yr B.P.) and continued to develop slowly until ca. 3000-2000 14C yr B.P. The late-Holocene record of high-order streams is characterized by episodes of entrenchment, rapid aggradation, and slow aggradation punctuated by soil development. By contrast, the early and middle Holocene (ca. 10,000-5000 14C yr B.P.) was a period of net erosion in the valleys of low-order streams. However, during the late Holocene small valleys became zones of net sediment storage. Consideration of the effects of these patterns of landscape evolution on the archaeological record is crucial for accurately interpreting that record and searching for buried archaeological deposits dating to specific cultural periods. ?? 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ?? 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc..

  6. Late Quaternary Glacial Chronology in the Cordillera de Talamanca, Costa Rica, Investigated Using Cosmogenic Cl-36 Surface Exposure Dating (United States)

    Li, Y.; Potter, R.; Horn, S.; Orvis, K. H.


    The role of the tropics in past and future climate change has garnered significant attention in recent decades, but debate still exists over climate linkages between the tropics and the middle and high latitudes. Glaciers in tropical mountains are highly sensitive indicators of climate, and glacial landforms left behind by past glacier fluctuations provide key evidence of paleoclimate trends and their forcing mechanisms. We investigated late Quaternary glacial chronology from two glaciated valleys on the Chirripó massif in the Cordillera de Talamanca, Costa Rica. Previous studies in this highland have constrained the most recent deglaciation to 12.4-9.7 ka cal BP based on radiocarbon dates on basal sediments of glacial lakes within the cirque at the head of the Morrenas Valley. However, no studies have been conducted to constrain the ages of the moraines located down valley. We dated the formation ages of these moraines in the Morrenas and Talari valleys using cosmogenic Cl-36 surface exposure dating. Our results indicate a major glacial event ~21-18 ka, broadly synchronous with the global Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Glaciers during this period advanced 3.2-3.4 km down valley on both sides of the Chirripó massif. Our ages also suggest periods of glacial retreat or standstills ~18-10 ka before complete deglaciation of this highland ~10 ka. These results provide insight into the timing and extent of glacial events in this tropical highland that is of critical importance for reconstructing regional and global climate patterns.

  7. Valley-contrasting orbital angular momentum in photonic valley crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xiaodong; Dong, Jianwen


    Valley, as a degree of freedom, has been exploited to realize valley-selective Hall transport and circular dichroism in two-dimensional layered materials. On the other hand, orbital angular momentum of light with helical phase distribution has attracted great attention for its unprecedented opportunity to optical communicagtions, atom trapping, and even nontrivial topology engineering. Here, we reveal valley-contrasting orbital angular momentum in all-dielectric photonic valley crystals. Selective excitation of valley chiral bulk states is realized by sources carrying orbital angular momentum with proper chirality. Valley dependent edge states, predictable by nonzero valley Chern number, enable to suppress the inter-valley scattering along zigzag boundary, leading to broadband robust transmission in Z-shape bend without corner morphological optimization. Our work may open up a new door towards the discovery of novel quantum states and the manipulation of spin-orbit interaction of light in nanophotonics.

  8. A model of the Quaternary geological deposits of Bucharest City (United States)

    Serpescu, Irina; Radu, Emil; Radu Gogu, Constantin; Amine Boukhemacha, Mohamed; Gaitanaru, Dragos; Bica, Ioan


    Bucharest city is located in the central part of the Moesic Platform, in the Romanian Plain with micro-relief resulting from erosion and sedimentary processes which extended along the valleys of the Dambovita River to the south and the Colentina River to the north. The city is located in the axial area of a syncline where the thickness of the sedimentary deposits is up to 1000 m. The area lies on a rigid base is made of metamorphites, and various igneous intrusions (granodiorite, granite). The sedimentary deposits covering this rigid base are made by different phases of erosion and sedimentary processes of marine, lacustrian or continental sediments ending with Quaternary sediments. As a result, different alluvial deposits (such as piedmont, deltaic, alluvial cones, terrace, waterside and lacustrine deposits) can be met. Furthermore one also can find loess deposits which in turn cover totally the older deposits where rivers dug the present relief. To highlight the spatial extent of these geological structures, a geological model of Bucharest city is developed. A set of information coming from different sources as geological and geotechnical boreholes showing a detailed geological and lithological description, geological and topographical maps, geological and hydrogeological reports have been used to develop the 3D geological model of this region. 33 geological cross sections were defined and interpreted by using lithological and sedimentological criteria. Using these geological cross sections and prior geological knowledge, the Quaternary deposits have been described and classified into 6 structural units given from top to down as follows: (1) Superficial deposits represented by loess and anthropogenic materials. The geological model indicates that these deposits show a sporadic development becoming more concentrated in the central west part of the city. (2) Colentina Formations composed by of poorly sorted, cross-stratified sand and gravel with clayey lens

  9. A Mid-Late Quaternary loess-paleosol record in Simmons Farm in southern Illinois, USA (United States)

    Wang, Hongfang; Lundstrom, C.C.; Zhang, Z.; Grimley, D.A.; Balsam, W.L.


    In unglaciated areas of the Mississippi Valley region, the typical full loess-paleosol succession contains the Modern Soil developed in Peoria Silt, weakly developed Farmdale Geosol developed in Roxana Silt, Sangamon Geosol developed in Loveland Silt, and Yarmouth Geosol developed in Crowley's Ridge Silt. Although a fifth loess called the Marianna Silt is reported at one area, the paleosol that separates the Crowley Ridge and Marianna Silts is not well defined. Previous thermoluminescence (TL) and optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) age chronology has suggested multiple phases of Sangamon Geosol developed in Loveland Silt, but clear morphological evidence of polygenetic Sangamon Geosol profiles have not been found. Recently, a thick loess-paleosol sequence has been studied in the middle Mississippi Valley in unglaciated southern Illinois, USA. Soil morphology and analytical results revealed five loesses and associated paleosol units. Two Sangamon Bt horizons were found separated by a thick ACtk horizon, interpreted to indicate two phases of Sangamon Geosol development. This well-preserved loess-paleosol succession provides one of the most complete mid-late Quaternary loess records in the middle Mississippi Valley to date, and is important for studying the stratigraphic framework and paleoclimate and environment changes. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Micropaleontologic record of Quaternary paleoenvironments in the Central Albemarle Embayment, North Carolina, U.S.A. (United States)

    Culver, Stephen J.; Farrell, Kathleen M.; Mallinson, David J.; Willard, Debra A.; Horton, Benjamin P.; Riggs, Stanley R.; Thieler, E. Robert; Wehmiller, John F.; Parham, Peter; Snyder, Scott W.; Hillier, Caroline


    To understand the temporal and spatial variation of eustatic sea-level fluctuations, glacio-hydro-isostacy, tectonics, subsidence, geologic environments and sedimentation patterns for the Quaternary of a passive continental margin, a nearly complete stratigraphic record that is fully integrated with a three dimensional chronostratigraphic framework, and paleoenvironmental information are necessary. The Albemarle Embayment, a Cenozoic regional depositional basin in eastern North Carolina located on the southeast Atlantic coast of the USA, is an ideal setting to unravel these dynamic, interrelated processes.Micropaleontological data, coupled with sedimentologic, chronostratigraphic and seismic data provide the bases for detailed interpretations of paleoenvironmental evolution and paleoclimates in the 90. m thick Quaternary record of the Albemarle Embayment. The data presented here come from a transect of cores drilled through a barrier island complex in the central Albemarle Embayment. This area sits in a ramp-like setting between late Pleistocene incised valleys.The data document the episodic infilling of the Albemarle Embayment throughout the Quaternary as a series of transgressive-regressive (T-R) cycles, characterized by inner shelf, midshelf, and shoreface assemblages, that overlie remnants of fluvial to estuarine valley-fill. Barrier island and marginal marine deposits have a low preservation potential. Inner to mid-shelf deposits of the early Pleistocene are overlain by similar middle Pleistocene shelf sediments in the south of the study area but entirely by inner shelf deposits in the north. Late Pleistocene marine sediments are of inner shelf origin and Holocene deposits are marginal marine in nature. Pleistocene marine sediments are incised, particularly in the northern half of the embayment by lowstand paleovalleys, partly filled by fluvial/floodplain deposits and in some cases, overlain by remnants of transgressive estuarine sediments. The shallowing

  11. Structural Evolution and Hydrocarbon Accumulation of Balizhuang-Xuezhuang Buried Hill Belt in Jizhong Depression%冀中坳陷八里庄—薛庄潜山带构造演化与油气成藏

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查明; 尉亚民; 高长海; 曲江秀


    Balizhuang-Xuezhuang buried hill belt is a typical fault-block buried hill belt in Jizhong Depression. The paper analyzes the forming and evolution process of Balizhuang-Xuezhuang buried hill belt by seismic and drilling data for the structural characteristics and reservoir-forming conditions. The results indicate that the evolution process of Balizhuang-Xuezhuang buried hill belt is divided into four phases. The first phase is the development of buried hill material from Meso-Neoproterozoic to Palaeozoic. The second phase is the forming of buried hill rudiment in Mesozoic. The third phase is the main development and formation of buried hill in Early Te-riary. The last phase is the deep burial period of buried hill from Neogene to Quaternary. The tectonic events in Balizhuang-Xuezhuang area can be treated as the most important factor for evaluating hydrocarbon bearing potential in buried hills, due to their domination in oil resources, reservoir conditions, transporting conditions, trap-reservoir types in Balizhuang-Xuezhuang buried hill belt.%八里庄—薛庄潜山带是冀中坳陷内最为典型的断块型潜山带.为进一步了解该潜山带构造特征及其成藏条件,利用地震、钻井等资料,分析了其形成演化过程.研究认为,八里庄—薛庄潜山带的形成演化过程经历了中新元古代至古生代潜山的物质基础发育期、中生代潜山的初始形成期、早第三纪潜山的主要定型期以及晚第三纪至第四纪潜山的深埋期.构造演化事件影响和控制了该潜山带的油源条件、储集条件、盖层条件、输导条件、圈闭类型、油藏类型等,使其具有优越的油气成藏条件,是今后发现规模储量的有利区带,也是潜山勘探选区重要的评价依据.

  12. Landscape transformation under influence of melting buried ice blocks (North Poland) (United States)

    Słowiński, Michał; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Brauer, Achim; Noryśkiewicz, Bożena; Ott, Florian; Tyszkowski, Sebastian


    The aim of the research was to decipher impacts, how dead ice melting can influence landscape transformation in the Lateglacial and early Holocene in Central Europe. Here, we present the paleoecological results from the middle section of the Wda river located in northern Poland (Central Europe), on the outwash plain formed during the Pomeranian phase of the last (Vistulian) glacial period ca 16,000 14C yrs BP. The Wda river has a typical polygenetic valley in young glacial areas of the northern central European lowlands. We reconstructed environmental changes using biotic proxies (plant macrofossil and pollen analyses) and geomorphological investigations. Abrupt changes in lithology and sediment structures show rapid changes and threshold processes in environmental conditions. The AMS 14C dating of terrestrial plant remains reveals an age for the basal sediments of 11 223 ± 23 cal yr BP coinciding with the Preboreal biozone. The results show the existence of buried ice blocks in northern Poland even at the beginning of the Holocene proving that locally discontinuous permafrost was still present at that time. Our study demonstrates a strong influence of melting buried ice blocks on the geomorphological development, hydrological changes in the catchment, and the biotic environment even in the early Holocene. This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute of Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution (ICLEA) of the Helmholtz Association. Financial support by the COST Action ES0907 INTIMATE is gratefully acknowledged. The research was supported by the National Science Centre Poland (grants No. NN 306085037 and NCN 2011/01/B/ST10/07367).

  13. A late Quaternary multiple paleovalley system from the Adriatic coastal plain (Biferno River, Southern Italy) (United States)

    Amorosi, Alessandro; Bracone, Vito; Campo, Bruno; D'Amico, Carmine; Rossi, Veronica; Rosskopf, Carmen M.


    A buried paleovalley system, up to 2 km wide and exceeding 50 m in relief, made up of multiple cross-cutting depressions incised into the Lower Pleistocene bedrock, is reported from the central Adriatic coastal plain at the mouth of Biferno River. Through a multi-proxy approach that included geomorphological, stratigraphic, sedimentological and paleontological (benthic foraminifers, ostracods and molluscs) investigations, the facies architecture of distinct, superposed valley fills is reconstructed and their relative chronology established along a transverse profile with extremely high data density (average borehole spacing 75 m). Regional tectonic uplift appears as the major controlling factor of initial (Middle Pleistocene) river down-cutting and paleovalley formation. In contrast, glacio-eustatic fluctuations drove fluvial-system response over the last 120 ky, when valley incision was primarily induced by the last glacial base-level lowering and climatic forcing. A fragmented record of coastal and shallow-marine deposits is available for the lower paleovalley fill, which is penetrated by a limited borehole dataset. Multiple erosion phases probably related to the post-MIS 5e sea-level fall are reconstructed from the upper paleovalley fill, where a buried fluvial terrace succession is identified a few tens of meters below the ground surface. The flat surfaces of two buried fluvial terraces suggest longer-term, stepped relative sea-level fall, and are correlated with fluvial incisions that took place possibly at the MIS 5/4 transition and at the MIS 3/2 transition, respectively. A laterally extensive gravel body developed on the valley floor during the Last Glacial Maximum. During the ensuing latest Pleistocene-early Holocene sea-level rise the Biferno paleovalley was transformed into an estuary. Upstream from the maximum shoreline ingression, the vertical succession of well-drained floodplain, poorly-drained floodplain, and swamp deposits evidences increasing

  14. Hydrology of modern and late Holocene lakes, Death Valley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasso, D.N.


    Above-normal precipitation and surface-water runoff, which have been generally related to the cyclic recurrence of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation, have produced modern ephemeral lakes in the closed-basin Death Valley watershed. This study evaluates the regional hydroclimatic relations between precipitation, runoff, and lake transgressions in the Death Valley watershed. Recorded precipitation, runoff, and spring discharge data for the region are used in conjunction with a closed-basin, lake-water-budget equation to assess the relative contributions of water from these sources to modern lakes in Death Valley and to identify the requisite hydroclimatic changes for a late Holocene perennial lake in the valley. As part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Program, an evaluation of the Quaternary regional paleoflood hydrology of the potential nuclear-waste repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was planned. The objectives of the evaluation were (1) to identify the locations and investigate the hydraulic characteristics of paleofloods and compare these with the locations and characteristics of modern floods, and (2) to evaluate the character and severity of past floods and debris flows to ascertain the potential future hazards to the potential repository during the pre-closure period (US Department of Energy, 1988). This study addresses the first of these objectives, and the second in part, by assessing and comparing the sizes, locations, and recurrence rates of modern, recorded (1962--83) floods and late Holocene paleofloods for the 8,533-mi{sup 2}, closed-basin, Death Valley watershed with its contributing drainage basins in the Yucca Mountain site area.

  15. Efficient cellulose solvent: quaternary ammonium chlorides. (United States)

    Kostag, Marc; Liebert, Tim; El Seoud, Omar A; Heinze, Thomas


    Pure quaternary tetraalkylammonium chlorides with one long alkyl chain dissolved in various organic solvents constitute a new class of cellulose solvents. The electrolytes are prepared in high yields and purity by Menshutkin quaternization, an inexpensive and easy synthesis route. The pure molten tetraalkylammonium chlorides dissolve up to 15 wt% of cellulose. Cosolvents, including N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA), may be added in large excess, leading to a system of decreased viscosity. Contrary to the well-established solvent DMA/LiCl, cellulose dissolves in DMA/quaternary ammonium chlorides without any pretreatment. Thus, the use of the new solvent avoids some disadvantages of DMA/LiCl and ionic liquids, the most extensively employed solvents for homogeneous cellulose chemistry.

  16. Quaternary Tipping Points in Tropical Northern Australia (United States)

    Moss, Patrick; Dunbar, Gavin; Croke, Jacky; Katunar, Rosie


    Tropical northern Queensland, particularly the volcanic Atherton Tableland, contains some of the most detailed and longest terrestrial palaeoenvironmental archives in Australia and when combined with adjacent marine sediment records provides key insight into potential environmental 'tipping points' for the entire Quaternary period and beyond. This presentation will provide an overview of some of the key tipping points (i.e. significant landscape transformation) that have occurred within the tropical northern Australian region over the Quaternary, as well as discussing potential causes and subsequent impacts of these transformation episodes. These events include the development of the Great Barrier Reef, transition from obliquity to eccentricity dominated glacial-interglacial cycles, the Mid-Brunhes event, the Oxygen Isotope Stage 6 episode, the arrival of people into the region, Last Glacial-Interglacial Transition and European settlement.

  17. [Quaternary prevention: containment as an ethical necessity]. (United States)

    Martínez González, C; Riaño Galán, I; Sánchez Jacob, M; González de Dios, J


    The growing capacity of medicine to generate more iatrogenic events than ever, and the risk of unsustainability of health systems have led to new prevention concept: quaternary prevention aimed at restraining medicalization. Quaternary prevention is essential in the phenomenon called disease mongering, which could be translated as commercialization of disease. Encouraging this sort of prevention and halting the consequences of disease mongering requires the development of all the institutional potential for prevention, as well as all the personal willingness for restraint; it involves separating us from the unnecessary auspices of industry, being critical of our work, not being maleficent, respecting the principle of justice as managers of the limited public resources and making ourselves feel responsible for the social cost resulting from medical decisions. From this point of view, this work analyses neonatal screening, developments in the area of neonatology and primary health care.

  18. Silicon Valley's Turnaround

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph Leu


    @@ During Silicon Valley's dramatic economic growth fueled by the Internet boom and business investment in information technology, employment in the region's high-tech sec tor tripled between 1995 and 2000. The economic boom gave rise to many new firms,drawing em ployees into high-tech jobs from other regions and other industries.

  19. Red (Planet) River Valleys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Mars today is a frozen desert,but the photos sent back by the Mariner and Viking probes in the 1970s indicate its past was less bleak and more Earth-like. The images showed sinuous channels and valleys that were al-

  20. Boyne Valley Tombs (United States)

    Prendergast, Frank

    The passage tombs of the Boyne Valley exhibit the greatest level of development of the megalithic tomb building tradition in Ireland in terms of their morphology, embellishment, burial tradition, grave goods, clustering, and landscape siting. This section examines these characteristics and gives a summary archaeoastronomical appraisal of their orientation and detected astronomical alignment.

  1. Breathing Valley Fever

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Dr. Duc Vugia, chief of the Infectious Diseases Branch in the California Department of Public Health, discusses Valley Fever.  Created: 2/4/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/5/2014.

  2. End effectors and attachments for buried waste excavation equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, R.H.


    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. Their efforts are identified and coordinated in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER&WM) Department`s needs and objectives. The present focus of BWID is to support retrieval and ex-situ treatment configuration options. Future activities will explore and support containment, and stabilization efforts in addition to the retrieval/ex situ treatment options. This report presents a literature search on the state-of-the-art in end effectors and attachments in support of excavator of buried transuranic waste. Included in the report are excavator platforms and a discussion of the various attachments. Also included is it list of vendors and specifications.

  3. Heating and cooling potential of buried pipes in southern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abadie, Marc O.; Santos, Gerson H. dos; Freire, Roberto Z.; Mendes, Nathan [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Parana (PUC-PR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Lab. de Sistemas Termicos], e-mail:, e-mail:, e-mail:; Mendes, Nathan [Pontifical Catholic University of Parana (PUCPR/CCET), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Thermal Systems Laboratory - LST], e-mail:


    The present numerical study aims to evaluate the heating and cooling potential of buried pipes in three cities of South Brazil i.e. Curitiba, Florianopolis and Porto-Alegre. In a first part, ground temperatures at the buried pipe location (between 1 and 3 m depth) are calculated by both a simplified model and a three-dimensional volume-finite code (SOLUM). Then, a prototypical house and its buried pipe are modeled with a building energy simulation tool (TRNSYS) to evaluate the positive and negative effects of such system on thermal comfort and heating and cooling energy. Results show that this passive system is particularly efficient in Curitiba, can reduce energy consumption in Porto Alegre and is not well-adapted to Florianopolis. (author)

  4. Autonomous robotic platforms for locating radio sources buried under rubble (United States)

    Tasu, A. S.; Anchidin, L.; Tamas, R.; Paun, M.; Danisor, A.; Petrescu, T.


    This paper deals with the use of autonomous robotic platforms able to locate radio signal sources such as mobile phones, buried under collapsed buildings as a result of earthquakes, natural disasters, terrorism, war, etc. This technique relies on averaging position data resulting from a propagation model implemented on the platform and the data acquired by robotic platforms at the disaster site. That allows us to calculate the approximate position of radio sources buried under the rubble. Based on measurements, a radio map of the disaster site is made, very useful for locating victims and for guiding specific rubble lifting machinery, by assuming that there is a victim next to a mobile device detected by the robotic platform; by knowing the approximate position, the lifting machinery does not risk to further hurt the victims. Moreover, by knowing the positions of the victims, the reaction time is decreased, and the chances of survival for the victims buried under the rubble, are obviously increased.

  5. Buried waste integrated demonstration FY 94 deployment plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, R.A.; Walker, S.; Garcia, M.M.


    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is a program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Technology Development. BWID supports the applied research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that together form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The fiscal year (FY) 1994 effort will fund thirty-eight technologies in five areas of buried waste site remediation: site characterization, waste characterization, retrieval, treatment, and containment/stabilization. This document is the basic operational planning document for deployment of all BWID projects. Discussed in this document are the BWID preparations for INEL field demonstrations, INEL laboratory demonstrations, non-INEL demonstrations, and paper studies. Each technology performing tests will prepare a test plan to detail the specific procedures, objectives, and tasks of each test. Therefore, information specific to testing each technology is intentionally omitted from this document.

  6. Damage Assessment for Buried Structures Against Internal Blast Load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Guowei; HUANG Xin; LI Jianchun


    The soil-structure interaction(SSI)decoupling is applied to simplify buried structure against internal blast lpad as spring effect.Shear failure.bending failure and Combined failure modes are considered based on five transverse velocity profiles for the rigid-plastic structural element.The critical equations for shear and bending failure are derived respectively.Pressure impulse diagrams are accordingly developed to assess damage of the buried structures against internal blast lpad.Cornparison is done to show influences of soil-structure interaction and shear to-bending strength ratio of a structural element.A case study is conducted to show the application of damage assessment to a reinforced concrete beam element of buried structure.

  7. Bringing Silicon Valley inside. (United States)

    Hamel, G


    In 1998, Silicon Valley companies produced 41 IPOs, which by January 1999 had a combined market capitalization of $27 billion--that works out to $54,000 in new wealth creation per worker in a single year. Multiply the number of employees in your company by $54,000. Did your business create that much new wealth last year? Half that amount? It's not a group of geniuses generating such riches. It's a business model. In Silicon Valley, ideas, capital, and talent circulate freely, gathering into whatever combinations are most likely to generate innovation and wealth. Unlike most traditional companies, which spend their energy in resource allocation--a system designed to avoid failure--the Valley operates through resource attraction--a system that nurtures innovation. In a traditional company, people with innovative ideas must go hat in hand to the guardians of the old ideas for funding and for staff. But in Silicon Valley, a slew of venture capitalists vie to attract the best new ideas, infusing relatively small amounts of capital into a portfolio of ventures. And talent is free to go to the companies offering the most exhilarating work and the greatest potential rewards. It should actually be easier for large, traditional companies to set up similar markets for capital, ideas, and talent internally. After all, big companies often already have extensive capital, marketing, and distribution resources, and a first crack at the talent in their own ranks. And some of them are doing it. The choice is yours--you can do your best to make sure you never put a dollar of capital at risk, or you can tap into the kind of wealth that's being created every day in Silicon Valley.

  8. PCA for predicting quaternary structure of protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong WANG; Hongbin SHEN; Lixiu YAO; Jie YANG; Kuochen CHOU


    The number and arrangement of subunits that form a protein are referred to as quaternary structure. Knowing the quaternary structure of an uncharacterized protein provides clues to finding its biological function and interaction process with other molecules in a biological system. With the explosion of protein sequences generated in the Post-Genomic Age, it is vital to develop an automated method to deal with such a challenge. To explore this prob-lem, we adopted an approach based on the pseudo position-specific score matrix (Pse-PSSM) descriptor, proposed by Chou and Shen, representing a protein sample. The Pse-PSSM descriptor is advantageous in that it can combine the evolution information and sequence-correlated informa-tion. However, incorporating all these effects into a descriptor may cause 'high dimension disaster'. To over-come such a problem, the fusion approach was adopted by Chou and Shen. A completely different approach, linear dimensionality reduction algorithm principal component analysis (PCA) is introduced to extract key features from the high-dimensional Pse-PSSM space. The obtained dimension-reduced descriptor vector is a compact repre-sentation of the original high dimensional vector. The jack-knife test results indicate that the dimensionality reduction approach is efficient in coping with complicated problems in biological systems, such as predicting the quaternary struc-ture of proteins.

  9. Buried wire gage for wall shear stress measurements (United States)

    Murthy, V. S.; Rose, W. C.


    A buried wire gage for measuring wall shear stress in fluid flow was studied and further developed. Several methods of making this relatively new type of gage were examined to arrive at a successful technique that is well-suited for wind-tunnel testing. A series of measurements was made to demonstrate the adequacy of a two-point calibration procedure for these gages. The buried wire gage is also demonstrated to be ideally suited for quantitative measurement of wall shear stress in wind-tunnel testing.

  10. An Overview of the Geoenvironmental Status of the Kullu Valley, Himachal Pradesh, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.P. Sah; R.K Mazari


    The north-south trending Kullu valley between Rohtang in the north and Hansu in the south is a wide and open valley filled with Quaternary sediments along the main course of the Beas River. The valley in the middle is drained by the Beas River and numerous tributaries join it laterally. The tributary channels have deposited large alluvial fans at their mouths which form three distinct levels. The Beas River has deposited alluvial terraces, which are very distinct towards the lower reaches and form three to four levels. The upper slopes and high altitudinal areas are covered with periglacial and glacial deposits.The terrace, fan and hill slopes have provided an ideal geoenvironment for human activities including agriculture, horticulture, dense settlements and other civil establishments.The Kullu Valley is prone to various natural hazards, flash floods and cloudbursts that are very common in this valley due to its peculiar geomorphic condition, high relief of peripheral ridges and impact of monsoon winds. The studies carried out so far indicate that the losses caused by these phenomena both in terms of life and property are mainly due to unwise human interaction with the geoenvironment of the area. The paper gives an overview of the geoenvironmental status of the Kullu Valley and suggests the necessity of undertaking further detailed studies including resource mapping for balanced development of the area.

  11. Late Quaternary sackungen in the highest mountains of the Carpathians (United States)

    Pánek, Tomáš; Mentlík, Pavel; Engel, Zbyněk; Braucher, Règis; Zondervan, Albert


    Sackungen represents a common mode of deep-seated rock-slope failures in alpine landscapes, but proof of their temporal and causal relationship to extrinsic factors such as climatic changes, glacier retreat or seismic activity remains elusive. Based on the terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) dating of 18 sackung scarps supported by one radiocarbon-dated scarp, we reconstructed the post-glacial chronology of sackungen in the Tatra Mts. (central Europe, Slovakia and Poland), the highest part of the Carpathians. The obtained ages (∼15.7-4.3 ka) indicate that sackungen post-date the regional LGM and some of them originated soon after the glacier withdrawal from adjacent valleys. Furthermore, systematic decrease of scarp ages with their increasing altitude suggests a direct link between sackung origin and post-LGM glacier thinning. However, substantial lag (>5 ka) of some sackungen in respect to glacier retreat implies complex relationships between sackung onset and deglaciation where retreat of glaciers acted predominantly as a preparatory, not a triggering factor during the genesis of these slope deformations. They originated either as a consequence of stress relaxation within the rock mass lasting several ka or alternatively could be triggered by climatic processes or seismicity. Indeed, a significant part of sackung activity took place during predominantly warmer and more humid periods, with some dates coinciding with the Bølling-Allerød chronozone, but especially with the onset of the Holocene and the Holocene Climatic Optimum. Earthquake triggering is less probable, as the Tatra Mts. lack significant modern and historic seismic activity and there is no geomorphic evidence of fault offsets on the Late Quaternary landforms. In concert with other recent studies, we propose that large rock slope failures in high mountains seldom react immediately to glacier withdrawal, but could display temporal delay lasting up to several millennia.

  12. Quaternary stratigraphy, geochronology and evolution of the Magela Creek catchment in the monsoon tropics of northern Australia (United States)

    Nanson, Gerald C.; East, T. Jon; Roberts, Richard G.


    Magela Creek, a major tributary of the East Alligator River in northern Australia, has left a detailed sedimentary record of a fluvial landscape dominated by climatic and eustatic changes associated with Quaternary glacial-interglacial cycles. Uranium-series dates from young pisoliths in floodplain deposits indicate that ferruginisation is probably ongoing under present conditions while ferricretes in degraded terraces that flank the lower valley reveal a fluvial history extending back to early Pleistocene or Tertiary time. Inset within this older alluvium is a valley fill which, from thermoluminescence dates, was initiated about 300 kyr ago. With each glacial climate change and associated fall in sea level, distinct palaeochannels have been eroded into these floodplains, infilling later with alluvium when climate and base-level conditions were conducive to fluvial deposition. Radiocarbon dates show that the most recent palaeochannel beneath the modern Magela Creek last started to fill by downstream progradation and vertical accretion of bedload sand about 8 kyr. The palaeochannel filled at an accelerating rate, probably as a result of declining stream competence associated with drier conditions in the late Holocene augmented by the backwater effects of sea-level rise. Continued aggradation blocked the mouths of tributary valleys along Magela Creek, forming alluvial-dammed tributary lakes and deferred-junction tributary streams. From about 300 kyr, cyclic episodes of channel incision and sediment evacuation in this tropical-monsoon river valley have become less effective, possibly because increasing aridity in the late Quaternary has reduced the erosional effectiveness of Australia's northern rivers. Reduced flow regime and rising sea level in the late Holocene has resulted in the latest phase of alluvial accretion.

  13. Evaluation of the Location and Recency of Faulting Near Prospective Surface Facilities in Midway Valley, Nye County, Nevada (United States)

    Swan, F.H.; Wesling, J.R.; Angell, M.M.; Thomas, A.P.; Whitney, J.W.; Gibson, J.D.


    Evaluation of surface faulting that may pose a hazard to prospective surface facilities is an important element of the tectonic studies for the potential Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste repository in southwestern Nevada. For this purpose, a program of detailed geologic mapping and trenching was done to obtain surface and near-surface geologic data that are essential for determining the location and recency of faults at a prospective surface-facilities site located east of Exile Hill in Midway Valley, near the eastern base of Yucca Mountain. The dominant tectonic features in the Midway Valley area are the north- to northeast-trending, west-dipping normal faults that bound the Midway Valley structural block-the Bow Ridge fault on the west side of Exile Hill and the Paint-brush Canyon fault on the east side of the valley. Trenching of Quaternary sediments has exposed evidence of displacements, which demonstrate that these block-bounding faults repeatedly ruptured the surface during the middle to late Quaternary. Geologic mapping, subsurface borehole and geophysical data, and the results of trenching activities indicate the presence of north- to northeast-trending faults and northwest-trending faults in Tertiary volcanic rocks beneath alluvial and colluvial sediments near the prospective surface-facilities site. North to northeast-trending faults include the Exile Hill fault along the eastern base of Exile Hill and faults to the east beneath the surficial deposits of Midway Valley. These faults have no geomorphic expression, but two north- to northeast-trending zones of fractures exposed in excavated profiles of middle to late Pleistocene deposits at the prospective surface-facilities site appear to be associated with these faults. Northwest-trending faults include the West Portal and East Portal faults, but no disruption of Quaternary deposits by these faults is evident. The western zone of fractures is associated with the Exile Hill fault. The eastern

  14. Evaluation of the location and recency of faulting near prospective surface facilities in Midway Valley, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swan, F.H.; Wesling, J.R.; Angell, M.M.; Thomas, A.P.; Whitney, J.W.; Gibson, J.D.


    Evaluation of surface faulting that may pose a hazard to prospective surface facilities is an important element of the tectonic studies for the potential Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste repository in southwestern Nevada. For this purpose, a program of detailed geologic mapping and trenching was done to obtain surface and near-surface geologic data that are essential for determining the location and recency of faults at a prospective surface-facilities site located east of Exile Hill in Midway Valley, near the eastern base of Yucca Mountain. The dominant tectonic features in the Midway Valley area are the north- to northeast-trending, west-dipping normal faults that bound the Midway Valley structural block-the Bow Ridge fault on the west side of Exile Hill and the Paint-brush Canyon fault on the east side of the valley. Trenching of Quaternary sediments has exposed evidence of displacements, which demonstrate that these block-bounding faults repeatedly ruptured the surface during the middle to late Quaternary. Geologic mapping, subsurface borehole and geophysical data, and the results of trenching activities indicate the presence of north- to northeast-trending faults and northwest-trending faults in Tertiary volcanic rocks beneath alluvial and colluvial sediments near the prospective surface-facilities site. North to northeast-trending faults include the Exile Hill fault along the eastern base of Exile Hill and faults to the east beneath the surficial deposits of Midway Valley. These faults have no geomorphic expression, but two north- to northeast-trending zones of fractures exposed in excavated profiles of middle to late Pleistocene deposits at the prospective surface-facilities site appear to be associated with these faults. Northwest-trending faults include the West Portal and East Portal faults, but no disruption of Quaternary deposits by these faults is evident. The western zone of fractures is associated with the Exile Hill fault. The eastern

  15. Valley splitting in a silicon quantum device platform. (United States)

    Miwa, Jill A; Warschkow, Oliver; Carter, Damien J; Marks, Nigel A; Mazzola, Federico; Simmons, Michelle Y; Wells, Justin W


    By suppressing an undesirable surface Umklapp process, it is possible to resolve the two most occupied states (1Γ and 2Γ) in a buried two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in silicon. The 2DEG exists because of an atomically sharp profile of phosphorus dopants which have been formed beneath the Si(001) surface (a δ-layer). The energy separation, or valley splitting, of the two most occupied bands has critical implications for the properties of δ-layer derived devices, yet until now, has not been directly measurable. Density functional theory (DFT) allows the 2DEG band structure to be calculated, but without experimental verification the size of the valley splitting has been unclear. Using a combination of direct spectroscopic measurements and DFT we show that the measured band structure is in good qualitative agreement with calculations and reveal a valley splitting of 132 ± 5 meV. We also report the effective mass and occupation of the 2DEG states and compare the dispersions and Fermi surface with DFT.

  16. Hydrogeologic framework of the Wood River Valley aquifer system, south-central Idaho (United States)

    Bartolino, James R.; Adkins, Candice B.


    The Wood River Valley contains most of the population of Blaine County and the cities of Sun Valley, Ketchum, Hailey, and Bellevue. This mountain valley is underlain by the alluvial Wood River Valley aquifer system, which consists primarily of a single unconfined aquifer that underlies the entire valley, an underlying confined aquifer that is present only in the southernmost valley, and the confining unit that separates them. The entire population of the area depends on groundwater for domestic supply, either from domestic or municipal-supply wells, and rapid population growth since the 1970s has caused concern about the long-term sustainability of the groundwater resource. As part of an ongoing U.S. Geological Survey effort to characterize the groundwater resources of the Wood River Valley, this report describes the hydrogeologic framework of the Wood River Valley aquifer system. Although most of the Wood River Valley aquifer system is composed of Quaternary-age sediments and basalts of the Wood River Valley and its tributaries, older igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic rocks that underlie these Quaternary deposits also are used for water supply. It is unclear to what extent these rocks are hydraulically connected to the main part of Wood River Valley aquifer system and thus whether they constitute separate aquifers. Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in and near the study area that produce water to wells and springs are the Phi Kappa and Trail Creek Formations (Ordovician and Silurian), the Milligen Formation (Devonian), and the Sun Valley Group including the Wood River Formation (Pennsylvanian-Permian) and the Dollarhide Formation (Permian). These sedimentary rocks are intruded by granitic rocks of the Late Cretaceous Idaho batholith. Eocene Challis Volcanic Group rocks overlie all of the older rocks (except where removed by erosion). Miocene Idavada Volcanics are found in the southern part of the study area. Most of these rocks have been folded, faulted, and

  17. Synthesis of novel quaternary ammonium surfactants containing adamantane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Wei Guo; Xing Zhong; Hua Zhu; Li Juan Feng; Ying De Cui


    A series of novel quaternary ammonium surfactants containing adamantane were designed and synthesized from 1-adamantanecarboxylic acid.The structures of target surfactants were confirmed by 1H NMR,elements analysis and FTIR.Surface properties of these surfactants were investigated.Due to the lipophilicity of adamantane,the critical micelle concentration (CMC) and C20 values of the synthesized quaternary ammonium surfactants are lower than that of conventional quaternary ammonium surfactants.

  18. Application of DOI index to analysis of selected examples of resistivity imaging models in Quaternary sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glazer Michał


    Full Text Available Interpretation of resistivity cross sections may be in many cases unreliable due to the presence of artifacts left by the inversion process. One way to avoid erroneous conclusions about geological structure is creation of Depth of Investigation (DOI index maps, which describe durability of prepared model with respect to variable parameters of inversion. To assess the usefulness of this interpretation methodology in resistivity imaging method over quaternary sediments, it has been used to one synthetic data set and three investigation sites. Two of the study areas were placed in the Upper Silesian Industrial District region: Bytom - Karb, Chorzów - Chorzow Stary; and one in the Southern Pomeranian Lake District across Piława River Valley. Basing on the available geological information the results show high utility of DOI index in analysis of received resistivity models, on which areas poorly constrained by data has been designated.

  19. Preliminary mapping of surficial geology of Midway Valley Yucca Mountain Project, Nye County, Nevada; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesling, J.R.; Bullard, T.F.; Swan, F.H.; Perman, R.C.; Angell, M.M. [Geomatrix Consultants, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Gibson, J.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The tectonics program for the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada must evaluate the potential for surface faulting beneath the prospective surface facilities. To help meet this goal, Quaternary surficial mapping studies and photolineament analyses were conducted to provide data for evaluating the location, recency, and style of faulting with Midway Valley at the eastern base of Yucca Mountain, the preferred location of these surface facilities. This interim report presents the preliminary results of this work.

  20. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Technology Preparedness and Status Report Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blacker, P.B.; Bonnenberg, R.W.; Cannon, P.G.; Hyde, R.A.; Watson, L.R.


    A Technology Preparedness and Status Report is required for each Technical Task Plan funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration. This document provides guidance for the preparation of that report. Major sections of the report will include a subset of the need for the technology, objectives of the demonstration, technology description and readiness evaluation, demonstration requirements, and preparedness checklist and action plan.

  1. Modeling of the Uplift Response of Buried Pipelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choobbasti, Asskar Janalizadeh; Vahdatirad, Mohammadjavad; Firouzianbandpey, Sarah;


    Over the years, researchers have tried to understand the complex behavior of buried pipelines subjected to ground ruptures due to landslides, earthquakes, faults and uplift forces in shallow trenches. In an attempt to understand this complex behavior, an experimental investigation program has been...

  2. Detection of Buried Mines and Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) (United States)


    maintenance and performance of the animals. q. Biological Systems: Plants Using a transgenic plant bioindicator implanted in the annual weed Thale... bioindicator implanted in the annual weed Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana) that detects NO2 from buried land mines by changing color from green to red

  3. 49 CFR 195.248 - Cover over buried pipeline. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cover over buried pipeline. 195.248 Section 195.248 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION...

  4. Ground Penetrating Radar Imaging of Buried Metallic Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polat, A. Burak; Meincke, Peter


    During the past decade there has been considerable research on ground penetrating radar (GPR) tomography for detecting objects such as pipes, cables, mines and barrels buried under the surface of the Earth. While the earlier researches were all based on the assumption of a homogeneous background...

  5. Building China's Silicon Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Ellis Rahhal and Andrew Schorr sit across from each other in the minimalist office of their tech startup,all clean lines and white linoleum floors.A pair of toothbrushes hint at many a late night hunched over their computers.Outside the window,the sun is slowly setting behind jagged mountains.The scene is classic Silicon Valley.But Rahhal and Schorr aren't in California.They're in suburban Beijing.

  6. Green valley galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim S.


    Full Text Available The “green valley” is a wide region separating the blue and the red peaks in the ultraviolet-optical color magnitude diagram, first revealed using GALEX UV photometry. The term was coined by Christopher Martin (Caltech, in 2005. Green valley highlights the discriminating power of UV to very low relative levels of ongoing star formation, to which the optical colors, including u−r, are insensitive. It corresponds to massive galaxies below the star-forming, “main” sequence, and therefore represents a critical tool for the study of the quenching of star formation and its possible resurgence in otherwise quiescent galaxies. This article reviews the results pertaining to (predominantly disk morphology, structure, environment, dust content and gas properties of green valley galaxies in the local universe. Their relationship to AGN is also discussed. Attention is given to biases emerging from defining the “green valley” using optical colors. We review various evolutionary scenarios and we present evidence for a new one, the quasi-static view of the green valley, in which the majority (but not all of galaxies currently in the green valley were only partially quenched in the distant past and now participate in a slow cosmic decline of star formation, which also drives down the activity on the main sequence, presumably as a result of the dwindling accretion/cooling onto galaxy disks. This emerging synthetic picture is based on the findings from Fang et al. (2012, Salim et al. (2012 and Martin et al. (2007, as well as other results.

  7. Late Quaternary fluvial incision rates in a marine terraced landscape, southeastern Crete, Greece (United States)

    Karymbalis, Efthimios; Papanastassiou, Dimitris; Valkanou, Kanella; Gaki-Papanastassiou, Kalliopi


    Along the southern coast of the island of Crete, a series of five east-west oriented Late Pleistocene marine terraces exist, demonstrating the significant coastal uplift of this area. These terraces, ranging in elevation from 10 to 160m, are deformed by the vertical movements of the NNE-SSW trending and dipping west normal fault of Ierapetra. This study focuses on defining rates of fluvial incision for the last 410 Ka along valley systems that drain the tectonically uplifting area of Ierapetra, south Crete. The studied streams have a N-S flow direction and discharge into the Libyan Sea. Some of them are developed on the uplifted block of the Ierapetra normal fault whereas others drain the subsiding area west of the fault. The lower reaches of the study streams cut down through these marine terraces, which have been recognized, mapped in detail and correlated with Late Pleistocene Oxygen-Isotope Stages of high sea-level stands following the global sea-level fluctuations. These terraces of known age were used as reference surfaces in order to determine fluvial incision rates as the lower reaches of the streams cut down through these platforms. To evaluate incision rates, thirty five topographic valley cross-sections were drawn through fieldwork measurements as well as using a digital elevation model (DEM) produced by detailed topographic diagrams at the scale of 1:5,000. Cross valley profiles were constructed at specific locations where streams cut down the inner edges of the marine terraces because these points correspond precisely to the age of the palaeo-shoreline during the interglacial stage. For each cross-section the ratio of valley floor width to valley height (Vf) and long-term mean stream incision rates were estimated for the last 410 Ka. The geomorphic evolution of the valleys has been mainly affected by the lithology of the bedrock, sea level fluctuations during the late Quaternary, the head-ward erosion and incision of the channels, as well as both the

  8. Climatic response of Quaternary alluvial deposits in the upper Kali Gandaki valley (West Nepal) (United States)

    Monecke, Katrin; Winsemann, Jutta; Hanisch, Jörg


    The terraces at the confluence of Kali Gandaki and Miristi Khola (West Nepal) consist of coarse-grained deposits which are considered to be Late Pleistocene to Holocene in age. The stacking pattern of lithofacies is characterised by an alternation of fluvial and debris flow deposits. These periodic changes in sedimentation processes are attributed to climatic variations. Deposits of extended, highly mobile, braided rivers most probably developed under glacial conditions and reflect high sediment supply and high water discharge rates. Deposits of small, only moderately braided river systems evolved during a warmer climate with comparatively low sediment supply and water discharge rates. The mobilisation and redeposition of morainic material by enormous debris flows predominately occurred at the beginning of a warm period and was triggered by earthquakes, glacier lake outburst floods or strong monsoonal rain.

  9. Session: Long Valley Exploratory Well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Finger, John T.; Eichelberger, John C.; Hickox, Charles E.


    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of four presentations: ''Long Valley Exploratory Well - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''The Long Valley Well - Phase II Operations'' by John T. Finger; ''Geologic results from the Long Valley Exploratory Well'' by John C. Eichelberger; and ''A Model for Large-Scale Thermal Convection in the Long Valley Geothermal Region'' by Charles E. Hickox.

  10. Optical manipulation of valley pseudospin (United States)

    Ye, Ziliang; Sun, Dezheng; Heinz, Tony F.


    The coherent manipulation of spin and pseudospin underlies existing and emerging quantum technologies, including quantum communication and quantum computation. Valley polarization, associated with the occupancy of degenerate, but quantum mechanically distinct valleys in momentum space, closely resembles spin polarization and has been proposed as a pseudospin carrier for the future quantum electronics. Valley exciton polarization has been created in the transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers using excitation by circularly polarized light and has been detected both optically and electrically. In addition, the existence of coherence in the valley pseudospin has been identified experimentally. The manipulation of such valley coherence has, however, remained out of reach. Here we demonstrate all-optical control of the valley coherence by means of the pseudomagnetic field associated with the optical Stark effect. Using below-bandgap circularly polarized light, we rotate the valley exciton pseudospin in monolayer WSe2 on the femtosecond timescale. Both the direction and speed of the rotation can be manipulated optically by tuning the dynamic phase of excitons in opposite valleys. This study unveils the possibility of generation, manipulation, and detection of the valley pseudospin by coupling to photons.

  11. Social Networks in Silicon Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph Leu


    @@ Social network is a dominant, distinguishing characteristic of Silicon Valley. Because innovation entails coping with a high degree of uncertainty,such innovation is particularly dependent on networks.

  12. Effect of Backpacking and Internal Pressurization on Stresses Transmitted to Buried Cylinders. (United States)

    Various aspects of the behavior of buried cylinders associated with backpacking , internal pressurization, and slippage at the interface are...considered. Parametric curves are presented for horizontally and vertically buried cylinders with and without backpacking . Four configurations of statically...loaded, horizontally buried cylinders were considered: no backpacking , rectangular backpacking placed above the cylinder, backpacking placed around


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The 2-adic representations of codewords of the dual of quaternary Goethals code are given. By the 2-adic representations, the binary image of the dual of quaternary Goethals code under the Gray map is proved to be the nonlinear code constructed by Goethals in 1976.

  14. Geohydrology of Monitoring Wells Drilled in Oasis Valley near Beatty, Nye County, Nevada, 1997 (United States)

    Robledo, Armando R.; Ryder, Philip L.; Fenelon, Joseph M.; Paillet, Frederick L.


    Twelve monitoring wells were installed in 1997 at seven sites in and near Oasis Valley, Nevada. The wells, ranging in depth from 65 to 642 feet, were installed to measure water levels and to collect water-quality samples. Well-construction data and geologic and geophysical logs are presented in this report. Seven geologic units were identified and described from samples collected during the drilling: (1) Ammonia Tanks Tuff; (2) Tuff of Cutoff Road; (3) tuffs, not formally named but informally referred to in this report as the 'tuff of Oasis Valley'; (4) lavas informally named the 'rhyolitic lavas of Colson Pond'; (5) Tertiary colluvial and alluvial gravelly deposits; (6) Tertiary and Quaternary colluvium; and (7) Quaternary alluvium. Water levels in the wells were measured in October 1997 and February 1998 and ranged from about 18 to 350 feet below land surface. Transmissive zones in one of the boreholes penetrating volcanic rock were identified using flowmeter data. Zones with the highest transmissivity are at depths of about 205 feet in the 'rhyolitic lavas of Colson Pond' and 340 feet within the 'tuff of Oasis Valley.'

  15. Shallow Seismic Reflection Survey at Garner Valley Digital Array (United States)

    Lawrence, Z. S.; Brackman, T. B.; Bodin, P.; Stephenson, W. J.; Steidl, J. H.; Gomberg, J.


    The Garner Valley Digital Array (GVDA) site is a NEES-sponsored facility in a small, sediment-filled, intermountain valley in Southern California, established for the purpose of investigating ground motion site response and soil-structure interaction, in situ. The site has been well-characterized geotechnically, and is thoroughly instrumented with both surface and downhole instrumentation of various types. Nevertheless, a borehole recently drilled into lake bed sediments and deeply weathered granitic rocks that comprise the valley fill at GVDA encountered hard, unweathered bedrock at an unexpected depth, suggesting an apparent 38 meter offset in the unweathered bedrock between two wells 40 meters apart. The apparent offset can be most easily explained either by faulting, or as a buried erosional surface. The Hot Springs fault, a strand of the San Jacinto fault zone, runs through Garner Valley, although its inferred location is several hundred meters east of GVDA. To better characterize the subsurface strata, particularly the existence and configuration of faulting that may disturb them; we conducted a 120-meter long, 12-fold shallow seismic reflection common midpoint (CMP) survey at GVDA using a 24-channel seismograph, vertical 4.5 Hz geophones at 2-meter intervals and a sledgehammer seismic source. Preliminary processing reveals strong refractors and surface waves that may mask reflections, although reflections are visible in some raw shot records. Semi-continuous reflections seen in the CMP section from a shallow reflector may coincide with the water table. There are also deeper, discontinuous reflectors obscured by bands of coherent noise. We plan to present a fully migrated and interpreted CMP record section.

  16. Late Quaternary climate change shapes island biodiversity. (United States)

    Weigelt, Patrick; Steinbauer, Manuel Jonas; Cabral, Juliano Sarmento; Kreft, Holger


    Island biogeographical models consider islands either as geologically static with biodiversity resulting from ecologically neutral immigration-extinction dynamics, or as geologically dynamic with biodiversity resulting from immigration-speciation-extinction dynamics influenced by changes in island characteristics over millions of years. Present climate and spatial arrangement of islands, however, are rather exceptional compared to most of the Late Quaternary, which is characterized by recurrent cooler and drier glacial periods. These climatic oscillations over short geological timescales strongly affected sea levels and caused massive changes in island area, isolation and connectivity, orders of magnitude faster than the geological processes of island formation, subsidence and erosion considered in island theory. Consequences of these oscillations for present biodiversity remain unassessed. Here we analyse the effects of present and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) island area, isolation, elevation and climate on key components of angiosperm diversity on islands worldwide. We find that post-LGM changes in island characteristics, especially in area, have left a strong imprint on present diversity of endemic species. Specifically, the number and proportion of endemic species today is significantly higher on islands that were larger during the LGM. Native species richness, in turn, is mostly determined by present island characteristics. We conclude that an appreciation of Late Quaternary environmental change is essential to understand patterns of island endemism and its underlying evolutionary dynamics.

  17. Geomorphologic evolution and environmental changes in the Shaluli Mountain region during the Quaternary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Shangzhe; XU Liubing; CUI Jianxin; ZHANG Xiaowei; ZHAO Jingdong


    Geologic and geomorphologic evidence from the Shaluli Mountain indicates that the planation surface that formed in the Late Tertiary disintegrated during the Late Pliocene-Early Quaternary. At the same time, rift basins appeared on some parts of the planation surface, and began to accumulate fluvial-lacustrine sediment. These are interpreted as being the response of this region to Phase-A of the Qingzang Tectonic Movement. After this, the Shaluli Mountain continued to rise in several pulses. Faulting and incision by some large tributaries of the Jinsha and Yalong Rivers resulted in several rift river valleys and the earliest terraces. Generally, the planation surface in this region had been uplifted to about 3500-3700 m a.s.l. no later than 550-600 ka BP, after the Kunlun-Huanghe Tectonic Movement, and coupled with global glacial climate, and resulted in the earliest glaciation recognized so far in the Hengduan Mountains. At the same time, loess was deposited in the Ganzi area of the northern Shaluli Mountain. During the last glacial period, the Shaluli Mountain approached its present altitude and developed several large ice caps, such as the Daocheng Ice Cap and Xinlong Ice Cap, as well as several huge valley glaciers. These paleoglaciers produced some of the most spectacular glacial topography on the Tibetan Plateau.

  18. Environmental and Archaeological Implications of a Late Quaternary Palynological Sequence, Poyang Lake, Southern China (United States)

    Jiang, Qinhua; Piperno, Dolores R.


    Paleoecological data from Poyang Lake, southern China, indicate that significant natural and human-induced vegetational changes have occurred during the Late Quaternary in the Middle Yangtze River valley, the likely location of rice (Oryza sativa L.) domestication. During the late Pleistocene (from ca. 12,830 to ca. 10,500 yr B.P.), the climate was cooler and drier than today's. The subtropical, mixed deciduous-evergreen broad-leaved forest which constitutes the modern, potential vegetation was reduced and herbaceous vegetative cover expanded. A hiatus in sedimentation occurred in Poyang Lake, beginning sometime after ca. 10,500 yr B.P. and lasting until the middle Holocene (ca. 4000 yr B.P.). At ca. 4000 yr B.P., the regional vegetation was a diverse, broad-leaved forest dominated by many of the same arboreal elements (e.g., Quercus, Castanopsis, Liquidambar) that grow in the area today. A significant reduction of arboreal pollen and an increase of herbaceous pollen at ca. 2000 yr B.P. probably reflect human influence on the vegetation and the expansion of intensive rice agriculture into the dryland forests near the river valleys.

  19. Silicon Valley Lifestyle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph Leu


    @@ As we embrace the rapid developments of the new media age,competitiveness in the field of internet and computer technology is an increasingly crucial factor in stimulating new business,jobs and new industry in the region.Accelerating advancements in new media,internet,software and computer technologies offer new commercial opportunities and sources of economic revenue. Silicon Valley has been a model of the new age since its existence.While the dream place not only has a unique business model,but also has a very special lifestyle.

  20. Radar glory from buried craters on icy moons (United States)

    Eshleman, Von R.


    Three ice-covered moons of Jupiter, in comparison with rocky planets and earth's moon, produce radar echoes of astounding strengths and bizarre polarizations. Scattering from buried craters can explain these and other anomalous properties of the echoes. The role of such craters is analogous to that of the water droplets that create the apparition known as 'the glory', the optically bright region surrounding an observer's shadow on a cloud. Both situations involve the electromagnetic phenomenon of total internal reflection at a dielectric interface, operating in a geometry that strongly favors exact backscattering. Dim surface craters are transformed into bright glory holes by being buried under somewhat denser material, thereby increasing the intensity of their echoes by factors of hundreds. The dielectric interface thus formed at the crater walls nicely accounts for the unusual polarizations of the echoes.

  1. Thin buried oxide in oxygen-implanted silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spaggiari, C.; Bertoni, S.; Cerofolini, G.F.; Fumagalli, P.; Meda, L. (Istituto Guido Donegani, Novara (Italy))


    SiO[sub 2] precipitation in oxygen-supersaturated silicon was studied. Oxygen was inserted by ion implantation into single-crystal silicon. Evidence is given for a special phenomenon of oxygen blocking due to hot clouds resulting from collisional cascades. In the region where blocking is active, precipitates are formed in as-implanted conditions. A model is formulated and specialized to predict the dependence on depth of precipitate density and size. The existence of a buried region of precipitates is useful for producing a thin buried oxide. The Low-Dose SIMOX (LODOX) structure obtained provides a solution for many problems that are typical of silicon substrates for complementary metal-oxide silicon (CMOS) applications. (Author).

  2. Centrifuge modeling of PGD response of buried pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael O'Rourke; Vikram Gadicherla; Tarek Abdoun


    A new centrifuge based method for determining the response of continuous buried pipe to PGD is presented.The physical characteristics of the RPI's 100 g-ton geotechnical centrifuge and the current lifeline experiment split-box are described: The split-box contains the model pipeline and surrounding soil and is manufactured such that half can be offset, in flight, simulating PGD. In addition, governing similitude relations which allow one to determine the physical characteristics,(diameter, wall thickness and material modulus of elasticity) of the model pipeline are presented. Finally, recorded strains induced in two buried pipes with prototype diameters of 0.63 m and 0.95 m (24 and 36 inch) subject to 0.6 and 2.0 meters (2and 6 feet) of full scale fault offsets and presented and compared to corresponding FE results.

  3. Prediction of the TNT signature from buried UXO/landmines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, S.W.; Phelan, J.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Finsterle, S.A.; Pruess, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)


    The detection and removal of buried unexploded ordnance (UXO) and landmines is one of the most important problems facing the world today. Numerous detection strategies are being developed, including infrared, electrical conductivity, ground-penetrating radar, and chemical sensors. Chemical sensors rely on the detection of TNT molecules, which are transported from buried UXO/landmines by advection and diffusion in the soil. As part of this effort, numerical models are being developed to predict TNT transport in soils including the effect of precipitation and evaporation. Modifications will be made to TOUGH2 for application to the TNT chemical sensing problem. Understanding the fate and transport of TNT in the soil will affect the design, performance and operation of chemical sensors by indicating preferred sensing strategies.

  4. Imaging and controlling plasmonic interference fields at buried interfaces (United States)

    Lummen, Tom T. A.; Lamb, Raymond J.; Berruto, Gabriele; Lagrange, Thomas; Dal Negro, Luca; García de Abajo, F. Javier; McGrouther, Damien; Barwick, B.; Carbone, F.


    Capturing and controlling plasmons at buried interfaces with nanometre and femtosecond resolution has yet to be achieved and is critical for next generation plasmonic devices. Here we use light to excite plasmonic interference patterns at a buried metal-dielectric interface in a nanostructured thin film. Plasmons are launched from a photoexcited array of nanocavities and their propagation is followed via photon-induced near-field electron microscopy (PINEM). The resulting movie directly captures the plasmon dynamics, allowing quantification of their group velocity at ~0.3 times the speed of light, consistent with our theoretical predictions. Furthermore, we show that the light polarization and nanocavity design can be tailored to shape transient plasmonic gratings at the nanoscale. This work, demonstrating dynamical imaging with PINEM, paves the way for the femtosecond and nanometre visualization and control of plasmonic fields in advanced heterostructures based on novel two-dimensional materials such as graphene, MoS2, and ultrathin metal films.

  5. Planar ion-channeling measurements on buried nano-films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selen, LJM; Janssen, FJJ; van IJzendoorn, LJ; de Voigt, MJA; Smulders, PJM; Theunissen, MJJ


    Planar MeV ion-channeling measurements on 2.2 nm thick Si1-xGex nano-films buried in Si are presented. The presence of the nano-film leads to a step in the yield of the host crystal in a {0 1 1} planar channeled RBS spectrum. In previous work we showed that with the help of Monte Carlo (MC) simulati

  6. Global Earthing Systems: Characterization of Buried Metallic Parts


    Tommasini, Riccardo; Colella, Pietro; Pons, Enrico


    International Standards IEC 61936-1 and EN 50522 define a Global Earthing System (GES) as the earthing network, created by the interconnection of local earthing systems, that should guarantee the absence of dangerous touch voltages. This is achieved through two effects: the division of the earth fault current between many earthing systems and the creation of a quasi equipotential surface. The second effect can be enhanced by the presence of buried metallic parts, such as light poles and water...

  7. Nonparametric Bayesian Context Learning for Buried Threat Detection (United States)


    route clearance patrols, the vast majority of GPR data collected in the field will be free of buried threats. In current processing strategies , the large...mining competition spearheaded by Netflix , which sought to improve its movie recommen- dation algorithm [146]. As more customer data becomes person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control

  8. A method for the detection of shallow buried objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. McGee


    Full Text Available Numerous geophysical techniques have successfully contributed to geotechnical engineering and environmental problems of the shallow subsurface. Geophysical surveys are used to: delineate geologic features, measure in-situ engineering properties, and detect hidden cultural features. Most technologies for the detection of shallow buried objects are electromagnetic methods which measure the contrast in ferrous content, electrical conductivity, or dielectric constant between the object and surrounding soil. Seismic technologies measure the contrast in mechanical properties of the subsurface, however, scaled down versions of conventional seismic methods are not suitable for the detection shallow buried objects. In this paper, we discuss the development of a method based on acoustic to seismic coupling for the detection of shallow buried object. Surface vibrations induced by an impinging acoustic wave from a loudspeaker is referred to as acoustic to seismic coupling. These vibrations can be remotely detected using a laser-Doppler vibrometer (LDV. If an object is present below the surface of the insonified patch, the transmitted wave is back scattered by the target towards the surface. For targets very close to the surface, the scattered field produces anomalous ground vibrational velocities that are indicative of the shape and size of the target.

  9. Degradation of carbohydrates and lignins in buried woods (United States)

    Hedges, John I.; Cowie, Gregory L.; Ertel, John R.; James Barbour, R.; Hatcher, Patrick G.


    Spruce, alder, and oak woods deposited in coastal sediments were characterized versus their modern counterparts by quantification of individual neutral sugars and lignin-derived phenols as well as by scanning electron microscopy, 13C NMR, and elemental analysis. The buried spruce wood from a 2500 yr old deposit was unaltered whereas an alder wood from the same horizon and an oak wood from an open ocean sediment were profoundly degraded. Individual sugar and lignin phenol analyses indicate that at least 90 and 98 wt% of the initial total polysaccharides in the buried alder and oak woods, respectively, have been degraded along with 15-25 wt% of the lignin. At least 75% of the degraded biopolymer has been physically lost from these samples. This evidence is supported by the SEM, 13C NMR and elemental analyses, all of which indicate selective loss of the carbohydrate moiety. The following order of stability was observed for the major biochemical constituents of both buried hardwoods: vanillyl and p- hydroxyl lignin structural units > syringyl lignin structural units > pectin > α-cellulose > hemicellulose. This sequence can be explained by selective preservation of the compound middle lamella regions of the wood cell walls. The magnitude and selectivity of the indicated diagenetic reactions are sufficient to cause major changes in the chemical compositions of wood-rich sedimentary organic mixtures and to provide a potentially large in situ nutrient source.

  10. Tabernaemontana divaricata leaves extract exacerbate burying behavior in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Chanchal


    Full Text Available Objective: Tabernaemontana divaricata (TD from Apocynaceae family offers the traditional folklore medicinal benefits such as an anti-epileptic, anti-mania, brain tonic, and anti-oxidant. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of TD leaves on burying behavior in mice. Materials and Methods:Mice were treated with oral administration (p.o. of ethanolic extract of TD (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg. Fluoxetine (FLX, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor was used as a reference drug. Obsessive-compulsive behavior was evaluated using marble-burying apparatus. Results:TD at doses of 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg dose-dependently inhibited the obsessive and compulsive behavior. The similar results were obtained from 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg of FLX. TD and FLX did not affect motor activity. Conclusion: The results indicated that TD and FLX produced similar inhibitory effects on marble-burying behavior.

  11. Degradation of carbohydrates and lignins in buried woods (United States)

    Hedges, J.I.; Cowie, G.L.; Ertel, J.R.; James, Barbour R.; Hatcher, P.G.


    Spruce, alder, and oak woods deposited in coastal sediments were characterized versus their modern counterparts by quantification of individual neutral sugars and lignin-derived phenols as well as by scanning electron microscopy, 13C NMR, and elemental analysis. The buried spruce wood from a 2500 yr old deposit was unaltered whereas an alder wood from the same horizon and an oak wood from an open ocean sediment were profoundly degraded. Individual sugar and lignin phenol analyses indicate that at least 90 and 98 wt% of the initial total polysaccharides in the buried alder and oak woods, respectively, have been degraded along with 15-25 wt% of the lignin. At least 75% of the degraded biopolymer has been physically lost from these samples. This evidence is supported by the SEM, 13C NMR and elemental analyses, all of which indicate selective loss of the carbohydrate moiety. The following order of stability was observed for the major biochemical constituents of both buried hardwoods: vanillyl and p-hydroxyl lignin structural units > syringyl lignin structural units > pectin > ??-cellulose > hemicellulose. This sequence can be explained by selective preservation of the compound middle lamella regions of the wood cell walls. The magnitude and selectivity of the indicated diagenetic reactions are sufficient to cause major changes in the chemical compositions of wood-rich sedimentary organic mixtures and to provide a potentially large in situ nutrient source. ?? 1985.

  12. FY-95 technology catalog. Technology development for buried waste remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program, which is now part of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area (LSFA), supports applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a multitude of advanced technologies dealing with underground radioactive and hazardous waste remediation. These innovative technologies are being developed as part of integrated comprehensive remediation systems for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste sites throughout the DOE complex. These efforts are identified and coordinated in support of Environmental Restoration (EM-40) and Waste Management (EM-30) needs and objectives. Sponsored by the DOE Office of Technology Development (EM-50), BWID and LSFA work with universities and private industry to develop technologies that are being transferred to the private sector for use nationally and internationally. This report contains the details of the purpose, logic, and methodology used to develop and demonstrate DOE buried waste remediation technologies. It also provides a catalog of technologies and capabilities with development status for potential users. Past FY-92 through FY-94 technology testing, field trials, and demonstrations are summarized. Continuing and new FY-95 technology demonstrations also are described.

  13. Ground-water hydrology of Ogden Valley and surrounding area, eastern Weber County, UT, and simulation of ground-water flow in the Valley-fill aquifer system (United States)

    Avery, Charles


    The ground-water resources in Ogden Valley, eastern Weber County, Utah, were the subject of a study to provide a better understanding of the hydrologic system in the valley and to estimate the hydrologic effects of future ground-water development. The study area included the drainage basin of the Ogden River upstream from Pineview Reservoir dam and the drainage basin of Wheeler Creek. Ogden Valley and the surrounding area are underlain by rocks that range in age from Precambrian to Quaternary.The consolidated rocks that transmit and yield the most water in the area surrounding Ogden Valley are the Paleozoic carbonate rocks and the Wasatch Formation of Tertiary age. Much of the recharge to the consolidated rocks is from snowmelt that infiltrates the Wasatch Formation, which underlies a large part of the study area. Discharge from the consolidated rocks is by streams, evapotranspiration, springs, subsurface outflow, and pumping from wells. Water in the consolidated rocks is a calcium bicarbonate type and has a dissolved-solids concentration of less than 250 milligrams per liter.

  14. Integrated provenance analysis of a convergent retroarc foreland system: U-Pb ages, heavy minerals, Nd isotopes, and sandstone compositions of the Middle Magdalena Valley basin, northern Andes, Colombia (United States)

    Nie, Junsheng; Horton, Brian K.; Saylor, Joel E.; Mora, Andrés; Mange, Maria; Garzione, Carmala N.; Basu, Asish; Moreno, Christopher J.; Caballero, Victor; Parra, Mauricio


    Sediment provenance analysis remains a powerful method for testing hypotheses on the temporal and spatial evolution of uplifted source regions, but issues such as recycling, nonunique sources, and pre- and post-depositional modifications may complicate interpretation of results from individual provenance techniques. Convergent retroarc systems commonly contain sediment sources that are sufficiently diverse (continental magmatic arc, fold-thrust belt, and stable craton) to enable explicit provenance assessments. In this paper, we combine detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology, heavy mineral identification, Nd isotopic analyses, conventional sandstone petrography, and paleocurrent measurements to reconstruct the clastic provenance history of a long-lived sedimentary basin now exposed in an intermontane zone of the northern Andean hinterland of Colombia. The Middle Magdalena Valley basin, situated between the Central Cordillera and Eastern Cordillera, contains a 5-10 km-thick succession of Upper Cretaceous to Quaternary fill. The integrated techniques show a pronounced change in provenance during the Paleocene transition from the lower to upper Lisama Formation. We interpret this as a shift from an eastern cratonic source to a western Andean source composed of magmatic-arc rocks uplifted during initial shortening of the Central Cordillera. The appearance of detrital chloritoid and a shift to more negative ɛ Nd(t=0) values in middle Eocene strata of the middle La Paz Formation are attributed to shortening-related exhumation of a continental basement block (La Cira-Infantas paleohigh), now buried, along the axis of the Magdalena Valley. The diverse provenance proxies also show distinct changes during middle to late Eocene deposition of the Esmeraldas Formation that likely reflect initial rock uplift and exhumation of the fold-thrust belt defining the Eastern Cordillera. Upsection, detrital zircon U-Pb ages and heavy mineral assemblages for Oligocene and younger clastic

  15. Quaternary ammonium compounds – New occupational hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Lipińska-Ojrzanowska


    Full Text Available Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs, quats belong to organic ionic chemical agents which display unique properties of both surfactants and disinfectants. Their wide distribution in the work environment and also in private households brings about new occupational hazards. This paper reviews reports about the health effects of QACs. QACs could play a role of sensitizers and irritants to the skin and mucous membranes. It is suspected that particular QACs can display an immunologic crossreactivity between each other and with other chemical compounds containing ammonium ion, such as muscle relaxants widely used in anesthesia. They may promote the development of airway allergy, however, the background mechanisms are still unclear and need to be further investigated. Until now, a few cases of occupational asthma induced by QACs have been described and their involvement in contact dermatitis has been documented. The possibility of anaphylaxis due to QACs cannot be excluded as well. Med Pr 2014;65(5:675–682

  16. Biosedimentology of Quaternary stromatolites in intertropical Africa (United States)

    Casanova, J.

    Mineralizations of microbial origin constitute a non-negligeable part of Quaternary limestones in intertropical Africa. Stromatolites have colonized a wide range of environments corresponding to different hydroclimatic situations: travertines in fluviatile environments, oncolites in flood plains, encrustations in sebkha areas and shorelines of deep, fresh water lakes. The developed morphologies represent a complete catalogue of the microbial carbonated mineralizations: oncolites, chemneys, pool-rim dams, biocherms, planar or cylindrical encrustations. The building organisms may be either pure bacterial colonies (hydrothermal and lacustrine environments), cyanophyte associations (fluviatile and lacustrine environments) or complex microbial biocoenoses. Stromatolites have recorded the hydrologic, climatic and sedimentologic evolution of the continental environment in intertropical Africa for the past 240 000 years.

  17. Absolute age determination of quaternary faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Chang Sik; Lee, Seok Hoon; Choi, Man Sik [Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)


    To constrain the age of neotectonic fault movement, Rb-Sr, K-Ar, U-series disequilibrium, C-14 and Be-10 methods were applied to the fault gouges, fracture infillings and sediments from the Malbang, Ipsil, Wonwonsa faults faults in the Ulsan fault zone, Yangsan fault in the Yeongdeog area and southeastern coastal area. Rb-Sr and K-Ar data imply that the fault movement of the Ulan fault zone initiated at around 30 Ma and preliminary dating result for the Yang san fault is around 70 Ma in the Yeongdeog area. K-Ar and U-series disequilibrium dating results for fracture infillings in the Ipsil fault are consistent with reported ESR ages. Radiocarbon ages of quaternary sediments from the Jeongjari area are discordant with stratigraphic sequence. Carbon isotope data indicate a difference of sedimentry environment for those samples. Be-10 dating results for the Suryum fault area are consistent with reported OSL results.

  18. Paleomagnetic research on Black Sea Quaternary sediments (United States)

    Kalcheva, V.; Nozharov, P.; Kovacheva, M.; Shopov, V.


    The paper reports the first paleomagnetic study of a Black Sea Quaternary sediment core made by a Bulgarian research group. The experimental results show an important difference in magnetic behaviour between the samples from the Holocene part and those from the Pleistocene part of the core. Suggestions are made for the character of the remanent magnetization and the main carriers of it. The presence of greigite (Fe 3S 4) and pyrite (FeS 2) is discussed. A rough correlation is established between the variation of inclination for the Holocene part of the sediment and for the Bulgarian archeomagnetic curve. On the basis of the comparison of inclination data obtained from the Pleistocene part of the core and previously studied Black Sea core (related to the absolute time scale), it is suggested that the lower boundary of the Pleistocene part is ˜ 16000 years old (BP).

  19. Suggested terminology for Quaternary dating methods (United States)

    Colman, Steven M.; Pierce, K.L.; Birkeland, P.W.


    Classification of Quaternary dating methods should be based on the level of quantitative information and the degree of confidence contained in the age estimates produced by the dating methods. We recommend the use of the terms numerical-age, calibrated-age, relative-age, and correlated-age to describe these levels. We also classify dating methods by type into sideral, isotopic, radiogenic, chemical and biological, geomorphic, and correlation methods. The use of "absolute" is inappropriate for most dating methods, and should be replaced by "numerical." The use of "date" should be minimized in favor of "age" or "age estimate." We recommend use of the abbreviations ka and Ma for most ages; calender dates can be used where appropriate and yr B.P. can be used for radiocarbon ages. ?? 1987.

  20. Hydration Structure of the Quaternary Ammonium Cations

    KAUST Repository

    Babiaczyk, Wojtek Iwo


    Two indicators of the hydropathicity of small solutes are introduced and tested by molecular dynamics simulations. These indicators are defined as probabilities of the orientation of water molecules\\' dipoles and hydrogen bond vectors, conditional on a generalized distance from the solute suitable for arbitrarily shaped molecules. Using conditional probabilities, it is possible to distinguish features of the distributions in close proximity of the solute. These regions contain the most significant information on the hydration structure but cannot be adequately represented by using, as is usually done, joint distance-angle probability densities. Our calculations show that using our indicators a relative hydropathicity scale for the interesting test set of the quaternary ammonium cations can be roughly determined. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  1. Energy consumption maps for quaternary distillation sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez-Castro, F.I.; Ramírez-Vallejo, N.E.; Segovia-Hernandez, J.G.


    of the solutions space. For the separation of ternary mixtures, Tedder and Rudd (1978) presented a composition map for which thermally coupled systems allowed energy savings. However, the scenario is different for quaternary mixtures, since no similar information is available. Therefore, in this work, energy...... be generated for the separation of multicomponent mixtures. This fact is an advantage, since a wide portfolio of alternatives can be used to separate a specific mixture; however, this is also a disadvantage since a lot of alternatives must be explored in order to find the optimal one. The optimal configuration......, for a given mixture, depends on the nature of the mixture, usually quantified for ternary mixtures through the ease of separation index (ESI), and also on the feed composition. As can be noticed, the size of the design and optimization problem increases when these variables are considered in the generation...

  2. Antimicrobial Polymeric Materials with Quaternary Ammonium and Phosphonium Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xue


    Full Text Available Polymeric materials containing quaternary ammonium and/or phosphonium salts have been extensively studied and applied to a variety of antimicrobial-relevant areas. With various architectures, polymeric quaternary ammonium/phosphonium salts were prepared using different approaches, exhibiting different antimicrobial activities and potential applications. This review focuses on the state of the art of antimicrobial polymers with quaternary ammonium/phosphonium salts. In particular, it discusses the structure and synthesis method, mechanisms of antimicrobial action, and the comparison of antimicrobial performance between these two kinds of polymers.

  3. Quaternary Logic and Applications Using Multiple Quantum Well Based SWSFETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gogna


    Full Text Available This paper presents Spatial Wavefunction-Switched Field-Effect Transistors (SWSFET to implement efficient quaternary logic and arithmetic functions. Various quaternary logic gates and digital building blocks are presented using SWSFETs. In addition, arithmetic operation with full adder using novel logic algebra is also presented. The SWSFET based implementation of digital logic, cache and arithmetic block results in up to 75% reduction in transistor count and up to 50% reduction in data interconnect densities. Simulations of quaternary logic gates using the BSIM equivalent models for SWSFET channels are also described.

  4. Episodic Late Quaternary slopewash deposition as recorded in colluvial aprons, Southeastern Wyoming (United States)

    Hanson, Paul R.; Mason, Joseph A.; Goble, Ronald J.


    Colluvial aprons found along fluvial terraces of the Laramie River and Sybille Creek in southeastern Wyoming are interpreted as late Quaternary slopewash deposits. Each apron studied contained multiple buried soils, interpreted to indicate that slopewash activity was episodic and short-lived, and was followed by relatively long periods of landscape stability and soil development. Apron deposits were described and subsequently correlated based on their internal stratigraphy and their relative degree of soil development. Optical dating was used to chronologically constrain periods of slopewash deposition, and based on 17 optical ages taken from five aprons, aggradation occurred at ˜65-56, 16.0, 12.9, 11.8, 8.1, 7.3, 5.0, and 1.7 ka. Several of these events correspond with climatic transitions such as the termination of Heinrich Event 1, the onset and termination of the Younger Dryas, and the 8.2 ka event, suggesting that apron aggradation was driven by changes in climatic regime. Although either increased aridity or a change in precipitation regime could result in increased erosion of terrace scarps, apron aggradation events do not correlate with regional records of aridity. Instead, periods of increased precipitation intensity and/or frequency that occur during climatic transitions most likely drive apron aggradation events.

  5. Quaternary dating by electron spin resonance (ESR applied to human tooth enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvajal Eduar


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results obtained from using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR to analyse tooth enamel found at the Aguazuque archaeological site (Cundinamarca, Colombia, located on the savannah near Bogota at 4° 37' North and 74°17' West. It was presumed that the tooth enamel came from a collective burial consisting of 23 people, involving men, women and children. The tooth enamel was irradiated with gamma rays and the resulting free radicals were measured using an electron spin resonance (ESR X-band spectrometer to obtain a signal intensity compared to absorbed doses curve. Fitting this curve allowed the mean archaeological dose accumulated in the enamel during the period that it was buried to be estimated, giving a 2.10 ± 0.14 Gyvalue. ROSY software was used for estimating age, giving a mean 3,256 ± 190y before present (BP age. These results highlight EPR's potential when using the quaternary ancient ruins dating technique in Colombia and its use with other kinds of samples like stalagmites, calcite, mollusc shells and reefs.

  6. Magnetic and Moessbauer Studies of Quaternary Argentine Loessic Soils and Paleosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercader, R. C., E-mail:; Sives, F. R. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Departamento de Fisica, IFLP, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas (Argentina); Imbellone, P. A. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Instituto de Geomorfologia y Suelos (Argentina); Vandenberghe, R. E. [Ghent University, NUMAT, Department of Subatomic and Radiation Physics (Belgium)


    This paper is a review of the current status about the remaining problems that are found in the investigation of the Quaternary Argentine soils and loessic sediments, and the way that Moessbauer studies can assist in solving them. There are two main types of investigations that make use of the magnetic response of the samples to correlate them with information gathered by other methods. On the one hand, there is the stratigraphic and chronological research, which is of importance from the geological and paleontological points of view. On the other hand, the paleoclimatic records, of significance toward a possible model of the past climate, are also studied because of their close relation to the sediments history. However, there is not yet a model that can tell the difference between the modifications due to the climatic conditions at the time when the soils were buried from processes that occurred after burial. Some examples are given that show that Moessbauer studies can be applied with a certain degree of success when cross-checked with magnetic measurements toward understanding the processes that occurred in alluvial B (paleosols) and C horizons (loess) from the eastern part of Buenos Aires Province. Although the application of Moessbauer studies to hydromorphic processes in soils is not straightforward, there are cases in which Moessbauer spectroscopy, if applied properly and correlated with other techniques, is able to characterize the type of iron oxides existing in the materials and thus assist theories about its origin and history.

  7. Quaternary tectonic activity in NW Jordan: Insights for a new model of transpression-transtension along the southern Dead Sea Transform Fault (United States)

    Al-Awabdeh, M.; Pérez-Peña, J. V.; Azañón, J. M.; Booth-Rea, G.; Abed, A.; Atallah, M.; Galve, J. P.


    The Dead Sea Transform Fault (DSTF) constitutes the transform plate boundary between the African and Arabian plates. The southern part of this fault has been traditionally divided into two main segments, the Wadi Araba Fault (WAF) and the Jordan Valley Fault (JVF), connected through the Dead Sea continental pull-apart basin. Active tectonic studies in NW Jordan have traditionally focused on these DSTF structures and have neglected other prominent structures in the region, such as the Amman Hallabat Structure (AHS) and Shueib Structure (SHS) fault systems, which have been considered inactive since the Cretaceous. However, some recent studies have suggested a possible local reactivation of the southern parts of these structures. In this work, we carried out a detailed geological study of the NE Dead Sea Basin to analyze the Quaternary activity of the AHS and SHS based on field observations and structural analyses. Our findings have revealed that the AHS and SHS structures present clear Quaternary activity and accommodate a small part of the deformation of the southern DSTF. In the Quaternary, the southwestern part of the AHS has acted as the northernmost continuation of the WAF, whereas the SHS has acted as a transfer fault associated with NW-SE normal faults with low to moderate throws (meters to decameters) that connect this structure to the JVF. These NW-SE normal faults constitute the northeastern border of the Dead Sea depression (Jericho Valley). They produce a topographic front and separate the sediments of the Jordan Valley in the hanging wall from the Mesozoic sedimentary sequence located in the footwall.

  8. 27 CFR 9.82 - Potter Valley. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potter Valley. 9.82... Potter Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Potter Valley.” (b) Approved map. The approved maps for the Potter Valley viticultural area are the U.S.G.S....

  9. Paleoseismology of the Southern Section of the Black Mountains and Southern Death Valley Fault Zones, Death Valley, United States (United States)

    Sohn, Marsha S.; Knott, Jeffrey R.; Mahan, Shannon


    The Death Valley Fault System (DVFS) is part of the southern Walker Lane–eastern California shear zone. The normal Black Mountains Fault Zone (BMFZ) and the right-lateral Southern Death Valley Fault Zone (SDVFZ) are two components of the DVFS. Estimates of late Pleistocene-Holocene slip rates and recurrence intervals for these two fault zones are uncertain owing to poor relative age control. The BMFZ southernmost section (Section 1W) steps basinward and preserves multiple scarps in the Quaternary alluvial fans. We present optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dates ranging from 27 to 4 ka of fluvial and eolian sand lenses interbedded with alluvial-fan deposits offset by the BMFZ. By cross-cutting relations, we infer that there were three separate ground-rupturing earthquakes on BMFZ Section 1W with vertical displacement between 5.5 m and 2.75 m. The slip-rate estimate is ∼0.2 to 1.8 mm/yr, with an earthquake recurrence interval of 4,500 to 2,000 years. Slip-per-event measurements indicate Mw 7.0 to 7.2 earthquakes. The 27–4-ka OSL-dated alluvial fans also overlie the putative Cinder Hill tephra layer. Cinder Hill is offset ∼213 m by SDVFZ, which yields a tentative slip rate of 1 to 8 mm/yr for the SDVFZ.

  10. Plio-Quaternary tectonic evolution of the Northern Apennines thrust fronts along the Bologna-Ferrara section (Po Plain, Italy), based on geological observations and analogue modelling: seismotectonic implications


    G. Toscani; P. Burrato; D. Di Bucci; Seno, S; Valensise, G.


    The outermost thrust fronts of the Northern Apennines fold-and-thrust belt (Italy) are buried under a thick clastic cover that fills the Po Plain basin (Fig. 1), and have been studied by means of seismic sections and deep well logs acquired for oil exploration purposes (e.g. PIERI & GROPPI,1981). These data show a system of NE-verging blind thrusts and folds that controlled the deposition of very thick syntectonic sedimentary wedges, with the Plio-Quaternary sequence locally up to 7-8 km thi...

  11. Quaternary Fault and Fold Database of the United States (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Quaternary Fault and Fold Database contains the results of thousands of scientific assessments of faults and associated folds in the United States that...

  12. Quaternary alluvial stratigraphy and palaeoclimatic reconstruction at the Thar margin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, M.; Tandon, S.K.


    Quaternary alluvial record at the Thar desert margin has been examined using the exposed succession along Mahudi, Sabarmati river, Western India. Different alluvial facies, their associations and granulometry have been studied for palaeoenvironmental reconstruction. Clay mineral indices smectite...

  13. Structural coupling between FKBP12 and buried water. (United States)

    Szep, Szilvia; Park, Sheldon; Boder, Eric T; Van Duyne, Gregory D; Saven, Jeffery G


    Globular proteins often contain structurally well-resolved internal water molecules. Previously, we reported results from a molecular dynamics study that suggested that buried water (Wat3) may play a role in modulating the structure of the FK506 binding protein-12 (FKBP12) (Park and Saven, Proteins 2005; 60:450-463). In particular, simulations suggested that disrupting a hydrogen bond to Wat3 by mutating E60 to either A or Q would cause a structural perturbation involving the distant W59 side chain, which rotates to a new conformation in response to the mutation. This effectively remodels the ligand-binding pocket, as the side chain in the new conformation is likely to clash with bound FK506. To test whether the protein structure is in effect modulated by the binding of a buried water in the distance, we determined high-resolution (0.92-1.29 A) structures of wild-type FKBP12 and its two mutants (E60A, E60Q) by X-ray crystallography. The structures of mutant FKBP12 show that the ligand-binding pocket is indeed remodeled as predicted by the substitution at position 60, even though the water molecule does not directly interact with any of the amino acids of the binding pocket. Thus, these structures support the view that buried water molecules constitute an integral, noncovalent component of the protein structure. Additionally, this study provides an example in which predictions from molecular dynamics simulations are experimentally validated with atomic precision, thus showing that the structural features of protein-water interactions can be reliably modeled at a molecular level.

  14. Lateral groundwater inflows into alluvial aquifers of main alpine valleys (United States)

    Burger, Ulrich


    In alpine regions the topography is mainly characterised by deep incised valleys, mountain slopes and ridges. Usually the main valleys contain aquifers in alluvial soft rock. Lateral these aquifers are confined by mountainous hard rock slopes covered by heterogeneous sediments with different thickness. The slopes can be incised by lateral valleys. Numerical models for the main alluvial aquifers ask for lateral hydrogeological boundaries. Usually no flow boundaries or Constant head Boundaries are used, even if the lateral inflows to the main aquifers are rarely known. In this example a data set for a detailed investigated and monitored area is studied to give an answer on the location and the quantification of these lateral subsurface inflows. The study area is a typical main alpine valley with a thick alluvial aquifer (appr. 120m thick), lateral confined by granite, covered at the base of the steep slopes by quaternary sediments (Burger at al. 2012). The study consists of several steps 1.) Analytical calculation of the inflows on the base of investigated and monitored 2d profiles along fault zones (Perello et al 2013) which pinch out in the main valley 2.) Analytical models along typical W-dipping slopes with monitored slope springs 3.) Evaluating temperature and electrical conductivity profiles measured in approx. 30 groundwater wells in the alluvial aquifers and along the slopes to locate main lateral subsurface inflows 4.) Output of a regional model used for the hydrogeological back analyses of the excavation of a tunnel (Baietto et al. 2014) 5.) Output of a local numerical model calibrated with a monitoring dataset and results of a pumping test of big scale (450l/s for 10days) Results of these analyses are shown to locate and quantify the lateral groundwater inflows in the main alluvial aquifer. References Baietto A., Burger U., Perello P. (2014): Hydrogeological modelling applications in tunnel excavations: examples from tunnel excavations in granitic rocks

  15. The thermal regime around buried submarine high-voltage cables (United States)

    Emeana, C. J.; Hughes, T. J.; Dix, J. K.; Gernon, T. M.; Henstock, T. J.; Thompson, C. E. L.; Pilgrim, J. A.


    The expansion of offshore renewable energy infrastructure and the need for trans-continental shelf power transmission require the use of submarine high-voltage (HV) cables. These cables have maximum operating surface temperatures of up to 70 °C and are typically buried 1-2 m beneath the seabed, within the wide range of substrates found on the continental shelf. However, the heat flow pattern and potential effects on the sedimentary environments around such anomalously high heat sources in the near-surface sediments are poorly understood. We present temperature measurements from a 2-D laboratory experiment representing a buried submarine HV cable, and identify the thermal regimes generated within typical unconsolidated shelf sediments—coarse silt, fine sand and very coarse sand. We used a large (2 × 2.5 m2) tank filled with water-saturated spherical glass beads (ballotini) and instrumented with a buried heat source and 120 thermocouples to measure the time-dependent 2-D temperature distributions. The observed and corresponding Finite Element Method simulations of the steady state heat flow regimes and normalized radial temperature distributions were assessed. Our results show that the heat transfer and thus temperature fields generated from submarine HV cables buried within a range of sediments are highly variable. Coarse silts are shown to be purely conductive, producing temperature increases of >10 °C up to 40 cm from the source of 60 °C above ambient; fine sands demonstrate a transition from conductive to convective heat transfer between cf. 20 and 36 °C above ambient, with >10 °C heat increases occurring over a metre from the source of 55 °C above ambient; and very coarse sands exhibit dominantly convective heat transfer even at very low (cf. 7 °C) operating temperatures and reaching temperatures of up to 18 °C above ambient at a metre from the source at surface temperatures of only 18 °C. These findings are important for the surrounding near

  16. Remote Excavation System technology evaluation report: Buried Waste Robotics Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This document describes the results from the Remote Excavation System demonstration and testing conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory during June and July 1993. The purpose of the demonstration was to ascertain the feasibility of the system for skimming soil and removing various types of buried waste in a safe manner and within all regulatory requirements, and to compare the performances of manual and remote operation of a backhoe. The procedures and goals of the demonstration were previously defined in The Remote Excavation System Test Plan, which served as a guideline for evaluating the various components of the system and discussed the procedures used to conduct the tests.

  17. CRIA Sians A areement with Rubber Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The signing ceremony of establishing strategic partnership between China Rubber Industry Association and Rubber Valley Co., Ltd. was held in Rubber Valley on September 13. Leaders such as Xu Wenying, Deputy Secretary-General of CRIA, repre-senting CRIA, and Zhang Yan, Deputy Director of Rubber Valley Management Committee and General Manager of Rubber Valley Co., Ltd., representing Rubber Valley, signed on the cooperation agreement. Fan Rende, President of CRIA, Cai Quanji,

  18. A Quaternary Geomagnetic Instability Time Scale (United States)

    Singer, B. S.


    Reversals and excursions of Earth's geomagnetic field create marker horizons that are readily detected in sedimentary and volcanic rocks worldwide. An accurate and precise chronology of these geomagnetic field instabilities is fundamental to understanding several aspects of Quaternary climate, dynamo processes, and surface processes. For example, stratigraphic correlation between marine sediment and polar ice records of climate change across the cryospheres benefits from a highly resolved record of reversals and excursions. The temporal patterns of dynamo behavior may reflect physical interactions between the molten outer core and the solid inner core or lowermost mantle. These interactions may control reversal frequency and shape the weak magnetic fields that arise during successive dynamo instabilities. Moreover, weakening of the axial dipole during reversals and excursions enhances the production of cosmogenic isotopes that are used in sediment and ice core stratigraphy and surface exposure dating. The Geomagnetic Instability Time Scale (GITS) is based on the direct dating of transitional polarity states recorded by lava flows using the 40Ar/39Ar method, in parallel with astrochronologic age models of marine sediments in which O isotope and magnetic records have been obtained. A review of data from Quaternary lava flows and sediments yields a GITS comprising 10 polarity reversals and 27 excursions during the past 2.6 million years. Nine of the ten reversals bounding chrons and subchrons are associated with 40Ar/39Ar ages of transitionally-magnetized lava flows. The tenth, the Guass-Matuyama chron boundary, is tightly bracketed by 40Ar/39Ar dated ash deposits. Of the 27 well-documented excursions, 14 occurred during the Matuyama chron and 13 during the Brunhes chron; 19 have been dated directly using the 40Ar/39Ar method on transitionally-magnetized volcanic rocks and form the backbone of the GITS. Excursions are clearly not the rare phenomena once thought

  19. RailroadValleySpringfish_CH (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify the areas where final critical habitat for the Railroad Valley springfish (Crenichthys nevadae) occur. The irrigation ditch that is on the north...

  20. Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the extent of the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in the states of Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, Mississippi, and...

  1. Accelerating optimization by tracing valley (United States)

    Li, Qing-Xiao; He, Rong-Qiang; Lu, Zhong-Yi


    We propose an algorithm to accelerate optimization when an objective function locally resembles a long narrow valley. In such a case, a conventional optimization algorithm usually wanders with too many tiny steps in the valley. The new algorithm approximates the valley bottom locally by a parabola that is obtained by fitting a set of successive points generated recently by a conventional optimization method. Then large steps are taken along the parabola, accompanied by fine adjustment to trace the valley bottom. The effectiveness of the new algorithm has been demonstrated by accelerating the Newton trust-region minimization method and the Levenberg-Marquardt method on the nonlinear fitting problem in exact diagonalization dynamical mean-field theory and on the classic minimization problem of the Rosenbrock's function. Many times speedup has been achieved for both problems, showing the high efficiency of the new algorithm.

  2. The History of Silicon Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph Leu


    @@ Just as Manchester was once the center for indus trial progress, the microelectronics industry also has a heartland. Silicon Valley is located in a thirty by ten miles strip between San Francisco and San Jose,California.

  3. Social Networks in Silicon Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph; Leu


      Social network is a dominant, distinguishing characteristic of Silicon Valley. Because innovation entails coping with a high degree of uncertainty,such innovation is particularly dependent on networks.……

  4. Microseisms in geothermal exploration: studies in Grass Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liaw, A.L.C.


    Frequency-wavenumber (f-k) spectra of seismic noise in the bands 1 less than or equal to f less than or equal to 10 Hz in frequency and parallel bar k parallel bar less than or equal to 35.7 cycles/km in wavenumber, measured at several places in Grass Valley, Nevada, exhibit numerous features which can be correlated with variations in surface geology and sources associated with hot spring activity. Exploration techniques for geothermal reservoirs, based upon the spatial distribution of the amplitude and frequency characteristics of short-period seismic noise, are applied and evaluated in a field program at a potential geothermal area in Grass Valley, Nevada. A detailed investigation of the spatial and temporal characteristics of the noise field was made to guide subsequent data acquisition and processing. Contour maps of normalized noise-level derived from carefully sampled data are dominated by the hot spring noise source and the generally high noise levels outlining the regions of thick alluvium. Major faults are evident when they produce a shallow lateral contrast in rock properties. Conventional seismic noise mapping techniques cannot differentiate noise anomalies due to buried seismic sources from those due to shallow geological effects. The noise radiating from a deep reservoir ought to be evident as body waves of high phase velocity with time-invariant source azimuth. A small two-dimensional array was placed at 16 locations in the region to map propagation parameters. The f-k spectra reveal local shallow sources, but no evidence for a significant body wave component in the noise field was found. With proper data sampling, array processing provides a powerful method for mapping the horizontal component of the vector phase velocity of the noise field. In Grass Valley, and probably in most areas, the 2 to 10 Hz microseismic field is predominantly fundamental mode Rayleigh waves controlled by the very shallow structure.

  5. Known and suggested quaternary faulting in the midcontinent United States (United States)

    Wheeler, R.L.; Crone, A.J.


    The midcontinent United States between the Appalachian and Rocky Mountains contains 40 known faults or other potentially tectonic features for which published geologic information shows or suggests Quaternary tectonic faulting. We report results of a systematic evaluation of published and other publicly available geologic evidence of Quaternary faulting. These results benefit seismic-hazard assessments by (1) providing some constraints on the recurrence intervals and magnitudes of large, prehistoric earthquakes, and (2) identifying features that warrant additional study. For some features, suggested Quaternary tectonic faulting has been disproved, whereas, for others, the suggested faulting remains questionable. Of the 40 features, nine have clear geologic evidence of Quaternary tectonic faulting associated with prehistoric earthquakes, and another six features have evidence of nontectonic origins. An additional 12 faults, uplifts, or historical seismic zones lack reported paleoseismological evidence of large. Quaternary earthquakes. The remaining 13 features require further paleoseismological study to determine if they have had Quaternary earthquakes that were larger than any known from local historical records; seven of these 13 features are in or near urbanized areas where their study could affect urban hazard estimates. These seven are: (1) the belt of normal faults that rings the Gulf of Mexico from Florida to Texas. (2) the Northeast Ohio seismic zone, (3) the Valmont and (4) Goodpasture faults of Colorado. (5) the Champlain lowlands normal faults of New York State and Vermont, and (6) the Lexington and (7) Kentucky River fault systems of eastern Kentucky. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  6. Mutagenicity of quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmochowska, Barbara [Department of Carbohydrate Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Piosik, Jacek; Woziwodzka, Anna [Intercollegiate Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Gdansk and Medical University of Gdansk, Kladki 24, 80-822 Gdansk (Poland); Sikora, Karol; Wisniewski, Andrzej [Department of Carbohydrate Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Wegrzyn, Grzegorz, E-mail: [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Gdansk, Kladki 24, 80-822 Gdansk (Poland)


    Highlights: {yields} A series of quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties, with configuration D-galacto, D-gluco and D-manno, was synthesized and characterized. {yields} The quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties revealed potent mutagenic activities, as assessed by using the Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence mutagenicity test. {yields} The N-[2-(D-glycopyranosyloxy)ethyl]-N,N,N-trimethylaminium salts were of the highest activity in the mutagenicity assay. {yields} We suggest that quaternary ammonium salts may be more hazardous than previously supposed. - Abstract: Quaternary ammonium salts are widely used in industrial, agricultural, healthcare and domestic applications. They are believed to be safe compounds, with little or no health hazard to humans. However, in this report, we demonstrate that a series of newly synthesized quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties reveal potent mutagenic activities, as assessed by using the Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence mutagenicity test. D-Gluco- and D-galacto-derivatives were found to have a higher mutagenic potential than D-manno-derivatives. Among the former groups of compounds, the N-[2-(D-glycopyranosyloxy)ethyl]-N,N,N-trimethylaminium salts were of the highest activity in the mutagenicity assay. These results suggest that the safety of quaternary ammonium salts may be lower than previously supposed, indicating a need for testing such compounds for their mutagenicity.

  7. Quantitative Chemically-Specific Coherent Diffractive Imaging of Buried Interfaces using a Tabletop EUV Nanoscope

    CERN Document Server

    Shanblatt, Elisabeth R; Gardner, Dennis F; Mancini, Giulia F; Karl, Robert M; Tanksalvala, Michael D; Bevis, Charles S; Vartanian, Victor H; Kapteyn, Henry C; Adams, Daniel E; Murnane, Margaret M


    Characterizing buried layers and interfaces is critical for a host of applications in nanoscience and nano-manufacturing. Here we demonstrate non-invasive, non-destructive imaging of buried interfaces using a tabletop, extreme ultraviolet (EUV), coherent diffractive imaging (CDI) nanoscope. Copper nanostructures inlaid in SiO2 are coated with 100 nm of aluminum, which is opaque to visible light and thick enough that neither optical microscopy nor atomic force microscopy can image the buried interfaces. Short wavelength (29 nm) high harmonic light can penetrate the aluminum layer, yielding high-contrast images of the buried structures. Moreover, differences in the absolute reflectivity of the interfaces before and after coating reveal the formation of interstitial diffusion and oxidation layers at the Al-Cu and Al-SiO2 boundaries. Finally, we show that EUV CDI provides a unique capability for quantitative, chemically-specific imaging of buried structures, and the material evolution that occurs at these buried ...

  8. Probing Molecular Organization and Electronic Dynamics at Buried Organic Interfaces (United States)

    Roberts, Sean


    Organic semiconductors are a promising class of materials due to their ability to meld the charge transport capabilities of semiconductors with many of the processing advantages of plastics. In thin film organic devices, interfacial charge transfer often comprises a crucial step in device operation. As molecular materials, the density of states within organic semiconductors often reflect their intermolecular organization. Truncation of the bulk structure of an organic semiconductor at an interface with another material can lead to substantial changes in the density of states near the interface that can significantly impact rates for interfacial charge and energy transfer. Here, we will present the results of experiments that utilize electronic sum frequency generation (ESFG) to probe buried interfaces in these materials. Within the electric dipole approximation, ESFG is only sensitive to regions of a sample that experience a breakage of symmetry, which occurs naturally at material interfaces. Through modeling of signals measured for thin organic films using a transfer matrix-based formalism, signals from buried interfaces between two materials can be isolated and used to uncover the interfacial density of states.

  9. Full-scale retrieval of simulated buried transuranic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentich, D.J. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    This report describes the results of a field test conducted to determine the effectiveness of using conventional type construction equipment for the retrieval of buried transuranic (TRU) waste. A cold (nonhazardous and nonradioactive) test pit (1,100 yd{sup 3} volume) was constructed with boxes and drums filled with simulated waste materials, such as metal, plastic, wood, concrete, and sludge. Large objects, including truck beds, tanks, vaults, pipes, and beams, were also placed in the pit. These materials were intended to simulate the type of wastes found in TRU buried waste pits and trenches. A series of commercially available equipment items, such as excavators and tracked loaders outfitted with different end effectors, were used to remove the simulated waste. Work was performed from both the abovegrade and belowgrade positions. During the demonstration, a number of observations, measurements, and analyses were performed to determine which equipment was the most effective in removing the waste. The retrieval rates for the various excavation techniques were recorded. The inherent dust control capabilities of the excavation methods used were observed. The feasibility of teleoperating reading equipment was also addressed.

  10. Preliminary observations of arthropods associated with buried carrion on Oahu. (United States)

    Rysavy, Noel M; Goff, M Lee


    Several studies in Hawaii have focused on arthropod succession and decomposition patterns of surface remains, but the current research presents the first study to focus on shallow burials in this context. Three domestic pig carcasses (Sus scrofa L.) were buried at the depths of 20-40 cm in silty clay loam soil on an exposed ridge on the leeward side of the volcanically formed Koolau Mountain Range. One carcass was exhumed after 3 weeks, another after 6 weeks, and the last carcass was exhumed after 9 weeks. An inventory of arthropod taxa present on the carrion and in the surrounding soil and observations pertaining to decomposition were recorded at each exhumation. The longer the carrion was buried, the greater the diversity of arthropod species that were recovered from the remains. Biomass loss was calculated to be 49% at the 3-week interval, 56% at the 6-week interval, and 59% at the 9-week interval.

  11. A Quaternary fault database for central Asia (United States)

    Mohadjer, Solmaz; Ehlers, Todd Alan; Bendick, Rebecca; Stübner, Konstanze; Strube, Timo


    Earthquakes represent the highest risk in terms of potential loss of lives and economic damage for central Asian countries. Knowledge of fault location and behavior is essential in calculating and mapping seismic hazard. Previous efforts in compiling fault information for central Asia have generated a large amount of data that are published in limited-access journals with no digital maps publicly available, or are limited in their description of important fault parameters such as slip rates. This study builds on previous work by improving access to fault information through a web-based interactive map and an online database with search capabilities that allow users to organize data by different fields. The data presented in this compilation include fault location, its geographic, seismic, and structural characteristics, short descriptions, narrative comments, and references to peer-reviewed publications. The interactive map displays 1196 fault traces and 34 000 earthquake locations on a shaded-relief map. The online database contains attributes for 123 faults mentioned in the literature, with Quaternary and geodetic slip rates reported for 38 and 26 faults respectively, and earthquake history reported for 39 faults. All data are accessible for viewing and download via This work has implications for seismic hazard studies in central Asia as it summarizes important fault parameters, and can reduce earthquake risk by enhancing public access to information. It also allows scientists and hazard assessment teams to identify structures and regions where data gaps exist and future investigations are needed.

  12. A Quaternary Fault Database for Central Asia (United States)

    Mohadjer, S.; Ehlers, T. A.; Bendick, R.; Stübner, K.; Strube, T.


    Earthquakes represent the highest risk in terms of potential loss of lives and economic damage for Central Asian countries. Knowledge of fault location and behavior is essential in calculating and mapping seismic hazard. Previous efforts in compiling fault information for Central Asia have generated a large amount of data that are published in limited-access journals with no digital maps publicly available, or are limited in their description of important fault parameters such as slip rates. This study builds on previous work by improving access to fault information through a web-based interactive map and an online database with search capabilities that allow users to organize data by different fields. The data presented in this compilation include fault location, its geographic, seismic and structural characteristics, short descriptions, narrative comments and references to peer-reviewed publications. The interactive map displays 1196 fault segments and 34 000 earthquake locations on a shaded-relief map. The online database contains attributes for 122 faults mentioned in the literature, with Quaternary and geodetic slip rates reported for 38 and 26 faults respectively, and earthquake history reported for 39 faults. This work has implications for seismic hazard studies in Central Asia as it summarizes important fault parameters, and can reduce earthquake risk by enhancing public access to information. It also allows scientists and hazard assessment teams to identify structures and regions where data gaps exist and future investigations are needed.

  13. Quaternary stratigraphy and palaeogeography of Poland (United States)

    Marks, Leszek; Dzierżek, Jan; Janiszewski, Robert; Kaczorowski, Jarosław; Lindner, Leszek; Majecka, Aleksandra; Makos, Michał; Szymanek, Marcin; Tołoczko-Pasek, Anna; Woronko, Barbara


    Though the stratigraphical and palaeogeographical framework of the Quaternary in Poland is still to be completed, several crucial points have been confirmed recently. The preglacial series, accepted for years as belonging to the Lower Pleistocene, is undoubtedly of Early Pliocene age, with a huge hiatus above almost until the uppermost Lower Pleistocene. The earliest glaciation in Poland (Nidanian) occurred at about 900 ka BP when the ice sheet reached the mid-southern part of the country. The following Podlasian Interglacial embraced the Brunhes/Matuyama boundary in the middle, in a similar fashion to the corresponding Cromerian Complex in Western Europe. The late Early and early Middle Pleistocene interglacials in Poland comprised 2-3 optima each, whereas every one of the younger interglacials was characterised by a single optimum only. The Late Vistulian ice sheet was most extensive in the western part of Poland (Leszno Phase) whereas the younger Poznań Phase was more extensive in the central and eastern part of the country. This was due to the varied distance from the glaciation center in Scandinavia, making the ice sheet margin reach a terminal position in different times. Palaeoclimatological research in the Tatra Mountains has provided new evidence for the atmospheric circulation over Europe. During cold phases of the Pleistocene in Poland a continental climate extended further westwards, quite the opposite that occurring during warmer intervals.

  14. A Quaternary Fault Database for Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mohadjer


    Full Text Available Earthquakes represent the highest risk in terms of potential loss of lives and economic damage for Central Asian countries. Knowledge of fault location and behavior is essential in calculating and mapping seismic hazard. Previous efforts in compiling fault information for Central Asia have generated a large amount of data that are published in limited-access journals with no digital maps publicly available, or are limited in their description of important fault parameters such as slip rates. This study builds on previous work by improving access to fault information through a web-based interactive map and an online database with search capabilities that allow users to organize data by different fields. The data presented in this compilation include fault location, its geographic, seismic and structural characteristics, short descriptions, narrative comments and references to peer-reviewed publications. The interactive map displays 1196 fault segments and 34 000 earthquake locations on a shaded-relief map. The online database contains attributes for 122 faults mentioned in the literature, with Quaternary and geodetic slip rates reported for 38 and 26 faults respectively, and earthquake history reported for 39 faults. This work has implications for seismic hazard studies in Central Asia as it summarizes important fault parameters, and can reduce earthquake risk by enhancing public access to information. It also allows scientists and hazard assessment teams to identify structures and regions where data gaps exist and future investigations are needed.

  15. Quaternary history of the White Nile (United States)

    williams, martin


    The White Nile only joined the Blue Nile ~0.3 Ma ago. It provides much of the low water discharge to the Nile. Without this contribution, in very dry years the Nile would dry up during the winter months. Owing to its very gentle flood gradient of 1: 100,000, the White Nile has an unusually complete alluvial record. High White Nile flood levels dated by OSL are synchronous with sapropel units S8, S7, S6, S5 and S1 in the East Mediterranean, which have astronomical ages of 217, 195, 172, 124 and 8 ka, respectively. Blue Nile palaeochannels that flow into the former White Nile complete the flood record, and coincide with sapropel units S4, S3 and S2, with respective ages of 102, 81 and 55 ka. The two most recent phases of very high White Nile flow were marked by widespread flooding across the lower White Nile valley during the last interglacial and the terminal Pleistocene - the latter coinciding with the abrupt return of the summer monsoon at 14.5 ka and the synchronous onset of humid conditions across the Sahara and East Africa, which ended suddenly at 5 ka, when desiccation set in. This humid phase was not uniformly wet; nor was the late Holocene uniformly dry. High White Nile flood levels have calibrated radiocarbon ages of 14.7-13.1, 9.7-9.0, 7.9-7.6, 6.3 and 3.2-2.8 ka obtained on freshwater gastropod shells. It was during these times that the White Nile valley was occupied successively by Mesolithic, Neolithic and Meroitic societies. West of the lower White Nile shallow ponds fed by local runoff supported an abundant gastropod fauna between 9.9 and 7.6 ka, with peak wetness at 9.0-8.4 ka, coeval with Mesolithic barbed bone harpoon sites east of the lower White Nile. The drier intervals recorded in the White Nile valley appear to coincide with times of polar cooling and more widespread tropical aridity.

  16. Shallow seismic and geomorphic expression of buried wave-cut terrace and erosional valleys off Redi, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subbaraju, L.V.; Wagle, B.G.

    stream_size 6 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Coast_Res_12_205.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Coast_Res_12_205.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  17. Morphotectonic, Quaternary and Structural Geology Analyses of the Shallow Geometry of the Mw 6.1, 2009 L'Aquila Earthquake Fault (central Italy): A Missed Opportunity for Surface Faulting Prevention. (United States)

    Pucci, S.; Villani, F.; Civico, R.; Pantosti, D.; Smedile, A.; De Martini, P. M.; Di Naccio, D.; Gueli, A.


    The surface-rupturing 2009 L'Aquila earthquake evidenced the limited knowledge of active faults in the Middle Aterno Valley area. Gaps in detailed mapping of Quaternary deposits and tectonic landforms did not trigger researches on active faults, but after the tragic event. We present a morphotectonic study of geometry and evolution of the activated fault system (Paganica-San Demetrio, PSDFS). The LIDAR analysis and field survey yield to a new geological and structural map of the area with an unprecedented detail for the Quaternary deposits. It shows an alluvial depositional system prograding and migrating due to fault system evolution. The normal faults offset both the Quaternary deposits and the bedrock. The structural analysis allows us to recognize two fault systems: (A) NNE- and WNW-trending conjugate extensional system overprinting a strike-slip kinematics and (B) dip-slip NW-trending system. Crosscut relationship suggests that the activity of system B prevails, since Early Pleistocene, on system A, which earlier may have controlled a differently shaped basin. System B is the main responsible for the present-day compound outline of the Middle Aterno Valley, while system A major splays now act as segment boundaries. The long-term expression of B results in prominent fault scarps offsetting Quaternary deposits, dissecting erosional and depositional flat landforms. We retrieved detailed morphologic throws along fault scarps and we dated landforms by 14C, OSL (Optically Stimulated Luminescence), CRN (Cosmogenic Radionuclide) and tephra chronology. We show the persistent role of extensional faulting in dominating Quaternary landform evolution and we estimate slip-rate of the PSDFS at different time-scales. The results support repeated activity of PSDFS for ~20 km total length, thus implying M6.6 maximum expected earthquake. Such an approach should have been applied beforehand for the actual hazard estimation, to trigger, early enough, the adoption of precautionary

  18. Valley blockade quantum switching in Silicon nanostructures. (United States)

    Prati, Enrico


    In analogy to the Coulomb and the Pauli spin blockade, based on the electrostatic repulsion and the Pauli exclusion principle respectively, the concept of valley blockade in Silicon nanostructures is explored. The valley parity operator is defined. Valley blockade is determined by the parity conservation of valley composition eigenvectors in quantum transport. A Silicon quantum changeover switch based on a triple of donor quantum dots capable to separate electrons having opposite valley parity by virtue of the valley parity conservation is proposed. The quantum changeover switch represents a novel kind of hybrid quantum based classical logic device.

  19. Groundwater quality in the Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley groundwater basins, California (United States)

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth


    The Monterey-Salinas study unit is nearly 1,000 square miles and consists of the Santa Cruz Purisima Formation Highlands, Felton Area, Scotts Valley, Soquel Valley, West Santa Cruz Terrace, Salinas Valley, Pajaro Valley, and Carmel Valley groundwater basins (California Department of Water Resources, 2003; Kulongski and Belitz, 2011). These basins were grouped into four study areas based primarily on geography. Groundwater basins in the north were grouped into the Santa Cruz study area, and those to the south were grouped into the Monterey Bay, the Salinas Valley, and the Paso Robles study areas (Kulongoski and others, 2007). The study unit has warm, dry summers and cool, moist winters. Average annual rainfall ranges from 31 inches in Santa Cruz in the north to 13 inches in Paso Robles in the south. The study areas are drained by several rivers and their principal tributaries: the Salinas, Pajaro, and Carmel Rivers, and San Lorenzo Creek. The Salinas Valley is a large intermontane valley that extends southeastward from Monterey Bay to Paso Robles. It has been filled, up to a thickness of 2,000 feet, with Tertiary and Quaternary marine and terrestrial sediments that overlie granitic basement. The Miocene-age Monterey Formation and Pliocene- to Pleistocene-age Paso Robles Formation, and Pleistocene to Holocene-age alluvium contain freshwater used for supply. The primary aquifers in the study unit are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells are typically drilled to depths of 200 to 650 feet, consist of solid casing from the land surface to depths of about 175 to 500 feet, and are perforated below the solid casing. Water quality in the primary aquifers may differ from that in the shallower and deeper parts of the aquifer system. Groundwater movement is generally from the southern part of the Salinas Valley north towards the Monterey Bay

  20. Quaternary geomorphological evolution of the Kunlun Pass area and uplift of the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau (United States)

    Wu, Yongqiu; Cui, Zhijiu; Liu, Gengnian; Ge, Daokai; Yin, Jiarun; Xu, Qinghai; Pang, Qiqing


    There is a set of Late Cenozoic sediments in the Kunlun Pass area, Tibetan Plateau, China. Paleomagnetic, ESR and TL dating suggest that they date from the Late Pliocene to the Early Pleistocene. Analyses of stratigraphy, sedimentary characteristic, and evolution of the fauna and flora indicate that, from the Pliocene to the early Quaternary (about 5-1.1 Ma BP), there was a relatively warm and humid environment, and a paleolake occurred around the Kunlun Pass. The elevation of the Kunlun Pass area was no more than 1500 m, and only one low topographic divide existed between the Qaidam Basin and the Kunlun Pass Basin. The geomorphic pattern in the Kunlun Pass area was influenced by the Kunlun-Yellow River Tectonic Movement 1.1-0.6 Ma BP. The Wangkun Glaciation (0.7-0.5 Ma) is the maximum Quaternary glaciation in the Pass and in other areas of the Plateau. During the glaciation, the area of the glaciers was 3-5 times larger than that of the present glacier in the Pass area. There was no Xidatan Valley that time. The extreme geomorphic changes in the Kunlun Pass area reflect an abrupt uplift of the Tibet Plateau during the Early and Middle Pleistocene. This uplift of the Plateau has significance on both the Plateau itself and the surrounding area.

  1. Quaternary Evolution of Karliova Triple Junction (United States)

    Sançar, Taylan; Zabcı, Cengiz; Akyüz, H. Serdar


    The arguments to explain Quaternary evolution of Karlıova Triple Junction (KTJ) depends upon two different analogue models. The compressional type of Prandtl Cell Model (PCM) and 60 km wide shear zone with concomitant counter clockwise block rotation used to modelled for west and east of the KTJ respectively. The data for the model of west of the KTJ acquired by extensive field studies, and quantified geomorphic features. Compressional PCM put forward that behavior of slip lines controlled by boundary faults. But the model is not enough to explain slip distribution, age relation of them. At west of the KTJ boundary faults presented by eastern most segments of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) and the East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ). Slip lines, however, presented by Bahçeli and Toklular faults. Both field studies and morphometric analyses undisputedly set forth that there are two different fault types between the NAFZ and EAFZ. The most strain loaded fault type, which are positioned near the NAFZ, start as a strike-slip fault and when it turn to SE its sense of motion change to oblique normal due to changing orientation of principal stress axes. The new orientation of stress axes exposed in the field as a special kind of caprock -cuesta-. The younger slip lines formed very close to junction point and accommodate less slip. Even though slip trajectories started from the boundary faults in compressional PCM, at the west of KTJ, right lateral trajectories more clearly formed close the NAFZ and left lateral trajectories, relatively less strain loaded fault type, are poorly formed close the EAFZ . We think that, this differences between KTJ and compressional PCM result from the distinction of velocity of boundary faults. East of the KTJ governed by completely different mechanism. The region controlled two main fault systems. The Varto Fault Zone (VFZ), the eastern branch of the KTJ, and Murat Fault (MF) delimited the region from north and south respectively. The

  2. The isotope hydrology of Quaternary climate change. (United States)

    Darling, W G


    Understanding the links between climate change and human migration and culture is an important theme in Quaternary archaeology. While oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopes in high-latitude ice cores provide the ultimate detailed record of palaeoclimate extending back to the Middle Pleistocene, groundwater can act as a climate archive for areas at lower latitudes, permitting a degree of calibration for proxy records such as lake sediments, bones, and organic matter. Not only can oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopes be measured on waters, but the temperature of recharge can be calculated from the amount of the atmospheric noble gases neon, argon, krypton, and xenon in solution, while residence time can be estimated from the decay of the radioisotopes carbon-14, chlorine-36, and krypton-81 over timescales comparable to the ice core record. The Pleistocene-Holocene transition is well characterised in aquifers worldwide, and it is apparent that isotope-temperature relationships of the present day are not necessarily transferable to past climatic regimes, with important implications for the interpretation of proxy isotope data. Groundwaters dating back to one million years, i.e., to beyond the Middle Pleistocene, are only found in major aquifer basins and information is relatively sparse and of low resolution. Speleothem fluid inclusions offer a way of considerably increasing this resolution, but both speleothem formation and large-scale groundwater recharge requires humid conditions, which may be relatively infrequent for areas currently experiencing arid climates. Both types of record therefore require caution in their interpretation when considering a particular archaeological context.

  3. Measure Guideline: Buried and/or Encapsulated Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, C. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Zoeller, W. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Mantha, P. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)


    Buried and/or encapsulated ducts (BEDs) are a class of advanced, energy-efficiency strategies intended to address the significant ductwork thermal losses associated with ducts installed in unconditioned attics. BEDs are ducts installed in unconditioned attics that are covered in loose-fill insulation and/or encapsulated in closed cell polyurethane spray foam insulation. This Measure Guideline covers the technical aspects of BEDs as well as the advantages, disadvantages, and risks of BEDs compared to other alternative strategies. This guideline also provides detailed guidance on installation of BEDs strategies in new and existing homes through step-by-step installation procedures. Some of the procedures presented here, however, require specialized equipment or expertise. In addition, some alterations to duct systems may require a specialized license.

  4. A Natural Seismic Isolating System: The Buried Mangrove Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Gueguen, Philippe; Foray, Pierre; Rousseau, Christophe; Maury, Julie; 10.1785/0120100129


    The Belleplaine test site, located in the island of Guadeloupe (French Lesser Antilles) includes a three-accelerometer vertical array, designed for liquefac- tion studies. The seismic response of the soil column at the test site is computed using three methods: the spectral ratio method using the vertical array data, a numerical method using the geotechnical properties of the soil column, and an operative fre- quency domain decomposition (FDD) modal analysis method. The Belleplaine test site is characterized by a mangrove layer overlaid by a stiff sandy deposit. This con- figuration is widely found at the border coast of the Caribbean region, which is exposed to high seismic hazard. We show that the buried mangrove layer plays the role of an isolation system equivalent to those usually employed in earthquake engineering aimed at reducing the seismic shear forces by reducing the internal stress within the structure. In our case, the flexibility of the mangrove layer reduces the distortion and the stress in the...

  5. Bryophytes of beach forests in Chon Buri Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phiangphak Sukkharak


    Full Text Available An investigation of bryophyte diversity of three beach forests including Had Tung Prong, Had Tein Talay, and the beach forest in Thai Island and Sea Natural History Museum in Chon Buri Province, Thailand, was carried out. From 137 enumerated specimens, 16 species (6 mosses, 10 liverworts in 12 genera (5 mosses, 7 liverworts and eight families (5 mosses, 3 liverworts were found. Among those the most common families of mosses are Fissidentaceae (2 species and the most common families of liverwort are Lejeuneaceae (8 species. A comparison of species richness among the three areas revealed that the highest species richness of bryophytes was found in Had Tung Prong. Moreover, of all bryophyte species found, Weissia edentula Mitt. was the most common one.

  6. Retrieval of Shape Characteristics for Buried Objects with GPR Monitoring (United States)

    Soldovieri, F.; Comite, D.; Galli, A.; Valerio, G.; Barone, P. M.; Lauro, S. E.; Mattei, E.; Pettinelli, E.


    Information retrieval on the location and the geometrical features (dimensions and shape) of buried objects is of fundamental importance in geosciences areas involving environmental protection, mine clearance, archaeological investigations, space and planetary exploration, and so forth. Among the different non-invasive sensing techniques usually employed to achieve this kind of information, those based on ground-penetrating-radar (GPR) instruments are well-established and suitable to the mentioned purposes [1]. In this context, our interest in the present work is specifically focused on testing the potential performance of typical GPR instruments by means of appropriate data processing. It will be shown in particular to what extent the use of a suitable "microwave tomographic approach" [2] is able to furnish a shape estimation of the targets, possibly recognizing different kinds of canonical geometries, even having reduced cross sections and in critical conditions, where the scatterer size is comparable with resolution limits imposed by the usual measurement configurations. Our study starts by obtaining the typical "direct" information from the GPR techniques that is the scattered field in subsurface environments under the form of radargrams. In order to get a wide variety of scenarios for the operating conditions, this goal is achieved by means of two different and independent approaches [3]. One approach is based on direct measurements through an experimental laboratory setup: commercial GPR instruments (typically bistatic configurations operating around 1 GHz frequency range) are used to collect radargram profiles by investigating an artificial basin filled of liquid and/or granular materials (sand, etc.), in which targets (having different constitutive parameters, shape, and dimensions) can be buried. The other approach is based on numerical GPR simulations by means of a commercial CAD electromagnetic tool (CST), whose suitable implementation and data

  7. SEM based overlay measurement between resist and buried patterns (United States)

    Inoue, Osamu; Okagawa, Yutaka; Hasumi, Kazuhisa; Shao, Chuanyu; Leray, Philippe; Lorusso, Gian; Baudemprez, Bart


    With the continuous shrink in pattern size and increased density, overlay control has become one of the most critical issues in semiconductor manufacturing. Recently, SEM based overlay of AEI (After Etch Inspection) wafer has been used for reference and optimization of optical overlay (both Image Based Overlay (IBO) and Diffraction Based Overlay (DBO)). Overlay measurement at AEI stage contributes monitor and forecast the yield after formation by etch and calibrate optical measurement tools. however those overlay value seems difficult directly for feedback to a scanner. Therefore, there is a clear need to have SEM based overlay measurements of ADI (After Develop Inspection) wafers in order to serve as reference for optical overlay and make necessary corrections before wafers go to etch. Furthermore, to make the corrections as accurate as possible, actual device like feature dimensions need to be measured post ADI. This device size measurement is very unique feature of CDSEM , which can be measured with smaller area. This is currently possible only with the CD-SEM. This device size measurement is very unique feature of CD-SEM , which can be measured with smaller area. In this study, we assess SEM based overlay measurement of ADI and AEI wafer by using a sample from an N10 process flow. First, we demonstrate SEM based overlay performance at AEI by using dual damascene process for Via 0 (V0) and metal 1 (M1) layer. We also discuss the overlay measurements between litho-etch-litho stages of a triple patterned M1 layer and double pattern V0. Second, to illustrate the complexities in image acquisition and measurement we will measure overlay between M1B resist and buried M1A-Hard mask trench. Finally, we will show how high accelerating voltage can detect buried pattern information by BSE (Back Scattering Electron). In this paper we discuss the merits of this method versus standard optical metrology based corrections.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王四龙; 赵学军; 凌贻棕; 刘玉荣; 宁书年; 侯德文


    It is discussed features and the producing mechanism of buried geological information in geological, geophysical and remote sensing data in Huaibei coal field, and studied the methods extracting buried tectonic and igneous rock information from various geological data using digital image processing techniques.

  9. A breakdown voltage model for implanted resurf p-LDMOS device on n+ buried layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Ming-Jiang; Van Calster, A.


    This paper presents an analytical expression of the breakdown voltage of a high voltage implanted RESURF p-LDMOS device which uses the n+ buried layer as an effective device substrate. In this model, the doping profile of the buried layer is considered and discussed. The implant dose for the drift r

  10. Direct Measurement of the Band Structure of a Buried Two-Dimensional Electron Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miwa, Jill; Hofmann, Philip; Simmons, Michelle Y.;


    We directly measure the band structure of a buried two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) using angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy. The buried 2DEG forms 2 nm beneath the surface of p-type silicon, because of a dense delta-type layer of phosphorus n-type dopants which have been placed there. ...

  11. Efficient calculation of broadband acoustic scattering from a partially, obliquely buried cylinder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhof, M.J.J.; Espana, A.; Williams, K.


    An efficient model for the Target In Environment Response (TIER) of buried/half buried, mine-like objects and UXOs is essential for the development and training of automatic target detection and classification methods and for use in sonar performance prediction models. For instance, to investigate t

  12. Modelling photochemistry in alpine valleys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Brulfert


    Full Text Available Road traffic is a serious problem in the Chamonix Valley, France: traffic, noise and above all air pollution worry the inhabitants. The big fire in the Mont-Blanc tunnel made it possible, in the framework of the POVA project (POllution in Alpine Valleys, to undertake measurement campaigns with and without heavy-vehicle traffic through the Chamonix and Maurienne valleys, towards Italy (before and after the tunnel re-opening. Modelling is one of the aspects of POVA and should make it possible to explain the processes leading to episodes of atmospheric pollution, both in summer and in winter. Atmospheric prediction model ARPS 4.5.2 (Advanced Regional Prediction System, developed at the CAPS (Center for Analysis and Prediction of Storms of the University of Oklahoma, enables to resolve the dynamics above a complex terrain. This model is coupled to the TAPOM 1.5.2 atmospheric chemistry (Transport and Air POllution Model code developed at the Air and Soil Pollution Laboratory of the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne. The numerical codes MM5 and CHIMERE are used to compute large scale boundary forcing. This paper focuses on modelling Chamonix valley using 300-m grid cells to calculate the dynamics and the reactive chemistry which makes possible to accurately represent the dynamics in the Chamonix valley (slope and valley winds and to process chemistry at fine scale. The summer 2003 intensive campaign was used to validate the model and to study chemistry. NOy according to O3 reduction demonstrates a VOC controlled regime, different from the NOx controlled regime expected and observed in the nearby city of Grenoble.

  13. Modelling photochemistry in alpine valleys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Brulfert


    Full Text Available Road traffic is a serious problem in the Chamonix Valley, France: traffic, noise and above all air pollution worry the inhabitants. The big fire in the Mont-Blanc tunnel made it possible, in the framework of the POVA project (POllution in Alpine Valleys, to undertake measurement campaigns with and without heavy-vehicle traffic through the valley, towards Italy (before and after the tunnel re-opening. Modelling in POVA should make it possible to explain the processes leading to episodes of atmospheric pollution, both in summer and in winter.

    Atmospheric prediction model ARPS 4.5.2 (Advanced Regional Prediction System, developed at the CAPS (Center for Analysis and Prediction of Storms of the University of Oklahoma, enables to resolve the dynamics above a complex terrain.

    This model is coupled to the TAPOM 1.5.2 atmospheric chemistry (Transport and Air POllution Model code developed at the Air and Soil Pollution Laboratory of the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne.

    The numerical codes MM5 and CHIMERE are used to compute large scale boundary forcing.

    Using 300-m grid cells to calculate the dynamics and the reactive chemistry makes possible to accurately represent the dynamics in the valley (slope and valley winds and to process chemistry at fine scale.

    Validation of campaign days allows to study chemistry indicators in the valley. NOy according to O3 reduction demonstrates a VOC controlled regime, different from the NOx controlled regime expected and observed in the nearby city of Grenoble.

  14. EPA Region 1 - Valley Depth in Meters (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Raster of the Depth in meters of EPA-delimited Valleys in Region 1. Valleys (areas that are lower than their neighbors) were extracted from a Digital Elevation Model...

  15. Valley Fever (Coccidioidomycosis) Risk and Prevention (United States)

    ... pet has Valley fever, please talk to a veterinarian. Coccidioides at my workplace What should I do ... provider says you need it. Is there a vaccine for Valley fever? No. Currently, there is no ...

  16. Valley evolution by meandering rivers (United States)

    Limaye, Ajay Brian Sanjay

    Fluvial systems form landscapes and sedimentary deposits with a rich hierarchy of structures that extend from grain- to valley scale. Large-scale pattern formation in fluvial systems is commonly attributed to forcing by external factors, including climate change, tectonic uplift, and sea-level change. Yet over geologic timescales, rivers may also develop large-scale erosional and depositional patterns that do not bear on environmental history. This dissertation uses a combination of numerical modeling and topographic analysis to identify and quantify patterns in river valleys that form as a consequence of river meandering alone, under constant external forcing. Chapter 2 identifies a numerical artifact in existing, grid-based models that represent the co-evolution of river channel migration and bank strength over geologic timescales. A new, vector-based technique for bank-material tracking is shown to improve predictions for the evolution of meander belts, floodplains, sedimentary deposits formed by aggrading channels, and bedrock river valleys, particularly when spatial contrasts in bank strength are strong. Chapters 3 and 4 apply this numerical technique to establishing valley topography formed by a vertically incising, meandering river subject to constant external forcing---which should serve as the null hypothesis for valley evolution. In Chapter 3, this scenario is shown to explain a variety of common bedrock river valley types and smaller-scale features within them---including entrenched channels, long-wavelength, arcuate scars in valley walls, and bedrock-cored river terraces. Chapter 4 describes the age and geometric statistics of river terraces formed by meandering with constant external forcing, and compares them to terraces in natural river valleys. The frequency of intrinsic terrace formation by meandering is shown to reflect a characteristic relief-generation timescale, and terrace length is identified as a key criterion for distinguishing these

  17. Contribution to classification of buried objects based on acoustic impedance matching. (United States)

    Stepanić, J; Wüstenberg, H; Krstelj, V; Mrasek, H


    Determination of material the buried objects are made of could contribute significantly to their recognition, or classification. This is important in detecting buried antipersonnel landmines within the context of humanitarian demining, as well as in a variety of other applications. In this article the concept has been formulated of the approach to buried object's material determination starting with ultrasonic impulse propagation analysis in a particular testing set configuration. The impulse propagates through a characterized transfer material in such a way that a part of it, a reflected wave, carries the information about the buried object's surface material acoustic impedance. The limit of resolution capability is theoretically analyzed and experimentally evaluated and the influencing factors described. Among these, the contact between clean surfaces of the transfer material and buried object is emphasized.

  18. 27 CFR 9.57 - Green Valley of Russian River Valley. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Green Valley of Russian River Valley. 9.57 Section 9.57 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Areas § 9.57 Green Valley of Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area...

  19. The biological activity of quaternary ammonium salts (QASs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Obłąk


    Full Text Available Quaternary ammonium salts (QASs, especially those of cationic surfactant character, are applied as antibacterial and antifungal disinfectants. QASs affect lipid-enveloped viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV, but not non-enveloped viruses. These compounds are extensively used in domestic (as ingredients of shampoos, hair conditioners, agricultural (as fungicides, pesticides, insecticides, healthcare (as medications, and industrial applications (as biocides, fabric softeners, corrosion inhibitors. The extensive use of quaternary ammonium disinfectants in recent years has led to the development of resistance in microorganisms to these drugs. Thus [i]Staphylococcus[/i] [i]aureus[/i] strains contain the plasmid-carrying genes [i]qacA[/i] and [i]qacB [/i]encoding resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds and acriflavine. The membrane proteins QacA and QacB confer multidrug resistance by exporting the compound by the proton motive force which is generated by the transmembrane electrochemical proton gradient.

  20. [The biological activity of quaternary ammonium salts (QASs)]. (United States)

    Obłak, Ewa; Gamian, Andrzej


    Quaternary ammonium salts (QASs), especially those of cationic surfactant character, are applied as antibacterial and antifungal disinfectants. QASs affect lipid-enveloped viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV), but not non-enveloped viruses. These compounds are extensively used in domestic (as ingredients of shampoos, hair conditioners), agricultural (as fungicides, pesticides, insecticides), healthcare (as medications), and industrial applications (as biocides, fabric softeners, corrosion inhibitors). The extensive use of quaternary ammonium disinfectants in recent years has led to the development of resistance in microorganisms to these drugs. Thus Staphylococcus aureus strains contain the plasmid-carrying genes qacA and qacB encoding resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds and acriflavine. The membrane proteins QacA and QacB confer multidrug resistance by exporting the compound by the proton motive force which is generated by the transmembrane electrochemical proton gradient.

  1. Quaternary naltrexone reverses radiogenic and morphine-induced locomotor hyperactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickley, G.A.; Stevens, K.E.; Galbraith, J.A.; White, G.A.; Gibbs, G.L.


    The present study attempted to determine the relative role of the peripheral and central nervous system in the production of morphine-induced or radiation-induced locomotor hyperactivity of the mouse. Toward this end, we used a quaternary derivative of an opiate antagonist (naltrexone methobromide), which presumably does not cross the blood-brain barrier. Quaternary naltrexone was used to challenge the stereotypic locomotor response observed in these mice after either an i.p. injection of morphine or exposure to 1500 rads /sup 60/Co. The quaternary derivative of naltrexone reversed the locomotor hyperactivity normally observed in the C57BL/6J mouse after an injection of morphine. It also significantly attenuated radiation-induced locomotion. The data reported here support the hypothesis of endorphin involvement in radiation-induced and radiogenic behaviors. However, these conclusions are contingent upon further research which more fully evaluates naltrexone methobromide's capacity to cross the blood-brain barrier.

  2. Absolute age determination of quaternary fault and formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Chang Sik; Lee, Kwang Sik; Choi, Man Sik [Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)


    The annual ('01-'01) objective of this project is to data the fault activity for the presumed quaternary fault zones to the western part of the Ulsam fault system and southeastern coastal area near the Wolseong Nuclear Power Plant. Rb-Sr, K-Ar, OSL, C-14 and U-series disequilibrium methods were applied to the fault rocks, organic matter and quaternary formations collected from the Pyeonghae, Bogyeongsa, Yugyeri, Byegkye, Gacheon-1 and Joil outcrops of the Yangsan fault system, the Baenaegol outcrop of the Moryang fault system, the Susyongji(Madong-2), Singye, Hwalseongri, Ipsil and Wonwonsa outcrops of the Ulsan fault system and from quaternary marine terraces (Oryoo and Kwangseong sites) in the southeastern coastal area. The experimental procedure of the OSL SAR protocol was reexamined to get more reliable dating results.

  3. Atmospheric effects on Quaternary polarization encoding for free space communication (United States)

    Soorat, Ram; Vudayagiri, Ashok


    We have simulated atmospheric effects such as fog and smoke in laboratory environment to simulate depolarisation due to atmospheric effects during a free space optical communi- cation. This has been used to study noise in two components of quaternary encoding for polarization shift keying. Individual components of a Quaternary encoding, such as vertical and horizontal as well as 45$^\\circ$ and 135$^\\circ$ , are tested separately and indicates that the depo- larization effects are different for these two situation. However, due to a differential method used to extract information bits, the protocol shows extremely low bit error rates. The information obtained is useful during deployment of a fully functional Quaternary encoded PolSK scheme in free space.

  4. Origin of Quaternary Red Clay of Southern Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The particle-size distribution,heavy mineral constituents and rare earth elements(REE) characteristics of the Quaternary red clay of southern Anhui Province were studied to explore the origin of the clay.The results showed that the clay had some properties of areolian deposits,which could be compared with,those of the loess in North China ;and its chondrite-normalized curves of REE were similar to those of the Xiashu loess implying tha they shared the same orighin.It was concluded in combination with the results rported by other researchers that the Quaternary red clay of southern Anhui Province originated from aolian deposts, and this could reveal the cycles of warm and cold climates in the area during the Quaternary period.

  5. Electrochemical oxidation of quaternary ammonium electrolytes : Unexpected side reactions in organic electrochemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nouri Nigjeh, Eslam; de Vries, Marcel; Bruins, Andries P.; Bischoff, Rainer; Permentier, Hjalmar P.


    Quaternary ammonium salts are among the most widely used electrolytes in organic electrochemistry, but there is little known about their unwanted side oxidation reactions. We have, therefore, studied the constant potential oxidation products of quaternary ammonium electrolytes using mass spectrometr

  6. Antibacterial activity of reactive quaternary ammonium compounds in solution and in nonleachable coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gozzelino, G.; Romero Tobar, D.E.; Chaitiemwong, N.; Hazeleger, W.C.; Beumer, R.R.


    Antibacterial polymers suitable for coating applications without leaching of the biocidal component have been obtained by UV copolymerization of acrylic resins with acrylic monomers containing quaternary ammonium moieties. Suitable reactive biocides, based on quaternary ammonium monomers (QAMs), end

  7. Tropical Rain Forest and Climate Dynamics of the Atlantic Lowland, Southern Brazil, during the Late Quaternary (United States)

    Behling, Hermann; Negrelle, Raquel R. B.


    Palynological analysis of a core from the Atlantic rain forest region in Brazil provides unprecedented insight into late Quaternary vegetational and climate dynamics within this southern tropical lowland. The 576-cm-long sediment core is from a former beach-ridge "valley," located 3 km inland from the Atlantic Ocean. Radio-carbon dates suggest that sediment deposition began prior to 35,000 14C yr B.P. Between ca. 37,500 and ca. 27,500 14C yr B.P. and during the last glacial maximum (LGM; ca. 27,500 to ca. 14,500 14C yr B.P.), the coastal rain forest was replaced by grassland and patches of cold-adapted forest. Tropical trees, such as Alchornea, Moraceae/Urticaceae, and Arecaceae, were almost completely absent during the LGM. Furthermore, their distributions were shifted at least 750 km further north, suggesting a cooling between 3°C and 7°C and a strengthening of Antarctic cold fronts during full-glacial times. A depauperate tropical rain forest developed as part of a successional sequence after ca. 12,300 14C yr B.P. There is no evidence that Araucaria trees occurred in the Atlantic lowland during glacial times. The rain forest was disturbed by marine incursions during the early Holocene period until ca. 6100 14C yr B.P., as indicated by the presence of microforaminifera. A closed Atlantic rain forest then developed at the study site.

  8. Shifting sources and transport paths for the late Quaternary Escanaba Trough sediment fill (northeast Pacific) (United States)

    Zuffa, G.G.; De Rosa, R.; Normark, W.R.


    Escanaba Trough, which forms the southernmost part of the axial valley of the actively spreading Gorda Ridge, is filled with several hundred meters of sediment of presumed late Quaternary age. Surficial sediment samples from gravity cores, deeper samples (as much as 390 m) from Site 35 of the Deep Sea Drilling Program (Leg 5), and the acoustic character of the sediment fill observed on seismic-reflection profiles indicate that much of the sediment fill is of turbidite origin. Gross composition and heavy- mineral analyses of sand samples show that two distinct petrofacies comprise the sediment fill. The lower part of the fill was derived primarily from the Klamath River source of northern California while the younger fill, including the surficial sand beds, are from the Columbia River drainage much farther north. The Escanaba Trough sediment provides an opportunity to evaluate concepts for paleogeographic and paleotectonic reconstructions that are based on facies analysis and compositional and textural data for the volcanic components because both intrabasinal and extrabasinal sources are present as well as coeval (neovolcanic) and non coeval (paleovolcanic) sourcre This study of a modern basin shows, that although the sediment sources could be identified, it was useful to have some knowledge of the sediment pathway(s), the effects of diagenesis, and the possible effects of sediment sorting as a result of long transport distances from the source area for some components. Application of these same techniques to ancient deposits without benefit of the additional parameters will face limitations.

  9. Valley aggradation in the San Gabriel Mountains, California: climate change versus catastrophic landslide (United States)

    Scherler, D.; Lamb, M. P.; Rhodes, E. J.; Avouac, J. P.


    The San Gabriel Mountains (SGM) in Southern California, rate amongst the most rapidly uplifting and eroding mountains in the United States. Their steep slopes and sensitivity to wildfires, flash floods, landslides, and debris flows account for imminent hazards to nearby urban areas that might be accentuated by climatic and other environmental changes. Previous studies suggested that river terraces along the North Fork of the San Gabriel River, record temporal variations in sediment supply and river transport capacity that are representative for the SGM and related to climatic changes during the Quaternary. Based on field observations, digital topographic analysis, and dating of Quaternary deposits, we suggest that valley aggradation in the North Fork San Gabriel Canyon was spatially confined and a consequence of the sudden supply of unconsolidated material to upstream reaches by one of the largest known landslides in the SGM. New 10Be-derived surface exposure ages from the landslide deposits, previously assumed to be early to middle Pleistocene in age, indicate at least three Holocene events at ~8-9 ka, ~4-5 ka, and ~0.5-1 ka. The oldest landslide predates the valley aggradation period, which is constrained by existing 14C ages and new luminescence ages to ~7-8 ka. The spatial distribution, morphology, and sedimentology of the river terraces are consistent with deposition from far-travelling debris flows that originated within the landslide deposits. Valley aggradation in the North Fork San Gabriel Canyon therefore resulted from locally enhanced sediment supply that temporarily overwhelmed river capacity but the lack of similar deposits in other parts of the SGM argues against a regional climatic signal. So far, there exists no evidence that in the San Gabriel Mountains, climatic changes can cause sustained increases in hillslope sediment supply that lead to river aggradation and terrace formation.

  10. 27 CFR 9.23 - Napa Valley. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Napa Valley. 9.23 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.23 Napa Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Napa Valley.”...

  11. 27 CFR 9.154 - Chiles Valley. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chiles Valley. 9.154... Chiles Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Chiles Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Chiles...

  12. Valley Singularities and Baryon Number Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Provero, P


    We consider the valley--method computation of the inclusive cross section of baryon number violating processes in the Standard Model. We show that any physically correct model of the valley action should present a singularity in the saddle point valley parameters as functions of the energy of the process. This singularity prevents the saddle point configuration from collapsing into the perturbative vacuum.

  13. Quaternary Structure Analyses of an Essential Oligomeric Enzyme. (United States)

    Soares da Costa, Tatiana P; Christensen, Janni B; Desbois, Sebastien; Gordon, Shane E; Gupta, Ruchi; Hogan, Campbell J; Nelson, Tao G; Downton, Matthew T; Gardhi, Chamodi K; Abbott, Belinda M; Wagner, John; Panjikar, Santosh; Perugini, Matthew A


    Here, we review recent studies aimed at defining the importance of quaternary structure to a model oligomeric enzyme, dihydrodipicolinate synthase. This will illustrate the complementary and synergistic outcomes of coupling the techniques of analytical ultracentrifugation with enzyme kinetics, in vitro mutagenesis, macromolecular crystallography, small angle X-ray scattering, and molecular dynamics simulations, to demonstrate the role of subunit self-association in facilitating protein dynamics and enzyme function. This multitechnique approach has yielded new insights into the molecular evolution of protein quaternary structure.

  14. Kinetic Study of MOCVD Ⅲ-Ⅴ Quaternary Antimonides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The kinetics of MOCVD GaInAsSb and AlGaAsSb was studied by the growth rate as a function of growth temperature and partial pressure of Ⅲ and Ⅴ MO species. The diffusion theory was used to explain the mass transport processes in MOCVD Ⅲ-Ⅴ quaternary antimonides. On the basis of the discussion about their growth kinetics and epilayer properties, the good quality multi-epilayers of these two quaternary antimonides and their photodetectors and arrays with wavelength of 1.8~2.3 μm and detectivities of D*>109 cm Hz1/2 W-1 were obtained.

  15. The Cenozoic evolution of the San Joaquin Valley, California (United States)

    Bartow, J. Alan


    The San Joaquin Valley, which is the southern part of the 700-km-long Great Valley of California, is an asymmetric structural trough that is filled with a prism of upper Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments up to 9 km thick; these sediments rest on crystalline basement rocks of the southwestward-tilted Sierran block. The San Joaquin sedimentary basin is separated from the Sacramento basin to the north by the buried Stockton arch and associated Stockton fault. The buried Bakersfield arch near the south end of the valley separates the small Maricopa-Tejon subbasin at the south end of the San Joaquin basin from the remainder of the basin. Cenozoic strata in the San Joaquin basin thicken southeastward from about 800 m in the north to over 9,000 m in the south. The San Joaquin Valley can be subdivided into five regions on the basis of differing structural style. They are the northern Sierran block, the southern Sierran block, the northern Diablo homocline, the westside fold belt, and the combined Maricopa-Tejon subbasin and southmargin deformed belt. Considerable facies variation existed within the sedimentary basin, particularly in the Neogene when a thick section of marine sediment accumulated in the southern part of the basin, while a relatively thin and entirely nonmarine section was deposited in the northern part. The northern Sierran block, the stable east limb of the valley syncline between the Stockton fault and the San Joaquin River, is the least deformed region of the valley. Deformation consists mostly of a southwest tilt and only minor late Cenozoic normal faulting. The southern Sierran block, the stable east limb of the valley syncline between the San Joaquin River and the Bakersfield arch, is similar in style to the northern part of the block, but it has a higher degree of deformation. Miocene or older normal faults trend mostly north to northwest and have a net down-to-the-west displacement with individual offsets of as much as 600 m. The northern Diablo

  16. The contribution of micrometeorites to the iron stocks of buried podzols, developed in Late-glacial aeolian sand deposits (Brabant, The Netherlands) (United States)

    van Mourik, Jan; de Vet, Sebastiaan


    (Mormoder). The exogenic origin of the micrometeorites could be confirmed by SEM-EDX analysis. Micrometeorites could accumulate on the surface level of the Initial Podzols during one century (between 1900 AD till the moment of sampling in 2013), on the surface level of the buried Podzols during eight millennia (between the moment of stabilization in the Preboreal and the moment of burying around 1200 AD). The soil conditions of the ectorganic horizons of (initial) Podzols are moist and acidic, promoting quick release of iron from micrometeorites. An additional source of Iron that could be added to the amount, released from the parent material. The extraction and identification of micrometeorites from ectorganic horizons of Initial Podzols helped illustrate that atmospheric deposition in the form of aerosol and aeolian (e.g. Saharan) dust, micrometeorites and other hydrolysable particles, contributes to soil development. The requisite active iron for podzolation can therefore be derived from chemical weathering of atmospheric iron sources in the acidic soil environment. Reference: 1. Van Mourik, J.M., Seijmonsbergen, A.C., Slotboom, R.T. and Wallinga, J., 2012. The impact of human land use on soils and landforms in cultural landscapes on aeolian sandy substrates (Maashorst, SE Netherlands). Quaternary International 265, 74-89. 2. Van Mourik, J.M. and de Vet, S.B. (2015). Iron stocks of buried Podzols: endogenic iron deficits and potential exogenic enrichment in the Maashorst region, SE Netherlands. Catena, accepted.

  17. Structure of the San Fernando Valley region, California: implications for seismic hazard and tectonic history (United States)

    Langenheim, V.E.; Wright, T.L.; Okaya, D.A.; Yeats, R.S.; Fuis, G.S.; Thygesen, K.; Thybo, H.


    Industry seismic reflection data, oil test well data, interpretation of gravity and magnetic data, and seismic refraction deep-crustal profiles provide new perspectives on the subsurface geology of San Fernando Valley, home of two of the most recent damaging earthquakes in southern California. Seismic reflection data provide depths to Miocene–Quaternary horizons; beneath the base of the Late Miocene Modelo Formation are largely nonreflective rocks of the Middle Miocene Topanga and older formations. Gravity and seismic reflection data reveal the North Leadwell fault zone, a set of down-to-the-north faults that does not offset the top of the Modelo Formation; the zone strikes northwest across the valley, and may be part of the Oak Ridge fault system to the west. In the southeast part of the valley, the fault zone bounds a concealed basement high that influenced deposition of the Late Miocene Tarzana fan and may have localized damage from the 1994 Northridge earthquake. Gravity and seismic refraction data indicate that the basin underlying San Fernando Valley is asymmetric, the north part of the basin (Sylmar subbasin) reaching depths of 5–8 km. Magnetic data suggest a major boundary at or near the Verdugo fault, which likely started as a Miocene transtensional fault, and show a change in the dip sense of the fault along strike. The northwest projection of the Verdugo fault separates the Sylmar subbasin from the main San Fernando Valley and coincides with the abrupt change in structural style from the Santa Susana fault to the Sierra Madre fault. The Simi Hills bound the basin on the west and, as defined by gravity data, the boundary is linear and strikes ~N45°E. That northeast-trending gravity gradient follows both the part of the 1971 San Fernando aftershock distribution called the Chatsworth trend and the aftershock trends of the 1994 Northridge earthquake. These data suggest that the 1971 San Fernando and 1994 Northridge earthquakes reactivated portions of

  18. The Future of Silicon Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph Leu


    @@ By the end of 1984, Silicon Valley was going through the down cycle fol lowing the PC boom. A hundred PC companies wanted just 10 percent of the market, wanting to strike it rich, as rich as the Apple IPO (Initial Public Of fering) -the Google celebrity IPO of its day.

  19. Atmospheric turbidity over Kathmandu valley (United States)

    Sapkota, Balkrishna; Dhaubhadel, Rajan

    The atmosphere of Kathmandu Valley has been investigated by using Sunphotometer and Nephelometer during the pre-monsoon period of 1999. The atmospheric turbidity parameters (extinction coefficient for 500 nm wavelength τAG and Angstrom coefficient β) are found high in the morning and show decreasing trends from morning to late afternoon on average. Vertical dispersion of pollutants and increasing pollutant flushing rate by increasing wind speed from morning to late afternoon is the cause for this decreasing trend of turbidity over the valley. Being surrounded by high hills all around the valley, horizontal exit of pollutants without vertical dispersion is not possible. The scattering coefficient bscat of aerosols in ground level troposphere is also found high in the morning, which decreases and becomes minimum during afternoon. During late afternoon, bscat again shows a slightly increasing trend. The reason is the increasing vehicular emission during late afternoon rush period. The average values of Angstrom exponent α, β, τAG and bscat are found to be 0.624±0.023, 0.299±0.009, 0.602±0.022 and 0.353±0.014 km -1, respectively. About 76.8% of the observed values of β lie above 0.2 indicating heavy particulate pollution in the valley. A comparison of observed values of turbidity parameters with other major cities of the world shows that Kathmandu is as polluted as cities like Jakarta, Kansas, Beijing, Vienna, etc.

  20. The Central Valley Hydrologic Model (United States)

    Faunt, C.; Belitz, K.; Hanson, R. T.


    Historically, California’s Central Valley has been one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world. The Central Valley also is rapidly becoming an important area for California’s expanding urban population. In response to this competition for water, a number of water-related issues have gained prominence: conjunctive use, artificial recharge, hydrologic implications of land-use change, subsidence, and effects of climate variability. To provide information to stakeholders addressing these issues, the USGS made a detailed assessment of the Central Valley aquifer system that includes the present status of water resources and how these resources have changed over time. The principal product of this assessment is a tool, referred to as the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM), that simulates surface-water flows, groundwater flows, and land subsidence in response to stresses from human uses and from climate variability throughout the entire Central Valley. The CVHM utilizes MODFLOW combined with a new tool called “Farm Process” to simulate groundwater and surface-water flow, irrigated agriculture, land subsidence, and other key processes in the Central Valley on a monthly basis. This model was discretized horizontally into 20,000 1-mi2 cells and vertically into 10 layers ranging in thickness from 50 feet at the land surface to 750 feet at depth. A texture model constructed by using data from more than 8,500 drillers’ logs was used to estimate hydraulic properties. Unmetered pumpage and surface-water deliveries for 21 water-balance regions were simulated with the Farm Process. Model results indicate that human activities, predominately surface-water deliveries and groundwater pumping for irrigated agriculture, have dramatically influenced the hydrology of the Central Valley. These human activities have increased flow though the aquifer system by about a factor of six compared to pre-development conditions. The simulated hydrology reflects spatial


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Defensive burying behavior is a coping strategy in rodents in response to an aversive stimulus where fear will facilitate burying and treatment with anxiolytics will result in less burying. To test the hypothesis that endogenous corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is involved in the defensive buryi

  2. Session Introduction: Global correlation on late Quaternary paleovalley systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, K.M.; Amorosi, A.; Busschers, F.S.; Hori, K.; Tanabe, S.


    All around the world, paleovalley systems have trapped great amounts of deposits and hold a quite complete Late Quaternary record. Uniquely, these records directly interlink the shelf marine with the hinterland fluvial realms. In the vicinity of ice sheets, in similar ways, paleovalleys interlink th

  3. Significant differences in late Quaternary bedrock erosion and transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrews, John; Bjørk, Anders Anker; Eberl, Dennis;


    We use quantitative X-ray diffraction to determine the mineralogy of late Quaternary marine sediments from the West and East Greenland shelves offshore from early Tertiary basalt outcrops. Despite the similar basalt outcrop area (60 000–70 000 km2), there are significant differences between East ...

  4. Application of Analytic Geometry to Ternary and Quaternary Diagrams. (United States)

    MacCarthy, Patrick


    Advantages of representing ternary and quaternary composition diagrams by means of rectangular coordinates were pointed out in a previous paper (EJ 288 693). A further advantage of that approach is that analytic geometry, based on rectangular coordinates, is directly applicable as demonstrated by the examples presented. (JN)

  5. A revision of the Pliocene and Quaternary Lutrinae from Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, G.F.


    In this paper, a revision of the Pliocene and Quaternary Lutrinae from Europe is presented. Such a revision, including fossil material, has not been published since the work of Pohle (1919). Three tribes within the Lutrinae are recognized: the Lutrini, the Aonyxini and the Enhydrini. The latter comp

  6. Irrigation channels of the Upper Rhone valley (Switzerland). Geomorphological analysis of a cultural heritage (United States)

    Reynard, Emmanuel


    are accentuated by high insulation and evaporation. Finally, foehn events are quite common. In a climatic point of view, the area can be divided in three main zones: (1) Upstream of Brig, the climate is characterised by cold and wet conditions, and irrigation is not necessary; (2) between Brig and Martigny, the rain shadow effect is responsible of irrigation needs in the lower altitudes, whereas at high altitudes rainfall is sufficient for plant growing without irrigation; (3) downstream of Martigny, the climate is wetter and irrigation is not necessary. In a palaeoclimatic point of view, the Rhone River catchment was characterised by numerous glaciations during the Quaternary. Quaternary glaciers have shaped the valleys (U-shaped valleys, hanged valleys) and the postglacial hydrographical network had to adapt to the glacial valleys (presence of numerous waterfalls, hanged valleys, postglacial gorges, alluvial fans). By crossing climatic and structural contexts, three groups of geomorphological contexts of irrigation channels can be highlighted: (1) In the tributary valleys situated South of the Rhone valley (Penninic Alps) the irrigation channels are simply dug in the valley slopes; several of them are affected by landslides typical of metamorphic rocks of Penninic Alps; (2) In the short tributary valleys of the crystalline Aar Massif - in the valleys North to the city of Visp -, the geomorphological context is characterised by steep slopes both in the tributary valleys and in the south-facing slopes dominating the Rhone River valley. In this area, water channels are cut into the rocks and in some parts they are built in wood pipes hanged along the rock walls; (3) In the tributary valleys of the Helvetic domain - North of the Rhone River between Leuk and Sion - the geological context highly influences the building techniques: due to geological dipping towards Southeast, the tributary valley are dissymmetric: in the dip slopes channels are simply cut in the soil

  7. Identification of carotenoids in ancient salt from Death Valley, Saline Valley, and Searles Lake, California, using laser Raman spectroscopy. (United States)

    Winters, Y D; Lowenstein, T K; Timofeeff, M N


    Carotenoids are common components of many photosynthetic organisms and are well known from the red waters of hypersaline ecosystems where they are produced by halophilic algae and prokaryotes. They are also of great interest as biomarkers in extraterrestrial samples. Few laser Raman spectroscopy studies have examined ancient field samples, where pigments and microscopic life are less defined. Here, we have identified carotenoids in ancient halite brine inclusions, 9 ka to 1.44 Ma in age, from borehole cores taken from Death Valley, Saline Valley, and Searles Lake, California, for the first time with laser Raman spectroscopy. Carotenoids occurred in fluid inclusions as colorless to red-brown amorphous and crystalline masses associated with spheroidal algal cells similar in appearance to the common halophilic alga Dunaliella. Spectra from carotenoid standards, including β-carotene, lycopene, and lutein, were compared to microscopically targeted carotenoids in fluid inclusions. Carotenoids produced characteristic bands in the Raman spectrum, 1000-1020 cm⁻¹ (v₃), 1150-1170 cm⁻¹ (v₂), and 1500-1550 cm⁻¹ (v₁), when exposed to visible laser excitation. Laser Raman analyses confirmed the presence of carotenoids with these characteristic peaks in ancient halite. A number of band sets were repeated at various depths (ages), which suggests the stability of this class of organic molecules. Carotenoids appear well preserved in ancient salt, which supports other observations, for example, preserved DNA and live cells, that fluid inclusions in buried halite deposits preserve intact halophilic microbial ecosystems. This work demonstrates the value of laser Raman spectroscopy and carotenoids in extraterrestrial exploration for remnants of microbial life.

  8. Thermal processing system concepts and considerations for RWMC buried waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, T.L.; Kong, P.C.; Raivo, B.D.; Anderson, G.L.


    This report presents a preliminary determination of ex situ thermal processing system concepts and related processing considerations for application to remediation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated buried wastes (TRUW) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Beginning with top-level thermal treatment concepts and requirements identified in a previous Preliminary Systems Design Study (SDS), a more detailed consideration of the waste materials thermal processing problem is provided. Anticipated waste stream elements and problem characteristics are identified and considered. Final waste form performance criteria, requirements, and options are examined within the context of providing a high-integrity, low-leachability glass/ceramic, final waste form material. Thermal processing conditions required and capability of key systems components (equipment) to provide these material process conditions are considered. Information from closely related companion study reports on melter technology development needs assessment and INEL Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) research are considered. Five potentially practicable thermal process system design configuration concepts are defined and compared. A scenario for thermal processing of a mixed waste and soils stream with essentially no complex presorting and using a series process of incineration and high temperature melting is recommended. Recommendations for applied research and development necessary to further detail and demonstrate the final waste form, required thermal processes, and melter process equipment are provided.

  9. The Challenging Buried Bumper Syndrome after Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Afifi


    Full Text Available Buried bumper syndrome (BBS is a rare complication developed after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG. We report a case of a 38-year-old male patient who sustained severe traumatic brain injury that was complicated with early BBS after PEG tube insertion. On admission, bedside PEG was performed, and 7 days later the patient developed signs of sepsis with rapid progression to septic shock and acute kidney injury. Abdominal CT scan revealed no collection or leakage of the contrast, but showed malpositioning of the tube bumper at the edge of the stomach and not inside of it. Diagnostic endoscopy revealed that the bumper was hidden in the posterolateral part of the stomach wall forming a tract inside of it, which confirmed the diagnosis of BBS. The patient underwent laparotomy with a repair of the stomach wall perforation, and the early postoperative course was uneventful. Acute BBS is a rare complication of PEG tube insertion which could be manifested with severe complications such as pressure necrosis, peritonitis and septic shock. Early identification is the mainstay to prevent such complications. Treatment selection is primarily guided by the presenting complications, ranging from simple endoscopic replacement to surgical laparotomy.

  10. The Challenging Buried Bumper Syndrome after Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy. (United States)

    Afifi, Ibrahim; Zarour, Ahmad; Al-Hassani, Ammar; Peralta, Ruben; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan


    Buried bumper syndrome (BBS) is a rare complication developed after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). We report a case of a 38-year-old male patient who sustained severe traumatic brain injury that was complicated with early BBS after PEG tube insertion. On admission, bedside PEG was performed, and 7 days later the patient developed signs of sepsis with rapid progression to septic shock and acute kidney injury. Abdominal CT scan revealed no collection or leakage of the contrast, but showed malpositioning of the tube bumper at the edge of the stomach and not inside of it. Diagnostic endoscopy revealed that the bumper was hidden in the posterolateral part of the stomach wall forming a tract inside of it, which confirmed the diagnosis of BBS. The patient underwent laparotomy with a repair of the stomach wall perforation, and the early postoperative course was uneventful. Acute BBS is a rare complication of PEG tube insertion which could be manifested with severe complications such as pressure necrosis, peritonitis and septic shock. Early identification is the mainstay to prevent such complications. Treatment selection is primarily guided by the presenting complications, ranging from simple endoscopic replacement to surgical laparotomy.

  11. Measure Guideline: Buried and/or Encapsulated Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, C.; Zoeller, W.; Mantha, P.


    Buried and/or encapsulated ducts (BEDs) are a class of advanced, energy-efficiency strategies intended to address the significant ductwork thermal losses associated with ducts installed in unconditioned attics. BEDs are ducts installed in unconditioned attics that are covered in loose-fill insulation and/or encapsulated in closed cell polyurethane spray foam insulation. This Measure Guideline covers the technical aspects of BEDs as well as the advantages, disadvantages, and risks of BEDs compared to other alternative strategies. This guideline also provides detailed guidance on installation of BEDs strategies in new and existing homes through step-by-step installation procedures. This Building America Measure Guideline synthesizes previously published research on BEDs and provides practical information to builders, contractors, homeowners, policy analysts, building professions, and building scientists. Some of the procedures presented here, however, require specialized equipment or expertise. In addition, some alterations to duct systems may require a specialized license. Persons implementing duct system improvements should not go beyond their expertise or qualifications. This guideline provides valuable information for a building industry that has struggled to address ductwork thermal losses in new and existing homes. As building codes strengthen requirements for duct air sealing and insulation, flexibility is needed to address energy efficiency goals. While ductwork in conditioned spaces has been promoted as the panacea for addressing ductwork thermal losses, BEDs installations approach - and sometimes exceed - the performance of ductwork in conditioned spaces.

  12. Detection of Buried Human Remains Using Bioreporter Fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vass, A. Dr.; Singleton, G. B.


    The search for buried human remains is a difficult, laborious and time-consuming task for law enforcement agencies. This study was conducted as a proof of principle demonstration to test the concept of using bioreporter microorganisms as a means to cover large areas in such a search. These bioreporter microorganisms are affected by a particular component of decaying organic matter that is distinct from decaying vegetation. The diamino compounds cadaverine and putrescine were selected as target compounds for the proof-of-principle investigation, and a search for microorganisms and genes that are responsive to either of these compounds was conducted. One recombinant clone was singled out for characterization based on its response to putrescine. The study results show that small concentrations of putrescine increased expression from this bioreporter construct. Although the level of increase was small (making it difficult to distinguish the signal from background), the results demonstrate the principle that bioreporters can be used to detect compounds resulting from decaying human remains and suggest that a wider search for target compounds should be conducted.

  13. Surface wave propagation effects on buried segmented pipelines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peixin Shi


    This paper deals with surface wave propagation (WP) effects on buried segmented pipelines. Both simplified analytical model and finite element (FE) model are developed for estimating the axial joint pullout movement of jointed concrete cylinder pipelines (JCCPs) of which the joints have a brittle tensile failure mode under the surface WP effects. The models account for the effects of peak ground velocity (PGV), WP velocity, predominant period of seismic excitation, shear transfer between soil and pipelines, axial stiffness of pipelines, joint characteristics, and cracking strain of concrete mortar. FE simulation of the JCCP interaction with surface waves recorded during the 1985 Michoacan earthquake results in joint pullout movement, which is consistent with the field observations. The models are expanded to estimate the joint axial pullout movement of cast iron (CI) pipelines of which the joints have a ductile tensile failure mode. Simplified analytical equation and FE model are developed for estimating the joint pullout movement of CI pipelines. The joint pullout movement of the CI pipelines is mainly affected by the variability of the joint tensile capacity and accumulates at local weak joints in the pipeline.

  14. Detecting buried explosive hazards with handheld GPR and deep learning (United States)

    Besaw, Lance E.


    Buried explosive hazards (BEHs), including traditional landmines and homemade improvised explosives, have proven difficult to detect and defeat during and after conflicts around the world. Despite their various sizes, shapes and construction material, ground penetrating radar (GPR) is an excellent phenomenology for detecting BEHs due to its ability to sense localized differences in electromagnetic properties. Handheld GPR detectors are common equipment for detecting BEHs because of their flexibility (in part due to the human operator) and effectiveness in cluttered environments. With modern digital electronics and positioning systems, handheld GPR sensors can sense and map variation in electromagnetic properties while searching for BEHs. Additionally, large-scale computers have demonstrated an insatiable appetite for ingesting massive datasets and extracting meaningful relationships. This is no more evident than the maturation of deep learning artificial neural networks (ANNs) for image and speech recognition now commonplace in industry and academia. This confluence of sensing, computing and pattern recognition technologies offers great potential to develop automatic target recognition techniques to assist GPR operators searching for BEHs. In this work deep learning ANNs are used to detect BEHs and discriminate them from harmless clutter. We apply these techniques to a multi-antennae, handheld GPR with centimeter-accurate positioning system that was used to collect data over prepared lanes containing a wide range of BEHs. This work demonstrates that deep learning ANNs can automatically extract meaningful information from complex GPR signatures, complementing existing GPR anomaly detection and classification techniques.

  15. An Effective Method for Borehole Imaging of Buried Tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreto Di Donato


    Full Text Available Detection and imaging of buried tunnels is a challenging problem which is relevant to both geophysical surveys and security monitoring. To comply with the need of exploring large portions of the underground, electromagnetic measurements carried out under a borehole configuration are usually exploited. Since this requires to drill holes in the soil wherein the transmitting and receiving antennas have to be positioned, low complexity of the involved apparatus is important. On the other hand, to effectively image the surveyed area, there is the need for adopting efficient and reliable imaging methods. To address these issues, in this paper we investigate the feasibility of the linear sampling method (LSM, as this inverse scattering method is capable to provide almost real-time results even when 3D images of very large domains are built, while not requiring approximations of the underlying physics. In particular, the results of the reported numerical analysis show that the LSM is capable of performing the required imaging task while using a quite simple measurement configuration consisting of two boreholes and a few number of multiview-multistatic acquisitions.

  16. Surface wave propagation effects on buried segmented pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peixin Shi


    Full Text Available This paper deals with surface wave propagation (WP effects on buried segmented pipelines. Both simplified analytical model and finite element (FE model are developed for estimating the axial joint pullout movement of jointed concrete cylinder pipelines (JCCPs of which the joints have a brittle tensile failure mode under the surface WP effects. The models account for the effects of peak ground velocity (PGV, WP velocity, predominant period of seismic excitation, shear transfer between soil and pipelines, axial stiffness of pipelines, joint characteristics, and cracking strain of concrete mortar. FE simulation of the JCCP interaction with surface waves recorded during the 1985 Michoacan earthquake results in joint pullout movement, which is consistent with the field observations. The models are expanded to estimate the joint axial pullout movement of cast iron (CI pipelines of which the joints have a ductile tensile failure mode. Simplified analytical equation and FE model are developed for estimating the joint pullout movement of CI pipelines. The joint pullout movement of the CI pipelines is mainly affected by the variability of the joint tensile capacity and accumulates at local weak joints in the pipeline.

  17. Diagenetic Variations between Upper Cretaceous Outcrop and Deeply Buried Reservoir Chalks of the North Sea Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjuler, Morten Leth; Fabricius, Ida Lykke


    In the central North Sea Basin hydrocarbon-bearing chalks are deeply buried (2-3 km) whereas chalks in the rim areas are cropping out in the surrounding countries. The differing diagenetic histories between buried and outcrop chalk result in different rock properties, which is of great importance...... when simulating reservoir conditions using outcrop chalks as models. In general deeply buried reservoir chalks show significant overgrowth as witnessed by reshaping of particles together with strengthening of particle contacts. Most outcrop chalks are moderately affected with looser inter...

  18. Pannus Is the New Prepuce? Penile Cancer in a Buried Phallus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Manwaring


    Full Text Available Two males presented to our urology department with complaints of bleeding and malodor from buried phallus within a suprapubic fat pad. Although both men had neonatal circumcisions, advanced penile carcinoma was found in both men. Formal penectomies showed high grade, poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma invading the corporal bodies and urethra. Buried penis represents a difficulty in early detection of suspicious lesions but may also provide an environment susceptible to poor hygiene and subsequent chronic inflammation. Patients with buried penis may be at a higher risk for development of invasive penile cancer and may benefit from regular and thorough genital exams.

  19. Geochemistry of buried river sediments from Ghaggar Plains, NW India: Multi-proxy records of variations in provenance, paleoclimate, and paleovegetation patterns in the Late Quaternary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ajit; Paul, Debajyoti; Sinha, Rajiv;


    are overlain by fluvial sediments (~75 ka-recent). Major oxide compositions of the core sediments (n = 35) generally vary between that observed for the modern-day Ghaggar/Sutlej and Yamuna river sand. The isotopic composition (87Sr/86Sr: 0.7365 to 0.7783 and εNd: -14.6 to -19.0) of core sediments (n = 18...... periods can be explained by increasing sediment contribution from LH (high 87Sr/86Sr and low εNd) due to an increase in glacial cover over HH. Whereas relatively less glacial cover over HH during interglacial periods resulted in more erosion and sediment contribution from HH. The down-core Sr-Nd isotopic...

  20. Impact of valley fills on streamside salamanders in southern West Virginia (United States)

    Wood, Petra Bohall; Williams, Jennifer M.


    Valley fills associated with mountaintop-removal mining bury stream headwaters and affect water quality and ecological function of reaches below fills. We quantified relative abundance of streamside salamanders in southern West Virginia during 2002 in three streams below valley fills (VFS) and in three reference streams (RS). We surveyed 36 10- × 2-m stream transects, once in summer and fall, paired by order and structure. Of 2,343 salamanders captured, 66.7% were from RS. Total salamanders (adults plus larvae) were more abundant in RS than VFS for first-order and second-order reaches. Adult salamanders had greater abundance in first-order reaches of RS than VFS. Larval salamanders were more abundant in second-order reaches of RS than VFS. No stream width or mesohabitat variables differed between VFS and RS. Only two cover variables differed. Silt cover, greater in VFS than RS first-order reaches, is a likely contributor to reduced abundance of salamanders in VFS. Second-order RS had more boulder cover than second-order VFS, which may have contributed to the higher total and larval salamander abundance in RS. Water chemistry assessments of our VFS and RS reported elevated levels of metal and ion concentrations in VFS, which can depress macroinvertebrate populations and likely affect salamander abundance. Valley fills appear to have significant negative effects on stream salamander abundance due to alterations in habitat structure, water quality and chemistry, and macroinvertebrate communities in streams below fills.

  1. Magnetotelluric investigation in the High Agri Valley (southern Apennine, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Balasco


    Full Text Available In this paper we present the result of a Magnetotelluric (MT investigation carried out across the High Agri Valley (HAV, southern Italy. Several MT soundings were carried out in order to obtain a ~15 km long 2-D resistivity model with an investigation depth of ~10 km. The main aim was to provide valuable data on the geological and structural setting of the HAV. The MT model was compared with pre-existing geological, geophysical and seismic data. The MT model can be schematized as a superposition of three stack lateral varying layers with different thickness and resistivity values: a surficial low-medium resistivity layer, associated to the Quaternary deposits and to the allochthonous units, and a deeper high resistivity layer, related to the Apulia Platform, separated by a thin layer connected to the mélange zone and to the Pliocene terrigenous marine deposits. Sharp lateral resistivity variations are interpreted as faults that, on the basis of accurate focal mechanism computations, display normal-faulting kinematics.

  2. Gigantic landslides versus glacial deposits: on origin of large hummock deposits in Alai Valley, Northern Pamir (United States)

    Reznichenko, Natalya


    As glaciers are sensitive to local climate, their moraines position and ages are used to infer past climates and glacier dynamics. These chronologies are only valid if all dated moraines are formed as the result of climatically driven advance and subsequent retreat. Hence, any accurate palaeoenvironmental reconstruction requires thorough identification of the landform genesis by complex approach including geomorphological, sedimentological and structural landform investigation. Here are presented the implication of such approach for the reconstruction of the mega-hummocky deposits formation both of glacial and landslide origin in the glaciated Alai Valley of the Northern Pamir with further discussion on these and similar deposits validity for palaeoclimatic reconstructions. The Tibetan Plateau valleys are the largest glaciated regions beyond the ice sheets with high potential to provide the best geological record of glacial chronologies and, however, with higher probabilities of the numerous rock avalanche deposits including those that were initially considered of glacial origin (Hewitt, 1999). The Alai Valley is the largest intermountain depression in the upper reaches of the Amudarja River basin that has captured numerous unidentified extensive hummocky deposits descending from the Zaalai Range of Northern Pamir, covering area in more than 800 km2. Such vast hummocky deposits are usually could be formed either: 1) glacially by rapid glacial retreat due to the climate signal or triggered a-climatically glacial changes, such as glacial surge or landslide impact, or 2) during the landslide emplacement. Combination of sediment tests on agglomerates forming only in rock avalanche material (Reznichenko et al., 2012) and detailed geomorphological and sedimentological descriptions of these deposits allowed reconstructing the glacial deposition in the Koman and Lenin glacial catchments with identification of two gigantic rock avalanches and their relation to this glacial

  3. Quaternary geology of Fish Springs flat, Juab county, Utah (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Fish Springs Flat is a sediment-filled valley between two tilted mountain blocks, the Thomas Range and the Fish Springs Range, in the Basin and Range physiographic...

  4. Late Quaternary history of contourite drifts and variations in Labrador Current flow, Flemish Pass, offshore eastern Canada (United States)

    Marshall, Nicole R.; Piper, David J. W.; Saint-Ange, Francky; Campbell, D. Calvin


    Contourite drifts of alternating sand and mud, shaped by the Labrador Current, formed during the late Quaternary in Flemish Pass seaward of the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, Canada. The drifts preserve a record of Labrador Current flow variations through the last glacial maximum. A high-resolution seismic profile and a transect of four cores were collected across Beothuk drift on the southeast side of Flemish Pass. Downcore and lateral trends in grain size and sedimentation rate provide evidence that, between 16 and 13 ka, sediment was partitioned across Beothuk drift and the adjacent Flemish Pass floor by a strong current flow but, from 29 to 16 ka, sedimentation was more of a blanketing style, represented by draped reflections interpreted as being due to a weaker current. The data poorly resolve the low sedimentation rates since 13 ka, but the modern Labrador Current in Flemish Pass is the strongest it has been in at least the past 29 ka. Pre-29 ka current flow is interpreted based on reflection architecture in seismic profiles. A prominent drift on the southwestern side of Flemish Pass formed above a mid-Miocene erosion surface, but was buried by a mass-transport deposit after the penultimate glacial maximum and after drift deposition switched to eastern Flemish Pass. These findings illustrate the temporal complexity of drift sedimentation and provide the first detailed proxy for Labrador Current flow since the last glacial maximum.

  5. Zhongguan Village, China's Silicon Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xinwen


    @@ In 1999,driven by the dream of using technology to change people's lives,Li Yanhong,returned to Zhongguancun(Zhongguan Village in Chinese),Beijing from Silicon Valley in the create the years,Baidu has become the most frequently hitted website in China as well as the largest Chinesc search engine and Chinese language website in the world.

  6. Comparative analyses of quaternary arrangements in homo-oligomeric proteins in superfamilies: Functional implications. (United States)

    Sudha, Govindarajan; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy


    A comprehensive analysis of the quaternary features of distantly related homo-oligomeric proteins is the focus of the current study. This study has been performed at the levels of quaternary state, symmetry, and quaternary structure. Quaternary state and quaternary structure refers to the number of subunits and spatial arrangements of subunits, respectively. Using a large dataset of available 3D structures of biologically relevant assemblies, we show that only 53% of the distantly related homo-oligomeric proteins have the same quaternary state. Considering these homologous homo-oligomers with the same quaternary state, conservation of quaternary structures is observed only in 38% of the pairs. In 36% of the pairs of distantly related homo-oligomers with different quaternary states the larger assembly in a pair shows high structural similarity with the entire quaternary structure of the related protein with lower quaternary state and it is referred as "Russian doll effect." The differences in quaternary state and structure have been suggested to contribute to the functional diversity. Detailed investigations show that even though the gross functions of many distantly related homo-oligomers are the same, finer level differences in molecular functions are manifested by differences in quaternary states and structures. Comparison of structures of biological assemblies in distantly and closely related homo-oligomeric proteins throughout the study differentiates the effects of sequence divergence on the quaternary structures and function. Knowledge inferred from this study can provide insights for improved protein structure classification and function prediction of homo-oligomers. Proteins 2016; 84:1190-1202. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Radiocarbon dating late Quaternary loess deposits using small terrestrial gastropod shells (United States)

    Pigati, Jeff S.; McGeehin, John P.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Bettis, E. Arthur


    Constraining the ages and mass accumulation rates of late Quaternary loess deposits is often difficult because of the paucity of organic material typically available for 14C dating and the inherent limitations of luminescence techniques. Radiocarbon dating of small terrestrial gastropod shells may provide an alternative to these methods as fossil shells are common in loess and contain ∼12% carbon by weight. Terrestrial gastropod assemblages in loess have been used extensively to reconstruct past environmental conditions but have been largely ignored for dating purposes. Here, we present the results of a multi-faceted approach to understanding the potential for using small terrestrial gastropod shells to date loess deposits in North America. First, we compare highly resolved 14C ages of well-preserved wood and gastropod shells (Succineidae) recovered from a Holocene loess section in Alaska. Radiocarbon ages derived from the shells are nearly identical to wood and plant macrofossil ages throughout the section, which suggests that the shells behaved as closed systems with respect to carbon for at least the last 10 ka (thousands of calibrated 14C years before present). Second, we apply 14C dating of gastropod shells to late Pleistocene loess deposits in the Great Plains using stratigraphy and independent chronologies for comparison. The new shell ages require less interpretation than humic acid radiocarbon ages that are commonly used in loess studies, provide additional stratigraphic coverage to previous dating efforts, and are in correct stratigraphic order more often than their luminescence counterparts. Third, we show that Succineidae shells recovered from historic loess in the Matanuska River Valley, Alaska captured the 20th century 14C bomb spike, which suggests that the shells can be used to date late Holocene and historic-aged loess. Finally, results from Nebraska and western Iowa suggest that, similar to other materials, shell ages approaching ∼40 ka should

  8. Buried late Pleistocene fluvial channels on the inner continental shelf off Vengurla, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SubbaRaju, L.V.; Krishna, K.S.; Chaubey, A.K.

    Analysis of echosounding, side-scan sonar and shallow seismic data collected west of Burnt islands off Vengurla, west coast of India, revealed a featureless seabed, thicknesses of subsurface layers, and presence of buried channels filled...

  9. Potential of bioremediation for buried oil removal in beaches after an oil spill. (United States)

    Pontes, Joana; Mucha, Ana P; Santos, Hugo; Reis, Izabela; Bordalo, Adriano; Basto, M Clara; Bernabeu, Ana; Almeida, C Marisa R


    Bioremediation potential for buried oil removal, an application still lacking thorough research, was assessed in a specifically designed system in which an artificially contaminated oil layer of sand was buried in a sand column subjected to tidal simulation. The efficiency of biostimulation (BS, fertilizer addition) and bioaugmentation (BA, inoculation of pre-stimulated indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms plus fertilizer) compared to natural attenuation was tested during a 180-day experimental period. The effect of BA was evident after 60 days (degradation of hydrocarbons reached 80%). BS efficacy was revealed only after 120 days. Microorganisms and nutrients added at the top of the sand column were able to reach the buried oil layer and contributed to faster oil elimination, an important feature for effective bioremediation treatments. Therefore, autochthonous BA with suitable nutritive conditions results in faster oil-biodegradation, appears to be a cost-effective methodology for buried oil remediation and contributes to the recovery of oil-impacted areas.

  10. Status Report for South Dakota Refuges: American Burying Beetle Searches, 1995 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This memo describes the efforts made throughout South Dakota attempting to locate American Burying Beetles. No beetles were found, but plans for a 1996 involve a...

  11. 2004 American Burying Beetle Annual Report - Pond Creek National Wildlife Refuge (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Survey efforts for the endangered American Burying Beetle at Pond Creek NWR in 2004 are reported from 14 sampling locations on the refuge. American buring beetle was...

  12. Potential impacts of damming the Juba Valley, western Somalia: Insights from geomorphology and alluvial history (United States)

    Williams, Martin


    In 1988 plans were well advanced to dam the Juba River in western Somalia. The aims of the Baardheere Dam Project were to generate hydroelectric power for the capital Mogadishu, and to provide water for irrigation in the Juba Valley. A reconnaissance survey on foot along 500 km of the river upstream of the proposed dam site at Baardheere and detailed geomorphic mapping from air photos provided a basis for reconstructing the late Quaternary alluvial history of the river and for assessing the potential impact of the proposed dam. The Juba River rises in the Ethiopian Highlands and is the only river in Somalia that flows to the sea. Its history reflects climatic events in Ethiopia, where the Rift Valley lakes were very low during the LGM (21±2 ka), and high for about 5, 000 years before and after then. Cave deposits in Somalia indicate wetter conditions at 13, 10, 7.5 and 1.5 ka. Alluvial terraces in the Juba Valley range in age from late Pleistocene to late Holocene but only attain a few metres above the present floodplain. This is because the dry tributary valleys contain limestone caves and fissures that divert any high flows from the parent river underground, a process not known when the project was first approved. The oldest preserved terrace was cemented by calcrete by 40 ka. Alluvial gravels were deposited at the outlet of dry tributary valleys during times of episodic high-energy flow between 26 ka and 28 ka. Finely laminated shelly sands accumulated at 10 ka to form the 5 m terrace. The 2 m terrace was laid down 3.2 ka ago as a slackwater deposit. The lack of high-level alluvial terraces raises doubts over plans to dam the river, since rapid leakage would occur from side valleys and the reservoir would not attain the height needed to generate hydroelectric power. It would submerge all existing arable land along the river. Finally, the presence in the late Holocene alluvium of the sub-fossil gastropods Bulinus truncatus and Biomphalaria pfeifferi, which are

  13. Quaternary geology of Alameda County, and parts of Contra Costa, Santa Clara, San Mateo, San Francisco, Stanislaus, and San Joaquin counties, California: a digital database (United States)

    Helley, E.J.; Graymer, R.W.


    Alameda County is located at the northern end of the Diablo Range of Central California. It is bounded on the north by the south flank of Mount Diablo, one of the highest peaks in the Bay Area, reaching an elevation of 1173 meters (3,849 ft). San Francisco Bay forms the western boundary, the San Joaquin Valley borders it on the east and an arbitrary line from the Bay into the Diablo Range forms the southern boundary. Alameda is one of the nine Bay Area counties tributary to San Francisco Bay. Most of the country is mountainous with steep rugged topography. Alameda County is covered by twenty-eight 7.5' topographic Quadrangles which are shown on the index map. The Quaternary deposits in Alameda County comprise three distinct depositional environments. One, forming a transgressive sequence of alluvial fan and fan-delta facies, is mapped in the western one-third of the county. The second, forming only alluvial fan facies, is mapped in the Livermore Valley and San Joaquin Valley in the eastern part of the county. The third, forming a combination of Eolian dune and estuarine facies, is restricted to the Alameda Island area in the northwestern corner of the county.

  14. Seismic fragility analysis of buried steel piping at P, L, and K reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wingo, H.E.


    Analysis of seismic strength of buried cooling water piping in reactor areas is necessary to evaluate the risk of reactor operation because seismic events could damage these buried pipes and cause loss of coolant accidents. This report documents analysis of the ability of this piping to withstand the combined effects of the propagation of seismic waves, the possibility that the piping may not behave in a completely ductile fashion, and the distortions caused by relative displacements of structures connected to the piping.

  15. Effects of buried penis on the structure and function of corpus cavernosum in a rat model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Fan; YU Wei-min; XIA Yue; ZHANG Xiao-bin; YANG Si-xing; GE Ming-huan


    Background While the abnormal appearance of the concealed penis has been well recognized, the effect of buried penis on the structure and function of corpus cavernosum has not been well studied. To explore this issue, we established a rat model and evaluated the effect of buried penis on cavernosum weight, contents and ultrastructure of tissue, and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity.Methods Two hundred and ten rats were randomly divided into 3 equal cohorts for 2, 4 and 6 months study (groups A, B and C). Each group was randomly divided into buried group (n=40), control group (n=15), and normal group (n=15), respectively. Intra-purse-string suture of the root of the penis was used to establish the model. Macroscopic development was judged by measuring the weight of the corpus cavernosum. Masson's trichrome staining was performed for observing microstructure while a transmission electron microscope was used for observing ultrastructure. The NOS activity was detected by a NOS activity assay kit.Results Buried penis had no significant influence on the appearance and weight of the corpus cavemosum. Buried penis resulted in decreased smooth muscle content (P>0.05 in group A, and P0.05 in groups A and B, and P <0.05 in group C) compared with the normal and control groups. Ultrastructural abnormalities of corpus cavernosum were observed in the 6-month buried group. Moreover, there was decrease of NOS activity in groups B and C (P<0.05 in group B and P<0.01 in group C) when compared with the normal and control groups.Conclusion Buried penis affects the structure and function of corpus cavemosum in rats and the effect is positively correlated with the buried time, but there is no significant effect on the macroscopic development.

  16. Effect of Biostimulation and Bioaugmentation on Degradation of Polyurethane Buried in Soil▿


    Cosgrove, L.; McGeechan, P. L.; Handley, P. S.; Robson, G. D.


    This work investigated biostimulation and bioaugmentation as strategies for removing polyurethane (PU) waste in soil. Soil microcosms were biostimulated with the PU dispersion agent “Impranil” and/or yeast extract or were bioaugmented with PU-degrading fungi, and the degradation of subsequently buried PU was determined. Fungal communities in the soil and colonizing buried PU were enumerated on solid media and were analyzed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Biostimulation w...

  17. Study of Controll over Karstification of Buried Carbonate Hill Reservoir in Renqiu Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于俊吉; 韩宝平; 罗承建


    Based on boreholes and dynamic development data, the control over karstification of buried carbonate hill reservoir in Renqiu oil field was studied. The result shows that 1) Karstific caves, fissures, and pores in dolomite of Wumishan Formation are the most important reservoir voids, 2) the barrier of argillaceous dolomite can result in the existence of residual oil areas under oil-water interface, and 3) the mosores located on the surface of buried hill are also potential areas of residual oil.

  18. Thin films and buried interfaces characterization with X-ray standing waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagomarsino, S. [CNR, Rome (Italy). Istituto Elettronica Stato Solido


    The X-ray standing wave techniques is a powerful, non destructive method to study interfaces at the atomic level. Its basic features are described here together with the peculiarities of its applications to epitaxial films and buried interfaces. As examples of applications, experiments carried out on Si/silicide interfaces, on GaAs/InAs/GaAs buried interfaces and on Si/Ge superlattices are shown.

  19. Review of Concrete Biodeterioration in Relation to Buried Nuclear Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turick, C; Berry, C.


    Long-term storage of low level radioactive material in below ground concrete disposal units (DUs) (Saltstone Disposal Facility) is a means of depositing wastes generated from nuclear operations of the U.S. Department of Energy. Based on the currently modeled degradation mechanisms, possible microbial induced effects on the structural integrity of buried low level wastes must be addressed. Previous international efforts related to microbial impacts on concrete structures that house low level radioactive waste showed that microbial activity can play a significant role in the process of concrete degradation and ultimately structural deterioration. This literature review examines the recent research in this field and is focused on specific parameters that are applicable to modeling and prediction of the fate of concrete vaults housing stored wastes and the wastes themselves. Rates of concrete biodegradation vary with the environmental conditions, illustrating a need to understand the bioavailability of key compounds involved in microbial activity. Specific parameters require pH and osmotic pressure to be within a certain range to allow for microbial growth as well as the availability and abundance of energy sources like components involved in sulfur, iron and nitrogen oxidation. Carbon flow and availability are also factors to consider in predicting concrete biodegradation. The results of this review suggest that microbial activity in Saltstone, (grouted low level radioactive waste) is unlikely due to very high pH and osmotic pressure. Biodegradation of the concrete vaults housing the radioactive waste however, is a possibility. The rate and degree of concrete biodegradation is dependent on numerous physical, chemical and biological parameters. Results from this review point to parameters to focus on for modeling activities and also, possible options for mitigation that would minimize concrete biodegradation. In addition, key chemical components that drive microbial

  20. Molecular phylogeny of the burying beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae: Nicrophorinae). (United States)

    Sikes, Derek S; Venables, Chandra


    Burying beetles (Silphidae: Nicrophorus) are well-known for their monopolization of small vertebrate carcasses in subterranean crypts and complex biparental care behaviors. They have been the focus of intense behavioral, ecological, and conservation research since the 1980s yet no thorough phylogenetic estimate for the group exists. Herein, we infer relationships, test past hypotheses of relationships, and test biogeographic scenarios among 55 of the subfamily Nicrophorinae's currently valid and extant 72 species. Two mitochondrial genes, COI and COII, and two nuclear genes, the D2 region of 28S, and the protein coding gene CAD, provided 3,971 nucleotides for 58 nicrophorine and 5 outgroup specimens. Ten partitions, with each modeled by GTR+I+G, were used for a 100 M generation MrBayes analysis and maximum likelihood bootstrapping with Garli. The inferred Bayesian phylogeny was mostly well-resolved with only three weak branches of biogeographic relevance. The common ancestor of the subfamily and of the genus Nicrophorus was reconstructed as Old World with four separate transitions to the New World and four reverse colonizations of the Old World from the New. Divergence dating from analysis with BEAST indicate the genus Nicrophorus originated in the Cretaceous, 127-99 Ma. Most prior, pre-cladistic hypotheses of relationships were strongly rejected while most modern hypotheses were largely congruent with monophyletic groups in our estimated phylogeny. Our results reject a recent hypothesis that Nicrophorus morio Gebler, 1817 (NEW STATUS as valid species) is a subspecies of N. germanicus (L., 1758). Two subgenera of Nicrophorus are recognized: NecroxenusSemenov-Tian-Shanskij, 1933, and NicrophorusFabricius, 1775.

  1. Diagenesis of shallowly buried cratonic sandstones, southwest Sinai, Egypt (United States)

    Salem, Alaa M. K.; Abdel-Wahab, Antar; McBride, Earle F.


    In spite of their age, quartzose and feldspathic Lower Carboniferous sandstones deposited on the Arabian shield in western Sinai remain friable and porous (average of 19%, maximum of 25%) except for strongly cemented ferricretes and silcretes. These fluvial and shallow-marine sandstones were not buried more than 1.5 km until Late Cretaceous and younger time, when the deepest rocks reached 2.5 km. Owing to shallow burial depths and episodic exposure, meteoric water dominated the pore system for most of geologic time: iron oxides had multiple diagenetic stages and yield Carboniferous and Late Cretaceous paleomagnetic signatures, and oxygen isotopic data for authigenic quartz, sparry calcite, and kaolinite yield meteoric signatures. The most significant diagenetic changes were: (1) cementation by iron oxide that locally reaches 40% in groundwater ferricretes; (2) reduction in porosity to 19% from an assumed original porosity 45% (19% porosity was lost by compaction and 7% by cementation); (3) generation of diagenetic quartzarenites by the loss of 7% detrital feldspar by kaolinization and dissolution; and (4) development of three thin mature silcretes apparently by thermal groundwaters. Some outcrop samples have halite and gypsum cements of young but uncertain origin: recycled from topographically higher younger rocks or from aerosols? Mature silcretes are strongly cemented by microcrystalline quartz, multiply zoned syntaxial quartz, and, originally, minor opal. Quartz overgrowths in most sandstones average only 2.2%, but display a variety of textures and in places overprint isopachous opal (now dissolved) grain coats. These features have more in common with incipient silcrete cement than normal burial quartz cement. Most silica was imported in groundwater.

  2. The Gabbs Valley, Nevada, geothermal prospect: Exploring for a potential blind geothermal resource (United States)

    Payne, J.; Bell, J. W.; Calvin, W. M.


    The Gabbs Valley prospect in west-central Nevada is a potential blind geothermal resource system. Possible structural controls on this system were investigated using high-resolution LiDAR, low sun-angle aerial (LSA) photography, exploratory fault trenching and a shallow temperature survey. Active Holocene faults have previously been identified at 37 geothermal systems with indication of temperatures greater than 100° C in the western Nevada region. Active fault controls in Gabbs Valley include both Holocene and historical structures. Two historical earthquakes occurring in 1932 and 1954 have overlapping surface rupture patterns in Gabbs Valley. Three active fault systems identified through LSA and LiDAR mapping have characteristics of Basin and Range normal faulting and Walker Lane oblique dextral faulting. The East Monte Cristo Mountains fault zone is an 8.5 km long continuous NNE striking, discrete fault with roughly 0.5 m right-normal historic motion and 3 m vertical Quaternary separation. The Phillips Wash fault zone is an 8.2 km long distributed fault system striking NE to N, with Quaternary fault scarps of 1-3 m vertical separation and a 500 m wide graben adjacent to the Cobble Cuesta anticline. This fault displays ponded drainages, an offset terrace riser and right stepping en echelon fault patterns suggestive of left lateral offset, and fault trenching exposed non-matching stratigraphy typical of a significant component of lateral offset. The unnamed faults of Gabbs Valley are a 10.6 km long system of normal faults striking NNE and Quaternary scarps are up to 4 m high. These normal faults largely do not have historic surface rupture, but a small segment of 1932 rupture has been identified. A shallow (2 m deep) temperature survey of 80 points covering roughly 65 square kilometers was completed. Data were collected over approximately 2 months, and continual base station temperature measurements were used to seasonally correct temperature measurements. A 2

  3. FOREWORD: Special section on electromagnetic characterization of buried obstacles (United States)

    Lesselier, Dominique; Chew, Weng Cho


    This Inverse Problems special section on electromagnetic characterization of buried obstacles contains a selection of 14 invited papers, involving 41 authors and 19 research groups worldwide. (Though this section consists of invited papers, the standard refereeing procedures of Inverse Problems have been rigorously observed.) We do not claim to have reached all the high-level researchers in the field, but we believe that we have made a fair attempt. As illustrated by the variety of contributions included, the aim of this special section is to address theoretical and practical inversion problems (and the solutions thereof) that arise in the field of electromagnetic characterization of obstacles (artificial or natural) buried on the Earth or in planetary subsoil. Civil and military engineering, archaeological and environmental issues are typically among those within the scope of the investigation. An example is the characterization of a single (or multiple) obstacle(s) located near the interface or at shallow depths via electromagnetic means operating within relevant frequency bands. However, we also welcomed novel and thought-provoking investigations, even though their direct application to the real world, or even to laboratory-controlled settings, may still be far off. Within this general mathematical and applied framework, the submitted papers focused on a combination of theoretical, computational and experimental developments. They either reviewed the most recent advances in a particular area of research or were an original and specialized contribution. Let us now take the opportunity to remind the readers that this special section harks back (in addition to sharing some common contributors) to two special sections already published in the journal which possessed the same flavour of wave-field inversion and its many applications. They were `Electromagnetic imaging and inversion of the Earth's subsurface', which was published in October 2000 (volume 16, issue 5

  4. Definition of a mobilizing volume of sediment in a valley interested by volcanic eruption: Rio Blanco valley (Chile) (United States)

    Oss-Cazzador, Daniele; Iroumé, Andrés; Picco, Lorenzo


    Volcanic explosive activity can strongly affect the riverine environments. Deposition of tephra, pyroclastic and hyperconcentrated flows along both the valley bottom and hillslopes can radically change the environmental morphology. Accumulation and transport of pyroclastic material can increase hazards and risks for anthropic activities. The aims of this research are to evaluate and quantify the amount of erodible sediment that can be transported along a gravel bed river affected by a volcanic eruption. The Rio Blanco valley (Chile) was upset by the plinian-type eruption of Chaiten volcano in 2008. The great amount of tephra released in the initial phase and the subsequent pyroclastic flows, accumulated up to 8 m of sediment over a great portion of the Rio Blanco valley. Using aerial photographs was possible to define the extension of vegetated zones affected by the eruption. The area was interested by a high mortality of vegetation, as confirmed by field surveys. Dendrometric measurements permitted to quantify the volume of wood and observe that renewal and herbal layer are almost absent, determining low soil cohesion and easier erosion by superficial and river erosion processes. Analysis of sediment accumulation allowed quantifying the volume of sediment that can be transported downstream. The analyses were carried out considering 7 km-long a reach, from the river mouth to the confluence between Caldera creek and Rio Blanco. After the eruption, was possible to define as a total area of about 2.19 km2 was affected by tephra deposition, the 40% (0,87 km2) was eroded by flows, while 60% (1,32 km2) is still present and composed by tephra, buried large wood (LW) and dead standing trees. Considering an average high of 5 m, the potential erodible sediment is around 6,5 x 106 m3, moreover there is a potential amount of about 7,3 x 104 m3 of LW that can be transported towards mouth. These analyses can be useful to better define the management plan for the river delta. In

  5. A process for ensuring regulatory compliance at the INEL`s buried waste integrated demonstrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, P.G.; Watson, L.R.; Blacker, P.B. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab.


    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program is funded by the Department of Energy Office of Technology Development. The mission of this Integrated Demonstration is to identify, evaluate, and demonstrate a suite of innovative technologies for the remediation of radioactive and hazardous waste buried throughout the DOE complex between 1950 and 1970. The program approach to development of a long-range strategy for improving buried waste remediation capabilities is to combine systems analysis with already identified remediation needs for DOE complex buried waste. The systems analysis effort has produced several configuration options (a top-level block diagram of a cradle-to-grave remediation system) capable of remediating the transuranic-contaminated waste pits and trenches at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Technologies for demonstration are selected using three criteria: (a) the ability to satisfy a specific buried waste need, (b) the ability to satisfy functional and operational requirements defined for functional sub-elements in a configuration option, and (c) performance against Comprehensive Environmental Restoration and Compensation Liability Act selection criteria, such as effectiveness, implementability, and cost. Early demonstrations experienced problems with missed requirements, prompting the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program Office to organize a Corrective Action Team to identify the cause and recommend corrective actions. The result of this team effort is the focus of this paper.

  6. Enforced water drinking induces changes in burying behavior and social interaction test in rats. (United States)

    Saldívar-González, J A; Hernández-León, M J; Mondragón-Ceballos, R


    The effect of water deprivation and water intake on experimental anxiety in rats was tested using burying behavior (BB) and social interaction (SI) anxiety paradigms. Two groups of animals were studied: a control group with free access to water, and a 72-h water-deprived experimental group. Anxiety was studied in a water-deprived group or following a 10-min period of ad lib water drinking. An increase in the mean time of defensive burying in animals deprived for 72 h was observed, whereas an important reduction occurred in the levels of burying behavior immediately after the animals were allowed to drink ad lib for 10 min. These results suggest that the observed increase in defensive burying in the water-deprived animals represents an anxiogenic effect, whereas the decrease in this behavior in water-satiated animals is considered an anxiolytic action. The temporal course of reduction in burying behavior, observed after water drinking, revealed that the anxiolytic action lasts 5 min, whereas 15-30 min after drinking, burying behavior levels were similar to those in the control group. In the social interaction experiment a partial anxiogenic/anxiolytic effect of water deprivation and water intake was observed. The adaptive meaning of anxiogenic and anxiolytic changes linked to consummatory behaviors in rats is discussed on the basis of behavioral and biochemical data.

  7. Differentiating Mild Papilledema and Buried Optic Nerve Head Drusen Using Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (United States)

    Kulkarni, Kaushal M.; Pasol, Joshua; Rosa, Potyra R.; Lam, Byron L.


    Purpose To evaluate the clinical utility of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in differentiating mild papilledema from buried optic nerve head drusen (ONHD). Design Comparative case series. Participants 16 eyes of 9 patients with ultrasound-proven buried ONHD, 12 eyes of 6 patients with less than or equal to Frisén grade 2 papilledema due to idiopathic intracranial hypertension. 2 normal fellow eyes of patients with buried ONHD were included. Methods A raster scan on the optic nerve and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness analysis was performed on each eye using SD-OCT. Eight eyes underwent enhanced depth imaging SD-OCT. Images were assessed qualitatively and quantitatively to identify differentiating features between buried ONHD and papilledema. Five clinicians trained with a tutorial and masked to the underlying diagnosis reviewed the SD-OCT images of each eye independently to determine the diagnosis. Main outcome measures Differences in RNFL thickness in each quadrant between the two groups, and diagnostic accuracy of five independent clinicians based on the SD-OCT images alone. Results We found no statistically significant difference in RNFL thickness between buried ONHD and papilledema in any of the four quadrants. Diagnostic accuracy among the readers was low and ranged from 50–64%. The kappa coefficient of agreement among the readers was 0.35 (95% Confidence interval: 0.19, 0.54). Conclusions SD-OCT is not clinically reliable in differentiating buried ONHD and mild papilledema. PMID:24321144

  8. Cannabidiol reverses the mCPP-induced increase in marble-burying behavior. (United States)

    Nardo, Mirella; Casarotto, Plinio C; Gomes, Felipe V; Guimarães, Francisco S


    Cannabidiol (CBD), one of the main components of Cannabis sp., presents clinical and preclinical anxiolytic properties. Recent results using the marble-burying test (MBT) suggest that CBD can also induce anticompulsive-like effects. Meta-chloro-phenyl-piperazine (mCPP) is a nonspecific serotonergic agonist (acting mainly at 5HT1A, 5HT2C and 5HT1D receptors) reported to increase symptoms in OCD patients and block the anticompulsive-like effect of serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) in animal models. The aim of this study was to investigate the interference of CBD on mCPP effects in repetitive burying. Administration of mCPP showed dual effects in the MBT, increasing the number of buried marbles at lower (0.1 mg/kg) while decreasing it at higher doses (1 mg/kg), an effect not related to a general increase in anxiety-like behavior. As found previously, CBD (30 mg/kg) and the positive control fluoxetine (FLX; 10 mg/kg) decreased burying behavior without changing general exploratory activity. A similar effect was found when subeffective doses of CBD (15 mg/kg) and FLX (3 mg/kg) were administered together. These subeffective doses alone were also able to block mCPP-induced repetitive burying. The results, in addition to reinforcing a possible anticompulsive effect of CBD, also suggest that mCPP-induced repetitive burying could be a useful test for the screening of compounds with presumed anticompulsive properties.

  9. Wintertime storage of water in buried supraglacial lakes across the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Koenig


    Full Text Available Surface melt over the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS is increasing and estimated to account for half or more of the total mass loss. Little, however, is known about the hydrologic pathways that route surface melt within the ice sheet. In this study, we present over-winter storage of water in buried supraglacial lakes as one hydrologic pathway for surface melt, referred to as buried lakes. Airborne radar echograms are used to detect the buried lakes that are distributed extensively around the margin of the GrIS. The subsurface water can persist through multiple winters and is, on average, ~4.2 + 0.4 m below the surface. The few buried lakes that are visible at the surface of the GrIS have a~unique visible signature associated with a darker blue color where subsurface water is located. The volume of retained water in the buried lakes is likely insignificant compared to the total mass loss from the GrIS but the water will have important implications locally for the development of the englacial hydrologic network, ice temperature profiles and glacial dynamics. The buried lakes represent a small but year-round source of meltwater in the GrIS hydrologic system.

  10. Spin-Valley Beam Splitter in Graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Yu; Shi, Zhi-Gui; Li, Shun; Zhang, Jian


    The fourfold spin-valley degenerate degrees of freedom in bulk graphene can support rich physics and novel applications associated with multicomponent quantum Hall effects and linear conductance filtering. In this work, we study how to break the spin-valley degeneracy of electron beams spatially. We propose a spin-valley beam splitter in a gated ferromagnetic/pristine/strained graphene structure. We demonstrate that, in a full resonant tunneling regime for all spin-valley beam components, the formation of quasi-standing waves can lead four giant lateral Goos-H\\"{a}nchen shifts as large as the transverse beam width, while the interplay of the two modulated regions can lead difference of resonant angles or energies for the four spin-valley flavors, manifesting an effective spin-valley beam splitting effect. The beam splitting effect is found to be controllable by the gating and strain.

  11. California's restless giant: the Long Valley Caldera (United States)

    Hill, David P.; Bailey, Roy A.; Hendley, James W.; Stauffer, Peter H.; Marcaida, Mae


    Scientists have monitored geologic unrest in the Long Valley, California, area since 1980. In that year, following a swarm of strong earthquakes, they discovered that the central part of the Long Valley Caldera had begun actively rising. Unrest in the area persists today. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) continues to provide the public and civil authorities with current information on the volcanic hazard at Long Valley and is prepared to give timely warnings of any impending eruption.

  12. Intrinsic valley Hall effect in graphene (United States)

    Yang, Mou; Zhang, Wen-Lian; Liu, Hai; Bai, Yan-Kui


    If electrons are incident from an armchair graphene ribbon into the bulk graphene region, the electronic diffraction occurs. Because of the different triangular wrapping of the energy dispersion between valleys K and K ‧ , the electrons of valley K tend to be diffracted to one side and those of valley K ‧ to the other side. When the current is injected from the armchair ribbon of a four-terminal graphene device, the major portion of the incident current of valley K flows through one side arm and the minor portion through the other side arm. The ratio between them is derived to be 1 + 4 E / 3 in the low energy limit, where E is the energy in units of hopping parameter. The major arm for valley K is the minor arm for valley K ‧ . This results in the rise of the valley Hall effect, which is an intrinsic property of graphene stemming from the different electronic structure of the two valleys. The valley Hall conductance is calculated to be (2 E / 3)G0 with G0 being the conductance supported by the injection ribbon.

  13. Distribution of acidic groundwater around quaternary volcanoes in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asamori, Koichi; Ishimaru, Tsuneari; Iwatsuki, Teruki [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Toki, Gifu (Japan). Tono Geoscience Center


    One important key issue in the understanding of the long-term stability of the geological environment is the influence of magmatism. In this study, we examined the general spatial distribution of acidic groundwater around Quaternary volcanoes in Japan using a database of groundwater geochemistry. The results may be summarized as follows: Acidic groundwater with pH < 4.8 mainly occur in present volcanic regions and are distributed from several kilometers to about 20 km from Quaternary volcanoes. The pH value of groundwater tends to decrease with increasing distance from a volcano. However, these results may be affected by inhomogeneity of groundwater data distribution and the characteristic activity of each volcano. In order to assess a specific volcanic region, a detailed analysis that considers volcanic activity, using a data set with high spatial density is necessary. (author)

  14. Studies on a Cationically Modified Quaternary Ammonium Salt of Lignin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ai-li; JIANG Wen-ju


    A new quaternary ammonium salt monomer was synthesized and a quaternary amination of lignin( noted as QL),with the monomer was carried out by grafting copolymerization. The products were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy(FTIR). The experimental results indicate that the yield of the monomer was 99.06%, and the conversion of the monomer and the grafting yield of QL were 93.69% and 185.78%, respectively. The feasibility of QL as the fiocculant to be applied in color removal of five artificial dyes, eriochrome black T( dye A), gongo red( dye B), direct fast black G (dye C), cuprofix blue green B (dye D), and acid black ATT (dye E) was examined.Results show that QL exhibits the favorable flocculation performance and high stability.

  15. Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of Novel Quaternary Ammonium Pyridoxine Derivatives. (United States)

    Shtyrlin, Nikita V; Sapozhnikov, Sergey V; Koshkin, Sergey A; Iksanova, Alfiya G; Sabirov, Arthur H; Kayumov, Airat R; Nureeva, Aliya A; Zeldi, Marina I; Shtyrlin, Yurii G


    A series of 26 quaternary ammonium pyridoxine derivatives were synthesized and their cytotoxicity and antibacterial activities against clinically relevant bacterial strains were tested in vitro. The antibacterial activity of mono-ammonium salts increased with the rise of the lipophilicity and compound 3,3,5-trimethyl-8,8-dioctyl-1,7,8,9-tetrahydro-[1,3]dioxino[5,4-d]pyrrolo[3,4-b]pyridin-8-ium chloride (2d) reaches a maximum among them. Bis-ammonium salt of pyridoxine 4 with two dimethyloctylamine groups also demonstrated high antibacterial activity despite lower lipophilicity. The results of MTT assay indicated that HEK 293 cells were more sensitive than HSF to quaternary ammonium pyridoxine derivatives. Compounds 2d and 4 did not induce the damage of the DNA and might be of interest in the development of new antimicrobials.

  16. Active tectonics of the Oran (Algeria) Quaternary plain (United States)

    youcef, Bouhadad; rabah, Bensalem; e-hadi, oubaiche


    The Oran region, in north-western Algeria, has been hit several times in the past by destructive moderate-sized and strong earthquakes. The Oran October 9th , 1790 (I0= X) was among the strongest seismic events in the western Mediterranean area comparable, if we consider the described effects, to the El- Asnam (1980, Ms=7.3) and Zemmouri (2003, Mw=6.8) earthquakes. Such strong seismic events requires the presence of major active geological structures that are re-activated several times in the past. In this work we present results of a multi- disciplinary study combining geomorphic analysis, field earthquake geological investigations and geophysical methods, undertaken to study the southern border of the Oran Quaternary plain. A 50 km long, SW-dipping and NE-SW trending active fault has been identified that showing clear quaternary deformation. Keywords: earthquake geology, active fault, geomorphic, geophysics, Algeria.

  17. New quantum codes constructed from quaternary BCH codes (United States)

    Xu, Gen; Li, Ruihu; Guo, Luobin; Ma, Yuena


    In this paper, we firstly study construction of new quantum error-correcting codes (QECCs) from three classes of quaternary imprimitive BCH codes. As a result, the improved maximal designed distance of these narrow-sense imprimitive Hermitian dual-containing quaternary BCH codes are determined to be much larger than the result given according to Aly et al. (IEEE Trans Inf Theory 53:1183-1188, 2007) for each different code length. Thus, families of new QECCs are newly obtained, and the constructed QECCs have larger distance than those in the previous literature. Secondly, we apply a combinatorial construction to the imprimitive BCH codes with their corresponding primitive counterpart and construct many new linear quantum codes with good parameters, some of which have parameters exceeding the finite Gilbert-Varshamov bound for linear quantum codes.

  18. A Synthetic Route to Quaternary Pyridinium Salt-Functionalized Silsesquioxanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Kostenko


    Full Text Available A synthetic route to potentially biocidal silsesquioxanes functionalized by quaternary pyridinium functionalities has been developed. N-Alkylation reactions of the precursor compounds 4-(2-(trimethoxysilylethyl-pyridine (5 and 4-(2-trichloro-silylethylpyridine (6 with iodomethane, n-hexylbromide, and n-hexadecylbromide cleanly afforded the corresponding N-alkylpyridinium salts (7–10. The synthesis of a 4-(2-ethylpyridine POSS derivative (2 was achieved by capping of the silsesquioxane trisilanol Cy7Si7O9(OH3 (1 via two different preparative routes. Attempts to use compound 2 as precursor for quaternary pyridinium salt-functionalized POSS derivatives were met with only partial success. Only the reaction with iodomethane cleanly afforded the new N-methylpyridinium salt 12 in high yield, whereas n-hexylbromide and n-hexadecylbromide failed to react with 2 even under forcing conditions.

  19. 77 FR 33237 - Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Death Valley National... (United States)


    ... National Park Service Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Death...: Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Saline Valley Warm Springs... environmental impact analysis process for the Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan for Death...

  20. Geomorphological characteristics of increased landslide activity in the Gudbrandsdalen valley, Norway (United States)

    Heyerdahl, Håkon; Høydal, Øyvind


    The Gudbrandsdalen valley in Eastern Norway lies in a region where annual precipitation is generally low (down to 300 mm/year). The landslide activity has consequently historically been low, although the lower part of the valley sides generally is draped with thick layers of Quaternary deposits, primarily of glacial or glaciofluvial origin. The perception of natural hazards in the valley was previously primarily connected to flooding in the main river in the valley bottom during early summer, due to large discharges resulting from snowmelt in the mountainous regions west and east of the valley. However, several high-intensity events have changed the image of the region. Starting with a localized, but intense, landslide event in the Northern part of the valley in year 2008, two larger events covering almost the entire valley occurred in the years 2011 and 2013. A high number of landslides was triggered in all these events, including many flash floods and debris flows/debris slides in small and steep tributary rivers along the valley slopes. Landslide triggering covers different release mechanisms: In 2008, landslides were triggered without precipitation in not-frozen soil deposits without snow cover in the lower part of the valley. Groundwater flow through the permeable bedrock ("Otta schist") resulting from snow-melt in the elevated mountainous areas caused landslide triggering due to positive pore-water pressures forming at the bedrock surface below soil deposits, or at depressions in the terrain. Subsequent rainfall resulted in even more landslides being released. In later events (years 2011 and 2013) many landslides were caused by surface water taking new paths downslope, often due to man-made changes in existing waterways (typically poorly planned drainage solutions or new roads). Relatively small discharges in slopes with unconsolidated and easily erodible glacial deposits (typically lateral moraine) in many cases lead to small initial slides that down

  1. A view of late glacial runoff from the lower Mississippi River valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saucier, R.T. (Army Engineer Waterways Experiment, Vicksburg, MS (United States))


    Thousands of cubic kilometers of massive coarse-grained Late Wisconsin glacial outwash underline the Mississippi alluvial plain, however, the deposits are exposed at the surface primarily only in the Eastern Lowlands. There the valley train deposits form a series of low, flat terraces characterized by a distinctive pattern of relict braided channels. The terrace levels reflect episodes of meltwater release and possibly catastrophic flood events, but precise correlations to Midwest events have not been possible. The detailed chronology of late glacial runoff in the valley is not resolved, but certain key events have been temporally defined. Diversion of the Mississippi River from the Western to the eastern Lowlands began about 16,000 B.P. The high and intermediate terrace levels formed between 14,500 and 11,000 B.P. during the peak of late glacial runoff: the intermediate level was abandoned and had wide-spread human habitation by 10,000 B.P. Following a lull in runoff after 11,000 B.P., a diversion of the river through Thebes Gap and the formation of the well-defined Charleston Fan in southeast Missouri was possibly triggered by a sudden and brief meltwater release event. Sedimentological and archeological evidence suggest this occurred between 10,500 and 10,000 B.P. By about 9,800 B.P., the river had ceased carrying meltwater and was flowing in a meandering regime. Because most outwash in the valley is buried, opportunities for direct investigation will always be limited. However, indirect study of outwash via impacts on sedimentation in tributary valleys, banding in loess deposits, and distribution of ice-rafted erratics should yield new chronostratigraphic evidence.

  2. Geological provenance of Quaternary deposits from the southeastern Brazilian coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjos, R.M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n, Gragoata, Campus da Praia Vermelha, 24210-346, Niteroi, R.J. (Brazil)]. E-mail:; Veiga, R. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n, Gragoata, Campus da Praia Vermelha, 24210-346, Niteroi, R.J. (Brazil); Carvalho, C. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n, Gragoata, Campus da Praia Vermelha, 24210-346, Niteroi, R.J. (Brazil); Macario, K.D. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n, Gragoata, Campus da Praia Vermelha, 24210-346, Niteroi, R.J. (Brazil); Gomes, P.R.S. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n, Gragoata, Campus da Praia Vermelha, 24210-346, Niteroi, R.J. (Brazil)


    Natural gamma radiation measurements of beach sand deposits were performed with the aim of understanding the provenance and transport processes of sediments along the coastal zone of three Brazilian States. The method employs thorium, uranium and potassium as tracers of the mineralogical properties of beach sand minerals, which reflect the geological history of transport and sorting processes. A considerable positive correlation with the geological evolution of these Quaternary coastal deposits was observed.

  3. The impact of Quaternary Ice Ages on mammalian evolution. (United States)

    Lister, Adrian M


    The Quaternary was a time of extensive evolution among mammals. Most living species arose at this time, and many of them show adaptations to peculiarly Quaternary environments. The latter include continental northern steppe and tundra, and the formation of lakes and offshore islands. Although some species evolved fixed adaptations to specialist habitats, others developed flexible adaptations enabling them to inhabit broad niches and to survive major environmental changes. Adaptation to short-term (migratory and seasonal) habitat change probably played a part in pre-adapting mammal species to the longer-term cyclical changes of the Quaternary. Fossil evidence indicates that environmental changes of the order of thousands of years have been sufficient to produce subspeciation, but speciation has typically required one hundred thousand to a few hundred thousand years, although there are both shorter and longer exceptions. The persistence of taxa in environments imposing strong selective regimes may have been important in forcing major adaptive change. Individual Milankovitch cycles are not necessarily implicated in this process, but nor did they generally inhibit evolutionary change among mammals: many evolutionary divergences built over multiple climatic cycles. Deduction of speciation timing requires input from fossils and modern phenotypic and breeding data, to complement and constrain mitochondrial DNA coalescence dates which appear commonly to overestimate taxic divergence dates and durations of speciation. Migrational and evolutionary responses to climate change are not mutually exclusive but, on the contrary, may be synergistic. Finally, preliminary analysis suggests that faunal turnover, including an important element of speciation, was elevated in the Quaternary compared with the Neogene, at least in some biomes. Macroevolutionary species selection or sorting has apparently resulted in a modern mammalian fauna enriched with fast-reproducing and/or adaptively

  4. Morphogenetic evolution of the Têt river valley (eastern Pyrenees) using 10Be/21Ne cosmogenic burial dating (United States)

    Sartégou, Amandine; Blard, Pierre-Henri; Braucher, Régis; Bourlès, Didier L.; Calvet, Marc; Zimmermann, Laurent; Tibari, Bouchaïb; Hez, Gabriel; Gunnell, Yanni; Aumaitre, Georges; Keddadouche, Karim


    The rates and chronologies of valley incision are closely modulated by the tectonic uplift of active mountain ranges and were controlled by repeated climate changes during the Quaternary. The continental collision between the Iberian and Eurasian plates induced a double vergence orogen, the Pyrenees, which has been considered as a mature mountain range in spite of significant seismicity (e.g. Chevrot et al., 2011) and evidence of neotectonics (e.g. Goula et al., 1999). Nevertheless, recent studies indicate that the range may have never reached a steady state (Ford et al., in press). One option for resolving this controversy is to quantify the incision rates since the Miocene by reconstructing the vertical movement of geometric markers such as fluvial terraces. However, the few available ages from the Pyrenean terrace systems do not exceed the middle Pleistocene. Thus, to enlarge the time span of this dataset, we studied alluvium-filled horizontal epiphreatic passages in limestone karstic networks. Such landforms are used as substitutes of fluvial terraces because they represent former valley floors (e.g. Palmer, 2007; Audra et al., 2013). They record the transient position of former local base levels during the process of valley deepening. The Têt river valley (southern Pyrenees) was studied near the Villefranche-de-Conflent limestone gorge where 8 cave levels have been recognized over a vertical height of 600 meters. Given that 26Al/10Be cosmogenic burial dating in this setting was limited to the last ~5 Ma (Calvet et al., 2015), here we used the cosmogenic 10Be/21Ne method in order to restore a more complete chronology of valley incision (e.g. Balco & Shuster, 2009; McPhilipps et al., 2016). Burial age results for alluvial deposits from 12 caves document incision rates since the Langhian (~14 Ma). Preliminary results indicate a history of valley deepening in successive stages. The data show a regular incision rate of 70-80 mm/a from the Langhian to the Messinian

  5. Microstructure development in Al-Cu-Ag-Mg quaternary alloy (United States)

    Zhou, Bin; Froyen, L.


    The solidification behaviour of multi-component and multi-phase systems has been largely investigated in binary and ternary alloys. In the present study, a quaternary model system is proposed based on the well known Al-Cu-Ag and Al-Cu-Mg ternary eutectic alloys. The quaternary eutectic composition and temperature were determined by EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectrometry) and DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry) analysis, respectively. The microstructure was then characterised by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope). In the DSC experiments, two types of quaternary eutectics were determined according to their phase composition. For each type of eutectic, various microstructures were observed, which result in different eutectic compositions. Only one of the determined eutectic compositions was further studied by the controlled growth technique in a vertical Bridgeman type furnace. In the initial part of the directionally solidified sample, competing growth between two-phase dendrites and three-phase eutectics was obtained, which was later transformed to competing growth between three-phase and four-phase eutectics. Moreover, silver enrichment was measured at the solidification front, which is possibly caused by Ag sedimentation due to gravity and Ag rejection from dendritic and three-phase eutectic growth, and its accumulation at the solidification front.

  6. Regional seismic stratigraphy and controls on the Quaternary evolution of the Cape Hatteras region of the Atlantic passive margin, USA (United States)

    Mallinson, D.J.; Culver, S.J.; Riggs, S.R.; Thieler, E.R.; Foster, D.; Wehmiller, J.; Farrell, K.M.; Pierson, J.


    Seismic and core data, combined with amino acid racemization and strontium-isotope age data, enable the definition of the Quaternary stratigraphic framework and recognition of geologic controls on the development of the modern coastal system of North Carolina, U.S.A. Seven regionally continuous high amplitude reflections are defined which bound six seismic stratigraphic units consisting of multiple regionally discontinuous depositional sequences and parasequence sets, and enable an understanding of the evolution of this margin. Data reveal the progressive eastward progradation and aggradation of the Quaternary shelf. The early Pleistocene inner shelf occurs at a depth of ca. 20-40 m beneath the western part of the modern estuarine system (Pamlico Sound). A mid- to outer shelf lowstand terrace (also early Pleistocene) with shelf sand ridge deposits comprising parasequence sets within a transgressive systems tract, occurs at a deeper level (ca. 45-70 m) beneath the modern barrier island system (the Outer Banks) and northern Pamlico Sound. Seismic and foraminiferal paleoenvironmental data from cores indicate the occurrence of lowstand strandplain shoreline deposits on the early to middle Pleistocene shelf. Middle to late Pleistocene deposits occur above a prominent unconformity and marine flooding surface that truncates underlying units, and contain numerous filled fluvial valleys that are incised into the early and middle Pleistocene deposits. The stratigraphic framework suggests margin progradation and aggradation modified by an increase in the magnitude of sea-level fluctuations during the middle to late Pleistocene, expressed as falling stage, lowstand, transgressive and highstand systems tracts. Thick stratigraphic sequences occur within the middle Pleistocene section, suggesting the occurrence of high capacity fluvial point sources debouching into the area from the west and north. Furthermore, the antecedent topography plays a significant role in the evolution

  7. Biogeochemical and suspended sediment responses to permafrost degradation in stream banks in Taylor Valley, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Gooseff


    Full Text Available Stream channels in the McMurdo Dry Valleys are typically wide, incised, and stable. At typical flows, streams occupy a fraction of the oversized channels, providing habitat for algal mats. In January 2012, we discovered substantial channel erosion and subsurface thermomechanical erosion undercutting banks of Crescent Stream. We sampled stream water along the impacted reach and compared concentrations of solutes to the long-term data from this stream (~20 years of monitoring. Thermokarst-impacted stream water demonstrated higher electrical conductivity, and concentrations of chloride, sulfate, sodium, suspended sediments, and nitrate than the long-term medians. These results suggest that this mode of lateral permafrost degradation may substantially impact stream solute loads and potentially fertilize stream and lake ecosystems. The potential for sediment to scour or bury stream algal mats is yet to be determined, though it may offset impacts of associated increased nutrient loads to streams.

  8. Tectonic and eustatic controls of late quaternary shelf sedimentation along the Central California (Santa Cruz) continental margin: high-resolution seismic stratigraphic evidence (United States)

    Mullins, Henry T.; Nagel, David K.; Dominguez, Laura L.


    A high-resolution "uniboom", seismic stratigraphic investigation of a portion of the central California continental shelf has demonstrated that depositional patterns and sequences are controlled largely by an interplay of glacioeustatic sea-level fluctuations superimposed on local tectonics. Wrench tectonics, associated with active right-lateral shear along the San Gregorio fault zone, and the Pigeon Point Basement High control the location, distribution and overall geometry of depositional sequences via en echelon folding and differential subsidence. Areas of relatively thick and thin late Quaternary sediments conform in large part with structures produced during wrenching. Glacioeustatic sea-level oscillations have also shaped depositional patterns and sequences. Correlation of our seismic stratigraphic data with a southern California continental margin sea-level curve, suggests that during the last glacial maximum, approximately 18,000 yrs ago, a relative lowstand resulted in the erosion of a distinct unconformity upon which late Quaternary sediments have accumulated. A rapid rise of sea level to a relative stillstand, approximately 12,000 yrs ago, produced a concave-up, marine terrace profile across the mid-shelf, that has since been infilled with as much as 22 m of Holocene clastic sediments. A relative drop of sea level, approximately 11,000 yrs ago, allowed sediments to build seaward as a series of prograding clinoforms that form the basal sequences of the late Quaternary sediment fill. The succeeding Holocene transgression partially eroded the top of this earlier regressive sequence, and has now established a typical, wave-graded shelf along which sediments fine in a seaward direction to water depths of 90-100 m. At greater shelf water depths, surface sediments coarsen and appear to be relicts of previous relative sea-level lowstands. The presence of now submerged and buried marine terraces along both the central and southern California continental margins

  9. Work through the valley: plan. (United States)

    Jones, Loretta; Meade, Barbara; Koegel, Paul; Lucas-Wright, Aziza; Young-Brinn, Angela; Terry, Chrystene; Norris, Keith


    This first of three chapters on the Valley stage, or main work of a Community-Partnered Participatory Research (CPPR) initiative, concerns the planning phase of the work cycle. The main goal of this phase is to develop an action plan, which clarifies the goals, methods, responsible individuals, and timeline for doing the work. Further, this chapter reviews approaches, such as creativity and use of humor, that help level the playing field and assure community co-leadership with academic partners in developing effective action plans.

  10. Quaternary Geology and Liquefaction Susceptibility, Napa, California 1:100,000 Quadrangle: A Digital Database (United States)

    Sowers, Janet M.; Noller, Jay S.; Lettis, William R.


    Earthquake-induced ground failures such as liquefaction have historically brought loss of life and damage to property and infrastructure. Observations of the effects of historical large-magnitude earthquakes show that the distribution of liquefaction phenomena is not random. Liquefaction is restricted to areas underlain by loose, cohesionless sands and silts that are saturated with water. These areas can be delineated on the basis of thorough geologic, geomorphic, and hydrologic mapping and map analysis (Tinsley and Holzer, 1990; Youd and Perkins, 1987). Once potential liquefaction zones are delineated, appropriate public and private agencies can prepare for and mitigate seismic hazard in these zones. In this study, we create a liquefaction susceptibility map of the Napa 1:100,000 quadrangle using Quaternary geologic mapping, analysis of historical liquefaction information, groundwater data, and data from other studies. The study is atterned after state-of-the-art studies by Youd (1973) Dupre and Tinsley (1980) and Dupre (1990) in the Monterey-Santa Cruz area, Tinsley and others (1985) in the Los Angeles area, and Youd and Perkins (1987) in San Mateo County, California. The study area comprises the northern San Francisco Metropolitan Area, including the cities of Santa Rosa, Vallejo, Napa, Novato, Martinez, and Fairfield (Figure 1). Holocene estuarine deposits, Holocene stream deposits, eolian sands, and artificial fill are widely present in the region (Helley and Lajoie, 1979) and are the geologic materials of greatest concern. Six major faults capable of producing large earthquakes cross the study area, including the San Andreas, Rodgers Creek, Hayward, West Napa, Concord, and Green Valley faults (Figure 1).

  11. New morphostratigraphic and chronological constraints for the Quaternary paleosurfaces of the Molise Apennine (southern Italy) (United States)

    Aucelli, Pietro P. C.; Amato, Vincenzo; Cesarano, Massimo; Pappone, Gerardo; Rosskopf, Carmen M.; Ermolli, Elda Russo; Scarciglia, Fabio


    The Molise Apennines feature numerous relicts of paleosurfaces, mostly of erosional origin, which represent the remnants of gently-rolling ancient landscapes now hanging at different altitudes above the local base-levels of erosion. Their genesis can be related to prolonged periods of relative tectonic stability alternating with periods of uplift, or to the interplay between steady tectonic uplift and climatic fluctuations. Four orders of paleosurfaces were recognized: I (> 1,100 m a.s.l.), II (900-1,000 m a.s.l.), III (750-850 m a.s.l.), IV (600-720 m a.s.l.). The most ancient orders (I and II) are cut into the bedrock and are located at the top of the Matese and Montagnola di Frosolone massifs. The youngest paleosurfaces (III—IV), partially cut into Quaternary deposits, are found along the valley flanks of the main river systems and within the Boiano, Carpino, Isernia and Sessano intramontane basins. The present study deals with the dating of the Sessano Basin Paleosurface (SBP) which is related to the IV order and is cut into the basin infill. The 40Ar/39Ar age of a tephra layer (437 ± 1.9 ka), intercalated at the top of the succession, supported by archaeo-stratigraphic, palynological and paleopedological data, allowed the SBP surface to be constrained to 350-300 ka. The SBP chronological position represents an important morphostratigraphic marker: it is the first ante quem and post quem date that allows the chronological position of the other orders of paleosurfaces to be better constrained.

  12. Modelling the buried human body environment in upland climes using three contrasting field sites. (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew S; Janaway, Robert C; Holland, Andrew D; Dodson, Hilary I; Baran, Eve; Pollard, A Mark; Tobin, Desmond J


    Despite an increasing literature on the decomposition of human remains, whether buried or exposed, it is important to recognise the role of specific microenvironments which can either trigger or delay the rate of decomposition. Recent casework in Northern England involving buried and partially buried human remains has demonstrated a need for a more detailed understanding of the effect of contrasting site conditions on cadaver decomposition and on the microenvironment created within the grave itself. Pigs (Sus scrofa) were used as body analogues in three inter-related taphonomy experiments to examine differential decomposition of buried human remains. They were buried at three contrasting field sites (pasture, moorland, and deciduous woodland) within a 15 km radius of the University of Bradford, West Yorkshire, UK. Changes to the buried body and the effect of these changes on hair and associated death-scene textile materials were monitored as was the microenvironment of the grave. At recovery, 6, 12 and 24 months post-burial, the extent of soft tissue decomposition was recorded and samples of fat and soil were collected for gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) analysis. The results of these studies demonstrated that (1) soil conditions at these three burial sites has a marked effect on the condition of the buried body but even within a single site variation can occur; (2) the process of soft tissue decomposition modifies the localised burial microenvironment in terms of microbiological load, pH, moisture and changes in redox status. These observations have widespread application for the investigation of clandestine burial and time since deposition, and in understanding changes within the burial microenvironment that may impact on biomaterials such as hair and other associated death scene materials.

  13. Quaternary geologic map of the north-central part of the Salinas River Valley and Arroyo Seco, Monterey County, California (United States)

    Taylor, Emily M.; Sweetkind, Donald S.


    Arroyo Seco, a perennial drainage in the central Coast Range of California, records a sequence of strath terraces. These terraces preserve an erosional and depositional history, controlled by both climate change and regional tectonics. These deposits have been mapped and correlated on the basis of field investigations, digital terrain analysis, stream gradient profiles, evaluation of published regional soil maps, and satellite imagery. Seven of the strath terraces and associated alluvial fans have been dated by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) or infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). The OSL and IRSL dates on seven of the strath terraces and associated alluvial fans in Arroyo Seco are approximately >120 ka, >65 ka, 51–46 ka, 36–35 ka, 9 ka, and 2–1 ka. These dates generally fall within the range of ages reported from many well-dated marine terraces on the California coast that are formed during sea-level high stands. Tectonic movements, consistently upward, result in a constantly and slowly emerging coastline, however, the regional effects of climate change and resulting eustatic sea-level rises are interpreted as the driving mechanism for erosion and aggradation in Arroyo Seco.

  14. Vernal Pool Distribution - Central Valley, 2005 [ds650 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — "Great Valley Vernal Pool Distribution", originally mapped by Bob Holland, 2005. This dataset contains vernal pool areas mapped over Califorina's Central Valley,...

  15. Valley Pearl’ table grape (United States)

    Valley Pearl’ is an early to mid-season, white seedless table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) suitable for commercial table grape production where V. vinifera can be grown. Significant characteristics of ‘Valley Pearl’ are its high and consistent fruit production on spur pruned vines and large round berr...

  16. Enjoy Samba Carnival in Happy Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    On July3,the Yanjing Beer 2009 Beijing Happy Valley Mayan Carnival was grandly opened.The carnival will last for almost two months until August 30.With support from Yanjing Beer,Happy Valley is able to provide an authentic Brazilian festival including hot music and dancing,

  17. Sedimentation architecture of the volcanically-dammed Alf valley in the West Eifel Volcanic Field, Germany (United States)

    Eichhorn, Luise; Lange, Thomas; Engelhardt, Jörn; Polom, Ulrich; Pirrung, Michael; Büchel, Georg


    In the southeastern part of the Quaternary West Eifel Volcanic Field, the Alf valley with its morphologically wide (~ 500 m) and flat valley bottom is visibly outstanding. This flat valley bottom was formed during the Marine Isotope Stage 2 due to fluviolacustrine sediments which deposited upstream of a natural volcanic dam. The dam consisted of lava and scoria breccia from the Wartgesberg Volcano complex (Cipa 1958, Hemfler et al. 1991) that erupted ~ 31 BP (40Ar/ 39Ar dating on glass shards, Mertz, pers. communication 2014). Due to this impoundment, the Alf creek turned into a dendritic lake, trapping the catchment sediments. The overall aim is to create the sedimentation architecture of the Alf valley. In comparison to maar archives like Holzmaar or Meerfelder Maar in the vicinity, the fluviolacustrine sediments of the Alf valley show clay-silt lamination despite the water percolation. This archive covers the transition from the Last Glacial Maximum to Early Holocene (Pirrung et al. 2007). Focus of this study is the creation of a 3D model by applying the program ESRI ArcGIS 10.2 to reconstruct the pre-volcanic Alf valley. Moreover, the sedimentation architecture is reconstructed and the sediment fill quantified. Therefore, the digital elevation model with 5 m resolution from the State Survey and Geobasis Information of Rhineland-Palatinate, polreduced magnetic data measured on top of the Strohn lava stream, shear seismic data and core stratigraphies were utilized. Summarizing previous results, Lake Alf had a catchment area of ~ 55 km² (Meerfelder Maar: 1.27 km²) and a surface area of 8.2 km² (Meerfelder Maar: 0.24 km²) considering a maximum lake water level of 410 m a.s.l.. In the deepest parts (~ 50 m) of Lake Alf, lake sediments are laminated, up to 21 m thick and show a very high sedimentation rate ~ 3 mm a-1 (Dehner Maar ~ 1.5 mm a-1, (Sirocko et al. 2013)). The sediments become coarser upstream und stratigraphically above the fine-grained lake sediments

  18. Active faulting, 3-D geological architecture and Plio-Quaternary structural evolution of extensional basins in the central Apennine chain, Italy (United States)

    Gori, Stefano; Falcucci, Emanuela; Ladina, Chiara; Marzorati, Simone; Galadini, Fabrizio


    The general basin and range Apennine topographic characteristic is generally attributed to the presently active normal fault systems, whose long-term activity (throughout the Quaternary) is supposed to have been responsible for the creation of morphological/structural highs and lows. By coupling field geological survey and geophysical investigations, we reconstructed the 3-D geological model of an inner tectonic basin of the central Apennines, the Subequana Valley, bounded to the northeast by the southern segment of one of the major active and seismogenic normal faults of the Apennines, known as the Middle Aterno Valley-Subequana Valley fault system. Our analyses revealed that, since the late Pliocene, the basin evolved in a double half-graben configuration through a polyphase tectonic development. An early phase, Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene in age, was controlled by the ENE-WSW-striking and SSE-dipping Avezzano-Bussi fault, that determined the formation of an early depocentre towards the N-NW. Subsequently, the main fault became the NW-SE-striking faults, which drove the formation during the Quaternary of a new fault-related depocentre towards the NE. By considering the available geological information, a similar structural evolution has likely involved three close tectonic basins aligned along the Avezzano-Bussi fault, namely the Fucino Basin, the Subequana Valley, and the Sulmona Basin, and it has been probably experienced by other tectonic basins of the chain. The present work therefore points out the role of pre-existing transverse tectonic structures, inherited by previous tectonic phases, in accommodating the ongoing tectonic deformation and, consequently, in influencing the structural characteristics of the major active normal faults. This has implications in terms of earthquake fault rupture propagation and segmentation. Lastly, the morpho-tectonic setting of the Apennine chain results from the superposition of deformation events whose geological

  19. Late Quaternary activity along the Ferrara thrust inferred from stratigraphic architecture and geophysical surveys (United States)

    Stefani, Marco; Bignardi, Samuel; Caputo, Riccardo; Minarelli, Luca; Abu-Zeid, Nasser; Santarato, Giovanni


    Since Late Miocene, the Emilia-Romagna portion of the Po Plain-Adriatic foredeep basin was progressively affected by compressional deformation, due to the northward propagation of the Apennines fold-and-thrust belt. The major tectonic structures within the basin have been recognised and are relatively well known, thanks to the widespread, even if outdated, seismic survey, performed after WW II, for hydrocarbon exploration. More recently, a large amount of surface and shallow-subsurface information has been provided by the CARG geological mapping project. The region therefore provides a valuable opportunity to discuss the genetic relationship between tectonic deformation, eustatic-paleoclimatic fluctuations, and depositional architecture. The activity of blind thrusts and fault-propagation folds induced repeated angular unconformities and impressive lateral variations in the Pliocene-Quaternary stratigraphy, causing thickness changes, from a few metres, close to the Apennines piedmont line, to more than 9 km, in fast subsiding depocenters (e.g. Lido di Savio). In the Ferrara region, the post-Miocene succession ranges from about 4 km, west of Sant'Agostino, to less than 200 m, on the Casaglia anticline, where Late Quaternary fluvial strata rest on Miocene marine marls, with an angular unconformity relationship. In this sector of the Po Plain, the tip-line of the northernmost thrust has been reconstructed north of the Po River (Occhiobello) and is associated with the growth of a large fold (Ferrara-Casaglia anticline), cross-cut by a complex splay of minor backthrusts and reverse faults. The thrust-anticline structure hosts an energy producing geothermal field, whose hydrogeological behaviour is largely influenced by the fracture pattern. The Apennines frontal thrust probably provided the seismic source for the earthquakes that severely damaged Ferrara, during the 1570 a.D. fall season, as documented by the structural damage still visible in many historic buildings (e

  20. Novel high-voltage power lateral MOSFET with adaptive buried electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Wen-Tong; Wu Li-Juan; Qiao Ming; Luo Xiao-Rong; Zhang Bo; Li Zhao-Ji


    A new high-voltage and low-specific on-resistance (Ron,sp) adaptive buried electrode (ABE) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) power lateral MOSFET and its analytical model of the electric fields are proposed.The MOSFET features are that the electrodes are in the buried oxide (BOX) layer,the negative drain voltage Vd is divided into many partial voltages and the output to the electrodes is in the buried oxide layer and the potentials on the electrodes change linearly from the drain to the source.Because the interface silicon layer potentials are lower than the neighboring electrode potentials,the electronic potential wells are formed above the electrode regions,and the hole poteutial wells are formed in the spacing of two neighbouring electrode regions.The interface hole concentration is much higher than the electron concentration through designing the buried layer electrode potentials.Based on the interface charge enhanced dielectric layer field theory,the electric field strength in the buried layer is enhanced.The vertical electric field EI and the breakdown voltage (BV) of ABE SOI are 545 V/μm and -587 V in the 50 μm long drift region and the 1 tm thick dielectric layer,and a low Ron,sp is obtained.Furthermore,the structure also alleviates the self-heating effect (SHE).The analytical model matches the simulation results.

  1. Accelerometer measurements of acoustic-to-seismic coupling above buried objects. (United States)

    Attenborough, Keith; Qin, Qin; Jefferis, Jonathan; Heald, Gary


    The surface velocity of sand inside a large PVC container, induced by the sound pressure from either a large loudspeaker radiating into an inverted cone and pipe or a Bruel and Kjaer point source loudspeaker mounted with its axis vertical, has been measured using accelerometers. Results of white noise and stepped frequency excitation are presented. Without any buried object the mass loading of an accelerometer creates resonances in the spectral ratio of sand surface velocity to incident acoustic pressure, i.e., the acoustic-to-seismic (A/S) admittance spectra. The A/S responses above a buried compliant object are larger and distinctive. The linear A/S admittance spectra in the presence of a buried electronic components box have been studied as a function of burial depth and sand state. The nonlinear responses above the buried box have been studied as a function of depth, sand state, and amplitude. Predictions of a modified one-dimensional lumped parameter model have been found to be consistent with the observed nonlinear responses. Also the modified model has been used to explain features of the A/S responses observed when using an accelerometer without any buried object.

  2. Real-time corrosion control system for cathodic protection of buried pipes for nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Tae; Kim, Hae Woong; Kim, Young Sik [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Hyun Young; Lim, Bu Taek; Park, Heung Bae [Power Engineering Research Institute, KEPCO Engineering and Construction Company, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)


    Since the operation period of nuclear power plants has increased, the degradation of buried pipes gradually increases and recently it seems to be one of the emerging issues. Maintenance on buried pipes needs high quality of management system because outer surface of buried pipe contacts the various soils but inner surface reacts with various electrolytes of fluid. In the USA, USNRC and EPRI have tried to manage the degradation of buried pipes. However, there is little knowledge about the inspection procedure, test and manage program in the domestic nuclear power plants. This paper focuses on the development and build-up of real-time monitoring and control system of buried pipes. Pipes to be tested are tape-coated carbon steel pipe for primary component cooling water system, asphalt-coated cast iron pipe for fire protection system, and pre-stressed concrete cylinder pipe for sea water cooling system. A control system for cathodic protection was installed on each test pipe which has been monitored and controlled. For the calculation of protection range and optimization, computer simulation was performed using COMSOL Multiphysics (Altsoft co.)

  3. Buried free flaps in head and neck reconstruction: higher risk of free flap failure? (United States)

    Reiter, M; Harréus, U; Kisser, U; Betz, C S; Baumeister, Ph


    Thrombosis of the pedicle is central to free flap failure, and early revision of a compromised flap is the key to successfully salvage a flap. Therefore, the majority of free flaps in reconstructive head and neck surgery are used with the ability to visually examine the flap. Sometimes, due to intra-operative circumstances, it is necessary to use a flap that cannot be monitored externally. These flaps are called buried flaps and have the reputation of being put at risk. The current literature provides only limited data to support or disprove this position. A single institution retrospective review of patient charts between 2007 and 2015 was performed. Flap monitoring was carried out with hand-held Doppler of the pedicle hourly for the first 72 h in all cases. Additional duplex ultrasound was performed in the majority of buried flaps. A total of 437 flaps were included into the study. 37 flaps (7.8 %) were identified to fulfill the criteria of a buried free flap. In total, four patients had complications, three of which required operative reexploration. All interventions were successful, resulting in no flap loss in our series. An accurate operation technique combined with meticulous monitoring protocols supported by duplex ultrasound can result in satisfactory outcome of buried flaps. No enhanced risk of flap loss of buried flaps was found in our cohort.

  4. Terrestrial Cosmogenic-Nuclide Dating of Alluvial Fans in Death Valley, California (United States)

    Machette, Michael N.; Slate, Janet L.; Phillips, Fred M.


    We have used terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides (TCN) to establish the age of some of the most extensive Quaternary alluvial fans in Death Valley, California. These intermediate-age alluvial fans are most extensive on the western side of the valley, where tectonic deformation is considerably less pronounced than on the eastern side of the valley. These fans are characterized by a relatively smooth, densely packed desert pavement formed by well-varnished (blackened) clasts. These surfaces have been mapped as the Q2 gravel by previous workers and as unit Qai (intermediate age) by us. However, the intermediate-age gravels probably contain multiple subunits, as evidenced by slight differences in morphologic expression, soil formation, and inset geomorphic relations. The TCN technique used herein sums the cosmogenic 36Cl in approximately 2.5-meter-deep profiles through soil and host alluvium, thus avoiding some of the problems associated with the more typical surface-exposure dating of boulders or smaller clasts. Our TCN 36Cl dating of 12 depth profiles indicates that these intermediate-age (Qai) alluvial fans range from about 100 to 40 kilo-annum (ka), with a mean age of about 70 ka. An alternative interpretation is that alluvial unit Qai was deposited in two discrete episodes from 90 to 80 ka and from 60 to 50 ka, before and after MIS (marine oxygen-isotope stage) 4 (respectively). Without an intermediate-age unit, such as MIS 4 lake deposits, we can neither disprove nor prove that Qai was deposited in two discrete intervals or over a longer range of time. Thus, in Death Valley, alluvial unit Qai largely brackets MIS 4, which is not associated with a deep phase of Lake Manly. These Qai fans extend to elevations of about -46 meters (150 feet below sea level) and have not been transgressed by Lake Manly, suggesting that MIS 4 or MIS 2 lakes were rather shallow in Death Valley, perhaps because they lacked inflow from surface runoff of the Sierra Nevada drainages through

  5. Late Quaternary chronostratigraphic framework of terraces and alluvium along the lower Ohio River, southwestern Indiana and western Kentucky, USA (United States)

    Counts, Ronald C.; Murari, Madhav K.; Owen, Lewis A.; Mahan, Shannon; Greenan, Michele


    The lower Ohio River valley is a terraced fluvial landscape that has been profoundly influenced by Quaternary climate change and glaciation. A modern Quaternary chronostratigraphic framework was developed for the lower Ohio River valley using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating and allostratigraphic mapping to gain insights into the nature of fluvial responses to glacial–interglacial/stadial–interstadial transitions and Holocene climate change. River deposits, T0 (youngest) to T7 (oldest), were mapped along a 75 km reach of the lower Ohio River and were dated using 46 OSL and 5 radiocarbon samples. The examination of cores combined with OSL and radiocarbon dating shows that fluvial sediments older than marine oxygen isotope stage (MIS) 2 are present only in the subsurface. Aggradation during MIS 6 (Illinoian glaciation) filled the valley to within ∼7 m of the modern floodplain, and by ∼114 ka (MIS 5e/Sangamon interglacial) the Ohio River had scoured the MIS 6 sediments to ∼22 m below the modern floodplain surface. There were no fluvial sediments in the valley with ages between MIS 5e and the middle of MIS 3. The MIS 3 ages (∼39 ka) and stratigraphic position of T5 deposits suggest the Ohio River aggraded 8–14 m during MIS 4 or MIS 3. Near the end of MIS 3, the Ohio River incised the mid Last Glacial (mid-Wisconsinan) deposits ∼10 m and began aggrading again by ∼30 ka. Aggradation continued into MIS 2, with maximum MIS 2 aggradation occurring before ∼21 ka, which is coincident with the global Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). As the Ohio River adjusted to changing fluxes in sediment load and discharge following the LGM, it formed a sequence of fill-cut terraces in the MIS 2 outwash that get progressively younger with decreasing elevation, ranging in age from ∼21 ka to ∼13 ka. From ∼14 ka to ∼13 ka the Ohio River rapidly incised ∼3 m to form a new terrace, and by ∼12 ka at the onset of the Holocene, the Ohio River

  6. The geomorphology of Patagonian ice dammed lake basins: Insights from remote sensing of a modern lake and reconstruction of a Late Quaternary lake drainage event (United States)

    Thorndycraft, Varyl


    The geomorphology of ice dammed lake basins can be complex due to geomorphic responses to multiple base level changes from repeated filling and emptying, as well as the potential for catastrophic drainage events. Refining landscape models of Quaternary ice dammed palaeolake systems has the potential to improve our understanding of glacier and meltwater dynamics during deglaciation phases. In this poster two case studies are presented to shed light on the range of geomorphic processes exhibited within ice dammed lake basins. Using Google Earth Pro and repeat LANDSAT imagery the geomorphology resulting from multiple base level changes of an ice dammed lake of the Viedma Glacier (Southern Patagonia Icefield) is presented. The LANDSAT imagery shows transgressive lake phases inundating already formed delta and terrace surfaces, whilst the high resolution Google Earth Pro images reveal a complex suite of incised terrace levels developed on the valley floor following lake drainage events. Secondly, the impact of catastrophic drainage of the Late Pleistocene Palaeolake Cochrane (Northern Patagonia Icefield) is investigated through geomorphological mapping. Here an outburst flood and rapid lowering of the lake has led to large scale eddy scouring of glacio-lacustrine sediments, with scarp slopes of ca. 30-40 m in height, and the formation of boulder bars during the final stages of lake fall. The implications of the mapping for interpretations of Late Quaternary palaeolake sediment-landform assemblages and rates of landscape change are discussed.

  7. Transforming the "Valley of Death" into a "Valley of Opportunity" (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Merceret, Francis J.; O'Brien, T. P.; Roeder, William P.; Huddleston, Lisa L.; Bauman, William H., III


    Transitioning technology from research to operations (23 R2O) is difficult. The problem's importance is exemplified in the literature and in every failed attempt to do so. Although the R2O gap is often called the "valley of death", a recent a Space Weather editorial called it a "Valley of Opportunity". There are significant opportunities for space weather organizations to learn from the terrestrial experience. Dedicated R2O organizations like those of the various NOAA testbeds and collaborative "proving ground" projects take common approaches to improving terrestrial weather forecasting through the early transition of research capabilities into the operational environment. Here we present experience-proven principles for the establishment and operation of similar space weather organizations, public or private. These principles were developed and currently being demonstrated by NASA at the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) and the Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center. The AMU was established in 1991 jointly by NASA, the U.S. Air Force (USAF) and the National Weather Service (NWS) to provide tools and techniques for improving weather support to the Space Shuttle Program (Madura et al., 2011). The primary customers were the USAF 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and the NWS Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG who provided the weather observing and forecast support for Shuttle operations). SPoRT was established in 2002 to transition NASA satellite and remote-sensing technology to the NWS. The continuing success of these organizations suggests the common principles guiding them may be valuable for similar endeavors in the space weather arena.

  8. Sediment storage and transport in Pancho Rico Valley during and after the Pleistocene-Holocene transition, Coast Ranges of central California (Monterey County) (United States)

    Garcia, A.F.; Mahan, S.A.


    Factors influencing sediment transport and storage within the 156??6 km2 drainage basin of Pancho Rico Creek (PRC), and sediment transport from the PRC drainage basin to its c. 11000 km2 mainstem drainage (Salinas River) are investigated. Numeric age estimates are determined by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating on quartz grains from three sediment samples collected from a 'quaternary terrace a (Qta)' PRC terrace/PRC-tributary fan sequence, which consists dominantly of debris flow deposits overlying fluvial sediments. OSL dating results, morphometric analyses of topography, and field results indicate that the stormy climate of the Pleistocene-Holocene transition caused intense debris-flow erosion of PRC- tributary valleys. However, during that time, the PRC channel was backfilled by Qta sediment, which indicates that there was insufficient discharge in PRC to transport the sediment load produced by tributary-valley denudation. Locally, Salinas Valley alluvial stratigraphy lacks any record of hillslope erosion occurring during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition, in that the alluvial fan formed where PRC enters the Salinas Valley lacks lobes correlative to Qta. This indicates that sediment stripped from PRC tributaries was mostly trapped in Pancho Rico Valley despite the relatively moist climate of the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. Incision into Qta did not occur until PRC enlarged its drainage basin by c. 50% through capture of the upper part of San Lorenzo Creek, which occurred some time after the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. During the relatively dry Holocene, PRC incision through Qta and into bedrock, as well as delivery of sediment to the San Ardo Fan, were facilitated by the discharge increase associated with stream-capture. The influence of multiple mechanisms on sediment storage and transport in the Pancho Rico Valley-Salinas Valley system exemplifies the complexity that (in some instances) must be recognized in order to correctly

  9. Block Motion from Detonations of Buried Near-Surface Explosive Arrays (United States)


    Estancia Valley, 45 miles east only attempt at using a nonplanar explosive ar- of Albuquerque, New Mexico, in a rather compli- ray designed to focus the...Pratt, H., Oration, I.L. and Zbur, R. (1%91 Geology and and iI and PLANEWAVE I aiid II AFWL-TR-69-12 material properties of the Estancia Valley test site

  10. 3D Imaging of Dielectric Objects Buried under a Rough Surface by Using CSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Tetik


    Full Text Available A 3D scalar electromagnetic imaging of dielectric objects buried under a rough surface is presented. The problem has been treated as a 3D scalar problem for computational simplicity as a first step to the 3D vector problem. The complexity of the background in which the object is buried is simplified by obtaining Green’s function of its background, which consists of two homogeneous half-spaces, and a rough interface between them, by using Buried Object Approach (BOA. Green’s function of the two-part space with planar interface is obtained to be used in the process. Reconstruction of the location, shape, and constitutive parameters of the objects is achieved by Contrast Source Inversion (CSI method with conjugate gradient. The scattered field data that is used in the inverse problem is obtained via both Method of Moments (MoM and Comsol Multiphysics pressure acoustics model.

  11. Effect of soil restraint on the buckling response of buried pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdavi Amiri, H.; Kenny, Shawn [Memorial University of Newfoundland (Canada); Phillips, Ryan [C-CORE (Canada); Popescu, Radu [URS Corporation (United States)


    In the oil and gas sector, transportation and distribution are mainly done suing onshore buried steel pipelines. These pipelines are subjected to numerous geohazards which can provoke significant deformations and it is thus important to evaluate the pipeline strain capacity. Common practice is to use a model developed using the pipeline mechanical response for in-air conditions; however, this does not account for the soil effect and the authors have developed a criterion for pipelines buried in stiff clay. The aim of this paper is to compare both methods and evaluate the effect of soil restraint on local buckling response. Results of the investigations showed that the in-air based criteria provide lower critical strain values than the developed criterion; they also showed that the soil has a restraining effect, which increases the pipeline bending resistance. This paper demonstrated that the soil effect should be considered when calculating the strain capacity of a buried pipeline.

  12. 3D Characteristic Diagram of Acoustically Induced Surface Vibration with Different Landmines Buried

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴智强; 张燕丽; 王驰; 朱俊; 徐文文; 袁志文


    The 3Dcharacteristic diagram of acoustically induced surface vibration was employed to study the influence of different buried landmines on the acoustic detection signal. By using the vehicular experimental system for acoustic landmine detection and the method of scanning detection, the 3D characteristic diagrams of surface vibration were measured when different objects were buried underground, including big plastic landmine, small plastic landmine, big metal landmine and bricks. The results show that, under the given conditions, the surface vi-bration amplitudes of big plastic landmine, big metal landmine, small plastic landmine and bricks decrease in turn. The 3D characteristic diagrams of surface vibration can be used to further identify the locations of buried land-mines.

  13. Selective emitters in buried contact silicon solar cells. Some low-cost solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirozzi, L.; Arabito, G.; Artuso, F.; Barbarossa, V.; Besi-Vetrella, U.; Loreti, S.; Mangiapane, P.; Salza, E. [ENEA Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00060 Roma (Italy)


    We present the results of our study on the formation of selective emitter structures in buried contact cells. In particular, our attention has been focused on those processes that seem to be scalable to industry. To this aim, specific dopant sources and fabrication steps have been selected.Two different kinds of dopants have been considered: the P-doped SOD and the screen-printed dopant paste. For both sources we have tested the feasibility of the selective diffusion formation in a single step, together with the application of suitable techniques to get selective doping, such as laser enhanced diffusion into the grooves, or selective deposition of screen printed paste in buried grid pattern. SEM and SEM-EBIC analyses have been used to investigate the occurrence of doping. Several batches of buried contact, mechanically grooved cells have prepared and tested.

  14. Numerical Modeling for Impact-resistant Pipes Buried at Shallow Depth (United States)

    Wang, Ching-Jong; Hsu, Jung-Fu


    The plastic pipes buried at shallow depth are popular for underground telecommunication lines. To assess their impact-worthiness under loads from heavy traffics, the study establishes a numerical model to correlate with field data. Field impact tests were carried out where a 50-kg mass free-falling at 2.2 m height was dropped onto the soil backfill directly above a buried pipe. A contact-impact model incorporating finite elements of disjoined material regions is developed to simulate the phenomena of mass-soil-pipe interaction and soil dent. Plastic soil deformations are accounted for. Also implemented is a new erosion scheme for dealing with numerical instability caused by crumpled elements during heavy impact. Reasonable agreements can be observed between the analyzed and measured soil dent. This model is versatile in making design evaluations for buried pipes to withstand impact loads. It has potential applications to cemented soil fills and blast loads.

  15. Imaging of dielectric objects buried under a rough surface via distorted born iterative method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altuncu, Y [Nigde University, Electrical and Electronic Engineering Department, Nigde (Turkey); Akleman, F; Semerci, O; Ozlem, C [Istanbul Technical University, Electrical and Electronic Faculty, Maslak-Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail:


    A method is given for the shape, permittivity and conductivity reconstruction of lossy dielectric objects buried under rough surfaces using the Distorted Born Iterative Method (DBIM). The method is based on the refreshing of the Green's function of the two-part space media with rough interface by updating the complex permittivity of the reconstruction domain at each iteration step. The scattered field data are measured at multiple locations for multiple transmitters operating at a single frequency where both transmitters and receivers are located above the rough surface interface. The Green's function of the problem is obtained by using the buried object approach (BOA) method where the fluctuations of the rough surface from the flat one are assumed to be buried objects in a two-part space with planar interface. The performance of the method is tested by some numerical applications and satisfactory results are obtained.

  16. Reflection seismic investigations of the Beaufort Sea margin, Arctic Ocean: Variable history of Quaternary ice-sheet advance (United States)

    Batchelor, Christine; Dowdeswell, Julian; Pietras, Jeffrey


    The seismic stratigraphy and sedimentary architecture of the formerly-glaciated Beaufort Sea shelf and adjacent slope are investigated using a comprehensive grid of high-resolution 2-D seismic reflection data collected by ION Geophysical Corporation as part of the BeaufortSPAN East survey. Three cross-shelf troughs, representing locations of former ice streams draining a 1000 km-long section of the Laurentide Ice Sheet are examined; the Mackenzie, Amundsen Gulf and M'Clure Strait systems. These palaeo-ice streams operated during the last, Late Wisconsinan, glacial maximum and a hitherto unknown number of earlier glacial periods. Their dynamics influenced past ice-sheet configuration and may have forced abrupt climate change through transport of ice and freshwater to the Arctic Ocean. The objectives of this work are to constrain the number of ice advances through each trough, to discuss the possible timing of these events, and to examine the impact of Quaternary glaciation on the continental shelf and adjacent slope. The number of cycles of ice-sheet growth and decay varies markedly between the Mackenzie Trough on the western Beaufort Sea margin, with only two recorded events, and the Amundsen Gulf Trough to the east, with at least nine. The Mackenzie Trough was probably occupied by an ice stream during the Late Wisconsinan and either the Illinoian or Early Wisconsinan glaciation. The Amundsen Gulf ice stream was initiated earlier in the Quaternary, suggesting that the onset of cross-shelf glaciation on the eastern Beaufort Sea margin occurred significantly prior to initial glaciation of Mackenzie Trough to the west. Whereas the continental slope beyond the Mackenzie Trough lacks a significant glacial-sedimentary depocentre, major trough-mouth fans (of volumes ~10,000 km³ and ~60,000 km³) are present beyond the Amundsen Gulf and M'Clure Strait, respectively. A number of buried glacigenic landforms, including grounding-zone wedges and lateral moraines, are

  17. A one dimensional numerical approach for computing the eigenmodes of elastic waves in buried pipelines (United States)

    Duan, Wenbo; Kirby, Ray; Mudge, Peter; Gan, Tat-Hean


    Ultrasonic guided waves are often used in the detection of defects in oil and gas pipelines. It is common for these pipelines to be buried underground and this may restrict the length of the pipe that can be successfully tested. This is because acoustic energy travelling along the pipe walls may radiate out into the surrounding medium. Accordingly, it is important to develop a better understanding of the way in which elastic waves propagate along the walls of buried pipes, and so in this article a numerical model is developed that is suitable for computing the eigenmodes for uncoated and coated buried pipes. This is achieved by combining a one dimensional eigensolution based on the semi-analytic finite element (SAFE) method, with a perfectly matched layer (PML) for the infinite medium surrounding the pipe. This article also explores an alternative exponential complex coordinate stretching function for the PML in order to improve solution convergence. It is shown for buried pipelines that accurate solutions may be obtained over the entire frequency range typically used in long range ultrasonic testing (LRUT) using a PML layer with a thickness equal to the pipe wall thickness. This delivers a fast and computationally efficient method and it is shown for pipes buried in sand or soil that relevant eigenmodes can be computed and sorted in less than one second using relatively modest computer hardware. The method is also used to find eigenmodes for a buried pipe coated with the viscoelastic material bitumen. It was recently observed in the literature that a viscoelastic coating may effectively isolate particular eigenmodes so that energy does not radiate from these modes into the surrounding [elastic] medium. A similar effect is also observed in this article and it is shown that this occurs even for a relatively thin layer of bitumen, and when the shear impedance of the coating material is larger than that of the surrounding medium.

  18. Characteristics and genetic mechanism of deep-buried clastic eureservoir in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Systematic researches to the clastic reservoirs in various types and various geological ages basins in China indicate that the present burial depth of deep buried clastic eureservoir ranges from 3000 to 6000 m,and its geological ages from Paleozoic,Mesozoic to Cenozoic. It mainly deposited in delta (including braid delta,fan delta,normal delta),river,also shore,shallow lake,gravity flow channel and turbidity fan facies. The quartzose sandstone is the main reservoir rock of deep-buried clastic eureservoir in the shore facies in Paleozoic,but the arenite and arkose sandstones are the main reservoir rock types in delta,river,shallow lake and gravity flow facies in Mesozoic and Cenozoic. The porosity of most of deep-buried clastic eureservoir is more than 10% and permeability more than 10×10?3 μm2. The forma-tion of the deep-buried eureservoir was related to the paleotectonics,paleotemperature,sedimentary environment,the deep dissolution caused by organic acid or carbonic acid,burial style,the abnormal high pore fluid pressure,early hydrocarbon charging,gyprock sealing,hot convective fluid flow and the mode of sand-mud interbedded,etc. The paleotectonics controls the burial style of sandstones,and the paleotemperature controls the diagenesis process. The sedimentary environment is the precondi-tion and foundation,the dissolution is the direct reason to generate the deep buried clastic eureservoir. The abnormal high pore fluid pressure,gyprock sealing,the mode of sand-mud interbedded,early hy-drocarbon charging and the structure fractures were the assistant factors of generating the deep buried clastic eureservoir.

  19. Quaternary evolution of the North Sea and the English Channel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibbard, P.L.; Cohen, K.M.


    The island of Britain is surrounded by a ‘moat’ of water, of which the English Channel and the North Sea are two major components. This talk described some major events that occurred to shape these seaways and, in particular, the evidence preserved on the Channel seabed. Here a system of valleys occ

  20. Real-time buried threat detection and cueing capability in VPEF environment (United States)

    Ling, Bo; Agarwal, Sanjeev; Olivera, Santiago; Vasilkoski, Zlatko; Phan, Chung; Geyer, Chris


    In this paper, we present a vehicular buried threat detection approach developed over the past several years, and its latest implementation and integration in VPEF environment. Buried threats have varying signatures under different operation environment. To reliably detect the true targets and minimizing the number of false alarms, a suite of false alarm mitigators (FAMs) have been developed to process the potential targets identified by the baseline module. A vehicle track can be formed over a number of frames and targets are further analyzed both spatially and temporally. Algorithms have been implemented in C/C++ as GStreamer plugins and are suitable for vehicle mounted, on-the-move realtime exploitation.

  1. Experimental Study of Surface Detection of Gas Pipeline Buried in Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Pipeline is a key segment in the transportation of city gas and its safety affects the safety of industrial and domestic application. The characteristics of Shi Dongkou east gas steel pipeline buried in soil were discussed and its parameters related to safety were measured, including the state of anticorrosive layer, the soil resistivity,the natural potential and the protective potential of gas pipeline. The experimental results were confirmed by excavating, which are of value to the knowledge of the gas pipeline buried in soil in Shanghai. The experimental data were analyzed which provide the scientific basis for the assurance of the gas pipeline safety and the reparation of anticorrosivelayer.

  2. Electron Temperature Measurement of Buried Layer Targets Using Time Resolved K-shell Spectroscopy (United States)

    Marley, Edward; Foord, M. E.; Shepherd, R.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Brown, G.; Chen, H.; Emig, J.; Schneider, M.; Widmann, K.; Scott, H.; London, R.; Martin, M.; Wilson, B.; Iglesias, C.; Mauche, C.; Whitley, H.; Nilsen, J.; Hoarty, D.; James, S.; Brown, C. R. D.; Hill, M.; Allan, P.; Hobbs, L.


    Short pulse laser-heated buried layer experiments have been performed with the goal of creating plasmas with mass densities >= 1 g/cm3 and electron temperatures >= 500 eV. The buried layer geometry has the advantage of rapid energy deposition before significant hydrodynamic expansion occurs. For brief periods (PIC simulation done using LSP, which shows late time heating from the non-thermal electron population. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  3. Micro-buried spiral zone plate in a lithium niobate crystal (United States)

    Tian, Zhen-Nan; Hua, Jian-Guan; Hao, Juan; Yu, Yan-Hao; Chen, Qi-Dai; Sun, Hong-Bo


    We present a micro-buried spiral zone plate (MBSZP) in the lithium niobate crystal fabricated with femtosecond laser direct writing technology. The microstructures of the MBSZP are buried under the surface of the crystal, which ensures the stability of the optical performance in various refractive index environments. The optical performances of imaging and focusing capabilities were demonstrated. In addition, the experiment showed good agreement with simulation results based on the optical wave propagation method. This novel optical element will have important applications in multistate information encoding, optical manipulation, quantum communication, and computation, especially in high integration, contact coupling, and variable refractive index environments.

  4. Centrifuge modelling of lateral displacement of buried pipelines; Modelagem fisica centrifuga de flambagem lateral de dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Jose Renato Moreira da Silva de; Almeida, Marcio de Souza Soares de; Marques, Maria Esther Soares; Almeida, Maria Cascao Ferreira de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE); Costa, Alvaro Maia da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)


    This work discusses soil-structure interaction applied to the buckling phenomena of buried pipelines subjected to heated oil flow. A set of physical modelling tests on lateral buckling of pipelines buried on soft clay is presented using COPPE/UFRJ geotechnical centrifuge. A 1:30 pipeline model was moved side ward through a soft clay layer during centrifuge flight, varying the burial depth, in order to simulate the lateral buckling in plane strain condition. The results show different behaviour concerning horizontal and vertical forces measured at pipeline level due to soil reaction. (author)

  5. Burying of channel optical waveguides: relation between near-field measurement and Ag concentration profile (United States)

    Tsai, Wan-Shao; Liu, Yen-Huang; Barkman, Ondrej; Prajzler, Vaclav; Stanek, Stanislav; Nekvindova, Pavla


    Two-step field-assisted ion-exchanged waveguides have been fabricated on a glass substrate. The concentration profiles of the exchanged ions were measured with electron microprobe. The waveguides were characterized under scanning electron microscope and optical microscope for the investigation of burying structures. Guiding mode patterns were characterized with near-field measurement, where symmetric profiles were observed for the burying-type waveguide. The refractive index profiles were also measured with a modified end-fire coupling method. The relation between ion concentration profiles and index profiles were compared for the waveguides with different fabrication process.

  6. Latex-modified grouts for in-situ stabilization of buried transuranic/mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, M.L.


    The Department of Applied Science at Brookhaven national Laboratory was requested to investigate latex-modified grouts for in-situ stabilization of buried TRU/mixed waste for INEL. The waste exists in shallow trenches that were backfilled with soil. The objective was to formulate latex-modified grouts for use with the jet grouting technique to enable in-situ stabilization of buried waste. The stabilized waste was either to be left in place or retrieved for further processing. Grouting prior to retrieval reduces the potential release of contaminants. Rheological properties of latex-modified grouts were investigated and compared with those of conventional neat cement grouts used for jet grouting.

  7. Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter description report. INEL Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration System Analysis project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Brien, M.C.; Morrison, J.L.; Morneau, R.A.; Rudin, M.J.; Richardson, J.G.


    A formal methodology has been developed for identifying technology gaps and assessing innovative or postulated technologies for inclusion in proposed Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) remediation systems. Called the Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter, the methodology provides a formalized selection process where technologies and systems are rated and assessments made based on performance measures, and regulatory and technical requirements. The results are auditable, and can be validated with field data. This analysis methodology will be applied to the remedial action of transuranic contaminated waste pits and trenches buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL).

  8. Buried waste integrated demonstration fiscal year 1992 close-out report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, P.G.; Kostelnik, K.M.; Owens, K.J.


    The mission of the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program (BWID) is to support the development and demonstration of a suite of technologies that when integrated with commercially-available baseline technologies form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste disposed of throughout the US Department of Energy complex. To accomplish this mission of identifying technological solutions for remediation deficiencies, the Office of Technology Development initiated the BWID at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in fiscal year (FY)-91. This report summarizes the activities of the BWID Program during FY-92.

  9. Quaternary basaltic volcanism in the Payenia volcanic province, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina

    The extensive Quaternary volcanism in the Payenia volcanic province, Mendoza, Argentina, is investigated in this study by major and trace element analyses, Sr, Nd, Hf and Pb-isotopic analyses and Zr-Hf isotope dilution data on samples from almost the entire province. The samples are mainly...... in basalts from all the studied volcanic fields in Payenia is signs of lower crustal contamination indicating assimilation of, in some cases, large amounts of trace element depleted, mafic, plagioclase-bearing rocks. The northern Payenia is dominated by backarc basalts erupted between late Pliocene to late...

  10. Mutagenic activity of quaternary ammonium salt derivatives of carbohydrates (United States)

    Sikora, Karol; Woziwodzka, Anna; Piosik, Jacek; Podgórska, Beata


    Summary This paper presents a study on a series of quaternary ammonium salt (QAS) derivatives of glucopyranosides with an elongated hydrophobic hydrocarbon chain. The new N-[6-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)hexyl]ammonium bromides and their O-acetyl derivatives were analyzed via 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The mutagenic activity of the newly synthesized QAS was investigated using two different techniques: The Vibrio harveyi luminescence assay and the Ames test. The obtained results support previous findings contesting QAS safety and indicate that QAS, specifically pyridinium derivatives, might be mutagenic. PMID:27559394

  11. Quaternary geology of the Channeled Scabland and adjacent areas (United States)

    Baker, V. R.


    The quaternary history of the channeled scabland is characterized by discrete episodes of catastrophic flooding and prolonged periods of loess accumulation and soil formation. The loess sequence was correlated with Richmond's Rocky Mountain glacial chronology. At least five major catastrophic flood events occurred in the general vicinity of the channeled scabland. The earliest episode occurred prior to the extensive deposition of the Palouse formation. The last major episode of flooding occurred between about 18,000 and 13,000 years ago. It probably consisted of two outbursts from glacial Lake Missoula.

  12. A Quaternary Decision Diagram Machine: Optimization of Its Code (United States)


    2026 IEICE TRANS. INF. & SYST., VOL.E93–D, NO.8 AUGUST 2010 INVITED PAPER Special Section on Multiple-Valued Logic and VLSI Computing A Quaternary...sequentially. A straightforward method to increase the speed is to increase the clock frequency. However, this is 2028 IEICE TRANS. INF. & SYST...reduce the 2030 IEICE TRANS. INF. & SYST., VOL.E93–D, NO.8 AUGUST 2010 Fig. 9 4-address QDD machine. Fig. 10 Branch instruction for 4-address QDD

  13. Geology and ground water in Napa and Sonoma Valleys, Napa and Sonoma Counties, California (United States)

    Kunkel, Fred; Upson, Joseph Edwin


    Napa and Sonoma Valleys are adjacent alluvium-filled valleys about 40 miles northeast of San Francisco. They occupy alined and structurally controlled depressions in the northern Coast Ranges physiographic province and drain south into San Pablo Bay. The valleys are surrounded and underlain by unconsolidated marine and continental sediments and volcanic rocks of Pliocene and Pleistocene age, which are water bearing in large part and together make up relatively extensive ground-water basins. Napa Valley, the eastern valley, is the larger and has a valley-floor area of about 85 square miles. Sonoma Valley has a valley-floor area of about 35 square miles; in addition, about 10 square miles is unreclaimed tidal marsh. The rock units of Napa and Sonoma Valleys are divided into four classes on the basis of their distribution and relative capacity to yield water: (a) Consolidated virtually non-water-bearing chiefly sedimentary (some metamorphic) rocks that range in age from Jurassic ( ?) to Pliocene; (b) marine shale and sand of the Petaluma formation (Pliocene) and the Merced formation (Pliocene and Pleistocene) that do not crop out within Napa or Sonoma Valleys but perhaps are penetrated by some deep wells drilled in Sonoma Valley; (c) Sonoma volcanics of Pliocene age, parts of which are non-water-bearing and parts of which locally yield large quantities of water; and (d) unconsolidated alluvial deposits mainly of Quaternary age. The deposits of classes (c) and (d) contain the most important aquifers in the area. Most of the water used in these valleys is pumped from wells in the younger and older alluvium in the Huichica and Glen Ellen formations. and in the Sonoma volcanics. The principal aquifers are the younger and older alluvium. but appreciable quantities of water are pumped locally from the Sonoma volcanics. The Huichica and Glen Ellen formations yield water in small quantities and at most places supply water only for limited domestic uses. The younger alluvium

  14. Geophysical Characterization of the Quaternary-Cretaceous Contact Using Surface Resistivity Methods in Franklin and Webster Counties, South-Central Nebraska (United States)

    Teeple, Andrew P.; Kress, Wade H.; Cannia, James C.; Ball, Lyndsay B.


    Formation made accurate interpretation of the resistivity profile sections difficult and less confident because of similar resistivity of this formation and that of the coarser-grained sediment of the Quaternary-age deposits. However, distinct conductive features were identified within the resistivity profile sections that aided in delineating the contact between the resistive Quaternary-age deposits and the resistive Niobrara Formation. Using this information, an interpretive boundary was drawn on the resistivity profile sections to represent the contact between the Quaternary-age alluvial deposits and the Cretaceous-age Niobrara Formation. A digital elevation model (DEM) of the top of the Niobrara Formation was constructed using the altitudes from the interpreted contact lines. This DEM showed that the general trend of top of the Niobrara Formation dips to the southeast. At the north edge of the study site, the Niobrara Formation topographic high trends east-west with an altitude range of 559 meters in the west to 543 meters in the east. Based on the land-surface elevation and the Niobrara Formation DEM, the estimated thickness of the Quaternary-age alluvial deposits throughout the study area was mapped and showed a thinning of the Quaternary-age alluvial deposits to the north, approximately where the topographic high of the Niobrara Formation is located. This topographic high in the Niobrara Formation has the potential to act as a barrier to ground-water flow from the uplands alluvial aquifer to the Republican River alluvial aquifer as shown in the resistivity profile sections. The Quaternary-age alluvial deposits in the uplands and those in the Republican River Valley are not fully represented as disconnected because it is possible that there are ground-water flow paths that were not mapped during this study.

  15. Geology and geophysics of the southern Raft River Valley geothermal area, Idaho, USA (United States)

    Williams, Paul L.; Mabey, Don R.; Zohdy, Adel A.R.; Hans, Ackerman; Hoover, Donald B.; Pierce, Kenneth L.; Oriel, Steven S.


    The Raft River valley, near the boundary of the Snake River plain with the Basin and Range province, is a north-trending late Cenozoic downwarp bounded by faults on the west, south, and east. Pleistocene alluvium and Miocene-Pliocene tuffaceous sediments, conglomerate, and felsic volcanic rocks aggregate 2 km in thickness. Large gravity, magnetic, and total field resistivity highs probably indicate a buried igneous mass that is too old to serve as a heat source. Differing seismic velocities relate to known or inferred structures and to a suspected shallow zone of warm water. Resistivity anomalies reflect differences of both composition and degree of alteration of Cenozoic rocks. Resistivity soundings show a 2 to 5 ohm·m unit with a thickness of 1 km beneath a large part of the valley, and the unit may indicate partly hot water and partly clayey sediments. Observed self-potential anomalies are believed to indicate zones where warm water rises toward the surface. Boiling wells at Bridge, Idaho are near the intersection of north-northeast normal faults which have moved as recently as the late (?) Pleistocene, and an east-northeast structure, probably a right-lateral fault. Deep circulation of ground water in this region of relatively high heat flow and upwelling along faults is the probable cause of the thermal anomaly.

  16. Landslides triggered by the Gorkha earthquake in the Langtang valley, volumes and initiation processes (United States)

    Lacroix, Pascal


    The Gorkha earthquake (Nepal, 2015, M w 7.9) triggered many landslides. The most catastrophic mass movement was a debris avalanche that buried several villages in the Langtang valley. In this study, questions are raised about its volume and initiation. I investigate the possibility of high-resolution digital surface models computed from tri-stereo SPOT6/7 images to resolve this issue. This high-resolution dataset enables me to derive an inventory of 160 landslides triggered by this earthquake. I analyze the source of errors and estimate the uncertainties in the landslide volumes. The vegetation prevents to correctly estimate the volumes of landslides that occured in vegetated areas. However, I evaluate the volume and thickness of 73 landslides developing in vegetated-free areas, showing a power law between their surface areas and volumes with exponent of 1.20. Accumulations and depletion volumes are also well constrained for larger landslides, and I find that the main debris avalanches accumulated 6.95 × 106 m3 of deposits in the valley with thicknesses reaching 60 m, and 9.66 × 106 m3 in the glaciated part above 5000 m asl. The large amount of sediments is explained by an initiation of the debris avalanche due to serac falls and snow avalanches from five separate places between 6800 and 7200 m asl over 3 km length.

  17. Regional scale selenium loading associated with surface coal mining, Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada. (United States)

    Wellen, Christopher C; Shatilla, Nadine J; Carey, Sean K


    Selenium (Se) concentrations in surface water downstream of surface mining operations have been reported at levels in excess of water quality guidelines for the protection of wildlife. Previous research in surface mining environments has focused on downstream water quality impacts, yet little is known about the fundamental controls on Se loading. This study investigated the relationship between mining practices, stream flows and Se concentrations using a SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) model. This work is part of a R&D program examining the influence of surface coal mining on hydrological and water quality responses in the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada, aimed at informing effective management responses. Results indicate that waste rock volume, a product of mining activity, accounted for roughly 80% of the Se load from the Elk Valley, while background sources accounted for roughly 13%. Wet years were characterized by more than twice the Se load of dry years. A number of variables regarding placement of waste rock within the catchments, length of buried streams, and the construction of rock drains did not significantly influence the Se load. The age of the waste rock, the proportion of waste rock surface reclaimed, and the ratio of waste rock pile side area to top area all varied inversely with the Se load from watersheds containing waste rock. These results suggest operational practices that are likely to reduce the release of Se to surface waters.

  18. Long Valley Caldera Lake and reincision of Owens River Gorge (United States)

    Hildreth, Wes; Fierstein, Judy


    Owens River Gorge, today rimmed exclusively in 767-ka Bishop Tuff, was first cut during the Neogene through a ridge of Triassic granodiorite to a depth as great as its present-day floor and was then filled to its rim by a small basaltic shield at 3.3 Ma. The gorge-filling basalt, 200 m thick, blocked a 5-km-long reach of the upper gorge, diverting the Owens River southward around the shield into Rock Creek where another 200-m-deep gorge was cut through the same basement ridge. Much later, during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 22 (~900–866 ka), a piedmont glacier buried the diversion and deposited a thick sheet of Sherwin Till atop the basalt on both sides of the original gorge, showing that the basalt-filled reach had not, by then, been reexcavated. At 767 ka, eruption of the Bishop Tuff blanketed the landscape with welded ignimbrite, deeply covering the till, basalt, and granodiorite and completely filling all additional reaches of both Rock Creek canyon and Owens River Gorge. The ignimbrite rests directly on the basalt and till along the walls of Owens Gorge, but nowhere was it inset against either, showing that the basalt-blocked reach had still not been reexcavated. Subsidence of Long Valley Caldera at 767 ka produced a steep-walled depression at least 700 m deeper than the precaldera floor of Owens Gorge, which was beheaded at the caldera’s southeast rim. Caldera collapse reoriented proximal drainages that had formerly joined east-flowing Owens River, abruptly reversing flow westward into the caldera. It took 600,000 years of sedimentation in the 26-km-long, usually shallow, caldera lake to fill the deep basin and raise lake level to its threshold for overflow. Not until then did reestablishment of Owens River Gorge begin, by incision of the gorge-filling ignimbrite.

  19. Visible Effects of Invisible Hidden Valley Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Carloni, Lisa


    Assuming there is a new gauge group in a Hidden Valley, and a new type of radiation, can we observe it through its effect on the kinematic distributions of recoiling visible particles? Specifically, what are the collider signatures of radiation in a hidden sector? We address these questions using a generic SU(N)-like Hidden Valley model that we implement in Pythia. We find that in both the e+e- and the LHC cases the kinematic distributions of the visible particles can be significantly affected by the valley radiation. Without a proper understanding of such effects, inferred masses of "communicators" and of invisible particles can be substantially off.

  20. Boundary of the Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007 (United States)

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, L. Niel


    This vector data set delineates the approximate boundary of the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer (ERWVFA). This data set was developed by a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey, Eagle County, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, the Town of Eagle, the Town of Gypsum, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority. This project was designed to evaluate potential land-development effects on groundwater and surface-water resources so that informed land-use and water management decisions can be made. The boundary of the ERWVFA was developed by combining information from two data sources. The first data source was a 1:250,000-scale geologic map of the Leadville quadrangle developed by Day and others (1999). The location of Quaternary sediments was used as a first approximation of the ERWVFA. The boundary of the ERWVFA was further refined by overlaying the geologic map with Digital Raster Graphic (DRG) scanned images of 1:24,000 topographic maps (U.S. Geological Survey, 2001). Where appropriate, the boundary of the ERWVFA was remapped to correspond with the edge of the valley-fill aquifer marked by an abrupt change in topography at the edge of the valley floor throughout the Eagle River watershed. The boundary of the ERWVFA more closely resembles a hydrogeomorphic region presented by Rupert (2003, p. 8) because it is based upon general geographic extents of geologic materials and not on an actual aquifer location as would be determined through a rigorous hydrogeologic investigation.

  1. Geology and geomorphology of Bear Lake Valley and upper Bear River, Utah and Idaho (United States)

    Reheis, M.C.; Laabs, B.J.C.; Kaufman, D.S.


    Bear Lake, on the Idaho-Utah border, lies in a fault-bounded valley through which the Bear River flows en route to the Great Salt Lake. Surficial deposits in the Bear Lake drainage basin provide a geologic context for interpretation of cores from Bear Lake deposits. In addition to groundwater discharge, Bear Lake received water and sediment from its own small drainage basin and sometimes from the Bear River and its glaciated headwaters. The lake basin interacts with the river in complex ways that are modulated by climatically induced lake-level changes, by the distribution of active Quaternary faults, and by the migration of the river across its fluvial fan north of the present lake. The upper Bear River flows northward for ???150 km from its headwaters in the northwestern Uinta Mountains, generally following the strike of regional Laramide and late Cenozoic structures. These structures likely also control the flow paths of groundwater that feeds Bear Lake, and groundwater-fed streams are the largest source of water when the lake is isolated from the Bear River. The present configuration of the Bear River with respect to Bear Lake Valley may not have been established until the late Pliocene. The absence of Uinta Range-derived quartzites in fluvial gravel on the crest of the Bear Lake Plateau east of Bear Lake suggests that the present headwaters were not part of the drainage basin in the late Tertiary. Newly mapped glacial deposits in the Bear River Range west of Bear Lake indicate several advances of valley glaciers that were probably coeval with glaciations in the Uinta Mountains. Much of the meltwater from these glaciers may have reached Bear Lake via groundwater pathways through infiltration in the karst terrain of the Bear River Range. At times during the Pleistocene, the Bear River flowed into Bear Lake and water level rose to the valley threshold at Nounan narrows. This threshold has been modified by aggradation, downcutting, and tectonics. Maximum lake

  2. Soil genesis on the island of Bermuda in the Quaternary: the importance of African dust transport and deposition (United States)

    Muhs, Daniel R.; Budahn, James R.; Prospero, Joseph M.; Skipp, Gary; Herwitz, Stanley R.


    The origin of terra rossa, red or reddish-brown, clay-rich soils overlying high-purity carbonate substrates, has intrigued geologists and pedologists for decades. Terra rossa soils can form from accumulation of insoluble residues during dissolution of the host limestones, addition of volcanic ash, or addition of externally derived, long-range-transported (LRT) aeolian particles. We studied soils and paleosols on high-purity, carbonate aeolianites of Quaternary age on Bermuda, where terra rossa origins have been debated for more than a century. Potential soil parent materials on this island include sand-sized fragments of local volcanic bedrock, the LRT, fine-grained (N/YbN, GdN/YbN that can be distinguished from African dust and lower Mississippi River valley loess. Bermuda soils have Sc-Th-La, Cr-Ta-Nd, and Eu/Eu*, LaN/YbN, GdN/YbN that indicate derivation from a combination of LRT dust from Africa and local volcanic bedrock. Our results indicate that soils on islands in a very broad latitudinal belt of the western Atlantic margin have been influenced by African LRT dust inputs over much of the past –500 ka.

  3. Quaternary deposits in the Serra da Capivara National Park and surrounding area, Southeastern Piauí state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenitiro Suguio


    Full Text Available Serra da Capivara National Park and surrounding areas in Southeastern Piau State (Brazil were subjected to morphostratigraphical, sedimentological, and geochronological studies about superficial deposits in order to interpret quaternary paleoenvironmental events. The following sedimentary deposits associated with morphostructural units were identified: colluvial fans at Serra Branca Valley and Structural Staircases, and eluvial-colluvial deposits at Reverse of the Cuesta. There are also colluvial and alluvial deposits outside Serra da Capivara National Park. Many colluvial and alluvial deposits are contemporaneous and indicate a semiarid climate. According to luminescence dating (thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence, the present landscape evolution began around 436 51.5 ka when the Piau River deposited clayey sediments. From 296.55 46.95 ka to 116.3 19.52 ka, the fluvial channel likely exhibited a braided pattern and deposited sand and gravel bars. Penecontemporaneous sands and muds with ages ranging from 202.75 32.81 ka, 135 16.4 ka to 117 14.5 ka were deposited on Serra da Capivara National Park hillslopes. A colluviation episode occurred between 84.7 13.4 ka to 76.2 9.35 ka, which lacks correlatable alluvial deposits. In the Northern hemisphere last glacial maximum, the colluviation and alluviation processes intensified. These depositional processes likely occurred between 15.8 1.9 and 10.35 1.76 ka, during the Holocene-Pleistocene transition.

  4. 40 CFR 721.10154 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium compounds, dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. 721.10154 Section 721.10154 Protection of Environment... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10154 Quaternary ammonium...

  5. 76 FR 22746 - Conecuh Valley Railway, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Conecuh Valley Railroad Co., Inc. (United States)


    ... Surface Transportation Board Conecuh Valley Railway, LLC--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Conecuh Valley Railroad Co., Inc. Conecuh Valley Railway, LLC (CVR), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from Conecuh Valley Railroad Co., Inc. (COEH), and to...

  6. European quaternary refugia: a factor in large carnivore extinction? (United States)

    O'Regan, Hannah J.; Turner, Alan; Wilkinson, David M.


    The extinction of large carnivores in Europe during the Quaternary is reviewed and the potential role of glacial refugia in these extinctions is investigated using the VORTEX model for population viability analysis. A model was built for a medium sized big cat similar to the extinct Panthera gombaszoegensis utilising life history data from the modern jaguar Panthera onca. This approach highlighted the potential importance of glacial refugia in the extinction process. Even model refugia the size of the Italian peninsula did not guarantee persistence of a population over a 1000 yr time span, illustrating the role of chance in survival in such a refugium. An area the size of the largest Mediterranean island was unable to support a big cat population for a period of 1000 yr. The models also demonstrated the importance of inbreeding as a mechanism for extinction in refugia. It is suggested that repeated genetic bottlenecks during successive glaciations would tend to remove lethal recessive alleles from the population, increasing the probability of survival in refugia in subsequent glaciations. The history of extinction of large carnivores in the European Quaternary is interpreted in the light of these results.

  7. Quaternary evolution of the Southern Apennines coastal plains: a review (United States)

    Santangelo, Nicoletta; Romano, Paola; Ascione, Alessandra; Russo Ermolli, Elda


    The Quaternary evolution of the main coastal basins located along the southwestern margin of the Southern Apennines has been reconstructed by integrating the huge amount of existing stratigraphical and geomorphological data. The information produced in the last twenty years has shed new light on the recent (late Middle Pleistocene to Present) history of the Campanian and Sele plains or basins. During the early Quaternary, the analysed coastal basins originated as half-grabens in response to opening processes active since the late Tortonian in the southern Tyrrhenian back-arc basin. In some of these basins (e.g. the Campanian Plain), volcanism has also played an important role. In the inner sectors of the coastal basins, the complex interplay between block faulting, sedimentary inputs and glacioeustatic fluctuations gave rise to relative sea-level change and related coastline migrations, leading to the formation of the present-day coastal plains. In the Sele Plain basin, the construction of the present-day landscape mainly resulted from the substantial ceasing of subsidence in the final part of the Middle Pleistocene. Conversely, a strong contribution to the recent evolution of the Campanian Plain has been provided by abundant volcaniclastic aggradation, able to hinder the effect of the vertical motions that occurred in the last 100 ka.

  8. Quaternary evolution of the Southern Apennines coastal plains: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santangelo Nicoletta


    Full Text Available The Quaternary evolution of the main coastal basins located along the southwestern margin of the Southern Apennines has been reconstructed by integrating the huge amount of existing stratigraphical and geomorphological data. The information produced in the last twenty years has shed new light on the recent (late Middle Pleistocene to Present history of the Campanian and Sele plains or basins. During the early Quaternary, the analysed coastal basins originated as half-grabens in response to opening processes active since the late Tortonian in the southern Tyrrhenian back-arc basin. In some of these basins (e.g. the Campanian Plain, volcanism has also played an important role. In the inner sectors of the coastal basins, the complex interplay between block faulting, sedimentary inputs and glacioeustatic fluctuations gave rise to relative sea-level change and related coastline migrations, leading to the formation of the present-day coastal plains. In the Sele Plain basin, the construction of the present-day landscape mainly resulted from the substantial ceasing of subsidence in the final part of the Middle Pleistocene. Conversely, a strong contribution to the recent evolution of the Campanian Plain has been provided by abundant volcaniclastic aggradation, able to hinder the effect of the vertical motions that occurred in the last 100 ka.

  9. Mineralogical and geological study of quaternary deposits and weathering profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Gi Young; Lee, Bong Ho [Andong National Univ., Andong (Korea, Republic of)


    Movement history of a quaternary reverse fault cutting marine terrace deposit and tertiary bentonite in the Yangnammyon, Gyoungju city was studied by the mineralogical and microtextural analysis of the fault clays and weathered terrace deposits. Two types of fault clays were identified as greenish gray before the deposition of the marine terrace deposits and reddish brown after deposition. Greenish gray fault clay is composed mostly of smectite probably powdered from bentonite showing at least two events of movement from microtextures. After the bentonite was covered by quaternary marine gravel deposits, the reverse fault was reactivated cutting marine gravel deposits to form open spaces along the fault plane which allowed the hydrological infiltration of soil particles and deposition of clays in deep subsurface. The reddish brown 'fault' clays enclosed the fragments of dark brown ultrafine varved clay, proving two events of faulting, and slicken sides bisecting reddish brown clays suggest another faulting event in the final stage. Mineralogical and microtextural analysis of the fault clay show total five events of faulting, which had not been recognized even by thorough conventional paleoseismological investigation using trench, highlighting the importance of microtextural and mineralogical analysis in paleoseismology.

  10. Quaternary climate - Terrestrial Biosphere Interaction: amplifying or stabilizing? (United States)

    Claussen, Martin


    According to the Gaia hypothesis, interaction between climate and biological processes tend to homeostatically maintain, on a global scale, conditions favourable for life. Does the idea of homeostatic interaction between terrestrial biosphere and climate hold for the Quaternary glacial - interglacial changes? Interpretation of palaeoclimate and palaeobotanic evidence by using climate and Earth system models yields an interesting picture. The synergy between the sea-ice albedo - climate feedback and the taiga-tundra - climate feedback is suggested to amplify the orbitally forced climatic precession. This effect seems to be strong at regional scale, but small at global scale. Various simulations indicate that biogeophysical processes amplify the difference of some 4 to 6 K in global mean temperature between glacial and interglacial climate by some 10 percent. The combined effect of biogeophysical and biogeochemical processes, i.e. processes with involve carbon stored in biomass and soil, is less clear. Theoretical studies suggest that in pre-industrial, interglacial climate, a reduction in boreal and extratropical forests tend to cool the climate and a reduction in tropical forest, to warm the climate. Recent estimates in changes in organic carbon stored under ice sheets and in permafrost point at the possibility that the sum of all terrestrial biogeochemical processes might almost "carbon neutral" to the climate system. If corroborated, this observation would favour the assumption of a dominance of biogeophysical processes amplifying orbitally forced Quaternary climate variations.

  11. Geomorphology and Quaternary geology of the Dakhla Oasis Region, Egypt (United States)

    Brookes, Ian A.

    Dakhla Oasis (25.5°N, 29°E) occupies a structurally localized depression at 90-140 m above sea level, ˜1200 km 2 in area, below a 300 m escarpment bordering the Libyan Plateau, Western Desert of Egypt. Semi-arid intervals of the Quaternary period generated eight sedimentary formations, separated by erosion during hyper-arid intervals. Sediments comprise three generations of colluvial/fluvial fanglomerates, two generations of tabular spring-laid clastic and chemical sediments, two generations of mound springs and basinal sediments. of fluvio-lacustrine, evaporitic, pluvio-aeolian and aeolian origins. Discussion of these sediments is organized according to geomorphic region, from north to south, plateau, scarp and piedmont, lowland and cuesta plain. Chronological evidence is restricted to many radiocarbon dates of Holocene cultural material associated with playa sediments (9-4.5 ka), a {Th}/{U} isochron age of ˜62.0 ±7.6 ka for basinal evaporites, and two {Th}/{U} ages of ˜176 and ˜170 ka for a boulder of derived travertine. The regional Quaternary sequence is reconstructed from stratigraphic and geomorphic relationships of the sediments and erosion surfaces. It is broadly similar to sequences earlier reconstructed in the topographically similar Kharga Oasis region 150 km to the east, and Kurkur Oasis, 400 km to the south-southeast. Speculations on chronology and driving mechanism are offered in conclusion.

  12. Y chromosomal and sex effects on the behavioral stress response in the defensive burying test in wild house mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluyter, F; Korte, SM; Van Baal, GCM; De Ruiter, AJH; Van Oortmerssen, GA


    Genetically selected short attack latency (SAL) and long attack latency (LAL) male wild house mice behave differently in the defensive burying test. When challenged, SAL males respond actively with more time spent on defensive burying, whereas LAL males are more passive with more time remaining immo

  13. Influence of Zn Diffusion on Bandwidth and Extinction in MQW Electroabsorption Modulators Buried with Semi-Insulating InP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takayuki; Yamanaka; Hideki; Fukano; Ken; Tsuzuki; Munehisa; Tamura; Ryuzo; Iga; Matsuyuki; Ogasawara; Yasuhiro; Kondo; Tadashi; Saitoh


    A comprehensive analysis of multi-quantum-well electroabsorption modulators buried with semi-insulating (SI)-InP is presented. We quantitatively demonstrate that suppression of Zn diffusion into the burying and optical core layers plays a key role in high-speed and high-extinction operation.

  14. 49 CFR 192.455 - External corrosion control: Buried or submerged pipelines installed after July 31, 1971. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External corrosion control: Buried or submerged... SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.455 External corrosion control: Buried or... against external corrosion, including the following: (1) It must have an external protective...

  15. 49 CFR 192.457 - External corrosion control: Buried or submerged pipelines installed before August 1, 1971. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External corrosion control: Buried or submerged... SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.457 External corrosion control: Buried or... areas in which active corrosion is found: (1) Bare or ineffectively coated transmission lines. (2)...

  16. Geochemical evidence for seasonal controls on the transportation of Holocene loess, Matanuska Valley, southern Alaska, USA (United States)

    Muhs, Daniel; Budahn, James R.; Skipp, Gary L.; McGeehin, John


    Loess is a widespread Quaternary deposit in Alaska and loess accretion occurs today in some regions, such as the Matanuska Valley. The source of loess in the Matanuska Valley has been debated for more than seven decades, with the Knik River and the Matanuska River, both to the east, being the leading candidates and the Susitna River, to the west, as a less favorable source. We report here new stratigraphic, mineralogic, and geochemical data that test the competing hypotheses of these river sources. Loess thickness data are consistent with previous studies that show that a source or sources lay to the east, which rules out the Susitna River as a source. Knik and Matanuska River silts can be distinguished using Sc–Th–La, LaN/YbN vs. Eu/Eu∗, Cr/Sc, and As/Sb. Matanuska Valley loess falls clearly within the range of values for these ratios found in Matanuska River silt. Dust storms from the Matanuska River are most common in autumn, when river discharge is at a minimum and silt-rich point bars are exposed, wind speed from the north is beginning to increase after a low-velocity period in summer, snow depth is still minimal, and soil temperatures are still above freezing. Thus, seasonal changes in climate and hydrology emerge as critical factors in the timing of aeolian silt transport in southern Alaska. These findings could be applicable to understanding seasonal controls on Pleistocene loess accretion in Europe, New Zealand, South America, and elsewhere in North America.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriella Forno


    Full Text Available A new, detailed survey of the Rodoretto Valley (Western Alps, Italy has been conducted resulting in the production of a new morphological and quaternary geological map of the area. The authors used the innovative Solid (True Ortho-Photo (STOP technology integrated with navigation sensors (Global Navigation Satellite System-GNSS/Inertial Measurement Unit-IMU. This state-of-the-art procedure has demonstrated several operational advantages during both the land survey and the post-processing phases. The survey highlighted remarkable glacial evidences and landforms probably connected with Deep-Seated Gravitational Slope Deformations (DSGSDs phenomena. The glacial forms which have been detected consist of diffuse relics of cirques, glacial slopes, small lateral and frontal moraines and some outwash incisions. The deposits associated with the relics are lodgment till, flowtill and outwash sediments, respectively. The gravitational evidences and the very fractured bedrock that has been recognized on both sides of the Rodoretto Valley, suggest the presence of two DSGSDs which are confirmed also by the occurrence of some doubled ridges in the higher elevation band of the slopes. Moreover, several minor scarps and many longitudinal and transversal trenches, of various size, occur in the intermediate band. Extended landslide bodies have been recognized in the lower altimetric band. The major new geological element detected and interpreted after the survey and the map production is represented by the identification of a well defined WNW-ESE trend of fractured rocks and gravitational landforms. The observed fractures are not limited to the Rodoretto Valley, suggesting the possible connection of the described gravitational landforms with a tectonic discontinuity with the same WNW-ESE trend. This tectonic discontinuity crosses the Cenischia-Nizza System in a zone highlighted by a portion of intensively fractured rocks.

  18. Geochemical evidence for seasonal controls on the transportation of Holocene loess, Matanuska Valley, southern Alaska, USA (United States)

    Muhs, Daniel R.; Budahn, James R.; Skipp, Gary L.; McGeehin, John P.


    Loess is a widespread Quaternary deposit in Alaska and loess accretion occurs today in some regions, such as the Matanuska Valley. The source of loess in the Matanuska Valley has been debated for more than seven decades, with the Knik River and the Matanuska River, both to the east, being the leading candidates and the Susitna River, to the west, as a less favorable source. We report here new stratigraphic, mineralogic, and geochemical data that test the competing hypotheses of these river sources. Loess thickness data are consistent with previous studies that show that a source or sources lay to the east, which rules out the Susitna River as a source. Knik and Matanuska River silts can be distinguished using Sc-Th-La, LaN/YbN vs. Eu/Eu∗, Cr/Sc, and As/Sb. Matanuska Valley loess falls clearly within the range of values for these ratios found in Matanuska River silt. Dust storms from the Matanuska River are most common in autumn, when river discharge is at a minimum and silt-rich point bars are exposed, wind speed from the north is beginning to increase after a low-velocity period in summer, snow depth is still minimal, and soil temperatures are still above freezing. Thus, seasonal changes in climate and hydrology emerge as critical factors in the timing of aeolian silt transport in southern Alaska. These findings could be applicable to understanding seasonal controls on Pleistocene loess accretion in Europe, New Zealand, South America, and elsewhere in North America.

  19. Enrichment and mechanisms of heavy metal mobility in a coastal quaternary groundwater system of the Pearl River Delta, China. (United States)

    Wang, Ya; Jiao, Jiu Jimmy; Zhang, Ke; Zhou, Yongzhang


    The risks posed by heavy metal mobilization strongly depend on the pathways that the metals follow, with the sediment-water pathway representing a direct risk to groundwater contamination. Monitoring and sequential extraction experiments in the laboratory generally have limitations with respect to understanding the mechanisms of heavy metal mobilization in the field. The Quaternary coastal groundwater system of the Pearl River Delta, China was chosen as the study area to understand heavy metal enrichment and mobility. Heavy metals including V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ba, Pb, Mo, Cd, Sr, Ga, Ge, Rb, and Cs in both sediments and groundwater were analyzed. Geochemical parameters including Fe2O3, MnO, sedimentary organic matter, and carbonate content as well as hydrochemical parameters including K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), NH4(+), SO4(2-), Cl(-), HCO3(-), pH, TDS, and dissolved organic carbon were also measured. The enrichment of heavy metals in the solid sediment phase as well as the mobilization mechanisms of heavy metals in groundwater are discussed as informed by Pearson's correlation analysis. Hydrochemical analyses demonstrated that the mobility of V, Ba, Cr, Rb, and Cs is closely related to the decomposition of buried sedimentary organic matter; the mobility of Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd is closely linked with the reductive dissolution of Fe-Mn oxides; and the mobility of Co, Ni, Cu, Ba, Zn, Pb, Cd, Mn, Sr and Ga is probably controlled by ion exchange processes. This study demonstrates that heavy metal mobility in the field is not entirely consistent with the potential mobility as indicated by sediment analysis, due to the complicated hydrogeochemical conditions in the groundwater system, and suggests that comprehensive geochemical and hydrochemical studies are useful ways to understand the mobility mechanisms of heavy metals in the field.

  20. Faulted terrace risers place new constraints on the late Quaternary slip rate for the central Altyn Tagh fault, northwest Tibet (United States)

    Gold, R.D.; Cowgill, E.; Arrowsmith, J.R.; Chen, X.; Sharp, W.D.; Cooper, K.M.; Wang, X.-F.


    The active, left-lateral Altyn Tagh fault defines the northwestern margin of the Tibetan Plateau in western China. To clarify late Quaternary temporal and spatial variations in slip rate along the central portion of this fault system (85??-90??E), we have more than doubled the number of dated offset markers along the central Altyn Tagh fault. In particular, we determined offset-age relations for seven left-laterally faulted terrace risers at three sites (Kelutelage, Yukuang, and Keke Qiapu) spanning a 140-km-long fault reach by integrating surficial geologic mapping, topographic surveys (total station and tripod-light detection and ranging [T-LiDAR]), and geochronology (radiocarbon dating of organic samples, 230Th/U dating of pedogenic carbonate coatings on buried clasts, and terrestrial cosmogenic radionuclide exposure age dating applied to quartz-rich gravels). At Kelutelage, which is the westernmost site (37.72??N, 86.67??E), two faulted terrace risers are offset 58 ?? 3 m and 48 ?? 4 m, and formed at 6.2-6.1 ka and 5.9-3.7 ka, respectively. At the Yukuang site (38.00??N, 87.87??E), four faulted terrace risers are offset 92 ?? 12 m, 68 ?? 6 m, 55 ?? 13 m, and 59 ?? 9 m and formed at 24.2-9.5 ka, 6.4-5.0 ka, 5.1-3.9 ka, and 24.2-6.4 ka, respectively. At the easternmost site, Keke Qiapu (38.08??N, 88.12??E), a faulted terrace riser is offset 33 ?? 6 m and has an age of 17.1-2.2 ka. The displacement-age relationships derived from these markers can be satisfied by an approximately uniform slip rate of 8-12 mm/yr. However, additional analysis is required to test how much temporal variability in slip rate is permitted by this data set. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  1. The Crati River Basin: geomorphological and stratigraphical data for the Plio-Quaternary evolution of northern Calabria, South Apennines, Italy (United States)

    Robustelli, Gaetano; Muto, Francesco


    In this paper, we present the results of an integrated geomorphological and stratigraphical study carried out in the eastern side of the Crati River valley (northern Calabria, South Italy). This area is characterized by the occurrence of three order palaeosurfaces that, along with low-sloping palaeovalleys and structural landforms, are striking features of the landscape. The relationships between morpho-tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the Crati Basin has been assessed through sandstone detrital modes, morphostratigraphy and geomorphological correlation with adjacent areas. The two main unconformity surfaces that typify the Quaternary fill were correlated to different steps of landscape evolution. The presence of both erosional and depositional palaeosurfaces has been a useful marker for reconstructing sedimentary and morphogenetic events, and hence to detect drainage network evolution and changes in source sediment area. In particular, we recognized that the study area experienced, during the late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene a period of sub-aerial landscape modelling as suggested by low-sloping palaeovalleys and related fluvial deposits (1st Order Palaeosurface). At that time, the source of the detrital constituents of the PPS Unit sandstones was mainly from the Sila Massif. The onset of Coastal Range identification and uplift (Early Pleistocene) marks a change in the geomorphic scenario with tectonic driven stream incision and valley development along the eastern side of Coastal Range, along with the occurrence of depositional and erosional landsurfaces (2nd Order Palaeosurface) at footslopes. During this period, the Coastal Range and Sila Massif were the sources for the detrital constituents of the PlS Unit sandstones. The progressive uplift of Coastal Range during late Early Pleistocene and the marked backstepping of the depositional systems along the Sila footslope was accompanied by alternating phases of down-cutting and base-level stability resulting in

  2. The Crati River Basin: geomorphological and stratigraphical data for the Plio–Quaternary evolution of northern Calabria, South Apennines, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robustelli Gaetano


    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the results of an integrated geomorphological and stratigraphical study carried out in the eastern side of the Crati River valley (northern Calabria, South Italy. This area is characterized by the occurrence of three order palaeosurfaces that, along with low-sloping palaeovalleys and structural landforms, are striking features of the landscape. The relationships between morpho-tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the Crati Basin has been assessed through sandstone detrital modes, morphostratigraphy and geomorphological correlation with adjacent areas. The two main unconformity surfaces that typify the Quaternary fill were correlated to different steps of landscape evolution. The presence of both erosional and depositional palaeosurfaces has been a useful marker for reconstructing sedimentary and morphogenetic events, and hence to detect drainage network evolution and changes in source sediment area. In particular, we recognized that the study area experienced, during the late Pliocene–Early Pleistocene a period of sub-aerial landscape modelling as suggested by low-sloping palaeovalleys and related fluvial deposits (1st Order Palaeosurface. At that time, the source of the detrital constituents of the PPS Unit sandstones was mainly from the Sila Massif. The onset of Coastal Range identification and uplift (Early Pleistocene marks a change in the geomorphic scenario with tectonic driven stream incision and valley development along the eastern side of Coastal Range, along with the occurrence of depositional and erosional landsurfaces (2nd Order Palaeosurface at footslopes. During this period, the Coastal Range and Sila Massif were the sources for the detrital constituents of the PlS Unit sandstones. The progressive uplift of Coastal Range during late Early Pleistocene and the marked backstepping of the depositional systems along the Sila footslope was accompanied by alternating phases of down-cutting and base

  3. Valley-protected backscattering suppression in silicon photonic graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xiao-Dong


    In this paper, we study valley degree of freedom in all dielectric silicon photonic graphene. Photonic band gap opening physics under inversion symmetry breaking is revisited by the viewpoint of nonzero valley Chern number. Bulk valley modes with opposite orbital angular momentum are unveiled by inspecting time-varying electric fields. Topological transition is well illustrated through photonic Dirac Hamiltonian. Valley dependent edge states and the associated valley-protected backscattering suppression around Z-shape bend waveguide have been demonstrated.

  4. Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope Project. (United States)

    Ibe, Mary; MacLaren, Dave


    Describes the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) project as a way of teaching astronomy concepts to middle school students. The project provides students opportunities to work with professional scientists. (SOE)

  5. Death Valley%死亡山谷

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suasan Spano; 文迪


    @@ Late-afternoon light tints the mountains as two hikers trek1 across Stovepipe Wells sand dunes2 in Death Valley, Calif. Dunes near Scotty's Castle and Zabriskie Point are also popular tourist sights.

  6. Vegetation - San Felipe Valley [ds172 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This Vegetation Map of the San Felipe Valley Wildlife Area in San Diego County, California is based on vegetation samples collected in the field in 2002 and 2005 and...

  7. Hydrothermal system of Long Valley caldera, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorey, M.L.; Lewis, R.E.; Olmsted, F.H.


    The geologic and hydrologic setting of the hydrothermal system are described. The geochemical and thermal characteristics of the system are presented. A mathematical model of the Long Valley caldera is analyzed. (MHR)

  8. Meie ingel Silicon Valleys / Raigo Neudorf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Neudorf, Raigo


    Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutuse esinduse töölepanekust USAs Silicon Valleys räägib esinduse juht Andrus Viirg. Vt. ka: Eestlasi leidub San Franciscos omajagu; Muljetavaldav karjäär; USAga ammune tuttav

  9. Meie mees Silicon Valleys / Kertu Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Kertu, 1977-


    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 5. dets. lk. 4. Peaminister Andrus Ansip avas Eesti Ettevõtluse Sihtasutuse esinduse Silicon Valley pealinnas San Joses. Vt. samas: Ränioru kliima on tehnoloogiasõbralik; Andrus Viirg

  10. Burrowing Owl - Palo Verde Valley [ds197 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — These burrowing owl observations were collected during the spring and early summer of 1976 in the Palo Verde Valley, eastern Riverside County, California. This is an...

  11. Alluvial Boundary of California's Central Valley (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the extent of the alluvial deposits in the Central Valley of California and encompasses the contiguous Sacramento, San Joaquin, and...

  12. Hydrogeologic framework and occurrence, movement, and chemical characterization of groundwater in Dixie Valley, west-central Nevada (United States)

    Huntington, Jena M.; Garcia, C. Amanda; Rosen, Michael R.


    Dixie Valley, a primarily undeveloped basin in west-central Nevada, is being considered for groundwater exportation. Proposed pumping would occur from the basin-fill aquifer. In response to proposed exportation, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation and Churchill County, conducted a study to improve the understanding of groundwater resources in Dixie Valley. The objective of this report is to characterize the hydrogeologic framework, the occurrence and movement of groundwater, the general water quality of the basin-fill aquifer, and the potential mixing between basin-fill and geothermal aquifers in Dixie Valley. Various types of geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical data were compiled from previous studies and collected in support of this study. Hydrogeologic units in Dixie Valley were defined to characterize rocks and sediments with similar lithologies and hydraulic properties influencing groundwater flow. Hydraulic properties of the basin-fill deposits were characterized by transmissivity estimated from aquifer tests and specific-capacity tests. Groundwater-level measurements and hydrogeologic-unit data were combined to create a potentiometric surface map and to characterize groundwater occurrence and movement. Subsurface inflow from adjacent valleys into Dixie Valley through the basin-fill aquifer was evaluated using hydraulic gradients and Darcy flux computations. The chemical signature and groundwater quality of the Dixie Valley basin-fill aquifer, and potential mixing between basin-fill and geothermal aquifers, were evaluated using chemical data collected from wells and springs during the current study and from previous investigations. Dixie Valley is the terminus of the Dixie Valley flow system, which includes Pleasant, Jersey, Fairview, Stingaree, Cowkick, and Eastgate Valleys. The freshwater aquifer in the study area is composed of unconsolidated basin-fill deposits of Quaternary age. The basin-fill hydrogeologic unit

  13. OMRC Technology Effectively Develops the Massive Thick Metamorphic Buried Hill Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Fangxiang; Zhang Fangli; Sun Yan; Gong Yaojin; Xu Ning; Zhao Zhigang


    @@ Introduction Optimized maximum reservoir contact technology(OMRC)is developed based on the maximum reservoir contact(MRC)technology,which is a kind of technology to optimize candidate multilaterals with appropriate specification based on the reservoir conditions.By applying the technology in XLT buried hill reservoir in Liaohe Oilfield satisfactory effects are obtained.

  14. Four point probe structures with buried electrodes for the electrical characterization of ultrathin conducting films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenland, A.W.; Wolters, R.A.M.; Kovalgin, A.Y.; Schmitz, J.


    Test structures for the electrical characterization of ultrathin conductive (ALD) films are presented based on buried electrodes on which the ultrathin film is deposited. This work includes test structure design and fabrication, and the electrical characterization of ALD TiN films down to 4 nm. It i

  15. Scattering from a Buried Circular Cylinder Illuminated by a Three-Dimensional Source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, T.B.; Meincke, Peter


    We employ plane and cylindrical wave expansions with the fast Fourier transform to solve scattering problems involving a circular cylinder buried in soil. The illumination is provided by a three-dimensional source located in air above ground. Plane wave expansions describe transmitted and reflected...

  16. Capturing buried defects in metal interconnections with electron beam inspection system (United States)

    Xiao, Hong; Jiang, Ximan; Trease, David; Van Riet, Mike; Ramprasad, Shishir; Bhatia, Anadi; Lefebvre, Pierre; Bastard, David; Moreau, Olivier; Maher, Chris; MacDonald, Paul; Campochiaro, Cecelia


    In this paper we present a novel mode of electron beam inspection (EBI), entitled super wide optics (SWO) mode, which can effectively detect buried defects in tungsten (W) plugs and copper (Cu) wires. These defects are defects of interest (DOI) to integrated circuit (IC) manufacturers because they are not detectable in optical inspection, voltage contrast (VC) mode EBI or physical mode EBI. We used engineering systems to study two samples, a tungsten chemical mechanical polish (CMP) wafer and a copper CMP wafer with a silicon carbon nitride (SiCN) cap layer. EBI with our novel SWO mode was found to capture many dark defects on these two wafers. Furthermore, defect review with all three EBI modes found some of these dark defects were unique to SWO mode. For verification, physical failure analysis was performed on some SWO-unique DOI. The cross-sectional scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and transmission electron microscope (TEM) images confirmed that the unique DOI were buried voids in W-plugs and copper wire thinning caused by either buried particles or buried particle induced metal trench under-etch. These DOI can significantly increase the resistance of metal interconnects of IC chip and affect the chip yield. This new EBI mode can provide an in-line monitoring solution for these DOI, which does not exist before this study.

  17. Advanced modeling of thermal NDT problems: from buried landmines to defects in composites (United States)

    Vavilov, Vladimir P.; Burleigh, Douglas D.; Klimov, Alexey G.


    Advanced thermal models that can be used in the detection of buried landmines and the TNDT (thermographic nondestructive testing) of composites are discussed. The interdependence between surface temperature signals and various complex parameters, such as surface and volumetric moisture, the shape of a heat pulse, material anisotropy, etc., is demonstrated.

  18. Long-term dynamics of buried organic carbon in colluvial soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Wang


    Full Text Available Colluvial soils are enriched in soil organic carbon (SOC in comparison to the soils of upslope areas due to the deposition and subsurface burial of SOC. It has been suggested that the burial of SOC has important implications for the global carbon cycle, but the long-term dynamics of buried SOC remains poorly constrained. We address this issue by determining the SOC burial efficiency (i.e., the fraction of originally deposited SOC that is preserved in colluvial deposits of buried SOC as well as the SOC stability in colluvial soils. We quantify the turnover rate of deposited SOC by establishing sediment and SOC burial chronologies. The SOC stability is derived from soil incubation experiments and the δ13C values of SOC. The C burial efficiency was found to decrease exponentially with time reaching a constant ratio of approximately 17%. This exponential decrease is attributed to the increasing recalcitrance of buried SOC with time and a less favourable environment for SOC decomposition with increasing depth. Buried SOC is found to be more stable and degraded in comparison to SOC sampled at the same depth at a stable site. This is due to preferential mineralization of the labile fraction of deposited SOC resulting in enrichment of more degraded and recalcitrant SOC in colluvial soils. In order to better understand the long-term effects of soil erosion for the global C cycle, the temporal variation of deposited SOC and its controlling factors need to be characterized and quantified.

  19. Influence of Population Density on Offspring Number and Size in Burying Beetles (United States)

    Rauter, Claudia M.


    This laboratory exercise investigates the influence of population density on offspring number and size in burying beetles. Students test the theoretical predictions that brood size declines and offspring size increases when competition over resources becomes stronger with increasing population density. Students design the experiment, collect and…

  20. Composition and origin of buried ferromanganese nodules from central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pattan, J.N.; Parthiban, G.

    76°00'E) at a water depth of 5260 m These nodules were analysed for major, trace and rare earth element (REE) concentrations to understand their genesis and compare with the surface and buried nodules in the top 1 m of the sediment column from...

  1. Electrochemical deposition of buried contacts in high-efficiency crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Arne Dahl; Møller, Per; Bruton, Tim


    This article reports on a newly developed method for electrochemical deposition of buried Cu contacts in Si-based photovoltaic ~PV! cells. Contact grooves, 20 mm wide by 40 mm deep, were laser-cut into Si PV cells, hereafter applied with a thin electroless NiP base and subsequently filled with Cu...


    An analysis is presented of experimental records obtained from a buried pipe grid of a heat pump , operated over a full heating season. The purpose of the analysis is to compare actual pipe performance with theory over a long period of time, thereby judging the applicability of the theory for practical use and to indicate the suitability of simplified design methods. (Author)

  3. Identification of immunity-related genes in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides by suppression subtractive hybridization. (United States)

    Vogel, H; Badapanda, C; Vilcinskas, A


    Burying beetles reproduce on small vertebrate cadavers which they bury in the soil after localization through volatiles emitted from the carcass. They then chemically preserve the carcass and prepare it as a diet for the adults and their offspring. It is predicted that exposure to high loads of soil and/or carrion-associated microbes necessitates an effective immune system. In the present paper, we report experimental screening for immunity-related genes in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides using the suppression subtractive hybridization approach. A total of 1179 putative gene objects were identified in the Nicrophorus cDNA library, which was enriched for transcripts differentially expressed upon challenge with heat-inactivated bacteria. In addition to genes known to be involved in immunity-related recognition and signalling, we found transcripts encoding for antimicrobial peptides and for an array of enzymes that can be linked to immunity or to stress-induced pathways. We also determined proteins that may contribute to detoxification of toxins produced by microbial competitors. In addition, factors involved in mRNA stability determination and central components of the RNA interference machinery were identified, implying transcriptional reprogramming and potential stress-induced retrotransposon elimination. The identified candidate immune effector and stress-related genes may provide important information about the unusual ecology and evolution of the burying beetles.

  4. Results of a monitoring pilot with a permanent buried multicomponent seismic array at Ketzin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, R.J.; Meekes, J.A.C.; Brouwer, J.H.; Werf, M. van der; Noorlandt, R.P.; Paap, B.; Visser, W.; Vandeweijer, V.; Lüth, S.; Giese, R.; Maas, J.


    To monitor the migration of the injected CO2 in the Ketzin project (Germany) a permanently buried multi-component seismic array has been installed in August 2009. Since then the array has been continuously recording passive seismic data. Additionally an active seismic survey resulting in a 230 m lon

  5. Laser-induced acoustic landmine detection with experimental results on buried landmines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, J.C. van den; Putten, F.J.M. van; Koersel, A.C. van; Schleijpen, H.M.A.


    Acoustic landmine detection (ALD) is a technique for the detection of buried landmines including non-metal mines. Since it gives complementary results with GPR or metal detection, sensor fusion of these techniques with acoustic detection would give promising results. Two methods are used for the aco

  6. Feasibility of fast neutron analysis for the detection of explosives buried in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faust, A.A. [Defence R and D Canada - Suffield, Medicine Hat, Alta. (Canada); McFee, J.E., E-mail: [Defence R and D Canada - Suffield, Medicine Hat, Alta. (Canada); Bowman, C.L.; Mosquera, C. [Defence R and D Canada - Suffield, Medicine Hat, Alta. (Canada); Andrews, H.R.; Kovaltchouk, V.D.; Ing, H. [Bubble Technology Industries, Chalk River, Ont. (Canada)


    A commercialized thermal neutron analysis (TNA) sensor has been developed to confirm the presence of buried bulk explosives as part of a multi-sensor anti-tank landmine detection system. Continuing improvements to the TNA system have included the use of an electronic pulsed neutron generator that offers the possibility of applying fast neutron analysis (FNA) methods to improve the system's detection capability. This paper describes an investigation into the use of FNA as a complementary component in such a TNA system. The results of a modeling study using simple geometries and a full model of the TNA sensor head are presented, as well as preliminary results from an experimental associated particle imaging (API) system that supports the modeling study results. The investigation has concluded that the pulsed beam FNA approach would not improve the detection performance of a TNA system for landmine or buried IED detection in a confirmation role, and could not be made into a practical stand-alone detection system for buried anti-tank landmines. Detection of buried landmines and IEDs by FNA remains a possibility, however, through the use of the API technique.

  7. A shear wave ground surface vibration technique for the detection of buried pipes (United States)

    Muggleton, J. M.; Papandreou, B.


    A major UK initiative, entitled 'Mapping the Underworld' aims to develop and prove the efficacy of a multi-sensor device for accurate remote buried utility service detection, location and, where possible, identification. One of the technologies to be incorporated in the device is low-frequency vibro-acoustics; the application of this technology for detecting buried infrastructure, in particular pipes, is currently being investigated. Here, a shear wave ground vibration technique for detecting buried pipes is described. For this technique, shear waves are generated at the ground surface, and the resulting ground surface vibrations measured. Time-extended signals are employed to generate the illuminating wave. Generalized cross-correlation functions between the measured ground velocities and a reference measurement adjacent to the excitation are calculated and summed using a stacking method to generate a cross-sectional image of the ground. To mitigate the effects of other potential sources of vibration in the vicinity, the excitation signal can be used as an additional reference when calculating the cross-correlation functions. Measurements have been made at two live test sites to detect a range of buried pipes. Successful detection of the pipes was achieved, with the use of the additional reference signal proving beneficial in the noisier of the two environments.

  8. Finite element analysis of fluid-structure interaction in buried liquid-conveying pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱庆杰; 陈艳华; 刘廷权; 代兆立


    Long distance buried liquid-conveying pipeline is inevitable to cross faults and under earthquake action,it is necessary to calculate fluid-structure interaction(FSI) in finite element analysis under pipe-soil interaction.Under multi-action of site,fault movement and earthquake,finite element model of buried liquid-conveying pipeline for the calculation of fluid structure interaction was constructed through combinative application of ADINA-parasolid and ADINA-native modeling methods,and the direct computing method of two-way fluid-structure coupling was introduced.The methods of solid and fluid modeling were analyzed,pipe-soil friction was defined in solid model,and special flow assumption and fluid structure interface condition were defined in fluid model.Earthquake load,gravity and displacement of fault movement were applied,also model preferences.Finite element research on the damage of buried liquid-conveying pipeline was carried out through computing fluid-structure coupling.The influences of pipe-soil friction coefficient,fault-pipe angle,and liquid density on axial stress of pipeline were analyzed,and optimum parameters were proposed for the protection of buried liquid-conveying pipeline.

  9. Determination of the electronic density of states near buried interfaces: Application to Co/Cu multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, A.; Sthör, J.; Wiell, T.;


    High-resolution L(3) x-ray absorption and emission spectra of Co and Cu in Co/Cu multilayers are shown to provide unique information on the occupied and unoccupied density of d states near buried interfaces. The d bands of both Co and Cu interfacial layers are shown to be considerably narrowed...

  10. Application of forecasting structural cracks technique of 3DMove in Chengdao buried hill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Shiguo; WANG Xiuling; JI Yuxin; LIU Yuzhen; HAN Wengong


    3DMove software, based on the three-dimension structural model of geologic interpretation, can forecast reservoir cracks from the point of view of formation of the structural geology, and analyze the characteristics of the cracks. 3DMove software dominates in forecasting cracks. We forecast the developments and directions of the cracks in Chengbei buried hill with the application of forecasting technique in 3DMove software, and obtain the chart about strain distributing on top in buried hill and the chart about relative density and orientation and the chart about the analysis of crack unsealing. In Chengbei 30 buried hill zone, north-west and north-east and approximately east-west cracks in Cenozoic are very rich and the main directions in every fault block are different. Forecasting results that are also verified by those of drilling approximately accord with the data from well logging, the case of which shows that the technique has the better ability in forecasting cracks, and takes more effects on exploration and exploitation of crack reservoir beds in ancient buried hill reservoirs.

  11. Low frequency synthetic aperture sonar for detecting and classifying buried objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunter, A.J.; Vossen, R. van; Quesson, B.A.J.; Colin, M.E.G.D.; Zampolli, M.; Beckers, A.L.D.


    Sidescan high-frequency (HF) sonar (i.e., with frequencies higher than 100 kHz) is ideally suited for providing high-resolution images of the seafloor. However, since sound does not penetrate into the sediment at these frequencies, such systems cannot be used for the detection of buried objects, suc

  12. A vertically integrated dynamic RAM-cell: Buried bit line memory cell with floating transfer layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouthaan, Ton; Vertregt, Maarten


    A charge injection device has been realized in which charge can be injected on to an MOS-capacitor from a buried layer via an isolated transfer layer. The cell is positioned vertically between word and bit line. LOCOS (local oxidation) is used to isolate the cells and (deep) ion implantation to real

  13. Revealing the semiconductor–catalyst interface in buried platinum black silicon photocathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Jeffery A.; Anderson, Nicholas C.; Neale, Nathan R.


    Nanoporous 'black' silicon semiconductors interfaced with buried platinum nanoparticle catalysts have exhibited stable activity for photoelectrochemical hydrogen evolution even after months of exposure to ambient conditions. The mechanism behind this stability has not been explained in detail, but is thought to involve a Pt/Si interface free from SiOx layer that would adversely affect interfacial charge transfer kinetics. In this paper, we resolve the chemical composition and structure of buried Pt/Si interfaces in black silicon photocathodes from a micron to sub-nanometer level using aberration corrected analytical scanning transmission electron microscopy. Through a controlled electrodeposition of copper on samples aged for one month in ambient conditions, we demonstrate that the main active catalytic sites are the buried Pt nanoparticles located below the 400-800 nm thick nanoporous SiOx layer. Though hydrogen production performance degrades over 100 h under photoelectrochemical operating conditions, this burying strategy preserves an atomically clean catalyst/Si interface free of oxide or other phases under air exposure and provides an example of a potential method for stabilizing silicon photoelectrodes from oxidative degradation in photoelectrochemical applications.

  14. Novel applications of optical techniques to the study of buried semiconductor interfaces (United States)

    Wilson, Barbara A.


    Detailed electronic and structural information about buried semiconductor interfaces obtained through application of optical techniques is discussed. The measurements described include the determination of band discontinuities, strain, and disorder associated with semiconductor heterointerfaces. The contactless and nondestructive nature of these optical techniques is particularly important for the study of heterointerfaces which are inherently inaccessible to direct electrical or physical contact.

  15. Application of EM tomography to detect a buried pipe; EM tomography no maisetsukan tansa eno tekiyorei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakashita, S. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    EM tomography was applied to detect buried pipes. Underground radar exploration method is limited to 10m in depth. Positive use of bored holes is desirable, and in such case, magnetic logging based on the magnetic susceptibility (MS) contrast between buried body and surrounding ground is effective. The primary magnetic field is generated by coil current, and the secondary one is generated by the primary one responding to foreign bodies in the ground. Since the measured primary magnetic field of low frequency within 10Hz can be treated as static magnetic field responding to MS in the ground, it is useful to determine MS distributions. Since the measured magnetic field of high frequency within 100kHz can be treated as induction field responding to conductivity in the ground, it is useful to determine resistivity distributions. The EM tomography which can image both above distributions by using electromagnetic wave in a wide frequency range, was applied to detect buried pipes. The EM tomography could detect an buried foreign body of 3m in diameter at 10m in distance between bored holes. The theoretical equation for analysis was also derived. 5 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  16. 49 CFR 192.459 - External corrosion control: Examination of buried pipeline when exposed. (United States)


    ... pipeline when exposed. 192.459 Section 192.459 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... exposed. Whenever an operator has knowledge that any portion of a buried pipeline is exposed, the exposed... operator shall investigate circumferentially and longitudinally beyond the exposed portion (by...

  17. Early Monitoring of the Viability of the Buried Intrathoracic Omental Flap: A Feasibility Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. van Wingerden; J.M.P. Collins; E.H. Coret; P.J.J. Schröder


    Purpose. The value of mobile, high-resolution gray-scale and color Doppler ultrasonography (US) in the immediate postoperative, intensive care setting for monitoring the buried flap and vascular pedicle of the laparoscopic or transdiaphragmatic harvested omentum for intrathoracic reconstruction was

  18. Field application of innovative grouting agents for in situ stabilization of buried waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loomis, G.G.; Farnsworth, R.K. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    This paper presents field applications for two innovative grouting agents that were used to in situ stabilize buried waste sites, via jet grouting. The two grouting agents include paraffin and a proprietary iron oxide based cement grout called TECT. These materials were tested in specially designed cold test pits that simulate buried transuranic waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The field demonstrations were performed at the INEL in an area referred to as the Cold Test Pit, which is adjacent to the INEL Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). At the RWMC, 56,000 m{sup 3} of transuranic (TRU) waste is co-mingled with over 170,000 m{sup 3} of soil in shallow land burial. Improving the confinement of this waste is one of the options for final disposition of this waste. Using jet-grouting technology to inject these materials into the pore spaces of buried waste sites results in the creation of buried monolithic waste forms that simultaneously protect the waste from subsidence, while eliminating the migratory potential of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in the waste.

  19. The development of a ballistic method for simulating fragments from buried explosive devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagt-Deutekom, M.J. van der


    No standard scientific methodology currently exists to assess the performance of personal protection equipment (PPE) against secondary debris, such as soil, grit and stones, ejected when a buried improvised explosive device (IED) detonates. Different test methods are used for this evaluation. The PP

  20. Low dose effects of a Withania somnifera extract on altered marble burying behavior in stressed mice (United States)

    Dey, Amitabha; Chatterjee, Shyam Sunder; Kumar, Vikas


    Aim: Withania somnifera root (WSR) extracts are often used in traditionally known Indian systems of medicine for prevention and cure of psychosomatic disorders. The reported experiment was designed to test whether low daily oral doses of such extracts are also effective in suppressing marble burying behavior in stressed mice or not. Materials and Methods: Groups of mice treated with 10, 20, or 40 mg/kg daily oral doses of WSR were subjected to a foot shock stress-induced hyperthermia test on the 1st, 5th, 7th, and 10th day of the experiment. On the 11th and 12th treatment days, they were subjected to marble burying tests. Stress response suppressing effects of low dose WSR were estimated by its effects on body weight and basal core temperature of animals during the course of the experiment. Results: Alterations in bodyweight and basal core temperature triggered by repeated exposures to foot shock stress were absent even in the 10 mg/kg/day WSR treated group, whereas the effectiveness of the extract in foot shock stress-induced hyperthermia and marble burying tests increased with its increasing daily dose. Conclusion: Marble burying test in stressed mice is well suited for identifying bioactive constituents of W. somnifera like medicinal plants with adaptogenic, anxiolytic and antidepressant activities, or for quantifying pharmacological interactions between them. PMID:27366354

  1. Decreases in nestlet shredding of mice by serotonin uptake inhibitors: comparison with marble burying. (United States)

    Li, Xia; Morrow, Denise; Witkin, Jeffrey M


    Methods for detection of anxiolytic-like behavioral effects of serotonin uptake inhibitors are limited. The present study introduces a new quantitative method that permits dose-effect analysis of these compounds. Male NIH Swiss mice were given 60-min access to a piece of cotton gauze and the amount of material not torn into nesting material was weighed. Other groups of mice were individually placed in containers with 20 marbles resting on top of sawdust bedding. The number of marbles buried (2/3) by sawdust after 30 min was counted. Mice were first placed on a 6-rpm rotorod and the number of mice falling off twice in 2 min was measured. Serotonin uptake inhibitors (clomipramine, citalopram, fluoxetine, and venlafaxine) dose-dependently suppressed nestlet shredding and marble burying at doses that were generally without effect on rotorod performance. The amine-based antidepressant agents imipramine and desipramine as well as the selective norepinephrine transport inhibitor nisoxetine produced similar qualitative effects on these behaviors. Anxiolytics (chlordiazepoxide, bretazenil, buspirone, and pentobarbital) produced effects in the nestlet assay that were similar to those reported using another anxiolytic assay in mice (punished responding), whereas these compounds were not active at non-motor-impairing doses in the marble burying assay. The antipsychotic agents chlorpromazine and risperidone generally demonstrated suppression of nestlet shredding and marble burying at doses that impaired rotorod performance. Although d-amphetamine suppressed nestlet shredding and marble burying at doses without effect on the rotorod, d-amphetamine but not fluoxetine stimulated locomotor activity. Both nestlet shredding and marble burying behaviors were generally consistent across five consecutive experimental sessions and fluoxetine did not produce any systematic trends over repeated testing. The methods should have utility in defining pharmacological effects of these compounds

  2. Detecting buried metallic weapons in a controlled setting using a conductivity meter. (United States)

    Dionne, Charles A; Schultz, John J; Murdock, Ronald A; Smith, Stephen A


    Forensic personnel may face a daunting task when searching for buried weapons at crime scenes or potential disposal sites. In particular, it is common to search for a small firearm that was discarded or buried by a perpetrator. When performing forensic searches, it is recommended to first use non-invasive methods such as geophysical instruments to minimize damage to evidence and to the crime scene. Geophysical tools are used to pinpoint small areas of interest across a scene for invasive testing, rather than digging large areas throughout the site. Prior to this project, there was no published research that tested the utility of the conductivity meter to search for metallic weapons such as firearms and blunt and sharp edged weapons. A sample comprised of 32 metallic weapons including firearms, blunt and sharp edged weapons, and scrap metals was buried in a controlled setting to test the applicability of a conductivity meter for forensic searches. Weapons were tested at multiple depths and after data collection was performed for one depth, the weapons were reburied 5 cm deeper until they were no longer detected. Variables such as weapon size, burial depth, transect interval spacing (25 and 50 cm), and metallic composition were tested. All of the controlled variables influenced maximum depth of detection. For example, size was a factor as larger weapons were detected at deeper depths compared to smaller weapons. Metal composition affected maximum depth of detection as the conductivity meter detected items comprised of ferrous metals at deeper depths than non-ferrous metals. Searches for large buried items may incorporate a transect interval spacing of 50 cm but small weapons may be undetected between transects and therefore a transect interval spacing of 25 cm is recommended. Overall, the conductivity meter is a geophysical tool to consider when searching for larger-sized metallic weapons or to use in conjunction with an all-metal detector, particularly when

  3. Micro-imaging of buried layers and interfaces in ultrathin films by X-ray reflectivity (United States)

    Jiang, Jinxing; Hirano, Keiichi; Sakurai, Kenji


    X-ray reflectivity is a promising technique for characterizing buried layers and interfaces in ultrathin films because of its ability to probe the electron density profile along the depth in a non-destructive manner. While routine X-ray reflectivity assumes the in-plane uniformity of the sample to be measured, it is also quite important to see buried inhomogeneous/patterned layers and interfaces. The present paper describes the addition of spatial resolution and imaging capability to an X-ray reflectivity technique to visualize surfaces and buried interfaces. To visualize quite wide viewing area size quickly, the image reconstruction scheme has been employed instead of the scanning of microbeam. Though the mathematics is quite close to X-ray computer tomography, the technique gives the image contrast caused by the difference in reflectivity at each in-plane point in the thin film sample. By choosing a grazing angle, the image gives inhomogeneity of X-ray reflectivity at the specific wavevector transfer. With a collimated monochromatic synchrotron X-ray beam of 0.05 mm (H) × 8 mm (V), the intensity profiles of X-ray reflection projections have been taken at many different in-plane rotation angles, from 0° to 180°. We have succeeded in visualizing buried layers and interfaces of the 8 mm dia area with the spatial resolution of better than 20 μm. Because of the brilliance of synchrotron radiation, the typical measuring time is shorter than 1 min. Three analytical cases have been discussed: (i) imaging of a buried layer and an interface covered by a protection layer, (ii) distinguishing different local parts of different thicknesses in an ultrathin film, and (iii) selective imaging of a specific metal in the thin film form.

  4. Southern Dobrogea coastal potable water sources and Upper Quaternary Black Sea level changes (United States)

    Caraivan, Glicherie; Stefanescu, Diana


    Southern Dobrogea is a typical geologic platform unit, placed in the south-eastern part of Romania, with a Pre-Cambrian crystalline basement and a Paleozoic - Quaternary sedimentary cover. It is bordered to the north by the Capidava - Ovidiu fault and by the Black Sea to the east. A regional WNW - ESE and NNE - SSW fault system divides the Southern Dobrogea structure in several tectonic blocks. Four drinking water sources have been identified: surface water, phreatic water, medium depth Sarmatian aquifer, and deep Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous aquifer. Surface water sources are represented by several springs emerged from the base of the loess cliff, and a few small rivers, barred by coastal beaches. The phreatic aquifer develops at the base of the loess deposits, on the impervious red clay, overlapping the Sarmatian limestones. The medium depth aquifer is located in the altered and karstified Sarmatian limestones, and discharges into the Black Sea. The Sarmatian aquifer is unconfined where covered by silty loess deposits, and locally confined, where capped by clayey loess deposits. The aquifer is supplied from the Pre-Balkan Plateau. The Deep Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous aquifer, located in the limestone and dolomite deposits, is generally confined and affected by the regional WNW - ESE and NNE - SSW fault system. In the south-eastern Dobrogea, the deep aquifer complex is separated from the Sarmatian aquifer by a Senonian aquitard (chalk and marls). The natural boundary of the Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous aquifer is the Capidava - Ovidiu Fault. The piezometric heads show that the Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous aquifer is supplied from the Bulgarian territory, where the Upper Jurassic deposits crop out. The aquifer discharges into the Black Sea to the east and into Lake Siutghiol to the northeast. The cyclic Upper Quaternary climate changes induced drastic remodeling of the Black Sea level and the corresponding shorelines. During the Last Glacial

  5. Deep electrical resistivity tomography along the tectonically active Middle Aterno Valley (2009 L'Aquila earthquake area, central Italy) (United States)

    Pucci, Stefano; Civico, Riccardo; Villani, Fabio; Ricci, Tullio; Delcher, Eric; Finizola, Anthony; Sapia, Vincenzo; De Martini, Paolo Marco; Pantosti, Daniela; Barde-Cabusson, Stéphanie; Brothelande, Elodie; Gusset, Rachel; Mezon, Cécile; Orefice, Simone; Peltier, Aline; Poret, Matthieu; Torres, Liliana; Suski, Barbara


    Three 2-D Deep Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) transects, up to 6.36 km long, were obtained across the Paganica-San Demetrio Basin, bounded by the 2009 L'Aquila Mw 6.1 normal-faulting earthquake causative fault (central Italy). The investigations allowed defining for the first time the shallow subsurface basin structure. The resistivity images, and their geological interpretation, show a dissected Mesozoic-Tertiary substratum buried under continental infill of mainly Quaternary age due to the long-term activity of the Paganica-San Demetrio normal faults system (PSDFS), ruling the most recent deformational phase. Our results indicate that the basin bottom deepens up to 600 m moving to the south, with the continental infill largely exceeding the known thickness of the Quaternary sequence. The causes of this increasing thickness can be: (1) the onset of the continental deposition in the southern sector took place before the Quaternary, (2) there was an early stage of the basin development driven by different fault systems that produced a depocentre in the southern sector not related to the present-day basin shape, or (3) the fault system slip rate in the southern sector was faster than in the northern sector. We were able to gain sights into the long-term PSDFS behaviour and evolution, by comparing throw rates at different timescales and discriminating the splays that lead deformation. Some fault splays exhibit large cumulative throws (>300 m) in coincidence with large displacement of the continental deposits sequence (>100 m), thus testifying a general persistence in time of their activity as leading splays of the fault system. We evaluate the long-term (3-2.5 Myr) cumulative and Quaternary throw rates of most of the leading splays to be 0.08-0.17 mm yr-1, indicating a substantial stability of the faults activity. Among them, an individual leading fault splay extends from Paganica to San Demetrio ne' Vestini as a result of a post-Early Pleistocene linkage of

  6. Quaternary history and contemporary patterns in a currently expanding species (United States)

    Kerdelhué, Carole; Zane, Lorenzo; Simonato, Mauro; Salvato, Paola; Rousselet, Jérôme; Roques, Alain; Battisti, Andrea


    Background Quaternary climatic oscillations had dramatic effects on species evolution. In northern latitudes, populations had to survive the coldest periods in refugial areas and recurrently colonized northern regions during interglacials. Such a history usually results in a loss of genetic diversity. Populations that did not experience glaciations, in contrast, probably maintained most of their ancestral genetic diversity. These characteristics dramatically affected the present-day distribution of genetic diversity and may influence the ability of species to cope with the current global changes. We conducted a range-wide study of mitochondrial genetic diversity in the pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa/T. wilkinsoni complex, Notodontidae), a forest pest occurring around the Mediterranean Basin and in southern Europe. This species is responding to the current climate change by rapid natural range expansion and can also be accidentally transported by humans. Our aim was to assess if Quaternary climatic oscillations had a different effect across the species' range and to determine if genetic footprints of contemporary processes can be identified in areas of recent introduction. Results We identified three main clades that were spatially structured. In most of Europe, the genetic diversity pattern was typical for species that experienced marked glaciation cycles. Except in refugia, European populations were characterized by the occurrence of one main haplotype and by a strong reduction in genetic diversity, which is expected in regions that were rapidly re-colonized when climatic conditions improved. In contrast, all other sub-clades around the Mediterranean Basin occurred in limited parts of the range and were strongly structured in space, as is expected in regions in which the impact of glaciations was limited. In such places, genetic diversity was retained in most populations, and almost all haplotypes were endemic. This pattern was extreme on remote

  7. Quaternary history and contemporary patterns in a currently expanding species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rousselet Jérôme


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quaternary climatic oscillations had dramatic effects on species evolution. In northern latitudes, populations had to survive the coldest periods in refugial areas and recurrently colonized northern regions during interglacials. Such a history usually results in a loss of genetic diversity. Populations that did not experience glaciations, in contrast, probably maintained most of their ancestral genetic diversity. These characteristics dramatically affected the present-day distribution of genetic diversity and may influence the ability of species to cope with the current global changes. We conducted a range-wide study of mitochondrial genetic diversity in the pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa/T. wilkinsoni complex, Notodontidae, a forest pest occurring around the Mediterranean Basin and in southern Europe. This species is responding to the current climate change by rapid natural range expansion and can also be accidentally transported by humans. Our aim was to assess if Quaternary climatic oscillations had a different effect across the species' range and to determine if genetic footprints of contemporary processes can be identified in areas of recent introduction. Results We identified three main clades that were spatially structured. In most of Europe, the genetic diversity pattern was typical for species that experienced marked glaciation cycles. Except in refugia, European populations were characterized by the occurrence of one main haplotype and by a strong reduction in genetic diversity, which is expected in regions that were rapidly re-colonized when climatic conditions improved. In contrast, all other sub-clades around the Mediterranean Basin occurred in limited parts of the range and were strongly structured in space, as is expected in regions in which the impact of glaciations was limited. In such places, genetic diversity was retained in most populations, and almost all haplotypes were endemic. This

  8. Bibliography of literature pertaining to Long Valley Caldera and associated volcanic fields (United States)

    Ewert, John W.; Harpel, Christopher J.; Brooks, Suzanna K.; Marcaida, Mae


    On May 25-27, 1980, Long Valley caldera was rocked by four M=6 earthquakes that heralded the onset of a wave of seismic activity within the caldera which has continued through the present. Unrest has taken the form of seismic swarms, uplift of the resurgent dome, and areas of vegetation killed by increased CO2 emissions, all interpreted as resulting from magma injection into different levels beneath the caldera, as well as beneath Mammoth Mountain along the southwest rim of the caldera. Continuing economic development in the Mammoth Lakes area has swelled the local population, increasing the risk to people and property if an eruption were to occur. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been monitoring geophysical activity in the Long Valley area since the mid-1970s and continues to track the unrest in real time with a sophisticated network of geophysical sensors. Hazards information obtained by this monitoring is provided to local, State, and Federal officials and to the public through the Long Valley Observatory. The Long Valley area also was scientifically important before the onset of current unrest. Lying at the eastern foot of the Sierra Nevada, the deposits from this active volcanic system have provided fertile ground for research into Neogene tectonics, Quaternary geology and geomorphology, regional stratigraphy, and volcanology. In the early 1970s, intensive studies of the area began through the USGS Geothermal Investigations Program, owing to the presence of a large young silicic volcanic system. The paroxysmal eruption of Long Valley caldera about 760,000 years ago produced the Bishop Tuff and associated Bishop ash. The Bishop Tuff is a well-preserved ignimbrite deposit that has continued to provide new and developing insights into the dynamics of ignimbrite-forming eruptions. Another extremely important aspect of the Bishop Tuff is that it is the oldest known normally magnetized unit of the Brunhes Chron. Thus, the age of the Bishop Tuff is used to

  9. Hydraulic parameters estimation by using an approach based on vertical electrical soundings (VES) in the semi-arid Khanasser valley region, Syria (United States)

    Asfahani, Jamal


    A new alternative approach based on using Vertical electrical sounding (VES) technique is proposed for computing the hydraulic conductivity K of an aquifer. The approach takes only the salinity of the groundwater into consideration. VES measurements in the locations, where available water samples exist, are required in such an approach, in order to calibrate and establish empirical relationships between transverse resistance Dar-Zarrouck TR parameter and modified transverse resistance MTR, and between MTR and transmissivity T. Those relationships are thereafter used to extrapolate the transmissivity even in the VES points where no water samples exist. This approach is tested and practiced in the Khanasser valley, Northern Syria, where the hydraulic conductivity of the Quaternary aquifer is computed. An acceptable agreement is found between the hydraulic conductivity values obtained by the proposed approach and those obtained by the pumping test which range between 0.864 and 8.64 m/day (10-5 and 10-4 m/s). The Quaternary aquifer transmissivity of the Khanasser Valley, has been characterized by using this approach and by adapting the MTR parameter. The transmissivity varies between a minimum of 79 m2/day and a maximum of 814 m2/day, with an average of 283 m2/day and a standard deviation of 145 m2/day. The easy and inexpensive approach proposed in this paper can be applied in other semi arid regions.

  10. Late Quaternary palaeoenvironmental information inferred from terrestrial archives in the central Sahara (United States)

    Brauneck, J.; Baumhauer, R.


    Reconnaissance surveys in northeastern Niger since 1977 have revealed, from such evidence as diatomite-lined depressions, the existence of palaeolakes there. Initial research has shown that the palaeolimnic sediments and palaeosoils found are suitable for reconstructing its Late Quaternary palaeoenvironment. The most valuable and best-investigated study site is the sebkha of Seggedim, where a core of 15 meters length could be extracted which revealed a composition of high-resolution sections. Stratigraphical, structural and geochemical investigations as well as the analysis of thin sections allow the characterisation of different environmental conditions throughout the core. Most importantly, a complex age-depth model could be constructed, based on 21 accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon measurements and reaching from Early to Mid Holocene. The results obtained from the core are compared with those from terrestrial and lacustrine sediments from outside the depression, situated a few hundred kilometres further to the north. Within the plateau landscape of Djado, Mangueni and Tchigai, two depressions and a valley containing lacustrine deposits, were investigated for palaeoenvironmental reconstruction. Depending on modifying local factors, these sediment archives were of shorter existence than the lake, but reveal additional information about the landscape dynamics from Early to Mid Holocene. The few perennial lacustrine climate archives still active to present day within the Sahara reveal apparently unique characteristics, as the local conditions that led to their existence are indeed exceptional. The interpretation of such a standalone location has to be performed with caution, as it inhibits several sources of error. The Seggedim depression may be considered such a unique spot at least for a limited time. The information obtained from the initial and freshwater lake sediments showed no noticeable signs of climatic alterations until Mid Holocene

  11. Quaternary deposits and landscape evolution of the central Blue Ridge of Virginia (United States)

    Scott, Eaton L.; Morgan, B.A.; Craig, Kochel R.; Howard, A.D.


    A catastrophic storm that struck the central Virginia Blue Ridge Mountains in June 1995 delivered over 775 mm (30.5 in) of rain in 16 h. The deluge triggered more than 1000 slope failures; and stream channels and debris fans were deeply incised, exposing the stratigraphy of earlier mass movement and fluvial deposits. The synthesis of data obtained from detailed pollen studies and 39 radiometrically dated surficial deposits in the Rapidan basin gives new insights into Quaternary climatic change and landscape evolution of the central Blue Ridge Mountains. The oldest depositional landforms in the study area are fluvial terraces. Their deposits have weathering characteristics similar to both early Pleistocene and late Tertiary terrace surfaces located near the Fall Zone of Virginia. Terraces of similar ages are also present in nearby basins and suggest regional incision of streams in the area since early Pleistocene-late Tertiary time. The oldest debris-flow deposits in the study area are much older than Wisconsinan glaciation as indicated by 2.5YR colors, thick argillic horizons, and fully disintegrated granitic cobbles. Radiocarbon dating indicates that debris flow activity since 25,000 YBP has recurred, on average, at least every 2500 years. The presence of stratified slope deposits, emplaced from 27,410 through 15,800 YBP, indicates hillslope stripping and reduced vegetation cover on upland slopes during the Wisconsinan glacial maximum. Regolith generated from mechanical weathering during the Pleistocene collected in low-order stream channels and was episodically delivered to the valley floor by debris flows. Debris fans prograded onto flood plains during the late Pleistocene but have been incised by Holocene stream entrenchment. The fan incision allows Holocene debris flows to largely bypass many of the higher elevation debris fan surfaces and deposit onto the topographically lower surfaces. These episodic, high-magnitude storm events are responsible for

  12. Dedradation of buried ice and permafrost in the Veleta Cirque (Sierra Nevada, Spain from 2006–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gómez-Ortiz


    Full Text Available The Veleta cirque is located at the foot of the Veleta peak, one of the highest summits of the Sierra Nevada National Park (Southern Spain. This cirque was the source of a glacier valley during the Quaternary cold periods. During the Little Ice Age it sheltered a small glacier, the most southerly in Europe, about which we have possessed written records since the XVII century. This glacier still had ice residues until the mid-XX century. This ice is no longer visible, but a residue persists along with discontinuous permafrost trapped under strata of rock blocks that make up an incipient rock glacier. From 2006 to 2013, this rock glacier was monitored by measurement of the temperature of the active layer, the degree of snow cover on the ground, movements of the body of the rock glacier and geophysical prospection inside it. The results show that the relict ice and trapped permafrost have been steadily declining. The processes that explain this degradation occur in chain, starting from the external radiation that affects the ground in summer, which is when the temperatures are higher. In effect, when this radiation steadily melts the snow on the ground, the thermal expansive wave advances into the heart of the active layer, reaching the ceiling of the frozen mass, which it then degrades and melts. In this entire linked process, the circulation of melt waters fulfil a highly significant function, as they act as heat transmitters. The complementary nature of these processes explains the subsidence and continuous changes in the entire clastic pack and the melting of the frozen ceiling on which it rests. This happens in summer in just a few weeks. All these events, in particular the geomorphological ones, take place on the Sierra Nevada peaks within certain climate conditions that are at present unfavourable to the maintenance of snow on the ground in summer. These conditions could be related to recent variations in the climate, starting in the mid

  13. Dedradation of buried ice and permafrost in the Veleta Cirque (Sierra Nevada, Spain) from 2006-2013 (United States)

    Gómez-Ortiz, A.; Oliva, M.; Salvador-Franch, F.; Salvà-Catarineu, M.; Palacios, D.; de Sanjosé-Blasco, J. J.; Tanarro-García, L. M.


    The Veleta cirque is located at the foot of the Veleta peak, one of the highest summits of the Sierra Nevada National Park (Southern Spain). This cirque was the source of a glacier valley during the Quaternary cold periods. During the Little Ice Age it sheltered a small glacier, the most southerly in Europe, about which we have possessed written records since the XVII century. This glacier still had ice residues until the mid-XX century. This ice is no longer visible, but a residue persists along with discontinuous permafrost trapped under strata of rock blocks that make up an incipient rock glacier. From 2006 to 2013, this rock glacier was monitored by measurement of the temperature of the active layer, the degree of snow cover on the ground, movements of the body of the rock glacier and geophysical prospection inside it. The results show that the relict ice and trapped permafrost have been steadily declining. The processes that explain this degradation occur in chain, starting from the external radiation that affects the ground in summer, which is when the temperatures are higher. In effect, when this radiation steadily melts the snow on the ground, the thermal expansive wave advances into the heart of the active layer, reaching the ceiling of the frozen mass, which it then degrades and melts. In this entire linked process, the circulation of melt waters fulfil a highly significant function, as they act as heat transmitters. The complementary nature of these processes explains the subsidence and continuous changes in the entire clastic pack and the melting of the frozen ceiling on which it rests. This happens in summer in just a few weeks. All these events, in particular the geomorphological ones, take place on the Sierra Nevada peaks within certain climate conditions that are at present unfavourable to the maintenance of snow on the ground in summer. These conditions could be related to recent variations in the climate, starting in the mid-XIX century and most

  14. Rapid dendrite growth in quaternary Ni-based alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The high undercooling and rapid solidification of Ni-10%Cu-10%Fe-10%Co quaternary alloy were achieved by electromagnetic levitation and glass fluxing techniques. The maximum undercooling of 276 K (0.16TL) was obtained in the experiments. All the solidified samples are determined to be α-Ni single-phase solid solutions by DSC thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis. The microstructure of the α-Ni solid solution phase transfers from dendrite to equiaxed grain with an increase in undercooling, accompanied by the grain refinement effect. When the undercooling is very large, the solute trapping effect becomes quite significant and the microsegregation is suppressed. The experimental measurement of α-Ni dendrite growth velocity indicates that it increases with undercooling according to the relation, V=8×10-2×△T1.2.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Jie; WAN Zhexian


    In this paper, the quaternary Delsarte-Goethals code DG(m,δ) and its dual code GD(m, δ) are discussed. The type and the trace representation are given for DG(m, δ),while the type and the minimum Lee weight are determined for GD(m, δ). The shortened codes of DG(m, δ) and GD(m, δ) are proved to be Z4-cyclic. The binary image of DG(m, δ)is proved to be the binary Delsarte-Goethals code DG(m+1, δ), and the essential difference between the binary image of GD(m, δ) and the binary Goethals-Delsarte code GD(m +1, δ)is exhibited. Finally, the decoding algorithms of DG(m, δ) and GD(m, δ) are discussed.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUIJie; WANZhexian


    In this paper,the quaternary Delsarte-Goethals code DG(m,δ)and its dual code GD(m,δ)are discussed.The type and the trace representation are given for DG\\(m,δ),while the type and the minimum Lee weight are determined for GD(m,δ),The shortened codes of DG(m,δ)and GD(m,δ),are proved to be ZZ4-cyclic.The binary image of DG(m,δ) is proved to be the binary Delsarte-Goethals code DG((m+1,δ),and the essential difference between the binary image of GD(m,δ)and the binary Goethals-Delsarte code GD((m+1,δ)is exhibited.Finally,the decoding algorithms of DG(m,δ)and GD(m,δ)are discussed.

  17. Evolution of Quaternary groundwater system in North China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宗祜; 施德鸿; 任福弘; 殷正宙; 孙继朝; 张翠云


    The Quaternary groundwater system in the North China Plain is formed mainly through the terrestrial water flow action on the united geological and tectonic backgrounds. The analysis of groundwater dynamic field, simulation of groundwater geochemistry, and the 14C dating and extraction of isotope information have provided more evidence for recognizing and assessing the evolution of groundwater circulation system and studying the past global changes. The exploitation and utilization of groundwater on a large scale and overexploitation have given rise to the decline of regional groundwater level, change of flow field, decrease of water resources and downward movement of saline water body. The water environment has entered a new evolution stage in which it is intensely disturbed by the mankind’s activities.

  18. Expansion and contraction of Chinese deserts during the Quaternary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘东生; 孙继敏


    Episodic dune formations during the Quaternary are found in many deserts of China.The causes of desert expansions on different time scales are not the same. Desert extension atabout 1.1 and 0.9 Ma ago were the response to the active tectonic movements, whereas the de-sert evolutions on the ten-thousand years time scale were the response to the orbital scale climaticchanges. Spatial scale studies on desert evolution indicate that desert margins shifted greatly dur-ing the last glacial maximum (LGM) and the Holocene optimum, its changing from 125°E of theLGM to 105°E of the climatic optimum. Historical desertification in the semiarid China is not a re-sponse to climate drought but largely associated with the human impacts (mainly over-cultivation)since about 2300 years ago, which leads to the reworking of the underlying LGM sands.

  19. Antibacterial effect of composite resins containing quaternary ammonium polyethyleneimine nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yudovin-Farber, Ira [Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Natural Products, School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine (Israel); Beyth, Nurit; Weiss, Ervin I. [Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry (Israel); Domb, Abraham J., E-mail: [Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Natural Products, School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine (Israel)


    Quaternary ammonium polyethyleneimine (QA-PEI)-based nanoparticles were synthesized by crosslinking with dibromopentane followed by N-alkylation with various alkyl halides and further N-methylation with methyl iodide. Insoluble pyridinium-type particles were prepared by suspension polymerization of 4-vinyl pyridine followed by N-alkylation with alkyl halides. Polyamine-based nanoparticles embedded in restorative composite resin at 1% w/w were tested for antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans using direct contact test. Activity analysis revealed that the alkyl chain length of the QA-PEI nanoparticles plays a significant role in antibacterial activity of the reagent. The most potent compound was octyl-alkylated QA-PEI embedded in restorative composite resin at 1% w/w that totally inhibited S. mutans growth in 3-month-aged samples. This data indicates that restorative composite resin with antibacterial properties can be produced by the incorporation of QA-PEI nanoparticles.

  20. Control of Quaternary sea-level changes on gas seeps (United States)

    Riboulot, Vincent; Thomas, Yannick; Berné, Serge; Jouet, Gwénaël.; Cattaneo, Antonio


    Gas seeping to the seafloor through structures such as pockmarks may contribute significantly to the enrichment of atmospheric greenhouse gases and global warming. Gas seeps in the Gulf of Lions, Western Mediterranean, are cyclical, and pockmark "life" is governed both by sediment accumulation on the continental margin and Quaternary climate changes. Three-dimensional seismic data, correlated to multi-proxy analysis of a deep borehole, have shown that these pockmarks are associated with oblique chimneys. The prograding chimney geometry demonstrates the syn-sedimentary and long-lasting functioning of the gas seeps. Gas chimneys have reworked chronologically constrained stratigraphic units and have functioned episodically, with maximum activity around sea level lowstands. Therefore, we argue that one of the main driving mechanisms responsible for their formation is the variation in hydrostatic pressure driven by relative sea level changes.