Sample records for buried quaternary valleys

  1. Testing MODFLOW-LGR for simulating flow around Buried Quaternary valleys - synthetic test cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Troels Norvin; Christensen, Steen

    In Denmark the water supply is entirely based on ground water. In some parts of the country these resources are found in buried quaternary tunnel valleys. Intensive mapping has shown that the valleys typically have a complex internal hydrogeology with multiple cut and ­fill structures. The admini......In Denmark the water supply is entirely based on ground water. In some parts of the country these resources are found in buried quaternary tunnel valleys. Intensive mapping has shown that the valleys typically have a complex internal hydrogeology with multiple cut and ­fill structures....... The administration of groundwater resources has been based on simulations using regional scale groundwater models. However, regional scale models have difficulties with accurately resolving the complex geology of the buried valleys, which bears the risk of poor model predictions of local scale effects of groundwater...

  2. Mapping a buried Quaternary valley and pre-Quaternary faults through seismic methods in Copenhagen, Denmark. (United States)

    Martinez, Kerim; Alfredo Mendoza, Jose; Henrik, Olsen


    Limited knowledge of the subsurface geology motivates the use of geophysical techniques before large engineering projects are conducted. These applications are normally restricted to satisfy the project aims, like mapping the near surface sediments, unconsolidated rocks and/or geological structures that may affect the construction locally. However, the applications can also contribute to the general knowledge of the regional geology around the location of interest. This report highlights the mapping of a buried Quaternary valley and identification of regional faults by a reflection and refraction seismic survey performed in Copenhagen. A 13.9 Km seismic survey was carried out at Copenhagen city along six crooked lines in order to determine the velocity fields in the near subsurface segment of a planned metro line and reflection patterns in deeper levels. The aim of the survey was to collect information needed for designing the underground metro. In particular it was sought to map the interface between Quaternary sedimentary layers of clay, till and sand, and the underlying layers of Palaeogene limestone found between 7 and 40 m below the ground surface. The data acquisition was carried out using a 192 channels array, receiver groups with 5 m spacing and a Vibroseis as a source at 5 m spacing following a roll along technique to complete the survey spreads. The urban environment demanded extensive survey planning including traffic control, notifications to residents and a fluent coordination with municipal authorities in order to minimize disturbances and ensure data acquisition. The reflection data was processed under a conventional scheme and the refraction data was interpreted using a non-linear traveltime tomography algorithm. The reflection results indicate the presence of faults oriented NW-SE to NNW-SSE affecting the limestone sequences. The faults may be associated to the Sorgenfrei-Tornquist Zone at the transition between the Danish Basin and the Baltic

  3. Gravity field separation and mapping of buried quaternary valleys in Lolland, Denmark using old geophysical data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, M.J.; Olsen, Henrik; Ploug, C.


    the results): the construction of depth models from industrial seismic data for known geological units; geological stripping with mass density adjustment; high-pass filtering of the residual gravity signals; vibroseis surveys; microgravity surveys along seismic lines; the first modelling of buried valleys.......In this paper we utilise the old industrial data for planning new surveys. The overall purpose is a detailed mapping of possible aquifers for the island of Lolland, Denmark. This is done through detection and modelling of the buried quaternary valleys, which either can serve as potential aquifers...... or potential aquifer barriers. The present paper deals only with one aspect of a larger study; namely a case story leading to the detection of unknown buried valleys and the first attempts to model them in 3D from gravity and seismics. Also, the emphasis here is not on any theoretical or even methodological...

  4. Testing MODFLOW-LGR for simulating flow around buried Quaternary valleys - synthetic test cases (United States)

    Vilhelmsen, T. N.; Christensen, S.


    In this study the Local Grid Refinement (LGR) method developed for MODFLOW-2005 (Mehl and Hill, 2005) is utilized to describe groundwater flow in areas containing buried Quaternary valley structures. The tests are conducted as comparative analysis between simulations run with a globally refined model, a locally refined model, and a globally coarse model, respectively. The models vary from simple one layer models to more complex ones with up to 25 model layers. The comparisons of accuracy are conducted within the locally refined area and focus on water budgets, simulated heads, and simulated particle traces. Simulations made with the globally refined model are used as reference (regarded as “true” values). As expected, for all test cases the application of local grid refinement resulted in more accurate results than when using the globally coarse model. A significant advantage of utilizing MODFLOW-LGR was that it allows increased numbers of model layers to better resolve complex geology within local areas. This resulted in more accurate simulations than when using either a globally coarse model grid or a locally refined model with lower geological resolution. Improved accuracy in the latter case could not be expected beforehand because difference in geological resolution between the coarse parent model and the refined child model contradicts the assumptions of the Darcy weighted interpolation used in MODFLOW-LGR. With respect to model runtimes, it was sometimes found that the runtime for the locally refined model is much longer than for the globally refined model. This was the case even when the closure criteria were relaxed compared to the globally refined model. These results are contradictory to those presented by Mehl and Hill (2005). Furthermore, in the complex cases it took some testing (model runs) to identify the closure criteria and the damping factor that secured convergence, accurate solutions, and reasonable runtimes. For our cases this is judged to

  5. Reflection Seismic Imaging of Buried Valleys, Onshore Denmark (United States)

    Lykke-Andersen, H.; Jørgensen, F.; Nørmark, E.

    The steadily increasing demands for securing supplies of clean groundwater have in recent years led to the adoption of reflection seismics in the family of geophysical methods used for groundwater research in Denmark. Buried valleys- often some km wide and a few hundred metres deep - have proved to be important sites for deeply seated, well protected groundwater reservoirs. It is a well known fact that the structure of buried valleys is complicated. With their potential for generation of relatively high resolution images of depositional and tectonic structures, reflection seismics have be- come a valuable supplement to the traditional resistivity methods in the study of buried valleys. Reflection seismic is an expensive method compared to other methods in use for groundwater research; therefore, careful selection of profile locations is mandatory. A practice has developed where selection of locations are based on mapping results obtained by resistivity methods. Results obtained by dynamite and vibrator sources are presented. Experience shows that the quality of the two data types is comparable. Vertical resolution better than ca. 10 m can be obtained, but the bandwidth of data is variable. In areas where non-(water) saturated shallow sediments are present; the bandwidth may be strongly reduced. Depth penetration down to at least one km is normally obtained. The seismic data are tied to wells by means of vertical seismic profiles in exploratory wells. Results are presented to illustrate: 1) potentials and limi- tations of the method and 2) a number of valleys with different types of valley-fill and relationships with the substratum. The genesis of the valleys will be briefly discussed.

  6. Buried paleoindian-age landscapes in stream valleys of the central plains, USA (United States)

    Mandel, R.D.


    A systematic study of late-Quaternary landscape evolution in the Central Plains documented widespread, deeply buried paleosols that represent Paleoindian-age landscapes in terrace fills of large streams (> 5th order), in alluvial fans, and in draws in areas of western Kansas with a thick loess mantle. Alluvial stratigraphic sections were investigated along a steep bio-climatic gradient extending from the moist-subhumid forest-prairie border of the east-central Plains to the dry-subhumid and semi-arid shortgrass prairie of the west-central Plains. Radiocarbon ages indicate that most large streams were characterized by slow aggradation accompanied by cumulic soil development from ca. 11,500 to 10,000??14C yr B.P. In the valleys of some large streams, such as the Ninnescah and Saline rivers, these processes continued into the early Holocene. The soil-stratigraphic record in the draws of western Kansas indicates slow aggradation punctuated by episodes of landscape stability and pedogenesis beginning as early as ca. 13,300??14C yr B.P. and spanning the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary. The development record of alluvial fans in western Kansas is similar to the record in the draws; slow aggradation was punctuated by multiple episodes of soil development between ca. 13,000 and 9000??14C yr B.P. In eastern Kansas and Nebraska, development of alluvial fans was common during the early and middle Holocene, but evidence shows fan development as early as ca. 11,300??14C yr B.P. Buried soils dating between ca. 12,600 and 9000??14C yr B.P. were documented in fans throughout the region. In stream valleys across the Central Plains, rapid alluviation after ca. 9000??14C yr B.P. resulted in deeply buried soils that may harbor Paleoindian cultural deposits. Hence, the paucity of recorded stratified Paleoindian sites in the Central Plains is probably related to poor visibility (i.e., deep burial in alluvial deposits) instead of limited human occupation in the region during the terminal

  7. Estimated Thickness of Quaternary Sediment in the Wood River Valley aquifer system, South-Central Idaho (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is the estimated thickness of Quaternary sediment of the Wood River Valley aquifer system. This isopach map was constructed by subtracting the estimated...

  8. Quaternary fossil fish from the Kibish Formation, Omo Valley, Ethiopia. (United States)

    Trapani, Josh


    The late Quaternary Kibish Formation of the Omo Valley, southwestern Ethiopia, preserves environments reflecting a history of fluctuations in the level of nearby Lake Turkana over the past 200,000 years. The Kibish Formation has yielded a diverse mammalian fauna (as well as birds and crocodiles), stone tools, and the oldest anatomically modern Homo sapiens. Fish, the most common vertebrate fossils in this unit, are reported in this study. Catfish (especially clariids and Synodontis) and Nile perch (Lates niloticus) predominate, but the gymnarchid Gymnarchus, a cyprinid (Barbus), tigerfish (Hydrocynus), pufferfish (Tetraodon), and other catfish are also present. In total, nine teleost genera are found in the Kibish Formation, representing a subset of the 37 genera that constitute the modern Omo-Turkana ichthyofauna. Several taxa present in the modern fauna, including Polypterus and members of the family Cichlidae, are not found in the Kibish deposits. Most specimens are preserved as disarticulated or broken skeletal elements, but some preservation of articulated elements (e.g., sets of vertebrae, crania with lower jaws or cleithra) also occurs. Many of the catfish and Nile perch specimens are larger than the largest reported from the modern river or lake. Faunas of Kibish Members I and III closely resemble one another; the fauna from Member IV contains only the three most common taxa (Clarias, Synodontis, Lates), though this may result from insufficient sampling. Barbed bone points have been collected from the upper part of the formation, indicating a long association between the human inhabitants and the fish fauna of the Omo Valley.

  9. The Quaternary Silver Creek Fault Beneath the Santa Clara Valley, California (United States)

    Wentworth, Carl M.; Williams, Robert A.; Jachens, Robert C.; Graymer, Russell W.; Stephenson, William J.


    The northwest-trending Silver Creek Fault is a 40-km-long strike-slip fault in the eastern Santa Clara Valley, California, that has exhibited different behaviors within a changing San Andreas Fault system over the past 10-15 Ma. Quaternary alluvium several hundred meters thick that buries the northern half of the Silver Creek Fault, and that has been sampled by drilling and imaged in a detailed seismic reflection profile, provides a record of the Quaternary history of the fault. We assemble evidence from areal geology, stratigraphy, paleomagnetics, ground-water hydrology, potential-field geophysics, and reflection and earthquake seismology to determine the long history of the fault in order to evaluate its current behavior. The fault formed in the Miocene more than 100 km to the southeast, as the southwestern fault in a 5-km-wide right step to the Hayward Fault, within which the 40-km-long Evergreen pull-apart basin formed. Later, this basin was obliquely cut by the newly recognized Mt. Misery Fault to form a more direct connection to the Hayward Fault, although continued growth of the basin was sufficient to accommodate at least some late Pliocene alluvium. Large offset along the San Andreas-Calaveras-Mt Misery-Hayward Faults carried the basin northwestward almost to its present position when, about 2 Ma, the fault system was reorganized. This led to near abandonment of the faults bounding the pull-apart basin in favor of right slip extending the Calaveras Fault farther north before stepping west to the Hayward Fault, as it does today. Despite these changes, the Silver Creek Fault experienced a further 200 m of dip slip in the early Quaternary, from which we infer an associated 1.6 km or so of right slip, based on the ratio of the 40-km length of the strike-slip fault to a 5-km depth of the Evergreen Basin. This dip slip ends at a mid-Quaternary unconformity, above which the upper 300 m of alluvial cover exhibits a structural sag at the fault that we interpret as

  10. Mapping the late Quaternary evolution of the lower Mississippi Valley (United States)

    Haugerud, R. A.; Simon, K. M.; James, T. S.


    The lower Mississippi Valley (LMV) extends from Cape Girardeau to Natchez and from Little Rock to Memphis. Extensive Quaternary terraces within the LMV have been considered to reflect downstream changes in base level (global sea level) and (or) upstream changes in water and sediment input because of glaciation. We suggest that the first-order control on terrace development was glacial-isostatic adjustment (GIA). Observed variation in heights of Quaternary alluvial surfaces at Memphis is 50 m (Rittenour et al., 2007). GIA modeling by Clark et al. (1994) predicted vertical displacement of as much as 130 m at Memphis over the last 18,000 years. ICE-5G models predict smaller displacement and reinforce the viability of GIA as the primary cause of LMV aggradation and incision. Existing analyses of LMV terraces are built on geomorphic maps by Saucier and colleagues (1974, 1994; Autin et al., 1991) that were interpreted from aerial photographs and inch-to-the-mile contour maps. Geomorphic mapping from high-resolution DEMs is more accurate, more rapid, and more reproducible than mapping from aerial photography and intermediate-resolution contours. Working from lidar DEMs (1-5 m XY resolution) and the 10 m National Elevation Dataset (NED) DEM largely derived from 1:24,000 scale contours, Haugerud is mapping the geomorphology of the LMV at ~1:500,000 scale. Goals are to explore the GIA-terrace hypothesis and improve the geomorphic and stratigraphic context for studies of New Madrid seismicity. Mapping leads to several observations: 1. The Holocene floodplain of the Mississippi River onlaps older surfaces. The river appears to be filling a hole created by collapse of the Laurentide forebulge. Continued filling of this accommodation space will, barring human intervention, enable the river to abandon its course through Thebes Gap in favor of a lower-elevation route through Oran Gap. 2. Within Holocene meander belts, younger levee crests are higher than older levee crests. The

  11. Quaternary Geochronology, Paleontology, and Archaeology of the Upper San Pedro River Valley, Sonora, Mexico (United States)

    Gaines, E. P.


    This poster presents the results of multi-disciplinary investigations of the preservation and extent of Quaternary fossil-bearing strata in the San Pedro River Valley in Sonora, Mexico. Geologic deposits in the portions of the San Pedro Valley in southern Arizona contain one of the best late Cenozoic fossil records known in North America and the best record of early humans and extinct mammals on the continent. The basin in the U.S. is one of the type locations for the Blancan Land Mammal Age. Hemiphilian and Irvingtonian fossils are common. Rancholabrean remains are widespread. Strata in the valley adjacent to the international border with Mexico have yielded the densest concentration of archaeological mammoth-kill sites known in the western hemisphere. Despite more than 60 years of research in the U.S., however, and the fact that over one third of the San Pedro River lies south of the international boundary, little has been known about the late Cenozoic geology of the valley in Mexico. The study reported here utilized extensive field survey, archaeological documentation, paleontological excavations, stratigraphic mapping and alluvial geochronology to determine the nature and extent of Quaternary fossil-bearing deposits in the portions of the San Pedro Valley in Sonora, Mexico. The results demonstrate that the Plio-Pleistocene fossil -bearing formations known from the valley in Arizona extend into the uppermost reaches of the valley in Mexico. Several new fossil sites were discovered that yielded the remains of Camelids, Equus, Mammuthus, and other Proboscidean species. Late Pleistocene archaeological remains were found on the surface of the surrounding uplands. AMS radiocarbon dating demonstrates the widespread preservation of middle- to late- Holocene deposits. However, the late Pleistocene deposits that contain the archaeological mammoth-kill sites in Arizona are absent in the valley in Mexico, and are now known to be restricted to relatively small portions of

  12. Quaternary Glaciations in the Rio Mendoza Valley, Argentine Andes (United States)

    Espizua, Lydia E.


    In the Rio Mendoza valley, five Pleistocene drifts and one Holocene drift are distinguished by multiple relative-age criteria, including surface-rock weathering, development of rock varnish, moraine morphology, soil-profile development, and stratigraphic relationships. Several absolute ages suggest a preliminary chronology. During the oldest (Uspallata) glaciation, a system of valley glaciers flowed 110 km from the Andean drainage divide and 80 km from Cerro Aconcagua to terminate at 1850 m. Drift of this ice advance is older than a widespread tephra dated by fission-track at 360,000 ± 36,000 yr. During the Punta de Vacas advance, ice terminated at 2350 m, while during the subsequent Penitentes advance, the glacier system ended at 2500 m. A travertine layer overlying Penitentes Drift has U-series age of 24,200 ± 2000 yr B.P. The distribution of Horcones Drift, which is inferred to represent the last glacial maximum, delimits an independent ice stream that flowed 22 km down Horcones valley to 2750 m. A later readvance (Almacenes) reached 3250 m. Confluencia Drift is considered to be Neoglacial in age and extends downvalley to 3300 m. The moraine sequence is compared with those studied by Caviedes (1972) along Rio Aconcagua on the Chilean flank of the Andes.

  13. Mapping of the North-Eastern Part of Kozłowicka Buried Valley Based on Geoelectrical Data

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    Topolewska Sylwia


    Full Text Available The paper is aiming to determinate the extent of the north eastern arm of Kozłowicka buried valley on the grounds of own re search by means of electrical resistivity tomography- ERT and avail able archival researches. On the Hydro-geological map of Poland, Żyrardów sheet (Felter and Nowicki, 1998a, b Kozłowicka buried valley was differentiated as an individual hydro-geological unit. The results of the anal y sis show that the ex tent of the structure, defined by its up per boundary, differs significantly from the one suggested on the sheet of Hydrogeological map of Poland. Since there was no data avail able in the north eastern part of the dis cussed arm of Kozłowicka buried valley, the northern boundary was defined only based on avail able geoelectrical sounding profiles (Czerwiñska, 1988; Topolewska, 2015. In order to confirm suggested solution, geoelectrical re search by means of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT was con ducted. The measurements were per formed along 3 pro files located in the area of interest. The authors would like to point out the need of the us age of ERT in map ping and studying buried structures that might be ground water reservoirs. As a result, one obtains quasi-continuous image of electrical resistivity of the subsurface. Due to the contrast of electrical properties of sediments, it is possible to determine upper and bottom surfaces of buried structures, formed within glacial deposits.

  14. Age and stability of sublimation till over buried glacier ice, inferred from 21Ne measurements, Ong Valley, Antarctica (United States)

    Bibby, T.; Putkonen, J.; Morgan, D. J.; Balco, G.


    Ong Valley, in the Central Transantarctic Mountains, contains three distinct glacial drifts deposited by past advances of the Argosy glacier into the valley. Massive ice occurs below two of the till deposits. Potentially, such buried ice under shallow regolith cover could provide access to past climate and biological records more easily than deep ice coring. We measured cosmic-ray produced 21Ne in these tills as a means of constraining the age and stability of the three drifts, as well as the ice below them. We collected samples in vertical profiles from two hand-dug sections through each drift. The pits from two drifts overlying buried ice extended to the buried ice surface. The hypothesis that these are sublimation tills implies that 21Ne concentrations are a function of i) any inheritance from prior exposure; ii) the age since emplacement of the ice and till; iii) the sublimation rate of the ice; and iv) the surface erosion rate of the till. 21Ne concentrations in the youngest drift are ca. 10 M atoms/g and invariant with depth, indicating that they are predominantly due to inheritance, and provide only a weak maximum age constraint of ca. 0.1 Mya. The two older drifts have surface 21Ne concentrations of 200-250 M atoms/ g and depth concentration profiles consistent with a sublimation till origin. Given that 21Ne concentrations in the deepest samples in each of the two older drifts provide an upper limit on the inherited 21Ne concentration, these imply minimum ages of 1 Mya for the middle drift and 1.6 Mya for the oldest. This implies a 1 Mya minimum age for the ice underlying the middle drift.

  15. Estimated Altitude of the Consolidated Rock Surface Underlying Quaternary Sediments of the Wood River Valley aquifer system, South-Central Idaho (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is the estimated altitude of the consolidated rock surface underlying Quaternary sediment of the Wood River Valley aquifer system. This surface is...

  16. The role of sediments stored in valleys in modulating the Quaternary weathering flux variations (United States)

    Carretier, Sebastien; Goddéris, Yves; Vigier, Nathalie; Maffre, Pierre


    Silicate weathering is known to be central to the regulation of atmospheric CO2. Yet it is unclear how weathering responds to climatic variations. Data sets based on different proxies in sediment cores suggest either negligible Quaternary silicate weathering variations, or more weathering during wet and hot periods, or even the reverse. For example, a recent study based on d7Li in clay of Himalayan river terraces suggests, counter-intuitively, a less intense weathering during hot and wet periods compared to dry periods for the last 40 ka, with no clear physical explanation. We analyse catchment scale weathering signals using the numerical model Cidre, coupling landscape evolution with chemical weathering. Chemical weathering occurs within a regolith, either produced in situ at a rate depending on regolith thickness, temperature and precipitation, or corresponding to a deposit. The chemical flux is calculated from the dissolution of granitoid clasts, first exhumed on the hillslopes and then transported and potentially stocked in the valleys. This approach accounts for part of the stochastic nature of grain weathering within a catchment. We prescribe an uplift to an initial horizontal surface to reach a dynamic equilibrium under a constant climate. Then, we vary the precipitation rate and the temperature, alternating cold and dry periods with hot and wet periods (10 to 400 ka tested). When these variations are applied to an equilibrium mountain covered by a regolith ("transport-limited"), the weathering outlfux and the erosion flux are larger during wet and hot periods. On the contrary, for less weatherable conditions such that the mountain is not covered by regolith ("kinetically-limited"), the weathering is the highest at the beginning of the dry, cold and low erosive periods. This apparent paradox is explained by the temporary accumulation of sediment in the valleys in response to the drought. The hillslopes being striped, these valley deposits constitute the only

  17. A High-Resolution Aeromagnetic Survey to Identify Buried Faults at Dixie Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Richard Paul; Grauch, V. J. S.; Blackwell, David D.


    Preliminary results from a high-resolution aeromagnetic survey (200m line spacing) acquired in Dixie Valley early in 2002 provide confirmation of intra-basin faulting based on subtle surface indications. In addition the data allow identification of the locations and trends of many faults that have not been recognized at the surface, and provide a picture of intrabasin faulting patterns not possible using other techniques. The data reveal a suite of northeasterly-trending curving and branching faults that surround a relatively coherent block in the area of Humboldt Salt Marsh, the deepest part of the basin. The producing reservoir occurs at the north end of this coherent block, where rampart faults from the northwest side of the valley merge with anthithetic faults from the central and southeast parts of the valley.

  18. The influence of time on the magnetic properties of late Quaternary periglacial and alluvial surface and buried soils along the Delaware River, USA

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    Gary E Stinchcomb


    Full Text Available Magnetic susceptibility of soils has been used as a proxy for rainfall, but other factors can contribute to magnetic enhancement in soils. Here we explore influence of century- to millennial-scale duration of soil formation on periglacial and alluvial soil magnetic properties by assessing three terraces with surface and buried soils ranging in exposure ages from <0.01 to ~16 kyrs along the Delaware River in northeastern USA. The A and B soil horizons have higher Xlf, Ms, and S-ratios compared to parent material, and these values increase in a non-linear fashion with increasing duration of soil formation. Magnetic remanence measurements show a mixed low- and high-coercivity mineral assemblage likely consisting of goethite, hematite and maghemite that contributes to the magnetic enhancement of the soil. Room-temperature and low-temperature field-cooled and zero field-cooled remanence curves confirm the presence of goethite and magnetite and show an increase in magnetization with increasing soil age. These data suggest that as the Delaware alluvial soils weather, the concentration of secondary ferrimagnetic minerals increase in the A and B soil horizons. We then compared the time-dependent Xlf from several age-constrained buried alluvial soils with known climate data for the region during the Quaternary. Contradictory to most studies that suggest a link between increases in magnetic susceptibility and high moisture, increased magnetic enhancement of Delaware alluvial soils coincides with dry climate intervals. Early Holocene enhanced soil Xlf (9.5 – 8.5 ka corresponds with a well-documented cool-dry climate episode. This relationship is probably related to less frequent flooding during dry intervals allowing more time for low-coercive pedogenic magnetic minerals to form and accumulate, which resulted in increased Xlf. Middle Holocene enhanced Xlf (6.1 – 4.3 ka corresponds with a transitional wet/dry phase and a previously documented incision

  19. Late Quaternary loess-like paleosols and pedocomplexes, geochemistry, provenance and source area weathering, Manasbal, Kashmir Valley, India (United States)

    Babeesh, C.; Achyuthan, Hema; Jaiswal, Manoj Kumar; Lone, Aasif


    The late Quaternary loess and loess-like deposits in Kashmir Valley are natural archives that have preserved paleoclimate and paleoenvironmental records of the region. We present a loess-like paleosol located along the margin of the Manasbal Lake, Ganderbal, which was studied in detail for understanding the pedological processes and reconstructing the late Quaternary soil formation. In this paper we present loess-like paleosol formation of a nearly 10.6 m thick sequence exposed along the margin of Manasbal Lake, Ganderbal District, Srinagar, Kashmir. Geochemical and textural data of this loess-like sedimentary sequence fluctuate reflecting the varied depositional processes operating in the valley, differential intensity of weathering, and processes of pedogenesis. Weathering indices such as chemical index of alteration, chemical index of weathering, and plagioclase index of alteration reveal weak to moderate weathering of the parent material. Provenance discrimination diagrams of the present study disclose that the Manasbal loess-like paleosol sediments are derived from the mixed source rocks suggesting a variety of provenance with variable geological settings, which apparently have undergone weak to moderate recycling processes. The Manasbal paleosol horizons have been dated by the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) method to the marine isotope stages mid-MIS-3 (41.7 ± 8.0 ka) and late-MIS-2 (14.6 ± 3.8 ka). During the MIS-3 period, the climate was wetter, forming a strong AhBtk paleosol as inferred from the geochemical data. A steady increase in the CaCO3 content and C/N ratio in the paleosols from 6.50 m (MIS-3) indicates arid and drier climatic conditions. The area around Manasbal Lake incised because of climate change and neotectonic activity since post-14 ka.

  20. Geomorphological map and preliminary analysis of Quaternary sediments in the Planica-Tamar valley (Julian Alps, NW Slovenia) (United States)

    Novak, Andrej; Šmuc, Andrej


    The Planica-Tamar valley is located in the Julian Alps in north-west Slovenia. The Planica-Tamar valley represents typical mountain glacial valley bounded by steep, mainly carbonate cliffs with some glacial deposits still preserved. The valley is currently being filled with numerous Holocene sediments deposited by rock falls, landslides, mass gravity flows and fluvial flows. These deposits are forming active or inactive interfingering talus slopes, alluvial and debris-flow fans, all of them with a complex history of sedimentation and erosion forming unconformity bounded sedimentary units. In order to make a thorough analysis of these deposits a detailed geomorphological map in a scale of 1:10 000 has been made. Six different types of sedimentary deposits were defined and mapped. These are moraines, lacustrine sediments, fluvio-glacial deposits, talus slopes, debris fans and alluvial fans. Other mapped features also include shape of ravines, their depths, ridges and direction of sedimentary flow. Additionally areas of active, semi-active and inactive sedimentation were marked. Moraines forms a ridge in the bottom of the valleys and are composed of unconsolidated, poorly sorted, subangular grains ranging from clay size to a few cubic meters big blocks. Lacustrine sediments are represented by laminated well sorted sand and silt, while fluvio-glacial deposits are composed of washed out subrounded sands and gravels. Talus slope deposits are characterised by clast-supported poorly sorted very angular gravel. Debris flow fans are represented by extremely poorly sorted matrix-supported gravels with grain size ranging from clay to few cubic meters big blocks. Alluvial fans are composed by variety of sedimentary textures. Sediments at the fan apex are clast-supported poorly sorted very angular gravels with up to a few cubic meters big block. In the middle part of the fan the sieve deposits are common, while in the distal parts a few centimeters thick layers of sand and

  1. Late quaternary slip-rate variations along the Warm Springs Valley fault system, northern Walker Lane, California-Nevada border (United States)

    Gold, Ryan; dePolo, Craig; Briggs, Richard W.; Crone, Anthony


    The extent to which faults exhibit temporally varying slip rates has important consequences for models of fault mechanics and probabilistic seismic hazard. Here, we explore the temporal behavior of the dextral‐slip Warm Springs Valley fault system, which is part of a network of closely spaced (10–20 km) faults in the northern Walker Lane (California–Nevada border). We develop a late Quaternary slip record for the fault using Quaternary mapping and high‐resolution topographic data from airborne Light Distance and Ranging (LiDAR). The faulted Fort Sage alluvial fan (40.06° N, 119.99° W) is dextrally displaced 98+42/-43 m, and we estimate the age of the alluvial fan to be 41.4+10.0/-4.8 to 55.7±9.2  ka, based on a terrestrial cosmogenic 10Be depth profile and 36Cl analyses on basalt boulders, respectively. The displacement and age constraints for the fan yield a slip rate of 1.8 +0.8/-0.8 mm/yr to 2.4 +1.2/-1.1 mm/yr (2σ) along the northern Warm Springs Valley fault system for the past 41.4–55.7 ka. In contrast to this longer‐term slip rate, shorelines associated with the Sehoo highstand of Lake Lahontan (~15.8  ka) adjacent to the Fort Sage fan are dextrally faulted at most 3 m, which limits a maximum post‐15.8 ka slip rate to 0.2  mm/yr. These relations indicate that the post‐Lahontan slip rate on the fault is only about one‐tenth the longer‐term (41–56 ka) average slip rate. This apparent slip‐rate variation may be related to co‐dependent interaction with the nearby Honey Lake fault system, which shows evidence of an accelerated period of mid‐Holocene earthquakes.

  2. Late Quaternary environments and prehistoric occupation in the lower White Nile valley, central Sudan (United States)

    Williams, Martin A. J.; Usai, Donatella; Salvatori, Sandro; Williams, Frances M.; Zerboni, Andrea; Maritan, Lara; Linseele, Veerle


    Despite the major contributions provided over fifty years ago by A.J. Arkell and J.D. Tothill to our understanding of late Quaternary environments and prehistoric occupation near the confluence of the Blue and White Nile in central Sudan, three key questions have remained unresolved since then. (a) Was the decline in Nile flood levels from early Holocene times onwards caused by a reduction in Nile discharge, or by channel incision, or both? (b) Was the regional climate wetter during times of high Nile floods and drier during times of low Nile floods? (c) Given the high degree of disturbance of Mesolithic and later prehistoric sites, is it possible to identify primary-context, stratified and undisturbed occupation? Drawing upon dated evidence from three sites to the east of and three to the west of the lower White Nile, we provide a qualified answer to the first question and documented affirmative answers to the second and third questions.

  3. Paleo erosion rates and climate shifts recorded by Quaternary cut-and-fill sequences in the Pisco valley, central Peru (United States)

    Bekaddour, Toufik; Schlunegger, Fritz; Vogel, Hendrik; Delunel, Romain; Norton, Kevin P.; Akçar, Naki; Kubik, Peter


    Fluvial cut-and-fill sequences have frequently been reported from various sites on Earth. Nevertheless, the information about the past erosional regime and hydrological conditions have not yet been adequately deciphered from these archives. The Quaternary terrace sequences in the Pisco valley, located at ca. 13°S, offer a manifestation of an orbitally-driven cyclicity in terrace construction where phases of sediment accumulation have been related to the Minchin (48-36 ka) and Tauca (26-15 ka) lake level highstands on the Altiplano. Here, we present a 10Be-based sediment budget for the cut-and-fill terrace sequences in this valley to quantify the orbitally forced changes in precipitation and erosion. We find that the Minchin period was characterized by an erosional pulse along the Pacific coast where denudation rates reached values as high as 600±80 mm/ka for a relatively short time span lasting a few thousands of years. This contrasts to the younger pluvial periods and the modern situation when 10Be-based sediment budgets register nearly zero erosion at the Pacific coast. We relate these contrasts to different erosional conditions between the modern and the Minchin time. First, the sediment budget infers a precipitation pattern that matches with the modern climate ca. 1000 km farther north, where highly erratic and extreme El Niño-related precipitation results in fast erosion and flooding along the coast. Second, the formation of a thick terrace sequence requires sufficient material on catchment hillslopes to be stripped off by erosion. This was most likely the case immediately before the start of the Minchin period, because this erosional epoch was preceded by a >50 ka-long time span with poorly erosive climate conditions, allowing for sufficient regolith to build up on the hillslopes. Finally, this study suggests a strong control of orbitally and ice sheet forced latitudinal shifts of the ITCZ on the erosional gradients and sediment production on the western

  4. Processes of Terrace Formation on the Piedmont of the Santa Cruz River Valley During Quaternary Time, Green Valley-Tubac Area, Southeastern Arizona (United States)

    Lindsey, David A.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.


    In this report we describe a series of stepped Quaternary terraces on some piedmont tributaries of the Santa Cruz River valley in southeastern Arizona. These terraces began to form in early Pleistocene time, after major basin-and-range faulting ceased, with lateral planation of basin fill and deposition of thin fans of alluvium. At the end of this cycle of erosion and deposition, tributaries of the Santa Cruz River began the process of dissection and terrace formation that continues to the present. Vertical cutting alternated with periods of equilibrium, during which streams cut laterally and left thin deposits of channel fill. The distribution of terraces was mapped and compiled with adjacent mapping to produce a regional picture of piedmont stream history in the middle part of the Santa Cruz River valley. For selected tributaries, the thickness of terrace fill was measured, particle size and lithology of gravel were determined, and sedimentary features were photographed and described. Mapping of terrace stratigraphy revealed that on two tributaries, Madera Canyon Wash and Montosa Canyon Wash, stream piracy has played an important role in piedmont landscape development. On two other tributaries, Cottonwood Canyon Wash and Josephine Canyon Wash, rapid downcutting preempted piracy. Two types of terraces are recognized: erosional and depositional. Gravel in thin erosional terraces has Trask sorting coefficients and sedimentary structures typical of streamflood deposits, replete with bar-and-swale surface topography on young terraces. Erosional-terrace fill represents the channel fill of the stream that cuts the terrace; the thickness of the fill indicates the depth of channel scour. In contrast to erosional terraces, depositional terraces show evidence of repeated deposition and net aggradation, as indicated by their thickness (as much as 20+ m) and weakly bedded structure. Depositional terraces are common below mountain-front canyon mouths where streams drop their

  5. Quaternary sediment architecture in the Orkhon Valley (central Mongolia) inferred from capacitive coupled resistivity and Georadar measurements (United States)

    Mackens, Sonja; Klitzsch, Norbert; Grützner, Christoph; Klinger, Riccardo


    Detailed information on shallow sediment distribution in basins is required to achieve solutions for problems in Quaternary geology, geomorphology, neotectonics, (geo)archaeology, and climatology. Usually, detailed information is obtained by studying outcrops and shallow drillings. Unfortunately, such data are often sparsely distributed and thus cannot characterise entire basins in detail. Therefore, they are frequently combined with remote sensing methods to overcome this limitation. Remote sensing can cover entire basins but provides information of the land surface only. Geophysical methods can close the gap between detailed sequences of the shallow sediment inventory from drillings at a few spots and continuous surface information from remote sensing. However, their interpretation in terms of sediment types is often challenging, especially if permafrost conditions complicate their interpretation. Here we present an approach for the joint interpretation of the geophysical methods ground penetrating radar (GPR) and capacitive coupled resistivity (CCR), drill core, and remote sensing data. The methods GPR and CCR were chosen because they allow relatively fast surveying and provide complementary information. We apply the approach to the middle Orkhon Valley in central Mongolia where fluvial, alluvial, and aeolian processes led to complex sediment architecture. The GPR and CCR data, measured on profiles with a total length of about 60 km, indicate the presence of two distinct layers over the complete surveying area: (i) a thawed layer at the surface, and (ii) a frozen layer below. In a first interpretation step, we establish a geophysical classification by considering the geophysical signatures of both layers. We use sedimentological information from core logs to relate the geophysical classes to sediment types. This analysis reveals internal structures of Orkhon River sediments, such as channels and floodplain sediments. We also distinguish alluvial fan deposits and

  6. Growth of late Quaternary folds in southwest Santa Clara Valley, San Francisco Bay area, California: Implications of triggered slip for seismic hazard and earthquake recurrence (United States)

    Hitchcock, Christopher S.; Kelson, Keith I.


    We combine analysis of geologic and geomorphic data with observations of deformation during the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake in northern California to evaluate the contribution of aseismic triggered slip and creep processes to cumulative late Cenozoic deformation along the northeastern Santa Cruz Mountains range front. Deformed late Pleistocene alluvial fans and terraces provide evidence for localized late Quaternary uplift above range-bounding reverse faults within the southwestern Santa Clara Valley adjacent to the range front. On the basis of offset of late Quaternary surfaces, the long-term average slip rate on the primary range-bounding structure (Monte Vista fault) is estimated to be ˜0.2 mm/yr. Northeast of the range front are several discontinuous northwest-trending folds, indicated by alignment of late Pleistocene alluvial-fan apices, anomalous stream-channel convexities, and topographic and vegetation lineaments within a 3 5-km-wide, northwest-trending corridor. Subsurface geologic and geophysical data support the interpretation that the surface folds are a result of blind reverse faulting along the Cascade fault beneath the Santa Clara Valley. From stream incision rates we estimate an average uplift rate of 0.2 ± 0.05 mm/yr for the Cascade fault. Measurements of triggered and postseismic slip following the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, combined with estimates of the average return period for Loma Prieta type events, suggest a long-term average deformation rate along the range front of 0.25 0.4 mm/yr associated with these aseismic processes. This range of values is comparable to rates of late Quaternary deformation on the range-front faults derived from geologic and geomorphic data, and it suggests that growth of the overlying folds is at least partially the result of triggered slip and postseismic creep associated with nearby Loma Prieta type earthquakes. If this inference is correct, then the return period for independent events on the range

  7. Influence of system controls on the Late Quaternary geomorphic evolution of a rapidly-infilled incised-valley system: The lower Manawatu valley, North Island New Zealand (United States)

    Clement, Alastair J. H.; Fuller, Ian C.


    The Manawatu incised-valley estuary was rapidly infilled between 12,000-4700 cal. yr BP. A combination of empirical measurements of sedimentation rates, a reconstruction of relative sea-level (RSL) change, and digital elevation models of key surfaces within the Holocene sedimentary fill of the valley were integrated to produce a numerical model to investigate the influence of the system controls of sea-level change, sediment flux, and accommodation space on the rapid infilling history of the palaeo-estuary. The numerical model indicates that sediment flux into the palaeo-estuary was greatest during the Holocene marine transgression between 12,000-8000 years BP. The average rate of sediment deposition in the estuary during this period was 1.0 M m3 yr- 1. This rapid rate of sedimentation was controlled by the rate of accommodation space creation, as regulated by the rate of sea-level rise and the antecedent configuration of the valley. By the time sea levels stabilised c. 7500 cal. yr BP, the palaeo-estuary had been substantively infilled. Limited accommodation space resulted in rapid infilling of the central basin, though sediment flux into the estuary between 7100 and 4500 cal. yr BP was at a lower rate of 234,000 m3 yr- 1. The limited accommodation space also influenced hydrodynamic conditions in the estuarine central basin, driving export of fine-grained sediment from the estuary. Once the accommodation space of the estuarine basin was infilled sediment bypassed the system, with a consequent reduction in the sedimentation rate in the valley. More accurate partitioning of the sources of sediment driving the infilling is necessary to quantify sediment bypassing. Post-depositional lowering of RSL index points from the valley is driven by neotectonics and sediment compaction.

  8. The interaction between surface processes and tectonics during the late Quaternary in the Middle Volturno River valley (southern Italy): new morpho-stratigraphic constraints from fluvial terraces (United States)

    Amato, Vincenzo; Patrizio Ciro Aucelli, Pietro; Cesarano, Massimo; Filocamo, Francesca; Giralt, Santiago; Leone, Natalia; Rosskopf, Carmen Maria; Scorpio, Vittoria


    The Middle Volturno River valley is located in the inner part of the Southern Apennines of Italy, between the SW slope of the Matese Massif and the NE slopes of the Caserta mountains and is underlain by Meso-Cenozoic carbonate rocks and Miocene Flysch deposits. The study sector includes the lower Calore River valley and, below the Calore-Volturno confluence, the valley portion that extends until the Triflisco gorge, from Telese village to the Volturno dam. It is generally E-W, NW-SE and NE-SW elongated and characterized by rectilinear and meandering fluvial patterns. The main infilling of the two valley portions is locally preserved as remnants of fluvial terraces hanging over the local base level up to ca. 30-40 m. It is generally interfingered with and covered by several generations of alluvial fan and travertine deposits. New Ar/Ar datings on tephra layers interbedded in the oldest generations of the alluvial fan deposits and new U/Th datings on travertine deposits, allowed to constrain the main infilling to the late Middle and the early Upper Pleistocene. Both deposits are locally covered by the Campanian Ignimbrite Formation (CI, 39 ky BP) and are interested by high-angle faults generated during extensional tectonic phases that affected this sector of the Apennine chain since the Middle Pleistocene. Furthermore, the geomorphological analyses of aerial photos and topographic maps (1:5000 in scale) highlight the presence of a flight of fluvial terraces younger than the CI deposits that can be grouped into four orders. The stratigraphical data, based on field surveys and boreholes analyses, supported by new tephrostratigraphical constraints and literature data, allow to refer the older orders (I and II) to the late Upper Pleistocene. The III and IV orders, instead, can be referred to the early Holocene and historical times, respectively. These chronological constraints allow to hypothesize that the genesis of the I and II orders seem to be driven by late

  9. Geometry of the Paleo-Nueces River Incised-Valley, Corpus Christi Bay, Texas as it Relates to Quaternary Sea Level History (United States)

    Lugrin, L.; Gulick, S. S.; Goff, J. A.


    CHIRP subbottom seismic data were collected on the 2009 and 2011 Marine Geophysics Field courses at the University of Texas at Austin within the Corpus Christi Bay along the central Texas coast in order to study the geometry of the ancestral Nueces River incised valley and its evolution over Quaternary sea level history. Since the late Pleistocene, the Nueces River valley experienced a gradual infill due to sea level rise, interrupted by two major flooding events that represent periods of rapid sediment influx. These flooding events are recognizable based on abrupt changes in seismic facies. Discontinuous, chaotic fluvial lag deposits present underneath a fairly continuous, stratified, sub-horizontal estuarine coastal plain facies mark what is interpreted to be the Pleistocene/Holocene unconformity. Above the P/H boundary, oyster reefs thrive within the estuary until capped by a strong reflector, marking the second flooding surface that allowed enough incoming sediment to discontinue oyster reef growth. The estuarine deposits within the paleo-Nueces river valley exhibit a landward migration as the Holocene transgression proceeded. As infill continued, the bay-head delta prograded seaward and the flood-tidal delta extended progressively further up the estuary until the central estuarine basin was capped. The earlier flooding events provide strong reflectors that can be linked to the draining of Lake Agassiz around 8.2 k.a.. This event flooded the Gulf of Mexico with freshwater, and interrupted the estuarine infilling of the Nueces paleo-channel. Cores from previous studies have found at least two species of oyster reefs in Corpus Christi Bay: euryhaline species Crassostrea virginica, and Ostrea equestris, a species known to thrive in higher salinity waters. The presence of both species at the flooding boundary suggests the sudden pulse of freshwater mixed with higher salinity oceanic water. The second flooding surface is interpreted to be associated with an increase

  10. Latest Quaternary paleoseismology and evidence of distributed dextral shear along the Mohawk Valley fault zone, northern Walker Lane, California (United States)

    Gold, Ryan D.; Briggs, Richard W.; Personius, Stephen F.; Crone, Anthony J.; Mahan, Shannon A.; Angster, Stephen J.


    The dextral-slip Mohawk Valley fault zone (MVFZ) strikes northwestward along the eastern margin of the Sierra Nevada in the northern Walker Lane. Geodetic block modeling indicates that the MVFZ may accommodate ~3 mm/yr of regional dextral strain, implying that it is the highest slip-rate strike-slip fault in the region; however, only limited geologic data are available to constrain the system's slip rate and earthquake history. We mapped the MVFZ using airborne lidar data and field observations and identified a site near Sulphur Creek for paleoseismic investigation. At this site, oblique dextral-normal faulting on the steep valley margin has created a closed depression that floods annually during spring snowmelt to form an ephemeral pond. We excavated three fault-perpendicular trenches at the site and exposed pond sediment that interfingers with multiple colluvial packages eroded from the scarp that bounds the eastern side of the pond. We documented evidence for four surface-rupturing earthquakes on this strand of the MVFZ. OxCal modeling of radiocarbon and luminescence ages indicates that these earthquakes occurred at 14.0 ka, 12.8 ka, 5.7 ka, and 1.9 ka. The mean ~4 kyr recurrence interval is inconsistent with slip rates of ~3 mm/yr; these rates imply surface ruptures of more than 10 m per event, which is geologically implausible for the subdued geomorphic expression and 60 km length of the MVFZ. We propose that unidentified structures not yet incorporated into geodetic models may accommodate significant dextral shear across the northern Walker Lane, highlighting the role of distributed deformation in this region.

  11. Late Quaternary (Holocene) landscape evolution of a monsoon-influenced high Himalayan valley, Gori Ganga, Nanda Devi, NE Garhwal (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Owen, Lewis A.; Sharma, Milap C.; Finkel, Robert C.


    The Garhwal Himalaya provides an excellent natural laboratory in which to examine landscape evolution in a monsoon-influenced high mountain environment. Geomorphic and sedimentological analysis and 10Be cosmogenic radionuclide (CRN) surface exposure dating of moraines, fans, and river and strath terraces in the Gori Ganga Valley of Nanda Devi, NE Garhwal, indicate that fans and river terraces developed rapidly by debris flow and flood processes during periods of deglaciation. These phases of high sediment transfer occurred at ˜1-2, ˜4-5, and ˜7-8 ka. Fan incision rates, subsequent to major times of resedimentation after each glacial advance, are between ˜19 and 57 mm/year. This contrasts with bedrock incision rates, based on mid-Holocene strath terraces, of ˜5 mm/year. These rates indicate that despite episodes of rapid denudation and resedimentation linked to glacial activity in this region, the background rates of denudation are similar to those for other regions of the Himalaya, averaging several millimeters per year. Furthermore, these data show the importance of climatic controls on landscape evolution and suggest a strong monsoonal control on the dynamics of earth surface processes in this region.

  12. Spatially and temporally varying Quaternary uplift rates of the Gerecse Hills, Northern Pannonian Basin, using dated geomorphological horizons in the Danube valley (United States)

    Ruszkiczay-Rüdiger, Zsófia; Fodor, László; Csillag, Gábor; Braucher, Régis; Kele, Sándor; Novothny, Ágnes; Thamó-Bozsó, Edit; Virág, Attila; Molnár, Gábor; Madarász, Balázs; Aster Team


    The assessment of Quaternary vertical deformation rates of uplifted, low altitude hilly regions is based mainly on the dating of paleo-surfaces that can be related to reference levels through several stages of landscape evolution. Regarding the Gerecse Hills (NE part of the Transdanubian Range, Hungary), situated to the south of the incised Danube River the all-time base-level of the river provides a suitable reference level, because the intracontinental setting of the study area makes it insensitive of the global sea level changes. The terrace sequences of the Hungarian part of the Danube valley preserve a record of varying tectonic uplift rates along the river course and throughout several climate stages. The Gerecse Hills consists mainly of Triassic carbonatic rocks and a thin Paleogene and Neogene siliciclastic cover. The Danube is escorted by a set of Quaternary river terraces and higher planation surfaces, which may be of Pliocene age. The terraces are covered by alluvial sediments frequently capped by travertine and/or loess. To establish the chronology of these terraces, we rely on U-series data of travertines and on new in situ produced cosmogenic nuclides data combined with luminescence (OSL and postIR-IRSL) ages from the lower terraces. In situ produced cosmogenic 10Be concentrations were measured in samples distributed along vertical depth profiles to enable the determination of both the exposure duration and the denudation rate at each studied locality. We used Monte Carlo approach to model the denudation rate-corrected exposure ages. Burial age determinations were performed using cosmogenic 26Al/10Be nuclide ratios. Post-IR IRSL measurements were carried out on K-feldspar and OSL measurements on quartz grains to determine the ages of sediment deposition. The highest dated horizon (˜115 m above the river) provided a preliminary burial age of ˜2.7 Ma, which is in accordance with the possible time span of sedimentation deduced from the occurrence of

  13. A 200,000-year record of late Quaternary Aeolian sedimentation on the Southern High Plains and nearby Pecos River Valley, USA (United States)

    Rich, J.; Stokes, S.


    Presently stabilized Southern High Plains (SHP) dune systems have been repeatedly re-activated during the past 200,000 years, providing an archive of environmental and related climatic change for the late Quaternary. Our data set of 38 optically dated samples from four different localities identifies eolian activity from late-middle Pleistocene to the historic period. Oldest eolian sediments are from the Blackwater Draw Formation and indicate accretion during late-middle to late Pleistocene. Younger sediments dating from the later Pleistocene through the Holocene are found in the Muleshoe, Lea-Yoakum, Mescalero, and Monahans dunes that overlie the Blackwater Draw Formation. Muleshoe dunes accreted during the Late Pleistocene between 31 ± 3 and 27 ± 2 ka, while Holocene deposition transpired 7.5 ± 0.4, 4.0 ± 0.7 ka through 3.6 ± 0.4 ka, and between 1.3 ± 0.2 and 1.1 ± 0.1 ka. A period of dune building for Lea-Yoakum dune sediments occurred during the late Pleistocene (48 ± 5 ka), and the later Holocene (3.6 ± 0.4 ka). Mescalero and Monahans dunes were accreting during the later Pleistocene between 29 ± 3 and 22 ± 2 ka followed by a sequence of eolian sand deposited ca. 15 ka. Holocene eolian sedimentation for the Mescalero and Monahans dunes occurred 7.5 ± 0.8, 5.1 ± 0.5, 4.3 ± 0.4, and 2.0 ± 0.3 ka. Historic eolian deposition is identifiable in the dune chronology with multiple optical age estimates overlapping established drought events recorded ca. 1890, 1910, 1920, and during the 1930's when the North American "Dust Bowl" transpired. These Quaternary eolian deposits mantling the Southern High Plains are an important component of the surficial material of the region and provide a rich archive of past climatic change.

  14. Reinterpretation of the Quaternary sedimentary infill of the Ría de Vigo, NW Iberian Peninsula, as a compound incised valley (United States)

    Martínez-Carreño, N.; García-Gil, S.


    Seismic data have been used to investigate the stratigraphy of the Galician rias for more than two decades. Here, we present a new interpretation of the sedimentary infill of an incised valley (Ría de Vigo, NW Iberian Peninsula), based on high-resolution seismic profiles, core sediment analysis, and radiocarbon 14C data. The new data indicate that the stratigraphic architecture of the Galician rias result from multiple incision/infill phases and, therefore, they are reclassified as compound rather than simple incised valleys. Seven seismic units were identified: one of Tertiary age (U1), four of Pleistocene age (U2-U5) which are interpreted as 4th-order sequences deposited between MIS 11 and MIS 2, and Late Pleistocene (U6) and Holocene (U7) units corresponding with post-glacial sedimentation. The sedimentary infill overlies a highly faulted irregular granitic and metamorphic basement; the inherited morphology is shown to be important for controlling the pathway and evolution of the fluvial network as well as preservation of the sedimentary deposits during several glacial/interglacial cycles. The presence of a rocky barrier at the mouth of the ria is a distinctive feature that conditions sedimentation and exchange of sediment between the ria and the adjacent shelf. For the first time, faults and tilted blocks affecting Late Pleistocene (MIS 3) deposits have been identified. The new data presented here provide the opportunity to reconstruct the evolution of the sedimentary infill of a ria, with especially high-resolution during the last post-glacial transgression.

  15. Record of recent river channel instability, Cheakamus Valley, British Columbia (United States)

    Clague, John J.; Turner, Robert J. W.; Reyes, Alberto V.


    Rivers flowing from glacier-clad Quaternary volcanoes in southwestern British Columbia have high sediment loads and anabranching and braided planforms. Their floodplains aggrade in response to recurrent large landslides on the volcanoes and to advance of glaciers during periods of climate cooling. In this paper, we document channel instability and aggradation during the last 200 years in lower Cheakamus River valley. Cheakamus River derives much of its flow and nearly all of its sediment from the Mount Garibaldi massif, which includes a number of volcanic centres dominated by Mount Garibaldi volcano. Stratigraphic analysis and radiocarbon and dendrochronological dating of recent floodplain sediments at North Vancouver Outdoor School in Cheakamus Valley show that Cheakamus River aggraded its floodplain about 1-2 m and buried a valley-floor forest in the early or mid 1800s. The aggradation was probably caused by a large (ca. 15-25×10 6 m 3) landslide from the flank of Mount Garibaldi, 15 km north of our study site, in 1855 or 1856. Examination of historical aerial photographs dating back to 1947 indicates that channel instability triggered by this event persisted until the river was dyked in the late 1950s. Our observations are consistent with data from many other mountain areas that suggest rivers with large, but highly variable sediment loads may rapidly aggrade their floodplains following a large spike in sediment supply. Channel instability may persist for decades to centuries after the triggering event.

  16. Quaternary and Geomorphology. (United States)

    Andrews, J. T.; Graf, W. L.


    Highlights conferences and meetings of organizations involved with quaternary geology and geomorphology, including International Union of Quaternary Research Conference held in Moscow. The impetus of a revision of "The Quaternary of the United States" resulted from this conference. Includes activities/aims of "Friends of the…

  17. Late Quaternary landscape evolution in the Great Karoo, South Africa: Processes and drivers. (United States)

    Oldknow, Chris; Hooke, Janet; Lang, Andreas


    The Great Karoo spans the north-central part of South Africa at a major climatic boundary. The characteristics, sequences, spatial patterns and drivers of river response to Late Quaternary climate changes in this region remain unclear due to the fragmentary alluvial/colluvial stratigraphic record and the lack of dated palaeoclimatic archives. Dendritic gully networks incised into deep deposits (up to 6 m) of colluvium and alluvium in the upper Sundays River catchment expose a legacy of "cut and fill" features. In 1st order tributaries, these are predominantly discontinuous palaeochannels and flood-outs with localised palaeosols, whereas in 2nd & 3rd order tributaries there are: 1) incised palaeo-geomorphic surfaces, 2) semi-continuous inset terrace sequences, 3) buried palaeo-gully topography. Using a combination of field mapping, logging of sediment outcrops, soil micromorphological and grain size analysis, mineral magnetic measurements and radiometric dating (OSL & 14C), we derive a stratigraphic evolution model which demonstrates a) the number of phases of incision, aggradation and pedogenesis, b) the spatial and temporal extent of each phase and c) the drivers of alluviation and associated feedbacks. Our reconstruction of regional valley alluviation indicates four distinct terrace units of contrasting depositional age. The base of the succession reflects slow aggradation under periglacial conditions associated with the Last Glacial Maximum. Subsequent channel entrenchment, causing terrace abandonment (T1) occurred in the deglacial period when vegetation and rainfall were in anti-phase. Re-instatement of connectivity with deep upland colluvial stores resulted in the injection of a pulse of sediment to valley floors, triggering compartmentalised backfilling (aggradation of T2) which propagated upstream as far as the second order drainage lines. This backfilling restructured the local hydrology, which, in concert with enhanced summer-rainfall, contributed to a

  18. Human impact on late Quaternary landscapes in the Central Spanish Pyrenees (United States)

    Hirsch, F.; Raab, T. A.


    Like the Alps in Central Europe the Pyrenees in Southeast Europe are well known for their glacial history. Within the scope of the ongoing research project Post-LGM pedogenesis and geomorphodynamics in the Aragonese Pyrenees, Spain, funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), we are studying the landscapes in the Gallego valley and the Aragon valley formed during the late Quaternary period. The aim of this research is to describe and characterize the soil development since the retreat of the valley glaciers from the LGM-moraines which are supposed to have an age of up to 60 ka yrs. To these purposes soil profiles are excavated in sediments and landforms of different ages (LGM to Holocene) and different genesis (glacigenic, glacifluvial, fluvial, gravitational). The soil profiles are arranged as catenas and provide insight into the pedo-stratigraphy of moraines, fluvial terraces, glacis and alluvial fans. Our preliminary results show that besides geogenic process past human land use must be considered as a main trigger of landscape development during the late Holocene. Truncated soil profiles in the backslopes and the correlate sediments of soil erosion burying soil horizons in the footslopes clearly indicate one or even more periods of re-shaping the landforms after deglaciation. Considerable amounts of small charcoal and tile fragments in the translocated sediments hint to an anthropogenic agent. The disturbance in the soil profiles and sediments is visible in the field and by micromorphology. Although 14C and OSL datings on the base of the correlate sediments of soil erosion indicate at least one phase of erosion and redeposition at the end of the 17th century, the onset of afresh pedogenic processes in the correlate sediments of soil erosion indicate young soil formation.

  19. The Gediz River fluvial archive: A benchmark for Quaternary research in Western Anatolia (United States)

    Maddy, D.; Veldkamp, A.; Demir, T.; van Gorp, W.; Wijbrans, J. R.; van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.; Dekkers, M. J.; Schreve, D.; Schoorl, J. M.; Scaife, R.; Stemerdink, C.; van der Schriek, T.; Bridgland, D. R.; Aytaç, A. S.


    The Gediz River, one of the principal rivers of Western Anatolia, has an extensive Pleistocene fluvial archive that potentially offers a unique window into fluvial system behaviour on the western margins of Asia during the Quaternary. In this paper we review our work on the Quaternary Gediz River Project (2001-2010) and present new data which leads to a revised stratigraphical model for the Early Pleistocene development of this fluvial system. In previous work we confirmed the preservation of eleven buried Early Pleistocene fluvial terraces of the Gediz River (designated GT11, the oldest and highest, to GT1, the youngest and lowest) which lie beneath the basalt-covered plateaux of the Kula Volcanic Province. Deciphering the information locked in this fluvial archive requires the construction of a robust geochronology. Fortunately, the Gediz archive provides ample opportunity for age-constraint based upon age estimates derived from basaltic lava flows that repeatedly entered the palaeo-Gediz valley floors. In this paper we present, for the first time, our complete dataset of 40Ar/39Ar age estimates and associated palaeomagnetic measurements. These data, which can be directly related to the underlying fluvial deposits, provide age constraints critical to our understanding of this sequence. The new chronology establishes the onset of Quaternary volcanism at ∼1320ka (MIS42). This volcanism, which is associated with GT6, confirms a pre-MIS42 age for terraces GT11-GT7. Evidence from the colluvial sequences directly overlying these early terraces suggests that they formed in response to hydrological and sediment budget changes forced by climate-driven vegetation change. The cyclic formation of terraces and their timing suggests they represent the obliquity-driven climate changes of the Early Pleistocene. By way of contrast the GT5-GT1 terrace sequence, constrained by a lava flow with an age estimate of ∼1247ka, span the time-interval MIS42 - MIS38 and therefore do not

  20. Glacial meltwater impounding: Evidence from the late Quaternary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Glacial meltwater impounding: Evidence from the late. Quaternary glaciogenic sediments in the Sangla valley, district Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India. R K Ganjoo1∗ and M N Koul2. 1Department of Geology, University of Jammu, Jammu 180 006, India. 2Department of Geography, University of Jammu, Jammu 180 006, ...

  1. Occurrence of volcanic ash in the Quaternary alluvial deposits, lower ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Quaternary sediments of the Son Valley of north central India (William and Royce 1982; William and Clarke 1984, 1995) are supposed to have been derived from Toba, northern Sumatra (Rose and Chesner 1987). Other Toba occurrences of. Indian peninsula in recent years are along the. Kukadi River at Bori, Maharashtra ( ...

  2. Glacial meltwater impounding: Evidence from the late Quaternary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... facies on the basis of sedimentary texture and depositional environment. The facies — basal conglomerates, debris flow, water/sheet flow and laminites — represents the change in the environment of deposition from glaciofluvial to lacustrine and also the extent of the glacier to the valley floor during late Quaternary.

  3. Performance of buried pipe installation. (United States)


    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of geometric and mechanical parameters : characterizing the soil structure interaction developed in a buried pipe installation located under : roads/highways. The drainage pipes or culverts instal...

  4. Subsurface and petroleum geology of the southwestern Santa Clara Valley ("Silicon Valley"), California (United States)

    Stanley, Richard G.; Jachens, Robert C.; Lillis, Paul G.; McLaughlin, Robert J.; Kvenvolden, Keith A.; Hostettler, Frances D.; McDougall, Kristin A.; Magoon, Leslie B.


    Gravity anomalies, historical records of exploratory oil wells and oil seeps, new organic-geochemical results, and new stratigraphic and structural data indicate the presence of a concealed, oil-bearing sedimentary basin beneath a highly urbanized part of the Santa Clara Valley, Calif. A conspicuous isostatic-gravity low that extends about 35 km from Palo Alto southeastward to near Los Gatos reflects an asymmetric, northwest-trending sedimentary basin comprising low-density strata, principally of Miocene age, that rest on higher-density rocks of Mesozoic and Paleogene(?) age. Both gravity and well data show that the low-density rocks thin gradually to the northeast over a distance of about 10 km. The thickest (approx 4 km thick) accumulation of low-density material occurs along the basin's steep southwestern margin, which may be controlled by buried, northeast-dipping normal faults that were active during the Miocene. Movement along these hypothetical normal faults may been contemporaneous (approx 17–14 Ma) with sedimentation and local dacitic and basaltic volcanism, possibly in response to crustal extension related to passage of the northwestward-migrating Mendocino triple junction. During the Pliocene and Quaternary, the normal faults and Miocene strata were overridden by Mesozoic rocks, including the Franciscan Complex, along northeastward-vergent reverse and thrust faults of the Berrocal, Shannon, and Monte Vista Fault zones. Movement along these fault zones was accompanied by folding and tilting of strata as young as Quaternary and by uplift of the modern Santa Cruz Mountains; the fault zones remain seismically active. We attribute the Pliocene and Quaternary reverse and thrust faulting, folding, and uplift to compression caused by local San Andreas Fault tectonics and regional transpression along the Pacific-North American Plate boundary. Near the southwestern margin of the Santa Clara Valley, as many as 20 exploratory oil wells were drilled between 1891

  5. Geochemistry of soils from the San Rafael Valley, Santa Cruz County, Arizona (United States)

    Folger, Helen W.; Gray, Floyd


    This study was conducted to determine whether surficial geochemical methods can be used to identify subsurface mineraldeposits covered by alluvium derived from surrounding areas. The geochemical investigation focused on an anomalous geo-physical magnetic high located in the San Rafael Valley in Santa Cruz County, Arizona. The magnetic high, inferred to be asso-ciated with a buried granite intrusion, occurs beneath Quaternary alluvial and terrace deposits. Soil samples were collected at a depth of 10 to 30 centimeters below land surface along transects that traverse the inferred granite. The samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and by the partial-leach Mobile Metal Ion™ method. Principal component and factor analyses showed a strong correlation between the soils and source rocks hosting base-metal replacement deposits in the Harshaw and Patagonia Mining Districts. Factor analysis also indicated areas of high metal concentrations associated with the Meadow Valley Flat. Although no definitive geochemical signature was identified for the inferred granite, concentrations otungsten and iron in the surrounding area were slightly elevated.

  6. Paleohydrology of Late Quaternary floods in the Atacama Desert and their paleoclimate implications (United States)

    Izquierdo, Tatiana; Abad, Manuel; Larrondo, Lidisy


    The Quaternary fluvial succession in the Copiapó Valley (northern Chile) have not been deeply studied even though they record a large amount of palaeoenvironmental and paleoclimate information in an area of great interest as the Atacama Desert. The city of Copiapó is located at the confluence between Quebrada Paipote (the most important tributary of the middle course) and Copiapó River which has been dry during the last decades due to the surface and groundwater exploitation for agricultural and mining activity purposes upstream. Despite that, historical chronicles describe numerous flooding events in the city during the last 400 years due to snowmelt during the summer months or unusually intense rains during any time of the year. The most recent event occurred on March 25, 2015 when 70% of the city flooded and more than 2.2 million m3 of sediment accumulated, mostly coming from Quebrada Paipote. The sedimentological analysis of the lower fluvial terrace of the Copiapó River has allowed us to identify a fluvial system that abruptly changes upward to paleoflood and aeolian deposits. The latter constitute the top of the lower fluvial terraces on which the city of Copiapó is built. The fluvial facies are mainly formed by imbricated to massive conglomerates and poorly sorted pebble and cobble sized conglomerates with laminated sandstones that probably were deposited in a braided gravel-bed river. The overlying deposits are constituted by several levels of massive sandy siltstones and well sorted fine sands of aeolian origin that are interpreted as overbank flood events linked to flooding episodes that alternate with long episodes of eolian dunes and sand sheets development that buried almost the entire alluvial plain. This sharp change in the facies association record an abrupt climate change in the southern Atacama Desert during the recent Quaternary towards more arid conditions, with a dominance of floods and aeolian morphogenesis over the typical fluvial system

  7. [Congenital buried penis in children]. (United States)

    Lardellier-Reynaud, F; Varlet, F; François, M; Mouriquand, P


    Congenital buried penis in children is an uncommon and poorly known entity. The aims of this study were to report an original technique for correction of buried penis and to evaluate its results. It is a retrospective study of buried penis operated between November 1998 and May 2009. The acquired concealed penis and hypospadias were excluded from this study. The procedure includes several stages: degloving of the penis through a ventral anchor-like incision; division of the adherent layers surrounding the corpora cavernosa; anchorage of the Buck's fascia to the corporeal albuginea at the base of the penis; and ventral cutaneous coverage. The long-term results were evaluated by the parents and the surgeon according to anatomical, functional and aesthetic criterion. Twenty-five boys were evaluated. The mean age at surgery was 27 months (seven days-120 months). Two children required an additional plasty. Results were satisfactory in 24 cases (96%). One child required a redo procedure for unsatisfactory outcome. Of seven children with redundant skin (28%), three underwent a complementary cutaneous excision. Congenital buried penis remains a controversial issue. Our technique was simple and easily reproducible. Voiding difficulties, urinary tract infection or strong parental request were the main indications of this surgery in our experience. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Ion-probe U–Pb dating of authigenic and detrital opal from Neogene-Quaternary alluvium (United States)

    Neymark, Leonid; Paces, James B.


    Knowing depositional ages of alluvial fans is essential for many tectonic, paleoclimatic, and geomorphic studies in arid environments. The use of U–Pb dating on secondary silica to establish the age of Neogene-Quaternary clastic sediments was tested on samples of authigenic and detrital opal and chalcedony from depths of ∼25 to 53 m in boreholes at Midway Valley, Nevada. Dating of authigenic opal present as rinds on rock clasts and in calcite/silica cements establishes minimum ages of alluvium deposition; dating of detrital opal or chalcedony derived from the source volcanic rocks gives the maximum age of sediment deposition.Materials analyzed included 12 samples of authigenic opal, one sample of fracture-coating opal from bedrock, one sample of detrital opal, and two samples of detrital chalcedony. Uranium–lead isotope data were obtained by both thermal ionization mass spectrometry and ion-microprobe. Uranium concentrations ranged from tens to hundreds of μg/g. Relatively large U/Pb allowed calculation of 206Pb/238U ages that ranged from 1.64±0.36 (2σ) to 6.16±0.50 Ma for authigenic opal and from 8.34±0.28 to 11.2±1.3 Ma for detrital opal/chalcedony. Three samples with the most radiogenic Pb isotope compositions also allowed calculation of 207Pb/235U ages, which were concordant with 206Pb/238U ages from the same samples.These results indicate that basin development at Midway Valley was initiated between about 8 and 6 Ma, and that the basin was filled at long-term average deposition rates of less than 1 cm/ka. Because alluvium in Midway Valley was derived from adjacent highlands at Yucca Mountain, the low rates of deposition determined in this study may imply a slow rate of erosion of Yucca Mountain. Volcanic strata underlying the basin are offset by a number of buried faults to a greater degree than the relatively smooth-sloping bedrock/alluvium contact. These geologic relations indicate that movement on most faults ceased prior to erosional

  9. Second Quaternary dating workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The second Quaternary dating methods workshop was held at Lucas Heights and sponsored by ANSTO and AINSE. Topics covered include, isotope and thermoluminescence dating, usage of accelerator and thermal ionisation mass spectrometry in environmental studies emphasizing on the methodologies used and sample preparation

  10. Theory buried under heavy description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian B. Martin Ph.D.


    Full Text Available In journalism when a reporter puts the main news or point of the story deep down in the text, we say she’s buried the lead, the lead being the main point of the story and usually the first paragraph. In Children in Genocide: extreme traumatization and affect regulation, psychoanalyst Suzanne Kaplan buries her theory. Her study of the after effects of trauma among Holocaust survivors who were children during their persecution and survivors of atrocities during the Rwandan atrocities of the 1990s, is filled with highly descriptive material from the many interviews that serve as data. An interesting grounded theory is peeking out from under all the disciplinary discourse and historical background one must read through to get to what grounded theory readers will consider the juicy parts: concepts on affect regulation in trauma survivors.

  11. Reply to comment received from J. Herget et al. regarding ;Complex patterns of glacier advances during the late glacial in the Chagan Uzun Valley, Russian Altai; by Gribenski et al. (2016), Quaternary Science Reviews 149, 288-305 (United States)

    Gribenski, Natacha; Lukas, Sven; Stroeven, Arjen P.; Jansson, Krister N.; Harbor, Jonathan M.; Blomdin, Robin; Ivanov, Mikhail N.; Heyman, Jakob; Petrakov, Dmitry A.; Rudoy, Alexei; Clifton, Tom; Lifton, Nathaniel A.; Caffee, Marc W.


    We thank Herget et al. (2017) for their keen interest in our study about the paleoglacial history of the Chagan Uzun Valley, in the Russian Altai (Gribenski et al., 2016). In our study, we proposed a detailed chronological and glaciodynamic reconstruction of a succession of glacial events represented by prominent moraine complexes, based on remotely-sensed data and field-geomorphological mapping, sedimentological logging, and cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al surface exposure dating of glacially-transported boulders. Herget et al. (2017) express skepticism about the outermost moraine complex dated in our study (CUMC 1; Gribenski et al., 2016), which slightly predates 19 thousand years (ka), during marine isotope stage (MIS) 2. To quote: ;we suspect that their claim of regional climatic significance-that the ∼19 ka Chagan-Uzun moraine they dated can be used to show that the local LGM and regional LGM were the same, and occurred during MIS 2-may be premature; (Herget et al., 2017: p. 1). Their comment appears to relate to an ongoing debate regarding the timing of maximum glaciation in Central Asia during the last glacial cycle, however it is based on misinterpretations of our paper.

  12. Thermographic detection of buried objects (United States)

    Castro, Eduardo H.; Abbate, Horacio A.; Mallaina, Eduardo F.; Santos, Juan M.; Mejail, Marta; Borensztejn, Patricia; Jacobo-Berlles, Julio


    A great development of technologies for the detection of buried objects took place in the last years. Applications in archeology, finding of pipe lines and others were important, but most attention was paid in humanitarian detection of land mines and unexploded ordnances. Among these technologies, thermography is one of the most useful techniques and has been applied concurrent with other ones (Ground Penetrating Radar, Electromagnetic Induction, etc.) We have made several experiments to obtain thermographic images of buried objects in the middle and far infrared, in laboratory and in field, and in different types of terrain: naked ground, ground covered with grass and sand. We employed, as warming methods, natural sun radiation and blowing of warm air or halogen lamps. We have used metallic and dielectric objects of different sizes and shapes so as to recognize them by their characteristics. The acquired images were improved using noise reduction and image enhancement techniques. In this work we present the thermographic images obtained. All measurements were made at short distance, less than 100 cm, as the objective of our work is to develop a thermographic imaging system for the detection of buried objects to be installed in an autonomous ground robot.

  13. Quaternary stratigraphy: Recent changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaudenji Tivadar


    Full Text Available Corrections to the Quaternary stratigraphic division of Serbia was updated/renewed by lowering limit of the Pleistocene / Quaternary to the beginning of the Gelasian that is at approximately 2.588 million years. Rather than the officially rejected Penck & Brückner Alpine stratigraphic model, the use of oxygen isotope stages (OIS / MIS is recommended. Climatostratigraphic terms glacial and interglacial have a regional applicability and their use is recommended only in areas where there are traces of glaciation, while the terms cold and warm stage (or moderate stages should be used within the global context. Eopleistocene is a regional term for the former Soviet Union and due to its uniqueness it can hardly be applied in the stratigraphical scheme of the Quaternary depostis in Serbia. With the latest extension of the Lower Pleistocene, further use of Eopleistocene would lead to further confusion in stratigraphic correlation as such the use of the Lower / Early Pleistocene or other appropriate stratigraphic units is recommended. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47007

  14. Quaternary geologic map of the Shelby 1° x 2° quadrangle, Montana (United States)

    Fullerton, David S.; Colton, Roger B.; Bush, Charles A.


    The Shelby quadrangle encompasses approximately 16,084 km2 (6,210 mi2). The northern boundary is the Montana/Saskatchewan (U.S./Canada) boundary. The quadrangle is in the Northern Plains physiographic province and it includes the Sweet Grass Hills. The primary river is the Marias River. The ancestral Missouri River was diverted south of the Bearpaw Mountains by a Laurentide ice sheet. The fill in the buried ancestral valleys of the Missouri River and Marias River in the southeast quarter of the quadrangle contains a complex stratigraphy of fluvial, glaciofluvial, ice-contact, glacial, lacustrine, and eolian deposits. The map units are surficial deposits and materials, not landforms. Deposits that comprise some constructional landforms (for example, ground-moraine deposits, end-moraine deposits, stagnation-moraine deposits, all composed of till) are distinguished for purposes of reconstruction of glacial history. Surficial deposits and materials are assigned to 21 map units on the basis of genesis, age, lithology or composition, texture or particle size, and other physical, chemical, and engineering characteristics. It is not a map of soils that are recognized in pedology or agronomy. Rather, it is a generalized map of soils recognized in engineering geology, or of substrata or parent materials in which pedologic or agronomic soils are formed. Glaciotectonic (ice-thrust) structures and deposits are mapped separately, represented by a symbol. On the glaciated plains, the surficial deposits are glacial, ice-contact, glaciofluvial, alluvial, lacustrine, eolian, colluvial, and mass-movement deposits. In the Sweet Grass Hills, beyond the limit of Quaternary glaciation they are fluvial, colluvial, and mass-movement deposits. Till of late Wisconsin age is represented by three map units. Tills of Illinoian and pre-Illinoian glaciations are not mapped, but are widespread in the subsurface. Linear ice-molded landforms (primarily drumlins) indicate directions of ice flow

  15. Buried penis: classification surgical approach. (United States)

    Hadidi, Ahmed T


    The purpose of this study was to describe morphological classification of congenital buried penis (BP) and present a versatile surgical approach for correction. Sixty-one patients referred with BP were classified into 3 grades according to morphological findings: Grade 1-29 patients with Longer Inner Prepuce (LIP) only, Grade II-20 patients who presented with LIP associated with indrawn penis that required division of the fundiform and suspensory ligaments, and Grade III-12 patients who had in addition to the above, excess supra-pubic fat. A ventral midline penile incision extending from the tip of prepuce down to the penoscrotal junction was used in all patients. The operation was tailored according to the BP Grade. All patients underwent circumcision. Mean follow up was 3 years (range 1 to 10). All 61 patients had an abnormally long inner prepuce (LIP). Forty-seven patients had a short penile shaft. Early improvement was noted in all cases. Satisfactory results were achieved in all 29 patients in grade I and in 27 patients in grades II and III. Five children (Grades II and III) required further surgery (9%). Congenital buried penis is a spectrum characterized by LIP and may include in addition; short penile shaft, abnormal attachment of fundiform, and suspensory ligaments and excess supra-pubic fat. Congenital Mega Prepuce (CMP) is a variant of Grade I BP, with LIP characterized by intermittent ballooning of the genital area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Quaternary sediment thickness and bedrock topography of the glaciated United States east of the Rocky Mountains (United States)

    Soller, David R.; Garrity, Christopher P.


    is called the Holocene and, together with the Pleistocene, constitutes the Quaternary Period of geologic time; this publication characterizes the three-dimensional geometry of the Quaternary sediments and the bedrock surface that lies beneath.The pre-glacial landscape was underlain mostly by weathered bedrock generally similar in nature to that found in many areas of the non-glaciated United States. Glacial erosion and redeposition of earth materials produced a young, mineral-rich soil that formed the basis for the highly productive agricultural economy in the U.S. midcontinent. Extensive buried sands and gravels within the glacial deposits also provided a stimulus to other economic sectors by serving as high-quality aquifers supplying groundwater to the region’s industry and cities. An understanding of the three-dimensional distribution of these glacial sediments has direct utility for addressing various societal issues including groundwater quality and supply, and landscape and soil response to earthquake-induced shaking.The Quaternary sediment thickness map and bedrock topographic map shown here provide a regional overview and are intended to supplement the more detailed work on which they are based. Detailed mapping is particularly useful in populated areas for site-specific planning. In contrast, regional maps such as these serve to place local, detailed mapping in context; to permit the extrapolation of data into unmapped areas; and to depict large-scale regional geologic features and patterns that are beyond the scope of local, detailed mapping. They also can enhance the reader’s general understanding of the region’s landscape and geologic history and provide a source of information for regional decision making that could benefit by improved predictability of bedrock depth beneath the unconsolidated Quaternary sediments. To enable these maps to be analyzed in conjunction with other types of information, this publication also includes the map data in GIS

  17. Magnetism of quaternary sediments (United States)

    Heller, Friedrich

    Magnetism of Quaternary sediments was the topic of a well-attended symposium held during the 13th INQUA (International Union of Quaternary Research) congress in Beijing, China, August 2-9. More than 40 papers were delivered by scientists from Belgium, England, France, Germany, Japan, New Zealand, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, the United States, the Soviet Union, Yugoslavia, and other countries. The host country contributed to a productive session that was part of the first large scientific meeting to take place in Beijing after the June 4, 1989, upheaval.Nearly half of the studies focused on paleomagnetic and rock magnetic properties of loess in Alaska, Central Asia, China, and New Zealand. Magnetostratigraphic polarity dating was done at some sections in the western (Shaw et al.) and central Chinese loess plateau (Bai and Hus; Wang and Evans; Yue). The interpretation of the polarity pattern found in the western loess plateau still is not unambiguous. In the central part, certain polarity boundaries, such as the Brunhes/Matuyama (B/M) boundary, are found in slightly different stratigraphic positions (Hus et al.; Yue). In deep-sea sediments the lock-in depth of natural remanent magnetization (NRM) at the B/M boundary seems to be a linear function of sedimentation rate (de Menocal et al.). Although the magnetization process in the Chinese loess is not well understood, detailed records of polarity transitions have been reported for the B/M and the Jaramillo R→N transition (Ma et al.; Rolph).

  18. Quaternary geologic map of the Havre 1° x 2° quadrangle (United States)

    Compilations by Fullerton, David S.; Colton, Roger B.; Digital edition by Bush, Charles A.


    The Havre quadrangle encompasses approximately 16,084 km2 (6,210 mi2). The northern boundary is the Montana/Saskatchewan (U.S./Canada) boundary. The quadrangle is in the Northern Plains physiographic province and it includes parts of the Bearpaw Mountains, the Little Rocky Mountains, and the Boundary Plateau. The primary river is the Milk River. The ancestral Missouri River was diverted south of the Bearpaw Mountains by a Laurentide ice sheet. The fill in the buried ancestral valley at and southwest of Havre contains a complex stratigraphy of fluvial, glaciofluvial, ice-contact, glacial, lacustrine, and eolian deposits. The old valley east of Havre now is occupied by the Milk River. The map units are surficial deposits and materials, not landforms. Deposits that comprise some constructional landforms (e.g., ground-moraine deposits, end-moraine deposits, stagnation-moraine deposits, all composed of till) are distinguished for purposes of reconstruction of glacial history. Surficial deposits and materials are assigned to 24 map units on the basis of genesis, age, lithology or composition, texture or particle size, and other physical, chemical, and engineering characteristics. It is not a map of soils that are recognized in engineering geology, or of substrata or parent materials in which pedologic or agronomic soils are formed. Glaciotectonic (ice-thrust) structures and deposits are mapped separately, represented by a symbol. On the glaciated plains and on the Boundary Plateau the surficial deposits are glacial, ice-contact, glaciofluvial, catastrophic flood, alluvial, lacustrine, eolian, and colluvial deposits. In the Bearpaw Mountains and Little Rocky Mountains beyond the limit of Quaternary glaciation they are fluvial, colluvial, and mass-wasting deposits and residual materials. Tills of late Wisconsin and Illinoian ages are represented by map units. Tills of two pre-Illinoian glaciations are not mapped but are widespread in the subsurface and are identified in

  19. Valley fever (United States)

    ... especially the first trimester) People of Native American, African, or Philippine descent may also get more severe ... that causes Valley fever) Chest x-ray Sputum culture Sputum smear (KOH test) Tests done for more ...

  20. Valley Fever (United States)

    ... loss Headache Valley fever Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  1. An All Ireland Quaternary Map (United States)

    Roberson, Sam; Pellicer, Xavier


    Ireland has a rich history of Quaternary mapping. After 150 years a comprehensive map of Irish Quaternary deposits has yet to be published. The nearest equivalent is the BRITICE project, a database of glacial landforms. As a result knowledge of Quaternary deposits are often only localised. The absence of an All-Ireland Quaternary map is brought sharply into focus given that the next International Quaternary Congress will be held in Dublin in 2019. We present the All-Ireland Quaternary map at 1:500 000 scale. The amalgamation of Quaternary maps from Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland is not a straightforward process, due to differences in mapped scale, lithological codes and polygon distribution. Data from the Geological Survey of Ireland, the Geological Survey of Northern Ireland and the BRITICE project are simplified to produce a seamless data set of 17 sediment types, 4 geomorphological features and a point data set of interglacial sites. Soil geochemistry and airborne radiometric data from the Tellus and Tellus Border projects are used to subdivide undifferentiated till deposits in Northern Ireland. Domains of geochemically similar till are identified and merged with existing till domains in the Republic of Ireland.

  2. Miocene to quaternary volcanism in eastern Kenya: Sequence and geochronology (United States)

    Brotzu, P.; Morbidelli, L.; Nicoletti, M.; Piccirillo, E. M.; Traversa, G.


    This paper presents the results of the first systematic geochronological study of widespread volcanic sequences in the region east of the Kenya Rift Valley between the Nyambeni Hills near the equator and the Hurri Hills-Dukana area close to the Ethiopian border. Volcanic activity in this area developed from Upper Miocene to Quaternary. Miocene activity (12-5 m.y.) was of fissure-type while the Plio-Quaternary volcanism was mainly of central type. This last volcanism occurred from early Pliocene (4.5 m.y.) to Recent (0.5 m.y.). The products of the two volcanic phases can be distinguished also from a compositional point of view. Previous stratigraphical interpretations are discussed on the basis of field and laboratory evidence.

  3. Buried plastic scintillator muon telescope (United States)

    Sanchez, F.; Medina-Tanco, G.A.; D'Olivo, J.C.; Paic, G.; Patino Salazar, M.E.; Nahmad-Achar, E.; Valdes Galicia, J.F.; Sandoval, A.; Alfaro Molina, R.; Salazar Ibarguen, H.; Diozcora Vargas Trevino, M.A.; Vergara Limon, S.; Villasenor, L.M.

    Muon telescopes can have several applications, ranging from astrophysical to solar-terrestrial interaction studies, and fundamental particle physics. We show the design parameters, characterization and end-to-end simulations of a detector composed by a set of three parallel dual-layer scintillator planes, buried at fix depths ranging from 0.30 m to 3 m. Each layer is 4 m2 and is composed by 50 rectangular pixels of 4cm x 2 m, oriented at a 90 deg angle with respect to its companion layer. The scintillators are MINOS extruded polystyrene strips with two Bicron wavelength shifting fibers mounted on machined grooves. Scintillation light is collected by multi-anode PMTs of 64 pixels, accommodating two fibers per pixel. The front-end electronics has a time resolution of 7.5 nsec. Any strip signal above threshold opens a GPS-tagged 2 micro-seconds data collection window. All data, including signal and background, are saved to hard disk. Separation of extensive air shower signals from secondary cosmic-ray background muons and electrons is done offline using the GPS-tagged threefold coincidence signal from surface water cerenkov detectors located nearby in a triangular array. Cosmic-ray showers above 6 PeV are selected. The data acquisition system is designed to keep both, background and signals from extensive air showers for a detailed offline data.

  4. Paleoseismology of a possible fault scarp in Wenas Valley, central Washington (United States)

    Sherrod, Brian L.; Barnett, Elizabeth A.; Knepprath, Nichole; Foit, Franklin F.


    In October 2009, two trenches excavated across an 11-kilometer-long scarp at Wenas Valley in central Washington exposed evidence for late Quaternary deformation. Lidar imagery of the Wenas Valley illuminated the west-northwest-trending, 2- to 8-meter-high scarp as it bisected alluvial fans developed at the mouths of canyons along the south side of Umtanum Ridge. The alignment of the scarp and aeromagnetic lineaments suggested that the scarp may be a product of and controlled by the same tectonic structure that produced the magnetic lineaments. Several large landslides mapped in the area demonstrated the potential for large mass-wasting events in the area. In order to test whether the scarp was the result of an earthquake-generated surface rupture or a landslide, trenches were excavated at Hessler Flats and McCabe Place. The profiles of bedrock and soil stratigraphy that underlie the scarp in each trench were photographed, mapped, and described, and a sequence of depositional and deformational events established for each trench. The McCabe Place trench exposed a sequence of volcaniclastic deposits overlain by soils and alluvial deposits separated by three unconformities. Six normal faults and two possible reverse faults deformed the exposed strata. Crosscutting relations indicated that up to five earthquakes occurred on a blind reverse fault, and a microprobe analysis of lapilli suggested that the earliest faulting occurred after 47,000 years before present. The Hessler Flat trench exposure revealed weathered bedrock that abuts loess and colluvium deposits and is overlain by soil, an upper sequence of loess, and colluvium. The latter two units bury a distinctive paloesol.

  5. Performance evaluation of buried pipe installation. (United States)


    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of geometric and mechanical parameters characterizing the soil structure interaction developed in a buried pipe installation located under roads/highways. The drainage pipes or culverts installed ...

  6. TNX Burying Ground: Environmental information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunaway, J.K.W.; Johnson, W.F.; Kingley, L.E.; Simmons, R.V.; Bledsoe, H.W.


    The TNX Burying Ground, located within the TNX Area of the Savannah River Plant (SRP), was originally built to dispose of debris from an experimental evaporator explosion at TNX in 1953. This evaporator contained approximately 590 kg of uranyl nitrate. From 1980 to 1984, much of the waste material buried at TNX was excavated and sent to the SRP Radioactive Waste Burial Grounds for reburial. An estimated 27 kg of uranyl nitrate remains buried at TNX. The TNX Burying Ground consists of three sites known to contain waste and one site suspected of containing waste material. All four sites are located within the TNX security fenceline. Groundwater at the TNX Burying Ground was not evaluated because there are no groundwater monitoring wells installed in the immediate vicinity of this waste site. The closure options considered for the TNX Burying Ground are waste removal and closure, no waste removal and closure, and no action. The predominant pathways for human exposure to chemical and/or radioactive constituents are through surface, subsurface, and atmospheric transport. Modeling calculations were made to determine the risks to human population via these general pathways for the three postulated closure options. An ecological assessment was conducted to predict the environmental impacts on aquatic and terrestrial biota. The relative costs for each of the closure options were estimated.

  7. Concealed epispadias associated with a buried penis. (United States)

    Sol Melgar, Ricardo; Gorduza, Daniela; Demède, Delphine; Mouriquand, Pierre


    The aim was to describe the clinical presentation and the surgical management of penile epispadias associated with a buried penis in five children. This is a 5-year retrospective review of patients presenting with a buried penis, a congenital defect of the penile skin shaft associated with an unretractable foreskin for whom a penile epispadias was found at the time of surgery. All had undergone surgery combining a Cantwell-Ransley procedure and refashioning of the penile skin following the authors' technique. Three children had a glanular epispadias and two had a midshaft epispadias. Four had a satisfactory outcome, and one required a complementary urethroplasty for glanular dehiscence. Buried penis and epispadias are usually isolated congenital anomalies, although they can be associated. It is therefore recommended to warn parents about the possibility of underlying penile anomaly in children with buried penises and unretractable foreskin. Careful palpation of the dorsum of the glans through the foreskin looking for a dorsal cleft could indicate an associated epispadiac urethra. Surgical correction of both anomalies can be done at the same time. Parents of boys with buried penises should be warned that underlying penile anomaly may exist. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Depositional and provenance record of the Paleogene transition from foreland to hinterland basin evolution during Andean orogenesis, northern Middle Magdalena Valley Basin, Colombia (United States)

    Moreno, Christopher J.; Horton, Brian K.; Caballero, Victor; Mora, Andrés; Parra, Mauricio; Sierra, Jair


    The Central Cordillera and Eastern Cordillera of the northern Andes form the topographic flanks of the north-trending Magdalena Valley Basin. Constraining the growth of these ranges and intervening basin has implications for Andean shortening and the transformation from a foreland to hinterland basin configuration. We present sedimentological, paleocurrent, and sandstone petrographic results from Cenozoic type localities to provide insights into the tectonic history of the northern Middle Magdalena Valley Basin of Colombia. In the Nuevo Mundo Syncline, the mid-Paleocene transition from marine to nonmarine deposystems of the Lisama Formation corresponds with a paleocurrent shift from northward to eastward transport. These changes match detrital geochronological evidence for a contemporaneous shift from cratonic (Amazonian) to orogenic (Andean) provenance, suggesting initial shortening-related uplift of the Central Cordillera and foreland basin generation in the Magdalena Valley by mid-Paleocene time. Subsequent establishment of a meandering fluvial system is recorded in lower-middle Eocene strata of the lower La Paz Formation. Eastward paleocurrents in mid-Paleocene through uppermost Eocene fluvial deposits indicate a continuous influence of western sediment source areas. However, at the upper middle Eocene (˜40 Ma) boundary between the lower and upper La Paz Formation, sandstone compositions show a drastic decrease in lithic content, particularly lithic volcanic fragments. This change is accompanied by a facies shift from mixed channel and overbank facies to thick, amalgamated braided fluvial deposits of possible fluvial megafans, reflecting changes in both the composition and proximity of western sediment sources. We attribute these modifications to the growing influence of exhumed La Cira-Infantas paleohighs in the axial Magdalena Valley, features presently buried beneath upper Eocene-Quaternary basin fill along the western flank of the Nuevo Mundo Syncline. In

  9. Geometry and evolution of a fault-controlled Quaternary basin by means of TDEM and single-station ambient vibration surveys: The example of the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake area, central Italy (United States)

    Civico, R.; Sapia, V.; Di Giulio, G.; Villani, F.; Pucci, S.; Baccheschi, P.; Amoroso, S.; Cantore, L.; Di Naccio, D.; Hailemikael, S.; Smedile, A.; Vassallo, M.; Marchetti, M.; Pantosti, D.


    We applied a joint survey approach integrating time domain electromagnetic soundings and single-station ambient vibration surveys in the Middle Aterno Valley (MAV), an intermontane basin in central Italy and the locus of the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake. By imaging the buried interface between the infilling deposits and the top of the pre-Quaternary bedrock, we reveal the 3-D basin geometry and gain insights into the long-term basin evolution. We reconstruct a complex subsurface architecture, characterized by three main depocenters separated by thresholds. Basin infill thickness varies from 200-300 m in the north to more than 450 m to the southeast. Our subsurface model indicates a strong structural control on the architecture of the basin and highlights that the MAV experienced considerable modifications in its configuration over time. The buried shape of the MAV suggests a recent and still ongoing predominant tectonic control by the NW-SE trending Paganica-San Demetrio Fault System (PSDFS), which crosscuts older ENE and NNE trending extensional faults. Furthermore, we postulate that the present-day arrangement of the PSDFS is the result of the linkage of two previously isolated fault segments. We provide constraints on the location of the southeastern boundary of the PSDFS, defining an overall 19 km long fault system characterized by a considerable seismogenetic potential and a maximum expected magnitude larger than M 6.5. This study emphasizes the benefit of combining two easily deployable geophysical methods for reconstructing the 3-D geometry of a tectonically controlled basin. Our joint approach provided us with a consistent match between these two independent estimations of the basin substratum depth within 15%.

  10. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions (United States)

    McCarthy, Anthony M.


    A method for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors.

  11. Internal deformation of the southeast Levant margin through continued activity of buried mass transport deposits (United States)

    Safadi, M.; Meilijson, A.; Makovsky, Y.


    Mass transport deposits (MTDs) are commonly regarded as motionless evidences of past mass wasting events. Three-dimensional seismic surveys acquired offshore central Israel reveal continued long-lasting and even current deformation of >1.5 Myr old MTDs, now buried hundreds of meters beneath and still impacting the seafloor. Faulting and folding of the Messinian-Pliocene unconformity (M), at the base of the studied interval, represent the possible impacts of tectonic and halokinematic deformation. However, an 200 m thick continuous stratified unit straddles the M and entirely separates the overlaying Plio-Quaternary sedimentary stack from underlying faulting. Overlaying and etched into this stratified unit are headscarp regions of two up to 450 m thick buried MTDs, characterized by distinct combinations of chaotic seismic reflections and typically 1 km wide detached and rotated blocks. "Crowns" of growth faults emanate upward from these MTD headwalls, truncating and deforming the overburden and offsetting overlaying reflections by tens of meters up to 100 m below the seafloor. Moreover, asymmetric sagging and faulting of the overburden mimic the layout and flow pattern of the MTDs and rafted blocks within, providing kinematic indications of combined compaction and lateral flow. These observations imply that the MTDs undergo continuous postslumping differential compaction, combined with lateral mobilization. Additional smaller and younger buried MTDs distributed within the overburden are observed to portray similar deformation kinematics. We suggest that the buried MTDs provide deformational foci and pathways for downslope internal collapse of the continental margin at large, offering a new possible mechanism of thin-skinned extension.

  12. Sensor feature fusion for detecting buried objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, G.A.; Sengupta, S.K.; Sherwood, R.J.; Hernandez, J.E.; Buhl, M.R.; Schaich, P.C.; Kane, R.J.; Barth, M.J.; DelGrande, N.K.


    Given multiple registered images of the earth`s surface from dual-band sensors, our system fuses information from the sensors to reduce the effects of clutter and improve the ability to detect buried or surface target sites. The sensor suite currently includes two sensors (5 micron and 10 micron wavelengths) and one ground penetrating radar (GPR) of the wide-band pulsed synthetic aperture type. We use a supervised teaming pattern recognition approach to detect metal and plastic land mines buried in soil. The overall process consists of four main parts: Preprocessing, feature extraction, feature selection, and classification. These parts are used in a two step process to classify a subimage. Thee first step, referred to as feature selection, determines the features of sub-images which result in the greatest separability among the classes. The second step, image labeling, uses the selected features and the decisions from a pattern classifier to label the regions in the image which are likely to correspond to buried mines. We extract features from the images, and use feature selection algorithms to select only the most important features according to their contribution to correct detections. This allows us to save computational complexity and determine which of the sensors add value to the detection system. The most important features from the various sensors are fused using supervised teaming pattern classifiers (including neural networks). We present results of experiments to detect buried land mines from real data, and evaluate the usefulness of fusing feature information from multiple sensor types, including dual-band infrared and ground penetrating radar. The novelty of the work lies mostly in the combination of the algorithms and their application to the very important and currently unsolved operational problem of detecting buried land mines from an airborne standoff platform.

  13. The buried diversity of bovine seminal ribonuclease: shape and cytotoxicity of the swapped non-covalent form of the enzyme. (United States)

    Merlino, Antonello; Ercole, Carmine; Picone, Delia; Pizzo, Elio; Mazzarella, Lelio; Sica, Filomena


    Bovine seminal ribonuclease exists in the native state as an equilibrium mixture of a swapped and an unswapped dimer. The molecular envelope and the exposed surface of the two isomers are practically indistinguishable and their diversity is almost completely buried in the interior of the protein. Surprisingly, the cytotoxic and antitumor activity of the enzyme is a peculiar property of the swapped dimer. This buried diversity comes into light in the reducing environment of the cytosol, where the unswapped dimer dissociates into monomers, whereas the swapped one generates a metastable dimeric form (NCD-BS) with a quaternary assembly that allows the molecule to escape the protein inhibitor of ribonucleases. The stability of this quaternary shape was mainly attributed to the combined presence of Pro19 and Leu28. We have prepared and fully characterized by X-ray diffraction the double mutant P19A/L28Q (PALQ) of the seminal enzyme. While the swapped and unswapped forms of the mutant have structures very similar to that of the corresponding wild-type forms, the non-covalent form (NCD-PALQ) adopts an opened quaternary structure, different from that of NCD-BS. Moreover, model building clearly indicates that NCD-PALQ can be easily sequestered by the protein inhibitor. In agreement with these results, cytotoxic assays have revealed that PALQ has limited activity, whereas the single mutants P19A and L28Q display cytotoxic activity against malignant cells almost as large as the wild-type enzyme. The significant increase in the antitumor activity, brought about by the substitution of just two residues in going from the double mutant to the wild-type enzyme, suggests a new strategy to improve this important biological property by strengthening the interface that stabilizes the quaternary structure of NCD-BS.

  14. Response of the Apodi-Mossoró estuary-incised valley system (NE Brazil to sea-level fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helenice Vital


    Full Text Available This study focuses on the Quaternary sea level changes in the Apodi-Mossoró Estuary and adjacent shelf, Northeastern Brazil, based on the analysis of high-resolution seismic profiles, integrated with echosounder, SRTM and satellite image data. We use these data to develop a relative stratigraphy. An incised-valley extending from the Apodi-Mossoró Estuary onto the shelf dominates the investigated area. In very shallow waters (down to 10 m depth the channel lies mainly in a NW-SE direction, changing to NE-SW in waters below10 m, in the form of a J-shaped valley. The southern flank of the shallow channel presents an abrupt morphology, probably determined by a residual scarp due to neotectonic reactivation of a pre-existing fault. This incised-valley can be correlated with a former river valley formed during the late Pleistocene fall in sea-level. The base-level change related to this drop in sea level can be regionally expressed on seismic lines as a laterally-continuous stratigraphic surface named Horizon I, interpreted as representing the sub-aerial exposure of the continental shelf. Many incised valleys were excavated on this exposed shelf, including that of the Apodi-Mossoró Estuary and its incised valley system. This incised valley has lain buried since the Holocene transgression. The Holocene sediments present sub-horizontal layers, or they have filled the incised valley with oblique features.Este estudo utiliza a integração de dados sísmicos de alta resolução, batimétricos, SRTM e imagens de satélite para desenvolvimento da estratigrafia relativa visando entender as variações do nível do mar durante o Quaternário no estuário do rio Apodi-Mossoró e plataforma adjacente, nordeste do Brasil. A principal feição identificada foi um canal submerso, na plataforma interna, parcialmente preenchido, provavelmente relacionado com o sistema de vales incisos formado durante o rebaixamento do nível do mar no Pleistoceno. O canal

  15. Designing Novel Quaternary Quantum Reversible Subtractor Circuits (United States)

    Haghparast, Majid; Monfared, Asma Taheri


    Reversible logic synthesis is an important area of current research because of its ability to reduce energy dissipation. In recent years, multiple valued logic has received great attention due to its ability to reduce the width of the reversible circuit which is a main requirement in quantum technology. Subtractor circuits are between major components used in quantum computers. In this paper, we will discuss the design of a quaternary quantum reversible half subtractor circuit using quaternary 1-qudit, 2-qudit Muthukrishnan-Stroud and 3-qudit controlled gates and a 2-qudit Generalized quaternary gate. Then a design of a quaternary quantum reversible full subtractor circuit based on the quaternary half subtractor will be presenting. The designs shall then be evaluated in terms of quantum cost, constant input, garbage output, and hardware complexity. The proposed quaternary quantum reversible circuits are the first attempt in the designing of the aforementioned subtractor.

  16. Designing Novel Quaternary Quantum Reversible Subtractor Circuits (United States)

    Haghparast, Majid; Monfared, Asma Taheri


    Reversible logic synthesis is an important area of current research because of its ability to reduce energy dissipation. In recent years, multiple valued logic has received great attention due to its ability to reduce the width of the reversible circuit which is a main requirement in quantum technology. Subtractor circuits are between major components used in quantum computers. In this paper, we will discuss the design of a quaternary quantum reversible half subtractor circuit using quaternary 1-qudit, 2-qudit Muthukrishnan-Stroud and 3-qudit controlled gates and a 2-qudit Generalized quaternary gate. Then a design of a quaternary quantum reversible full subtractor circuit based on the quaternary half subtractor will be presenting. The designs shall then be evaluated in terms of quantum cost, constant input, garbage output, and hardware complexity. The proposed quaternary quantum reversible circuits are the first attempt in the designing of the aforementioned subtractor.

  17. Post-glacial landform evolution in the middle Satluj River valley, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Late Quaternary landform evolution in monsoon-dominated middle Satluj valley is reconstructed using the fragmentary records of fluvial terraces, alluvial fans, debris flows, paleo-flood deposits, and epigenetic gorges. Based on detailed field mapping, alluvial stratigraphy, sedimentology and optical chronology, two phases ...

  18. Valley evolution of the Lower Rhine in LGM, Lateglacial and Early Holocene.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, K.M.; Hoek, W.Z.; Stouthamer, E.; Geurts, A.H.; Janssens, M.; Kasse, C.; Busschers, F.S.; Hijma, M.P.; Erkens, G.


    The impact of transient climate change, for example at glacial-interglacial transitions, on the alluvial valley of the lower reaches of larger river systems has become a classic topic of fluvial geomorphology and quaternary geological study. The process of contraction of Holocene river activity into

  19. Quaternary Ammonium Polyethyleneimine: Antibacterial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Yudovin-Farber


    Full Text Available Quaternary ammonium polyethyleneimine- (QA-PEI- based nanoparticles were synthesized using two synthetic methods, reductive amination and N-alkylation. According to the first method, QA-PEI nanoparticles were synthesized by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde followed by reductive amination with octanal and further N-methylation with methyl iodide. The second method is based on crosslinking with dialkyl halide followed by N-alkylation with octyl halide and further N-methylation with methyl iodide. QA-PEI nanoparticles completely inhibited bacterial growth (>106 bacteria, including both Gram-positive, that is, Staphylococcus aureus at 80 g/mL, and Gram-negative, that is, Escherichia coli at 320 g/mL. Activity analysis revealed that the degree of alkylation and N-methylation of the QA-PEI nanoparticles plays a significant role in antibacterial activity of the reagent. The most potent compound was octyl alkylated QA-PEI alkylated at 1 : 1 mole ratio (primary amine of PEI monomer units/alkylating agent. Also, cytotoxicity studies on MAT-LyLu and MBT cell lines were performed with QA-PEI nanoparticles. These findings confirm previous reports that polycations bearing quaternary ammonium moieties inhibit bacterial growth in vitro and have a potential use as additives in medical devices which need antibacterial properties.

  20. Energy valley in transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwayen, Barbara


    The Energy Valley foundation was born in 2004. It functions as a catalyst and platform for private and public organisations. It has a supporting and facilitating role in realising projects on energy conservation and sustainable energy. The Energy Valley a

  1. [Plastic Surgical Correction of Buried Penis]. (United States)

    Boliglowa, Dominik Krzysztof; Ryu, Seung-Min; Ebrahim, Tarek; Menke, Henrik


    A "buried penis" causes functional problems and embarrassment. In the past, this complex condition was only seen in extremely overweight patients or as a result of severe inflammations in this region. More recently, this problem has also been observed in patients with massive weight loss following bariatric surgery. In these patients there is an abundance of extremely flaccid skin in the suprapubic region, which covers the penis and causes it to "disappear". This leads to balanitis and, in turn, further retraction of the penis. The only solution to this condition is a sophisticated surgical approach in 3 phases: At first, suprapubic tissues must be lifted. Secondly, the penis must be completely denuded and debrided and the correct penopubic/penoscrotal angles must be reconstructed. The last phase includes a strainless coverage of the remaining defect of the penis. This condition has not been widely described in the literature. The general incidence and prevalence in the postbariatric population is unknown, probably due to patients' embarrassment and lack of knowledge on the physicians' end. Nevertheless, the buried penis can be successfully exposed through careful, structured surgical treatment and an interdisciplinary approach between plastic surgeons and urologists. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Quaternary Magmatism in the Cascades - Geologic Perspectives (United States)

    Hildreth, Wes


    Foreward The Cascade magmatic arc is a belt of Quaternary volcanoes that extends 1,250 km from Lassen Peak in northern California to Meager Mountain in Canada, above the subduction zone where the Juan de Fuca Plate plunges beneath the North American Plate. This Professional Paper presents a synthesis of the entire volcanic arc, addressing all 2,300 known Quaternary volcanoes, not just the 30 or so visually prominent peaks that comprise the volcanic skyline. Study of Cascade volcanoes goes back to the geological explorers of the late 19th century and the seminal investigations of Howel Williams in the 1920s and 1930s. However, major progress and application of modern scientific methods and instrumentation began only in the 1970s with the advent of systematic geological, geophysical, and geochemical studies of the entire arc. Initial stimulus from the USGS Geothermal Research Program was enhanced by the USGS Volcano Hazards Program following the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens. Together, these two USGS Programs have provided more than three decades of stable funding, staffing, and analytical support. This Professional Paper summarizes the resultant USGS data sets and integrates them with the parallel contributions of other investigators. The product is based upon an all-encompassing and definitive geological database, including chemical and isotopic analyses to characterize the rocks and geochronology to provide the critical time constraints. Until now, this massive amount of data has not been summarized, and a systematic and uniform interpretation firmly grounded in geological fact has been lacking. Herein lies the primary utility of this Cascade volume. It not only will be the mandatory starting point for new workers, but also will provide essential geological context to broaden the perspectives of current investigators of specific Cascade volcanoes. Wes Hildreth's insightful understanding of volcanic processes and his uncompromising scientific integrity make him

  3. Virtual environmental applications for buried waste characterization technology evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The project, Virtual Environment Applications for Buried Waste Characterization, was initiated in the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program in fiscal year 1994. This project is a research and development effort that supports the remediation of buried waste by identifying and examining the issues, needs, and feasibility of creating virtual environments using available characterization and other data. This document describes the progress and results from this project during the past year.

  4. Paleomagnetic dating of tectonically influenced Plio-Quaternary fan-system deposits from the Apennines (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Saroli


    Full Text Available The Roveto Valley is a narrow, elongated, NW-trending depression filled with continental Plio-Quaternary deposits that outcrop at different topographic elevations. A morpho-lithostratigraphic succession of the continental deposits has been defined in order to reconstruct the geological Quaternary evolution of the area. These deposits do not contain materials suitable for biostratigraphic dating; therefore, in order to determine their chronology, three different units were sampled for magnetostratigraphic investigations. Paleomagnetic results demonstrated that standard demagnetization techniques are effective in removing secondary remanence components and in isolating the characteristic remanent magnetization, allowing us to determine, for each cycle, whether it was deposited before or after the Brunhes-Matuyama geomagnetic reversal at 781 ka. Preliminary rock magnetic analyses indicated that magnetite is the main magnetic carrier and that hematite, which gives the pink colour to the matrix, is in the superparamagnetic grain-size range and thus does not retain any paleomagnetic remanence.

  5. Magnetism of quaternary Heusler alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudrnovsky, Josef; Drchal, Vaclav [Institute of Physics, AS CR, Prague (Czech Republic); Bose, Shyamal [Brock University, St. Catharines (Canada); Turek, Ilja [Institute of Physics of Materials, AS CR, Brno (Czech Republic)


    The electronic properties, exchange interactions, finite-temperature magnetism and transport properties of random Ni{sub 2}MnSn quaternary Heusler alloys doped with Cu- and Pd-atoms are studied theoretically by means of first-principles calculations over the entire concentration range. While the magnetic moments are only weakly dependent on the alloy composition, the Curie temperatures exhibit strongly non-linear behavior with respect to Cu-doping in contrast with an almost linear concentration dependence in the case of Pd-doping. The residual resistivity obey the Nordheim rule while the dominating contribution to the temperature-dependent resistivity is due to thermodynamical fluctuations originating from the spin-disorder, which, according to our calculations, can be described reasonably well via the disordered local moments model. The present parameter-free theory agrees qualitatively and also reasonably well quantitatively with all available experiments.

  6. Late Tertiary and Quaternary geology of the Tecopa basin, southeastern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillhouse, J.W.


    Stratigraphic units in the Tecopa basin, located in southeastern California, provide a framework for interpreting Quaternary climatic change and tectonism along the present Amargosa River. During the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene, a climate that was appreciably wetter than today`s sustained a moderately deep lake in the Tecopa basin. Deposits associated with Lake Tecopa consists of lacustrine mudstone, conglomerate, volcanic ash, and shoreline accumulations of tufa. Age control within the lake deposits is provided by air-fall tephra that are correlated with two ash falls from the Yellowstone caldera and one from the Long Valley caldera. Lake Tecopa occupied a closed basin during the latter part, if not all, of its 2.5-million-year history. Sometime after 0.5 m.y. ago, the lake developed an outlet across Tertiary fanglomerates of the China Ranch Beds leading to the development of a deep canyon at the south end of the basin and establishing a hydrologic link between the northern Amargosa basins and Death Valley. After a period of rapid erosion, the remaining lake beds were covered by alluvial fans that coalesced to form a pediment in the central part of the basin. Holocene deposits consist of unconsolidated sand and gravel in the Amargosa River bed and its deeply incised tributaries, a small playa near Tecopa, alluvial fans without pavements, and small sand dunes. The pavement-capped fan remnants and the Holocene deposits are not faulted or tilted significantly, although basins to the west, such as Death Valley, were tectonically active during the Quaternary. Subsidence of the western basins strongly influenced late Quaternary rates of deposition and erosion in the Tecopa basin.

  7. Buried injector logic, a vertical IIL using deep ion implantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouthaan, A.J.


    A vertically integrated alternative for integrated injection logic has been realized, named buried injector logic (BIL). 1 MeV ion implantations are used to create buried layers. The vertical pnp and npn transistors have thin base regions and exhibit a limited charge accumulation if a gate is

  8. The surgical correction of buried penis: a new technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boemers, T. M.; de Jong, T. P.


    We report a new surgical technique for the correction of buried penis. The study comprised 10 boys with buried penis. The technique consisted of resection of abnormal dartos attachments, unfurling of the prepuce and correction of the deficient shaft skin by reapproximation of the preputial skin

  9. Including Arbitrary Antenna Patterns in Microwave Imaging of Buried Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meincke, Peter; Kim, Oleksiy S.; Lenler-Eriksen, Hans-Rudolph


    A linear inversion scheme for microwave imaging of buried objects is presented in which arbitrary antennas are accounted for through their plane-wave transmitting and receiving spectra......A linear inversion scheme for microwave imaging of buried objects is presented in which arbitrary antennas are accounted for through their plane-wave transmitting and receiving spectra...

  10. A Buried Vertical Filter for Micro and Nanoparticle Filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, S.J.; Shen, C.; Sarro, P.M.


    This paper presents a silicon micromachined filter for micro- and nanoparticles. The filter is vertical and completely buried beneath the surface. The buried aspect allows additional features to be integrated above the filter, while the vertical aspect allows the creation of highly uniform pores and

  11. Quaternary palaeoceanography and palaeogeography in Northern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Karen Luise; Conradsen, Keld; Heier‐Nielsen, Susanne


    the Holocene, including the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. Results from the study of lithology, foraminifera, stable isotope measurements and radiocarbon dates are reviewed while emphasizing the most important contributions to the general understanding of the North Atlantic Quaternary history....

  12. Late Quaternary changes in climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmgren, K.; Karlen, W. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Physical Geography


    This review concerns the Quaternary climate with an emphasis on the last 200 000 years. The present state of art in this field is described and evaluated. The review builds on a thorough examination of classic and recent literature. General as well as detailed patterns in climate are described and the forcing factors and feed-back effects are discussed. Changes in climate occur on all time-scales. During more than 90% of the Quaternary period earth has experienced vast ice sheets, i.e. glaciations have been more normal for the period than the warm interglacial conditions we face today. Major changes in climate, such as the 100 000 years glacial/interglacial cycle, are forced by the Milankovitch three astronomical cycles. Because the cycles have different length climate changes on earth do not follow a simple pattern and it is not possible to find perfect analogues of a certain period in the geological record. Recent discoveries include the observation that major changes in climate seem to occur at the same time on both hemispheres, although the astronomical theory implies a time-lag between latitudes. This probably reflects the influence of feed-back effects within the climate system. Another recent finding of importance is the rapid fluctuations that seem to be a normal process. When earth warmed after the last glaciation temperature jumps of up to 10 deg C occurred within less than a decade and precipitation more than doubled within the same time. The forcing factors behind these rapid fluctuations are not well understood but are believed to be a result of major re-organisations in the oceanic circulation. Realizing that nature, on its own, can cause rapid climate changes of this magnitude put some perspective on the anthropogenic global warming debate, where it is believed that the release of greenhouse gases will result in a global warming of a few C. To understand the forcing behind natural rapid climate changes appears as important as to understand the role

  13. Geology and water resources of Owens Valley, California (United States)

    Hollett, Kenneth J.; Danskin, Wesley R.; McCaffrey, William F.; Walti, Caryl L.


    that is structurally separated into the Bishop Basin to the north and the Owens Lake Basin to the south. These two structural basins are separated by (1) a bedrock high that is the upper bedrock block of an east-west normal fault, (2) a horst block of bedrock (the Poverty Hills), and (3) Quaternary basalt flows and cinder cones that intercalate and intrude the sedimentary deposits of the valley fill. The resulting structural separation of the basins allowed separate development of fluvial and lacustrine depositional systems in each basin. Nearly all the ground water in Owens Valley flows through and is stored in the saturated valley fill. The bedrock, which surrounds and underlies the valley fill, is virtually impermeable. Three hydrogeologic units compose the valley-fill aquifer system, a defined subdivision of the ground-water system, and a fourth represents the valley fill below the aquifer system and above the bedrock. The aquifer system is divided into horizontal hydrogeologic units on the basis of either (1) uniform hydrologic characteristics of a specific lithologic layer or (2) distribution of the vertical hydraulic head. Hydrogeologic unit 1 is the upper unit and represents the unconfined part of the system, hydrogeologic unit 2 represents the confining unit (or units), and hydrogeologic unit 3 represents the confined part of the aquifer system. Hydrogeologic unit 4 represents the deep part of the ground-water system and lies below the aquifer system. Hydrogeologic unit 4 transmits or stores much less water than hydrogeologic unit 3 and represents either a moderately consolidated valley fill or a geologic unit in the valley fill defined on the basis of geophysical data. Nearly all the recharge to the aquifer system is from infiltration of runoff from snowmelt and rainfall on the Sierra Nevada. In contrast, little recharge occurs to the system by runoff from the White and Inyo Mountains or from direct precipitation on the valley floor. Ground wat

  14. Data techniques for Quaternary lavas (United States)

    Anthony, Elizabeth Y.

    Reliable age information on Quaternary volcanic events is difficult to obtain because 14C dating generally does not extend beyond 45,000 years, and recent applications of 40Ar/39Ar methods—proven techniques for older lavas—suggest that dating events younger than approximately 100,000 years will be problematic. Because of the gap left in coverage by these traditional techniques, attention has turned to alternative chronometers, such as thermoluminescence, surface exposure dating using the build-up of cosmogenic nuclides, U-series disequilibria, and desert varnish. This research has received impetus and funding because of the importance of young igneous processes in evaluating volcanic hazards, related questions of seismicity, and radioactive waste disposal.These new techniques need to be calibrated against each other using identical samples, which is being done in several volcanic fields throughout the southwestern United States [e.g., Anthony and Poths, 1992]. One such area, the Zuni-Bandera volcanic field near Grants, N. Mex., was the site of a field conference [Laughlin et al., 1993] held from April 26 to 28, to report on recent determinations of flow chronology based on 14C, 3He, 40Ar/39Ar, and U-series techniques. An informal group to continue research on correlated samples was also organized.

  15. The Glaciogenic Reservoir Analogue Studies Project (GRASP) : An integrated approach to unravel genesis, infill and architecture of tunnel valleys reservoirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moscariello, A.; Moreau, J.; Van der Vegt, P.; Janszen, A.; Huuse, M.; Gibbard, P.L.


    Tunnel galleys are common features in Palaeozoic glacigenic succession in North Afrcica and Middle East and they are amongst the most challenging target for hydrocarbon exploration and developing drilling in these regions. Similarly, these buried valleys form important groundwater reservoirs in

  16. Ice Age refugia and Quaternary extinctions: An issue of Quaternary evolutionary palaeoecology (United States)

    Stewart, John R.; Cooper, Alan


    Quaternary palaeoecology, as a discipline, involves the analysis of a large range of fossil organisms from the last ca. 2 million years. This paper considers the role that these Quaternary records can take in better understanding the evolution of those organisms. We also discuss the surprisingly low uptake of evolutionary biology in Quaternary palaeoecological studies. This leads us to encourage an advance on both these fronts with a greater degree of collaboration with phylogeographic and ancient DNA researchers. These discussions accompany a summary of a special issue of Quaternary Science Reviews representing the proceedings of the XVII INQUA held in Cairns Australia in 2007. This special issue includes papers on a wide variety of Quaternary evolutionary palaeoecological and population dynamic subjects including extinct Pacific Island palm trees, Beringian beetles, Scandinavian trees, and the effects on human and animal populations of an extraterrestrial impact event in the Late Glacial of North America.

  17. Compact Buried Ducts in a Hot-Humid Climate House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, Dave [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)


    "9A system of compact, buried ducts provides a high-performance and cost-effective solution for delivering conditioned air throughout the building. This report outlines research activities that are expected to facilitate adoption of compact buried duct systems by builders. The results of this research would be scalable to many new house designs in most climates and markets, leading to wider industry acceptance and building code and energy program approval. The primary research question with buried ducts is potential condensation at the outer jacket of the duct insulation in humid climates during the cooling season. Current best practices for buried ducts rely on encapsulating the insulated ducts with closed-cell spray polyurethane foam insulation to control condensation and improve air sealing. The encapsulated buried duct concept has been analyzed and shown to be effective in hot-humid climates. The purpose of this project is to develop an alternative buried duct system that performs effectively as ducts in conditioned space - durable, energy efficient, and cost-effective - in a hot-humid climate (IECC warm-humid climate zone 3A) with three goals that distinguish this project: 1) Evaluation of design criteria for buried ducts that use common materials and do not rely on encapsulation using spray foam or disrupt traditional work sequences; 2) Establishing design criteria for compact ducts and incorporate those with the buried duct criteria to further reduce energy losses and control installed costs; 3) Developing HVAC design guidance for performing accurate heating and cooling load calculations for compact buried ducts.

  18. ISV technology development plan for buried waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickelson, D.F.; Callow, R.A. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Luey, J.K. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)


    This report identifies the main technical issues facing the in situ vitrification (ISV) application to buried waste, and presents a plan showing the top-level schedule and projected resources needed to develop and demonstrate the technology for meeting Environmental Restoration Department (ERD) needs. The plan also proposes a model strategy for the technology transfer from the Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development (DOE-OTD) to the Office of Environmental Restoration (DOE-ER) as the technology proceeds from issues resolution (development) to demonstration and remedial readiness. Implementation of the plan would require $34,91 1K in total funding to be spread in the years FY-93 through FY-98. Of this amount, $10,183K is planned to be funded by DOE-OTD through the ISV Integrated Program. The remaining amount, $24,728K, is recommended to be split between the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development ($6,670K) and DOE Office of Environmental Restoration ($18,058K).

  19. ISV technology development plan for buried waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickelson, D.F.; Callow, R.A. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Luey, J.K. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))


    This report identifies the main technical issues facing the in situ vitrification (ISV) application to buried waste, and presents a plan showing the top-level schedule and projected resources needed to develop and demonstrate the technology for meeting Environmental Restoration Department (ERD) needs. The plan also proposes a model strategy for the technology transfer from the Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development (DOE-OTD) to the Office of Environmental Restoration (DOE-ER) as the technology proceeds from issues resolution (development) to demonstration and remedial readiness. Implementation of the plan would require $34,91 1K in total funding to be spread in the years FY-93 through FY-98. Of this amount, $10,183K is planned to be funded by DOE-OTD through the ISV Integrated Program. The remaining amount, $24,728K, is recommended to be split between the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development ($6,670K) and DOE Office of Environmental Restoration ($18,058K).

  20. Buried Target Imaging: A Comparative Study (United States)

    Ghaderi Aram, Morteza; Dehmollaian, Mojtaba; Khaleghi, Ali


    A wide variety of qualitative methods have been proposed for microwave imaging. It is difficult to select only one of these methods based on a priori information and measurement equipment to achieve a reliable reconstruction. Various arrangements for antennas to be used in, for instance, have been proposed which have direct impacts on the complexity of inverse methods as well as the quality of output images. In this study, four qualitative methods of the linear sampling method (LSM), time reversal (TR), diffraction tomography (DT), and back-projection (BP) have been reviewed in a 2D scenario; the performance of the methods is compared within the same framework of a multi-static configuration. The goal is to compare their resolutions and determine their advantages and drawbacks. It is shown that LSM provides the best azimuth resolution but the worst range resolution. It is almost invariant to dielectric contrast and is appropriate for a wide range of dielectric contrasts and relatively large objects. It is also shown that at relatively low dielectric contrasts, TR images are most similar to the true object, show fewer artifacts, and offer high immunity to noise. While suffering from more artifacts due to the presence of some ghost images, DT offers the best range resolution. The results also show that BP has the worst azimuth resolution when reconstructing deeply-buried targets, although its implementation is straightforward and not computationally complex.

  1. Summary and evaluation of existing geological and geophysical data near prospective surface facilities in Midway Valley, Yucca Mountain Project, Nye County, Nevada; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, J.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swan, F.H.; Wesling, J.R.; Bullard, T.F.; Perman, R.C.; Angell, M.M.; DiSilvestro, L.A. [Geomatrix Consultants, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)


    Midway Valley, located at the eastern base of the Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada, is the preferred location of the surface facilities for the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. One goal in siting these surface facilities is to avoid faults that could produce relative displacements in excess of 5 cm in the foundations of the waste-handling buildings. This study reviews existing geologic and geophysical data that can be used to assess the potential for surface fault rupture within Midway Valley. Dominant tectonic features in Midway Valley are north-trending, westward-dipping normal faults along the margins of the valley: the Bow Ridge fault to the west and the Paintbrush Canyon fault to the east. Published estimates of average Quaternary slip rates for these faults are very low but the age of most recent displacement and the amount of displacement per event are largely unknown. Surface mapping and interpretive cross sections, based on limited drillhole and geophysical data, suggest that additional normal faults, including the postulated Midway Valley fault, may exist beneath the Quaternary/Tertiary fill within the valley. Existing data, however, are inadequate to determine the location, recency, and geometry of this faulting. To confidently assess the potential for significant Quaternary faulting in Midway Valley, additional data are needed that define the stratigraphy and structure of the strata beneath the valley, characterize the Quaternary soils and surfaces, and establish the age of faulting. The use of new and improved geophysical techniques, combined with a drilling program, offers the greatest potential for resolving subsurface structure in the valley. Mapping of surficial geologic units and logging of soil pits and trenches within these units must be completed, using accepted state-of-the-art practices supported by multiple quantitative numerical and relative age-dating techniques.

  2. Silicon Valley: Planet Startup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. P. Ester; dr. A. Maas


    For decades now, Silicon Valley has been the home of the future. It's the birthplace of the world's most successful high-tech companies-including Apple, Yahoo, Google, Facebook, Twitter, and many more. So what's the secret? What is it about Silicon Valley that fosters entrepreneurship and

  3. Haemoragisk Rift Valley Fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, Christian; Thybo, Søren


    A case of fatal hemorrhagic Rift Valley fever during an epidemic in Kenya's North Eastern Province in January 2007 is described.......A case of fatal hemorrhagic Rift Valley fever during an epidemic in Kenya's North Eastern Province in January 2007 is described....

  4. Dynamics of nival and glacial slope processes in the Baksan and Teberda river basins from radiocarbon dating of buried soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Solomina


    Full Text Available Radiocarbon and tree-ring dating of the soil horizons, buried in the slope and fluvioglacial deposits in Baksan and Teberda valleys, bring evidence of the reduction of the avalanche activity, stabilization of the slopes and soil formation on their surfaces. In the Baksan section three such horizons are identified, while in the Teberda section only one. The radiocarbon dates of the two thickest soil horizons in the Baksan section are 170±50 BP (1650–1890 CE and 380±60 BP (1430–1650 CE. The dendrochronological date of the wood (after 1677 in the upper layer of the buried soil horizon in the in the Dombai section probably indicate the increase of the river runoff and debris flow activity in relation with the glacier advance in the upperstream of Ammanauz river. However it is also close to the Terskoye earth quake occurred in 1688. The radiocarbon dates of the buried soils cluster in three groups (270–290, 340–440, 1280–1440 yrs BP. It is possible that their burial is connected to the climatic (increase in precipitation, especially extreme ones or seismic causes.

  5. Seismic evidence of Quaternary faulting in the Benton Hills area, southeast Missouri (United States)

    Palmer, J.R.; Shoemaker, M.; Hoffman, D.; Anderson, N.L.; Vaughn, J.D.; Harrison, R.W.


    Two reflection seismic profiles at English Hill, across the southern edge of the Benton Hills escarpment, southeast Missouri, establish that geologic structures at English Hill are of tectonic origin. The lowland area to the south of the escarpment is relatively undisturbed. The geology at English Hill is structurally complex, and reflection seismic and geologic data indicate extensive and episodic faulting of Paleozoic, Cretaceous, Tertiary, and Quaternary strata. The individual faults have near-vertical fault surfaces with maximum vertical separations on the order of 15 m. They appear to be clustered in north-northeast trending zones that essentially parallel one of the dominant Benton Hills structural trends. These observations suggest that previously mapped Quaternary faults at English Hill are deep-seated and tectonic in origin. This paper documents recent faulting at English Hill and is the first time late Quaternary, surface-rupture faulting has been recognized in the middle Mississippi River Valley region outside of the New Madrid seismic zone. This has important implications for earthquake assessment in the midcontinent.

  6. Effects of compaction and soil moisture on American burying beetles. (United States)


    Silphid beetles in the genus Nicrophorus bury themselves during periods of inactivity, however, the influence of soil characteristics on burial behavior remains unclear. We examined soil preferences of the federally endangered Nicrophorus americanus,...

  7. Buried nodules from the central Indian Ocean basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pattan, J.N.; Parthiban, G.

    studied here. The buried nodules are elliptical, elongated, rounded, sub rounded, irregular and polynucleated. Majority of these nodules are approx. 2 cm in diameter and have both smooth and rough surface texture. Manganese and Fe content of nodules from...

  8. Compact Buried Ducts in a Hot-Humid Climate House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, D. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)


    A system of compact, buried ducts provides a high-performance and cost-effective solution for delivering conditioned air throughout the building. This report outlines research activities that are expected to facilitate adoption of compact buried duct systems by builders. The results of this research would be scalable to many new house designs in most climates and markets, leading to wider industry acceptance and building code and energy program approval.

  9. PRN 88-2: Clustering of Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (United States)

    This Notice announces that EPA has clustered the Quaternary Ammonium Compounds into four groups for the purpose of testing chemicals to build a database that will support continued registration of the entire family of quaternary ammonium compounds

  10. Climate predictors of late quaternary extinctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogués-Bravo, David; Ohlemüller, Ralf; Batra, Persaram


    Between 50,000 and 3,000 years before present (BP) 65% of mammal genera weighing over 44 kg went extinct, together with a lower proportion of small mammals. Why species went extinct in such large numbers is hotly debated. One of the arguments proposes that climate changes underlie Late Quaternary...... extinctions. Our model outputs, the climate change footprint dataset, provide a new research venue to test hypotheses about biodiversity dynamics during the Late Quaternary from the genetic to the species richness level....

  11. Physical subdivision and description of the water-bearing sediments of the Santa Clara Valley, California (United States)

    Wentworth, Carl M.; Jachens, Robert C.; Williams, Robert A.; Tinsley, John C.; Hanson, Randall T.


    A thick Quaternary alluvial section fills a sedimentary basin beneath the Santa Clara Valley, California, located within the San Andreas Fault system at the south end of San Francisco Bay. This section consists of an upper sequence about 1,000 feet thick containing eight sedimentary cycles and a lower fine-grained unit as thick as several hundred feet. Together these constitute the Quaternary Santa Clara Basin. The section overlies an irregular unconformity with more than 1,200 feet of relief cut into the underlying bedrock. This stratigraphy is determined through study of new wells and seismic reflection profiles, together with a sample of the many thousands of water wells in the valley. It represents a major change and improvement in understanding of the basin, particularly with regard to the upper cyclic sequence, which forms a large groundwater system that is an important resource in the San Francisco Bay region.

  12. Stratigraphic evidence for late Quaternary dune activity near Hudson on the Piedmont of northern Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forman, S.L.; Maat, P. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (USA))


    Stabilized dune fields are common features near Hudson, on the Piedmont of northern Colorado. Exposures in dune and interdune sites expose a sequence of eolian sediments and paleosols that record a complex history of eolian activity during the late Quaternary. Radiocarbon and thermoluminescence age estimates on A horizons buried by eolian sand indicate that dunes were reactivated sometime between 7 and 9 ka. On the basis of morphology of surface soils, the dunes were most recently stabilized <3 ka. At present that are no data to indicate if there were multiple periods of dune movement and stabilization during the Holocene. The penultimate pre-Holocene dune-forming episode probably terminated ca. 13 ka and may be coincident with the Pinedale glaciation. The stratigraphy at interdune sites shows at least two eolian depositional events prior to the penultimate event; they were separated by periods of pedogenesis, one of which may have exceeded 40 ka. This analysis indicates that dunes in northern Colorado were active during both cold-arid and warn-arid periods in the late Quaternary.

  13. Surface slip during large Owens Valley earthquakes

    KAUST Repository

    Haddon, E. K.


    The 1872 Owens Valley earthquake is the third largest known historical earthquake in California. Relatively sparse field data and a complex rupture trace, however, inhibited attempts to fully resolve the slip distribution and reconcile the total moment release. We present a new, comprehensive record of surface slip based on lidar and field investigation, documenting 162 new measurements of laterally and vertically displaced landforms for 1872 and prehistoric Owens Valley earthquakes. Our lidar analysis uses a newly developed analytical tool to measure fault slip based on cross-correlation of sublinear topographic features and to produce a uniquely shaped probability density function (PDF) for each measurement. Stacking PDFs along strike to form cumulative offset probability distribution plots (COPDs) highlights common values corresponding to single and multiple-event displacements. Lateral offsets for 1872 vary systematically from approximate to 1.0 to 6.0 m and average 3.31.1 m (2 sigma). Vertical offsets are predominantly east-down between approximate to 0.1 and 2.4 m, with a mean of 0.80.5 m. The average lateral-to-vertical ratio compiled at specific sites is approximate to 6:1. Summing displacements across subparallel, overlapping rupture traces implies a maximum of 7-11 m and net average of 4.41.5 m, corresponding to a geologic M-w approximate to 7.5 for the 1872 event. We attribute progressively higher-offset lateral COPD peaks at 7.12.0 m, 12.8 +/- 1.5 m, and 16.6 +/- 1.4 m to three earlier large surface ruptures. Evaluating cumulative displacements in context with previously dated landforms in Owens Valley suggests relatively modest rates of fault slip, averaging between approximate to 0.6 and 1.6 mm/yr (1 sigma) over the late Quaternary.

  14. Archaeology and Geomorphology of Red Oak Ridge Island, Navigation Pool 7, Upper Mississippi River Valley. (United States)


    localities along the Mississippi River - archaeologists have mistakenly equated this deep A horizon with stability and antiquity (e.g., Geier 1978...Investigations Number 11, Mississippi Valley Archaeology Center. La Crosse, Wisconsin. BOUYOUCOS, GEORGE J. 1936 Directions for making mechanical analyses of...The Late Wisconsin Savanna Terrace in Tributaries to the Upper Mississippi River. Quaternary Research 20: 2 165-176. FORD, BENJAMIN W. JR.,, JOHN T

  15. Synthesis and antibacterial activity screening of quaternary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A series of quaternary ammonium derivatives of triazolyl pyranochromen-2-ones have been synthesized and characterized; their antibacterial potential were investigated against two gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli) and two gram positive bacterial strains (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus ...

  16. The Plio-Quaternary Magdalena Turbidite System


    Estrada, Ferran; Alonso, Belén; Ercilla, Gemma


    2006. Estrada F., Alonso B., Ercilla G. The Plio-Quaternary Magdalena Turbidite System. SEPM/Geological Society of London conference “External Controls on Deepwater Depositional Systems”, to be held at the Geological Society in Piccadilly, London, March 27th to 29th.

  17. Palladium-Catalyzed Asymmetric Quaternary Stereocenter Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gottumukkala, Aditya L.; Matcha, Kiran; Lutz, Martin; de Vries, Johannes G.; Minnaard, Adriaan J.


    An efficient palladium catalyst is presented for the formation of benzylic quaternary stereocenters by conjugate addition of arylboronic acids to a variety of beta,beta-disubstituted carbocyclic, heterocyclic, and acyclic enones. The catalyst is readily prepared from PdCl2, PhBOX, and AgSbF6, and

  18. Palladium-catalyzed asymmetric quaternary stereocenter formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gottumukkala, A.L.; Matcha, K.; Lutz, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304828971; de Vries, J.G.; Minnaard, A.J.


    An efficient palladium catalyst is presented for the formation of benzylic quaternary stereocenters by conjugate addition of arylboronic acids to a variety of β,β-disubstituted carbocyclic, heterocyclic, and acyclic enones. The catalyst is readily prepared from PdCl2, PhBOX, and AgSbF6, and provides

  19. Geometry of Valley Growth

    CERN Document Server

    Petroff, Alexander P; Abrams, Daniel M; Lobkovsky, Alexander E; Kudrolli, Arshad; Rothman, Daniel H


    Although amphitheater-shaped valley heads can be cut by groundwater flows emerging from springs, recent geological evidence suggests that other processes may also produce similar features, thus confounding the interpretations of such valley heads on Earth and Mars. To better understand the origin of this topographic form we combine field observations, laboratory experiments, analysis of a high-resolution topographic map, and mathematical theory to quantitatively characterize a class of physical phenomena that produce amphitheater-shaped heads. The resulting geometric growth equation accurately predicts the shape of decimeter-wide channels in laboratory experiments, 100-meter wide valleys in Florida and Idaho, and kilometer wide valleys on Mars. We find that whenever the processes shaping a landscape favor the growth of sharply protruding features, channels develop amphitheater-shaped heads with an aspect ratio of pi.

  20. Intermontane valley fills


    Mey, Jürgen (Diplom-Geologe)


    Sedimentary valley fills are a widespread characteristic of mountain belts around the world. They transiently store material over time spans ranging from thousands to millions of years and therefore play an important role in modulating the sediment flux from the orogen to the foreland and to oceanic depocenters. In most cases, their formation can be attributed to specific fluvial conditions, which are closely related to climatic and tectonic processes. Hence, valley-fill deposits constitute v...

  1. Local flexibility facilitates oxidization of buried methionine residues. (United States)

    Xu, Kuiran; Uversky, Vladimir N; Xue, Bin


    In proteins, all amino acid residues are susceptible to oxidation by various reactive oxygen species (ROS), with methionine and cysteine residues being particularly sensitive to oxidation. Methionine oxidation is known to lead to destabilization and inactivation of proteins, and oxidatively modified proteins can accumulate during aging, oxidative stress, and in various age-related diseases. Although the efficiency of a given methionine oxidation can depend on its solvent accessibility (evaluated from a protein structure as the accessible surface area of the corresponding methionine residue), many experimental results on oxidation rate and oxidation sites cannot be unequivocally explained by the methionine solvent accessible surface area alone. In order to explore other possible mechanisms, we analyzed a set of seventy-one oxidized methionines contained in thirty-one proteins by various bioinformatics tools. In which, 41% of the methionines are exposed, 15% are buried but with various degree of flexibility, and the rest 44% are buried and structured. Buried but highly flexible methionines can be oxidized. Buried and less flexible methionines can acquire additional local structural flexibility from flanking regions to facilitate the oxidation. Oxidation of buried and structured methionine can also be promoted by the oxidation of neighboring methionine that is more exposed and/or flexible. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that protein structural flexibility represents another important factor favoring the oxidation process.

  2. Soils and late-Quaternary landscape evolution in the Cottonwood River basin, east-central Kansas: Implications for archaeological research (United States)

    Beeton, J.M.; Mandel, R.D.


    Temporal and spatial patterns of landscape evolution strongly influence the temporal and spatial patterns of the archaeological record in drainage systems. In this geoarchaeological investigation we took a basin-wide approach in assessing the soil stratigraphy, lithostratigraphy, and geochronology of alluvial deposits and associated buried soils in the Cottonwood River basin of east-central Kansas. Patterns of landscape evolution emerge when stratigraphic sequences and radiocarbon chronologies are compared by stream size and landform type. In the valleys of high-order streams (???4th order) the Younger Dryas Chronozone (ca. 11,000-10,000 14C yr B.P.) was characterized by slow aggradation accompanied by pedogenesis, resulting in the development of organic-rich cumulic soils. Between ca. 10,000 and 4900 14C yr B.P., aggradation punctuated by soil formation was the dominant process in those valleys. Alluvial fans formed on the margins of high-order stream valleys during the early and middle Holocene (ca. 9000-5000 14C yr B.P.) and continued to develop slowly until ca. 3000-2000 14C yr B.P. The late-Holocene record of high-order streams is characterized by episodes of entrenchment, rapid aggradation, and slow aggradation punctuated by soil development. By contrast, the early and middle Holocene (ca. 10,000-5000 14C yr B.P.) was a period of net erosion in the valleys of low-order streams. However, during the late Holocene small valleys became zones of net sediment storage. Consideration of the effects of these patterns of landscape evolution on the archaeological record is crucial for accurately interpreting that record and searching for buried archaeological deposits dating to specific cultural periods. ?? 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ?? 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc..

  3. Late Quaternary glaciation history of monsoon-dominated Dingad basin, central Himalaya, India (United States)

    Shukla, Tanuj; Mehta, Manish; Jaiswal, Manoj K.; Srivastava, Pradeep; Dobhal, D. P.; Nainwal, H. C.; Singh, Atul K.


    The study presents the Late Quaternary glaciation history of monsoon-dominated Dokriani Glacier valley, Dingad basin, central Himalaya, India. The basin is tested for the mechanism of landforms preservation in high relief and abundant precipitation regimes of the Higher Himalaya. Field geomorphology and remote sensing data, supported by Optical Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating enabled identification of five major glacial events of decreasing magnitude. The oldest glacial stage, Dokriani Glacial Stage I (DGS-I), extended down to ∼8 km (2883 m asl) from present-day snout (3965 m asl) followed by other four glaciations events viz. DGS-II, DGS-III, DGS-IV and DGS-V terminating at ∼3211, 3445, 3648 and ∼3733 m asl respectively. The DGS-I glaciation (∼25-∼22 ka BP) occurred during early Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) -2, characterized as Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) extension of the valley. Similarly, DGS-II stage (∼14-∼11 ka BP) represents the global cool and dry Older Dryas and Younger Dryas event glaciation. The DGS-III glaciation (∼8 ka BP) coincides with early Holocene 8.2 ka cooling event, the DGS-IV glaciations (∼4-3.7 ka BP) corresponds to 4.2 ka cool and drier event, DGS-V (∼2.7-∼1 ka BP) represents the cool and moist late Holocene glacial advancement of the valley. This study suggests that the Dokriani Glacier valley responded to the global lowering of temperature and variable precipitation conditions. This study also highlights the close correlation between the monsoon-dominated valley glaciations and Northern Hemisphere cooling events influenced by North Atlantic climate.

  4. Late Quaternary glaciation and equilibrium-line altitudes of the Mayan Ice Cap, Guatemala, Central America (United States)

    Roy, Alex J.; Lachniet, Matthew S.


    The Sierra los Cuchumatanes (3837 m), Guatemala, supported a plateau ice cap and valley glaciers around Montaña San Juan (3784 m) that totaled ˜ 43 km 2 in area during the last local glacial maximum. Former ice limits are defined by sharp-crested lateral and terminal moraines that extend to elevations of ˜ 3450 m along the ice cap margin, and to ca. 3000-3300 m for the valley glaciers. Equilibrium-line altitudes (ELAs) estimated using the area-altitude balance ratio method for the maximum late Quaternary glaciation reached as low as 3470 m for the valley glaciers and 3670 m for the Mayan Ice Cap. Relative to the modern altitude of the 0°C isotherm of ˜ 4840 m, we determined ELA depressions of 1110-1436 m. If interpreted in terms of a depression of the freezing level during maximal glaciation along the modern lapse rate of - 5.3°C km - 1 , this ΔELA indicates tropical highland cooling of ˜ 5.9 to 7.6 ± 1.2°C. Our data support greater glacial highland cooling than at sea level, implying a high tropical sensitivity to global climate changes. The large magnitude of ELA depression in Guatemala may have been partially forced by enhanced wetness associated with southward excursions of the boreal winter polar air mass.

  5. Guided wave attenuation in coated pipes buried in sand (United States)

    Leinov, Eli; Cawley, Peter; Lowe, Michael J. S.


    Long-range guided wave testing (GWT) is routinely used for the monitoring and detection of corrosion defects in above ground pipelines in various industries. The GWT test range in buried, coated pipelines is greatly reduced compared to aboveground pipelines due to energy leakage into the embedding soil. In this study, we aim to increase test ranges for buried pipelines. The effect of pipe coatings on the T(0,1) and L(0,2) guided wave attenuation is investigated using a full-scale experimental apparatus and model predictions. Tests are performed on a fusion-bonded epoxy (FBE)-coated 8" pipe, buried in loose and compacted sand over a frequency range of 10-35 kHz. The application of a low impedance coating is shown to effectively decouple the influence of the sand on the ultrasound leakage from the buried pipe. We demonstrate ultrasonic isolation of a buried pipe by coating the pipe with a Polyethylene (PE)-foam layer that has a smaller impedance than both pipe and sand and the ability to withstand the overburden load from the sand. The measured attenuation in the buried PE-foam-FBE-coated pipe is substantially reduced, in the range of 0.3-1.2 dBm-1 for loose and compacted sand conditions, compared to buried FBE-coated pipe without the PE-foam, where the measured attenuation is in the range of 1.7-4.7 dBm-1. The acoustic properties of the PE-foam are measured independently using ultrasonic interferometry technique and used in model predictions of guided wave propagation in a buried coated pipe. Good agreement is found between the attenuation measurements and model predictions. The attenuation exhibits periodic peaks in the frequency domain corresponding to the through-thickness resonance frequencies of the coating layer. The large reduction in guided wave attenuation for PE-coated pipes would lead to greatly increased GWT test ranges, so such coatings would be attractive for new pipeline installations.

  6. The Challenging Acute Buried Bumper Syndrome: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Pinho


    Full Text Available Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG is the preferred route of feeding and nutritional support in patients requiring long-term enteral nutrition. Major complications related to the procedure are rare. Buried bumper syndrome is a late major complication, occurring in 0.3-2.4% of patients. Although considered a late complication, it can rarely occur in an acute setting early after the procedure. We present the case of an early buried bumper syndrome, presenting 1 week after PEG tube placement, with local stoma infection associated with an infected cavity within the abdominal wall with feeding content, successfully managed with antibiotic therapy and PEG tube repositioning through the original track.

  7. Analysis of overdeepened valleys using the digital elevation model of the bedrock surface of Northern Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, P.


    Based on surface and borehole information, together with pre-existing regional and local interpretations, a 7,150 square kilometre Raster Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the bedrock surface of northern Switzerland was constructed using a 25 m cell size. This model represents a further important step in the understanding of Quaternary sediment distribution and is open to a broad field of application and analysis, including hydrogeological, geotechnical and geophysical studies as well as research in the field of Pleistocene landscape evolution. An analysis of the overdeepened valleys in the whole model area and, more specifically in the Reuss area, shows that, in most cases, overdeepening is restricted to the areas covered by the Last Glaciation Maximum (LGM). However, at various locations relatively narrow overdeepened valleys outreach the tongue basins and the LGM ice shield limits. Therefore, an earlier and further-reaching glacial event has probably contributed significantly to the overdeepening of these valleys. No significant overdeepening has been identified downstream of Boettstein (Aare) and Kaiserstuhl (Rhine), although the ice extended considerably further downstream, at least during the most extensive glaciation. Except for the bedrock between Brugg and Boettstein, no overdeepened valleys are found significantly north of the outcrop of Mesozoic limestone of the Folded and Tabular Jura. A detailed analysis of the Reuss area shows that the Lake and Suhre valleys are separated from the Emmen-Gisikon Reuss valley basin by a significant bedrock barrier. The individual bedrock valleys are divided into several sub-basins, indicating a multiphase evolution of the valleys. Some of the swells or barriers separating the sub-basins coincide with known late LGM retreat stages. In the Suhre valley, an old fluvial valley floor with restricted overdeepened sections is documented. (author)

  8. Origin of bonebeds in Quaternary tank deposits (United States)

    Araújo-Júnior, Hermínio Ismael de; Porpino, Kleberson de Oliveira; Bergqvist, Lílian Paglarelli


    Tank deposits are an exceptional type of fossiliferous deposit and bear a remarkably fossil record of the Pleistocene megafauna of South America, particularly of Brazil. The taphonomy of vertebrate remains preserved in this type of environmental context was clearly driven by climate, similarly to most of the Quaternary continental fossil record. The formation of the vertebrates fossil record in tank deposits was influenced by the climate seasonality typical of arid climate. The taphonomic history of most tank deposits is a consequence of this seasonality and, as a result, the paleoecological data preserved in their fossil assemblages is reliable with respect to paleobiological and paleoenvironmental settings of the Quaternary ecosystems of the Brazilian Intertropical Region (BIR). Other tank deposits experienced an unusual taphonomic history that, besides climate, was affected by recurrent events of reworking produced by the depositional agents dominant in the surrounding alluvial plains. The conclusions obtained here concerning the main taphonomic settings and formative processes that characterize fossil vertebrate assemblages of tank deposits will help further studies aimed to recover information on the paleoecology of Quaternary fauna collected in such deposits by allowing a better understanding of their time and spatial resolutions and other potential biases.

  9. Why is quaternary prevention important in prevention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Dalcanale Tesser


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Quaternary prevention consists in the identification of persons at risk of excessive medicalization and their protection against new unnecessary interventions, avoiding iatrogenic damages. Here, we argue about the importance of quaternary prevention in specific primary and secondary prevention. The recent great development of preventive medicine, biomedicalization of risks and their treatment as if they were diseases, and the powerful influence of the commercial interests of pharmaceutical industries on the production of medical-sanitary knowledge alter classifications, create diseases and pre-diseases, lower cutoff points, and erase the distinction between prevention and healing. This situation converts larger amounts of asymptomatic persons into sick individuals and diverts clinical attention and resources from sick persons to the healthy, from older adults to young persons, and from the poor to the rich. Quaternary prevention facilitates and induces the development and systematization of operational knowledge and guidelines to contain hypermedicalization and the damages of preventive actions in professional care, especially in primary health care.

  10. DNA Barcoding through Quaternary LDPC Codes. (United States)

    Tapia, Elizabeth; Spetale, Flavio; Krsticevic, Flavia; Angelone, Laura; Bulacio, Pilar


    For many parallel applications of Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies short barcodes able to accurately multiplex a large number of samples are demanded. To address these competitive requirements, the use of error-correcting codes is advised. Current barcoding systems are mostly built from short random error-correcting codes, a feature that strongly limits their multiplexing accuracy and experimental scalability. To overcome these problems on sequencing systems impaired by mismatch errors, the alternative use of binary BCH and pseudo-quaternary Hamming codes has been proposed. However, these codes either fail to provide a fine-scale with regard to size of barcodes (BCH) or have intrinsic poor error correcting abilities (Hamming). Here, the design of barcodes from shortened binary BCH codes and quaternary Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes is introduced. Simulation results show that although accurate barcoding systems of high multiplexing capacity can be obtained with any of these codes, using quaternary LDPC codes may be particularly advantageous due to the lower rates of read losses and undetected sample misidentification errors. Even at mismatch error rates of 10(-2) per base, 24-nt LDPC barcodes can be used to multiplex roughly 2000 samples with a sample misidentification error rate in the order of 10(-9) at the expense of a rate of read losses just in the order of 10(-6).

  11. DNA Barcoding through Quaternary LDPC Codes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Tapia

    Full Text Available For many parallel applications of Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS technologies short barcodes able to accurately multiplex a large number of samples are demanded. To address these competitive requirements, the use of error-correcting codes is advised. Current barcoding systems are mostly built from short random error-correcting codes, a feature that strongly limits their multiplexing accuracy and experimental scalability. To overcome these problems on sequencing systems impaired by mismatch errors, the alternative use of binary BCH and pseudo-quaternary Hamming codes has been proposed. However, these codes either fail to provide a fine-scale with regard to size of barcodes (BCH or have intrinsic poor error correcting abilities (Hamming. Here, the design of barcodes from shortened binary BCH codes and quaternary Low Density Parity Check (LDPC codes is introduced. Simulation results show that although accurate barcoding systems of high multiplexing capacity can be obtained with any of these codes, using quaternary LDPC codes may be particularly advantageous due to the lower rates of read losses and undetected sample misidentification errors. Even at mismatch error rates of 10(-2 per base, 24-nt LDPC barcodes can be used to multiplex roughly 2000 samples with a sample misidentification error rate in the order of 10(-9 at the expense of a rate of read losses just in the order of 10(-6.

  12. Melter development needs assessment for RWMC buried wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, A.D.; Carpenedo, R.J.; Anderson, G.L.


    This report presents a survey and initial assessment of the existing state-of-the-art melter technology necessary to thermally treat (stabilize) buried TRU waste, by producing a highly leach resistant glass/ceramic waste form suitable for final disposal. Buried mixed transuranic (TRU) waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) represents an environmental hazard requiring remediation. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed the INEL on the National Priorities List in 1989. Remediation of the buried TRU-contaminated waste via the CERCLA decision process is required to remove INEL from the National Priorities List. A Waste Technology Development (WTD) Preliminary Systems Design and Thermal Technologies Screening Study identified joule-heated and plasma-heated melters as the most probable thermal systems technologies capable of melting the INEL soil and waste to produce the desired final waste form (Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) glass/ceramic). The work reported herein then surveys the state of existing melter technology and assesses it within the context of processing INEL buried TRU wastes and contaminated soils. Necessary technology development work is recommended.

  13. Melter development needs assessment for RWMC buried wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, A.D.; Carpenedo, R.J.; Anderson, G.L.


    This report presents a survey and initial assessment of the existing state-of-the-art melter technology necessary to thermally treat (stabilize) buried TRU waste, by producing a highly leach resistant glass/ceramic waste form suitable for final disposal. Buried mixed transuranic (TRU) waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) represents an environmental hazard requiring remediation. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed the INEL on the National Priorities List in 1989. Remediation of the buried TRU-contaminated waste via the CERCLA decision process is required to remove INEL from the National Priorities List. A Waste Technology Development (WTD) Preliminary Systems Design and Thermal Technologies Screening Study identified joule-heated and plasma-heated melters as the most probable thermal systems technologies capable of melting the INEL soil and waste to produce the desired final waste form [Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) glass/ceramic]. The work reported herein then surveys the state of existing melter technology and assesses it within the context of processing INEL buried TRU wastes and contaminated soils. Necessary technology development work is recommended.

  14. Risk and cost tradeoffs for remote retrieval of buried waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, R.A.; Grienbenow, B.E.; Nickelson, D.F.


    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration is supporting the development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation of a suite of technologies that, when integrated with commercially available technologies, form a comprehensive system for the remediation of radioactive and hazardous buried waste. As a part of the program`s technology development, remote retrieval equipment is being developed and tested for the remediation of buried waste. During remedial planning, several factors are considered when choosing remote versus manual retrieval systems. Time that workers are exposed to radioactivity, chemicals, air particulate, and industrial hazards is one consideration. The generation of secondary waste is also a consideration because it amounts to more waste to treat and some wastes may require special handling or treatment. Cost is also a big factor in determining whether remote or manual operations will be used. Other considerations include implementability, effectiveness, and the number of required personnel. This paper investigates each of these areas to show the risk and cost benefits and limitations for remote versus manual retrieval of buried waste.

  15. Identification of buried victims in natural disaster with GPR method (United States)

    Dewi, Rianty Kusuma; Kurniawan, Adityo; Taqwantara, Reyhan Fariz; Iskandar, Farras M.; Naufal, Taufiq Ziyan; Widodo


    Indonesian is one of the most seismically active regions in the world and has very complicated plate convergence because there is meeting point of several tectonic plates. The complexity of tectonic features causes a lot of natural disasters such as landslides, tsunamis, earth quakes, volcanoes eruption, etc. Sometimes, the disasters occurs in high populated area and causing thousands to millions of victim been buried under the rumble. Unfortunately, the evacuation still uses the conventional method such using rescue dogs whereas the sensitivity of smell is decrease when the victims buried under the level of the ground. The purpose of this study is to detect buried bodies using GPR method, so it can enhance the effectiveness and the efficiency in looking for the disaster victims. GPR method is used because it can investigate things under the ground. A detailed GPR research has been done in Cikutra Graveyard, Bandung, with corpse buried two week until two years before the research. The radar profiles from this research showed amplitude contras anomaly between the new corpse and the old ones. We obtained the amplitude contras at 1.2-1.4 meters under the surface. This method proved to be effective but still need more attention on undulated surface and non-soil areas.

  16. Classification System for Individualized Treatment of Adult Buried Penis Syndrome. (United States)

    Tausch, Timothy J; Tachibana, Isamu; Siegel, Jordan A; Hoxworth, Ronald; Scott, Jeremy M; Morey, Allen F


    The authors present their experience with reconstructive strategies for men with various manifestations of adult buried penis syndrome, and propose a comprehensive anatomical classification system and treatment algorithm based on pathologic changes in the penile skin and involvement of neighboring abdominal and/or scrotal components. The authors reviewed all patients who underwent reconstruction of adult buried penis syndrome at their referral center between 2007 and 2015. Patients were stratified by location and severity of involved anatomical components. Procedures performed, demographics, comorbidities, and clinical outcomes were reviewed. Fifty-six patients underwent reconstruction of buried penis at the authors' center from 2007 to 2015. All procedures began with a ventral penile release. If the uncovered penile skin was determined to be viable, a phalloplasty was performed by anchoring penoscrotal skin to the proximal shaft, and the ventral shaft skin defect was closed with scrotal flaps. In more complex patients with circumferential nonviable penile skin, the penile skin was completely excised and replaced with a split-thickness skin graft. Complex patients with severe abdominal lipodystrophy required adjacent tissue transfer. For cases of genital lymphedema, the procedure involved complete excision of the lymphedematous tissue, and primary closure with or without a split-thickness skin graft, also often involving the scrotum. The authors' overall success rate was 88 percent (49 of 56), defined as resolution of symptoms without the need for additional procedures. Successful correction of adult buried penis often necessitates an interdisciplinary, multimodal approach. Therapeutic, IV.

  17. Ground Penetrating Radar Imaging of Buried Metallic Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polat, A. Burak; Meincke, Peter


    During the past decade there has been considerable research on ground penetrating radar (GPR) tomography for detecting objects such as pipes, cables, mines and barrels buried under the surface of the Earth. While the earlier researches were all based on the assumption of a homogeneous background...

  18. Melanin concentrating hormone modulates oxytocin-mediated marble burying. (United States)

    Sanathara, Nayna M; Garau, Celia; Alachkar, Amal; Wang, Lien; Wang, Zhiwei; Nishimori, Katsuhiko; Xu, Xiangmin; Civelli, Olivier


    Repetitive and perseverative behaviors are common features of a number of neuropsychiatric diseases such as Angelman's syndrome, Tourette's syndrome, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and autism spectrum disorders. The oxytocin system has been linked to the regulation of repetitive behavior in both animal models and humans, but many of its downstream targets have still to be found. We report that the melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) system is a target of the oxytocin system in regulating one repetitive behavior, marble burying. First we report that nearly 60% of MCH neurons express oxytocin receptors, and demonstrate using rabies mediated tract tracing that MCH neurons receive direct presynaptic input from oxytocin neurons. Then we show that MCH receptor knockout (MCHR1KO) mice and MCH ablated animals display increased marble burying response while central MCH infusion decreases it. Finally, we demonstrate the downstream role of the MCH system on oxytocin mediated marble burying by showing that central infusions of MCH and oxytocin alone or together reduce it while antagonizing the MCH system blocks oxytocin-mediated reduction of this behavior. Our findings reveal a novel role for the MCH system as a mediator of the role of oxytocin in regulating marble-burying behavior in mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Protection of Buried Pipe under Repeated Loading by Geocell Reinforcement (United States)

    Khalaj, Omid; Joz Darabi, N.; Moghaddas Tafreshi, S. N.; Mašek, Bohuslav


    With increase in cities’ population and development of urbane life, passing buried pipelines near ground’s surface is inevitable in urban areas, roads, subways and highways. This paper presents the results of three-dimensional full scale model tests on high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe with diameter of 250 mm in geocell reinforced soil, subjected to repeated loading to simulate the vehicle loads. The effect of geocell’s pocket size (55*55 mm and 110*110 mm) and embedment depth of buried pipe (1.5 and 2 times pipe diameter) in improving the behaviour of buried pipes was investigated. The geocell’s height of 100 mm was used in all tests. The repeated load of 800 kPa was applied on circular loading plate with diameter of 250 mm. The results show that the pipe displacement, soil surface settlement and transferred pressure on the pipe’s crown has been influenced significantly upon the use of geocells. For example, the vertical diametric strain (VDS) and soil surface settlement (SSS), in a way that using a geocell with pocket size of 110*110 mm reduces by 27% and 43%, respectively, compared with the unreinforced one. Meanwhile, by increasing buried depth of pipe from 1.5D to 2D, the use of geocell of 110*110 mm delivers about 50% reduction in SSS and VDS, compared with the unreinforced soil.

  20. Defensive burying in rodents : ethology, neurobiology and psychopharmacology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, S.F.; Koolhaas, J.M.


    Defensive burying refers to the typical rodent behavior of displacing bedding material with vigorous treading-like movements of their forepaws and shoveling movements of their heads directed towards a variety of noxious stimuli that pose a near and immediate threat, such as a wall-mounted

  1. Evaluating the movement of active faults on buried pipelines | Parish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the earthquake, a buried pipeline may be experienced extreme loading that is the result of the relatively large displacement of the Earth along the pipe. Large movements of ground could occur by faulting, liquefaction, lateral spreading, landslides, and slope failures. Since the pipelines are widely spread, and in ...

  2. Examination of faults active motion on buried pipelines | Parish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During an earthquake, a buried pipeline may experience a severe loading as the result of the ground relatively large displacement along the pipe. Large ground movements may occur by faulting, liquefaction, lateral spreading, landslides and slope failures. Since the pipelines are widely spread, and in some areas ...

  3. Antimicrobial Polymeric Materials with Quaternary Ammonium and Phosphonium Salts


    Yan Xue; Huining Xiao; Yi Zhang


    Polymeric materials containing quaternary ammonium and/or phosphonium salts have been extensively studied and applied to a variety of antimicrobial-relevant areas. With various architectures, polymeric quaternary ammonium/phosphonium salts were prepared using different approaches, exhibiting different antimicrobial activities and potential applications. This review focuses on the state of the art of antimicrobial polymers with quaternary ammonium/phosphonium salts. In particular, it discusses...

  4. Hydrology of modern and late Holocene lakes, Death Valley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasso, D.N.


    Above-normal precipitation and surface-water runoff, which have been generally related to the cyclic recurrence of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation, have produced modern ephemeral lakes in the closed-basin Death Valley watershed. This study evaluates the regional hydroclimatic relations between precipitation, runoff, and lake transgressions in the Death Valley watershed. Recorded precipitation, runoff, and spring discharge data for the region are used in conjunction with a closed-basin, lake-water-budget equation to assess the relative contributions of water from these sources to modern lakes in Death Valley and to identify the requisite hydroclimatic changes for a late Holocene perennial lake in the valley. As part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Program, an evaluation of the Quaternary regional paleoflood hydrology of the potential nuclear-waste repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was planned. The objectives of the evaluation were (1) to identify the locations and investigate the hydraulic characteristics of paleofloods and compare these with the locations and characteristics of modern floods, and (2) to evaluate the character and severity of past floods and debris flows to ascertain the potential future hazards to the potential repository during the pre-closure period (US Department of Energy, 1988). This study addresses the first of these objectives, and the second in part, by assessing and comparing the sizes, locations, and recurrence rates of modern, recorded (1962--83) floods and late Holocene paleofloods for the 8,533-mi{sup 2}, closed-basin, Death Valley watershed with its contributing drainage basins in the Yucca Mountain site area.

  5. Boyne Valley Tombs (United States)

    Prendergast, Frank

    The passage tombs of the Boyne Valley exhibit the greatest level of development of the megalithic tomb building tradition in Ireland in terms of their morphology, embellishment, burial tradition, grave goods, clustering, and landscape siting. This section examines these characteristics and gives a summary archaeoastronomical appraisal of their orientation and detected astronomical alignment.

  6. Breathing Valley Fever

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Dr. Duc Vugia, chief of the Infectious Diseases Branch in the California Department of Public Health, discusses Valley Fever.  Created: 2/4/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/5/2014.

  7. Quaternary faulting in the Tatra Mountains, evidence from cave morphology and fault-slip analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczygieł Jacek


    Full Text Available Tectonically deformed cave passages in the Tatra Mts (Central Western Carpathians indicate some fault activity during the Quaternary. Displacements occur in the youngest passages of the caves indicating (based on previous U-series dating of speleothems an Eemian or younger age for those faults, and so one tectonic stage. On the basis of stress analysis and geomorphological observations, two different mechanisms are proposed as responsible for the development of these displacements. The first mechanism concerns faults that are located above the valley bottom and at a short distance from the surface, with fault planes oriented sub-parallel to the slopes. The radial, horizontal extension and vertical σ1 which is identical with gravity, indicate that these faults are the result of gravity sliding probably caused by relaxation after incision of valleys, and not directly from tectonic activity. The second mechanism is tilting of the Tatra Mts. The faults operated under WNW-ESE oriented extension with σ1 plunging steeply toward the west. Such a stress field led to normal dip-slip or oblique-slip displacements. The faults are located under the valley bottom and/or opposite or oblique to the slopes. The process involved the pre-existing weakest planes in the rock complex: (i in massive limestone mostly faults and fractures, (ii in thin-bedded limestone mostly inter-bedding planes. Thin-bedded limestones dipping steeply to the south are of particular interest. Tilting toward the N caused the hanging walls to move under the massif and not toward the valley, proving that the cause of these movements was tectonic activity and not gravity.

  8. Application of DOI index to analysis of selected examples of resistivity imaging models in Quaternary sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glazer Michał


    Full Text Available Interpretation of resistivity cross sections may be in many cases unreliable due to the presence of artifacts left by the inversion process. One way to avoid erroneous conclusions about geological structure is creation of Depth of Investigation (DOI index maps, which describe durability of prepared model with respect to variable parameters of inversion. To assess the usefulness of this interpretation methodology in resistivity imaging method over quaternary sediments, it has been used to one synthetic data set and three investigation sites. Two of the study areas were placed in the Upper Silesian Industrial District region: Bytom - Karb, Chorzów - Chorzow Stary; and one in the Southern Pomeranian Lake District across Piława River Valley. Basing on the available geological information the results show high utility of DOI index in analysis of received resistivity models, on which areas poorly constrained by data has been designated.

  9. Bearing and Range Estimation Algorithm for Buried Object in Underwater Acoustics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Han


    (DOA of objects and objects-sensors distances, is used in MUSIC algorithm instead of classical model. The influence of the depth of buried objects is discussed. Finally, the numerical results are given in the case of buried cylindrical shells.

  10. Bringing Silicon Valley inside. (United States)

    Hamel, G


    In 1998, Silicon Valley companies produced 41 IPOs, which by January 1999 had a combined market capitalization of $27 billion--that works out to $54,000 in new wealth creation per worker in a single year. Multiply the number of employees in your company by $54,000. Did your business create that much new wealth last year? Half that amount? It's not a group of geniuses generating such riches. It's a business model. In Silicon Valley, ideas, capital, and talent circulate freely, gathering into whatever combinations are most likely to generate innovation and wealth. Unlike most traditional companies, which spend their energy in resource allocation--a system designed to avoid failure--the Valley operates through resource attraction--a system that nurtures innovation. In a traditional company, people with innovative ideas must go hat in hand to the guardians of the old ideas for funding and for staff. But in Silicon Valley, a slew of venture capitalists vie to attract the best new ideas, infusing relatively small amounts of capital into a portfolio of ventures. And talent is free to go to the companies offering the most exhilarating work and the greatest potential rewards. It should actually be easier for large, traditional companies to set up similar markets for capital, ideas, and talent internally. After all, big companies often already have extensive capital, marketing, and distribution resources, and a first crack at the talent in their own ranks. And some of them are doing it. The choice is yours--you can do your best to make sure you never put a dollar of capital at risk, or you can tap into the kind of wealth that's being created every day in Silicon Valley.

  11. Hillslope failure and paraglacial reworking of sediments in response to glacier retreat, Fox Valley, New Zealand. (United States)

    McColl, Samuel T.; Fuller, Ian C.; Anderson, Brian; Tate, Rosie


    Climate and glacier fluctuations influence sediment supply to glacier forelands, which in turn influences down-valley hazards to infrastructure and tourism within glacier forelands. At Fox Glacier, one of New Zealand's most iconic and popular glaciers, rapid retreat has initiated a range of hillslope and valley floor responses, that present a cascade of hazards and changes that need to be carefully managed. Fox Glacier has retreated many kilometres historically, with 2.6 km of retreat since the mid-20th century, and a phase of rapid retreat of 50-340 m per year since 2009. To study the system response to past and ongoing glacial retreat at the Fox valley, morphological changes are being observed using time-lapse photography and the annual collection of high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) and orthophoto mosaics. The DEMs are being produced using Structure from Motion photogrammetry from UAV/RPAS and helicopter platforms, and are being used, along with manual ground surveying, to produce ground surface change models (DoDs; DEMs of Difference) and sediment budgets for the valley. Results from time-lapse photography and DoDs show that glacial retreat has initiated destabilisation and (mostly chronic) mass movement of surficial glacial sediments on the valley slopes near the glacier terminus. Alluvial fans farther down valley are actively growing, reworking glacial and landslide sediments from tributary catchments. These paraglacial sediments being delivered to the proglacial river from the glacier terminus and alluvial fans are driving aggradation of the valley floor of decimetres to metres per year and maintaining a highly dynamic braid plain. Valley floor changes also include the melting of buried dead ice, which are causing localised subsidence at the carpark and one of the alluvial fans. The unstable slopes and active debris fans, aggrading and highly active river channel, ground subsidence, add to the spectacle but also the hazards of the Fox valley

  12. Evaluation of the location and recency of faulting near prospective surface facilities in Midway Valley, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swan, F.H.; Wesling, J.R.; Angell, M.M.; Thomas, A.P.; Whitney, J.W.; Gibson, J.D.


    Evaluation of surface faulting that may pose a hazard to prospective surface facilities is an important element of the tectonic studies for the potential Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste repository in southwestern Nevada. For this purpose, a program of detailed geologic mapping and trenching was done to obtain surface and near-surface geologic data that are essential for determining the location and recency of faults at a prospective surface-facilities site located east of Exile Hill in Midway Valley, near the eastern base of Yucca Mountain. The dominant tectonic features in the Midway Valley area are the north- to northeast-trending, west-dipping normal faults that bound the Midway Valley structural block-the Bow Ridge fault on the west side of Exile Hill and the Paint-brush Canyon fault on the east side of the valley. Trenching of Quaternary sediments has exposed evidence of displacements, which demonstrate that these block-bounding faults repeatedly ruptured the surface during the middle to late Quaternary. Geologic mapping, subsurface borehole and geophysical data, and the results of trenching activities indicate the presence of north- to northeast-trending faults and northwest-trending faults in Tertiary volcanic rocks beneath alluvial and colluvial sediments near the prospective surface-facilities site. North to northeast-trending faults include the Exile Hill fault along the eastern base of Exile Hill and faults to the east beneath the surficial deposits of Midway Valley. These faults have no geomorphic expression, but two north- to northeast-trending zones of fractures exposed in excavated profiles of middle to late Pleistocene deposits at the prospective surface-facilities site appear to be associated with these faults. Northwest-trending faults include the West Portal and East Portal faults, but no disruption of Quaternary deposits by these faults is evident. The western zone of fractures is associated with the Exile Hill fault. The eastern

  13. Origin of Bermuda's clay-rich Quaternary paleosols and their paleoclimatic significance (United States)

    Herwitz, S.R.; Muhs, D.R.; Prospero, J.M.; Mahan, S.; Vaughn, B.


    Red clayey paleosols that are chiefly the product of aerosolic dust deposition are interbedded in the Quaternary carbonate formations of the Bermuda oceanic island system. These paleosols provide a basis for reconstructing Quaternary atmospheric circulation patterns in the northwestern Atlantic. Geochemical analyses were performed on representative paleosol samples to identify their parent dust source. Fine-grained fractions were analyzed by energy-dispersive X ray fluorescence to determine trace element (Zr, Y, La, Ti, and Nb) concentrations and to derive geochemical signatures based on immobile element ratios. These ratios were compared with geochemical signatures determined for three possible sources of airborne dust: (1) Great Plains loess, (2) Mississippi River Valley loess, and (3) Saharan dust. The Zr/Y and Zr/La ratios provided the clearest distinction between the hypothesized dust sources. The low ratios in the paleosol B horizons most closely resemble Saharan dust in the winds were stronger than at present and reached latitudes higher than 30 ?? N despite lower-than-present sea surface temperatures in the North Atlantic.

  14. Geophysical constraints on the location and geometry of the Las Vegas Valley Shear Zone, Nevada (United States)

    Langenheim, V. E.; Grow, J. A.; Jachens, R. C.; Dixon, G. L.; Miller, J. J.


    We model the basin configuration beneath Las Vegas Valley, Nevada, on the basis of gravity, drillhole, and seismic reflection data. We locate and characterize the various strands of the Las Vegas Valley Shear Zone (LVVSZ) by variations in basin thickness beneath the valley. The pre-Tertiary bedrock surface is complex, with subbasins buried beneath the flat alluvial surface of the valley. We suggest that these basins are formed from transtensional strain. Subbasins elongated N70°W and N50°W are interpreted as strike-slip basins. The deepest subbasin is 5 km west of Frenchman Mountain and strikes N40°E. This basin probably formed by combined movement on nonparallel strands of the LVVSZ and an earlier episode of normal faulting. The basin thickness map constrains the minimum depth of the inferred detachment fault beneath Las Vegas Valley to at least 4 km. Seismic reflection data do not image a detachment fault in the upper 10 km beneath Las Vegas Valley. Our results also illustrate the utility of gravity in determining basinal structures and providing a three-dimensional perspective in areas with limited seismic reflection control.

  15. Ground-water conditions in Las Veags Valley, Clark County, Nevada; part 1 Hydrogeologic Framework (United States)

    Plume, Russell W.


    This report describes the lithology, thickness, and extent of valley-fill deposits in Las Vegas Valley, Nev. This information will be used to develop a hydraulic model of the valley's ground-water system. Las Vegas Valley is a structural basin formed by bedrock that ranges in age from Precambrian through Miocene. Gravity data indicate that the deeper parts of the basin are filled with 3,000-5,000 feet of clastic sedimentary deposits that range in age from Miocene through Holocene. These deposits constitute the valley-fill aquifer and yield most of the water pumped in the valley. The upper 1,000 feet of this valley fill consist of coarse-grained deposits (sand and gravel), fine-grained deposits (silt and clay), and heterogeneous deposits that comprise either thinly interbedded coarse- and fine-grained deposits or mixtures of the two. Coarse-grained deposits, in places more than 1,000 feet thick, underlie the south and west sides of the valley and interfinger with fine-grained and heterogeneous deposits toward the center of the valley. Intervals of fairly thin heterogeneous deposits underlie parts of the valley, but they are not laterally persistent. The distribution of coarse-grained and fine-grained deposits in three depth zones of the valley fill (0-200 feet, 200-700 feet, and 700-1,000 feet) suggests that: (1) the Spring Mountains and McCullough Range were the major sources of clastic material for the valley fill; (2) Frenchman Mountain and the Las Vegas Range were emplaced later than the Spring Mountains; (3) the east side of the Spring Mountains, which was originally closer to the center of the valley, has receded westward because of erosion; and (4) shallow, fine-grained deposits (0-200 feet deep) are more susceptible to subsidence than deeper ones. The bedrock basin that underlies Las Vegas Valley consists of a deeply buried part that underlies most of the valley and a shallow bedrock surface on the west side of the valley. The deep part of the basin is

  16. Enhanced surface plasmon polariton propagation length using a buried metal grating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jose, J.; Segerink, Franciscus B.; Korterik, Jeroen P.; Gomez Casado, A.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Herek, Jennifer Lynn; Offerhaus, Herman L.


    We report an enhancement in the propagation length of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) on a metallic grating when the grating is buried in the substrate. A template-stripping technique has been used to fabricate the buried grating. Near-field measurements on the buried and an exposed grating show

  17. Hydrogeologic framework of the Wood River Valley aquifer system, south-central Idaho (United States)

    Bartolino, James R.; Adkins, Candice B.


    The Wood River Valley contains most of the population of Blaine County and the cities of Sun Valley, Ketchum, Hailey, and Bellevue. This mountain valley is underlain by the alluvial Wood River Valley aquifer system, which consists primarily of a single unconfined aquifer that underlies the entire valley, an underlying confined aquifer that is present only in the southernmost valley, and the confining unit that separates them. The entire population of the area depends on groundwater for domestic supply, either from domestic or municipal-supply wells, and rapid population growth since the 1970s has caused concern about the long-term sustainability of the groundwater resource. As part of an ongoing U.S. Geological Survey effort to characterize the groundwater resources of the Wood River Valley, this report describes the hydrogeologic framework of the Wood River Valley aquifer system. Although most of the Wood River Valley aquifer system is composed of Quaternary-age sediments and basalts of the Wood River Valley and its tributaries, older igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic rocks that underlie these Quaternary deposits also are used for water supply. It is unclear to what extent these rocks are hydraulically connected to the main part of Wood River Valley aquifer system and thus whether they constitute separate aquifers. Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in and near the study area that produce water to wells and springs are the Phi Kappa and Trail Creek Formations (Ordovician and Silurian), the Milligen Formation (Devonian), and the Sun Valley Group including the Wood River Formation (Pennsylvanian-Permian) and the Dollarhide Formation (Permian). These sedimentary rocks are intruded by granitic rocks of the Late Cretaceous Idaho batholith. Eocene Challis Volcanic Group rocks overlie all of the older rocks (except where removed by erosion). Miocene Idavada Volcanics are found in the southern part of the study area. Most of these rocks have been folded, faulted, and

  18. Polymeric Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Versatile Antimicrobial Materials. (United States)

    Zubris, Deanna L; Minbiole, Kevin P C; Wuest, William M


    Polymeric Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (polyQACs) comprise a broad class of materials with applications in medical implants, food processing, and surface sanitizing, amongst many others. These polymeric substances are especially promising due to their potent antibacterial activity and limited hemolytic toxicity. In particular, many polyQACs have superior therapeutic indices and a lower likelihood of developing antibacterial resistance in comparison to their monomers, making them ideal materials for wound dressings, catheters, and other biomedical applications. This review outlines the history and development, previous successes, current state of the research, and future directions of polyQACs in society.

  19. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration lessons learned: 1993 technology demonstrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostelnik, K.M.; Owens, K.J.


    An integrated technology demonstration was conducted by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Cold Test Pit in the summer of 1993. This program and demonstration was sponsored by the US Department of Energy Office of Technology Development. The demonstration included six technologies representing a synergistic system for the characterization and retrieval of a buried hazardous waste site. The integrated technology demonstration proved very successful and a summary of the technical accomplishments is presented. Upon completion of the integrated technology demonstration, cognizant program personnel participated in a lessons learned exercise. This exercise was conducted at the Simplot Decision Support Center at Idaho State University and lessons learned activity captured additional information relative to the integration of technologies for demonstration purposes. This information will be used by BWID to enhance program planning and strengthen future technology demonstrations.

  20. Imaging and controlling plasmonic interference fields at buried interfaces (United States)

    Lummen, Tom T. A.; Lamb, Raymond J.; Berruto, Gabriele; Lagrange, Thomas; Dal Negro, Luca; García de Abajo, F. Javier; McGrouther, Damien; Barwick, B.; Carbone, F.


    Capturing and controlling plasmons at buried interfaces with nanometre and femtosecond resolution has yet to be achieved and is critical for next generation plasmonic devices. Here we use light to excite plasmonic interference patterns at a buried metal-dielectric interface in a nanostructured thin film. Plasmons are launched from a photoexcited array of nanocavities and their propagation is followed via photon-induced near-field electron microscopy (PINEM). The resulting movie directly captures the plasmon dynamics, allowing quantification of their group velocity at ~0.3 times the speed of light, consistent with our theoretical predictions. Furthermore, we show that the light polarization and nanocavity design can be tailored to shape transient plasmonic gratings at the nanoscale. This work, demonstrating dynamical imaging with PINEM, paves the way for the femtosecond and nanometre visualization and control of plasmonic fields in advanced heterostructures based on novel two-dimensional materials such as graphene, MoS2, and ultrathin metal films.

  1. A prolonged buried fish bone mimicking Ludwig angina. (United States)

    Hsu, Chao-Lan; Chen, Cheng-Wei


    Most migrated foreign bodies in the neck were removed immediately in patients with persistent symptoms. It is a rare condition that a fish bone was buried for a prolonged time in the tongue with little discomfort. We report a unique case of an ingested fish bone lodged in the tongue for 16 months until infection ensued. Ludwig angina was considered first because the patient had fever, odynophagia, swelling of the tongue, and mouth floor. The fish bone buried in the tongue was incidentally found on the computed tomography scan and successfully removed by surgical exploration. Although dental infection is the most common underlying cause in Ludwig angina, embedded foreign body should be considered as one of the pathogenesis. On the other hand, computed tomography scan can be useful in identifying extraluminal migration of fish bones in the neck. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A Hot Buried Object Detection Technique Using a Temperature Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apik Rusdiarna Indra PRAJA


    Full Text Available Self-construction of a hot object detection system has been prepared by using a commercialized temperature sensor (connected to the computer for data collection to monitor any temperature changes produced by an object buried in the medium (sand. The monitoring was carried out based on real time measurements. For this work, the sensor has been varied its depth (the distance from the sensor to the hot object. From the experimental result, it was found that the apparatus could perform appropriately for the detection. This apparatus set up is potentially to be developed for human rescues detection of any foreign object including survivors buried in the ground caused by natural disaster of earthquake and volcanic eruption.

  3. Constraining Subsurface Structure and Composition Using Seismic Refraction Surveys of Proglacial Valleys in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru (United States)

    Glas, R. L.; Lautz, L.; McKenzie, J. M.; Mark, B. G.; Baker, E. A.; Aubry-Wake, C.; Somers, L. D.; Wigmore, O.


    As tropical glaciers rapidly recede in response to climate change, the storage and discharge of groundwater will play an increasing role in regulating river baseflow, particularly during the dry season, when stream flow is currently sustained predominantly by glacial melt. Little is understood regarding the hydrogeologic processes controlling base flow characteristics of low-gradient proglacial valleys of the Cordillera Blanca in Northwestern Peru, which has the world's highest density of tropical glaciers. To better understand the processes of groundwater storage and discharge in proglacial meadows, we completed seismic refraction surveys in three representative valleys of the Cordillera Blanca range: the Quilcayhuanca, Yanamarey, and Pachacoto valleys. The locations of survey transects were chosen based on locations of previous sediment core sampling, GPR lines, and quantification of groundwater-surface water interaction derived from dye and temperature tracing experiments. The seismic surveys consisted of 48 vertical component geophones with 2.5 m spacing. Across the three representative valleys a total of 15 surveys were conducted, covering a distance of 1800 m in cross, down, and oblique-valley directions. Preliminary interpretation of the seismic refraction data indicates a maximum imaging depth of 16 m below land surface, and a transition from glacio-lacustrine sediments to buried saturated talus at a depth of 6 m in the Quilcayhuanca valley. The organic-rich glacio-lacustrine sediments in the Yanamarey valley have seismic velocities ranging from 300 to 800 m/s and are >16 m in thickness at mid- valley. Weathered metasedimentary bedrock in the Pachacoto valley was imaged at ~5 m below the valley surface, exhibiting a p-wave velocity of 3400 m/s. The knowledge of hydrogeologic structure derived from seismic refraction surveys will provide crucial boundary conditions for future groundwater models of the valleys of the Cordillera Blanca.

  4. Late Quaternary stratigraphic development in the lower Luni, Mahi ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Late Quaternary; lithofacies; luminescence chronology; stratigraphic correlation; fluvial response; climate change. Abstract. This study reviews the Quaternary alluvial stratigraphy in three semi-arid river basins of western India i.e., lower Luni (Rajasthan), and Mahi and Sabarmati (Gujarat alluvial plains). On the basis of OSL ...

  5. Quaternary stratigraphy and glacial history of the Peace River valley, northeast British Columbia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hartman, Gregory M.D; Clague, John J


    .... The advances are inferred from fluvial gravels, glaciolacustrine sediments, and tills within nested paleovalleys excavated during three interglaciations and from the distribution of granitoid clasts...

  6. GPR for detecting buried animal bones in controlled sandbox experiments (United States)

    Schneider, B.; Tsoflias, G. P.


    Bone-beds can provide a wealth of information at archeological sites, including age of the site, site formation processes, seasonality of the kill, size and gender of the herd, and paleoenvironmental conditions at the time of the kill. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is a non-invasive, cost-effective technique that has the potential to delineate the horizontal and vertical limits of bone-beds in different geomorphological settings. Furthermore, the identification of a bone signature from geophysical methods can have modern day applications, particularly in forensic research investigations. There have been previous attempts, mostly in forensic studies and studies that involve mapping graveyards, to locate buried bone using geophysics. Although geophysical tools have successfully identified buried remains of homicide victims and the location of graves, these finds resulted from the identification of anomalies related to the disturbed soil in graves and not to an anomalous signal from the bone itself. It is necessary to detect the signal from the bone at these archaeological sites, because prehistoric animal remains typically were not buried immediately upon death, but instead became covered over time by sediment. Initial lab experiments determined the electrical properties (i.e. the relative permittivity, loss factor, and loss tangent values) of modern animal bone and indicate that bone is a desirable low-loss target for GPR detection. In order to test these results, we have built a 1x2x1 meter sandbox and placed modern bison bone inside of it to simulate natural burial conditions. This research presents successful GPR detection of the vertical and horizontal extents of the buried bison bone. In addition, changes in variables such as depth of burial, size and shape of target, and antenna orientation are presented to assess the overall detection capability of GPR for this unique archaeological feature.

  7. New Technique for the Treatment of Buried Penis in Children. (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Lin, Tao; He, Dawei; Wei, Guanghui; Liu, Junhong; Liu, Xing; Hua, Yi; Zhang, Deying; Lu, Peng; Wu, Shengde; Li, Xuliang


    To present our treatment experience of buried penis, which has no consensus therapeutic technique for all cases of buried penis, by using a new technique for the repair of this condition, in which the approach is through the ventral penile root. We performed a retrospective review of 153 patients (median age: 6.5 years) who underwent repair of a buried penis between March 2005 and March 2013. The technique involves the creation of a wedge-shaped cut of the ventral penile skin, followed by fixation of the subcutaneous penile skin at the base of the degloved penis to the Buck fascia at the 2- and 10-o'clock positions. The ventral outer preputial skin is split down the midline, and the dorsal inner preputial skin is cut with oblique incision. All patients were followed for an average of 12 months after repair. Other than 2 cases (1.3%) of trapped penis with a ring of scar tissue, which required subsequent excision, there were no complications and the cosmetic appearance was satisfactory. The described ventral penile approach is a simple and effective procedure with good cosmetic outcomes and few complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A method for the detection of shallow buried objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. McGee


    Full Text Available Numerous geophysical techniques have successfully contributed to geotechnical engineering and environmental problems of the shallow subsurface. Geophysical surveys are used to: delineate geologic features, measure in-situ engineering properties, and detect hidden cultural features. Most technologies for the detection of shallow buried objects are electromagnetic methods which measure the contrast in ferrous content, electrical conductivity, or dielectric constant between the object and surrounding soil. Seismic technologies measure the contrast in mechanical properties of the subsurface, however, scaled down versions of conventional seismic methods are not suitable for the detection shallow buried objects. In this paper, we discuss the development of a method based on acoustic to seismic coupling for the detection of shallow buried object. Surface vibrations induced by an impinging acoustic wave from a loudspeaker is referred to as acoustic to seismic coupling. These vibrations can be remotely detected using a laser-Doppler vibrometer (LDV. If an object is present below the surface of the insonified patch, the transmitted wave is back scattered by the target towards the surface. For targets very close to the surface, the scattered field produces anomalous ground vibrational velocities that are indicative of the shape and size of the target.

  9. Are PEGJs a Risk Factor for the Buried Bumper Syndrome? (United States)

    Goring, Jonathan; Lawson, Anne; Godse, Alok


    Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomies (PEGs) with or without a jejunal extension (PEGJs) are a well-accepted method of enteral feeding. They are associated with a number of complications, including the buried bumper syndrome (BBS). We aimed to identify risk factors for BBS, our current management strategies, and optimal timing for surgical treatment. Hospital coding and a database compiled by our specialist nutrition nurse were used to identify all cases of buried bumpers from January 2012 to December 2014 as well as all PEG/PEGJ devices inserted during this time. A retrospective case note review was performed for each patient with BBS to identify risk factors, management strategies, and outcomes. Two hundred twelve PEGs and 22 PEGJs were inserted. Nine patients were identified with BBS. Patients with PEGJ tubes were significantly more likely to develop BBS (7/22, 32%) than those with PEG tubes (2/212, 0.9%) Pbumper 33days after BBS was diagnosed and before removal was attempted. All other patients underwent laparotomy to remove the bumper. Mean hospital stay was 22days postoperatively. Buried bumper syndrome is a serious condition which warrants urgent intervention. We have demonstrated a higher than expected rate of BBS associated with PEGJ tubes. We hypothesize that this may be related to the jejunal extensions leading to difficulty in the usual maintenance regimen that all carers are taught after PEG/PEGJ insertion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. FY-95 technology catalog. Technology development for buried waste remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program, which is now part of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area (LSFA), supports applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a multitude of advanced technologies dealing with underground radioactive and hazardous waste remediation. These innovative technologies are being developed as part of integrated comprehensive remediation systems for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste sites throughout the DOE complex. These efforts are identified and coordinated in support of Environmental Restoration (EM-40) and Waste Management (EM-30) needs and objectives. Sponsored by the DOE Office of Technology Development (EM-50), BWID and LSFA work with universities and private industry to develop technologies that are being transferred to the private sector for use nationally and internationally. This report contains the details of the purpose, logic, and methodology used to develop and demonstrate DOE buried waste remediation technologies. It also provides a catalog of technologies and capabilities with development status for potential users. Past FY-92 through FY-94 technology testing, field trials, and demonstrations are summarized. Continuing and new FY-95 technology demonstrations also are described.

  11. Tabernaemontana divaricata leaves extract exacerbate burying behavior in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Chanchal


    Full Text Available Objective: Tabernaemontana divaricata (TD from Apocynaceae family offers the traditional folklore medicinal benefits such as an anti-epileptic, anti-mania, brain tonic, and anti-oxidant. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of TD leaves on burying behavior in mice. Materials and Methods:Mice were treated with oral administration (p.o. of ethanolic extract of TD (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg. Fluoxetine (FLX, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor was used as a reference drug. Obsessive-compulsive behavior was evaluated using marble-burying apparatus. Results:TD at doses of 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg dose-dependently inhibited the obsessive and compulsive behavior. The similar results were obtained from 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg of FLX. TD and FLX did not affect motor activity. Conclusion: The results indicated that TD and FLX produced similar inhibitory effects on marble-burying behavior.

  12. Green valley galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim S.


    Full Text Available The “green valley” is a wide region separating the blue and the red peaks in the ultraviolet-optical color magnitude diagram, first revealed using GALEX UV photometry. The term was coined by Christopher Martin (Caltech, in 2005. Green valley highlights the discriminating power of UV to very low relative levels of ongoing star formation, to which the optical colors, including u−r, are insensitive. It corresponds to massive galaxies below the star-forming, “main” sequence, and therefore represents a critical tool for the study of the quenching of star formation and its possible resurgence in otherwise quiescent galaxies. This article reviews the results pertaining to (predominantly disk morphology, structure, environment, dust content and gas properties of green valley galaxies in the local universe. Their relationship to AGN is also discussed. Attention is given to biases emerging from defining the “green valley” using optical colors. We review various evolutionary scenarios and we present evidence for a new one, the quasi-static view of the green valley, in which the majority (but not all of galaxies currently in the green valley were only partially quenched in the distant past and now participate in a slow cosmic decline of star formation, which also drives down the activity on the main sequence, presumably as a result of the dwindling accretion/cooling onto galaxy disks. This emerging synthetic picture is based on the findings from Fang et al. (2012, Salim et al. (2012 and Martin et al. (2007, as well as other results.

  13. Multiple geophysical methods examining neotectonic blind structures in the Maradona valley, Central Precordillera (Argentina) (United States)

    Lara, Gabriela; Klinger, Federico Lince; Perucca, Laura; Rojo, Guillermo; Vargas, Nicolás; Leiva, Flavia


    A high-resolution superficial geophysical study was carried out in an area of the retroarc region of the Andes mountains, located in the southwest of San Juan Province (31°45‧ S, 68°50‧ W), Central Precordillera of Argentina. The main objectives of this study were to confirm the presence of blind neotectonic structures and characterize them by observing variations in magnetic susceptibility, density and p-wave velocities. Geological evidence demonstrates the existence of a neotectonic fault scarps affecting Quaternary alluvial deposits in eastern piedmont of de Las Osamentas range, in addition to direct observation of the cinematic of this feature in several natural exposures. The Maradona valley is characterized by the imbricated eastern-vergence Maradona Fault System that uplifts Neogene sedimentary rocks (Albarracín Formation) over Quaternary (Late Pleistocene-Holocene) alluvial deposits. The combined application of different geophysical methods has allowed the characterization of a blind fault geometry also identified on a natural exposure. The magnetic data added to the gravimetric model, and its integration with a seismic profile clearly shows the existence of an anomalous zone, interpreted as uplifted blocks of Miocene sedimentary rocks of Formation Albarracín displaced over Quaternary deposits. The application and development of different geophysical methods, together with geological studies allow to significantly improving the knowledge of an area affected by Quaternary tectonic activity. Finally, this multidisciplinary study, applied in active blind structures is very relevant for future seismic hazard analysis on areas located very close to populated centers.

  14. Strategies for managing rival bacterial communities: Lessons from burying beetles. (United States)

    Duarte, Ana; Welch, Martin; Swannack, Chris; Wagner, Josef; Kilner, Rebecca M


    The role of bacteria in animal development, ecology and evolution is increasingly well understood, yet little is known of how animal behaviour affects bacterial communities. Animals that benefit from defending a key resource from microbial competitors are likely to evolve behaviours to control or manipulate the animal's associated external microbiota. We describe four possible mechanisms by which animals could gain a competitive edge by disrupting a rival bacterial community: "weeding," "seeding," "replanting" and "preserving." By combining detailed behavioural observations with molecular and bioinformatic analyses, we then test which of these mechanisms best explains how burying beetles, Nicrophorus vespilloides, manipulate the bacterial communities on their carcass breeding resource. Burying beetles are a suitable species to study how animals manage external microbiota because reproduction revolves around a small vertebrate carcass. Parents shave a carcass and apply antimicrobial exudates on its surface, shaping it into an edible nest for their offspring. We compared bacterial communities in mice carcasses that were either fresh, prepared by beetles or unprepared but buried underground for the same length of time. We also analysed bacterial communities in the burying beetle's gut, during and after breeding, to understand whether beetles could be "seeding" the carcass with particular microbes. We show that burying beetles do not "preserve" the carcass by reducing bacterial load, as is commonly supposed. Instead, our results suggest they "seed" the carcass with bacterial groups which are part of the Nicrophorus core microbiome. They may also "replant" other bacteria from the carcass gut onto the surface of their carrion nest. Both these processes may lead to the observed increase in bacterial load on the carcass surface in the presence of beetles. Beetles may also "weed" the bacterial community by eliminating some groups of bacteria on the carcass, perhaps through

  15. Fluvial valleys and Martian palaeoclimates (United States)

    Gulick, Virginia C.; Baker, Victor R.


    Theoretical models of early Martian atmospheric evolution describe the maintenance of a dense CO2 atmosphere and a warm, wet climate until the end of the heavy-bombardment phase of impacting. However, the presence of very young, earthlike fluvial valleys on the northern flank of Alba Patera conflicts with this scenario. Whereas the widespread ancient Martian valleys generally have morphologies indicative of sapping erosion by the slow outflow of subsurface water, the local Alba valleys were probably formed by surface-runoff processes. Because subsurface water flow might be maintained by hydrothermal energy inputs and because surface-runoff valleys developed late in Martian history, it is not necessary to invoke drastically different planet-wide climatic conditions to explain valley development on Mars. The Alba fluvial valleys can be explained by hydrothermal activity or outflow-channel discharges that locally modified the atmosphere, including precipitation and local overland flow on low-permeability volcanic ash.

  16. 40Ar/39Ar dating of Quaternary lavas in northwest Iran: constraints on the landscape evolution and incision rates of the Turkish-Iranian plateau (United States)

    Allen, Mark B.; Mark, Darren F.; Kheirkhah, Monireh; Barfod, Dan; Emami, Mohammad H.; Saville, Christopher


    We report five new 40Ar/39Ar ages for basaltic lavas in the Maku region of northwest Iran, between ca. 1.87 and 0.40 Ma, which help constrain the tectonic and landscape evolution of this part of the Turkish-Iranian plateau. Flows originated from the composite volcanoes Ararat (Agri Dagi), Tendürek and Yigit Dagi, in eastern Turkey (Anatolia). These volcanoes are within the Turkish-Iranian plateau, which is a consequence of the Arabia-Eurasia collision, but has a poorly constrained evolution and surface uplift history. Current plateau elevations are typically 1.5-2 km, and relief between non-volcanic summits and basins is typically on the scale of ˜1 km. Samples are from flows that passed along pre-existing river valleys. Gorges were cut by re-established rivers after the eruptions, but the great majority of the local relief (˜95 per cent) lies above the sampled flows and so most likely pre-dates the volcanism. Gorge depths and lava ages allow local Quaternary fluvial incision rates to be calculated, which are ˜0.01 to 0.05 mm yr-1. These rates imply slow surface uplift of this part of the Turkish-Iranian plateau during the Quaternary. We therefore constrain the generation of the great majority of relief in the study area to be pre-Quaternary, and caused by the tectonic construction of the plateau, rather than a subcrustal origin related to the Quaternary magmatism.

  17. Optical manipulation of valley pseudospin (United States)

    Ye, Ziliang; Sun, Dezheng; Heinz, Tony F.


    The coherent manipulation of spin and pseudospin underlies existing and emerging quantum technologies, including quantum communication and quantum computation. Valley polarization, associated with the occupancy of degenerate, but quantum mechanically distinct valleys in momentum space, closely resembles spin polarization and has been proposed as a pseudospin carrier for the future quantum electronics. Valley exciton polarization has been created in the transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers using excitation by circularly polarized light and has been detected both optically and electrically. In addition, the existence of coherence in the valley pseudospin has been identified experimentally. The manipulation of such valley coherence has, however, remained out of reach. Here we demonstrate all-optical control of the valley coherence by means of the pseudomagnetic field associated with the optical Stark effect. Using below-bandgap circularly polarized light, we rotate the valley exciton pseudospin in monolayer WSe2 on the femtosecond timescale. Both the direction and speed of the rotation can be manipulated optically by tuning the dynamic phase of excitons in opposite valleys. This study unveils the possibility of generation, manipulation, and detection of the valley pseudospin by coupling to photons.

  18. Hydration Structure of the Quaternary Ammonium Cations

    KAUST Repository

    Babiaczyk, Wojtek Iwo


    Two indicators of the hydropathicity of small solutes are introduced and tested by molecular dynamics simulations. These indicators are defined as probabilities of the orientation of water molecules\\' dipoles and hydrogen bond vectors, conditional on a generalized distance from the solute suitable for arbitrarily shaped molecules. Using conditional probabilities, it is possible to distinguish features of the distributions in close proximity of the solute. These regions contain the most significant information on the hydration structure but cannot be adequately represented by using, as is usually done, joint distance-angle probability densities. Our calculations show that using our indicators a relative hydropathicity scale for the interesting test set of the quaternary ammonium cations can be roughly determined. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  19. Suggested terminology for Quaternary dating methods (United States)

    Colman, Steven M.; Pierce, K.L.; Birkeland, P.W.


    Classification of Quaternary dating methods should be based on the level of quantitative information and the degree of confidence contained in the age estimates produced by the dating methods. We recommend the use of the terms numerical-age, calibrated-age, relative-age, and correlated-age to describe these levels. We also classify dating methods by type into sideral, isotopic, radiogenic, chemical and biological, geomorphic, and correlation methods. The use of "absolute" is inappropriate for most dating methods, and should be replaced by "numerical." The use of "date" should be minimized in favor of "age" or "age estimate." We recommend use of the abbreviations ka and Ma for most ages; calender dates can be used where appropriate and yr B.P. can be used for radiocarbon ages. ?? 1987.

  20. Quaternary ammonium compounds – New occupational hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Lipińska-Ojrzanowska


    Full Text Available Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs, quats belong to organic ionic chemical agents which display unique properties of both surfactants and disinfectants. Their wide distribution in the work environment and also in private households brings about new occupational hazards. This paper reviews reports about the health effects of QACs. QACs could play a role of sensitizers and irritants to the skin and mucous membranes. It is suspected that particular QACs can display an immunologic crossreactivity between each other and with other chemical compounds containing ammonium ion, such as muscle relaxants widely used in anesthesia. They may promote the development of airway allergy, however, the background mechanisms are still unclear and need to be further investigated. Until now, a few cases of occupational asthma induced by QACs have been described and their involvement in contact dermatitis has been documented. The possibility of anaphylaxis due to QACs cannot be excluded as well. Med Pr 2014;65(5:675–682

  1. [Quaternary ammonium compounds--new occupational hazards]. (United States)

    Lipińska-Ojrzanowska, Agnieszka; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta


    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs, quats) belong to organic ionic chemical agents which display unique properties of both surfactants and disinfectants. Their wide distribution in the work environment and also in private households brings about new occupational hazards. This paper reviews reports about the health effects of QACs. QACs could play a role of sensitizers and irritants to the skin and mucous membranes. It is suspected that particular QACs can display an immunologic cross-reactivity between each other and with other chemical compounds containing ammonium ion, such as muscle relaxants widely used in anesthesia. They may promote the development of airway allergy, however, the background mechanisms are still unclear and need to be further investigated. Until now, a few cases of occupational asthma induced by QACs have been described and their involvement in contact dermatitis has been documented. The possibility of anaphylaxis due to QACs cannot be excluded as well.

  2. Loess as a Quaternary paleoenvironmental indicator (United States)

    Muhs, Daniel R.; Prins, M.A.; Machalett, B.


    Loess is aeolian sediment that is dominated by silt-sized particles. Unlike either coarser dune sand or finer-grained, long-range-transported dust, loess is relatively poorly sorted, reflecting a combination of transport processes, including saltation, low suspension, and high suspension. Loess can be readily identified in the field; deposits range in thickness from a few centimeters to many tens of meters, and are found over large areas of Eurasia, South and North America (Fig. 1), and smaller areas of New Zealand, Australia, Africa and the Middle East. Loess covers approximately 10% of the Earth’s land surface and is therefore one of the most important terrestrial archives of paleoenvironmental change during the Quaternary. In many regions, loess sections consist of deposits of mostly unaltered sediment with intercalated paleosols. Paleosols represent periods of landscape stability when loess deposition ceased altogether, or at least slowed significantly. Loess can be dated directly using luminescence, radiocarbon, and amino acid geochronology methods.

  3. Absolute age determination of quaternary faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Chang Sik; Lee, Seok Hoon; Choi, Man Sik [Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)


    To constrain the age of neotectonic fault movement, Rb-Sr, K-Ar, U-series disequilibrium, C-14 and Be-10 methods were applied to the fault gouges, fracture infillings and sediments from the Malbang, Ipsil, Wonwonsa faults faults in the Ulsan fault zone, Yangsan fault in the Yeongdeog area and southeastern coastal area. Rb-Sr and K-Ar data imply that the fault movement of the Ulan fault zone initiated at around 30 Ma and preliminary dating result for the Yang san fault is around 70 Ma in the Yeongdeog area. K-Ar and U-series disequilibrium dating results for fracture infillings in the Ipsil fault are consistent with reported ESR ages. Radiocarbon ages of quaternary sediments from the Jeongjari area are discordant with stratigraphic sequence. Carbon isotope data indicate a difference of sedimentry environment for those samples. Be-10 dating results for the Suryum fault area are consistent with reported OSL results.

  4. Model For Groundwater searching with Drilling in Karst Area near Deep Valley (United States)

    Pan, X.


    Surface water is rapidly infiltrates in karst area near deep river valley, and karst groundwater is deeply buried with concentrated runoff; therefore, water resources shortage near deep river valley is serious, which leads to the formation of arid areas. At the same time, in this area, influenced by groundwater discharge surface controlled by deep valleys, groundwater flow is mostly in quick pipe and fracture; storage space distribution and the connectivity of each other bring great difficulties to drill well for searching groundwater. The authors discovered that the underlying clastic rock, reverse fault and overlying clastic rock can cut off the relationship between karst groundwater and deep valley surface water, which lead this area to be local rich water and become the favorable target area for water drilling. Based on the three types, with the successful examples, it is classified into three water drilling models: the underlying clastic rock water model, inverse water resistance model and overlying clastic rock water blocking model. These models will give some helps for water drilling in karst area near the deep valley.

  5. Antimicrobial polymeric materials with quaternary ammonium and phosphonium salts. (United States)

    Xue, Yan; Xiao, Huining; Zhang, Yi


    Polymeric materials containing quaternary ammonium and/or phosphonium salts have been extensively studied and applied to a variety of antimicrobial-relevant areas. With various architectures, polymeric quaternary ammonium/phosphonium salts were prepared using different approaches, exhibiting different antimicrobial activities and potential applications. This review focuses on the state of the art of antimicrobial polymers with quaternary ammonium/phosphonium salts. In particular, it discusses the structure and synthesis method, mechanisms of antimicrobial action, and the comparison of antimicrobial performance between these two kinds of polymers.

  6. Antimicrobial Polymeric Materials with Quaternary Ammonium and Phosphonium Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xue


    Full Text Available Polymeric materials containing quaternary ammonium and/or phosphonium salts have been extensively studied and applied to a variety of antimicrobial-relevant areas. With various architectures, polymeric quaternary ammonium/phosphonium salts were prepared using different approaches, exhibiting different antimicrobial activities and potential applications. This review focuses on the state of the art of antimicrobial polymers with quaternary ammonium/phosphonium salts. In particular, it discusses the structure and synthesis method, mechanisms of antimicrobial action, and the comparison of antimicrobial performance between these two kinds of polymers.

  7. Quaternary dating by electron spin resonance (ESR applied to human tooth enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvajal Eduar


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results obtained from using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR to analyse tooth enamel found at the Aguazuque archaeological site (Cundinamarca, Colombia, located on the savannah near Bogota at 4° 37' North and 74°17' West. It was presumed that the tooth enamel came from a collective burial consisting of 23 people, involving men, women and children. The tooth enamel was irradiated with gamma rays and the resulting free radicals were measured using an electron spin resonance (ESR X-band spectrometer to obtain a signal intensity compared to absorbed doses curve. Fitting this curve allowed the mean archaeological dose accumulated in the enamel during the period that it was buried to be estimated, giving a 2.10 ± 0.14 Gyvalue. ROSY software was used for estimating age, giving a mean 3,256 ± 190y before present (BP age. These results highlight EPR's potential when using the quaternary ancient ruins dating technique in Colombia and its use with other kinds of samples like stalagmites, calcite, mollusc shells and reefs.

  8. Clay Mineralogy of Soils on Quaternary Sediment in Northeast of Urmia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Farzamnia


    10.83 °C respectively and the soil moisture and temperature regimes are dry xeric and mesic respectively. In this study, eight soil profiles in quaternary sediments were dug and sampled and the morphological, physical, chemical and mineralogical properties were determined using standard methods. Results and Discussion: According to the results, Illite, smectite, Kaolinite, chlorite, vermiculite and hydroxy interlayer vermiculite (HIV were the dominant clay minerals in these soils. The origin of illite, chlorite and kaolinite were related to inheritance from parent material. Regarding to the present of some smectite in the parent material of these soils, some of smectites have been inherited from parent material. Nevertheless it seems that, the most of smectites in these soils have pedogenic origin. Based on mineralogical results and trends variation of smectite and illite along studied profiles, we concluded that some of smectites in these soils have been formed from illite transformation. In profiles 4 and 6, regarding to low depth water table and consequently poor drainage, high pH and high values of calcium and magnesium cations, provide suitable conditions for the neoformation of smectit and so, some of smectites have been formed via neoformation from soil solution. In these soils, vermiculites were pedogenic and have been formed during transformation of illite to smectite. Small amounts of hydroxy interlayer vermiculites were present in buried horizons and regarding that they were not present in parent material, it might be because these minerals are pedogenic and have been formed in a past wetter climate. The transformation of illite to smectite in lower horizons needs high moisture and regarding to recent semiarid climate of study area, the suitable amount of moisture for this transformation, especially in lower depths and also in buried horizons, is not present. Thus, it seems the transformation of illite to smectite in lower depths and buried horizons has

  9. Backfill Effects on Response of Buried Reinforced Concrete Slabs (United States)


    38nionui ONVS 01O~ dilO 9.4 57- /j 4 ti tw to It %Lium Lŕ f34 58 CHAPTER 5 FIELD TEST RESULTS 5.1 GEOPHYSICAL SITE CHARACTERIZATION Surface seismic...of these tests and preliminary analysis of the data show that further information can be obtained on backfill effects on buried structures with...further analysis of the AFESC and Backfill Effects data. Two and tree dimensional finite element calculations should be performed to study the relative

  10. Sexual and Overall Quality of Life Improvements After Surgical Correction of "Buried Penis". (United States)

    Hughes, Duncan B; Perez, Edgar; Garcia, Ryan M; Aragón, Oriana R; Erdmann, Detlev


    "Buried penis" is an increasing burden in our population with many possible etiologies. Although surgical correction of buried penis can be rewarding and successful for the surgeon, the psychological and functional impact of buried penis on the patient is less understood. The study's aim was to evaluate the sexual satisfaction and overall quality of life before and after buried penis surgery in a single-surgeon's patient population using a validated questionnaire (Changes in Sexual Functioning Questionnaire short-form). Using Likert scales generated from the questionnaire and 1-tailed paired t test analysis, we found that there was significantly improved sexual function after correction of a buried penis. Variables individually showed that there was significant improvement with sexual pleasure, urinating, and with genital hygiene postoperatively. There were no significant differences concerning frequency of pain with orgasms. Surgical correction of buried penis significantly improves the functional, sexual, and psychological aspects of patient's lives.

  11. Quantitative Chemically-Specific Coherent Diffractive Imaging of Buried Interfaces using a Tabletop EUV Nanoscope

    CERN Document Server

    Shanblatt, Elisabeth R; Gardner, Dennis F; Mancini, Giulia F; Karl, Robert M; Tanksalvala, Michael D; Bevis, Charles S; Vartanian, Victor H; Kapteyn, Henry C; Adams, Daniel E; Murnane, Margaret M


    Characterizing buried layers and interfaces is critical for a host of applications in nanoscience and nano-manufacturing. Here we demonstrate non-invasive, non-destructive imaging of buried interfaces using a tabletop, extreme ultraviolet (EUV), coherent diffractive imaging (CDI) nanoscope. Copper nanostructures inlaid in SiO2 are coated with 100 nm of aluminum, which is opaque to visible light and thick enough that neither optical microscopy nor atomic force microscopy can image the buried interfaces. Short wavelength (29 nm) high harmonic light can penetrate the aluminum layer, yielding high-contrast images of the buried structures. Moreover, differences in the absolute reflectivity of the interfaces before and after coating reveal the formation of interstitial diffusion and oxidation layers at the Al-Cu and Al-SiO2 boundaries. Finally, we show that EUV CDI provides a unique capability for quantitative, chemically-specific imaging of buried structures, and the material evolution that occurs at these buried ...

  12. Controls on valley spacing in landscapes subject to rapid base-level fall (United States)

    McGuire, Luke; Pelletier, John D.


    What controls the architecture of drainage networks is a fundamental question in geomorphology. Recent work has elucidated the mechanisms of drainage network development in steadily uplifting landscapes, but the controls on drainage-network morphology in transient landscapes are relatively unknown. In this paper we exploit natural experiments in drainage network development in incised Plio-Quaternary alluvial fan surfaces in order to understand and quantify drainage network development in highly transient landscapes, i.e. initially unincised low-relief surfaces that experience a pulse of rapid base-level drop followed by relative base-level stasis. Parallel drainage networks formed on incised alluvial-fan surfaces tend to have a drainage spacing that is approximately proportional to the magnitude of the base-level drop. Numerical experiments suggest that this observed relationship between the magnitude of base-level drop and mean drainage spacing is the result of feedbacks among the depth of valley incision, mass wasting and nonlinear increases in the rate of colluvial sediment transport with slope gradient on steep valley side slopes that lead to increasingly wide valleys in cases of larger base-level drop. We identify a threshold magnitude of base-level drop above which side slopes lengthen sufficiently to promote increases in contributing area and fluvial incision rates that lead to branching and encourage drainage networks to transition from systems of first-order valleys to systems of higher-order, branching valleys. The headward growth of these branching tributaries prevents the development of adjacent, ephemeral drainages and promotes a higher mean valley spacing relative to cases in which tributaries do not form. Model results offer additional insights into the response of initially unincised landscapes to rapid base-level drop and provide a preliminary basis for understanding how varying amounts of base-level change influence valley network morphology.

  13. Quaternary Fault and Fold Database of the United States (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Quaternary Fault and Fold Database contains the results of thousands of scientific assessments of faults and associated folds in the United States that...

  14. Novel approach for prediction of ultrasonic velocity in quaternary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A modified Flory theory along with the Auerbach and Altenberg relations has been employed for the computation of ultrasonic velocity of three quaternary liquid mixtures and a comparative study of all the three relations has then been carried out.

  15. Helmet-mounted uncooled FPA camera for buried object detection (United States)

    Miller, John L.; Duvoisin, Herbert A., III; Wiltsey, George


    Software neural nets hosted on a parallel processor can analyze input from an IR imager to evaluate the likelihood of a buried object. However, it is only recently that low weight, staring LWIR sensors have become available in uncooled formats at sensitivities that provide enough information for useful man-portable helmet mounted applications. The images from the IR are presented to a human user through a see-through display after processing and highlighting by a neural net housed in a fanny-pack. This paper describes the phenomenology of buried object detection in the infrared, the neural net based image processing, the helmet mounted IR sensor and the ergonomics of mounting a sensor to head gear. The maturing and commercialization of uncooled focal plane arrays and high density electronics enables lightweight, low cost, small camera packages that can be integrated with hard hats and military helmets. The head gear described has a noise equivalent delta temperature (NEDT) of less than 50 milliKelvin, consumes less than 10 watts and weighs about 1.5 kilograms.

  16. Effect of Pseudomonas fluorescens on Buried Steel Pipeline Corrosion. (United States)

    Spark, Amy J; Law, David W; Ward, Liam P; Cole, Ivan S; Best, Adam S


    Buried steel infrastructure can be a source of iron ions for bacterial species, leading to microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). Localized corrosion of pipelines due to MIC is one of the key failure mechanisms of buried steel pipelines. In order to better understand the mechanisms of localized corrosion in soil, semisolid agar has been developed as an analogue for soil. Here, Pseudomonas fluorescens has been introduced to the system to understand how bacteria interact with steel. Through electrochemical testing including open circuit potentials, potentiodynamic scans, anodic potential holds, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy it has been shown that P. fluorescens increases the rate of corrosion. Time for oxide and biofilms to develop was shown to not impact on the rate of corrosion but did alter the consistency of biofilm present and the viability of P. fluorescens following electrochemical testing. The proposed mechanism for increased corrosion rates of carbon steel involves the interactions of pyoverdine with the steel, preventing the formation of a cohesive passive layer, after initial cell attachment, followed by the formation of a metal concentration gradient on the steel surface.

  17. Evidence for aeolian origins of heuweltjies from buried gravel layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Cramer


    Full Text Available Although heuweltjies (19–32 m diameter dominate the surface of much of the southwestern Cape of South Africa, their origins, distribution and age remain controversial. Current hypotheses are that the heuweltjies are (1 constructed by the excavation and mounding habits of burrowing animals; (2 the result of erosion by water of areas between patches protected from fluvial action by denser vegetation or (3 the product of localised aeolian sediment accumulation beneath denser vegetation associated with termitaria. At a site where quartz-containing gravels occur on the soil surface in areas between heuweltjies, these gravels were found to extend as a relatively intact layer of uniform concentration from the inter-mound area into the mound at the same plane as the surrounding soil surface. This buried layer suggests that heuweltjies were either built-up by deposition on a previous soil surface layer or eroded from sediment accumulated above the buried gravel layer. Mounds contain a relatively large proportion of silt consistent with sediment deposition. Mound sediment elemental composition was strongly correlated with that of local shale, indicating a local source of sediment. Pedogenesis was considerably more advanced off- than on-mound. There was no evidence of extensive regional aeolian sediment mantling over the vast area in which the heuweltjies occur. These findings and observations support the aeolian deposition hypothesis of heuweltjie origins combined with a degree of erosion, rather than a termite bioturbation hypothesis or a predominantly erosion-based hypothesis.

  18. Centrifuge modeling of buried continuous pipelines subjected to normal faulting (United States)

    Moradi, Majid; Rojhani, Mahdi; Galandarzadeh, Abbas; Takada, Shiro


    Seismic ground faulting is the greatest hazard for continuous buried pipelines. Over the years, researchers have attempted to understand pipeline behavior mostly via numerical modeling such as the finite element method. The lack of well-documented field case histories of pipeline failure from seismic ground faulting and the cost and complicated facilities needed for full-scale experimental simulation mean that a centrifuge-based method to determine the behavior of pipelines subjected to faulting is best to verify numerical approaches. This paper presents results from three centrifuge tests designed to investigate continuous buried steel pipeline behavior subjected to normal faulting. The experimental setup and procedure are described and the recorded axial and bending strains induced in a pipeline are presented and compared to those obtained via analytical methods. The influence of factors such as faulting offset, burial depth and pipe diameter on the axial and bending strains of pipes and on ground soil failure and pipeline deformation patterns are also investigated. Finally, the tensile rupture of a pipeline due to normal faulting is investigated.

  19. Dynamic model of open shell structures buried in poroelastic soils (United States)

    Bordón, J. D. R.; Aznárez, J. J.; Maeso, O.


    This paper is concerned with a three-dimensional time harmonic model of open shell structures buried in poroelastic soils. It combines the dual boundary element method (DBEM) for treating the soil and shell finite elements for modelling the structure, leading to a simple and efficient representation of buried open shell structures. A new fully regularised hypersingular boundary integral equation (HBIE) has been developed to this aim, which is then used to build the pair of dual BIEs necessary to formulate the DBEM for Biot poroelasticity. The new regularised HBIE is validated against a problem with analytical solution. The model is used in a wave diffraction problem in order to show its effectiveness. It offers excellent agreement for length to thickness ratios greater than 10, and relatively coarse meshes. The model is also applied to the calculation of impedances of bucket foundations. It is found that all impedances except the torsional one depend considerably on hydraulic conductivity within the typical frequency range of interest of offshore wind turbines.

  20. Preliminary observations of arthropods associated with buried carrion on Oahu. (United States)

    Rysavy, Noel M; Goff, M Lee


    Several studies in Hawaii have focused on arthropod succession and decomposition patterns of surface remains, but the current research presents the first study to focus on shallow burials in this context. Three domestic pig carcasses (Sus scrofa L.) were buried at the depths of 20-40 cm in silty clay loam soil on an exposed ridge on the leeward side of the volcanically formed Koolau Mountain Range. One carcass was exhumed after 3 weeks, another after 6 weeks, and the last carcass was exhumed after 9 weeks. An inventory of arthropod taxa present on the carrion and in the surrounding soil and observations pertaining to decomposition were recorded at each exhumation. The longer the carrion was buried, the greater the diversity of arthropod species that were recovered from the remains. Biomass loss was calculated to be 49% at the 3-week interval, 56% at the 6-week interval, and 59% at the 9-week interval. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Diagenetic Variations between Upper Cretaceous Outcrop and Deeply Buried Reservoir Chalks of the North Sea Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjuler, Morten Leth; Fabricius, Ida Lykke


    In the central North Sea Basin hydrocarbon-bearing chalks are deeply buried (2-3 km) whereas chalks in the rim areas are cropping out in the surrounding countries. The differing diagenetic histories between buried and outcrop chalk result in different rock properties, which is of great importance...... has been replaced by kaolinite. These diagenetic variations are explained by higher temperatures and pressures in the deeply buried reservoir chalks....

  2. Chiral quaternary phosphonium salts: a new class of organocatalysts. (United States)

    Enders, Dieter; Nguyen, Thanh Vinh


    Phase-transfer catalysis has widely been used as a prime synthetic tool for both laboratory and industrial processes. During the last twenty years, asymmetric phase-transfer catalysis using chiral organocatalysts has attracted widespread interest. However, the scope of chiral phase-transfer catalysis has been limited mostly to the quaternary ammonium salts. As an emerging area, the recent developments in the application of quaternary phosphonium salts as chiral phase-transfer catalysts are discussed in this article.

  3. Mutagenicity of quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmochowska, Barbara [Department of Carbohydrate Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Piosik, Jacek; Woziwodzka, Anna [Intercollegiate Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Gdansk and Medical University of Gdansk, Kladki 24, 80-822 Gdansk (Poland); Sikora, Karol; Wisniewski, Andrzej [Department of Carbohydrate Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Wegrzyn, Grzegorz, E-mail: [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Gdansk, Kladki 24, 80-822 Gdansk (Poland)


    Highlights: {yields} A series of quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties, with configuration D-galacto, D-gluco and D-manno, was synthesized and characterized. {yields} The quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties revealed potent mutagenic activities, as assessed by using the Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence mutagenicity test. {yields} The N-[2-(D-glycopyranosyloxy)ethyl]-N,N,N-trimethylaminium salts were of the highest activity in the mutagenicity assay. {yields} We suggest that quaternary ammonium salts may be more hazardous than previously supposed. - Abstract: Quaternary ammonium salts are widely used in industrial, agricultural, healthcare and domestic applications. They are believed to be safe compounds, with little or no health hazard to humans. However, in this report, we demonstrate that a series of newly synthesized quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties reveal potent mutagenic activities, as assessed by using the Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence mutagenicity test. D-Gluco- and D-galacto-derivatives were found to have a higher mutagenic potential than D-manno-derivatives. Among the former groups of compounds, the N-[2-(D-glycopyranosyloxy)ethyl]-N,N,N-trimethylaminium salts were of the highest activity in the mutagenicity assay. These results suggest that the safety of quaternary ammonium salts may be lower than previously supposed, indicating a need for testing such compounds for their mutagenicity.

  4. Paleoseismology of the Southern Section of the Black Mountains and Southern Death Valley Fault Zones, Death Valley, United States (United States)

    Sohn, Marsha S.; Knott, Jeffrey R.; Mahan, Shannon


    The Death Valley Fault System (DVFS) is part of the southern Walker Lane–eastern California shear zone. The normal Black Mountains Fault Zone (BMFZ) and the right-lateral Southern Death Valley Fault Zone (SDVFZ) are two components of the DVFS. Estimates of late Pleistocene-Holocene slip rates and recurrence intervals for these two fault zones are uncertain owing to poor relative age control. The BMFZ southernmost section (Section 1W) steps basinward and preserves multiple scarps in the Quaternary alluvial fans. We present optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dates ranging from 27 to 4 ka of fluvial and eolian sand lenses interbedded with alluvial-fan deposits offset by the BMFZ. By cross-cutting relations, we infer that there were three separate ground-rupturing earthquakes on BMFZ Section 1W with vertical displacement between 5.5 m and 2.75 m. The slip-rate estimate is ∼0.2 to 1.8 mm/yr, with an earthquake recurrence interval of 4,500 to 2,000 years. Slip-per-event measurements indicate Mw 7.0 to 7.2 earthquakes. The 27–4-ka OSL-dated alluvial fans also overlie the putative Cinder Hill tephra layer. Cinder Hill is offset ∼213 m by SDVFZ, which yields a tentative slip rate of 1 to 8 mm/yr for the SDVFZ.

  5. River terraces and alluvial fans: The case for an integrated Quaternary fluvial archive (United States)

    Mather, A. E.; Stokes, M.; Whitfield, E.


    The fluvial archive literature is dominated by research on river terraces with appropriate mention of adjacent environments such as lakes. Despite modern sedimentary basins comprising a significant (>88%) volume of distributive fluvial systems, of which alluvial fans (>1 km, dynamic role of alluvial fans within the fluvial landscape and their interaction with river systems, highlighting the potential value of alluvial fans to the wider fluvial archive community. Published literature is used to examine both thematic and geographical based benefits of alluvial fan research that can assist understanding of Quaternary fluvial archives. 3 regional case studies are presented that illustrate the interaction between alluvial fan and river terrace archives at Quaternary time-scales at 3 different stages of landscape evolution. These are i) continuous mountain front alluvial fans interacting with a non incising but laterally eroding axial fluvial system; ii) alluvial fans which transition into fluvial terraces as sedimentary basins shift from net aggradation to net incision and iii) tributary-junction alluvial fans that develop predominantly within incising river valley systems. A simple conceptual model is proposed to summarise the dynamic role of alluvial fans within this landscape context. The alluvial fans act as potential 'buffers' between hillslopes and river terrace records under 'top down' climate-driven high sediment supply and alluvial fan aggradation, and 'couplers' during periods of less sediment (in relation to water) discharge and alluvial fan incision. These dynamics will change with the addition of 'bottom up' controls such as main river incision, which will typically enhance the coupling effect of both systems.

  6. Dark Valley in Newton Crater (United States)


    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-418, 11 July 2003This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) high resolution image shows part of a dark-floored valley system in northern Newton Crater. The valley might have been originally formed by liquid water; the dark material is probably sand that has blown into the valley in more recent times. The picture was acquired earlier this week on July 6, 2003, and is located near 39.2oS, 157.9oW. The picture covers an area 2.3 km (1.4 mi) across; sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  7. Quaternary phylogeography: the roots of hybrid zones. (United States)

    Hewitt, Godfrey M


    The older history of hybrid zones is explored through consideration of recent advances in climatology, paleontology and phylogeography in the Late Cenozoic, particularly the Quaternary Period with its major climatic cycles. The fossil record shows that these ice ages and their nested millennial oscillations caused substantial changes in species distributions and with genetic evidence allows deduction of refugia and colonization routes in arctic, temperate, desert and tropical regions. The age of divergence between hybridizing lineages varies from the Late Pleistocene to the Late Miocene, implying much range change and varying selection on sister lineages. Hybridizing lineages in the Tropical and Temperate regions range in age from young to old, but those studied in the Arctic are no more than a few ice ages old and their refugial roots are not clear. Mid to low latitude regions often show parapatric patchworks of lineages and multiple refugia stable through many climatic oscillations. Particular hybrid zones may have formed more than once; while some expansions were not the same, producing reticulation and introgression in previous glacial cycles. Hybrid-zone roots are complex and deep, and considerations of their complexity can reveal evolutionary pathways of species. They are indeed windows on evolution.

  8. A Quaternary fault database for central Asia (United States)

    Mohadjer, Solmaz; Ehlers, Todd Alan; Bendick, Rebecca; Stübner, Konstanze; Strube, Timo


    Earthquakes represent the highest risk in terms of potential loss of lives and economic damage for central Asian countries. Knowledge of fault location and behavior is essential in calculating and mapping seismic hazard. Previous efforts in compiling fault information for central Asia have generated a large amount of data that are published in limited-access journals with no digital maps publicly available, or are limited in their description of important fault parameters such as slip rates. This study builds on previous work by improving access to fault information through a web-based interactive map and an online database with search capabilities that allow users to organize data by different fields. The data presented in this compilation include fault location, its geographic, seismic, and structural characteristics, short descriptions, narrative comments, and references to peer-reviewed publications. The interactive map displays 1196 fault traces and 34 000 earthquake locations on a shaded-relief map. The online database contains attributes for 123 faults mentioned in the literature, with Quaternary and geodetic slip rates reported for 38 and 26 faults respectively, and earthquake history reported for 39 faults. All data are accessible for viewing and download via This work has implications for seismic hazard studies in central Asia as it summarizes important fault parameters, and can reduce earthquake risk by enhancing public access to information. It also allows scientists and hazard assessment teams to identify structures and regions where data gaps exist and future investigations are needed.

  9. Quaternary stratigraphy and palaeogeography of Poland (United States)

    Marks, Leszek; Dzierżek, Jan; Janiszewski, Robert; Kaczorowski, Jarosław; Lindner, Leszek; Majecka, Aleksandra; Makos, Michał; Szymanek, Marcin; Tołoczko-Pasek, Anna; Woronko, Barbara


    Though the stratigraphical and palaeogeographical framework of the Quaternary in Poland is still to be completed, several crucial points have been confirmed recently. The preglacial series, accepted for years as belonging to the Lower Pleistocene, is undoubtedly of Early Pliocene age, with a huge hiatus above almost until the uppermost Lower Pleistocene. The earliest glaciation in Poland (Nidanian) occurred at about 900 ka BP when the ice sheet reached the mid-southern part of the country. The following Podlasian Interglacial embraced the Brunhes/Matuyama boundary in the middle, in a similar fashion to the corresponding Cromerian Complex in Western Europe. The late Early and early Middle Pleistocene interglacials in Poland comprised 2-3 optima each, whereas every one of the younger interglacials was characterised by a single optimum only. The Late Vistulian ice sheet was most extensive in the western part of Poland (Leszno Phase) whereas the younger Poznań Phase was more extensive in the central and eastern part of the country. This was due to the varied distance from the glaciation center in Scandinavia, making the ice sheet margin reach a terminal position in different times. Palaeoclimatological research in the Tatra Mountains has provided new evidence for the atmospheric circulation over Europe. During cold phases of the Pleistocene in Poland a continental climate extended further westwards, quite the opposite that occurring during warmer intervals.

  10. Detecting buried remains in Florida using ground-penetrating radar (United States)

    Schultz, John Joseph

    This research tested the applicability of using ground-penetrating radar (GPR) in Florida to detect buried bodies; and assessed the effect of body size, depth, antenna type, time, and soil type on grave detection. Furthermore, because of the emphasis on decomposition, it was possible to address the role of depth, body size, time, and soil type on decomposition. The site was located in an open pasture, where 20 pig (Sus scrofa) cadavers of two average weights (29.7 and 63.8 kg) were buried at two depths (50 to 60 or 100 to 110 cm). The cadavers were monitored monthly for durations up to 21 months with GPR using 900- and 500-MHz antennae. Two different soil types were used: one composed solely of sand horizons and one composed of sand with clay horizons at approximately 1.00 m. The graves were excavated at the termination of each monitoring period to collect soil samples and score decomposition. Overall, depth was the most significant factor controlling decomposition, followed by time. Body size and soil type were not major factors. Ground-penetrating radar can be a very effective tool for grave detection in Florida. Salient anomalies were produced for the duration of this study due to a strong enough contrast between the skeleton, or decomposing body, and the surrounding soil with that of the undisturbed soil. While cadaver size and time were not major factors in grave detection, soil type and antenna choice were. Although it was possible to detect a decomposing body and a skeleton in both shallow and deep sand graves, it was difficult to image large pig cadavers retaining extensive soft tissue buried in proximity to the clay horizon in as little as six months. The clay masked the contrast of the cadavers by reducing their relative dielectric permittivity. Pig cadaver size was not a major factor in grave detection. The imagery of the 500-MHz antenna was preferred over the higher resolution of the 900-MHz, because the increased detail may result in difficulty

  11. Shallow seismic and geomorphic expression of buried wave-cut terrace and erosional valleys off Redi, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subbaraju, L.V.; Wagle, B.G.

    stream_size 6 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Coast_Res_12_205.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Coast_Res_12_205.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  12. Modelling a real-world buried valley system with vertical non-stationarity using multiple-point statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Xiulan; Sonnenborg, Torben; Jørgensen, Flemming


    Stationarity has traditionally been a requirement of geostatistical simulations. A common way to deal with non-stationarity is to divide the system into stationary sub-regions and subsequently merge the realizations for each region. Recently, the so-called partition approach that has the flexibil...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čedomir Benac


    Full Text Available This paper presents the first phase investigation results of the complex landslide situated on north-eastern slope of the Rječina valley, between Valići damm and the village of Pašac. The valley slopes were formed in Paleogene flysch and Quaternary formations. The limestone rocks are present on the top sites, forming the scarps there. The complex landslide formation has been preconditioned by the geological structure and morphogenesis of the Rječina valley. This is the type of complex retrogressive landslide, starting with its development from toe to head. Thirteen individual landslide bodies were discovered on the slope. The material of slope formation and a part of weathering zone is caught by the landsliding. The larger part of landslide body is saturated by underground water penetrating through the covering zone in contact with flysch bedrock. The landsliding is relatively shallow, because there is no visible damage affected by sliding in the hydrotechnical tunnel, situated below the landslide toe. The mega-blocks of the limestone rock have also been moved and, most probably, are sliding down the flysch bedrock. This is a special phenomenon, atypical of the flysch slope landslide type in the area of Rijeka. The limestone rock on a scarp is extremely disintegrated, with new visible fractures in it. The site investigations comprised the surveying, seismic and engineering geological explorations. The surveying was performed by the method of terrestrial photogrammetry. The results are compared with aerial photos from 1981. In this respect, it was possible to discover the changes of slope morphology during the period 1981 — 1997. The photos were also used for the engineering geological mapping supplementation. The seismic surveying was performed by the surface seismic refraction method (the paper is published in Croatian.

  14. Catastrophic valley fills record large Himalayan earthquakes, Pokhara, Nepal (United States)

    Stolle, Amelie; Bernhardt, Anne; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Hoelzmann, Philipp; Adhikari, Basanta R.; Fort, Monique; Korup, Oliver


    Uncertain timing and magnitudes of past mega-earthquakes continue to confound seismic risk appraisals in the Himalayas. Telltale traces of surface ruptures are rare, while fault trenches document several events at best, so that additional proxies of strong ground motion are needed to complement the paleoseismological record. We study Nepal's Pokhara basin, which has the largest and most extensively dated archive of earthquake-triggered valley fills in the Himalayas. These sediments form a 148-km2 fan that issues from the steep Seti Khola gorge in the Annapurna Massif, invading and plugging 15 tributary valleys with tens of meters of debris, and impounding several lakes. Nearly a dozen new radiocarbon ages corroborate at least three episodes of catastrophic sedimentation on the fan between ∼700 and ∼1700 AD, coinciding with great earthquakes in ∼1100, 1255, and 1344 AD, and emplacing roughly >5 km3 of debris that forms the Pokhara Formation. We offer a first systematic sedimentological study of this formation, revealing four lithofacies characterized by thick sequences of mid-fan fluvial conglomerates, debris-flow beds, and fan-marginal slackwater deposits. New geochemical provenance analyses reveal that these upstream dipping deposits of Higher Himalayan origin contain lenses of locally derived river clasts that mark time gaps between at least three major sediment pulses that buried different parts of the fan. The spatial pattern of 14C dates across the fan and the provenance data are key to distinguishing these individual sediment pulses, as these are not evident from their sedimentology alone. Our study demonstrates how geomorphic and sedimentary evidence of catastrophic valley infill can help to independently verify and augment paleoseismological fault-trench records of great Himalayan earthquakes, while offering unparalleled insights into their long-term geomorphic impacts on major drainage basins.

  15. Microseisms in geothermal exploration: studies in Grass Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liaw, A.L.C.


    Frequency-wavenumber (f-k) spectra of seismic noise in the bands 1 less than or equal to f less than or equal to 10 Hz in frequency and parallel bar k parallel bar less than or equal to 35.7 cycles/km in wavenumber, measured at several places in Grass Valley, Nevada, exhibit numerous features which can be correlated with variations in surface geology and sources associated with hot spring activity. Exploration techniques for geothermal reservoirs, based upon the spatial distribution of the amplitude and frequency characteristics of short-period seismic noise, are applied and evaluated in a field program at a potential geothermal area in Grass Valley, Nevada. A detailed investigation of the spatial and temporal characteristics of the noise field was made to guide subsequent data acquisition and processing. Contour maps of normalized noise-level derived from carefully sampled data are dominated by the hot spring noise source and the generally high noise levels outlining the regions of thick alluvium. Major faults are evident when they produce a shallow lateral contrast in rock properties. Conventional seismic noise mapping techniques cannot differentiate noise anomalies due to buried seismic sources from those due to shallow geological effects. The noise radiating from a deep reservoir ought to be evident as body waves of high phase velocity with time-invariant source azimuth. A small two-dimensional array was placed at 16 locations in the region to map propagation parameters. The f-k spectra reveal local shallow sources, but no evidence for a significant body wave component in the noise field was found. With proper data sampling, array processing provides a powerful method for mapping the horizontal component of the vector phase velocity of the noise field. In Grass Valley, and probably in most areas, the 2 to 10 Hz microseismic field is predominantly fundamental mode Rayleigh waves controlled by the very shallow structure.

  16. Measure Guideline: Buried and/or Encapsulated Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, C. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Zoeller, W. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Mantha, P. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)


    Buried and/or encapsulated ducts (BEDs) are a class of advanced, energy-efficiency strategies intended to address the significant ductwork thermal losses associated with ducts installed in unconditioned attics. BEDs are ducts installed in unconditioned attics that are covered in loose-fill insulation and/or encapsulated in closed cell polyurethane spray foam insulation. This Measure Guideline covers the technical aspects of BEDs as well as the advantages, disadvantages, and risks of BEDs compared to other alternative strategies. This guideline also provides detailed guidance on installation of BEDs strategies in new and existing homes through step-by-step installation procedures. Some of the procedures presented here, however, require specialized equipment or expertise. In addition, some alterations to duct systems may require a specialized license.

  17. Structure of ancient buried wood from Phyllocladus trichomanoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attalla, M.I.; Serra, R.G.; Vassallo, A.M.; Wilson, M.A.


    Trees of the fossil gymnosperm Phyllocladus trichomanoides were buried by a volcanic eruption at Taupo, New Zealand about 2000 years ago. Three samples of fossil heartwood and fossil sapwood from this tree have been studied by /sup 13/C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques including dipolar dephasing. The spectra of sapwood contain more resonances from carbohydrates at 66 and 75 ppm whereas the spectra of heartwood contain significantly more signal from methoxyl and other lignin derived carbons. Values obtained for the fraction of aromatic carbon that is protonated in the samples fa are of the order of 0.50, in good agreement with that expected for a lignin-based, mainly guaiacyl structure. In addition to estimating fa dipolar dephasing appears to be useful in accentuating differences in methoxyl content between heartwood and sapwood.

  18. Surface acoustic wave devices as passive buried sensors (United States)

    Friedt, J.-M.; Rétornaz, T.; Alzuaga, S.; Baron, T.; Martin, G.; Laroche, T.; Ballandras, S.; Griselin, M.; Simonnet, J.-P.


    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices are currently used as passive remote-controlled sensors for measuring various physical quantities through a wireless link. Among the two main classes of designs—resonator and delay line—the former has the advantage of providing narrow-band spectrum informations and hence appears compatible with an interrogation strategy complying with Industry-Scientific-Medical regulations in radio-frequency (rf) bands centered around 434, 866, or 915 MHz. Delay-line based sensors require larger bandwidths as they consists of a few interdigitated electrodes excited by short rf pulses with large instantaneous energy and short response delays but is compatible with existing equipment such as ground penetrating radar (GPR). We here demonstrate the measurement of temperature using the two configurations, particularly for long term monitoring using sensors buried in soil. Although we have demonstrated long term stability and robustness of packaged resonators and signal to noise ratio compatible with the expected application, the interrogation range (maximum 80 cm) is insufficient for most geology or geophysical purposes. We then focus on the use of delay lines, as the corresponding interrogation method is similar to the one used by GPR which allows for rf penetration distances ranging from a few meters to tens of meters and which operates in the lower rf range, depending on soil water content, permittivity, and conductivity. Assuming propagation losses in a pure dielectric medium with negligible conductivity (snow or ice), an interrogation distance of about 40 m is predicted, which overcomes the observed limits met when using interrogation methods specifically developed for wireless SAW sensors, and could partly comply with the above-mentioned applications. Although quite optimistic, this estimate is consistent with the signal to noise ratio observed during an experimental demonstration of the interrogation of a delay line buried at a depth of 5

  19. Buried paleosols of the Upper Paleolithic multilayered site Kostenki-1 (United States)

    Aparin, B. F.; Platonova, N. I.; Sukhacheva, E. Yu.; Dudin, A. E.


    The morphology and chemical and physicochemical properties of paleosols buried at the Upper Paleolithic multilayered site Kostenki-1 in Kostenki-Borshchevo district of Voronezh oblast were studied. Four in situ paleosols formed 20-40(45) ka ago were separated in the archaeological excavation. Together with the surface soils, they characterized two different epochs of pedogenesis—the interstadial and interglacial (Holocene) epochs—and three shorter cycles of pedogenesis. The traces of human occupation in the studied hollow in the Late Paleolithic were found in the layers corresponding to the interstadial epoch. The buried paleosols had a simple horizonation: A(W)-C. A shallow thickness of the soil profiles could be due to relatively short periods of pedogenesis and to the shallow embedding by the carbonate geochemical barrier. The degree of the organic matter humification in the paleosols varied from 0.6 to 1.5, which corresponded to the mean duration of the period of biological activity of 60 to 150 days per year characterizing the climatic conditions of the tundra, taiga, forest-steppe, and steppe natural zones. In the excavation Kostenki-1 (2004-2005), soil-sediment sequences composed of five series of lithological layers with soil layers on top of them were found. Their deposition proceeded in two phases—the water phase and the aerial phase—that predetermined the morphology and composition of the soil-sediment sequences. The history of sediment accumulation in the studied hollow consisted of five stages. Similar morphologies and compositions of the soil-sediment sequences corresponding to these stages attest to the cyclic pattern of their development. The stages of sedimentation and soil formation corresponded to cyclic climate fluctuations with changes in the temperature and moisture conditions. A comparative analysis of the morphology and properties of the paleosols and soil-sediment sequences made it possible to characterize the environmental

  20. Searching for the Source of Salt Marsh Buried Mercury. (United States)

    Brooke, C. G.; Nelson, D. C.; Fleming, E. J.


    Salt marshes provide a barrier between upstream mercury contamination and coastal ecosystems. Mercury is sorbed, transported, and deposited in estuarine systems. Once the upstream mercury source has been remediated, the downstream mercury contaminated salt marsh sediments should become "capped" or buried by uncontaminated sediments preventing further ecosystem contamination. Downstream from a remediated mercury mine, an estuarine intertidal marsh in Tomales Bay, CA, USA, scavengers/predators (e.g. Pachygrapsus crassipes, Lined Shore Crab) have leg mercury concentrations as high as 5.5 ppm (dry wt./dry wt.), which increase significantly with crab size, a surrogate for trophic level. These elevated mercury concentrations suggests that "buried" mercury is rereleased into the environment. To locate possible sources of mercury release in Walker Marsh, we sampled a transect across the marsh that included diverse micro-environments (e.g. rhizoshere, stratified sediments, faunal burrows). From each location we determined the sediment structure, sediment color, total sediment mercury, total sediment iron, and microbial composition (n = 28). Where flora or fauna had perturbed the sediment, mercury concentrations were 10% less than undisturbed stratified sediments (1025 ppb vs. 1164 ppb, respectively). High-throughput SSU rRNA gene sequencing and subsequent co-occurrence network analysis genera indicated that in flora- or fauna- perturbed sediments there was an increased likelihood that microbial genera contained mercury mobilizing genes (94% vs 57%; in perturbed vs stratified sediments, respectively). Our observations are consistent with findings by others that in perturbed sites mercury mobility increased. We did however identify a microbial and geochemical profile with increased mercury mobility. For future work we plan to quantify the role these micro-environments have on mercury-efflux from salt marshes.

  1. Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves to Detect Buried Concrete Conduits (United States)

    Hajiani, P.; Anderson, N.; Rogers, J. D.; Elkrry, A.


    The detection of underground cavities is of significant concern to geotechnical engineers working in karst terrain. In spite of the marked progress in nondestructive geophysical methods for detecting shallow underground voids, no unique methodology has emerged that can be applied globally. Various studies have been performed on the use of Rayleigh waves to detect shallow tunnels. In this study, we examined the potential of both Rayleigh and Love waves for detecting subsurface voids. Vertical geophones with Eigen-frequencies of 4.5 Hz, 14 Hz, and 100 Hz were utilized to evaluate Rayleigh waves to resolve near-surface tunnels. Seismic surveys were carried out using horizontal 14 Hz geophones to verify the feasibility of using Love waves to detect shallow tunnels. Two buried conduits of known size and embedment were chosen for the study. One conduit serves as a spillway outfall for an embankment dam, and the other as a low flow outlet for aa flood retention basin. Attenuation analyses of surface waves were performed on all of the data sets to identify locations of the buried concrete conduits. In order to minimize the far-field effects, such as body-wave domination, or low signal-to-noise ratio, it was suggested that we try muting the direct waves, refraction, reflection, air wave, and ambient noise. An amplification of energy on, or in front of the near boundary of the conduits was thereby observed. The muting process greatly reduced the number of false positives. The results of this study not only confirmed previous work, but also displayed the ability of Love waves in detecting the shallow subsurface tunnels or conduits.

  2. RailroadValleySpringfish_CH (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify the areas where final critical habitat for the Railroad Valley springfish (Crenichthys nevadae) occur. The irrigation ditch that is on the north...

  3. Numerical Modeling of Mechanical Behavior for Buried Steel Pipelines Crossing Subsidence Strata. (United States)

    Zhang, J; Liang, Z; Han, C J


    This paper addresses the mechanical behavior of buried steel pipeline crossing subsidence strata. The investigation is based on numerical simulation of the nonlinear response of the pipeline-soil system through finite element method, considering large strain and displacement, inelastic material behavior of buried pipeline and the surrounding soil, as well as contact and friction on the pipeline-soil interface. Effects of key parameters on the mechanical behavior of buried pipeline were investigated, such as strata subsidence, diameter-thickness ratio, buried depth, internal pressure, friction coefficient and soil properties. The results show that the maximum strain appears on the outer transition subsidence section of the pipeline, and its cross section is concave shaped. With the increasing of strata subsidence and diameter-thickness ratio, the out of roundness, longitudinal strain and equivalent plastic strain increase gradually. With the buried depth increasing, the deflection, out of roundness and strain of the pipeline decrease. Internal pressure and friction coefficient have little effect on the deflection of buried pipeline. Out of roundness is reduced and the strain is increased gradually with the increasing of internal pressure. The physical properties of soil have a great influence on the mechanical properties of buried pipeline. The results from the present study can be used for the development of optimization design and preventive maintenance for buried steel pipelines.

  4. Efficient calculation of broadband acoustic scattering from a partially, obliquely buried cylinder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhof, M.J.J.; Espana, A.; Williams, K.


    An efficient model for the Target In Environment Response (TIER) of buried/half buried, mine-like objects and UXOs is essential for the development and training of automatic target detection and classification methods and for use in sonar performance prediction models. For instance, to investigate

  5. Detection of a buried wire with two resistively loaded wire antennas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, S.H.J.A.; Tijhuis, A.G.; Lepelaars, E.S.A.M.; Zwamborn, A.P.M.


    The use of two identical straight thin-wire antennas for the detection of a buried wire is analyzed with the aid of numerical calculations. The buried wire is located below an interface between two homogeneous half-spaces. The detection setup, which is formed by a transmitting and a receiving wire,

  6. Numerical Modeling of Mechanical Behavior for Buried Steel Pipelines Crossing Subsidence Strata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Zhang

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the mechanical behavior of buried steel pipeline crossing subsidence strata. The investigation is based on numerical simulation of the nonlinear response of the pipeline-soil system through finite element method, considering large strain and displacement, inelastic material behavior of buried pipeline and the surrounding soil, as well as contact and friction on the pipeline-soil interface. Effects of key parameters on the mechanical behavior of buried pipeline were investigated, such as strata subsidence, diameter-thickness ratio, buried depth, internal pressure, friction coefficient and soil properties. The results show that the maximum strain appears on the outer transition subsidence section of the pipeline, and its cross section is concave shaped. With the increasing of strata subsidence and diameter-thickness ratio, the out of roundness, longitudinal strain and equivalent plastic strain increase gradually. With the buried depth increasing, the deflection, out of roundness and strain of the pipeline decrease. Internal pressure and friction coefficient have little effect on the deflection of buried pipeline. Out of roundness is reduced and the strain is increased gradually with the increasing of internal pressure. The physical properties of soil have a great influence on the mechanical properties of buried pipeline. The results from the present study can be used for the development of optimization design and preventive maintenance for buried steel pipelines.

  7. Quaternary Evolution of Karliova Triple Junction (United States)

    Sançar, Taylan; Zabcı, Cengiz; Akyüz, H. Serdar


    The arguments to explain Quaternary evolution of Karlıova Triple Junction (KTJ) depends upon two different analogue models. The compressional type of Prandtl Cell Model (PCM) and 60 km wide shear zone with concomitant counter clockwise block rotation used to modelled for west and east of the KTJ respectively. The data for the model of west of the KTJ acquired by extensive field studies, and quantified geomorphic features. Compressional PCM put forward that behavior of slip lines controlled by boundary faults. But the model is not enough to explain slip distribution, age relation of them. At west of the KTJ boundary faults presented by eastern most segments of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) and the East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ). Slip lines, however, presented by Bahçeli and Toklular faults. Both field studies and morphometric analyses undisputedly set forth that there are two different fault types between the NAFZ and EAFZ. The most strain loaded fault type, which are positioned near the NAFZ, start as a strike-slip fault and when it turn to SE its sense of motion change to oblique normal due to changing orientation of principal stress axes. The new orientation of stress axes exposed in the field as a special kind of caprock -cuesta-. The younger slip lines formed very close to junction point and accommodate less slip. Even though slip trajectories started from the boundary faults in compressional PCM, at the west of KTJ, right lateral trajectories more clearly formed close the NAFZ and left lateral trajectories, relatively less strain loaded fault type, are poorly formed close the EAFZ . We think that, this differences between KTJ and compressional PCM result from the distinction of velocity of boundary faults. East of the KTJ governed by completely different mechanism. The region controlled two main fault systems. The Varto Fault Zone (VFZ), the eastern branch of the KTJ, and Murat Fault (MF) delimited the region from north and south respectively. The

  8. Pseudoimpactites in anthropocenically overprinted quaternary sediments (United States)

    Huber, Robert; Darga, Robert; Lauterbach, Hans


    Whereas typical anthropogenic materials such as plastics can easily be identified in the anthropocene record, other materials such as building materials or industrial waste often closely resemble natural rocks or minerals. Especially transported and weathered anthropocenic matter is hard to distinguish from natural rocks. Whereas most rock samples may easily be distinguished by visual inspection, definite identification of exotic and small sized matter is not always an easy exercise which has been shown during the controversial discussion on the cosmic origin of carbon spherules found in Younger Dryas sediments. Similarly, a variety of exotic materials and lithological phenomena reported from quaternary sediments in Upper Bavaria have been associated to a cosmic impact in the area. Findings of carbonatic regmaglypts, glass coated and fragmented rocks, glassy carbon or pumice like carbon have been proposed to represent impact related rocks, an hypothesis which has further been supported by findings of iron silicides and the postulated detection of nanodiamonds and Carbine. Many of these findings have been strongly doubted within the geoscientific community, however a systematic, independent investigation of these phenomena has not yet been conducted. We present the results of our examinations which have been carried out to critically test the impact related origin of the mentioned strange materials and rocks. We could identify some key sites and independently collected samples of several of the materials and analysed these thoroughly. We found that the majority of these impact related materials is of anthropogenic or biogenic origin, thus they are pseudoimpactites partly originating from old fireplaces and waste pits. The claimed cosmic origin of this matter is an illusion caused by the anthropocene overprint of the original sedimentary record.

  9. Clinical analysis of buried optic nerve drusen with optical coherence tomography examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Liu


    Full Text Available AIM: To explore the specific image of buried optic nerve drusen during optical coherence tomography(OCTexamination. METHODS: A retrospective study was made on 6 patients with buried optic nerve drusen(6 eyesdiagnosed by fundus fluorescein angiography(FFAand B scan examination. RESULTS: The high fluorescence area of optic disc showed on the FFA image of all 6 patients imaged with the spectral OCT revealed cluster of calcium deposits. These deposits demonstrated specific wide bars with high reflectivity casting shadows underneath and had lacunae appearance. CONCLUSION: Buried optic nerve drusen showed specific image in the spectral OCT examination. Thus, spectral OCT can serve as an assistant examination method with relatively prominent features for diagnosing buried optic nerve drusen. It can help to raise the detection rate of buried optic nerve drusen.

  10. Latest Pleistocene and Holocene surficial deposits and landforms of Yosemite Valley, California (United States)

    Haddon, E. K.; Stock, G. M.; Booth, D. B.


    Field studies on the surficial geology and geomorphology of Yosemite Valley since the 1870's formed an early basis for our understanding of Quaternary landscape evolution in the central Sierra Nevada. These landmark studies described the erosional origin of Yosemite's iconic scenery, but left details of the latest Pleistocene and Holocene sedimentary record for later investigation. We combined mapping of deposits and landforms with geochronology to reconstruct the geomorphic evolution of Yosemite Valley since the 15 ka retreat of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) valley glacier. We document a sustained period of relative landscape stability, characterized by valley-bottom aggradation of glacial till, fluvial sediments, and lacustrine silts, as well as valley-margin accumulation of talus and fan alluvium. Recessional moraines, episodically emplaced rock avalanches, and alluvial fans impeded surface flow and controlled the local base level. This predominantly aggradational regime then shifted to incision in the earliest Holocene, likely due to a diminishing supply of glacial sediment, and created a flight of fluvial terraces inset by up to 9 m. The volume of fringing talus and fan alluvium in comparison with fluvial terrace sequences emphasizes the importance of valley-wall erosion as a sediment source. Cosmogenic 10Be exposure ages from rock avalanche boulders and 14C charcoal ages from deltaic sequences and inset fluvial gravels suggest variable rates of Holocene river incision. Although some incision events likely record local base level changes at the El Capitan LGM recessional moraine, the presence of perched, well-developed outwash terraces downstream indicates a more regional climatic forcing. These findings, including the depositional record of land-use disturbances over the past two centuries, help illuminate the geologic evolution of this celebrated landscape and inform ongoing river-restoration work.

  11. Late Quaternary activity of the Grote Brogel fault, NE Belgium (United States)

    Vanneste, Kris; Deckers, Jef; Van Noten, Koen; Schiltz, Marco; Lecocq, Thomas


    The Grote Brogel fault (GBF) is a WNW-ESE striking normal fault that is part of the western border fault system of the Roer Valley Graben in NE Belgium. It is one of three faults branching NW-ward from the main border fault (Geleen fault) near Bree, but its orientation diverges 22° from the general NW-SE orientation of the graben, causing a wide left step. Unlike the Geleen fault, the surface expression of the GBF has not been investigated in detail so far. We studied the Quaternary activity of the GBF and its effects on the local hydrology based on a high-resolution LiDAR digital terrain model (DTM), and geophysical and geological surveying at two sites, combining Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), Cone Penetration Tests (CPTs) and boreholes. The GBF defines the northern edge of the Campine Plateau, an elevated area covered by the late Early to Middle Pleistocene Main Terrace of the Meuse River. Cumulative vertical offset since deposition of this terrace has resulted in a distinct 10-km-long fault scarp, the height of which decreases from 11 m near Bree in the east to less than 5 m near Grote Brogel in the west. The along-strike evolution of offset suggests that the GBF does not define an individual rupture segment, but is likely contiguous with the Geleen fault. DTM analysis indicates that scarps are only preserved in a few isolated places, and that the surface trace is rather complex, consisting of a series of short, relatively straight sections with strikes varying between 255° and 310°, arranged in a generally left-stepping pattern. At both investigated sites, ERT profiles clearly demonstrate the presence of fault splays in the shallow subsurface (< 50 m) underneath the identified scarps evidenced by a sudden increase in depth and thickness of a high-resistivity unit on top of a lower-resistivity unit. Boreholes and CPTs allow correlating the high-resistivity unit with the medium to coarse gravel-bearing sands of the Meuse Group, and the lower

  12. Late Quaternary river terrace sequences in the eastern Kunlun Range, northern Tibet: A combined record of climatic change and surface uplift (United States)

    Wang, An; Smith, Jacqueline A.; Wang, Guocan; Zhang, Kexin; Xiang, Shuyuan; Liu, Demin


    The Kunlun Range, a reactivated orogenic belt, constitutes the northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. The extreme relief and major landforms of the Kunlun Range are a product of late Cenozoic tectonics and erosion. However, well-developed late Quaternary terraces that occur along the northern slope of the Kunlun Range probably resulted from climatic change rather than surface uplift. The terrace sequences formed in thick Quaternary valley fills and have total incision depths of 50-60 m. Optically stimulated luminescence dating was employed to place time controls on the valley fills and associated terraces. Dating results suggest that periods of significant aggradation were synchronous between different rivers and correspond to the last glacial stage. The abrupt change from aggradation to incision occurred between 21.9 ± 2.7 and 16 ± 2.2 ka, coincident with the last glacial-interglacial transition. Additional terraces developed during the late glacial period and early to middle Holocene. Based on a broader set of chronological data in northern Tibet, at least four regional incision periods can be recognized. Chronological data, terrace elevation profiles, and climate proxy records suggest that these terracing periods were triggered by cool and/or wet climatic conditions. A geometric survey of the riverbed longitudinal profile suggests that surface uplift serves as a potential dynamic forcing for long-term incision. A model is proposed for terrace formation as a response to climatic perturbation in an uplifted mountain range.

  13. Absolute age determination of quaternary fault and formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Chang Sik; Lee, Kwang Sik; Choi, Man Sik [Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)


    The annual ('01-'01) objective of this project is to data the fault activity for the presumed quaternary fault zones to the western part of the Ulsam fault system and southeastern coastal area near the Wolseong Nuclear Power Plant. Rb-Sr, K-Ar, OSL, C-14 and U-series disequilibrium methods were applied to the fault rocks, organic matter and quaternary formations collected from the Pyeonghae, Bogyeongsa, Yugyeri, Byegkye, Gacheon-1 and Joil outcrops of the Yangsan fault system, the Baenaegol outcrop of the Moryang fault system, the Susyongji(Madong-2), Singye, Hwalseongri, Ipsil and Wonwonsa outcrops of the Ulsan fault system and from quaternary marine terraces (Oryoo and Kwangseong sites) in the southeastern coastal area. The experimental procedure of the OSL SAR protocol was reexamined to get more reliable dating results.

  14. Quaternary phosphorites from the continental margin off Chennai, southeast India: Analogs of ancient phosphate stromatolites

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Rao, K.M.; Raju, D.S.N.

    . These are primary phosphate deposits and are similar to phosphate stratiform stromatolites. This is the first report of phosphate stratiform stromatolites during the Quaternary and modern times, and they provide a Quaternary analog for ancient phosphorites. Thin...

  15. Antibacterial activity of reactive quaternary ammonium compounds in solution and in nonleachable coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gozzelino, G.; Romero Tobar, D.E.; Chaitiemwong, N.; Hazeleger, W.C.; Beumer, R.R.


    Antibacterial polymers suitable for coating applications without leaching of the biocidal component have been obtained by UV copolymerization of acrylic resins with acrylic monomers containing quaternary ammonium moieties. Suitable reactive biocides, based on quaternary ammonium monomers (QAMs),

  16. The structural hinge of a chain-foreland basin: Quaternary activity of the Pede-Apennine Thrust front (Northern Italy) (United States)

    Maestrelli, Daniele; Benvenuti, Marco; Bonini, Marco; Carnicelli, Stefano; Piccardi, Luigi; Sani, Federico


    The Pede-Apennine margin (Northern Italy) is a major WNW-ESE-trending morpho-structural element that delimits the Po Plain to the southwest and consists of a system of southwest dipping thrusts, generally referred to as Pede-Apennine Thrust (PAT). The leading edge of the chain lies further north-east and is buried beneath the Plio-Quaternary marine and fluvial deposits of the Po Plain. Whereas the buried external thrust fronts are obvious active structures (as demonstrated by the 2012 Emilia earthquakes; e.g. Burrato et al., 2012), ongoing activity of the PAT is debated. Using a multidisciplinary approach that integrates structural, seismic, sedimentological and pedological field data, we describe the recent activity of the PAT structures in a sector of the Pede-Apennine margin between the Panaro and the Enza Rivers (Emilia-Romagna). We found that the PAT is emergent or sub-emergent and deforms Middle Pleistocene deposits. We also infer a more recent tectonic phase ( 60-80 ka) by Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating of soil profiles that have been deformed by a recent reactivation of the PAT. Furthermore, we show evidence that the PAT and its external splay thrusts strongly influenced the drainage pattern, causing fluvial diversions and forcing paleo-rivers to develop roughly parallel to the margin. Finally, numerical Trishear modelling has been used to calculate deformation rates for the PAT along two transects. Extrapolated slip rates vary between 0.68 and 0.79 mm·yr- 1 for about the last 1.2-0.8 million years.

  17. Shifting sources and transport paths for the late Quaternary Escanaba Trough sediment fill (northeast Pacific) (United States)

    Zuffa, G.G.; De Rosa, R.; Normark, W.R.


    Escanaba Trough, which forms the southernmost part of the axial valley of the actively spreading Gorda Ridge, is filled with several hundred meters of sediment of presumed late Quaternary age. Surficial sediment samples from gravity cores, deeper samples (as much as 390 m) from Site 35 of the Deep Sea Drilling Program (Leg 5), and the acoustic character of the sediment fill observed on seismic-reflection profiles indicate that much of the sediment fill is of turbidite origin. Gross composition and heavy- mineral analyses of sand samples show that two distinct petrofacies comprise the sediment fill. The lower part of the fill was derived primarily from the Klamath River source of northern California while the younger fill, including the surficial sand beds, are from the Columbia River drainage much farther north. The Escanaba Trough sediment provides an opportunity to evaluate concepts for paleogeographic and paleotectonic reconstructions that are based on facies analysis and compositional and textural data for the volcanic components because both intrabasinal and extrabasinal sources are present as well as coeval (neovolcanic) and non coeval (paleovolcanic) sourcre This study of a modern basin shows, that although the sediment sources could be identified, it was useful to have some knowledge of the sediment pathway(s), the effects of diagenesis, and the possible effects of sediment sorting as a result of long transport distances from the source area for some components. Application of these same techniques to ancient deposits without benefit of the additional parameters will face limitations.

  18. Buried Object Detection Method Using Optimum Frequency Range in Extremely Shallow Underground (United States)

    Sugimoto, Tsuneyoshi; Abe, Touma


    We propose a new detection method for buried objects using the optimum frequency response range of the corresponding vibration velocity. Flat speakers and a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV) are used for noncontact acoustic imaging in the extremely shallow underground. The exploration depth depends on the sound pressure, but it is usually less than 10 cm. Styrofoam, wood (silver fir), and acrylic boards of the same size, different size styrofoam boards, a hollow toy duck, a hollow plastic container, a plastic container filled with sand, a hollow steel can and an unglazed pot are used as buried objects which are buried in sand to about 2 cm depth. The imaging procedure of buried objects using the optimum frequency range is given below. First, the standardized difference from the average vibration velocity is calculated for all scan points. Next, using this result, underground images are made using a constant frequency width to search for the frequency response range of the buried object. After choosing an approximate frequency response range, the difference between the average vibration velocity for all points and that for several points that showed a clear response is calculated for the final confirmation of the optimum frequency range. Using this optimum frequency range, we can obtain the clearest image of the buried object. From the experimental results, we confirmed the effectiveness of our proposed method. In particular, a clear image of the buried object was obtained when the SLDV image was unclear.

  19. An EM Modeling for Rescue System Design of Buried People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. De Leo


    Full Text Available The development of a rescue system for buried persons is a subject of growing importance in case of occurrence of natural disasters such as earthquake, landslides, or avalanches. In this paper a fully analytical model has been developed to get some fundamental a priori design characteristics. The proposed system is based on the detection of the victim movements due to its respiratory activity: in particular, when an electromagnetic (EM wave impinges on a human body, the analysis of the reflected wave parameters such as amplitude, frequency, phase, or delay time allows for the detection of the breathing frequency. The model is simple on purpose because the great uncertainty concerning the characterization of many environmental parameters of a general situation makes a very detailed model useless. However, it is accurate enough to provide useful information about system design, filling the gap in the literature concerning the electromagnetic formulation of such kinds of problems. A system prototype was built using laboratory equipment to experimentally validate the model, and subsequently breathing frequency measurements were carried on, both in a lossless laboratory environment and in a lossy realistic scenario.

  20. Measure Guideline: Buried and/or Encapsulated Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, C.; Zoeller, W.; Mantha, P.


    Buried and/or encapsulated ducts (BEDs) are a class of advanced, energy-efficiency strategies intended to address the significant ductwork thermal losses associated with ducts installed in unconditioned attics. BEDs are ducts installed in unconditioned attics that are covered in loose-fill insulation and/or encapsulated in closed cell polyurethane spray foam insulation. This Measure Guideline covers the technical aspects of BEDs as well as the advantages, disadvantages, and risks of BEDs compared to other alternative strategies. This guideline also provides detailed guidance on installation of BEDs strategies in new and existing homes through step-by-step installation procedures. This Building America Measure Guideline synthesizes previously published research on BEDs and provides practical information to builders, contractors, homeowners, policy analysts, building professions, and building scientists. Some of the procedures presented here, however, require specialized equipment or expertise. In addition, some alterations to duct systems may require a specialized license. Persons implementing duct system improvements should not go beyond their expertise or qualifications. This guideline provides valuable information for a building industry that has struggled to address ductwork thermal losses in new and existing homes. As building codes strengthen requirements for duct air sealing and insulation, flexibility is needed to address energy efficiency goals. While ductwork in conditioned spaces has been promoted as the panacea for addressing ductwork thermal losses, BEDs installations approach - and sometimes exceed - the performance of ductwork in conditioned spaces.

  1. Detection of Buried Human Remains Using Bioreporter Fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vass, A. Dr.; Singleton, G. B.


    The search for buried human remains is a difficult, laborious and time-consuming task for law enforcement agencies. This study was conducted as a proof of principle demonstration to test the concept of using bioreporter microorganisms as a means to cover large areas in such a search. These bioreporter microorganisms are affected by a particular component of decaying organic matter that is distinct from decaying vegetation. The diamino compounds cadaverine and putrescine were selected as target compounds for the proof-of-principle investigation, and a search for microorganisms and genes that are responsive to either of these compounds was conducted. One recombinant clone was singled out for characterization based on its response to putrescine. The study results show that small concentrations of putrescine increased expression from this bioreporter construct. Although the level of increase was small (making it difficult to distinguish the signal from background), the results demonstrate the principle that bioreporters can be used to detect compounds resulting from decaying human remains and suggest that a wider search for target compounds should be conducted.

  2. Thermal processing system concepts and considerations for RWMC buried waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, T.L.; Kong, P.C.; Raivo, B.D.; Anderson, G.L.


    This report presents a preliminary determination of ex situ thermal processing system concepts and related processing considerations for application to remediation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated buried wastes (TRUW) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Beginning with top-level thermal treatment concepts and requirements identified in a previous Preliminary Systems Design Study (SDS), a more detailed consideration of the waste materials thermal processing problem is provided. Anticipated waste stream elements and problem characteristics are identified and considered. Final waste form performance criteria, requirements, and options are examined within the context of providing a high-integrity, low-leachability glass/ceramic, final waste form material. Thermal processing conditions required and capability of key systems components (equipment) to provide these material process conditions are considered. Information from closely related companion study reports on melter technology development needs assessment and INEL Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) research are considered. Five potentially practicable thermal process system design configuration concepts are defined and compared. A scenario for thermal processing of a mixed waste and soils stream with essentially no complex presorting and using a series process of incineration and high temperature melting is recommended. Recommendations for applied research and development necessary to further detail and demonstrate the final waste form, required thermal processes, and melter process equipment are provided.

  3. Visualizing excitations at buried heterojunctions in organic semiconductor blends (United States)

    Jakowetz, Andreas C.; Böhm, Marcus L.; Sadhanala, Aditya; Huettner, Sven; Rao, Akshay; Friend, Richard H.


    Interfaces play a crucial role in semiconductor devices, but in many device architectures they are nanostructured, disordered and buried away from the surface of the sample. Conventional optical, X-ray and photoelectron probes often fail to provide interface-specific information in such systems. Here we develop an all-optical time-resolved method to probe the local energetic landscape and electronic dynamics at such interfaces, based on the Stark effect caused by electron-hole pairs photo-generated across the interface. Using this method, we found that the electronically active sites at the polymer/fullerene interfaces in model bulk-heterojunction blends fall within the low-energy tail of the absorption spectrum. This suggests that these sites are highly ordered compared with the bulk of the polymer film, leading to large wavefunction delocalization and low site energies. We also detected a 100 fs migration of holes from higher- to lower-energy sites, consistent with these charges moving ballistically into more ordered polymer regions. This ultrafast charge motion may be key to separating electron-hole pairs into free charges against the Coulomb interaction.

  4. The Challenging Buried Bumper Syndrome after Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Afifi


    Full Text Available Buried bumper syndrome (BBS is a rare complication developed after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG. We report a case of a 38-year-old male patient who sustained severe traumatic brain injury that was complicated with early BBS after PEG tube insertion. On admission, bedside PEG was performed, and 7 days later the patient developed signs of sepsis with rapid progression to septic shock and acute kidney injury. Abdominal CT scan revealed no collection or leakage of the contrast, but showed malpositioning of the tube bumper at the edge of the stomach and not inside of it. Diagnostic endoscopy revealed that the bumper was hidden in the posterolateral part of the stomach wall forming a tract inside of it, which confirmed the diagnosis of BBS. The patient underwent laparotomy with a repair of the stomach wall perforation, and the early postoperative course was uneventful. Acute BBS is a rare complication of PEG tube insertion which could be manifested with severe complications such as pressure necrosis, peritonitis and septic shock. Early identification is the mainstay to prevent such complications. Treatment selection is primarily guided by the presenting complications, ranging from simple endoscopic replacement to surgical laparotomy.

  5. Parental care buffers against inbreeding depression in burying beetles. (United States)

    Pilakouta, Natalie; Jamieson, Seonaidh; Moorad, Jacob A; Smiseth, Per T


    When relatives mate, their inbred offspring often suffer a reduction in fitness-related traits known as "inbreeding depression." There is mounting evidence that inbreeding depression can be exacerbated by environmental stresses such as starvation, predation, parasitism, and competition. Parental care may play an important role as a buffer against inbreeding depression in the offspring by alleviating these environmental stresses. Here, we examine the effect of parental care on the fitness costs of inbreeding in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides, an insect with facultative parental care. We used a 2 × 2 factorial design with the following factors: (i) the presence or absence of a caring female parent during larval development and (ii) inbred or outbred offspring. We examined the joint influence of maternal care and inbreeding status on fitness-related offspring traits to test the hypothesis that maternal care improves the performance of inbred offspring more than that of outbred offspring. Indeed, the female's presence led to a higher increase in larval survival in inbred than in outbred broods. Receiving care at the larval stage also increased the lifespan of inbred but not outbred adults, suggesting that the beneficial buffering effects of maternal care can persist long after the offspring have become independent. Our results show that parental care has the potential to moderate the severity of inbreeding depression, which in turn may favor inbreeding tolerance and influence the evolution of mating systems and other inbreeding-avoidance mechanisms.

  6. Surface wave propagation effects on buried segmented pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peixin Shi


    Full Text Available This paper deals with surface wave propagation (WP effects on buried segmented pipelines. Both simplified analytical model and finite element (FE model are developed for estimating the axial joint pullout movement of jointed concrete cylinder pipelines (JCCPs of which the joints have a brittle tensile failure mode under the surface WP effects. The models account for the effects of peak ground velocity (PGV, WP velocity, predominant period of seismic excitation, shear transfer between soil and pipelines, axial stiffness of pipelines, joint characteristics, and cracking strain of concrete mortar. FE simulation of the JCCP interaction with surface waves recorded during the 1985 Michoacan earthquake results in joint pullout movement, which is consistent with the field observations. The models are expanded to estimate the joint axial pullout movement of cast iron (CI pipelines of which the joints have a ductile tensile failure mode. Simplified analytical equation and FE model are developed for estimating the joint pullout movement of CI pipelines. The joint pullout movement of the CI pipelines is mainly affected by the variability of the joint tensile capacity and accumulates at local weak joints in the pipeline.

  7. Through-focal HAADF-STEM of buried nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero-Lebrero, M P; Pizarro, J; Guerrero, E; Galindo, P L; Yanez, A [Department Lenguajes y Sist. Informaticos, Universidad de Cadiz (Spain); Molina, S I, E-mail: maria.guerrero@uca.e [Department Ciencia de los Materiales e I.M. y Q.I. Universidad de Cadiz (Spain)


    High-Angle Annular Dark-Field Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (HAADF-STEM) in combination with strain mapping techniques provides a powerful tool for quantitative analysis of crystalline semiconductor materials. Due to the complex interaction of a focused probe and a sample in HAADF, the calculation of each pixel in a simulation process requires a complete multislice iteration, making the overall computing process a rather demanding task in time and memory. SICSTEM is a parallel software code recently developed for running on the University of Cadiz Supercomputer (3.75 Tflops) that allows the simulation of images from large nanostructures containing more than one million atoms. The software has been designed to be able to generate not only one dimensional line scans or two dimensional images, but also to perform optical sectioning in the STEM simulation process, providing an easy way to simulate 3D HAADF-STEM images. In this work we consider GaAs capped GaSb nanostructures epitaxially oriented on a GaAs substrate. A methodology has been developed by combining the through-focal series STEM imaging and image analysis to estimate shape and position of buried GaSb nanostructures.

  8. [Plastic surgery reconstruction of the adult buried penis : Option or obligation? (United States)

    Mühlstädt, S; Anheuser, P; Mohammed, N; Bach, A D


    The adult buried penis afflicts the patient with shame and is also potentially associated with considerable urogenital complications. Due to obesity, chronic urogenital lymphedema or subsequent inflammatory urogenital conditions, such as a lichen sclerosus et atrophicus, the clinical appearance of the adult buried penis is extremely variable. Epidemiological data are non-existent. Therapeutically, a combination of various plastic surgery procedures is often necessary for the best esthetic and functional results. The therapeutic strategy is highly individual and the therapy itself is interdisciplinary. This article provides an overview of the plastic surgery reconstruction of the adult buried penis.

  9. Modelling photochemistry in alpine valleys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Brulfert


    Full Text Available Road traffic is a serious problem in the Chamonix Valley, France: traffic, noise and above all air pollution worry the inhabitants. The big fire in the Mont-Blanc tunnel made it possible, in the framework of the POVA project (POllution in Alpine Valleys, to undertake measurement campaigns with and without heavy-vehicle traffic through the Chamonix and Maurienne valleys, towards Italy (before and after the tunnel re-opening. Modelling is one of the aspects of POVA and should make it possible to explain the processes leading to episodes of atmospheric pollution, both in summer and in winter. Atmospheric prediction model ARPS 4.5.2 (Advanced Regional Prediction System, developed at the CAPS (Center for Analysis and Prediction of Storms of the University of Oklahoma, enables to resolve the dynamics above a complex terrain. This model is coupled to the TAPOM 1.5.2 atmospheric chemistry (Transport and Air POllution Model code developed at the Air and Soil Pollution Laboratory of the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne. The numerical codes MM5 and CHIMERE are used to compute large scale boundary forcing. This paper focuses on modelling Chamonix valley using 300-m grid cells to calculate the dynamics and the reactive chemistry which makes possible to accurately represent the dynamics in the Chamonix valley (slope and valley winds and to process chemistry at fine scale. The summer 2003 intensive campaign was used to validate the model and to study chemistry. NOy according to O3 reduction demonstrates a VOC controlled regime, different from the NOx controlled regime expected and observed in the nearby city of Grenoble.

  10. Geochemistry of buried river sediments from Ghaggar Plains, NW India: Multi-proxy records of variations in provenance, paleoclimate, and paleovegetation patterns in the Late Quaternary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ajit; Paul, Debajyoti; Sinha, Rajiv


    ) suggest binary mixing of sediments from compositionally distinct Higher Himalaya (HH) and Lesser Himalaya (LH) endmembers in the catchment, and support involvement of a river system originating in the Himalayan hinterland. Distinctly higher 87Sr/86Sr and lower εNd in the core sediments during glacial...... variability clearly reflects climate-controlled sediment erosion in the Himalayan catchment. Temporal variations in δ18O and δ13C of carbonate nodules (n = 27) are consistent with that reported from the Ganga interfluves. The δ13C variability (-4.1‰ to 1.2‰) in carbonates is mainly controlled by the extent...... of silicate (HH) versus carbonate (LH) source weathering due to significant climatic shifts. The δ13C of sediment organic matter (-27.4‰ to -23.2‰, n = 24) suggests dominantly C3 plants in the catchment during the last ~75 ka. More negative δ13C values in sediments during glacial periods relative to those...

  11. Geochemistry of buried river sediments from Ghaggar Plains, NW India: Multi-proxy records of variations in provenance, paleoclimate, and paleovegetation patterns in the Late Quaternary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ajit; Paul, Debajyoti; Sinha, Rajiv


    variability clearly reflects climate-controlled sediment erosion in the Himalayan catchment. Temporal variations in δ18O and δ13C of carbonate nodules (n = 27) are consistent with that reported from the Ganga interfluves. The δ13C variability (-4.1‰ to 1.2‰) in carbonates is mainly controlled by the extent...... periods can be explained by increasing sediment contribution from LH (high 87Sr/86Sr and low εNd) due to an increase in glacial cover over HH. Whereas relatively less glacial cover over HH during interglacial periods resulted in more erosion and sediment contribution from HH. The down-core Sr-Nd isotopic...... of silicate (HH) versus carbonate (LH) source weathering due to significant climatic shifts. The δ13C of sediment organic matter (-27.4‰ to -23.2‰, n = 24) suggests dominantly C3 plants in the catchment during the last ~75 ka. More negative δ13C values in sediments during glacial periods relative to those...

  12. EPA Region 1 - Valley Depth in Meters (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Raster of the Depth in meters of EPA-delimited Valleys in Region 1. Valleys (areas that are lower than their neighbors) were extracted from a Digital Elevation Model...

  13. Valley evolution by meandering rivers (United States)

    Limaye, Ajay Brian Sanjay

    Fluvial systems form landscapes and sedimentary deposits with a rich hierarchy of structures that extend from grain- to valley scale. Large-scale pattern formation in fluvial systems is commonly attributed to forcing by external factors, including climate change, tectonic uplift, and sea-level change. Yet over geologic timescales, rivers may also develop large-scale erosional and depositional patterns that do not bear on environmental history. This dissertation uses a combination of numerical modeling and topographic analysis to identify and quantify patterns in river valleys that form as a consequence of river meandering alone, under constant external forcing. Chapter 2 identifies a numerical artifact in existing, grid-based models that represent the co-evolution of river channel migration and bank strength over geologic timescales. A new, vector-based technique for bank-material tracking is shown to improve predictions for the evolution of meander belts, floodplains, sedimentary deposits formed by aggrading channels, and bedrock river valleys, particularly when spatial contrasts in bank strength are strong. Chapters 3 and 4 apply this numerical technique to establishing valley topography formed by a vertically incising, meandering river subject to constant external forcing---which should serve as the null hypothesis for valley evolution. In Chapter 3, this scenario is shown to explain a variety of common bedrock river valley types and smaller-scale features within them---including entrenched channels, long-wavelength, arcuate scars in valley walls, and bedrock-cored river terraces. Chapter 4 describes the age and geometric statistics of river terraces formed by meandering with constant external forcing, and compares them to terraces in natural river valleys. The frequency of intrinsic terrace formation by meandering is shown to reflect a characteristic relief-generation timescale, and terrace length is identified as a key criterion for distinguishing these

  14. Tectonic shortening and coeval volcanism during the Quaternary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1999; Yoshida. 2001; Tamura et al. 2002; Kimura and Yoshida. 2006; Acocella et al. 2008). It has recently been recognized that Quaternary volcanoes are clustered in regions trending trans- verse to their host arc axis, and separated by sub- parallel, volcano-free gaps 30–75 km wide along the arc (figure 1) (Umeda et al.

  15. Characteristics and Classification of Soils on Quaternary Coversand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Astudy was conducted to characterize and classify the soils on quaternary parent materials (Sangiwa, Sokoto, and Illela coversand) of Sokoto-Rima river basin area of Sokoto state. Areas covered with the coversand were identified using geologic map of the Sokoto-Rima basin followed by ground truthing. Soils from different ...

  16. Quaternary Glacial Mapping in Western Wisconsin Using Soil Survey Information (United States)

    Oehlke, Betsy M.; Dolliver, Holly A. S.


    The majority of soils in the western Wisconsin have developed from glacial sediments deposited during the Quaternary Period (2.6 million years before present). In many regions, multiple advances and retreats have left a complex landscape of diverse glacial sediments and landforms. The soils that have developed on these deposits reflect the nature…

  17. Mapping Soil Erosion in a Quaternary Catchment in Eastern Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Apr 6, 2017 ... Mapping Soil Erosion in a Quaternary Catchment in Eastern Cape. Using Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing. Kwanele Phinziª ⃰, Njoya Silas Ngetarª. ªSchool of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Discipline of Geography, University of. KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

  18. Geomorphic expression of late Quaternary sea level changes along ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Geomorphic expression of land-sea interaction is preserved in the form of abandoned cliffs, marine terraces,shore platforms and marine notches along the southern Saurashtra coast. These features have been used to ascertain the magnitude of sea level changes during late Quaternary.Notch morphology and associated ...

  19. Quaternary climate changes explain diversity among reptiles and amphibians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastos Araujo, Miguel; Nogués-Bravo, David; Diniz-Filho, Alexandre F.


    debated without reaching consensus. Here, we test the proposition that European species richness of reptiles and amphibians is driven by climate changes in the Quaternary. We find that climate stability between the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and the present day is a better predictor of species richness...

  20. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of new quaternary ammonium chlorides. (United States)

    Brycki, B; Skrzypczak, A; Mirska, I; Pernak, J


    Decyldimethylamine reacts readily with chloromethylalkyl ethers of sulfides, chloromethylbenzyl ethers or sulfides and chloromethylcycloalkyl ethers to give quaternary ammonium chlorides in very good yields. All the chlorides studied showed antimicrobial activity. The relationship between the chemical structure and antimicrobial activity was analyzed by rough sets.

  1. Significant differences in late Quaternary bedrock erosion and transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrews, John; Bjørk, Anders Anker; Eberl, Dennis


    We use quantitative X-ray diffraction to determine the mineralogy of late Quaternary marine sediments from the West and East Greenland shelves offshore from early Tertiary basalt outcrops. Despite the similar basalt outcrop area (60 000–70 000 km2), there are significant differences between East ...

  2. Integrating Quaternary science research in land management, restoration, and conservation (United States)

    C.I. Millar; W.B. Woolfenden


    Most of us have come to expect that the general public will ignore the primary message of Quaternary science that change happens. A flurry, however, of recent media attention to 20th-century global warming and its anomalies from climates of the last millennium has brought climate science at least momentarily into popular focus. Similarly, public land-managing agencies...

  3. Late Quaternary fine silt deposits of Jammu, NW Himalaya: Genesis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The deposits termed as 'Potwar loessic silt' comprising sandy silt are essentially of late Quaternary age (75–18 ka) and are re-looked herein from the point of view of genesis and climatic significance. The sorting, skewness and kurtosis parameters of fine silts of Jammu suggest fluvial environment of the deposits wherein the ...

  4. Quaternary ammonium salt N-(dodecyloxycarboxymethyl)- N,N,N ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Oct 22, 2016 ... 2003;. Massi et al. 2004). QASs are also active against enveloped viruses like HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) and HBV. (hepatitis B virus), but not nonenveloped viruses (Resnick et al. 1986; Springthorpe and Satter 1990). Drugs based on quaternary ammonium salts cause morphological changes in.

  5. Fault control on patterns of Quaternary monogenetic vents in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... cone populations reveal that monogenetic vent alignments and the long axes of elongate cones are parallel to and spatially linked with mapped normal faults. This is consistent with the overall sub- latitudinal extension direction in the Quaternary deduced from fault slip analysis and earthquake focal mechanism solutions.

  6. [Super-low-frequency spectrum analysis for buried faults in coalfield]. (United States)

    Chen, Li; Qin, Qi-Ming; Zhen, Guang-Wei; Wang, Nan; Bai, Yan-Bing; Chen, Chao


    Based on the super-low-frequency (SLF) electromagnetic detection technology, the advanced detection for the buried fault in the coalfield is still at the exploratory stage, while the technology has a strong practical significance for production and design of the coal mine. Firstly, in this paper, the SLF electromagnetic detection signals were collected in study area. Spectrum analysis of SLF signal by wavelet transform can remove high-frequency noise. Secondly, the profile of the measuring line across the fault was analyzed and interpreted geologically. Accordingly SLF spectrum characteristics of the buried fault could be researched. Finally, combined with the geological and seismic data, the characteristics and distribution of fault structures can be verified in the mining area. The results show that: the buried fault could be detected quickly and effectively by SLF electromagnetic detection Hence, SLF electromagnetic detection technology is an effective method for buried fault detection.

  7. Overwintering biology and tests of trap and relocate as a conservation measure for burying beetles. (United States)


    Burying beetles are carrion beetles and utilize dead animal carcasses for feeding : and reproductive efforts. They assist with decomposition, prevent the spread of disease, : and reduce the number of pest species. The largest species of carrion beetl...

  8. Molecular phylogeny of the burying beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae: Nicrophorinae). (United States)

    Sikes, Derek S; Venables, Chandra


    Burying beetles (Silphidae: Nicrophorus) are well-known for their monopolization of small vertebrate carcasses in subterranean crypts and complex biparental care behaviors. They have been the focus of intense behavioral, ecological, and conservation research since the 1980s yet no thorough phylogenetic estimate for the group exists. Herein, we infer relationships, test past hypotheses of relationships, and test biogeographic scenarios among 55 of the subfamily Nicrophorinae's currently valid and extant 72 species. Two mitochondrial genes, COI and COII, and two nuclear genes, the D2 region of 28S, and the protein coding gene CAD, provided 3,971 nucleotides for 58 nicrophorine and 5 outgroup specimens. Ten partitions, with each modeled by GTR+I+G, were used for a 100 M generation MrBayes analysis and maximum likelihood bootstrapping with Garli. The inferred Bayesian phylogeny was mostly well-resolved with only three weak branches of biogeographic relevance. The common ancestor of the subfamily and of the genus Nicrophorus was reconstructed as Old World with four separate transitions to the New World and four reverse colonizations of the Old World from the New. Divergence dating from analysis with BEAST indicate the genus Nicrophorus originated in the Cretaceous, 127-99 Ma. Most prior, pre-cladistic hypotheses of relationships were strongly rejected while most modern hypotheses were largely congruent with monophyletic groups in our estimated phylogeny. Our results reject a recent hypothesis that Nicrophorus morio Gebler, 1817 (NEW STATUS as valid species) is a subspecies of N. germanicus (L., 1758). Two subgenera of Nicrophorus are recognized: NecroxenusSemenov-Tian-Shanskij, 1933, and NicrophorusFabricius, 1775. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Review of Concrete Biodeterioration in Relation to Buried Nuclear Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turick, C; Berry, C.


    Long-term storage of low level radioactive material in below ground concrete disposal units (DUs) (Saltstone Disposal Facility) is a means of depositing wastes generated from nuclear operations of the U.S. Department of Energy. Based on the currently modeled degradation mechanisms, possible microbial induced effects on the structural integrity of buried low level wastes must be addressed. Previous international efforts related to microbial impacts on concrete structures that house low level radioactive waste showed that microbial activity can play a significant role in the process of concrete degradation and ultimately structural deterioration. This literature review examines the recent research in this field and is focused on specific parameters that are applicable to modeling and prediction of the fate of concrete vaults housing stored wastes and the wastes themselves. Rates of concrete biodegradation vary with the environmental conditions, illustrating a need to understand the bioavailability of key compounds involved in microbial activity. Specific parameters require pH and osmotic pressure to be within a certain range to allow for microbial growth as well as the availability and abundance of energy sources like components involved in sulfur, iron and nitrogen oxidation. Carbon flow and availability are also factors to consider in predicting concrete biodegradation. The results of this review suggest that microbial activity in Saltstone, (grouted low level radioactive waste) is unlikely due to very high pH and osmotic pressure. Biodegradation of the concrete vaults housing the radioactive waste however, is a possibility. The rate and degree of concrete biodegradation is dependent on numerous physical, chemical and biological parameters. Results from this review point to parameters to focus on for modeling activities and also, possible options for mitigation that would minimize concrete biodegradation. In addition, key chemical components that drive microbial

  10. FOREWORD: Special section on electromagnetic characterization of buried obstacles (United States)

    Lesselier, Dominique; Chew, Weng Cho


    This Inverse Problems special section on electromagnetic characterization of buried obstacles contains a selection of 14 invited papers, involving 41 authors and 19 research groups worldwide. (Though this section consists of invited papers, the standard refereeing procedures of Inverse Problems have been rigorously observed.) We do not claim to have reached all the high-level researchers in the field, but we believe that we have made a fair attempt. As illustrated by the variety of contributions included, the aim of this special section is to address theoretical and practical inversion problems (and the solutions thereof) that arise in the field of electromagnetic characterization of obstacles (artificial or natural) buried on the Earth or in planetary subsoil. Civil and military engineering, archaeological and environmental issues are typically among those within the scope of the investigation. An example is the characterization of a single (or multiple) obstacle(s) located near the interface or at shallow depths via electromagnetic means operating within relevant frequency bands. However, we also welcomed novel and thought-provoking investigations, even though their direct application to the real world, or even to laboratory-controlled settings, may still be far off. Within this general mathematical and applied framework, the submitted papers focused on a combination of theoretical, computational and experimental developments. They either reviewed the most recent advances in a particular area of research or were an original and specialized contribution. Let us now take the opportunity to remind the readers that this special section harks back (in addition to sharing some common contributors) to two special sections already published in the journal which possessed the same flavour of wave-field inversion and its many applications. They were `Electromagnetic imaging and inversion of the Earth's subsurface', which was published in October 2000 (volume 16, issue 5

  11. Rare earth element distribution and behaviour in buried manganese nodules from the Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pattan, J.N.; Banakar, V.K.

    ) 303-312 303 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam Rare earth element distribution and behaviour in buried manganese nodules from the Central Indian Basin J.N. Pattan and V.K. Banakar National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403004..., India (Received September 15, 1992; revision accepted January 6, 1993) ABSTRACT Pattan, J.N. and Banakar, V.K., 1993. Rare earth element distribution and behaviour in buried manganese nodules from the Central Indian Basin. Mar. Geol., 112: 303...

  12. A study of pipe-soil-climate interaction of buried water and gas pipes


    Chan, Derek Chun Chuen


    In Australia, buried water and gas pipes are reported to have more frequent failures in hot and dry summers, which suggests that soil shrinkage and thermal effects are the main factors associated with pipe failure. Shrinkage and swelling are common behaviours of soils especially for reactive clays due to seasonal variation of soil moisture content. As a result, the differential soil movement beneath buried pipe can lead to flexural bending and circumferential fracture of the pipe. In addition...

  13. Thin films and buried interfaces characterization with X-ray standing waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagomarsino, S. [CNR, Rome (Italy). Istituto Elettronica Stato Solido


    The X-ray standing wave techniques is a powerful, non destructive method to study interfaces at the atomic level. Its basic features are described here together with the peculiarities of its applications to epitaxial films and buried interfaces. As examples of applications, experiments carried out on Si/silicide interfaces, on GaAs/InAs/GaAs buried interfaces and on Si/Ge superlattices are shown.

  14. The Central Valley Hydrologic Model (United States)

    Faunt, C.; Belitz, K.; Hanson, R. T.


    Historically, California’s Central Valley has been one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world. The Central Valley also is rapidly becoming an important area for California’s expanding urban population. In response to this competition for water, a number of water-related issues have gained prominence: conjunctive use, artificial recharge, hydrologic implications of land-use change, subsidence, and effects of climate variability. To provide information to stakeholders addressing these issues, the USGS made a detailed assessment of the Central Valley aquifer system that includes the present status of water resources and how these resources have changed over time. The principal product of this assessment is a tool, referred to as the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM), that simulates surface-water flows, groundwater flows, and land subsidence in response to stresses from human uses and from climate variability throughout the entire Central Valley. The CVHM utilizes MODFLOW combined with a new tool called “Farm Process” to simulate groundwater and surface-water flow, irrigated agriculture, land subsidence, and other key processes in the Central Valley on a monthly basis. This model was discretized horizontally into 20,000 1-mi2 cells and vertically into 10 layers ranging in thickness from 50 feet at the land surface to 750 feet at depth. A texture model constructed by using data from more than 8,500 drillers’ logs was used to estimate hydraulic properties. Unmetered pumpage and surface-water deliveries for 21 water-balance regions were simulated with the Farm Process. Model results indicate that human activities, predominately surface-water deliveries and groundwater pumping for irrigated agriculture, have dramatically influenced the hydrology of the Central Valley. These human activities have increased flow though the aquifer system by about a factor of six compared to pre-development conditions. The simulated hydrology reflects spatial

  15. Imaging of Au nanoparticles deeply buried in polymer matrix by various atomic force microscopy techniques. (United States)

    Kimura, Kuniko; Kobayashi, Kei; Matsushige, Kazumi; Yamada, Hirofumi


    Recently, some papers reported successful imaging of subsurface features using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Some theoretical studies have also been presented, however the imaging mechanisms are not fully understood yet. In the preceeding papers, imaging of deeply buried nanometer-scale features has been successful only if they were buried in a soft matrix. In this paper, subsurface features (Au nanoparticles) buried in a soft polymer matrix were visualized. To elucidate the imaging mechanisms, various AFM techniques; heterodyne force microscopy, ultrasonic atomic force microscopy (UAFM), 2nd-harmonic UAFM and force modulation microscopy (FMM) were employed. The particles buried under 960 nm from the surface were successfully visualized which has never been achieved. The results elucidated that it is important for subsurface imaging to choose a cantilever with a suitable stiffness range for a matrix. In case of using the most suitable cantilever, the nanoparticles were visualized using every technique shown above except for FMM. The experimental results suggest that the subsurface features buried in a soft matrix with a depth of at least 1 µm can affect the local viscoelasticity (mainly viscosity) detected as the variation of the amplitude and phase of the tip oscillation on the surface. This phenomenon presumably makes it possible to visualize such deeply buried nanometer-scale features in a soft matrix. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A process for ensuring regulatory compliance at the INEL`s buried waste integrated demonstrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, P.G.; Watson, L.R.; Blacker, P.B. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab.


    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program is funded by the Department of Energy Office of Technology Development. The mission of this Integrated Demonstration is to identify, evaluate, and demonstrate a suite of innovative technologies for the remediation of radioactive and hazardous waste buried throughout the DOE complex between 1950 and 1970. The program approach to development of a long-range strategy for improving buried waste remediation capabilities is to combine systems analysis with already identified remediation needs for DOE complex buried waste. The systems analysis effort has produced several configuration options (a top-level block diagram of a cradle-to-grave remediation system) capable of remediating the transuranic-contaminated waste pits and trenches at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Technologies for demonstration are selected using three criteria: (a) the ability to satisfy a specific buried waste need, (b) the ability to satisfy functional and operational requirements defined for functional sub-elements in a configuration option, and (c) performance against Comprehensive Environmental Restoration and Compensation Liability Act selection criteria, such as effectiveness, implementability, and cost. Early demonstrations experienced problems with missed requirements, prompting the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program Office to organize a Corrective Action Team to identify the cause and recommend corrective actions. The result of this team effort is the focus of this paper.

  17. Plio-Quaternary river incision rates inferred from burial dating (Al-26/Be-10) of in cave-deposited alluvium in the Meuse catchment (E Belgium): new insights into the uplift history of the Ardennes massif (United States)

    Rixhon, Gilles; Bourlès, Didier; Braucher, Régis; Peeters, Alexandre; Demoulin, Alain


    Although the Late Cenozoic uplift of the intraplate Variscan Ardennes/Rhenish massif (N Europe) has been long studied, its causes, shape and timing are still under debate (Demoulin & Hallot, 2009). This is mainly due to the scarcity of reliable ages for uplift markers, such as Quaternary terrace staircases along the deeply-incised valleys or Late Tertiary planation surfaces. In parallel, multi-level cave systems in limestone rocks, wherein abandoned phreatic passages filled with alluvium represent former phases of fluvial base-level stability, record the history of regional river incision (Anthony & Granger, 2007). Here, we present new burial ages (Al-26/Be-10) from fluvial gravels washed in a multi-level cave system developed in Devonian limestones of the lower Ourthe valley (main Ardennian tributary of the Meuse). Our results highlight a significant increase of incision rates from the Middle Pleistocene on, and allow reconstructing the incision history in the northern part of the Ardennes over the last 3.4 Ma. These long-term incision rates derived from burial ages are then discussed in relation to the existing studies dealing with river incision and/or tectonic uplift of the Ardennes/Rhenish massif (e.g. Demoulin & Hallot, 2009; Rixhon et al., 2011). Our cosmogenic nuclide ages thus enlarge the data pool required to explore the spatio-temporal characteristics of the drainage system's incision response to combined tectonic and climatic signals. References Anthony, D., Granger, D.E., 2007. A new chronology for the age of Appalachian erosional surfaces determined by cosmogenic nuclides in cave sediments. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 32, 874-887 Demoulin, A., Hallot, E., 2009. Shape and amount of the Quaternary uplift of the western Rhenish shield and the Ardennes (western Europe). Tectonophysics 474, 696-708. Rixhon, G., et al., 2011. Quaternary river incision in NE Ardennes (Belgium): Insights from Be-10/Al-26 dating of rive terraces. Quaternary Geochronology 6

  18. Irrigation channels of the Upper Rhone valley (Switzerland). Geomorphological analysis of a cultural heritage (United States)

    Reynard, Emmanuel


    are accentuated by high insulation and evaporation. Finally, foehn events are quite common. In a climatic point of view, the area can be divided in three main zones: (1) Upstream of Brig, the climate is characterised by cold and wet conditions, and irrigation is not necessary; (2) between Brig and Martigny, the rain shadow effect is responsible of irrigation needs in the lower altitudes, whereas at high altitudes rainfall is sufficient for plant growing without irrigation; (3) downstream of Martigny, the climate is wetter and irrigation is not necessary. In a palaeoclimatic point of view, the Rhone River catchment was characterised by numerous glaciations during the Quaternary. Quaternary glaciers have shaped the valleys (U-shaped valleys, hanged valleys) and the postglacial hydrographical network had to adapt to the glacial valleys (presence of numerous waterfalls, hanged valleys, postglacial gorges, alluvial fans). By crossing climatic and structural contexts, three groups of geomorphological contexts of irrigation channels can be highlighted: (1) In the tributary valleys situated South of the Rhone valley (Penninic Alps) the irrigation channels are simply dug in the valley slopes; several of them are affected by landslides typical of metamorphic rocks of Penninic Alps; (2) In the short tributary valleys of the crystalline Aar Massif - in the valleys North to the city of Visp -, the geomorphological context is characterised by steep slopes both in the tributary valleys and in the south-facing slopes dominating the Rhone River valley. In this area, water channels are cut into the rocks and in some parts they are built in wood pipes hanged along the rock walls; (3) In the tributary valleys of the Helvetic domain - North of the Rhone River between Leuk and Sion - the geological context highly influences the building techniques: due to geological dipping towards Southeast, the tributary valley are dissymmetric: in the dip slopes channels are simply cut in the soil

  19. Quaternary geology of Fish Springs flat, Juab county, Utah (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Fish Springs Flat is a sediment-filled valley between two tilted mountain blocks, the Thomas Range and the Fish Springs Range, in the Basin and Range physiographic...

  20. Geomorphology of outflow part Batova river valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vulcheva-Georgieva Ivalena


    Full Text Available Firths are geomoiphological and hydrological sites typical for flat, neutral coast of no tidal sea basins. There in the greatest extend is preserved the geological column of the correlative Pleistocene- Holocene sediments. They make possible to reveal the Quaternary evolution of the contact zone „land-sea“. Firths are one of the most reliable indicators for the Quaternary Earth crust movements.

  1. Radiocarbon dating late Quaternary loess deposits using small terrestrial gastropod shells (United States)

    Pigati, Jeff S.; McGeehin, John P.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Bettis, E. Arthur


    Constraining the ages and mass accumulation rates of late Quaternary loess deposits is often difficult because of the paucity of organic material typically available for 14C dating and the inherent limitations of luminescence techniques. Radiocarbon dating of small terrestrial gastropod shells may provide an alternative to these methods as fossil shells are common in loess and contain ∼12% carbon by weight. Terrestrial gastropod assemblages in loess have been used extensively to reconstruct past environmental conditions but have been largely ignored for dating purposes. Here, we present the results of a multi-faceted approach to understanding the potential for using small terrestrial gastropod shells to date loess deposits in North America. First, we compare highly resolved 14C ages of well-preserved wood and gastropod shells (Succineidae) recovered from a Holocene loess section in Alaska. Radiocarbon ages derived from the shells are nearly identical to wood and plant macrofossil ages throughout the section, which suggests that the shells behaved as closed systems with respect to carbon for at least the last 10 ka (thousands of calibrated 14C years before present). Second, we apply 14C dating of gastropod shells to late Pleistocene loess deposits in the Great Plains using stratigraphy and independent chronologies for comparison. The new shell ages require less interpretation than humic acid radiocarbon ages that are commonly used in loess studies, provide additional stratigraphic coverage to previous dating efforts, and are in correct stratigraphic order more often than their luminescence counterparts. Third, we show that Succineidae shells recovered from historic loess in the Matanuska River Valley, Alaska captured the 20th century 14C bomb spike, which suggests that the shells can be used to date late Holocene and historic-aged loess. Finally, results from Nebraska and western Iowa suggest that, similar to other materials, shell ages approaching ∼40 ka should

  2. High Resolution Quaternary Seismic Stratigraphy of the New York Bight Continental Shelf (United States)

    Schwab, William C.; Denny, J.F.; Foster, D.S.; Lotto, L.L.; Allison, M.A.; Uchupi, E.; Swift, B.A.; Danforth, W.W.; Thieler, E.R.; Butman, Bradford


    A principal focus for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program ( is regional reconnaissance mapping of inner-continental shelf areas, with initial emphasis on heavily used areas of the sea floor near major population centers. The objectives are to develop a detailed regional synthesis of the sea-floor geology in order to provide information for a wide range of management decisions and to form a basis for further investigations of marine geological processes. In 1995, the USGS, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACOE), New York District, began to generate reconnaissance maps of the continental shelf seaward of the New York - New Jersey metropolitan area. This mapping encompassed the New York Bight inner-continental shelf, one of the most heavily trafficked and exploited coastal regions in the United States. Contiguous areas of the Hudson Shelf Valley, the largest physiographic feature on this segment of the continental shelf, also were mapped as part of a USGS study of contaminated sediments (Buchholtz ten Brink and others, 1994; 1996). The goal of the reconnaissance mapping was to provide a regional synthesis of the sea-floor geology in the New York Bight area, including: (a) a description of sea-floor morphology; (b) a map of sea-floor sedimentary lithotypes; (c) the geometry and structure of the Cretaceous strata and Quaternary deposits; and (d) the geologic history of the region. Pursuing the course of this mapping effort, we obtained sidescan-sonar images of 100 % of the sea floor in the study area. Initial interpretations of these sidescan data were presented by Schwab and others, (1997a, 1997b, 2000a). High-resolution seismic-reflection profiles collected along each sidescan-sonar line used multiple acoustic sources (e.g., watergun, CHIRP, Geopulse). Multibeam swath-bathymetry data also were obtained for a portion of the study area (Butman and others, 1998;). In this report, we present a series

  3. Impact of valley fills on streamside salamanders in southern West Virginia (United States)

    Wood, Petra Bohall; Williams, Jennifer M.


    Valley fills associated with mountaintop-removal mining bury stream headwaters and affect water quality and ecological function of reaches below fills. We quantified relative abundance of streamside salamanders in southern West Virginia during 2002 in three streams below valley fills (VFS) and in three reference streams (RS). We surveyed 36 10- × 2-m stream transects, once in summer and fall, paired by order and structure. Of 2,343 salamanders captured, 66.7% were from RS. Total salamanders (adults plus larvae) were more abundant in RS than VFS for first-order and second-order reaches. Adult salamanders had greater abundance in first-order reaches of RS than VFS. Larval salamanders were more abundant in second-order reaches of RS than VFS. No stream width or mesohabitat variables differed between VFS and RS. Only two cover variables differed. Silt cover, greater in VFS than RS first-order reaches, is a likely contributor to reduced abundance of salamanders in VFS. Second-order RS had more boulder cover than second-order VFS, which may have contributed to the higher total and larval salamander abundance in RS. Water chemistry assessments of our VFS and RS reported elevated levels of metal and ion concentrations in VFS, which can depress macroinvertebrate populations and likely affect salamander abundance. Valley fills appear to have significant negative effects on stream salamander abundance due to alterations in habitat structure, water quality and chemistry, and macroinvertebrate communities in streams below fills.

  4. Reconstruction of buried objects embedded in circular opaque structures (United States)

    Persico, Raffaele; Gennarelli, Gianluca; Soldovieri, Francesco


    This contribution deals with the ground penetrating radar imaging of targets embedded in a visually opaque circular structure. The problem has practical relevance in civil engineering and archeological prospections, where structures of interest such as columns or pillars may have to be inspected in non-invasive way in order to detect the possible presence of anomalies (e.g. cracks, water infiltrations, and so on). In this framework, we investigate the possibility to inspect the circular region of interest thanks to a radar system composed by two antennas that are in contact with the structure and rotate simultaneously around it in order to illuminate and measure the field scattered by buried objects from multiple directions. Two different measurement strategies are examined. The first one is the multimonostatic configuration where the backscattered signal is collected by the transmitting antenna itself, as it moves along the circular observation line. The second acquisition strategy is the multibistatic one, with the transmitting and receiving antennas shifted by a constant angular offset of ninety degrees as they move around the column. From the mathematical viewpoint, the imaging problem is formulated as a linear inverse scattering one holding under Born approximation [1]. Furthermore, the Green's function of a homogeneous medium [2] is used to simplify the evaluation of the kernel of the integral equation. The inverse problem is then solved via the Truncated Singular Value Decomposition algorithm [3] in order to obtain a regularized solution. Tomographic reconstructions based on full-wave synthetic data generated by the Finite Difference Time Domain code GPRmax2D [4] are shown to assess the effectiveness of the reconstruction process. REFERENCES [1] W. C. Chew, Waves and fields in inhomogeneous media, IEEE Press, 1995. [2] R. F. Harrington, Time harmonic electromagnetic waves, McGraw-Hill, New York, USA, 1961. [3] M. Bertero and P. Boccacci, Introduction to

  5. Gigantic landslides versus glacial deposits: on origin of large hummock deposits in Alai Valley, Northern Pamir (United States)

    Reznichenko, Natalya


    As glaciers are sensitive to local climate, their moraines position and ages are used to infer past climates and glacier dynamics. These chronologies are only valid if all dated moraines are formed as the result of climatically driven advance and subsequent retreat. Hence, any accurate palaeoenvironmental reconstruction requires thorough identification of the landform genesis by complex approach including geomorphological, sedimentological and structural landform investigation. Here are presented the implication of such approach for the reconstruction of the mega-hummocky deposits formation both of glacial and landslide origin in the glaciated Alai Valley of the Northern Pamir with further discussion on these and similar deposits validity for palaeoclimatic reconstructions. The Tibetan Plateau valleys are the largest glaciated regions beyond the ice sheets with high potential to provide the best geological record of glacial chronologies and, however, with higher probabilities of the numerous rock avalanche deposits including those that were initially considered of glacial origin (Hewitt, 1999). The Alai Valley is the largest intermountain depression in the upper reaches of the Amudarja River basin that has captured numerous unidentified extensive hummocky deposits descending from the Zaalai Range of Northern Pamir, covering area in more than 800 km2. Such vast hummocky deposits are usually could be formed either: 1) glacially by rapid glacial retreat due to the climate signal or triggered a-climatically glacial changes, such as glacial surge or landslide impact, or 2) during the landslide emplacement. Combination of sediment tests on agglomerates forming only in rock avalanche material (Reznichenko et al., 2012) and detailed geomorphological and sedimentological descriptions of these deposits allowed reconstructing the glacial deposition in the Koman and Lenin glacial catchments with identification of two gigantic rock avalanches and their relation to this glacial

  6. Quaternary geology of Alameda County, and parts of Contra Costa, Santa Clara, San Mateo, San Francisco, Stanislaus, and San Joaquin counties, California: a digital database (United States)

    Helley, E.J.; Graymer, R.W.


    Alameda County is located at the northern end of the Diablo Range of Central California. It is bounded on the north by the south flank of Mount Diablo, one of the highest peaks in the Bay Area, reaching an elevation of 1173 meters (3,849 ft). San Francisco Bay forms the western boundary, the San Joaquin Valley borders it on the east and an arbitrary line from the Bay into the Diablo Range forms the southern boundary. Alameda is one of the nine Bay Area counties tributary to San Francisco Bay. Most of the country is mountainous with steep rugged topography. Alameda County is covered by twenty-eight 7.5' topographic Quadrangles which are shown on the index map. The Quaternary deposits in Alameda County comprise three distinct depositional environments. One, forming a transgressive sequence of alluvial fan and fan-delta facies, is mapped in the western one-third of the county. The second, forming only alluvial fan facies, is mapped in the Livermore Valley and San Joaquin Valley in the eastern part of the county. The third, forming a combination of Eolian dune and estuarine facies, is restricted to the Alameda Island area in the northwestern corner of the county.

  7. Geohydrology and Water Quality of the Valley-Fill Aquifer System in the Upper Sixmile Creek and West Branch Owego Creek Valleys in the Town of Caroline, Tompkins County, New York (United States)

    Miller, Todd S.


    , a school, and several farms and small businesses. Most groundwater that is withdrawn from pumped wells is returned to the groundwater system via septic systems. Groundwater in the upper and basal confined aquifers in the upper Sixmile Creek valley is under artesian conditions everywhere except where the water discharges to springs along bluffs in the western end of the Sixmile Creek valley. Principal sources of recharge to the confined aquifers are (1) the sides of the valley where the confined aquifers may extend up along the flank of the bedrock valley wall and crop out at land surface or are overlain and in contact with surficial coarse-grained deltaic and fluvial sediments that provide a pathway through which direct precipitation and seepage losses from tributary streams can reach the buried aquifers, or (2) where the buried aquifers are isolated and receive recharge only from adjacent fine-grained sediment and bedrock. The base-flow and runoff components of total streamflow at two streamgages, Sixmile Creek at Brooktondale and Sixmile Creek at Bethel Grove, were calculated using hydrograph-separation techniques from 2003 to 2007 discharge records. Base flow constituted 64 and 56 percent of the total annual flow at the Brooktondale and Bethel Grove streamgages, respectively. Water-quality samples were collected from 2003 to 2005, with 10 surface-water samples collected seasonally during base-flow conditions at the Sixmile Creek at Brooktondale streamgage, and 12 samples were collected during base-flow conditions at several selected tributaries from 2004 to 2005. The predominant cation detected in the surface-water samples was calcium, but moderate amounts of magnesium, silica, and sodium were also detected; the major anions were bicarbonate, chloride, and sulfate. Sodium and chloride concentrations were relatively low in all samples but increased downstream from the Sixmile Creek sampling site at Six Hundred Road near Slaterville Springs, NY, to B

  8. Modelling the buried human body environment in upland climes using three contrasting field sites. (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew S; Janaway, Robert C; Holland, Andrew D; Dodson, Hilary I; Baran, Eve; Pollard, A Mark; Tobin, Desmond J


    Despite an increasing literature on the decomposition of human remains, whether buried or exposed, it is important to recognise the role of specific microenvironments which can either trigger or delay the rate of decomposition. Recent casework in Northern England involving buried and partially buried human remains has demonstrated a need for a more detailed understanding of the effect of contrasting site conditions on cadaver decomposition and on the microenvironment created within the grave itself. Pigs (Sus scrofa) were used as body analogues in three inter-related taphonomy experiments to examine differential decomposition of buried human remains. They were buried at three contrasting field sites (pasture, moorland, and deciduous woodland) within a 15 km radius of the University of Bradford, West Yorkshire, UK. Changes to the buried body and the effect of these changes on hair and associated death-scene textile materials were monitored as was the microenvironment of the grave. At recovery, 6, 12 and 24 months post-burial, the extent of soft tissue decomposition was recorded and samples of fat and soil were collected for gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) analysis. The results of these studies demonstrated that (1) soil conditions at these three burial sites has a marked effect on the condition of the buried body but even within a single site variation can occur; (2) the process of soft tissue decomposition modifies the localised burial microenvironment in terms of microbiological load, pH, moisture and changes in redox status. These observations have widespread application for the investigation of clandestine burial and time since deposition, and in understanding changes within the burial microenvironment that may impact on biomaterials such as hair and other associated death scene materials.

  9. Closing the gap between plant ecology and Quaternary palaeoecology. (United States)

    Reitalu, Triin; Kuneš, Petr; Giesecke, Thomas


    Ecology and Quaternary palaeoecology have largely developed as parallel disciplines. Although both pursue related questions, information exchange is often hampered by particularities of the palaeoecological data and a communicational gap has been perceived between the disciplines. Based on selected topics and developments mainly in Quaternary palaeoecology, we show that both disciplines have converged somewhat during recent years, while we still see untapped potential for closer interactions. Macroecology is probably the discipline that most easily combines different time-scales and where co-operations between palaeoecologists, geneticists and vegetation modellers have been inspiring. Quantitative vegetation reconstructions provide robust estimates of tree composition and land cover at different spatial scales, suitable for testing hypotheses about long-term vegetation changes or as quantitative background data in studies on contemporary vegetation patterns. Palaeo-data also hold yet unexplored potential to study the drivers of long-term diversity and aspects of functional diversity may facilitate comparisons between continents and over glacial-interglacial cycles.

  10. Community ecology in a changing environment: Perspectives from the Quaternary. (United States)

    Jackson, Stephen T; Blois, Jessica L


    Community ecology and paleoecology are both concerned with the composition and structure of biotic assemblages but are largely disconnected. Community ecology focuses on existing species assemblages and recently has begun to integrate history (phylogeny and continental or intercontinental dispersal) to constrain community processes. This division has left a "missing middle": Ecological and environmental processes occurring on timescales from decades to millennia are not yet fully incorporated into community ecology. Quaternary paleoecology has a wealth of data documenting ecological dynamics at these timescales, and both fields can benefit from greater interaction and articulation. We discuss ecological insights revealed by Quaternary terrestrial records, suggest foundations for bridging between the disciplines, and identify topics where the disciplines can engage to mutual benefit.

  11. Active tectonics of the Oran (Algeria) Quaternary plain (United States)

    youcef, Bouhadad; rabah, Bensalem; e-hadi, oubaiche


    The Oran region, in north-western Algeria, has been hit several times in the past by destructive moderate-sized and strong earthquakes. The Oran October 9th , 1790 (I0= X) was among the strongest seismic events in the western Mediterranean area comparable, if we consider the described effects, to the El- Asnam (1980, Ms=7.3) and Zemmouri (2003, Mw=6.8) earthquakes. Such strong seismic events requires the presence of major active geological structures that are re-activated several times in the past. In this work we present results of a multi- disciplinary study combining geomorphic analysis, field earthquake geological investigations and geophysical methods, undertaken to study the southern border of the Oran Quaternary plain. A 50 km long, SW-dipping and NE-SW trending active fault has been identified that showing clear quaternary deformation. Keywords: earthquake geology, active fault, geomorphic, geophysics, Algeria.

  12. Mechanically and optically controlled graphene valley filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Fenghua; Jin, Guojun, E-mail: [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)


    We theoretically investigate the valley-dependent electronic transport through a graphene monolayer modulated simultaneously by a uniform uniaxial strain and linearly polarized light. Within the Floquet formalism, we calculate the transmission probabilities and conductances of the two valleys. It is found that valley polarization can appear only if the two modulations coexist. Under a proper stretching of the sample, the ratio of the light intensity and the light frequency squared is important. If this quantity is small, the electron transport is mainly contributed by the valley-symmetric central band and the conductance is valley unpolarized; but when this quantity is large, the valley-asymmetric sidebands also take part in the transport and the valley polarization of the conductance appears. Furthermore, the degree of the polarization can be tuned by the strain strength, light intensity, and light frequency. It is proposed that the detection of the valley polarization can be realized utilizing the valley beam splitting. Thus, a graphene monolayer can be used as a mechanically and optically controlled valley filter.

  13. The Microclimate of Valley Glaciers


    Oerlemans, J.


    Glaciers have fascinated mankind throughout history. Glaciers look solid and robust, but observing them for only a couple of years shows that they are dynamic and change shape all the time. The lower glaciers come, the greater the contrast with the surrounding landscape. Many glaciers in the world enter pastures and forests. It is not surprising that laymen, artists and scientists have reported on the behaviour of large valley glaciers. A wealth of information on glacier fluctuations in histo...

  14. First principles study on Fe based ferromagnetic quaternary Heusler alloys (United States)

    Amudhavalli, A.; Rajeswarapalanichamy, R.; Iyakutti, K.


    The study of stable half-metallic ferromagnetic materials is important from various fundamental and application points of view in condensed matter Physics. Structural phase stability, electronic structure, mechanical and magnetic properties of Fe-based quaternary Heusler alloys XX‧YZ (X = Co, Ni; X‧ = Fe; Y = Ti; Z = Si, Ge, As) for three different phases namely α, β and γ phases of LiMgPdSn crystal structure have been studied by density functional theory with generalized gradient approximation formulated by Perdew, Burke and Ernzerhof (GGA-PBE) and the Hubbard formalism (GGA-PBE + U). This work aims to identify the ferromagnetic and half-metallic properties of XX‧YZ (X = Co, Ni, X‧ = Fe; Y = Ti; Z = Si, Ge, As) quaternary Heusler alloys. The predicted phase stability shows that α-phase is found to be the lowest energy phase at ambient pressure. A pressure-induced structural phase transition is observed in CoFeTiSi, CoFeTiGe, CoFeTiAs, NiFeTiSi, NiFeTiGe and NiFeTiAs at the pressures of 151.6 GPa, 33.7 GPa, 76.4 GPa, 85.3 GPa, 87.7 GPa and 96.5 GPa respectively. The electronic structure reveals that these materials are half metals at normal pressure whereas metals at high pressure. The investigation of electronic structure and magnetic properties are performed to reveal the underlying mechanism of half metallicity. The spin polarized calculations concede that these quaternary Heusler compounds may exhibit the potential candidate in spintronics application. The magnetic moments for these quaternary Heusler alloys in all the three different phases (α, β and γ) are estimated.

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Perfluoro Quaternary Ammonium Anion Exchange Membranes (United States)


    quaternary phosphonium -, tertiary sulfonium-, and guanidinium-based VC 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. WWW.MATERIALSVIEWS.COM JOURNAL OF POLYMER SCIENCE: PART B...the diffusion time, and D is the apparent diffusion coefficient. Membrane samples were wound into a cylinder and sus- pended above saturated salt ...were thoroughly washed to remove residual salts following the LiCl ion exchange treat- ment and dried overnight in a vacuum oven before NMR sample

  16. Ecological impacts of the late Quaternary megaherbivore extinctions. (United States)

    Gill, Jacquelyn L


    As a result of the late Quaternary megafaunal extinctions (50,000-10,000 before present (BP)), most continents today are depauperate of megaherbivores. These extinctions were time-transgressive, size- and taxonomically selective, and were caused by climate change, human hunting, or both. The surviving megaherbivores often act as ecological keystones, which was likely true in the past. In spite of this and extensive research on the causes of the Late Quaternary Extinctions, the long-term ecological consequences of the loss of the Pleistocene megafauna remained unknown until recently, due to difficulties in linking changes in flora and fauna in paleorecords. The quantification of Sporormiella and other dung fungi have recently allowed for explicit tests of the ecological consequences of megafaunal extirpations in the fossil pollen record. In this paper, I review the impacts of the loss of keystone megaherbivores on vegetation in several paleorecords. A growing number of studies support the hypothesis that the loss of the Pleistocene megafauna resulted in cascading effects on plant community composition, vegetation structure and ecosystem function, including increased fire activity, novel communities and shifts in biomes. Holocene biota thus exist outside the broader evolutionary context of the Cenozoic, and the Late Quaternary Extinctions represent a regime shift for surviving plant and animal species.

  17. Protein Flexibility Facilitates Quaternary Structure Assembly and Evolution (United States)

    Marsh, Joseph A.; Teichmann, Sarah A.


    The intrinsic flexibility of proteins allows them to undergo large conformational fluctuations in solution or upon interaction with other molecules. Proteins also commonly assemble into complexes with diverse quaternary structure arrangements. Here we investigate how the flexibility of individual protein chains influences the assembly and evolution of protein complexes. We find that flexibility appears to be particularly conducive to the formation of heterologous (i.e., asymmetric) intersubunit interfaces. This leads to a strong association between subunit flexibility and homomeric complexes with cyclic and asymmetric quaternary structure topologies. Similarly, we also observe that the more nonhomologous subunits that assemble together within a complex, the more flexible those subunits tend to be. Importantly, these findings suggest that subunit flexibility should be closely related to the evolutionary history of a complex. We confirm this by showing that evolutionarily more recent subunits are generally more flexible than evolutionarily older subunits. Finally, we investigate the very different explorations of quaternary structure space that have occurred in different evolutionary lineages. In particular, the increased flexibility of eukaryotic proteins appears to enable the assembly of heteromeric complexes with more unique components. PMID:24866000

  18. GPR investigations in galleries buried inside a karstified limestone formation (United States)

    Rousset, D.; Sénéchal, G.; Gaffet, S.


    A large scientific program of geophysical investigations is presently performed inside the Low-Noise Underground Laboratory (Laboratoire Souterrain à Bas Bruit / LSBB, Rustrel, France) which is an decomissioned underground missile control center, buried in a karstified limestone formation. One of the goals of this project is the understanding of the water circulation inside the structure. This experimental site offers a unique opportunity of perfoming measurements within an unweathered limestone massif. The tunnel has been dug in lower cretaceous limestone which is characterized by a low clay content, high electrical resistivity. The dip is around 25 degrees and vertical faults locally affect the structure. The studied zone is located in south-eastern France (Provence) and is characterized by a mediterranean climate with long dry periods and strong, short events of rain. This phenomenon induces large variations of water content within the karstified limestone from dry to saturated conditions. Analysis of the spatial and temporal variations of the water flow in a karstified limestones needs to define the geological context and the adequate geophysical methods. GPR offers a good tradeoff between resolution and ease of use on one hand and investigation depth on the other hand. We present some GPR profiles which have been acquired in April 2008 after a quite long and strong period of rain, inducing a complete water saturation inside the karstified massif. We used several RAMAC shielded antennas from 100 to 500 MHz. The longest profile is around 600 m long, with a 20 cm spacing, running from a raw to a concrete gallery. These data sets are characterized by a very good signal to noise ratio and a signal penetration, up to 18 meters. Signal processing includes very low frequency filtering, amplitude compensation, keeping lateral relative attenuation and ringing suppression. Final sections includes migration and time to depth conversion or depth migration. The estimated

  19. Regional seismic stratigraphy and controls on the Quaternary evolution of the Cape Hatteras region of the Atlantic passive margin, USA (United States)

    Mallinson, D.J.; Culver, S.J.; Riggs, S.R.; Thieler, E.R.; Foster, D.; Wehmiller, J.; Farrell, K.M.; Pierson, J.


    Seismic and core data, combined with amino acid racemization and strontium-isotope age data, enable the definition of the Quaternary stratigraphic framework and recognition of geologic controls on the development of the modern coastal system of North Carolina, U.S.A. Seven regionally continuous high amplitude reflections are defined which bound six seismic stratigraphic units consisting of multiple regionally discontinuous depositional sequences and parasequence sets, and enable an understanding of the evolution of this margin. Data reveal the progressive eastward progradation and aggradation of the Quaternary shelf. The early Pleistocene inner shelf occurs at a depth of ca. 20-40 m beneath the western part of the modern estuarine system (Pamlico Sound). A mid- to outer shelf lowstand terrace (also early Pleistocene) with shelf sand ridge deposits comprising parasequence sets within a transgressive systems tract, occurs at a deeper level (ca. 45-70 m) beneath the modern barrier island system (the Outer Banks) and northern Pamlico Sound. Seismic and foraminiferal paleoenvironmental data from cores indicate the occurrence of lowstand strandplain shoreline deposits on the early to middle Pleistocene shelf. Middle to late Pleistocene deposits occur above a prominent unconformity and marine flooding surface that truncates underlying units, and contain numerous filled fluvial valleys that are incised into the early and middle Pleistocene deposits. The stratigraphic framework suggests margin progradation and aggradation modified by an increase in the magnitude of sea-level fluctuations during the middle to late Pleistocene, expressed as falling stage, lowstand, transgressive and highstand systems tracts. Thick stratigraphic sequences occur within the middle Pleistocene section, suggesting the occurrence of high capacity fluvial point sources debouching into the area from the west and north. Furthermore, the antecedent topography plays a significant role in the evolution

  20. Plio-Quaternary sedimentation in the Mozambique Channel and in the Zambezi Fan (United States)

    Fierens, Ruth; Droz, Laurence; Toucanne, Samuel; Jorry, Stephan; Raisson, François


    The classical stratigraphic framework stating minimum land-to-sea transfers during periods of high relative sea-level is challenged by marine sedimentary systems in regions where climate (low latitude, monsoon-type) is dominated by the 23-ky cyclicity. Known turbidite systems at the lowest latitudes, like the Nile and Bengal systems (Ducassou et al., 2009; Weber et al., 1997) show that the supply of sediments to the deep oceanic domain could persist during relative high sea-level periods. But turbidite systems at low-latitudes still remain poorly understood. In this work, we use the Zambezi turbidite system as a case study to develop our understanding of the reactivity of deep marine sedimentary systems and land-sea transfers to low-latitude climate variability. The Zambezi Plio-Quaternary turbidite system ( 2000 km long x 500 km wide) is located within the Mozambique Channel (Indian Ocean; 11°-30°S), separating Madagascar from the African continent, in a context of high hydronamic conditions. An extensive dataset acquired strategically along the turbidite system was obtained within the scope of the PAMELA project (scientific project leaded by Ifremer and TOTAL in collaboration with Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Université Rennes 1, Université Pierre and Marie Curie, CNRS et IFPEN) and includes multibeam bathymetry, seismic reflection data and sediment cores. Preliminary results of morphological, seismic and sedimentological study suggest that this turbidite system in the Mozambique Channel is particular: i) The Zambezi Valley currently appears to be dominated by erosional or vacuity process over its entire length, which is observed within the valley as well as on the flanks; ii) Only two restricted zones of tubiditic deposition are identified; iii) The sedimentary record of the last 375 ky shows few turbidites that occurs both during glacial and interglacial periods, with a rate of recurrence of several tens of thousands of years. Additional

  1. Small scale karst features (tube karren) as evidence of a latest Quaternary fossil landslide (United States)

    Stöger, Tobias; Plan, Lukas; Draganits, Erich


    At least since 1933 numerous small dissolutional holes in the ceilings of overhangs and small caves have been known from a restricted area in the Northern Calcareous Alps in Lower Austria but not investigated yet. These tube-shaped structures are a few centimetres in diameter, more or less vertical, taper upwards, are closed at the top and penetrate some tens of centimetres into the Middle Triassic limestone. Very similar features were described by Simms (2002) from the shores of three lakes in western Ireland and termed Röhrenkarren or tube karren. According to his model they formed by condensation corrosion within air pockets trapped by seasonal floods. The features investigated in the present study occur on both sides of a valley in the north eastern part of the Northern Calcareous Alps south of the city Sankt Pölten. Presently there is no lake and so far no paleo lake is known from this area. Based on airborne laser scanning data and field observations in a narrow section of the valley downstream of the tube karren sites, a previously unknown potential fossil landslide was discovered. The clayey silty sediments upstream of the landslide are interpreted as palaeo-lake sediments. This interpretation is supported by the existence of abundant dragonfly eggs within these deposits. The same fine-grained sediments are partly also found inside the tube karren. These observations are interpreted that a landslide-dammed palaeo-lake formed due to the mass movement that blocked the river and the tube karren were formed by seasonal fluctuations of the lake level. Geochronological dating of calcite crusts covering the karren and of the organic material of the dragonfly eggs are on the way. As the karren features look quite fresh and unweathered and from the diffuse shape of the landslide a late Quaternary age is estimated. References Simms, M.J. 2002. The origin of enigmatic, tubular, lake-shore karren: a mechanism for rapid dissolution of limestone in carbonate

  2. Decomposition patterns of buried remains at different intervals in the Central Highveld region of South Africa. (United States)

    Marais-Werner, A; Myburgh, J; Meyer, A; Nienaber, W C; Steyn, M


    Burial of remains is an important factor when one attempts to establish the post-mortem interval as it reduces, and in extreme cases, excludes oviposition by Diptera species. This in turn leads to modification of the decomposition process. The aim of this study was to record decomposition patterns of buried remains using a pig model. The pattern of decomposition was evaluated at different intervals and recorded according to existing guidelines. In order to contribute to our knowledge on decomposition in different settings, a quantifiable approach was followed. Results indicated that early stages of decomposition occurred rapidly for buried remains within 7-33 days. Between 14 and 33 days, buried pigs displayed common features associated with the early to middle stages of decomposition, such as discoloration and bloating. From 33 to 90 days advanced decomposition manifested on the remains, and pigs then reached a stage of advanced decomposition where little change was observed in the next ±90-183 days after interment. Throughout this study, total body scores remained higher for surface remains. Overall, buried pigs followed a similar pattern of decomposition to those of surface remains, although at a much slower rate when compared with similar post-mortem intervals in surface remains. In this study, the decomposition patterns and rates of buried remains were mostly influenced by limited insect activity and adipocere formation which reduces the rate of decay in a conducive environment (i.e. burial in soil).

  3. Polycationic antimicrobial dendrimers: a comparison of alkyl pyridinium,quaternary ammonium, quaternary phosphonium and tertiary sulfonium salts (United States)

    Chen, Chris; Cooper, Stuart


    Polycationic biocides usually kill bacteria through the interactions of the positively charged head groups with negatively charged bacteria and the interactions of the hydrophobic segments with phospholipid cell membranes, which implies that high local charge densities and a large number of hydrophobic groups would lead to enhanced biocidal potency. The advent of dendrimers offers us the first-ever opportunity to achieve the desired high local density. We have demonstrated that dimethyl dodecyl ammonium chloride functionalized polypropylene imine dendrimers are over 100 times more potent than their small molecule ounterparts. In this study, quaternary ammonium, quaternary phosphonium, alkyl pyridinium and tertiary sulfonium salts based on polypropylene imine dendrimers have been synthesized and characterized. Their antimicrobial properties have been quantified with a novel bioluminescence method. The structure-activity relationship of these polycationic dendrimers has also been investigated to elucidate the molecular mechanism for the enhanced antimicrobial effects.

  4. Ultrasmooth metallic films with buried nanostructures for backside reflection-mode plasmonic biosensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindquist, N.C.; Johnson, T.W.; Jose, J.; Otto, L.M. [Laboratory of Nanostructures and Biosensing, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Oh, S.H. [Laboratory of Nanostructures and Biosensing, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Department of Biophysics and Chemical Biology, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)


    A new plasmonic device architecture based on ultrasmooth metallic surfaces with buried plasmonic nanostructures is presented. Using template-stripping techniques, ultrathin gold films with less than 5 Aa surface roughness are optically coupled to an arbitrary arrangement of buried metallic gratings, rings, and nanodots. As a prototypical example, linear plasmonic gratings buried under an ultrasmooth 20 nm thick gold surface for biosensing are presented. The optical illumination and collection are completely decoupled from the microfluidic delivery of liquid samples due to the backside, reflection-mode geometry. This allows for sensing with opaque or highly scattering liquids. With the buried nanostructure design, high sensitivity and decoupled backside (reflective) optical access are maintained, as with traditional prism-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors. In addition, the benefits offered by nanoplasmonic sensors such as spectral tunability and high-resolution, wide-field SPR imaging with normal-incidence epi-illumination that is simple to construct and align are gained as well. Beyond sensing, the buried plasmonic nanostructures with ultrasmooth metallic surfaces can benefit nanophotonic waveguides, surface-enhanced spectroscopy, nanolithography, and optical trapping. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Solvent exchange of buried water and hydrogen exchange of peptide NH groups hydrogen bonded to buried waters in bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuechsen, E.; Hayes, J.M.; Ramaprasad, S.; Copie, V.; Woodward, C.


    Solvent exchange of /sup 18/O-labeled buried water in bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI), trypsin, and trypsin-BPTI complex is measured by high-precision isotope ratio mass spectroscopy. Buried water is labeled by equilibrium of the protein in /sup 18/O-enriched water. Protein samples are then rapidly dialyzed against water of normal isotope composition by gel filtration and stored. The exchangeable /sup 18/O label eluting with the protein in 10-300 s is determined by an H/sub 2/O-CO/sub 2/ equilibration technique. Exchange of buried waters with solvent water is complete before 10-15 s in BPTI, trypsin, and BPTI-trypsin, as well as in lysozyme and carboxypeptidase measured as controls. When in-exchange dialysis and storage are carried out at pH greater than or equal to 2.5, trypsin-BPTI and trypsin, but not free BPTI, have the equivalent of one /sup 18/O atom that exchanges slowly (after 300 s and before several days). This oxygen is probably covalently bound to a specific site in trypsin. When in-exchange dialysis and storage are carried out at pH 1.1, the equivalent of three to seven /sup 18/O atoms per molecule is associated with the trypsin-BPTI complex, apparently due to nonspecific covalent /sup 18/O labeling of carboxyl groups at low pH. In addition to /sup 18/O exchange of buried waters, the hydrogen isotope exchange of buried NH groups H bonded to buried waters was also measured. Their base-catalyzed exchange rate constants are on the order of NH groups that in the crystal are exposed to solvent and hydrogen-bonded main chain O, and their pH/sub min/ is similar to that for model compounds. The pH dependence of their exchange rate constants suggests that direct exchange with water may significantly contribute to their observed exchange rate.

  6. Spin-Valley Beam Splitter in Graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Yu; Shi, Zhi-Gui; Li, Shun; Zhang, Jian


    The fourfold spin-valley degenerate degrees of freedom in bulk graphene can support rich physics and novel applications associated with multicomponent quantum Hall effects and linear conductance filtering. In this work, we study how to break the spin-valley degeneracy of electron beams spatially. We propose a spin-valley beam splitter in a gated ferromagnetic/pristine/strained graphene structure. We demonstrate that, in a full resonant tunneling regime for all spin-valley beam components, the formation of quasi-standing waves can lead four giant lateral Goos-H\\"{a}nchen shifts as large as the transverse beam width, while the interplay of the two modulated regions can lead difference of resonant angles or energies for the four spin-valley flavors, manifesting an effective spin-valley beam splitting effect. The beam splitting effect is found to be controllable by the gating and strain.

  7. Quaternary geology of the DFDP-2 drill holes, Alpine Fault, New Zealand (United States)

    Upton, P.; Cox, S.; Howarth, J. D.; Sutherland, R.; Langridge, R.; Barth, N. C.; Atkins, C.


    A 240 m-thick Quaternary sediment sequence in Whataroa Valley was much thicker than predicted before drilling. DFDP-2A and DFDP-2B were mostly drilled through the sequence by dual-rotary method using air or water circulation, returning cuttings bagged at 1 or 2 m sample intervals. Some sorting/bias and contamination occurred. Core was retrieved in DFDP-2A from 125-160 m, with highly variable recovery (0-100%) and mixed preservation/quality. The sequence is interpreted to comprise: fluvial-glacial gravels (0-58 m); grading downward into sandy lake delta sediments (59-77 m); overlying a monotonous sequence of lake mud and silts, with rare pebble-cobble diamictite (77-206 m); with a basal unit (206-240 m) containing coarse cobbles and boulders that may represent a distinct till/diamictite. Evidence has yet to be found for any marine influence in lowermost sediments, despite deposition at least 120 m below present day sea level, and potentially 200 m bsl if uplift has occurred on the Alpine Fault. When corrected for uplift the lacustrine sequence broadly correlates to those in present Lakes Rotokina and Wahapo, suggesting a substantial (~100 km2) pro-glacial lake once covered the area. Radiocarbon dating of plant fragments indicate 70 m of upper lacustrine and deltaic sediments (129-59 m) were deposited rapidly between 16350-15800 Cal BP. Overlying alluvial gravels are much younger (Holocene alluvial gravel deposition. Future work will address: (1) the nature and history of sedimentation, including the lithology and origin of sediments; (2) what, if any, geological record of tectonics (movement) or Alpine Fault earthquakes (shaking) the sediments contain.

  8. California's restless giant: the Long Valley Caldera (United States)

    Hill, David P.; Bailey, Roy A.; Hendley, James W.; Stauffer, Peter H.; Marcaida, Mae


    Scientists have monitored geologic unrest in the Long Valley, California, area since 1980. In that year, following a swarm of strong earthquakes, they discovered that the central part of the Long Valley Caldera had begun actively rising. Unrest in the area persists today. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) continues to provide the public and civil authorities with current information on the volcanic hazard at Long Valley and is prepared to give timely warnings of any impending eruption.

  9. Hydrogeochemical investigation of groundwater in Jericho area in the Jordan Valley, West Bank, Palestine (United States)

    Da'as, Ammar; Walraevens, Kristine


    Water resources in the Middle East, particularly in Palestine, are extremely scarce and costly. The Jordan Valley is a fertile productive region, described as the food basket of Palestine. Groundwater originating from the Quaternary Aquifer System forms the main water resource in the Jordan Valley. However, the quality of this groundwater is threatened mainly by the high chloride concentration. The most representative area of the Jordan Valley is Jericho area, which was chosen to be the study area. The study area (65 km2) is almost a flat area with a gentle decline towards the east. It is the lowest land on earth with ground levels reaching 400 meters below sea level (mbsl) near the Dead Sea shores. The Quaternary Aquifer System in the study area could be divided into an upper alluvial layer with thickness varying from 40 to 150 m and a lower low-permeable Lisan layer, which crops out in the eastern part of the study area with thickness over 200 m. Hydrogeochemical investigation reveals that the water is generally earth alkaline with higher content of earth alkalis and prevailing chloride. According to Stuyfzand (1986) and Piper's (1944) classification systems, water type in the Alluvial Aquifer varies from fresh hard CaMgHCO3 or MgCaHCO3 water in the west and northwest to brackish very-hard MgNaCl or NaMgCl in the middle. In the east, the water becomes brackish-salt extremely-hard MgNaCl or NaCl. Groundwater quality is deteriorating (increase in salinity) spatially towards the east and vertically with increasing depth (when nearing the Lisan Formation). As an indication of groundwater salinity, total dissolved solids show some variability with time over the last 21 years (1983-2004). In short-time scale, there are high seasonal and yearly fluctuations with regard to salinity, specifically in Cl- and SO42- contents. Spring water from the Upper Cenomanian Aquifer (CaHCO3) represents the fresh end member, while Rift Valley Brines (RVB-CaNaCl) and Dead Sea Brines (DSB

  10. Method and apparatus for increasing resistance of bipolar buried layer integrated circuit devices to single-event upsets (United States)

    Zoutendyk, John A. (Inventor)


    Bipolar transistors fabricated in separate buried layers of an integrated circuit chip are electrically isolated with a built-in potential barrier established by doping the buried layer with a polarity opposite doping in the chip substrate. To increase the resistance of the bipolar transistors to single-event upsets due to ionized particle radiation, the substrate is biased relative to the buried layer with an external bias voltage selected to offset the built-in potential just enough (typically between about +0.1 to +0.2 volt) to prevent an accumulation of charge in the buried-layer-substrate junction.

  11. Geomorphological characteristics of increased landslide activity in the Gudbrandsdalen valley, Norway (United States)

    Heyerdahl, Håkon; Høydal, Øyvind


    The Gudbrandsdalen valley in Eastern Norway lies in a region where annual precipitation is generally low (down to 300 mm/year). The landslide activity has consequently historically been low, although the lower part of the valley sides generally is draped with thick layers of Quaternary deposits, primarily of glacial or glaciofluvial origin. The perception of natural hazards in the valley was previously primarily connected to flooding in the main river in the valley bottom during early summer, due to large discharges resulting from snowmelt in the mountainous regions west and east of the valley. However, several high-intensity events have changed the image of the region. Starting with a localized, but intense, landslide event in the Northern part of the valley in year 2008, two larger events covering almost the entire valley occurred in the years 2011 and 2013. A high number of landslides was triggered in all these events, including many flash floods and debris flows/debris slides in small and steep tributary rivers along the valley slopes. Landslide triggering covers different release mechanisms: In 2008, landslides were triggered without precipitation in not-frozen soil deposits without snow cover in the lower part of the valley. Groundwater flow through the permeable bedrock ("Otta schist") resulting from snow-melt in the elevated mountainous areas caused landslide triggering due to positive pore-water pressures forming at the bedrock surface below soil deposits, or at depressions in the terrain. Subsequent rainfall resulted in even more landslides being released. In later events (years 2011 and 2013) many landslides were caused by surface water taking new paths downslope, often due to man-made changes in existing waterways (typically poorly planned drainage solutions or new roads). Relatively small discharges in slopes with unconsolidated and easily erodible glacial deposits (typically lateral moraine) in many cases lead to small initial slides that down

  12. Oxygen dynamics around buried lesser sandeels Ammodytes tobianus (Linnaeus 1785): mode of ventilation and oxygen requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Jane W; Stahl, Henrik J; Steffensen, John F


    down along the body, referred to as ;plume ventilation'. Yet, within approximately 30 min the oxic plume was replenished by oxygen-depleted water from the gills. The potential for cutaneous respiration by the buried fish was thus of no quantitative importance. Calculations derived by three independent......The oxygen environment around buried sandeels (Ammodytes tobianus) was monitored by planar optodes. The oxygen penetration depth at the sediment interface was only a few mm. Thus fish, typically buried at 1-4 cm depth, were generally in anoxic sediment. However, they induced an advective transport...... plume with fish extracted 86.2+/-4.8% (N=7) of the oxygen from the inspired water. However, 13% of the investigated fish (2 of 15) occasionally wriggled their bodies and thereby transported almost fully air-saturated water...

  13. Electron Temperature Measurement of Buried Layer Targets Using Time Resolved K-shell Spectroscopy (United States)

    Marley, Edward; Foord, M. E.; Shepherd, R.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Brown, G.; Chen, H.; Emig, J.; Schneider, M.; Widmann, K.; Scott, H.; London, R.; Martin, M.; Wilson, B.; Iglesias, C.; Mauche, C.; Whitley, H.; Nilsen, J.; Hoarty, D.; James, S.; Brown, C. R. D.; Hill, M.; Allan, P.; Hobbs, L.


    Short pulse laser-heated buried layer experiments have been performed with the goal of creating plasmas with mass densities >= 1 g/cm3 and electron temperatures >= 500 eV. The buried layer geometry has the advantage of rapid energy deposition before significant hydrodynamic expansion occurs. For brief periods (< 40 ps) this provides a low gradient, high density platform for studying emission characteristics under extreme plasma conditions. A study of plasma conditions achievable using the Orion laser facility has been performed. Time resolved K-shell spectroscopy was used to determine the temperature evolution of buried layer aluminum foil targets. The measured evolution is compared to a 2-D PIC simulation done using LSP, which shows late time heating from the non-thermal electron population. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  14. Burying behaviour of two sympatric crab species: Cancer magister and Cancer productus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain J. McGaw


    Full Text Available The mechanics and emergence patterns associated with burying behaviour were investigated in the Dungeness crab, Cancer magister, and the red rock crab, Cancer productus. Cancer magister used both the legs and chelae to excavate the sand, whereas Cancer productus used the legs to pull and push itself down into the sediment only using the chelae in a final push beneath the sediment. Several individuals of each species remained buried for over 50 h, which was accomplished by alterations in ventilatory physiology. More commonly, both species exhibited an endogenous rhythm of circadian periodicity, with peak periods of emergence from the sand occurring during nocturnal high tides. Although burial may act as a means of predator evasion and to ambush prey, it appears the primary reason may be to conserve energy. These two species of crabs often occur sympatrically; the difference in behaviours is closely related to previously reported differences in physiological mechanisms between the two species when buried.

  15. 3D Imaging of Dielectric Objects Buried under a Rough Surface by Using CSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Tetik


    Full Text Available A 3D scalar electromagnetic imaging of dielectric objects buried under a rough surface is presented. The problem has been treated as a 3D scalar problem for computational simplicity as a first step to the 3D vector problem. The complexity of the background in which the object is buried is simplified by obtaining Green’s function of its background, which consists of two homogeneous half-spaces, and a rough interface between them, by using Buried Object Approach (BOA. Green’s function of the two-part space with planar interface is obtained to be used in the process. Reconstruction of the location, shape, and constitutive parameters of the objects is achieved by Contrast Source Inversion (CSI method with conjugate gradient. The scattered field data that is used in the inverse problem is obtained via both Method of Moments (MoM and Comsol Multiphysics pressure acoustics model.

  16. AlGaAs burying growth for InGaAsP/GaAs buried heterostructure lasers by liquid-phase epitaxy (United States)

    Ishikawa, Joji; Tayama, Satoshi; Ito, Toshio; Takahashi, N. Shin-ichi; Kurita, Shoichi


    Liquid-phase-epitaxial (LPE) growth of Al xGa 1- xAs layers at 700°C has been used in the fabrication of 0.8 μ m InGaAsP buried heterostructure (BH) lasers grown on GaAs substrates. The solidus composition, X, was 0.66. By etching the mesa in KKI solution at 3°C for 2 min after a mesa etch in Br-methanol solution, high quality BH wafers with smooth surfaces and interfaces were reproducibly obtained after the AlGaAs secondary BH growth. The InGaAsP active region was entirely surrounded by InGaAsP cladding layers and AlGaAs burying layers providing both lateral and vertical carrier and optical confinement. Lasing action at room temperature under pulsed operation was achieved.

  17. A landscape scale valley confinement algorithm: Delineating unconfined valley bottoms for geomorphic, aquatic, and riparian applications (United States)

    David E. Nagel; John M. Buffington; Sharon L. Parkes; Seth Wenger; Jaime R. Goode


    Valley confinement is an important landscape characteristic linked to aquatic habitat, riparian diversity, and geomorphic processes. This report describes a GIS program called the Valley Confinement Algorithm (VCA), which identifies unconfined valleys in montane landscapes. The algorithm uses nationally available digital elevation models (DEMs) at 10-30 m resolution to...

  18. Late Quaternary activity along the Ferrara thrust inferred from stratigraphic architecture and geophysical surveys (United States)

    Stefani, Marco; Bignardi, Samuel; Caputo, Riccardo; Minarelli, Luca; Abu-Zeid, Nasser; Santarato, Giovanni


    Since Late Miocene, the Emilia-Romagna portion of the Po Plain-Adriatic foredeep basin was progressively affected by compressional deformation, due to the northward propagation of the Apennines fold-and-thrust belt. The major tectonic structures within the basin have been recognised and are relatively well known, thanks to the widespread, even if outdated, seismic survey, performed after WW II, for hydrocarbon exploration. More recently, a large amount of surface and shallow-subsurface information has been provided by the CARG geological mapping project. The region therefore provides a valuable opportunity to discuss the genetic relationship between tectonic deformation, eustatic-paleoclimatic fluctuations, and depositional architecture. The activity of blind thrusts and fault-propagation folds induced repeated angular unconformities and impressive lateral variations in the Pliocene-Quaternary stratigraphy, causing thickness changes, from a few metres, close to the Apennines piedmont line, to more than 9 km, in fast subsiding depocenters (e.g. Lido di Savio). In the Ferrara region, the post-Miocene succession ranges from about 4 km, west of Sant'Agostino, to less than 200 m, on the Casaglia anticline, where Late Quaternary fluvial strata rest on Miocene marine marls, with an angular unconformity relationship. In this sector of the Po Plain, the tip-line of the northernmost thrust has been reconstructed north of the Po River (Occhiobello) and is associated with the growth of a large fold (Ferrara-Casaglia anticline), cross-cut by a complex splay of minor backthrusts and reverse faults. The thrust-anticline structure hosts an energy producing geothermal field, whose hydrogeological behaviour is largely influenced by the fracture pattern. The Apennines frontal thrust probably provided the seismic source for the earthquakes that severely damaged Ferrara, during the 1570 a.D. fall season, as documented by the structural damage still visible in many historic buildings (e

  19. Database and Map of Quaternary Faults and Folds in Peru and its Offshore Region (United States)

    Machare, Jose; Fenton, Clark H.; Machette, Michael N.; Lavenu, Alain; Costa, Carlos; Dart, Richard L.


    This publication consists of a main map of Quaternary faults and fiolds of Peru, a table of Quaternary fault data, a region inset map showing relative plate motion, and a second inset map of an enlarged area of interest in southern Peru. These maps and data compilation show evidence for activity of Quaternary faults and folds in Peru and its offshore regions of the Pacific Ocean. The maps show the locations, ages, and activity rates of major earthquake-related features such as faults and fault-related folds. These data are accompanied by text databases that describe these features and document current information on their activity in the Quaternary.

  20. Hot Spot Induced Cenozoic Volcanism in the Upper Rajang Valley, Sarawak - Is Borneo Rifting? (United States)

    Taib, N.


    The Upper Rajang Valley covers a large area in the northern interior of the island of Borneo, in the Malaysian state of Sarawak . It is underlain by the Cretaceous to Late Eocene deep to shallow marine sediments of the Rajang Group. Within this area are several Cenozoic volcanic edifices, which to date have been sparsely studied. Two distinct episodes of volcanism are recognized - the first, dated early Eocene, consists of K-rich basalts, and is represented by the Bukit Mersing volcanics, which were erupted conformably onto deep water turbidites of the Rajang Group. The second, far more extensive, is dated Pliocene to Quaternary, and is bimodal, consisting mainly of early dacite and rhyodacite tuffs, with a smaller amount of later basalt, forming several volcanic plateaus and massifs (Hose Mountains, Usun Apau, Linau-Balui, Nieuwenhuis Mountains and others). They lie unconformably over pre-Miocene sediments, the Linau-Balui basalts having been erupted onto Quaternary river terraces. Mantle-normalized REE and incompatible trace element spider plots reveal that the Bukit Mersing basalts have geochemical affinity with Oceanic Island Basalts (OIB) and rift basalts, being enriched in LREEs and Most Incompatible Elements, and no Eu anomaly. Preliminary trace element data for several basalt samples from Usun Apau also show Oceanic Island/Rift affinity. Bimodal volcanism is most often associated with rift environments. Efforts are being made to radiometrically date the volcanics, in part to determine the possibility of future eruptions. The Upper Rajang Valley is remote, covered in tropical rainforest and is very sparsely populated. At this time, there is no information concerning signs of imminent volcanism, such as hot springs and microseismicity.

  1. Age and significance of the Quaternary cemented deposits of the Duje Valley (Picos de Europa, Northern Spain) (United States)

    Villa, Elisa; Stoll, Heather; Farias, Pedro; Adrados, Luna; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Cheng, Hai


    Cemented calcareous breccias appear in the Picos de Europa (Cantabrian Mountains, Spain) resting on glacially abraded surfaces and covered by moraines. U/Th dating of the calcite coating the clasts was successful in two samples, the oldest one indicating that the breccias accumulated during or prior to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11, and the youngest indicating later cementation during MIS 8. The former introduces a limit for the age of the glaciation preceding the breccias, which cannot correspond to an event younger than MIS 12. This is the oldest absolute age so far obtained for intercalated glacial/interglacial deposits of the Iberian Peninsula.

  2. Active faulting, 3-D geological architecture and Plio-Quaternary structural evolution of extensional basins in the central Apennine chain, Italy (United States)

    Gori, Stefano; Falcucci, Emanuela; Ladina, Chiara; Marzorati, Simone; Galadini, Fabrizio


    The general basin and range Apennine topographic characteristic is generally attributed to the presently active normal fault systems, whose long-term activity (throughout the Quaternary) is supposed to have been responsible for the creation of morphological/structural highs and lows. By coupling field geological survey and geophysical investigations, we reconstructed the 3-D geological model of an inner tectonic basin of the central Apennines, the Subequana Valley, bounded to the northeast by the southern segment of one of the major active and seismogenic normal faults of the Apennines, known as the Middle Aterno Valley-Subequana Valley fault system. Our analyses revealed that, since the late Pliocene, the basin evolved in a double half-graben configuration through a polyphase tectonic development. An early phase, Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene in age, was controlled by the ENE-WSW-striking and SSE-dipping Avezzano-Bussi fault, that determined the formation of an early depocentre towards the N-NW. Subsequently, the main fault became the NW-SE-striking faults, which drove the formation during the Quaternary of a new fault-related depocentre towards the NE. By considering the available geological information, a similar structural evolution has likely involved three close tectonic basins aligned along the Avezzano-Bussi fault, namely the Fucino Basin, the Subequana Valley, and the Sulmona Basin, and it has been probably experienced by other tectonic basins of the chain. The present work therefore points out the role of pre-existing transverse tectonic structures, inherited by previous tectonic phases, in accommodating the ongoing tectonic deformation and, consequently, in influencing the structural characteristics of the major active normal faults. This has implications in terms of earthquake fault rupture propagation and segmentation. Lastly, the morpho-tectonic setting of the Apennine chain results from the superposition of deformation events whose geological

  3. Numerical and experimental investigation of flow and scour around a half-buried sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dixen, Martin; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen


    The paper describes the results of a numerical and experimental investigation of flow and scour around a half-buried sphere exposed to a steady current. Hot-film bed shear stress and Laser Doppler Anemometer measurements were made with a half sphere mounted on the smooth bed in an open channel......-buried sphere in currents. The morphologic model includes a sediment-transport description, and a description of surface-layer sand slides for bed slopes exceeding the angle of repose. The sediment transport description includes, for the first time, the effect of externally-generated turbulence (induced...

  4. Centrifuge modelling of lateral displacement of buried pipelines; Modelagem fisica centrifuga de flambagem lateral de dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Jose Renato Moreira da Silva de; Almeida, Marcio de Souza Soares de; Marques, Maria Esther Soares; Almeida, Maria Cascao Ferreira de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE); Costa, Alvaro Maia da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)


    This work discusses soil-structure interaction applied to the buckling phenomena of buried pipelines subjected to heated oil flow. A set of physical modelling tests on lateral buckling of pipelines buried on soft clay is presented using COPPE/UFRJ geotechnical centrifuge. A 1:30 pipeline model was moved side ward through a soft clay layer during centrifuge flight, varying the burial depth, in order to simulate the lateral buckling in plane strain condition. The results show different behaviour concerning horizontal and vertical forces measured at pipeline level due to soil reaction. (author)

  5. Stability and morphological and molecular-genetic identification of algae in buried soils (United States)

    Temraleeva, A. D.; Moskalenko, S. V.; El'tsov, M. V.; Vagapov, I. M.; Ovchinnikov, A. Yu.; Gugalinskaya, L. A.; Alifanov, V. M.; Pinskii, D. L.


    Living cultural strains of the green algae `Chlorella' mirabilis and Muriella terrestris have been isolated from buried soils, and their identification has been confirmed by morphological and molecular-genetic analysis. It has been shown that the retention of their viability could be related to their small size and the presence of sporopollenin in cell walls. The effect of methods for the reactivation of dormant microbial forms on the growth of algae in paleosols has been estimated. The total DNA content has been determined in buried and recent background soils, and relationship between DNA and the presence and age of burial has been established.

  6. Late Quaternary chronostratigraphic framework of terraces and alluvium along the lower Ohio River, southwestern Indiana and western Kentucky, USA (United States)

    Counts, Ronald C.; Murari, Madhav K.; Owen, Lewis A.; Mahan, Shannon; Greenan, Michele


    The lower Ohio River valley is a terraced fluvial landscape that has been profoundly influenced by Quaternary climate change and glaciation. A modern Quaternary chronostratigraphic framework was developed for the lower Ohio River valley using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating and allostratigraphic mapping to gain insights into the nature of fluvial responses to glacial–interglacial/stadial–interstadial transitions and Holocene climate change. River deposits, T0 (youngest) to T7 (oldest), were mapped along a 75 km reach of the lower Ohio River and were dated using 46 OSL and 5 radiocarbon samples. The examination of cores combined with OSL and radiocarbon dating shows that fluvial sediments older than marine oxygen isotope stage (MIS) 2 are present only in the subsurface. Aggradation during MIS 6 (Illinoian glaciation) filled the valley to within ∼7 m of the modern floodplain, and by ∼114 ka (MIS 5e/Sangamon interglacial) the Ohio River had scoured the MIS 6 sediments to ∼22 m below the modern floodplain surface. There were no fluvial sediments in the valley with ages between MIS 5e and the middle of MIS 3. The MIS 3 ages (∼39 ka) and stratigraphic position of T5 deposits suggest the Ohio River aggraded 8–14 m during MIS 4 or MIS 3. Near the end of MIS 3, the Ohio River incised the mid Last Glacial (mid-Wisconsinan) deposits ∼10 m and began aggrading again by ∼30 ka. Aggradation continued into MIS 2, with maximum MIS 2 aggradation occurring before ∼21 ka, which is coincident with the global Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). As the Ohio River adjusted to changing fluxes in sediment load and discharge following the LGM, it formed a sequence of fill-cut terraces in the MIS 2 outwash that get progressively younger with decreasing elevation, ranging in age from ∼21 ka to ∼13 ka. From ∼14 ka to ∼13 ka the Ohio River rapidly incised ∼3 m to form a new terrace, and by ∼12 ka at the onset of the Holocene, the Ohio River

  7. Quaternary geology and waste disposal in South Norfolk, England (United States)

    Gray, J. M.

    South Norfolk is dominated by the till plain of the Anglian Glaciation in eastern England, and therefore there are very few disused gravel pits and quarries suitable for the landfilling of municipal waste. Consequently, in May 1991, Norfolk County Council applied for planning permission to develop an above ground or 'landraise' waste disposal site at a disused U.S. World War II Airfield at Hardwick in South Norfolk. The proposal involved excavating a pit 2-4 m deep into the Lowestoft Till and overfilling it to create a hill of waste up to 10 m above the existing till plain. In general, leachate containment was to be achieved by utilising the relatively low permeability till on the floor of the site, but with reworking of the till around the site perimeter because of sand lenses in the upper part of the till. This paper examines three aspects of the proposal and the wider issues relating to Quaternary geology and waste disposal planning in South Norfolk: (i) the suitability of the till as a natural leachate containment system; (ii) the appropriateness of the landraise landform; and (iii) alternative sites. A Public Inquiry into the proposals was held in January/February 1993 and notification of refusal of planning permission was published in August 1993. Among the grounds for refusal were an inadequate knowledge of the site's geology and hydrogeology and the availability of alternative sites. The paper concludes by stressing that a knowledge of Quaternary geology is crucial to both the planning and design of landfill sites in areas of glacial/Quaternary sediments.

  8. Quaternary evolution of the Caravelas strandplain - Southern Bahia State - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C.S. Andrade


    Full Text Available An evolutionary model is proposed for the Caravelas strandplain. The model encompasses integration of: (i mapping of Quaternary deposits, (ii cartography of beach-ridge alignments and their truncations, (iii relative sea-level history, (iv development history of the Abrolhos coral reefs, (v vibra-coring and (vi C14 dating of Quaternary deposits. Seven major evolutionary stages were identified. These stages show that the strandplain has had its Quaternary evolution strongly controlled by relative sea-level changes. In addition, the development of the Abrolhos coral reefs has also played an important role in dispersion and accumulation of sediments along the coastline, causing localized inversion in longshore sediment transport.Um modelo evolutivo foi proposto para a planície costeira de Caravelas. Este modelo engloba a integração do: (i mapeamento dos depósitos Quaternários, (ii cartografia dos alinhamentos dos cordões litorâneos e truncamentos destes, (iii história do nível relativo do mar, (iv história do desenvolvimento dos recifes de corais de Abrolhos, (v testemunhos e (vi datação C14 dos depósitos Quaternários. Foram identificados sete principais estágios evolutivos. Estes estágios mostram que a planície costeira teve sua evolução Quaternária fortemente controlada pelas variações do nível relativo do mar. Além disso, o desenvolvimento dos recifes de corais de Abrolhos também desempenhou um papel importante na dispersão e acumulação de sedimentos ao longo da costa, causando inversão no transporte de sedimentos.

  9. An aminostratigraphy for the British Quaternary based on Bithynia opercula. (United States)

    Penkman, Kirsty E H; Preece, Richard C; Bridgland, David R; Keen, David H; Meijer, Tom; Parfitt, Simon A; White, Tom S; Collins, Matthew J


    Aminostratigraphies of Quaternary non-marine deposits in Europe have been previously based on the racemization of a single amino acid in aragonitic shells from land and freshwater molluscs. The value of analysing multiple amino acids from the opercula of the freshwater gastropod Bithynia, which are composed of calcite, has been demonstrated. The protocol used for the isolation of intra-crystalline proteins from shells has been applied to these calcitic opercula, which have been shown to more closely approximate a closed system for indigenous protein residues. Original amino acids are even preserved in bithyniid opercula from the Eocene, showing persistence of indigenous organics for over 30 million years. Geochronological data from opercula are superior to those from shells in two respects: first, in showing less natural variability, and second, in the far better preservation of the intra-crystalline proteins, possibly resulting from the greater stability of calcite. These features allow greater temporal resolution and an extension of the dating range beyond the early Middle Pleistocene. Here we provide full details of the analyses for 480 samples from 100 horizons (75 sites), ranging from Late Pliocene to modern. These show that the dating technique is applicable to the entire Quaternary. Data are provided from all the stratotypes from British stages to have yielded opercula, which are shown to be clearly separable using this revised method. Further checks on the data are provided by reference to other type-sites for different stages (including some not formally defined). Additional tests are provided by sites with independent geochronology, or which can be associated with a terrace stratigraphy or biostratigraphy. This new aminostratigraphy for the non-marine Quaternary deposits of southern Britain provides a framework for understanding the regional geological and archaeological record. Comparison with reference to sites yielding independent geochronology, in

  10. Vernal Pool Distribution - Central Valley, 2005 [ds650 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — "Great Valley Vernal Pool Distribution", originally mapped by Bob Holland, 2005. This dataset contains vernal pool areas mapped over Califorina's Central Valley,...

  11. Valley filtering due to orbital magnetic moment in bilayer graphene (United States)

    Park, Chang-Soo


    We investigate the effect of valley-dependent orbital magnetic moment on the transmission of quasiparticles through biased bilayer graphene npn and pnp junctions in the presence of out-of-plane magnetic field. It is shown that the valley-polarized Zeeman-like energy splitting, due to the interaction of orbital magnetic moment with magnetic field, can suppress the transmission of quasiparticles of one valley while transmitting those of the other valley. This valley-selective transmission property can be exploited for valley filtering. We demonstrate that the npn and pnp junction, respectively, filters off the K‧-valley and K-valley particles, with nearly perfect degree of filtration.

  12. 27 CFR 9.100 - Mesilla Valley. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mesilla Valley. 9.100 Section 9.100 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Mesilla Valley viticultural area is located within Dona Ana County, New Mexico, and El Paso County, Texas...

  13. Valley Pearl’ table grape (United States)

    Valley Pearl’ is an early to mid-season, white seedless table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) suitable for commercial table grape production where V. vinifera can be grown. Significant characteristics of ‘Valley Pearl’ are its high and consistent fruit production on spur pruned vines and large round berr...

  14. Geomorphology of outflow part Batova river valley (United States)

    Vulcheva-Georgieva, Ivalena; Stankova, Svetla


    Firths are geomoiphological and hydrological sites typical for flat, neutral coast of no tidal sea basins. There in the greatest extend is preserved the geological column of the correlative Pleistocene- Holocene sediments. They make possible to reveal the Quaternary evolution of the contact zone "land-sea". Firths are one of the most reliable indicators for the Quaternary Earth crust movements. Along the Black Sea coast most widely are developed the firths in the north - west and the west periphery, where they form a classic firth type coast. This report examines the results of complex studies of Batova river firth, located (developed) on the North Bulgarian Black Sea coast.

  15. Geomorphic investigation of the Late-Quaternary landforms in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Suru, Doda and Zanskar river valleys in the semi-arid region of Southern Zanskar Ranges (SZR) preserve a rich repository of the glacial and fluvial landforms, alluvial fans, and lacustrine deposits. Based on detailed field observations, geomorphic mapping and limited optical ages, we suggest four glaciations of ...

  16. Mutagenic activity of quaternary ammonium salt derivatives of carbohydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Dmochowska


    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on a series of quaternary ammonium salt (QAS derivatives of glucopyranosides with an elongated hydrophobic hydrocarbon chain. The new N-[6-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxyhexyl]ammonium bromides and their O-acetyl derivatives were analyzed via 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The mutagenic activity of the newly synthesized QAS was investigated using two different techniques: The Vibrio harveyi luminescence assay and the Ames test. The obtained results support previous findings contesting QAS safety and indicate that QAS, specifically pyridinium derivatives, might be mutagenic.

  17. Quaternary alluvial stratigraphy and palaeoclimatic reconstruction at the Thar margin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, M.; Tandon, S.K.


    /chlorite and smectite/illite of the alluvial palaeosols have been used as proxy indicators of climate change. These indicate wet phases during the OIS 5 and OIS 1. The overall stratigraphic development is discussed in the framework of fluvial response to climate change during the Late Pleistocene.......Quaternary alluvial record at the Thar desert margin has been examined using the exposed succession along Mahudi, Sabarmati river, Western India. Different alluvial facies, their associations and granulometry have been studied for palaeoenvironmental reconstruction. Clay mineral indices smectite...

  18. Long-alkyl-chain quaternary ammonium lactate based ionic liquids. (United States)

    Cybulski, Jacek; Wiśniewska, Anna; Kulig-Adamiak, Anna; Lewicka, Lidia; Cieniecka-Rosłonkiewicz, Anna; Kita, Kazimierz; Fojutowski, Andrzej; Nawrot, Jan; Materna, Katarzyna; Pernak, Juliusz


    A new group of quaternary ammonium lactate based ionic liquids have been prepared and characterized. Didecyldimethylammonium (DDA) and benzalkonium (BA) D,L- and L-lactates are air-stable, hydrophilic, surface-active salts. They are very effective antibacterial and antifungal agents, especially the DDA lactates, against Streptococcus mutants and Candida albicans. Their activities are comparable or more effective than the original benzalkonium chloride. In addition, they have been shown to be good insect-feeding deterrents. However, they are poor antifungal agents for wood preservation. The toxicity of the DDA and BA lactates has also been studied and the results are presented in this paper.

  19. Beaver assisted river valley formation (United States)

    Westbrook, C.J.; Cooper, D.J.; Baker, B.W.


    We examined how beaver dams affect key ecosystem processes, including pattern and process of sediment deposition, the composition and spatial pattern of vegetation, and nutrient loading and processing. We provide new evidence for the formation of heterogeneous beaver meadows on riverine system floodplains and terraces where dynamic flows are capable of breaching in-channel beaver dams. Our data show a 1.7-m high beaver dam triggered overbank flooding that drowned vegetation in areas deeply flooded, deposited nutrient-rich sediment in a spatially heterogeneous pattern on the floodplain and terrace, and scoured soils in other areas. The site quickly de-watered following the dam breach by high stream flows, protecting the deposited sediment from future re-mobilization by overbank floods. Bare sediment either exposed by scouring or deposited by the beaver flood was quickly colonized by a spatially heterogeneous plant community, forming a beaver meadow. Many willow and some aspen seedlings established in the more heavily disturbed areas, suggesting the site may succeed to a willow carr plant community suitable for future beaver re-occupation. We expand existing theory beyond the beaver pond to include terraces within valleys. This more fully explains how beavers can help drive the formation of alluvial valleys and their complex vegetation patterns as was first postulated by Ruedemann and Schoonmaker in 1938. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. 49 CFR 192.457 - External corrosion control: Buried or submerged pipelines installed before August 1, 1971. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External corrosion control: Buried or submerged... SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.457 External corrosion control: Buried or... areas in which active corrosion is found: (1) Bare or ineffectively coated transmission lines. (2) Bare...

  1. 49 CFR 192.455 - External corrosion control: Buried or submerged pipelines installed after July 31, 1971. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External corrosion control: Buried or submerged... SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.455 External corrosion control: Buried or... against external corrosion, including the following: (1) It must have an external protective coating...

  2. Geophysical Characterization of the Quaternary-Cretaceous Contact Using Surface Resistivity Methods in Franklin and Webster Counties, South-Central Nebraska (United States)

    Teeple, Andrew; Kress, Wade H.; Cannia, James C.; Ball, Lyndsay B.


    Formation made accurate interpretation of the resistivity profile sections difficult and less confident because of similar resistivity of this formation and that of the coarser-grained sediment of the Quaternary-age deposits. However, distinct conductive features were identified within the resistivity profile sections that aided in delineating the contact between the resistive Quaternary-age deposits and the resistive Niobrara Formation. Using this information, an interpretive boundary was drawn on the resistivity profile sections to represent the contact between the Quaternary-age alluvial deposits and the Cretaceous-age Niobrara Formation. A digital elevation model (DEM) of the top of the Niobrara Formation was constructed using the altitudes from the interpreted contact lines. This DEM showed that the general trend of top of the Niobrara Formation dips to the southeast. At the north edge of the study site, the Niobrara Formation topographic high trends east-west with an altitude range of 559 meters in the west to 543 meters in the east. Based on the land-surface elevation and the Niobrara Formation DEM, the estimated thickness of the Quaternary-age alluvial deposits throughout the study area was mapped and showed a thinning of the Quaternary-age alluvial deposits to the north, approximately where the topographic high of the Niobrara Formation is located. This topographic high in the Niobrara Formation has the potential to act as a barrier to ground-water flow from the uplands alluvial aquifer to the Republican River alluvial aquifer as shown in the resistivity profile sections. The Quaternary-age alluvial deposits in the uplands and those in the Republican River Valley are not fully represented as disconnected because it is possible that there are ground-water flow paths that were not mapped during this study.

  3. Static deformation due to a long buried dip-slip fault in an isotropic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Static deformation due to a long buried dip-slip fault in an isotropic half-space welded with an orthotropic half-space. NEERU BALA and SUNITA RANI. ∗. Department of Mathematics, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and. Technology, Hisar 125 001 e-mail: s−b− MS received 29 April 2008; ...

  4. Use of Microsoft HoloLens to survey and visualize buried networks

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    Survey and positioning of buried infrastructure networks are crucial issues for their maintenance and a starting point for every new Civil Engineering project. 3DCity is a research & development project which consists in a development of software providing a method for quick underground pipe networks surveying and holographic visualization, by using Microsoft HoloLens devices.

  5. A Novel Method for Remote Depth Estimation of Buried Radioactive Contamination. (United States)

    Ukaegbu, Ikechukwu Kevin; Gamage, Kelum A A


    Existing remote radioactive contamination depth estimation methods for buried radioactive wastes are either limited to less than 2 cm or are based on empirical models that require foreknowledge of the maximum penetrable depth of the contamination. These severely limits their usefulness in some real life subsurface contamination scenarios. Therefore, this work presents a novel remote depth estimation method that is based on an approximate three-dimensional linear attenuation model that exploits the benefits of using multiple measurements obtained from the surface of the material in which the contamination is buried using a radiation detector. Simulation results showed that the proposed method is able to detect the depth of caesium-137 and cobalt-60 contamination buried up to 40 cm in both sand and concrete. Furthermore, results from experiments show that the method is able to detect the depth of caesium-137 contamination buried up to 12 cm in sand. The lower maximum depth recorded in the experiment is due to limitations in the detector and the low activity of the caesium-137 source used. Nevertheless, both results demonstrate the superior capability of the proposed method compared to existing methods.

  6. Study on dinamic behavior and least burying depth of underground protective pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataoka, Tetsuyuki; Kokusyo, Goji; Tanaka, Yukihisa; Kobayashi, Seiichi


    Effect of unit load per travel wheel on the protective pipe was studied when electricity cable distribution lines were buried in the depth less than the present standard for electric equipment, and logical burying depth was investigated. Test items were material test of the protective pipe, indoor load test, and field test at loamy ground. Impact resistance hard PVC pipe was used as the protective pipe, and its strength and elastic modulus were measured. Along with these tests, it was confirmed that there was no problem of cracking by repeated flattening or breakage by fatigue. By indoor test, it was observed that, in case of shallow burying, creap deformation was small, stress concentrate occured at the middle of axial direction, and that flattening ratio was seriously affected by the method of backfilling. Field test was conducted by applying the static load of a 20 ton dump truck, and the deformation, stress, and subsidence of the protective pipe, were measured. As the conclusion of those experiments, it was found that burying of protective pipe in the depth of not less than 30 cm is allowable, as long as sufficient bakfilling is made. (14 figs, 3 tabs, 3 refs)

  7. Probing buried carbon nanotubes within polymer-nanotube composite matrices by Atomic Force Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phang, In Yee; Liu, Tianxi; Zhang, Wei-De; Schönherr, Holger; Vancso, Gyula J.


    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MW-CNT) inside a polyamide-6 (PA6)–MW-CNT composite were visualized by atomic force microscopy (i) in a field-assisted intermittent contact and (ii) in the tunneling (TUNA) mode. Individual buried MW-CNTs were clearly discerned within the PA6 matrix. An average

  8. Finite Element Modeling of Scattering from Underwater Proud and Buried Military Munitions (United States)


    FINAL REPORT Finite Element Modeling of Scattering from Underwater Proud and Buried Military Munitions SERDP Project MR-2408 JULY 2017...solution and the red dash-dot line repre- sents the coupled finite -boundary element solution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3 The line represents the coupled finite -boundary element solution. . . . . . . . 11 i 4 The scattering amplitude as a function of the receiver angle for

  9. On Resurrecting Buried Agents in Certain Tagalog Verbs. Studies in Philippine Linguistics, Vol. 3, No. 1 (United States)

    Cena, R. M.

    Analysis of the deep structure of certain Tagalog sentences reveals buried agents. In Tagalog, verbs are inflected for the case role of the subject Noun Phrase (NP). However, Tagalog contains many sentences which, on the surface, do not appear to adhere to this rule, because they are missing the agent. Among sentences which deviate from the rule…

  10. Influence of Population Density on Offspring Number and Size in Burying Beetles (United States)

    Rauter, Claudia M.


    This laboratory exercise investigates the influence of population density on offspring number and size in burying beetles. Students test the theoretical predictions that brood size declines and offspring size increases when competition over resources becomes stronger with increasing population density. Students design the experiment, collect and…

  11. Evaluating In Situ Treatment Technologies for Buried Mixed Waste Remediation at the INEEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.F. Nickelson; D.K. Jorgensen; J.J. Jessmore; R.A. Hyde; R.K. Farnsworth


    Mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes were buried at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Subsurface Disposal Area from 1952 to 1969. To begin the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process for the Subsurface Disposal Area, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) added the INEEL to its National Priorities List in 1989. DOE's Office of Environmental Restoration is planning several CERCLA treatability studies of remedial technologies that will be evaluated for potential remediation of the buried waste in the Subsurface Disposal Area. This paper discusses the in situ treatability studies that will be performed, including in situ vitrification, in situ grouting, and in situ thermal desorption. The in situ treatability studies will be conducted on simulated and actual buried wastes at the INEEL in 1999 and 2000. Results from the treatability studies will provide substantial information on the feasibility, implementability, and cost of applying these technologies to the INEEL Subsurface Disposal Area. In addition, much of the treatability study data will be applicable to buried waste site remediation efforts across the DOE complex.

  12. Evaluating In Situ Treatment Technologies for Buried Mixed Waste Remediation at the INEEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgensen, Douglas Kay; Nickelson, David Frank; Nickelson, Reva Anne; Farnsworth, Richard Kent; Jessmore, James Joseph


    Mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes were buried at the Department of Energy’s Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Subsurface Disposal Area from 1952 to 1969. To begin the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process for the Subsurface Disposal Area, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) added the INEEL to its National Priorities List in 1989. DOE’s Office of Environmental Restoration is planning several CERCLA treatability studies of remedial technologies that will be evaluated for potential remediation of the buried waste in the Subsurface Disposal Area. This paper discusses the in situ treatability studies that will be performed, including in situ vitrification, in situ grouting, and in situ thermal desorption. The in situ treatability studies will be conducted on simulated and actual buried wastes at the INEEL in 1999 and 2000. Results from the treatability studies will provide substantial information on the feasibility, implementability, and cost of applying these technologies to the INEEL Subsurface Disposal Area. In addition, much of the treatability study data will be applicable to buried waste site remediation efforts across the DOE complex.

  13. Early Monitoring of the Viability of the Buried Intrathoracic Omental Flap: A Feasibility Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wingerden, Jan J.; Collins, James M. P.; Coret, Elbertus H.; Schröder, Peter J. J.


    Purpose. The value of mobile, high-resolution gray-scale and color Doppler ultrasonography (US) in the immediate postoperative, intensive care setting for monitoring the buried flap and vascular pedicle of the laparoscopic or transdiaphragmatic harvested omentum for intrathoracic reconstruction was

  14. Buried nonmetallic object detection using bistatic ground penetrating radar with variable antenna elevation angle and height (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Orfeo, Dan; Burns, Dylan; Miller, Jonathan; Huston, Dryver; Xia, Tian


    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) has been shown to be an effective device for detecting buried objects that have little or no metal content, such as plastic, ceramic, and concrete pipes. In this paper, buried non-metallic object detection is evaluated for different antenna elevation angles and heights using a bistatic air-launched GPR. Due to the large standoff distance between antennas and the ground surface, the air-launched GPR has larger spreading loss than the hand-held GPR and vehicle-mounted GPR. Moreover, nonmetallic objects may have similar dielectric property to the buried medium, which results in further difficulty for accurate detection using air-launched GPR. To study such effects, both GPR simulations and GPR laboratory experiments are performed with various setups where antennas are placed at different heights and angles. In the experiments, the test surface areas are configured with and without rocks in order to examine surface clutter effect. The experimental results evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of bistatic air-launched GPR for detecting buried nonmetallic objects, which provide valuable insights for subsurface scanning with unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) mounted GPR.

  15. Buried late Pleistocene fluvial channels on the inner continental shelf off Vengurla, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SubbaRaju, L.V.; Krishna, K.S.; Chaubey, A.K.

    with sediments. Cross sectional dimensions between 15 to 100 m width and 2 to 6 m depth suggest a fluvial origin of the channels. These buried channels appear to mark former positions of rivers flowing from the nearby coast and debouching into the Arabian Sea...

  16. Review of Detection and Monitoring Systems for Buried High Pressure Pipelines : Final Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asadollahi Dolatabad, Saeid; Doree, Andries G.; olde Scholtenhuis, Léon Luc; Vahdatikhaki, Faridaddin


    The Netherlands has approximately two million kilometers of underground cables and pipelines. One specific type of buried infrastructure is the distribution network of hazardous material such as gas, oil, and chemicals (‘transportleiding gevaarlijke stoffen’). This network comprises 22.000

  17. Laser-induced acoustic landmine detection with experimental results on buried landmines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, J.C. van den; Putten, F.J.M. van; Koersel, A.C. van; Schleijpen, H.M.A.


    Acoustic landmine detection (ALD) is a technique for the detection of buried landmines including non-metal mines. Since it gives complementary results with GPR or metal detection, sensor fusion of these techniques with acoustic detection would give promising results. Two methods are used for the

  18. Fourier Array Processing for Buried Victims Detection using Ultra Wide Band Radar with Uncalibrated Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lidicky, L.


    The purpose of this paper is to propose a new way to detect victims buried in or under layers of rubble or debris in case of disasters such as earthquakes, fires or terrorist attacks. The method is based on Fourier Processing and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). It utilizes a moving array of

  19. Advancement of Buried Muco- Subcutaneous Sutures for Ostomy Creation in Surgery for Ulcerative Colitis. (United States)

    Uchino, Motoi; Ikeuchi, Hiroki; Matsuoka, Hiroki; Bando, Toshihiro; Okayamaz, Kanako; Takesue, Yoshio; Tomita, Naohiro


    Ostomy creation is a fundamental technique. However, little information is available concerning the procedure and the associated complications. We reviewed the relationship between the ostomy procedure and complications. The records of patients who were diagnosed with ulcerative colitis and underwent ostomy creation between January 2007 and July 2012 were reviewed. Stoma complications, including muco-cutaneous dehiscence, fistula and granulation were also reviewed. The study included 176 patients who received interrupted sutures with removal of the stitches and 202 patients who received subcutaneous sutures without removal of the stitches. Among the patients with buried sutures, 108 received braided absorbable sutures and 94 received with mono filament absorbable sutures. The incidence of dehiscence was significantly higher with the interrupted sutures (43.2%) than with the buried sutures (31.2%), although the granulation and fistula rates were not significantly different. Among the patients with buried sutures, fistula (6.4%) and granulation (21.3%) rates were slightly increased with the mono filament sutures compared with the braided sutures, although the differences were not significant. CONCLUSIONS. Suture removal appeared to be an unnecessary manipulation at ostomy creation. Further study for all colorectal surgery is needed to investigate whether the incidence of fistula increases with buried sutures.

  20. Low dose effects of a Withania somnifera extract on altered marble burying behavior in stressed mice. (United States)

    Dey, Amitabha; Chatterjee, Shyam Sunder; Kumar, Vikas


    Withania somnifera root (WSR) extracts are often used in traditionally known Indian systems of medicine for prevention and cure of psychosomatic disorders. The reported experiment was designed to test whether low daily oral doses of such extracts are also effective in suppressing marble burying behavior in stressed mice or not. Groups of mice treated with 10, 20, or 40 mg/kg daily oral doses of WSR were subjected to a foot shock stress-induced hyperthermia test on the 1(st), 5(th), 7(th), and 10(th) day of the experiment. On the 11(th) and 12(th) treatment days, they were subjected to marble burying tests. Stress response suppressing effects of low dose WSR were estimated by its effects on body weight and basal core temperature of animals during the course of the experiment. Alterations in bodyweight and basal core temperature triggered by repeated exposures to foot shock stress were absent even in the 10 mg/kg/day WSR treated group, whereas the effectiveness of the extract in foot shock stress-induced hyperthermia and marble burying tests increased with its increasing daily dose. Marble burying test in stressed mice is well suited for identifying bioactive constituents of W. somnifera like medicinal plants with adaptogenic, anxiolytic and antidepressant activities, or for quantifying pharmacological interactions between them.

  1. Incidence of Urethral Stricture in Patients with Adult Acquired Buried Penis. (United States)

    Liaw, Aron; Rickborn, Lanette; McClung, Christopher


    Introduction. Concealed-buried penis is an acquired condition associated with obesity, challenging to both manage and repair. Urethral stricture is a more common disorder with multiple etiologies. Lichen sclerosus is a significant known cause of urethral stricture, implicated in up to 30%. We hypothesize that patients with buried penis have a higher rate of urethral stricture and lichen sclerosus than the general population. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed a single surgeon's (CM) case logs for patients presenting with a buried penis. All patients were evaluated for urethral stricture with cystoscopy or retrograde urethrogram either prior to or at the time of repair for buried penis. Those that had surgical repair or biopsy were reviewed for presence of lichen sclerosus. Results. 39 patients met inclusion criteria. Of these, 13 (33%) had associated stricture disease. The location of the strictures was bulbar urethra (38%), penile urethra (15%), and meatus or fossa navicularis (62%). Five patients had lichen sclerosus and urethral stricture disease, while 3 had lichen sclerosus without stricture. 11/13 stricture patients were treated. Six underwent dilation, 3 underwent meatotomy, and 2 underwent urethroplasty. No significant recurrences of stricture were seen. Conclusion. Patients with a concealed penis are more likely than the general population to have a urethral stricture and/or LS. Patients presenting with concealed penis should also be evaluated for a urethral stricture.

  2. Field application of innovative grouting agents for in situ stabilization of buried waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loomis, G.G.; Farnsworth, R.K. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    This paper presents field applications for two innovative grouting agents that were used to in situ stabilize buried waste sites, via jet grouting. The two grouting agents include paraffin and a proprietary iron oxide based cement grout called TECT. These materials were tested in specially designed cold test pits that simulate buried transuranic waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The field demonstrations were performed at the INEL in an area referred to as the Cold Test Pit, which is adjacent to the INEL Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). At the RWMC, 56,000 m{sup 3} of transuranic (TRU) waste is co-mingled with over 170,000 m{sup 3} of soil in shallow land burial. Improving the confinement of this waste is one of the options for final disposition of this waste. Using jet-grouting technology to inject these materials into the pore spaces of buried waste sites results in the creation of buried monolithic waste forms that simultaneously protect the waste from subsidence, while eliminating the migratory potential of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in the waste.

  3. The growth and atomic structure of the Si(111)7x7-Pb buried interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edwards, KA; Howes, PB; Macdonald, JE; Hibma, T; Bootsma, T; James, MA

    The formation of the buried, 7 x 7-reconstructed Si(1 1 1)-Pb interface has been studied by X-ray diffraction. Oscillations in the reflected intensity confirm that, at 100 K, the Pb grows layer-by-layer beyond a critical coverage of 6 ml. Measurements of the specular reflectivity show that, at a

  4. Geophysical research results of buried relief and distribution groundwater runoff of the Aragats massif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P. Vardanyan


    Overall, the new data concerning the structure of the buried relief of Aragats massif and the distribution of its underground runoff allow to develop effective measures for the selection of underground waters and their rational usage for the purpose of water supply and irrigation.

  5. Effect of Heat From Buried Metallic Object On Different Soil Textures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was performed in a laboratory at Abeokuta, South Western Nigeria, with the objects buried at a depth of 2cm and heated to a temperature of 400C . A plot of the variation of the temperature (as the ... Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics, Volume 19 (November, 2011), pp 321 – 328 ...

  6. Modified Double-Eyelid Blepharoplasty Using the Single-Knot Continuous Buried Non-Incisional Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Chul Moon


    Full Text Available Background Buried non-incisional double-eyelid blepharoplasty is a popular aesthetic procedure. Although various modified continuous suture techniques have been used to create a more natural appearance and to reduce downtime, complications such as loosening of the double fold, asymmetry, and foreign body reactions have been observed.Methods This study included 250 patients who underwent double-eyelid blepharoplasty between March 1997 and November 2012 using a modified single-knot continuous buried non-incisional technique. With 4 stab incisions in the upper eyelids, one of two needles loaded with double-armed 7-0 nylon was passed in one direction alternately through the dermis and the conjunctiva, while the other needle was passed subconjunctivally in the opposite direction. Both ends of the sutures were knotted within a lateral stab incision of the upper eyelids and were buried in the orbicularis oculi muscle.Results Most patients displayed satisfactory aesthetic results, and no significant complications occurred. There was no obvious regression of the double fold; however, 3 patients required reoperation to correct loosening of the fold on one side during the follow-up period. One patient presented with the suture knot subcutaneously, and the knot was removed in the clinic.Conclusions The modified single-knot continuous buried non-incisional technique is a simple and less time-consuming method for a durable double fold and provides satisfactory aesthetic results.

  7. Hydrology of the alluvial, buried channel, basal Pleistocene and Dakota aquifers in west-central Iowa (United States)

    Runkle, D.L.


    A ground-water resources investigation in west-central Iowa indicates that water is available from alluvial, buried channel, basal Pleistocene, and Dakota aquifers. The west-central Iowa area includes Audubon, Carrol1, Crawford, Greene, Guthrie, Harrison, Monona, and Shelby Counties.

  8. Quaternary Geologic Map of the Lake Superior 4° x 6° Quadrangle, United States and Canada (United States)

    Department of the Interior — The Quaternary Geologic Map of the Lake Superior 4° x 6° Quadrangle was mapped as part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States. The atlas was begun as...

  9. Transforming the "Valley of Death" into a "Valley of Opportunity" (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Merceret, Francis J.; O'Brien, T. P.; Roeder, William P.; Huddleston, Lisa L.; Bauman, William H., III


    Transitioning technology from research to operations (23 R2O) is difficult. The problem's importance is exemplified in the literature and in every failed attempt to do so. Although the R2O gap is often called the "valley of death", a recent a Space Weather editorial called it a "Valley of Opportunity". There are significant opportunities for space weather organizations to learn from the terrestrial experience. Dedicated R2O organizations like those of the various NOAA testbeds and collaborative "proving ground" projects take common approaches to improving terrestrial weather forecasting through the early transition of research capabilities into the operational environment. Here we present experience-proven principles for the establishment and operation of similar space weather organizations, public or private. These principles were developed and currently being demonstrated by NASA at the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) and the Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center. The AMU was established in 1991 jointly by NASA, the U.S. Air Force (USAF) and the National Weather Service (NWS) to provide tools and techniques for improving weather support to the Space Shuttle Program (Madura et al., 2011). The primary customers were the USAF 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and the NWS Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG who provided the weather observing and forecast support for Shuttle operations). SPoRT was established in 2002 to transition NASA satellite and remote-sensing technology to the NWS. The continuing success of these organizations suggests the common principles guiding them may be valuable for similar endeavors in the space weather arena.

  10. Global late Quaternary megafauna extinctions linked to humans, not climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandom, Christopher James; Faurby, Søren; Sandel, Brody Steven


    The late Quaternary megafauna extinction was a severe global-scale event. Two factors, climate change and modern humans, have received broad support as the primary drivers, but their absolute and relative importance remains controversial. To date, focus has been on the extinction chronology of in...... support for modern humans as the primary driver of the worldwide megafauna losses during the late Quaternary....

  11. Stratigraphy, optical dating chronology (IRSL) and depositional model of pre-LGM glacial deposits in the Hope Valley, New Zealand (United States)

    Rother, Henrik; Shulmeister, James; Rieser, Uwe


    A 110 m thick succession of glacial valley fill is described from Poplars Gully, central South Island, New Zealand. The section consists of eight lithofacies assemblages that represent different stages of ice occupation in the valley. Basal sediments record an ice retreat phase followed by a glacial re-advance which deposited mass flow diamictons and till. A subsequent ice retreat from the site is indicated by the stratigraphic transition from till to thick glacio-fluvial gravels. This is followed by a probably short-lived glacier re-advance that caused folding and thrusting of proglacial sediments. Final glacial retreat from the valley led to the formation of a large proglacial lake. In total, Poplars Gully holds evidence for two major ice advances, separated by a glacial retreat that resulted in complete ice evacuation from the lower Hope Valley. Infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) dating on ice-proximal sediments from Poplars Gully yielded six ages between 181 and 115 ka BP. Our stratigraphic logging and dating results show that the fill sequence was not, as previously thought, deposited in association with ice advances during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) nor indeed during the last glacial cycle. LGM glaciers later overran the fill but we find that the older glacial sequences are considerably more voluminous than those deposited during the last glacial cycle. We also show that the mid-Pleistocene glaciers carved a much deeper valley trough than did glaciers during the LGM. Taken together these features are likely to reflect a significant difference in the magnitude of successive Pleistocene glaciations in the valley, with the mid-Pleistocene ice advances having been considerably larger than those of the last glacial cycle. The recognition of the in-situ survival of extensive pre-MIS 5 (Marine Isotope Stage) deposits in valley troughs that were later occupied by LGM glaciers represents a new feature in the Quaternary stratigraphy of the Southern Alps. The

  12. Soil genesis on the island of Bermuda in the Quaternary: the importance of African dust transport and deposition (United States)

    Muhs, Daniel R.; Budahn, James R.; Prospero, Joseph M.; Skipp, Gary; Herwitz, Stanley R.


    The origin of terra rossa, red or reddish-brown, clay-rich soils overlying high-purity carbonate substrates, has intrigued geologists and pedologists for decades. Terra rossa soils can form from accumulation of insoluble residues during dissolution of the host limestones, addition of volcanic ash, or addition of externally derived, long-range-transported (LRT) aeolian particles. We studied soils and paleosols on high-purity, carbonate aeolianites of Quaternary age on Bermuda, where terra rossa origins have been debated for more than a century. Potential soil parent materials on this island include sand-sized fragments of local volcanic bedrock, the LRT, fine-grained (N/YbN, GdN/YbN that can be distinguished from African dust and lower Mississippi River valley loess. Bermuda soils have Sc-Th-La, Cr-Ta-Nd, and Eu/Eu*, LaN/YbN, GdN/YbN that indicate derivation from a combination of LRT dust from Africa and local volcanic bedrock. Our results indicate that soils on islands in a very broad latitudinal belt of the western Atlantic margin have been influenced by African LRT dust inputs over much of the past –500 ka.

  13. Mineralogical and geological study of quaternary deposits and weathering profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Gi Young; Lee, Bong Ho [Andong National Univ., Andong (Korea, Republic of)


    Movement history of a quaternary reverse fault cutting marine terrace deposit and tertiary bentonite in the Yangnammyon, Gyoungju city was studied by the mineralogical and microtextural analysis of the fault clays and weathered terrace deposits. Two types of fault clays were identified as greenish gray before the deposition of the marine terrace deposits and reddish brown after deposition. Greenish gray fault clay is composed mostly of smectite probably powdered from bentonite showing at least two events of movement from microtextures. After the bentonite was covered by quaternary marine gravel deposits, the reverse fault was reactivated cutting marine gravel deposits to form open spaces along the fault plane which allowed the hydrological infiltration of soil particles and deposition of clays in deep subsurface. The reddish brown 'fault' clays enclosed the fragments of dark brown ultrafine varved clay, proving two events of faulting, and slicken sides bisecting reddish brown clays suggest another faulting event in the final stage. Mineralogical and microtextural analysis of the fault clay show total five events of faulting, which had not been recognized even by thorough conventional paleoseismological investigation using trench, highlighting the importance of microtextural and mineralogical analysis in paleoseismology.

  14. Quaternary climate - Terrestrial Biosphere Interaction: amplifying or stabilizing? (United States)

    Claussen, Martin


    According to the Gaia hypothesis, interaction between climate and biological processes tend to homeostatically maintain, on a global scale, conditions favourable for life. Does the idea of homeostatic interaction between terrestrial biosphere and climate hold for the Quaternary glacial - interglacial changes? Interpretation of palaeoclimate and palaeobotanic evidence by using climate and Earth system models yields an interesting picture. The synergy between the sea-ice albedo - climate feedback and the taiga-tundra - climate feedback is suggested to amplify the orbitally forced climatic precession. This effect seems to be strong at regional scale, but small at global scale. Various simulations indicate that biogeophysical processes amplify the difference of some 4 to 6 K in global mean temperature between glacial and interglacial climate by some 10 percent. The combined effect of biogeophysical and biogeochemical processes, i.e. processes with involve carbon stored in biomass and soil, is less clear. Theoretical studies suggest that in pre-industrial, interglacial climate, a reduction in boreal and extratropical forests tend to cool the climate and a reduction in tropical forest, to warm the climate. Recent estimates in changes in organic carbon stored under ice sheets and in permafrost point at the possibility that the sum of all terrestrial biogeochemical processes might almost "carbon neutral" to the climate system. If corroborated, this observation would favour the assumption of a dominance of biogeophysical processes amplifying orbitally forced Quaternary climate variations.

  15. Distribution and metabolism of quaternary amines in salt marshes (United States)

    King, Gary M.


    Quaternary amines such as glycine betaine (GBT) are common osmotically active solutes in much of the marine biota. GBT is accumulated by various bacteria, algae, higher plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates in response to salinity or water stresses; in some species, GBT occurs at tens to hundreds of millimolar concentrations and can account for a significant fraction of total nitrogen. Initial studies suggest that GBT is readily converted to two potential methane precursors, trimethylamine (TMA) and acetate, in anoxic sediments. TMA is apparently the most important methane precursor in surface sediments containing sulfate reducing bacteria. In salt marshes, the bulk of the methane formed may be due to the metabolism of TMA rather than other substrates. Current research is focussed on testing this hypothesis and on determining the role of quaternary amino osmoregulatory solutes in methane fluxes from marine environments. Preliminary studies have dealt with several problems: (1) determination of GBT concentrations in the dominant flora and fauna of salt marshes; (2) synthesis of radiolabelled GBT for metabolic studies; and (3) determination of fates of BGT in marine sediments using radiotracers. Both GC and HPLC techniques have been used to assay GBT concentrations in plant and animal tissues. S. alterniflora is probably the only significant source of GBT (and indirectly of methane) since the biomass and distribution of most other species is limited. Current estimates suggest that S. alterniflora GBT could account for most of the methane efflux from salt marshes.

  16. Historical distribution of Sundaland's Dipterocarp rainforests at Quaternary glacial maxima. (United States)

    Raes, Niels; Cannon, Charles H; Hijmans, Robert J; Piessens, Thomas; Saw, Leng Guan; van Welzen, Peter C; Slik, J W Ferry


    The extent of Dipterocarp rainforests on the emergent Sundaland landmass in Southeast Asia during Quaternary glaciations remains a key question. A better understanding of the biogeographic history of Sundaland could help explain current patterns of biodiversity and support the development of effective forest conservation strategies. Dipterocarpaceae trees dominate the rainforests of Sundaland, and their distributions serve as a proxy for rainforest extent. We used species distribution models (SDMs) of 317 Dipterocarp species to estimate the geographic extent of appropriate climatic conditions for rainforest on Sundaland at the last glacial maximum (LGM). The SDMs suggest that the climate of central Sundaland at the LGM was suitable to sustain Dipterocarp rainforest, and that the presence of a previously suggested transequatorial savannah corridor at that time is unlikely. Our findings are supported by palynologic evidence, dynamic vegetation models, extant mammal and termite communities, vascular plant fatty acid stable isotopic compositions, and stable carbon isotopic compositions of cave guano profiles. Although Dipterocarp species richness was generally lower at the LGM, areas of high species richness were mostly found off the current islands and on the emergent Sunda Shelf, indicating substantial species migration and mixing during the transitions between the Quaternary glacial maxima and warm periods such as the present.

  17. Groundwater salinity influenced by Holocene seawater trapped in incised valleys in the Red River delta plain (United States)

    Larsen, Flemming; Tran, Long Vu; van Hoang, Hoan; Tran, Luu Thi; Christiansen, Anders Vest; Pham, Nhan Quy


    Salty and brackish groundwater has been observed at least 100 km inland in some aquifers contained within Quaternary delta plains. This phenomenon limits access to fresh groundwater resources, particularly in the densely populated deltas of Southeast Asia. However, the causes of inland salinity are unclear. Here we present borehole and geophysical data that show that in the Red River delta plain of Vietnam, salty and brackish groundwater primarily occurs in incised valleys that were formed during sea-level lowstands during the Pleistocene. During the mid-Holocene, these valleys were filled with fine-grained marine deposits containing trapped seawater. We conduct groundwater flow simulations that show that the age, thickness, and permeability of the marine sediments are the primary controls on the leaching of salty porewater into the freshwater aquifer. We find that salty groundwater originating from this trapped seawater is still present in Holocene-aged sediments with low permeability, and affects groundwater salinity in adjacent aquifers. In contrast, trapped seawater from all Pleistocene-aged sediments has been leached. We identify a number of brackish to saline delta aquifers elsewhere in Asia and throughout the world that have a similar sedimentary history, and thus are likely to be influenced by this leaching process.

  18. Faulted terrace risers place new constraints on the late Quaternary slip rate for the central Altyn Tagh fault, northwest Tibet (United States)

    Gold, R.D.; Cowgill, E.; Arrowsmith, J.R.; Chen, X.; Sharp, W.D.; Cooper, K.M.; Wang, X.-F.


    The active, left-lateral Altyn Tagh fault defines the northwestern margin of the Tibetan Plateau in western China. To clarify late Quaternary temporal and spatial variations in slip rate along the central portion of this fault system (85??-90??E), we have more than doubled the number of dated offset markers along the central Altyn Tagh fault. In particular, we determined offset-age relations for seven left-laterally faulted terrace risers at three sites (Kelutelage, Yukuang, and Keke Qiapu) spanning a 140-km-long fault reach by integrating surficial geologic mapping, topographic surveys (total station and tripod-light detection and ranging [T-LiDAR]), and geochronology (radiocarbon dating of organic samples, 230Th/U dating of pedogenic carbonate coatings on buried clasts, and terrestrial cosmogenic radionuclide exposure age dating applied to quartz-rich gravels). At Kelutelage, which is the westernmost site (37.72??N, 86.67??E), two faulted terrace risers are offset 58 ?? 3 m and 48 ?? 4 m, and formed at 6.2-6.1 ka and 5.9-3.7 ka, respectively. At the Yukuang site (38.00??N, 87.87??E), four faulted terrace risers are offset 92 ?? 12 m, 68 ?? 6 m, 55 ?? 13 m, and 59 ?? 9 m and formed at 24.2-9.5 ka, 6.4-5.0 ka, 5.1-3.9 ka, and 24.2-6.4 ka, respectively. At the easternmost site, Keke Qiapu (38.08??N, 88.12??E), a faulted terrace riser is offset 33 ?? 6 m and has an age of 17.1-2.2 ka. The displacement-age relationships derived from these markers can be satisfied by an approximately uniform slip rate of 8-12 mm/yr. However, additional analysis is required to test how much temporal variability in slip rate is permitted by this data set. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  19. Late Quaternary environments of the Waco Mammoth site, Texas USA (United States)

    Nordt, Lee; Bongino, John; Forman, Steven; Esker, Don; Benedict, Anita


    The Waco Mammoth Site (WMS) in central Texas contains the remains of the largest mammoth herd (Mammuthus columbi) in North America that died in a single catastrophic event. Most mammoths at the site died on a gravel bar of the ancient Bosque River adjacent to a collapsing tributary wall. However, the timing and cause of death of the 26 mammoths documented to date are controversial. The objectives of this research are to: describe and interpret the alluvial stratigraphy and infer the cause of death, employ optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating to determine the timing of death, and analyze stable C isotopes of pedogenic carbonate to infer local plant communities, dietary habits, and summer temperatures. Dating of quartz from seven sediment samples by OSL places the death event to a weighted mean of 66.8 ± 5.0 ka. The site is coeval with Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 4, consistent with our reconstructed mean July temperatures 4°C cooler than today based on a buried soil isotopic transfer function. Our buried soil isotopic interpretation of a dominance of C3 plants is contrary to previous studies of mammoth tooth enamel at the site suggesting a dietary preference for warm season grasses (C4).

  20. Late Quaternary Glacier Retreat in the Mongolian Altai (United States)

    Bader, N. E.; Carson, R. J.; Wegmann, K. W.; Frankel, K. L.; Bayasgalan, A.; Dundon, K. M.; Ladig, K. L.; Leary, R. J.; Matzinger, G. R.; Seymour, A. M.


    The glaciated Mongolian Altai range preserves moraine complexes and other landforms from extensive late Pleistocene glaciations. We studied ancient and modern glacial features in six valleys draining into the Delüün Valley (47.905°N, 90.724°E) in Mongolia's far western Bayan-Ölgiy province. Moraines were assigned relative ages based on morphology and boulder frequency. For example, in the Altai Mountains along the Mongolia-China border west of the Delüün Valley, modern glaciers sit upvalley of Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) moraines that contain abundant large granitic erratic boulders and impound Chigertey Gol; in older, more rounded moraines about 8 km down-valley, most of the granitic boulders are weathered and wind-abraded down to ground level. We observed no evidence for glacial deposits older than LGM in valleys draining the western flank of the tectonically active Khukh Serkhyn Mountains along the east side of the Delüün Valley. Cosmogenic 10Be ages will help further establish the timing of moraine deposition. Recent changes in glaciers in the Khukh Serkhyn Mountains were identified using maps derived from 1963 aerial photographs and our own 2008 field observations. We used the toe-to-summit altitude method to establish the equilibrium-line elevation (ELA) of the mountain glaciers during the time each moraine complex was deposited. Between the LGM and 1963, the ELA rose from about 3200 m to at least 3700 m; currently the ELA is probably higher than 4000 m. Areal extent of the glaciers west of the Khukh Serkhyn drainage divide decreased from approximately 112 km2 during the LGM to about 7 km2 in 1963 to about 4 km2 today. This represents an order of magnitude increase in the mean loss rate of glacial area since 1963, compared to the mean loss rate since the LGM. If the present rate of loss continues, these glaciers will disappear by about 2075. The loss of mountain glaciers in the Mongolian Altai will reduce the availability of summer meltwater to local

  1. Regional scale selenium loading associated with surface coal mining, Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada. (United States)

    Wellen, Christopher C; Shatilla, Nadine J; Carey, Sean K


    Selenium (Se) concentrations in surface water downstream of surface mining operations have been reported at levels in excess of water quality guidelines for the protection of wildlife. Previous research in surface mining environments has focused on downstream water quality impacts, yet little is known about the fundamental controls on Se loading. This study investigated the relationship between mining practices, stream flows and Se concentrations using a SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) model. This work is part of a R&D program examining the influence of surface coal mining on hydrological and water quality responses in the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada, aimed at informing effective management responses. Results indicate that waste rock volume, a product of mining activity, accounted for roughly 80% of the Se load from the Elk Valley, while background sources accounted for roughly 13%. Wet years were characterized by more than twice the Se load of dry years. A number of variables regarding placement of waste rock within the catchments, length of buried streams, and the construction of rock drains did not significantly influence the Se load. The age of the waste rock, the proportion of waste rock surface reclaimed, and the ratio of waste rock pile side area to top area all varied inversely with the Se load from watersheds containing waste rock. These results suggest operational practices that are likely to reduce the release of Se to surface waters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Integrated study on the topographic and shallow subsurface expression of the Grote Brogel Fault at the boundary of the Roer Valley Graben, Belgium (United States)

    Deckers, Jef; Van Noten, Koen; Schiltz, Marco; Lecocq, Thomas; Vanneste, Kris


    The Grote Brogel Fault (GBF) is a major WNW-ESE striking normal fault in Belgium that diverges westward from the NW-SE striking western border fault system of the Roer Valley Graben. The GBF delimits the topographically higher Campine Block from the subsiding Roer Valley Graben, and is expressed in the Digital Terrain Model (DTM) by relief gradients or scarps. By integrating DTM, Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), Cone Penetration Test (CPT) and borehole data, we studied the Quaternary activity of the GBF and its effects on local hydrogeology. In the shallow subsurface (linked stepover in the shallow subsurface, which affects groundwater levels in the different fault blocks, and illustrates the complex small-scale geometry of the GBF.

  3. Photosensitive Epilepsy In Kashmir Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem S M


    Full Text Available A random population of 618 people with epilepsy hailing from different parts of Kashmir valley was screened for photosensitivity both clinically and on a standard protocol of intermittent photic stimulation (IPS provoked EEG recordings. Six (0.9% patients with a mean age of 15+6.57 years were found to be photosensitive; five had generalized and one had absence seizures. The baseline EEG in all patients showed generalized epileptiform discharges. On IPS, similar EEG findings were obtained with a narrow range of stimulus frequency i.e. 7-12 cycles/sec. There appears to be a low prevalence of photo-sensitivity in our epileptic population, possibly related to genetic factors.

  4. Long Valley Caldera Lake and reincision of Owens River Gorge (United States)

    Hildreth, Wes; Fierstein, Judy


    Owens River Gorge, today rimmed exclusively in 767-ka Bishop Tuff, was first cut during the Neogene through a ridge of Triassic granodiorite to a depth as great as its present-day floor and was then filled to its rim by a small basaltic shield at 3.3 Ma. The gorge-filling basalt, 200 m thick, blocked a 5-km-long reach of the upper gorge, diverting the Owens River southward around the shield into Rock Creek where another 200-m-deep gorge was cut through the same basement ridge. Much later, during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 22 (~900–866 ka), a piedmont glacier buried the diversion and deposited a thick sheet of Sherwin Till atop the basalt on both sides of the original gorge, showing that the basalt-filled reach had not, by then, been reexcavated. At 767 ka, eruption of the Bishop Tuff blanketed the landscape with welded ignimbrite, deeply covering the till, basalt, and granodiorite and completely filling all additional reaches of both Rock Creek canyon and Owens River Gorge. The ignimbrite rests directly on the basalt and till along the walls of Owens Gorge, but nowhere was it inset against either, showing that the basalt-blocked reach had still not been reexcavated. Subsidence of Long Valley Caldera at 767 ka produced a steep-walled depression at least 700 m deeper than the precaldera floor of Owens Gorge, which was beheaded at the caldera’s southeast rim. Caldera collapse reoriented proximal drainages that had formerly joined east-flowing Owens River, abruptly reversing flow westward into the caldera. It took 600,000 years of sedimentation in the 26-km-long, usually shallow, caldera lake to fill the deep basin and raise lake level to its threshold for overflow. Not until then did reestablishment of Owens River Gorge begin, by incision of the gorge-filling ignimbrite.

  5. The Crati River Basin: geomorphological and stratigraphical data for the Plio–Quaternary evolution of northern Calabria, South Apennines, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robustelli Gaetano


    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the results of an integrated geomorphological and stratigraphical study carried out in the eastern side of the Crati River valley (northern Calabria, South Italy. This area is characterized by the occurrence of three order palaeosurfaces that, along with low-sloping palaeovalleys and structural landforms, are striking features of the landscape. The relationships between morpho-tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the Crati Basin has been assessed through sandstone detrital modes, morphostratigraphy and geomorphological correlation with adjacent areas. The two main unconformity surfaces that typify the Quaternary fill were correlated to different steps of landscape evolution. The presence of both erosional and depositional palaeosurfaces has been a useful marker for reconstructing sedimentary and morphogenetic events, and hence to detect drainage network evolution and changes in source sediment area. In particular, we recognized that the study area experienced, during the late Pliocene–Early Pleistocene a period of sub-aerial landscape modelling as suggested by low-sloping palaeovalleys and related fluvial deposits (1st Order Palaeosurface. At that time, the source of the detrital constituents of the PPS Unit sandstones was mainly from the Sila Massif. The onset of Coastal Range identification and uplift (Early Pleistocene marks a change in the geomorphic scenario with tectonic driven stream incision and valley development along the eastern side of Coastal Range, along with the occurrence of depositional and erosional landsurfaces (2nd Order Palaeosurface at footslopes. During this period, the Coastal Range and Sila Massif were the sources for the detrital constituents of the PlS Unit sandstones. The progressive uplift of Coastal Range during late Early Pleistocene and the marked backstepping of the depositional systems along the Sila footslope was accompanied by alternating phases of down-cutting and base

  6. Evidence of Quaternary rock avalanches in the central Apennines: new data and interpretation of the huge clastic deposit of the L'Aquila basin (central Apennines, Italy) (United States)

    Esposito, Carlo; Scarascia Mugnozza, Gabriele; Tallini, Marco; Della Seta, Marta


    Active extensional tectonics and widespread seismicity affect the axial zone of the central Apennines (Italy) and led to the formation of several plio-quaternary intermontane basins, whose morpho-evolution was controlled by the coupling of tectonic and climatic inputs. Common features of the Apennines intermontane basins as well as their general morpho-evolution are known. Nonetheless, the complex interaction among regional uplift, local fault displacements and morpho-climatic factors caused differences in the denudational processes of the single intermontane basins. Such a dynamic response left precious records in the landscape, which in some cases testify for the occurrence of huge, catastrophic rock slope failures. Several Quaternary rock avalanches have been identified in central Apennines, which are often associated with Deep Seated Gravitational Slope Deformation (DSGSD) and thus strictly related to the geological-structural setting as well as to the Quaternary morpho-structural evolution of the mountain chain. The L'Aquila basin is one of the intermontane tectonic depression aligned along the Middle Aterno River Valley and was the scene of strong historical earthquakes, among which the last destructive event occurred on April 6, 2009 (Mw 6.3). We present here the evidence that the huge clastic deposit on which the city of L'Aquila was built up is the body of a rock avalanche detached from the southern slope of the Gran Sasso Range. The clastic deposit elongates for 13 km to the SW, from the Assergi Plain to L'Aquila and is characterized by typical morphological features such as hummocky topography, compressional ridges and run-up on the opposite slope. Sedimentological characters of the deposit and grain size analyses on the matrix let us confirm the genetic interpretation, while borehole data and significant cross sections allowed us reconstructing the 3D shape and volume of the clastic body. Finally, morphometric analyses of the Gran Sasso Range southern

  7. Boundary of the Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007 (United States)

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, L. Niel


    This vector data set delineates the approximate boundary of the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer (ERWVFA). This data set was developed by a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey, Eagle County, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, the Town of Eagle, the Town of Gypsum, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority. This project was designed to evaluate potential land-development effects on groundwater and surface-water resources so that informed land-use and water management decisions can be made. The boundary of the ERWVFA was developed by combining information from two data sources. The first data source was a 1:250,000-scale geologic map of the Leadville quadrangle developed by Day and others (1999). The location of Quaternary sediments was used as a first approximation of the ERWVFA. The boundary of the ERWVFA was further refined by overlaying the geologic map with Digital Raster Graphic (DRG) scanned images of 1:24,000 topographic maps (U.S. Geological Survey, 2001). Where appropriate, the boundary of the ERWVFA was remapped to correspond with the edge of the valley-fill aquifer marked by an abrupt change in topography at the edge of the valley floor throughout the Eagle River watershed. The boundary of the ERWVFA more closely resembles a hydrogeomorphic region presented by Rupert (2003, p. 8) because it is based upon general geographic extents of geologic materials and not on an actual aquifer location as would be determined through a rigorous hydrogeologic investigation.

  8. Geology and geomorphology of Bear Lake Valley and upper Bear River, Utah and Idaho (United States)

    Reheis, M.C.; Laabs, B.J.C.; Kaufman, D.S.


    Bear Lake, on the Idaho-Utah border, lies in a fault-bounded valley through which the Bear River flows en route to the Great Salt Lake. Surficial deposits in the Bear Lake drainage basin provide a geologic context for interpretation of cores from Bear Lake deposits. In addition to groundwater discharge, Bear Lake received water and sediment from its own small drainage basin and sometimes from the Bear River and its glaciated headwaters. The lake basin interacts with the river in complex ways that are modulated by climatically induced lake-level changes, by the distribution of active Quaternary faults, and by the migration of the river across its fluvial fan north of the present lake. The upper Bear River flows northward for ???150 km from its headwaters in the northwestern Uinta Mountains, generally following the strike of regional Laramide and late Cenozoic structures. These structures likely also control the flow paths of groundwater that feeds Bear Lake, and groundwater-fed streams are the largest source of water when the lake is isolated from the Bear River. The present configuration of the Bear River with respect to Bear Lake Valley may not have been established until the late Pliocene. The absence of Uinta Range-derived quartzites in fluvial gravel on the crest of the Bear Lake Plateau east of Bear Lake suggests that the present headwaters were not part of the drainage basin in the late Tertiary. Newly mapped glacial deposits in the Bear River Range west of Bear Lake indicate several advances of valley glaciers that were probably coeval with glaciations in the Uinta Mountains. Much of the meltwater from these glaciers may have reached Bear Lake via groundwater pathways through infiltration in the karst terrain of the Bear River Range. At times during the Pleistocene, the Bear River flowed into Bear Lake and water level rose to the valley threshold at Nounan narrows. This threshold has been modified by aggradation, downcutting, and tectonics. Maximum lake

  9. Qena Valley Evolution, Eastern Desert, Egypt (United States)

    Abdelkareem, Mohamed


    Remotely sensed topographic and optical data were used to identify tectonic phenomena in Qena Valley. Using digital elevation model, morphotectonic features were identified. Processing and analysis were carried out by the combined use of: (1) digital elevation model, (2) digital drainage network analysis, (3) optical data analysis, and (4) lineament extraction and analysis. Structural information from other sources, such as geological maps, remotely sensed images and field observations were analyzed with geographic information system techniques. The analysis results reveal that the linear features of Qena Valley controlled by several structural elements have different trends NW-SE, NE-SW and N-S trends. Basement rocks at Qena valley has a major NE-SW trending and the sedimentary rocks are dominated by a NW-SE, NE-SW and N-S trends while, E-W are less abundant. The NE-SW trends at north Eastern Desert Egypt attain to normal faults that reflect extension in NW-SE direction, which is related to strike slip faulting along NW-SE directed Najd fault system. Further, the NE-SW is abundant as joints and fractures seem to have controlled the path of the Nile in Qift - Qena area. The NW-SE direction are abundant in the rock fracture trends (Gulf of Suez or Red Sea) and reflects Neoproterozoic faults have been reactivated in Neogene during rifting events of the Red Sea opening and marked the sedimentary rocks at Qena valley. The results of the lineament density map reveals that Qena valley was originated along one fault that trend like the Gulf of Suez and the range of the Red Sea Hills. This major fault was dissected by several lateral faults are seen well exposed at numerous places within the valley, especially on its eastern side. Both sides of Qena valley have a similar density matching may attain to that this lineaments affected Qena valley during rifting. This rifts it probably happened in Early Miocene associated with Red Sea tectonics. The general southward slope of

  10. 27 CFR 9.78 - Ohio River Valley. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ohio River Valley. 9.78... River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Ohio River Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Ohio River Valley...

  11. Surveying the Alentejo continental shelf for minerals and Quaternary environmental changes: preliminary results of the MINEPLAT project survey (United States)

    Noiva, João; Ribeiro, Carlos; Terrinha, Pedro; Brito, Pedro; Neres, Marta


    assessment of good quality sand deposits between approximately 30m and 50m below sea level aims at minimizing this problem that affects the economy of littoral of Alentejo. The MINEPLAT project (Assessment of the mineral resources potential in the continental shelf of Alentejo and of the environmental conditions caused by the tectonic uplift in the Pliocene-Quaternary) aims at assessing the existence of mineral deposits off the Alentejo. The MINEPLAT-1 geophysical survey acquired very high resolution multi-channel reflection seismics, swath bathymetry, backscatter and magnetic data in a test area. The preliminary results show: previously unknown NNW-SSE aligned magnetic anomalies, possibly corresponding to buried Late Cretaceous alkaline rocks; faults affecting recent sediments; well defined patches of sediments associated to morphologic traps. Future work will involve ground-truthing to characterize the shallow deposits. Acknowledgement: This work was funded by Alentejo 2020 contract ALT20-03-0145-FEDER-000013

  12. Radiocarbon dating loess deposits in the Mississippi Valley using terrestrial gastropod shells (Polygyridae, Helicinidae, and Discidae) (United States)

    Pigati, Jeffery S.; McGeehin, John P.; Muhs, Daniel; Grimley, David A.; Nekola, Jeffery C.


    Small terrestrial gastropod shells (mainly Succineidae) have been used successfully to date late Quaternary loess deposits in Alaska and the Great Plains. However, Succineidae shells are less common in loess deposits in the Mississippi Valley compared to those of the Polygyridae, Helicinidae, and Discidae families. In this study, we conducted several tests to determine whether shells of these gastropods could provide reliable ages for loess deposits in the Mississippi Valley. Our results show that most of the taxa that we investigated incorporate small amounts (1–5%) of old carbon from limestone in their shells, meaning that they should yield ages that are accurate to within a few hundred years. In contrast, shells of the genus Mesodon(Mesodon elevatus and Mesodon zaletus) contain significant and variable amounts of old carbon, yielding ages that are up to a couple thousand 14C years too old. Although terrestrial gastropod shells have tremendous potential for 14C dating loess deposits throughout North America, we acknowledge that accuracy to within a few hundred years may not be sufficient for those interested in developing high-resolution loess chronologies. Even with this limitation, however, 14C dating of terrestrial gastropod shells present in Mississippi Valley loess deposits may prove useful for researchers interested in processes that took place over multi-millennial timescales or in differentiating stratigraphic units that have significantly different ages but similar physical and geochemical properties. The results presented here may also be useful to researchers studying loess deposits outside North America that contain similar gastropod taxa..

  13. Geochemical evidence for seasonal controls on the transportation of Holocene loess, Matanuska Valley, southern Alaska, USA (United States)

    Muhs, Daniel R.; Budahn, James R.; Skipp, Gary L.; McGeehin, John P.


    Loess is a widespread Quaternary deposit in Alaska and loess accretion occurs today in some regions, such as the Matanuska Valley. The source of loess in the Matanuska Valley has been debated for more than seven decades, with the Knik River and the Matanuska River, both to the east, being the leading candidates and the Susitna River, to the west, as a less favorable source. We report here new stratigraphic, mineralogic, and geochemical data that test the competing hypotheses of these river sources. Loess thickness data are consistent with previous studies that show that a source or sources lay to the east, which rules out the Susitna River as a source. Knik and Matanuska River silts can be distinguished using Sc-Th-La, LaN/YbN vs. Eu/Eu∗, Cr/Sc, and As/Sb. Matanuska Valley loess falls clearly within the range of values for these ratios found in Matanuska River silt. Dust storms from the Matanuska River are most common in autumn, when river discharge is at a minimum and silt-rich point bars are exposed, wind speed from the north is beginning to increase after a low-velocity period in summer, snow depth is still minimal, and soil temperatures are still above freezing. Thus, seasonal changes in climate and hydrology emerge as critical factors in the timing of aeolian silt transport in southern Alaska. These findings could be applicable to understanding seasonal controls on Pleistocene loess accretion in Europe, New Zealand, South America, and elsewhere in North America.

  14. Effect of buried plates on scour profiles downstream of hydraulic jump in open channels with horizontal and reverse bed slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Abbaspour


    Full Text Available Local scour downstream of sluice gates in erosive beds is one of the main concerns of hydraulic engineers because it can cause considerable damage to structures. Many researchers have conducted various studies to predict the maximum depth and length of scour holes and to develop new methods to control this phenomenon. In the methods that have recently been examined, embedded buried plates are used to control the scour in the erosive beds. In this study, using a physical model, the effect of buried plates in erosive beds on the depth of scour downstream of a hydraulic jump was studied. Several experiments were performed in which plates were buried at 50° and 90° angles at different distances from the apron in open channels with horizontal and reverse bed slopes. The results of experiments in which the scour profiles were drawn in dimensionless forms show that the angle and position of the plates are important to controlling and reducing scour depth. In fact, by reducing the angle of buried plates, the maximum depth of scour is also reduced. Also, comparison of the results of a single buried plate and double buried plates shows that using two buried plates at the distances of 30 and 45 cm from the non-erodible bed is more effective in reducing the scour depth. The best distances of the buried plates with angles of 90° and 50° from the non-erodible bed are 45 cm and 30 cm, respectively, in the condition with a single buried plate.

  15. Hydrogeologic framework and occurrence, movement, and chemical characterization of groundwater in Dixie Valley, west-central Nevada (United States)

    Huntington, Jena M.; Garcia, C. Amanda; Rosen, Michael R.


    Dixie Valley, a primarily undeveloped basin in west-central Nevada, is being considered for groundwater exportation. Proposed pumping would occur from the basin-fill aquifer. In response to proposed exportation, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation and Churchill County, conducted a study to improve the understanding of groundwater resources in Dixie Valley. The objective of this report is to characterize the hydrogeologic framework, the occurrence and movement of groundwater, the general water quality of the basin-fill aquifer, and the potential mixing between basin-fill and geothermal aquifers in Dixie Valley. Various types of geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical data were compiled from previous studies and collected in support of this study. Hydrogeologic units in Dixie Valley were defined to characterize rocks and sediments with similar lithologies and hydraulic properties influencing groundwater flow. Hydraulic properties of the basin-fill deposits were characterized by transmissivity estimated from aquifer tests and specific-capacity tests. Groundwater-level measurements and hydrogeologic-unit data were combined to create a potentiometric surface map and to characterize groundwater occurrence and movement. Subsurface inflow from adjacent valleys into Dixie Valley through the basin-fill aquifer was evaluated using hydraulic gradients and Darcy flux computations. The chemical signature and groundwater quality of the Dixie Valley basin-fill aquifer, and potential mixing between basin-fill and geothermal aquifers, were evaluated using chemical data collected from wells and springs during the current study and from previous investigations. Dixie Valley is the terminus of the Dixie Valley flow system, which includes Pleasant, Jersey, Fairview, Stingaree, Cowkick, and Eastgate Valleys. The freshwater aquifer in the study area is composed of unconsolidated basin-fill deposits of Quaternary age. The basin-fill hydrogeologic unit

  16. Hydrothermal system of Long Valley caldera, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorey, M.L.; Lewis, R.E.; Olmsted, F.H.


    The geologic and hydrologic setting of the hydrothermal system are described. The geochemical and thermal characteristics of the system are presented. A mathematical model of the Long Valley caldera is analyzed. (MHR)

  17. Alluvial Boundary of California's Central Valley (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the extent of the alluvial deposits in the Central Valley of California and encompasses the contiguous Sacramento, San Joaquin, and...

  18. Meie ingel Silicon Valleys / Raigo Neudorf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Neudorf, Raigo


    Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutuse esinduse töölepanekust USAs Silicon Valleys räägib esinduse juht Andrus Viirg. Vt. ka: Eestlasi leidub San Franciscos omajagu; Muljetavaldav karjäär; USAga ammune tuttav

  19. Meie mees Silicon Valleys / Kertu Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Kertu, 1977-


    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 5. dets. lk. 4. Peaminister Andrus Ansip avas Eesti Ettevõtluse Sihtasutuse esinduse Silicon Valley pealinnas San Joses. Vt. samas: Ränioru kliima on tehnoloogiasõbralik; Andrus Viirg

  20. Vegetation - San Felipe Valley [ds172 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This Vegetation Map of the San Felipe Valley Wildlife Area in San Diego County, California is based on vegetation samples collected in the field in 2002 and 2005 and...

  1. Detection of valley currents in graphene nanoribbons (United States)

    Chan, K. S.


    There are two valleys in the band structure of graphene zigzag ribbons, which can be used to construct valleytronic devices. We studied the use of a T junction formed by an armchair ribbon and a zigzag ribbon to detect the valley-dependent currents in a zigzag graphene ribbon. A current flowing in a zigzag ribbon is divided by the T junction into the zigzag and armchair leads and this separation process is valley dependent. By measuring the currents in the two outgoing leads, the valley-dependent currents in the incoming lead can be determined. The method does not require superconducting or magnetic elements as in other approaches and thus will be useful in the development of valleytronic devices.

  2. Airborne Dust Models in Valley Fever Research (United States)

    Sprigg, W. A.; Galgiani, J. N.; Vujadinovic, M.; Pejanovic, G.; Vukovic, A. J.; Prasad, A. K.; Djurdjevic, V.; Nickovic, S.


    Dust storms (haboobs) struck Phoenix, Arizona, in 2011 on July 5th and again on July 18th. One potential consequence: an estimated 3,600 new cases of Valley Fever in Maricopa County from the first storm alone. The fungi, Coccidioides immitis, the cause of the respiratory infection, Valley Fever, lives in the dry desert soils of the American southwest and southward through Mexico, Central America and South America. The fungi become part of the dust storm and, a few weeks after inhalation, symptoms of Valley Fever may appear, including pneumonia-like illness, rashes, and severe fatigue. Some fatalities occur. Our airborne dust forecast system predicted the timing and extent of the storm, as it has done with other, often different, dust events. Atmosphere/land surface models can be part of public health services to reduce risk of Valley Fever and exacerbation of other respiratory and cardiovascular illness.

  3. VALMET-A valley air pollution model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiteman, C.D.; Allwine, K.J.


    Following a thorough analysis of meteorological data obtained from deep valleys of western Colorado, a modular air-pollution model has been developed to simulate the transport and diffusion of pollutants released from an elevated point source in a well-defined mountain valley during the nighttime and morning transition periods. This initial version of the model, named VALMET, operates on a valley cross section at an arbitrary distance down-valley from a continuous point source. The model has been constructed to include parameterizations of the major physical processes that act to disperse pollution during these time periods. The model has not been fully evaluated. Further testing, evaluations, and development of the model are needed. Priorities for further development and testing are provided.

  4. Burrowing Owl - Palo Verde Valley [ds197 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — These burrowing owl observations were collected during the spring and early summer of 1976 in the Palo Verde Valley, eastern Riverside County, California. This is an...

  5. Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of Quaternary Ammonium 4-Deoxypyridoxine Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita V. Shtyrlin


    Full Text Available A series of novel quaternary ammonium 4-deoxypyridoxine derivatives was synthesized. Two compounds demonstrated excellent activity against a panel of Gram-positive methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains with MICs in the range of 0.5–2 μg/mL, exceeding the activity of miramistin. At the same time, both compounds were inactive against the Gram-negative E. coli and P. aeruginosa strains. Cytotoxicity studies on human skin fibroblasts and embryonic kidney cells demonstrated that the active compounds possessed similar toxicity with benzalkonium chloride but were slightly more toxic than miramistin. SOS-chromotest in S. typhimurium showed the lack of DNA-damage activity of both compounds; meanwhile, one compound showed some mutagenic potential in the Ames test. The obtained results make the described chemotype a promising starting point for the development of new antibacterial therapies.

  6. The geological characteristics during the quaternary period around Japan island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagiwara, Shigeru [Chuo Kaihatsu Corp., Enterprises Promotion Bureau, Tokyo (Japan); Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Ogawa, Hiromichi; Nakayama, Shinichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    Radioactive wastes arising from radioisotope facilities and nuclear research facilities should be disposed of in the surface of the earth, the shallow underground, the adequate depth and the deep underground according to radioactivity concentrations, and should be managed during several hundreds years. The earth scientific phenomena observed in Japan island at present occurred continuously from the past, and the same phenomena at the future should occur in the similar factor. Therefore, for the purpose to get the fundamental data for the selection of disposal site, this report reviewed on the genesis and classification of the sediments, earth scientific phenomena observed in Japan island and the feature of each place (10 districts) concerning to the Quaternary period in the newest geological time unit. (author)

  7. Stereocontrolled Introduction of the Quaternary Stereogenic Centre in Lyngbyatoxin A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønder, Janne Ejrnæs; Tanner, David Ackland

    In our study of the enantioselective total synthesis of Lyngbyatoxin A, we have focused first on the stereocontrolled introduction of the quaternary stereogenic centre. The key step in the synthesis involves an enantiospecific Lewis-acid mediated rearrangement of chiral vinyl epoxides......, a methodology developed by Jung et al(1). For model studies, the requisite vinyl epoxides were obtained by Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation of the corresponding allylic alcohols, followed by a TPAP oxidation and a Wittig reaction. It was observed that the choice of protective group on the indole nitrogen in had...... a major impact on the regioselectivity of the rearrangement reaction. Boron trifluoride mediated rearrangement of the allyl and benzyl protected indoles provided only the undesired product (the methyl ketone) resulting from vinyl-migration, whereas the tosyl protected indole gave products resulting from...

  8. Antibacterial effect of composite resins containing quaternary ammonium polyethyleneimine nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yudovin-Farber, Ira [Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Natural Products, School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine (Israel); Beyth, Nurit; Weiss, Ervin I. [Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry (Israel); Domb, Abraham J., E-mail: [Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Natural Products, School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine (Israel)


    Quaternary ammonium polyethyleneimine (QA-PEI)-based nanoparticles were synthesized by crosslinking with dibromopentane followed by N-alkylation with various alkyl halides and further N-methylation with methyl iodide. Insoluble pyridinium-type particles were prepared by suspension polymerization of 4-vinyl pyridine followed by N-alkylation with alkyl halides. Polyamine-based nanoparticles embedded in restorative composite resin at 1% w/w were tested for antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans using direct contact test. Activity analysis revealed that the alkyl chain length of the QA-PEI nanoparticles plays a significant role in antibacterial activity of the reagent. The most potent compound was octyl-alkylated QA-PEI embedded in restorative composite resin at 1% w/w that totally inhibited S. mutans growth in 3-month-aged samples. This data indicates that restorative composite resin with antibacterial properties can be produced by the incorporation of QA-PEI nanoparticles.

  9. Global Environments through the Quaternary – Exploring Environmental Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josie Rose Mills


    Full Text Available Born from a series of volumes titled Environmental Change, first printed in 1976, this book is the second edition of a revised history of the global environment published in 2013. It is the collaborative work of David Anderson, Andrew Goudie, and Adrian Parker, all experts in the field of geography, with Parker also having a background in anthropology. Global Environments through the Quaternary provides a general scientific guide to interpreting environmental change. It is aimed at a wide audience and has a full glossary of less well known terms for added clarity. It would be a good accompaniment to a geoarchaeology course or for those interested in the history of environmental fluctuation, with its particular strengths lying in the concise and accessible presentation of scientific data. This enables it to work well as a reference guide that can be used alongside more in-depth research as it provides a key knowledge base with which to formulate personal theories.

  10. Quaternary prevention, an answer of family doctors to overmedicalization. (United States)

    Jamoulle, Marc


    In response to the questioning of Health Policy and Management (HPAM) by colleagues on the role of rank and file family physicians in the same journal, the author, a family physician in Belgium, is trying to highlight the complexity and depth of the work of his colleagues and their contribution to the understanding of the organization and economy of healthcare. It addresses, in particular, the management of health elements throughout the ongoing relationship of the family doctor with his/her patients. It shows how the three dimensions of prevention, clearly included in the daily work, are complemented with the fourth dimension, quaternary prevention or prevention of medicine itself, whose understanding could help to control the economic and human costs of healthcare.

  11. Quaternary Prevention, an Answer of Family Doctors to Overmedicalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Jamoulle


    Full Text Available In response to the questioning of Health Policy and Management (HPAM by colleagues on the role of rank and file family physicians in the same journal, the author, a family physician in Belgium, is trying to highlight the complexity and depth of the work of his colleagues and their contribution to the understanding of the organization and economy of healthcare. It addresses, in particular, the management of health elements throughout the ongoing relationship of the family doctor with his/her patients. It shows how the three dimensions of prevention, clearly included in the daily work, are complemented with the fourth dimension, quaternary prevention or prevention of medicine itself, whose understanding could help to control the economic and human costs of healthcare.

  12. New River Valley Agriculture & Agritourism Strategic Plan


    Walker, Martha A.; Scott, Kelli H.


    This strategic plan discusses plans for improving the marketing of agritourism and agribusiness in the New River Valley (Floyd, Giles, Montgomery and Pulaski Counties), and potentially increasing community wealth while improving the access to local crops and products. Includes Planning for an Agricultural Future in Giles, Montgomery, and Pulaski Counties: An Agricultural Regional Assessment, prepare for the New River Valley Agricultural & Agritourism Project Management Team by Matson Consu...

  13. Active faults and related Late Quaternary deformation along the Northwestern Himalayan Frontal Zone, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Nakata


    Full Text Available Numerous newly-identified traces of active faults in the Himalayan foothill zone along the HFF around Chandigarh, in Pinjore Dun, along the piedmont zone of the Lower Siwalik hill front and within the Lower Tertiary hill range reveal the pattern of thrust and strike-slip faulting, striking parallel to the principal structural trend (NNW-SSE of the orogenic belt. The active Chandigarh Fault, Pinjore Garden Fault and Barsar thrust have vertically dislocated, warped and backtilted fluvial and alluvial-fan surfaces made up of Late Pleistocene-Holocene sediments. West- and southwest-facing fault scarplets with heights ranging from 12 to 50 m along these faults suggest continued tectonic movement through Late Pleistocene to recent times. Gentle warping and backtilting of the terraces on the hanging wall sides of the faults indicate fault-bend folding. These active faults are the manifestation of north-dipping imbricated thrust faults branching out from the major fault systems like the Main Boundary Fault (MBF and Himalayan Frontal Fault (HFF, probably merging down northward into a décollement. The Taksal Fault, striking NNW-SSE, shows prominent right-lateral movement marked by lateral offset of streams and younger Quaternary terraces and occupies a narrow deep linear valley along the fault trace. Right stepping along this fault has resulted in formation of a small pull-apart basin. Fault scarplets facing ENE and WSW are the manifestation of dip-slip movement. This fault is an example of slip-partitioning between the strike-slip and thrust faults, suggesting ongoing oblique convergence of the Indian plate and northward migration of a tectonic sliver. Slip rate along the Taksal Fault has been calculated as 2.8 mm/yr. Preliminary trench investigation at the base of the Chandigarh Fault Scarp has revealed total displacement of 3.5 m along a low angle thrust fault with variable dip of 20° to 46° due northeast, possibly the result of one

  14. Unexpected climatic impacts of orbital forcing out of the Quaternary (United States)

    Ramstein, G.; Zhang, Z.; Le Hir, G.; Contoux, C.; Donnadieu, Y.; Dumas, C.; Schuster, M.; Li, C.


    For Quaternary, the impact of orbital variations on climate is huge and well documented. Especially, during the last million years, drastic climate changes occurred, consisting in transitions from glacial to interglacial periods driven by changes in 65°N summer insolation with 100 kyrs periodicity. Nevertheless, the imprint of so-called Milankovic forcings has also been found for Tertiary and Secondary. For both periods, the climatic imprints of orbital forcings are recorded in a warm world without ice sheet. Here, we show through simulation studies the large impact of orbital forcing in very different geological contexts. The first and most striking result depicts the role of insolation changes during the melting of the Marinoan snowball [635 Ma] (Benn et al, Nature Geoscience 2015). This is one of the oldest imprints of orbital forcing on climate. Our result solved a long lasting controversy concerning the melting of the last snowball episode between a huge deglaciation at very high CO2 level and data showing glacial/interglacial cycles occurring during that melting. Our modelling studies focusing on Svalbard high resolution records demonstrate that the glacial/fluvial oscillation was related to orbital forcing in a context of very high CO2 level. Much more recently, during the Tortonian period [11-7 Ma], the orbital cycles shaped the environment and drove the hominin dispersal in Africa. During Tortonian, the ultimate shrinkage of a huge epicontinental sea, that extended from Eastern Europe to Western Asia, has been shown to produce major changes on Asian monsoon (Ramstein et al, Nature, 1997) and triggered the onset of Sahara desert (Zhang et al, Nature 2014). Moreover, this shrinkage drastically enhanced the climate response to orbital changes at the emergence of early hominins in North Africa. Through these two illustrations,we pointed out very different climatic impacts of orbital forcing out of Quaternary.

  15. Book Review: The history of the Quaternary Research Association (United States)

    Bowen, D. Q.


    This is a book that should be in the library of every member of the QRA as well as their institutions. This volume is a celebration of 50 years of the Quaternary Studies Field Group (1964), which was renamed the Quaternary Research Association (QRA) in 1969. What follows is a combination of a review with some further information based on the recollection of someone who was there. In examining the origins of the QSFG due credit is paid to Richard Hey and Richard West, but an inexplicable omission is the earlier discussion between Hey, Allan Straw and others during the field meeting of the Yorkshire Geological Society in September 1962 (Worsley, 2014). It is said that history is always written by the victors, or in modern parlance by those who write the minutes! But, in the writing of history there are only degrees of unsuccess. In Chapter 2 John Catt comments on the less than perfect early archival records of the QRA. So it is to his credit that 50 years of archival material has been diligently sifted and edited. In this he was assisted by memories of some named QRA members who are thanked. Wider consultation may have filled some of the gaps. At earlier meetings it was always a pleasure to greet long retired colleagues, such as Archie Lamont at the Carlops glacial drainage system when being demonstrated by Brian Sissons in 1966, or Tony Farringdon at Ballycotton Bay in 1968, or Hallam Movius in 1971 at a London discussion meeting. Similarly, who can forget the field meeting at Canterbury in 1967 when Alec Skempton demonstrated the Sevenoaks by-pass late-glacial slope failures, and John Hutchinson's use of Pomatias elegans for dating the Folkestone Warren landslips? Jan Mangerud's first QRA meeting on the Isle of Man (1971) was notable for his prescient recognition of glaciomarine deposits.

  16. Infectivity of Trichinella spiralis larvae in pork buried in the ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovic S.


    Full Text Available Time of survival and infectivity of Trichinella spiralis larvae in pig muscle tissue, buried at various depths in the ground were assessed. In the pork pieces the number of infective larvae was 250 ML/g. Meat originated from pig halves was divided in 39 equal pieces, 0.7 kg each, disposed in three groups of 1 3, and buried in depths of 30, 50, and 100 centimeters respectively. The pork was dug up at 13 intervals, approximately every week, until 91st day of the experiment. After each time interval, infectivity of larvae was assessed by bioassay on rats. The artificially infected rats were sacrificed on 42nd day after the infection and meat was examined by the following methods - artificial digestion and trichinoscopy. It was found that the larvae during all 90 days preserved infectivity in each depth.

  17. The Investigation of Identity Construction: A Foucauldian Reading of Sam Shepard's Buried Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeidabadi S.


    Full Text Available Shepard is peculiarly powerful in his symbolic family problem plays: True West, Buried Child and Curse of the Starving Class. He allegorizes the American experience and undermines the myth of America as the New Eden. The present study seeks to critically explore Sam Shepard's Buried Child in terms of Foucauldian conception of identity construction. Shepard is depicting a dystopian world with its bewildered characters; however he has still got a romantic view of individuals trying to grapple with the society in order to get unity and order. This Shephardian attitude towards human beings is seemingly a free agent that overlaps the Foucauldian view which establishes a philosophy focusing on the relationship between the self and the society. The present essay attempts to demonstrate the complicated relationship between the self and the opposing forces.

  18. Noise characteristics of resistors buried in low-temperature co-fired ceramics

    CERN Document Server

    Kolek, A; Dziedzic, A


    The comparison of noise properties of conventional thick film resistors prepared on alumina substrates and resistors embedded in low-temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCCs) is presented. Both types of resistors were prepared from commercially available resistive inks. Noise measurements of LTCC resistors below 1 kHz show Gaussian 1/f noise. This is concluded from the calculations of the second spectra as well as from studying the volume dependence of noise intensity. It has occurred that noise index of LTCC resistors on average is not worse than that of conventional resistors. A detailed study of co-fired surface resistors and co-fired buried resistors show that burying a resistor within LTCC substrate usually leads to (significant) enhancement of resistance but not of noise intensity. We interpret this behaviour as another argument in favour of tunnelling as the dominant conduction mechanism in LTCC resistors.

  19. Technology evaluation report for the Buried Waste Robotics Program Subsurface Mapping Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griebenow, B.E.


    This document presents a summary of the work performed in support of the Buried Waste Robotics Program Subsurface Mapping Project. The project objective was to demonstrate the feasibility of remotely characterizing buried waste sites. To fulfill this objective, a remotely-operated vehicle, equipped with several sensors, was deployed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Descriptions of the equipment and areas involved in the project are included in this report. Additionally, this document provides data that was obtained during characterization operations at the Cold Test Pit and the Subsurface Disposal Area, both at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s Radioactive Waste Management Complex, and at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The knowledge gained from the experience, that can be applied to the next generation remote-characterization system, is extensive and is presented in this report.

  20. Technology evaluation report for the Buried Waste Robotics Program Subsurface Mapping Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griebenow, B.E.


    This document presents a summary of the work performed in support of the Buried Waste Robotics Program Subsurface Mapping Project. The project objective was to demonstrate the feasibility of remotely characterizing buried waste sites. To fulfill this objective, a remotely-operated vehicle, equipped with several sensors, was deployed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Descriptions of the equipment and areas involved in the project are included in this report. Additionally, this document provides data that was obtained during characterization operations at the Cold Test Pit and the Subsurface Disposal Area, both at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's Radioactive Waste Management Complex, and at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The knowledge gained from the experience, that can be applied to the next generation remote-characterization system, is extensive and is presented in this report.

  1. Novel endoscopic management of buried bumper syndrome in percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy: The Olympus HookKnife. (United States)

    Wolpert, Laura E; Summers, Dominic M; Tsang, Andrew


    Buried bumper syndrome (BBS) is an uncommon but serious complication of percutaneous endoscopic ga-strostomy. It involves the internal fixation device, or "bumper", migrating into the gastric wall and subsequent mucosal overgrowth. We described a case series of four patients with BBS treated with a novel endoscopic technique using a HookKnife between June 2016 and February 2017. The HookKnife is a rotating L-shaped cutting wire designed for hooking tissue and pulling it away from the gastric wall towards the lumen. The technique was successful in all four cases with no complications. Each patient was discharged on the day of treatment. The HookKnife is a manoeuvrable, safe and effective device for endoscopic removal of buried bumpers and could avoid surgery in a high risk group of patients. To our knowledge this technique has not been described previously. We suggest that this technique should be added to the treatment algorithms for managing BBS.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyazi Uğur TERZİ


    Full Text Available Deformation characteristics of polyethylene based flexible pipes are different than rigid pipes such as concrete and iron pipes. Deflection patterns and stress-strain behaviors of flexible pipes have strict relation between the engineering properties of backfill and its settlement method. In this study, deformation behavior of a 100 mm HDPE flexible pipe under vertical loads is investigated in laboratory conditions. Steel test box, pressurized membrane, raining system, linear position transducers and strain gauge rosettes are used in the laboratory tests. In order to analyze the buried pipe performance; Masada Derivation Formula which is mostly used by designers is employed. According to the test and mathematical studies, it is understood that relative density of backfill and its settlement method is a considerable effect on buried pipe performance and Masada Derivation method is very efficient for predicting the pipe performance.

  3. Reducing Thermal Losses and Gains With Buried and Encapsulated Ducts in Hot-Humid Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, C. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States); Magee, A. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States); Zoeller, W. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States)


    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) monitored three houses in Jacksonville, FL, to investigate the effectiveness of encapsulated and encapsulated/buried ducts in reducing thermal losses and gains from ductwork in unconditioned attics. Burying ductwork beneath loose-fill insulation has been identified as an effective method of reducing thermal losses and gains from ductwork in dry climates, but it is not applicable in humid climates where condensation may occur on the outside of the duct jacket. By encapsulating the ductwork in closed cell polyurethane foam (ccSPF) before burial beneath loose-fill mineral fiber insulation, the condensation potential may be reduced while increasing the R-value of the ductwork.

  4. Study of silicon-on-insulator substrates incorporated with buried MoSi{sub 2} layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Chao [Nano Technology Laboratory, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology (SIMIT), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shanghai 200050 (China); Liu Weili [Nano Technology Laboratory, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology (SIMIT), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shanghai 200050 (China)], E-mail:; Ma Xiaobo; Shen Qinwo; Song Zhitang; Lin Chenglu [Nano Technology Laboratory, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology (SIMIT), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shanghai 200050 (China)


    Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) substrates incorporated with buried MoSi{sub 2} were fabricated using room temperature plasma bonding technology and smart cut technology. The molybdenum disilicide phase formation and morphology were studied by means of four-point probe measurements, X-ray diffraction analysis, atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy examination. It is found that the transition of high-resistance phase Mo{sub 3}Si to low-resistance phase h-MoSi{sub 2} occurs at approximately 750 deg. C . The t-MoSi{sub 2} phase emerges at approximately 900 deg. C . SOI substrate incorporated with buried silicide layer of complete t-MoSi{sub 2} phase can be achieved by 900 deg. C annealing for 20 min.

  5. Analysis of buried heterointerfacial hydrogen in highly lattice-mismatched epitaxy on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Eiko Engineering Co., Ltd., Hitachinaka, Ibaraki 312-0024 (Japan); Asaoka, H., E-mail: [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Taguchi, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamazaki, D.; Maruyama, R.; Takeda, M.; Shamoto, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)


    We realized the epitaxial growth of a Sr layer on Si(111) with an atomically abrupt heterointerface - in spite of its large lattice mismatch (12%) with Si - by introducing a monoatomic layer of H on Si. In order to identify the buried H, we carried out a combination analysis involving neutron reflectometry and resonant nuclear reaction of {sup 1}H({sup 15}N,{alpha}{gamma}){sup 12}C analysis. We found different neutron reflectivity profiles resulting from a contrast variation between the H and D atoms at the buried heterointerface. Furthermore, the depth {gamma}-ray intensity profiles revealed that the H at the heterointerface acts as an effective buffer layer that enables it to manage the highly mismatched epitaxy on Si.

  6. Numerical study of the polarization effect of GPR systems on the detection of buried objects (United States)

    Sagnard, Florence


    This work is in line with the studies carried out in our department over the last few years on object detection in civil engineering structures and soils. In parallel to building of the second version of the Sense-City test site where several pipeline networks will be buried [1], we are developing numerical models using the FIT and the FDTD approaches to study more precisely the contribution of the polarization diversity in the detection of conductive and dielectric buried objects using the GPR technique. The simulations developed are based on a ultra-wide band SFCW GPR system that have been designed and evaluated in our laboratory. A parametric study is proposed to evaluate the influence of the antenna configurations and the antenna geometry when considering the polarization diversity in the detection and characterization of canonical objects. [1]

  7. Taphonomic Effects of Mechanical Plowing on Buried Juvenile-Sized Remains. (United States)

    Newcomb, Alyssa M; Pokines, James T; Moore, Tara L


    Agricultural activity is a worldwide taphonomic process and can present unique challenges in the recovery of buried remains. Previous research has been mostly within the realm of site formation processes of archeological sites utilizing only surface material. This research expands upon the previous research by incorporating the distribution of subsurface material by the use of archeological excavation techniques. An experiment was conducted utilizing juvenile pig (Sus scrofa) skeletons buried in relative anatomical position at two different depths (15 cm below the surface [cmbs] and 22 cmbs). The burials were then subjected to different intervals of mechanical plowing: one, three, five, seven, or 10 plow passes. The skeletal material was recovered using pedestrian survey followed by hand excavation and screening of all sediments. This research shows that there is a significant relationship between the degree of plowing and the distance skeletal material is distributed and the percentage of material recovered undamaged. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  8. Deep electrical resistivity tomography along the tectonically active Middle Aterno Valley (2009 L'Aquila earthquake area, central Italy) (United States)

    Pucci, Stefano; Civico, Riccardo; Villani, Fabio; Ricci, Tullio; Delcher, Eric; Finizola, Anthony; Sapia, Vincenzo; De Martini, Paolo Marco; Pantosti, Daniela; Barde-Cabusson, Stéphanie; Brothelande, Elodie; Gusset, Rachel; Mezon, Cécile; Orefice, Simone; Peltier, Aline; Poret, Matthieu; Torres, Liliana; Suski, Barbara


    Three 2-D Deep Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) transects, up to 6.36 km long, were obtained across the Paganica-San Demetrio Basin, bounded by the 2009 L'Aquila Mw 6.1 normal-faulting earthquake causative fault (central Italy). The investigations allowed defining for the first time the shallow subsurface basin structure. The resistivity images, and their geological interpretation, show a dissected Mesozoic-Tertiary substratum buried under continental infill of mainly Quaternary age due to the long-term activity of the Paganica-San Demetrio normal faults system (PSDFS), ruling the most recent deformational phase. Our results indicate that the basin bottom deepens up to 600 m moving to the south, with the continental infill largely exceeding the known thickness of the Quaternary sequence. The causes of this increasing thickness can be: (1) the onset of the continental deposition in the southern sector took place before the Quaternary, (2) there was an early stage of the basin development driven by different fault systems that produced a depocentre in the southern sector not related to the present-day basin shape, or (3) the fault system slip rate in the southern sector was faster than in the northern sector. We were able to gain sights into the long-term PSDFS behaviour and evolution, by comparing throw rates at different timescales and discriminating the splays that lead deformation. Some fault splays exhibit large cumulative throws (>300 m) in coincidence with large displacement of the continental deposits sequence (>100 m), thus testifying a general persistence in time of their activity as leading splays of the fault system. We evaluate the long-term (3-2.5 Myr) cumulative and Quaternary throw rates of most of the leading splays to be 0.08-0.17 mm yr-1, indicating a substantial stability of the faults activity. Among them, an individual leading fault splay extends from Paganica to San Demetrio ne' Vestini as a result of a post-Early Pleistocene linkage of

  9. History of the incipient Icelandic plume: Observations from ancient buried landscapes (United States)

    Stucky de Quay, Gaia; Roberts, Gareth G.; Watson, Jonathan S.; Jackson, Christopher A.-L.


    Ancient buried terrestrial landscapes contain records of vertical motions which can be used to probe histories of geodynamical processes. In the North Atlantic Ocean, sedimentary basins contain excellent evidence that the continental shelf experienced staged subaerial exposure. For example, now buried landscapes were uplifted, rapidly eroded, and drowned close to the Paleocene-Eocene boundary. We use commercial wells and three-dimensional seismic data to reconstruct a 57-55 Ma landscape now buried 1.5 km beneath the seabed in the Bressay area of the northern North Sea. Geochemical analyses of organic matter from core samples intersecting the erosional landscape indicate the presence of angiosperm (flowering plant) debris. Combined with the presence of coarse clastic material, mapped beach ridges, and dendritic drainage patterns, these observations indicate that this landscape was of terrestrial origin. Longitudinal profiles of ancient rivers were extracted and inverted for an uplift rate history. The best-fitting uplift rate history has three phases and total cumulative uplift of 350 m. Biostratigraphic data from surrounding marine stratigraphy indicate that this landscape formed within 1-1.5 Ma. This uplift history is similar to that of a slightly older buried landscape in the Faeroe-Shetland basin 400 km to the west. These records of vertical motion can explained by pulses of anomalously hot asthenosphere spreading out from the incipient Icelandic plume. Using simple isostatic calculations we estimate that the maximum thermal anomaly beneath Bressay was 50˚. Our observations suggest that a thermal anomaly departed the Icelandic plume as early as 58.5 Ma and had highest average temperatures at 55.6 Ma.

  10. Reference standard of penile size and prevalence of buried penis in Japanese newborn male infants. (United States)

    Matsuo, Nobutake; Ishii, Tomohiro; Takayama, John I; Miwa, Masayuki; Hasegawa, Tomonobu


    The present study set forth the reference values for penile size and determined the prevalence of buried penis in Japanese full-term newborns. The stretched penile length was measured and the presence of buried penis was assessed at 1-7 days of age in 547 Japanese full-term newborn infants born between 2008 and 2012 in Tokyo. The stretched penile lengths were compared at 1-12 hours and 1-7 days of age in 63 infants and by two observers in 73 infants to estimate postnatal changes and interobserver variation, respectively. The mean stretched penile length was 3.06 cm (SD, 0.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.04-3.08) and the mean ratio of penile length to body length was 6.24 × 100(-1) (SD, 0.55 × 100(-1)), both of which were significantly smaller than those in Caucasian newborn infants. Buried penis was identified in 20 of 547 infants (3.7%; 95% CI, 2.1-5.2%). The first measurements of penile length at 1-12 hours were significantly smaller than the next measurements at 1-7 days (95% CI of the difference, 0.22-0.34). The 95% CI for the limits of agreement in the penile lengths measured by the two observers was -0.58 to -0.40 for the lower limit and 0.33 to 0.51 for the upper limit. These findings indicate that the penile length should be assessed after 24 hours of age by the reference standard of the same ethnicity for identifying micropenis and that buried penis is not uncommon in Japanese full-term newborns.

  11. Gold Electrodes Wired for Coupling with the Deeply Buried Active Site of Arthrobacter globiformis Amine Oxidase


    Hess, Corinna R.; Juda, Gregory A.; Dooley, David M.; Amii, Ricky N.; Hill, Michael G.; Winkler, Jay R.; Gray, Harry B.


    Diethylaniline-terminated oligo(phenyl-ethynyl)-thiol (DEA-OPE-SH) wires on Au-bead electrodes facilitate electron tunneling to and from the deeply buried topaquinone (TPQ) cofactor in Arthrobacter globiformis amine oxidase (AGAO). Reversible cyclic voltammograms were observed when AGAO was adsorbed onto this DEA-OPE-SAu surface:  the 2e^-/2H^+ reduction potential is −140 mV versus SCE.

  12. Electromagnetic diffraction by an impedance cylinder buried halfway between two half-spaces

    KAUST Repository

    Salem, Mohamed


    We consider the problem of electromagnetic diffraction from a cylinder with impedance surface and half-buried between two dielectric media. An arbitrary located electric dipole provides the excitation. The harmonic solution is presented as a series sum over a spectrum of a discrete-index Hankel transform, and the spectral amplitudes are determined by solving an infinite linear system of equations, which is constructed by applying the orthogonality relation of the 1D Green\\'s function. © 2011 IEEE.

  13. Lake stratigraphy implies an 80 000 yr delayed melting of buried dead ice in northern Russia


    Henriksen, Mona; Mangerud, Jan; Matiouchkov, Alexei; Paus, Aage; Svendsen, John-Inge


    Sediment cores from lakes Kormovoye and Oshkoty in the glaciated region of the Pechora Lowland, northern Russia, reveal sediment gravity flow deposits overlain by lacustrine mud and gyttja. The sediments were deposited mainly during melting of buried glacier ice beneath the lakes. In Lake Kormovoye, differential melting of dead ice caused the lake bottom to subside at different places at different times, resulting in sedimentation and erosion occurring only some few metres apar...

  14. Patient-Reported Social, Psychological, and Urologic Outcomes After Adult Buried Penis Repair. (United States)

    Voznesensky, Maria A; Lawrence, W Thomas; Keith, Jerrod N; Erickson, Bradley A


    To assess changes in hygiene, urination, and sexual activity after surgery for adult-acquired buried penis. The study included men who underwent buried penis repair from 2011 to 2015. Patients were asked pre- and postoperative questions on hygiene, urinary difficulties, sexual difficulties, and difficulties with activities of daily living (modified Post-Bariatric Surgery Quality of Life Questionnaire). Postoperative satisfaction was assessed at a minimum of 6 months. Pre- and postoperative data were compared with chi-squared analyses. Of 14 eligible patients, 12 completed postoperative questionnaires. Buried penis repair required debridement of penile skin with split-thickness skin grafting to penis (n = 11; 92%), escutcheonectomy (n = 12; 100%) and abdominoplasty (n = 10; 83%), scrotoplasty (n = 7; 59%), and securing the supra-penile dermis to the pubic dermal or periosteal tissue (n = 12, 100%). The average length of follow-up was 31 months (±20 months). Mean age was 50 (±10.5 years) and mean body mass index was 55 (±13.7 kg/m(2)). Wound complications (all Clavian Grade 1) occurred in 9 of 12 patients. Patients reported improvement in hygiene (100%), urination (91%), and sexual function (41%); 92% of patients reported they would choose to have the surgery again; and 83% felt that surgery had led to a positive change in their lives. The ability to perform most activities of daily living, as assessed by the Post-Bariatric Surgery Quality of Life Questionnaire, improved significantly. Over 90% of men had lost additional body weight at last clinical follow-up. Buried penis repair positively impacts social, psychological, and functional outcomes for patients. Wound complications should be expected but are easily managed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Residency time as an indicator of reproductive restraint in male burying beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlee N Smith

    Full Text Available The cost of reproduction theory posits that there are trade-offs between current and future reproduction because resources that are allocated to current offspring cannot be used for future reproductive opportunities. Two adaptive reproductive strategies have been hypothesized to offset the costs of reproduction and maximize lifetime fitness. The terminal investment hypothesis predicts that as individuals age they will allocate more resources to current reproduction as a response to decreasing residual reproductive value. The reproductive restraint hypotheses predicts that as individuals age they will allocate fewer resources to current reproduction to increase the chance of surviving for an additional reproductive opportunity. In this study, we test for adaptive responses to advancing age in male burying beetles, Nicrophorus orbicollis. Burying beetles use facultative biparental care, but the male typically abandons the brood before the female. Previous work in male burying beetles has suggested several factors to explain variation in male residency time, but no study has observed male behavior throughout their entire reproductive lifetimes to determine whether males change residency time in an adaptive way with age. We compared residency time of males that reproduced biparentally, uniparentally, and on different-sized carcasses to determine if they used an adaptive reproductive strategy. Males did not increase residency time as they aged when reproducing biparentally, but decreased residency time with age when reproducing uniparentally. A decrease in parental care with age is consistent with a reproductive restraint strategy. When female age increased over time, males did not increase their residency time to compensate for deteriorating female condition. To our knowledge, this is the first test of adaptive reproductive allocation strategies in male burying beetles.

  16. Assessment of incineration and melting treatment technologies for RWMC buried waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geimer, R.; Hertzler, T.; Gillins, R. (Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Anderson, G.L. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))


    This report provides an identification, description, and ranking evaluation of the available thermal treatment technologies potentially capable of treating the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) buried mixed waste. The ranking evaluation focused separately upon incinerators for treatment of combustible wastes and melters for noncombustible wastes. The highest rank incinerators are rotary kilns and controlled air furnaces, while the highest rank melters are the hearth configuration plasma torch, graphite electrode arc, and joule-heated melters. 4 refs.

  17. A servo controlled gradient loading triaxial model test system for deep-buried cavern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xu-guang [College of Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Ocean Engineering, Qingdao 266100 (China); Research Center of Geotechnical and Structural Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Zhang, Qiang-yong; Li, Shu-cai [Research Center of Geotechnical and Structural Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)


    A servo controlled gradient loading model test system is developed to simulate the gradient geostress in deep-buried cavern. This system consists of the gradient loading apparatus, the digital servo control device, and the measurement system. Among them, the gradient loading apparatus is the main component which is used for exerting load onto the model. This loading apparatus is placed inside the counterforce wall/beam and is divided to several different loading zones, with each loading zone independently controlled. This design enables the gradient loading. Hence, the “real” geostress field surrounding the deep-buried cavern can be simulated. The loading or unloading process can be controlled by the human-computer interaction machines, i.e., the digital servo control system. It realizes the automation and visualization of model loading/unloading. In addition, this digital servo could control and regulate hydraulic loading instantaneously, which stabilizes the geostress onto the model over a long term. During the loading procedure, the collision between two adjacent loading platens is also eliminated by developing a guide frame. This collision phenomenon is induced by the volume shrinkage of the model when compressed in true 3D state. In addition, several accurate measurements, including the optical and grating-based method, are adopted to monitor the small deformation of the model. Hence, the distortion of the model could be accurately measured. In order to validate the performance of this innovative model test system, a 3D geomechanical test was conducted on a simulated deep-buried underground reservoir. The result shows that the radial convergence increases rapidly with the release of the stress in the reservoir. Moreover, the deformation increases with the increase of the gas production rate. This observation is consistence with field observation in petroleum engineering. The system is therefore capable of testing deep-buried engineering structures.

  18. Paraffin Granuloma Associated with Buried Glans Penis-Induced Sexual and Voiding Dysfunction


    Chon, Wonhee; Koo, Ja Yun; Park, Min Jung; Choi, Kyung-Un; Park, Hyun Jun; Park, Nam Cheol


    A paraffinoma is a type of inflammatory lipogranuloma that develops after the injection of an artificial mineral oil, such as paraffin or silicon, into the foreskin or the subcutaneous tissue of the penis for the purpose of penis enlargement, cosmetics, or prosthesis. The authors experienced a case of macro-paraffinoma associated with sexual dysfunction, voiding dysfunction, and pain caused by a buried glans penis after a paraffin injection for penis enlargement that had been performed 35 yea...

  19. Site Assessment of Multiple-Sensor Approaches for Buried Utility Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander C. D. Royal


    Full Text Available The successful operation of buried infrastructure within urban environments is fundamental to the conservation of modern living standards. Open-cut methods are predominantly used, in preference to trenchless technology, to effect a repair, replace or install a new section of the network. This is, in part, due to the inability to determine the position of all utilities below the carriageway, making open-cut methods desirable in terms of dealing with uncertainty since the buried infrastructure is progressively exposed during excavation. However, open-cut methods damage the carriageway and disrupt society's functions. This paper describes the progress of a research project that aims to develop a multi-sensor geophysical platform that can improve the probability of complete detection of the infrastructure buried beneath the carriageway. The multi-sensor platform is being developed in conjunction with a knowledge-based system that aims to provide information on how the properties of the ground might affect the sensing technologies being deployed. The fusion of data sources (sensor data and utilities record data is also being researched to maximize the probability of location. This paper describes the outcome of the initial phase of testing along with the development of the knowledge-based system and the fusing of data to produce utility maps.

  20. Detection of Microbial sulfate-reduction associated with buried stainless steel coupons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark E. Delwiche; M. Kay Adler Flitton; Alicia Olson


    The objective of this study was to demonstrate applicability of an innovative radioactive isotope method for imaging microbial activity in geological materials to a comprehensive study of metal corrosion. The method was tested on a sample of stainless steel coupons that had been buried as part of a corrosion study initiated by the National Institute of Standards and Testing or NIST (known as National Bureau of Standards prior to 1988) in 1970. The images showed evidence of microbial activity that could be mapped on a millimeter scale to coupon surfaces. A second more conventional isotope tracer method was also used to provide a quantitative measure of the same type of microbial activity in soil proximal to the buried coupons. Together the techniques offer a method for evaluating low metabolic levels of activity that have the potential for significant cumulative corrosion effects. The methods are powerful tools for evaluation of potential for microbial induced corrosion to buried steel components used on pipelines, in the power and communications infrastructure, and in nuclear waste repository containers.

  1. True 3D High Resolution imagery of a Buried Shipwreck: the Invincible (1758) (United States)

    Dix, J. K.; Bull, J. M.; Henstock, T.; Gutowski, M.; Hogarth, P.; Leighton, T. G.; White, P. R.


    This paper will present the first true 3D high resolution acoustic imagery of a wreck site buried in the marine environment. Using a 3D Chirp system developed at the University of Southampton, a marine seismic survey of the mid-eighteenth century wreck site has been undertaken. The Invincible was a 74 gun warship built by the French in 1744, captured by the British in 1747 and subsequently lost off Portsmouth, UK in February 1758. The wreck was re-discovered by divers in 1979, partially buried on the margins of a mobile sandbank in approximately 8 metres of water. In 2004 the system was surveyed using a 60 channel, rigid framed 3D Chirp (1.5-13 kHz source sweep) system with integral RTK GPS and attitude systems. An area of 160 m x 160 m, centered over the wreck site, was surveyed with a total of 150 Gb data being acquired. The data was processed, using 3D Promax, to produce 25 cm bins with typical 3-6 fold coverage. The stacked traces have been visualized and interpreted using Kingdom Suite software. The final imagery shows at unprecedented resolution the full three-dimensional buried form of the wreck and it's relationship to the surrounding sedimentary sequences, enabling the full evolution of the site to be discussed. Further, the data is compared to previously acquired swath bathymetry and 2D seismic data in order to illustrate the impact of such a device for underwater cultural heritage management.

  2. Surgical correction of buried penis after traffic accident – a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masuda Hiroshi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Buried penis, most commonly seen in children, is particularly debilitating in adults, resulting in inability to void while standing and it also affects vaginal penetration. We report a case of buried penis due to a traffic accident, which caused dislocation of the fractured pubic bone that shifted inside and pulled the penis by its suspensory ligament. Case presentation A 55-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with a chief complaint of hidden penis while in the sitting position. He had suffered a pelvic fracture in a traffic accident four years previously, and his penis was covered with suprapubic fat when he was in a sitting position. He was unable to have sexual intercourse. We performed a penile lengthening procedure, including inverse V-Y-plasty of the dorsal skin of the penile root, suspensory desmotomy and fat removal, under general anesthesia. There was a good cosmetic result with satisfactory penile erection, which allowed successful sexual intercourse after surgery. Conculsion We performed penile elongation surgery with inverse V-Y-plasty of the dorsal skin of the penile root, suspensory desmotomy, and fat removal. Surgical treatment of buried penis achieves marked aesthetic and functional improvement, and benefits the majority of patients, resulting in satisfactory erection and successful sexual intercourse.

  3. [Penoplasty with scrotal flap for the treatment of buried penis in children]. (United States)

    Huang, Sheng-Song; Wu, Deng-Long; Yuan, Tao; Jiang, Qi-Quan; Chen, Fang; Xie, Hua


    To investigate the therapeutic effect of penoplasty with scrotal skin flap for the treatment of buried penis in children. The narrow ring was cut vertically at the ventral side of penis and the prepuce inner plate was circularly cut 0.5 cm from the coronary sulcus. The prepuce was degloved to the base of penis. The abnormal aponeurosis was removed completely. The prepuce was designed to cover the coronary sulcus. The scrotal flaps at both sides were formed and advanced to cover the penile base. Then the prepuce was sutured to reconstruct penile-scrotal angle and scrotum plasty was completed. From March 2009 to July 2011, 24 children with buried penis were treated with scrotal flaps. Adhesion at external orifice of urethra was happened in two cases which recovered after urethra expansion. There was one case of necrosis at the distal end of prepuce. All the cases were followed up for 6 months to 2 years with no penile shrinkage. The penile appearance was good without rotation or lateral curvature during erection. The buried penis can be best corrected with scrotal flap. It is an ideal method with less complication.

  4. Acoustic and Doppler radar detection of buried land mines using high-pressure water jets (United States)

    Denier, Robert; Herrick, Thomas J.; Mitchell, O. Robert; Summers, David A.; Saylor, Daniel R.


    The goal of the waterjet-based mine location and identification project is to find a way to use waterjets to locate and differentiate buried objects. When a buried object is struck with a high-pressure waterjets, the impact will cause characteristic vibrations in the object depending on the object's shape and composition. These vibrations will be transferred to the ground and then to the water stream that is hitting the object. Some of these vibrations will also be transferred to the air via the narrow channel the waterjet cuts in the ground. Currently the ground vibrations are detected with Doppler radar and video camera sensing, while the air vibrations are detected with a directional microphone. Data is collected via a Labview based data acquisition system. This data is then manipulated in Labview to produce the associated power spectrums. These power spectra are fed through various signal processing and recognition routines to determine the probability of there being an object present under the current test location and what that object is likely to be. Our current test area consists of a large X-Y positioning system placed over approximately a five-foot circular test area. The positioning system moves both the waterjet and the sensor package to the test location specified by the Labview control software. Currently we are able to locate buried land mine models at a distance of approximately three inches with a high degree of accuracy.

  5. Color-selective photodetection from intermediate colloidal quantum dots buried in amorphous-oxide semiconductors. (United States)

    Cho, Kyung-Sang; Heo, Keun; Baik, Chan-Wook; Choi, Jun Young; Jeong, Heejeong; Hwang, Sungwoo; Lee, Sang Yeol


    We report color-selective photodetection from intermediate, monolayered, quantum dots buried in between amorphous-oxide semiconductors. The proposed active channel in phototransistors is a hybrid configuration of oxide-quantum dot-oxide layers, where the gate-tunable electrical property of silicon-doped, indium-zinc-oxide layers is incorporated with the color-selective properties of quantum dots. A remarkably high detectivity (8.1 × 1013 Jones) is obtained, along with three major findings: fast charge separation in monolayered quantum dots; efficient charge transport through high-mobility oxide layers (20 cm2 V-1 s-1); and gate-tunable drain-current modulation. Particularly, the fast charge separation rate of 3.3 ns-1 measured with time-resolved photoluminescence is attributed to the intermediate quantum dots buried in oxide layers. These results facilitate the realization of efficient color-selective detection exhibiting a photoconductive gain of 107, obtained using a room-temperature deposition of oxide layers and a solution process of quantum dots. This work offers promising opportunities in emerging applications for color detection with sensitivity, transparency, and flexibility.The development of highly sensitive photodetectors is important for image sensing and optical communication applications. Cho et al., report ultra-sensitive photodetectors based on monolayered quantum dots buried in between amorphous-oxide semiconductors and demonstrate color-detecting logic gates.

  6. Difference in parenting in two species of burying beetle, Nicrophorus orbicollis and Nicrophorus vespilloides. (United States)

    Benowitz, Kyle M; McKinney, Elizabeth C; Moore, Allen J


    Burying beetles (Nicrophorus) are model parents among insects, with all studied species known to regurgitate flesh from vertebrate carcasses to their offspring. However, most studies focus on a very few species, yet the interpretation of the function and importance of care is typically generalized to all burying beetles. Here we characterize subtle variation within and between individuals and sexes, and how this variation differs between two species of burying beetle. We find that Nicrophorus orbicollis exhibits low variance, with a normal distribution of parental care provided during peak care periods. In N. vespilloides, however, the distribution is more uniform as values of care are spread across the possible phenotypic spectrum. This suggests that there is stabilizing selection on care in N. orbicollis, but relaxed or disruptive selection in N. vespilloides. Although repeatability was similar between both species, transitions from other care behaviors into feeding were more common in N. orbicollis than N. vespilloides. Thus, while parenting is coarsely similar across the genus, variation in its expression should not be extrapolated to all Nicrophorus. We suggest that subtle variation both within and among species merits greater attention, and could inform us about the factors that lead to different distributions of care.

  7. Biparental care is predominant and beneficial to parents in the burying beetle Nicrophorus orbicollis (Coleoptera: Silphidae). (United States)

    Benowitz, Kyle M; Moore, Allen J


    Parenting strategies can be flexible within a species, and may have varying fitness effects. Understanding this flexibility and its fitness consequences is important for understanding why parenting strategies evolve. Here, we investigate the fitness consequences of flexible parenting in the burying beetle Nicrophorus orbicollis, a species known for its advanced provisioning behaviour of regurgitated vertebrate carrion to offspring by both sexes. We show that even when a parent is freely allowed to abandon the carcass at any point in time, biparental post-hatching care is the most common pattern of care adopted in N. orbicollis. Furthermore, two parents together raised more offspring than single parents of either sex, showing that the presence of the male can directly influences parental fitness even in the absence of competitors. This contrasts with studies in other species of burying beetle, where biparental families do not differ in offspring number. This may explain why biparental care is more common in N. orbicollis than in other burying beetles. We suggest how fitness benefits of two parents may play a role in the evolution and maintenance of flexible biparental care in N. orbicollis.

  8. CMOS-compatible method for doping of buried vertical polysilicon structures by solid phase diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turkulets, Yury [Micron Semiconductor Israel Ltd., Qiryat Gat 82109 (Israel); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 8410501 (Israel); Silber, Amir; Ripp, Alexander; Sokolovsky, Mark [Micron Semiconductor Israel Ltd., Qiryat Gat 82109 (Israel); Shalish, Ilan, E-mail: [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 8410501 (Israel)


    Polysilicon receives attention nowadays as a means to incorporate 3D-structured photonic devices into silicon processes. However, doping of buried layers of a typical 3D structure has been a challenge. We present a method for doping of buried polysilicon layers by solid phase diffusion. Using an underlying silicon oxide layer as a dopant source facilitates diffusion of dopants into the bottom side of the polysilicon layer. The polysilicon is grown on top of the oxide layer, after the latter has been doped by ion implantation. Post-growth heat treatment drives in the dopant from the oxide into the polysilicon. To model the process, we studied the diffusion of the two most common silicon dopants, boron (B) and phosphorus (P), using secondary ion mass spectroscopy profiles. Our results show that shallow concentration profiles can be achieved in a buried polysilicon layer using the proposed technique. We present a quantitative 3D model for the diffusion of B and P in polysilicon, which turns the proposed method into an engineerable technique.

  9. Modelling of coupled heat and moisture flows around a buried electrical cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eslami Hossein


    Full Text Available The admissible current within a buried electrical power cable is limited by the maximum allowed temperature of the cable (Joule effect. The thermal properties of the surrounding soil controls heat dissipation around the cable. The main focus of the study was to evaluate the coupled heat and moisture flow around such buried electrical cables. The heat dissipation of a buried power cable was simulated in the surrounding soil at unsteady conditions. The hydro-thermal coupling was modelled by taking into account the moisture flow of liquid water and vapour, and the heat flow in the soil by convection and advection. As the thermal vapour diffusion enhancement factor (η appears to be a key parameter, the sensitivity study of the coupled heat and moisture flow in the ground regarding this parameter was performed. The variations of the degree of saturation and the temperature of the surrounding soil were studied over 180 days of heating. The results showed that the moisture flow was mainly caused by the vapour transport under temperature gradients. These results emphasized the significant effect of the hydrothermal characteristics of surrounding soil. The radius of influence of the power cable was also evaluated.

  10. Enhanced yields and soil quality in a wheat-maize rotation using buried straw mulch. (United States)

    Guo, Zhibin; Liu, Hui; Wan, Shuixia; Hua, Keke; Jiang, Chaoqiang; Wang, Daozhong; He, Chuanlong; Guo, Xisheng


    Straw return may improve soil quality and crop yields. In a 2-year field study, a straw return method (ditch-buried straw return, DB-SR) was used to investigate the soil quality and crop productivity effects on a wheat-corn rotation system. This study consisted of three treatments, each with three replicates: (1) mineral fertilisation alone (CK0); (2) mineral fertilisation + 7500 kg ha-1 wheat straw incorporated at depth of 0-15 cm (NPKWS); and (3) mineral fertilisation + 7500 kg ha-1 wheat straw ditch buried at 15-30 cm (NPKDW). NPKWS and NPKDW enhanced crop yield and improved soil biotical properties compared to mineral fertilisation alone. NPKDW contributed to greater crop yields and soil nutrient availability at 15-30 cm depths, compared to NPKWS treatment. NPKDW enhanced soil microbial activity and bacteria species richness and diversity in the 0-15 cm layer. NPKWS increased soil microbial biomass, bacteria species richness and diversity at 15-30 cm. The comparison of the CK0 and NPKWS treatments indicates that a straw ditch buried by digging to the depth of 15-30 cm can improve crop yields and soil quality in a wheat-maize rotation system. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Environmental fate and transport of chemical signatures from buried landmines -- Screening model formulation and initial simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelan, J.M.; Webb, S.W.


    The fate and transport of chemical signature molecules that emanate from buried landmines is strongly influenced by physical chemical properties and by environmental conditions of the specific chemical compounds. Published data have been evaluated as the input parameters that are used in the simulation of the fate and transport processes. A one-dimensional model developed for screening agricultural pesticides was modified and used to simulate the appearance of a surface flux above a buried landmine, estimate the subsurface total concentration, and show the phase specific concentrations at the ground surface. The physical chemical properties of TNT cause a majority of the mass released to the soil system to be bound to the solid phase soil particles. The majority of the transport occurs in the liquid phase with diffusion and evaporation driven advection of soil water as the primary mechanisms for the flux to the ground surface. The simulations provided herein should only be used for initial conceptual designs of chemical pre-concentration subsystems or complete detection systems. The physical processes modeled required necessary simplifying assumptions to allow for analytical solutions. Emerging numerical simulation tools will soon be available that should provide more realistic estimates that can be used to predict the success of landmine chemical detection surveys based on knowledge of the chemical and soil properties, and environmental conditions where the mines are buried. Additional measurements of the chemical properties in soils are also needed before a fully predictive approach can be confidently applied.

  12. Pliocene transpressional modification of depositional basins by convergent thrusting adjacent to the "Big Bend" of the San Andreas fault: An example from Lockwood Valley, southern California (United States)

    Kellogg, K.S.; Minor, S.A.


    The "Big Bend" of the San Andreas fault in the western Transverse Ranges of southern California is a left stepping flexure in the dextral fault system and has long been recognized as a zone of relatively high transpression compared to adjacent regions. The Lockwood Valley region, just south of the Big Bend, underwent a profound change in early Pliocene time (???5 Ma) from basin deposition to contraction, accompanied by widespread folding and thrusting. This change followed the recently determined initiation of opening of the northern Gulf of California and movement along the southern San Andreas fault at about 6.1 Ma, with the concomitant formation of the Big Bend. Lockwood Valley occupies a 6-km-wide, fault-bounded structural basin in which converging blocks of Paleoproterozoic and Cretaceous crystalline basement and upper Oligocene and lower Miocene sedimentary rocks (Plush Ranch Formation) were thrust over Miocene and Pliocene basin-fill sedimentary rocks (in ascending order, Caliente Formation, Lockwood Clay, and Quatal Formation). All the pre-Quatal sedimentary rocks and most of the Pliocene Quatal Formation were deposited during a mid-Tertiary period of regional transtension in a crustal block that underwent little clockwise vertical-axis rotation as compared to crustal blocks to the south. Ensuing Pliocene and Quaternary transpression in the Big Bend region began during deposition of the poorly dated Quatal Formation and was marked by four converging thrust systems, which decreased the areal extent of the sedimentary basin and formed the present Lockwood Valley structural basin. None of the thrusts appears presently active. Estimated shortening across the center of the basin was about 30 percent. The fortnerly defined eastern Big Pine fault, now interpreted to be two separate, oppositely directed, contractional reverse or thrust faults, marks the northwestern structural boundary of Lockwood Valley. The complex geometry of the Lockwood Valley basin is similar

  13. Pliocene transpressional modification of depositional basins by convergent thrusting adjacent to the ``Big Bend'' of the San Andreas fault: An example from Lockwood Valley, southern California (United States)

    Kellogg, Karl S.; Minor, Scott A.


    The "Big Bend" of the San Andreas fault in the western Transverse Ranges of southern California is a left stepping flexure in the dextral fault system and has long been recognized as a zone of relatively high transpression compared to adjacent regions. The Lockwood Valley region, just south of the Big Bend, underwent a profound change in early Pliocene time (˜5 Ma) from basin deposition to contraction, accompanied by widespread folding and thrusting. This change followed the recently determined initiation of opening of the northern Gulf of California and movement along the southern San Andreas fault at about 6.1 Ma, with the concomitant formation of the Big Bend. Lockwood Valley occupies a 6-km-wide, fault-bounded structural basin in which converging blocks of Paleoproterozoic and Cretaceous crystalline basement and upper Oligocene and lower Miocene sedimentary rocks (Plush Ranch Formation) were thrust over Miocene and Pliocene basin-fill sedimentary rocks (in ascending order, Caliente Formation, Lockwood Clay, and Quatal Formation). All the pre-Quatal sedimentary rocks and most of the Pliocene Quatal Formation were deposited during a mid-Tertiary period of regional transtension in a crustal block that underwent little clockwise vertical-axis rotation as compared to crustal blocks to the south. Ensuing Pliocene and Quaternary transpression in the Big Bend region began during deposition of the poorly dated Quatal Formation and was marked by four converging thrust systems, which decreased the areal extent of the sedimentary basin and formed the present Lockwood Valley structural basin. None of the thrusts appears presently active. Estimated shortening across the center of the basin was about 30 percent. The formerly defined eastern Big Pine fault, now interpreted to be two separate, oppositely directed, contractional reverse or thrust faults, marks the northwestern structural boundary of Lockwood Valley. The complex geometry of the Lockwood Valley basin is similar

  14. Quaternary Faults and Basin-fill Sediments of the Las Vegas Basin, Southern Nevada (United States)

    Taylor, W. J.; Fossett, E.; Luke, B.; Snelson, C.; Rasmussen, T.; McCallen, D.; Rodgers, A.; Louie, J.


    The N-S elongated extensional Las Vegas basin, southern Nevada, contains 100's of meters of Cenozoic basin-fill sediments that are cut by several Quaternary (Q) faults. These faults define or influence the basin geometry. The basin is generally an asymmetrical half graben defined by the W-dipping, Q Frenchman Mountain fault (FMF) along its E side and a series of smaller offset E-dipping faults to the W. The N terminus of the basin is controlled by the Las Vegas Valley shear zone, along which the majority of the offset occurred prior to the Q. Here, we asses the influence of the Q faults on the distribution of the sedimentary units. Well, exposure, seismic reflection and seismic refraction data show that sedimentary units of different grain sizes or seismic velocity dominate different parts of the basin. Sections dominated by coarse clastic deposits occupy a narrow area along the E side of the basin. Coarse clastic sediments are mixed with finer grained sediments in a broader area along the W side of the basin. Based on provenance and alluvial fan distribution, the coarse deposits along the E side of the basin appear to be trapped in close proximity to the W-dipping FMF. The coarse-grained deposits along the opposite, W side of the basin, are sourced from the nearby Spring Mountains. Because of the structural asymmetry of the basin, these sediments traveled farther from their source area than those on the E side. Some of these E-dipping faults influence the depth to Paleozoic bedrock and some faults form small sub-basins filled with finer grained sediments. Along a WNW trend near the center of the basin and near the present-day Las Vegas Wash, a change in the grain size distribution occurs up stratgraphic section: continuous clay layers are less common and coarse-grained deposits are more common. This difference may reflect a change from internal drainage early in the basin history to external drainage through the Las Vegas Wash in the latter history of the basin

  15. Bibliography of literature pertaining to Long Valley Caldera and associated volcanic fields (United States)

    Ewert, John W.; Harpel, Christopher J.; Brooks, Suzanna K.; Marcaida, Mae


    On May 25-27, 1980, Long Valley caldera was rocked by four M=6 earthquakes that heralded the onset of a wave of seismic activity within the caldera which has continued through the present. Unrest has taken the form of seismic swarms, uplift of the resurgent dome, and areas of vegetation killed by increased CO2 emissions, all interpreted as resulting from magma injection into different levels beneath the caldera, as well as beneath Mammoth Mountain along the southwest rim of the caldera. Continuing economic development in the Mammoth Lakes area has swelled the local population, increasing the risk to people and property if an eruption were to occur. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been monitoring geophysical activity in the Long Valley area since the mid-1970s and continues to track the unrest in real time with a sophisticated network of geophysical sensors. Hazards information obtained by this monitoring is provided to local, State, and Federal officials and to the public through the Long Valley Observatory. The Long Valley area also was scientifically important before the onset of current unrest. Lying at the eastern foot of the Sierra Nevada, the deposits from this active volcanic system have provided fertile ground for research into Neogene tectonics, Quaternary geology and geomorphology, regional stratigraphy, and volcanology. In the early 1970s, intensive studies of the area began through the USGS Geothermal Investigations Program, owing to the presence of a large young silicic volcanic system. The paroxysmal eruption of Long Valley caldera about 760,000 years ago produced the Bishop Tuff and associated Bishop ash. The Bishop Tuff is a well-preserved ignimbrite deposit that has continued to provide new and developing insights into the dynamics of ignimbrite-forming eruptions. Another extremely important aspect of the Bishop Tuff is that it is the oldest known normally magnetized unit of the Brunhes Chron. Thus, the age of the Bishop Tuff is used to

  16. Geologic Interpretation of the Las Vegas Valley Based on Industry Seismic Reflection Data (United States)

    Hirsch, A.; Snelson, C. M.


    Las Vegas Valley, NV is located in the southern Basin and Range Province where the basin was formed by the Las Vegas Valley Shear Zone as well as by several thrust and normal faulting events that occurred by Cenozoic time. The geology and tectonic setting in the Las Vegas region is poorly understood given the fact that many structures have been covered by the constant growth of the City. National studies of ground motion and amplification of seismic energy placed Nevada third in the list of states having the potential for loss of life and property due to earthquakes. The Las Vegas area has a high potential for strong ground shaking due its thick basin fill and associated amplification. Due to the amplification effects within the Valley, moderate nearby quakes or large distant quakes will produce a large amount of damage in the Valley. Las Vegas, though not known for its earthquakes, has numerous micro quakes and an active seismic history. In a study using HAZUS to predict damage associated with a M6.9 earthquake, the loss would be billions of dollars with thousands of lives lost. Long-term economic loss would be in the several billions of dollars. Recently, several normal faults, which have the potential to produce a M6.5 to 7.0 earthquake, were reclassified as active tectonic fault with Quaternary movement. As a result, there has been increased effort to understand the Las Vegas Valley and to assess its potential for seismic hazards. One such effort included acquiring industry reflection profiles that cross the Valley. In the 1980's, north/south and east/west trending reflection lines with intersecting tie points were placed between Frenchman Mountain to the East and Spring Mountains to produce seismic profiles using Vibroseis. The profiles, which are over 200 kilometers in length and extend down to 5 s in time or approximately 15 km depth, will provide a tie between the surface work that is currently being conducted and the crustal velocity models that are being

  17. The Buried Bumper Syndrome: External Bumper Extraction after Radial Mini Incisions and Replacement through an Adjacent Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Benatta


    Full Text Available Although considered as a safe method to provide long-term nutritional support, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG may be complicated by a buried bumper syndrome (BBS, a life-threatening condition. Removal of the PEG tube with its buried bumper and reinsertion of a new PEG tube is often necessary. Since its description in 1988, less than 50 cases of BBS managed by external extraction of the buried bumper have been reported. We report a case of buried bumper that was removed by external traction without the need for endoscopic or laparoscopic treatment but with the need of two radial millimeter skin incisions after abdominal CT study and finally immediate PEG replacement but through an adjacent site.

  18. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 496: Buried Rocket Site, Antelope Lake, Tonopah Test Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada


    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) plan details the activities necessary to close Corrective Action Unit 496: Buried Rocket Site, Antelope Lake. CAU 496 consists of one site located at the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada.

  19. Topological Valley Transport in Two-dimensional Honeycomb Photonic Crystals. (United States)

    Yang, Yuting; Jiang, Hua; Hang, Zhi Hong


    Two-dimensional photonic crystals, in analogy to AB/BA stacking bilayer graphene in electronic system, are studied. Inequivalent valleys in the momentum space for photons can be manipulated by simply engineering diameters of cylinders in a honeycomb lattice. The inequivalent valleys in photonic crystal are selectively excited by a designed optical chiral source and bulk valley polarizations are visualized. Unidirectional valley interface states are proved to exist on a domain wall connecting two photonic crystals with different valley Chern numbers. With the similar optical vortex index, interface states can couple with bulk valley polarizations and thus valley filter and valley coupler can be designed. Our simple dielectric PC scheme can help to exploit the valley degree of freedom for future optical devices.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A buried grid solar cell is manufactured by a process for metallising one or more metal contacts of a buried grid solar cell having a body of doped semiconductor material, wherein the electrical contact(s) is/are provided by conducting material being arranged in a pattern of one or more grooves...... conducting contact forming material by electrolytic plating using a conventional electrolytic bath further comprising a levelling additive and a suppressing additive and using substantially constant cell voltage....

  1. Preglacial surface remnants and Quaternary glacial regimes in northwestern Sweden (United States)

    Kleman, Johan; Stroeven, Arjen P.


    We present a detailed map of the distribution of preglacial surface remnants in the Kebnekaise region of northwestern Sweden. In this mountain area we discern four important large-scale geomorphological units, each representing a specific set of erosional agents and formative conditions. These are: (i) intact preglacial surface remnants, characterized by gentle slopes, round summits, wide shallow valleys, and an absence of rock basins; (ii) preglacial surface remnants showing signs of minor glacial erosion and deposition; (iii) glacially scoured surfaces, including glacial troughs; (iv) deep fluvial valleys cut into the preglacial surface. The pattern of glacial erosion is explained as the result of three specific modes of glaciation known to have existed during the last 120,000 years, and inferred to have repeatedly prevailed during the last 2.75 million years: cirque glaciation, mountain ice sheets, and Fennoscandian ice sheets. A deep-ocean oxygen-isotope record of foraminifera from the North Atlantic (DSDP 607) was used to infer the temporal extent of these modes of glaciation during the last 2.75 million years. We interpret the preglacial landscape preservation and the pattern of glacial erosion in terms of the configuration, the basal thermal regime, and the duration of such glaciation events. The average subglacial thermal regime of both ice sheet types was frozen on the uplands and melting in the main valleys, where outlet glaciers and ice-streams formed. The pre-glacial landscape is best preserved at intermediate elevations, low enough not to have been covered by cirque glaciers, and apparently high enough not to have experienced melted-bed conditions and subglacial erosion during ice sheet overriding events. In a narrow high-relief zone along the elevation axis, interglacial fluvial erosion was morphologically important. The absence of glacial erosion on uplands in this zone allowed fluvial erosion to commence on the same locations during each ice

  2. Underground riparian wood: Buried stem and coarse root structures of Black Poplar (Populus nigra L.) (United States)

    Holloway, James V.; Rillig, Matthias C.; Gurnell, Angela M.


    Despite the potential importance of tree species in influencing the processes of wood recruitment, transport, retention, and decay that control river wood budgets, focus has been relatively limited on this theme within fluvial wood research. Furthermore, one of the least investigated topics is the belowground living wood component of riparian trees. This paper presents observations of the morphology and age of buried stem and coarse root structures of eight Populus nigra individuals located in the riparian woodland of two sites on the middle to lower Tagliamento River, Italy. This species was selected because of its wide distribution along European rivers and its frequent dominance of riparian woodland. Each tree was excavated by hand to expose a minimum of half of the root system with complete exposure of the main axis. Smaller roots were then removed and larger protruding roots cut back to permit access to the main axis. The excavated structures were photographed from multiple angles for photogrammetric modelling; the structure and character of the exposed sediments around the tree's main axis were recorded; and wood samples were taken from the main aboveground stem(s), sections of the main buried axis, and major roots for dendrochronological analysis. Results from these field observations and laboratory dating of the wood samples were combined to describe the belowground morphology of each tree and to draw inferences concerning the impact of fluvial disturbances. Common features of these excavated structures included: (i) rooting depths to below the bar surface where the original tree established, with many young roots also existing at depth; (ii) translocation of the main buried axis in a downstream direction; (iii) a main buried axis comprised mainly of stems that have become buried and then generated new shoots, including multistem patches, and adventitious roots; (iv) the presence of steps and bends in the main buried axis associated with the generation of

  3. Features of the structure Quaternary sediments in typical sections of Middle Dnieper.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manyuk V.


    Full Text Available Considered the most important features of the geological feature of the Quaternary deposits, especially in their most typical sections. First we present new evidence about change margin distribution limnoglacial and fluvioglacial deposits.

  4. Bactericidal and Sporicidal Activity of a Quaternary Ammonium Resin-Triiodide Complex (United States)

    Gilmour, Marion N.; Wicksell, Eva K.


    Tests to determine the potential use of a quaternary ammonium resin-triiodide complex as a sterilizing agent showed that it was an ineffective sporicide and that bactericidal activity was impaired by complex milieu. PMID:4670512

  5. Planktonic foraminifera from a quaternary deep sea core from the southern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naidu, P.D.; Rao, P.S.; Pattan, J.N.

    An investigation on planktonic foraminifera and calcium carbonate content of a box core collected at a depth of 2556 m from the southern part of the Arabian sea indicates faunal changes depicting Quaternary climatic fluctuations. Based on the study...

  6. Polymer electrolytes from PEO and novel quaternary ammonium iodides for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, J.; Li, W.; Wang, X.; Lin, Y.; Xiao, X.; Fang, S. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Institute of Chemistry


    Polymer electrolytes were prepared by blending high molecular weight poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and a series of novel quaternary ammonium iodides, the polysiloxanes with oligo (oxyethylene) side chains and quaternary ammonium groups. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements ensured relatively low crystallinity when the quaternary ammonium iodides were incorporated into the PEO host. The ionic conductivity of these complexes was improved with the addition of plasticizers. The improvement in the ionic conductivity was determined by the polarity, viscosity and amounts of plasticizers. A plasticized electrolyte containing the novel quaternary ammonium iodide was successfully used in fabricating a quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell for first time. The fill factor and energy conversion efficiency of the cell were calculated to be 0.68 and 1.39%, respectively. (author)

  7. Quaternary epitopes of α345(IV) collagen initiate Alport post-transplant anti-GBM nephritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olaru, Florina; Luo, Wentian; Wang, Xu-Ping


    Alport post-transplant nephritis (APTN) is an aggressive form of anti-glomerular basement membrane disease that targets the allograft in transplanted patients with X-linked Alport syndrome. Alloantibodies develop against the NC1 domain of α5(IV) collagen, which occurs in normal kidneys, including...... of alloantibodies against allogeneic collagen IV. Some alloantibodies targeted alloepitopes within α5NC1 monomers, shared by α345NC1 and α1256NC1 hexamers. Other alloantibodies specifically targeted alloepitopes that depended on the quaternary structure of α345NC1 hexamers. In Col4a5-null mice, immunization...... with native forms of allogeneic collagen IV exclusively elicited antibodies to quaternary α345NC1 alloepitopes, whereas alloimmunogens lacking native quaternary structure elicited antibodies to shared α5NC1 alloepitopes. These results imply that quaternary epitopes within α345NC1 hexamers may initiate...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    The interaction of quaternary anticholinergics with muscarinic receptors in bovine tracheal smooth muscle strips was investigated because some of these compounds have shown anomalous (biphasic) behaviour in radioligand displacement studies, in contrast to their tertiary analogues. It was found that

  9. Synthesis of quaternary aryl phosphonium salts: photoredox-mediated phosphine arylation


    Fearnley, A.F.; J. An; Jackson, M.; Lindovska, P.; Denton, R M


    We report a synthesis method for the construction of quaternary aryl phoshonium salts at ambient temperature. The regiospecific reaction invovles the coupling of phosphines with aryl radicals derived from diaryliodonium salts under photoredox conditions.

  10. Synthesis of quaternary aryl phosphonium salts: photoredox-mediated phosphine arylation. (United States)

    Fearnley, A F; An, J; Jackson, M; Lindovska, P; Denton, R M


    We report a synthesis method for the construction of quaternary aryl phoshonium salts at ambient temperature. The regiospecific reaction involves the coupling of phosphines with aryl radicals derived from diaryliodonium salts under photoredox conditions.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohling, Eelco J.; Gieskes, Winfried W. C.


    Three recently acquired eastern Mediterranean cores containing Late Quaternary sediments display a marked faunal contrast between the Holocene and older sapropels. It is suggested that the absence of neogloboquadrinids in the Holocene sapropel and their abundance in older sapropels reflect

  12. Effects of quaternary ammonium silane coatings on mixed fungal and bacterial biofilms on tracheoesophageal shunt prostheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhof, JJH; Buijssen, KJDA; Busscher, HJ; van der Laan, BFAM; van der Mei, HC

    Two quaternary ammonium silanes (QAS) were used to coat silicone rubber tracheoesophageal shunt prostheses, yielding a positively charged surface. One QAS coating [(trimethoxysilyl)-propyidimethylocta-decylammonium chloride] was applied through chemical bonding, while the other coating, Biocidal ZF,

  13. Detection of buried pipes by polarimetric borehole radar; Polarimetric borehole radar ni yoru maisetsukan no kenshutsu jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M.; Niitsuma, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Nakauchi, T. [Osaka Gas Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)


    If the borehole radar is utilized for detection of buried pipes, the underground radar measurement becomes possible even in the situation where the mesurement on the earth surface is difficult, for example, such a place as under the road where there is much traffic. However, since buried pipes are horizontally installed and the existing borehole radar can send/receive only vertical polarization, the measurement conducted comes to be poor in efficiency from a viewpoint of the polarization utilization. Therefore, by introducing the polarimetric borehole radar to the detection of buried pipes, a basic experiment was conducted for the effective detection of horizontal buried pipes. Proposing the use of a slot antenna which can send/receive horizontal polarization in borehole in addition to a dipole antenna which sends/receives vertical polarization, developed was a step frequency type continuous wave radar of a network analyzer basis. As a result of the experiment, it was confirmed that reflection from buried pipes is largely dependent on polarization. Especially, it was found that in the slot dipole cross polarization mesurement, reflection from buried pipes can be emphasized. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  14. The role of Quaternary environmental change in plant macroevolution: the exception or the rule? (United States)

    Willis, Katherine J; Niklas, Karl J


    The Quaternary has been described as an important time for genetic diversification and speciation. This is based on the premise that Quaternary climatic conditions fostered the isolation of populations and, in some instances, allopatric speciation. However, the 'Quaternary Ice-Age speciation model' rests on two key assumptions: (i) that biotic responses to climate change during the Quaternary were significantly different from those of other periods in Earth's history; and (ii) that the mechanisms of isolation during the Quaternary were sufficient in time and space for genetic diversification to foster speciation. These assumptions are addressed by examining the plant fossil record for the Quaternary (in detail) and for the past 410 Myr, which encompasses previous intervals of icehouse Earth. Our examination of the Quaternary record indicates that floristic responses to climate changes during the past 1.8 Myr were complex and that a distinction has to be made between those plants that were able to withstand the extremes of glacial conditions and those that could not. Generation times are also important as are different growth forms (e.g. herbaceous annuals and arborescent perennials), resulting in different responses in terms of genetic divergence rates during isolation. Because of these variations in the duration of isolation of populations and genomic diversification rates, no canonical statement about the predominant floristic response to climatic changes during the Quaternary (i.e. elevated rates of speciation or extinction, or stasis) is currently possible. This is especially true because of a sampling bias in terms of the fossil record of tree species over that of species with non-arborescent growth forms. Nevertheless, based on the available information, it appears that the dominant response of arborescent species during the Quaternary was extinction rather than speciation or stasis. By contrast, our examination of the fossil record of vascular plants for the

  15. Interpretation of gravity profiles across the northern Oaxaca terrane, its boundaries and the Tehuacán Valley, southern Mexico (United States)

    Campos-Enríquez, J. O.; Alatorre-Zamora, M. A.; Keppie, J. D.; Belmonte-Jiménez, S. I.; Ramón-Márquez, V. M.


    A gravity study was conducted across the northern Oaxaca terrane and its bounding faults: the Caltepec and Oaxaca Faults to the west and east, respectively. These faults juxtapose the Oaxaca terrane against the Mixteca and Juarez terranes, respectively. The Oaxaca Fault also forms the eastern boundary of the Cenozoic Tehuacán depression. On the west, at depth, the Tehuacán valley is limited by the normal buried Tehuacán Fault. This gravity study reveals that the Oaxaca Fault system gives rise to a series of east tilted basamental blocks (Oaxaca Complex). The tectonic depression is filled with Phanerozoic rocks and has a deeper depocenter to the west. The gravity data also indicate that on the west, the Oaxaca Complex, the Caltepec and Santa Lucia faults continue northwestwards beneath Phanerozoic rocks. A major E-W to NE-SW discontinuity is inferred to exist between profiles 1 and 2.

  16. Christmas Valley Renewable Energy Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Mar, Robert [Oregon Department of Energy, Salem, OR (United States)


    In partnership with the Oregon Military Department, the Department of Energy used the award to assess and evaluate renewable resources in a 2,622-acre location in Lake County, central Oregon, leading to future development of up to 200 MW of solar electricity. In partnership with the Oregon Military Department, the Department of Energy used the award to assess and evaluate renewable resources in a 2,622-acre location in Lake County, central Oregon, leading to future development of up to 200 MW of solar electricity. The Oregon Military Department (Military) acquired a large parcel of land located in south central Oregon. The land was previously owned by the US Air Force and developed for an Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Transmitter Facility, located about 10 miles east of the town of Christmas Valley. The Military is investigating a number of uses for the site, including Research and Development (R&D) laboratory, emergency response, military operations, developing renewable energy and related educational programs. One of the key potential uses would be for a large scale solar photovoltaic power plant. This is an attractive use because the site has excellent solar exposure; an existing strong electrical interconnection to the power grid; and a secure location at a moderate cost per acre. The project objectives include: 1. Site evaluation 2. Research and Development (R&D) facility analysis 3. Utility interconnection studies and agreements 4. Additional on-site renewable energy resources analysis 5. Community education, outreach and mitigation 6. Renewable energy and emergency readiness training program for veterans

  17. Synthesis of Main-Chain Chiral Quaternary Ammonium Polymers for Asymmetric Catalysis Using Quaternization Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Masud Parvez


    Full Text Available Main-chain chiral quaternary ammonium polymers were successfully synthesized by the quaternization polymerization of cinchonidine dimer with dihalides. The polymerization occurred smoothly under optimized conditions to give novel type of main-chain chiral quaternary ammonium polymers. The catalytic activity of the polymeric chiral organocatalysts was investigated on the asymmetric benzylation of N-(diphenylmethylideneglycine tert-butyl ester.

  18. Advances in the synthesis of α-quaternary α-ethynyl α-amino acids. (United States)

    Boibessot, Thibaut; Bénimélis, David; Meffre, Patrick; Benfodda, Zohra


    α-Quaternary α-ethynyl α-amino acids are an important class of non-proteinogenic amino acids that play an important role in the development of peptides and peptidomimetics as therapeutic agents and in the inhibition of enzyme activities. This review provides an overview of the literature concerning synthesis and applications of α-quaternary α-ethynyl α-amino acids covering the period from 1977 to 2015.

  19. Synthesis and anti-microbial activities of choline-like quaternary ammonium chlorides. (United States)

    Pernak, Juliusz; Chwała, Przemysław


    New choline-like quaternary ammonium chlorides were obtained. The work-up procedure of synthesis was quick and efficient. The obtained chlorides showed anti-microbial activities. Quaternary ammonium chlorides derivatives of deanol esters exhibited strong activity and wide anti-bacterial spectra, similar to the activity of benzalkonium chloride. The relationship between chemical structure and anti-microbial activity was analyzed by the QSAR method.

  20. Quaternary Alkylammonium Conjugates of Steroids: Synthesis, Molecular Structure, and Biological Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogumił Brycki


    Full Text Available The methods of synthesis as well as physical, spectroscopic (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and FT-IR, ESI-MS, and biological properties of quaternary and dimeric quaternary alkylammonium conjugates of steroids are presented. The results were contrasted with theoretical calculations (PM5 methods and potential pharmacological properties (PASS. Alkylammonium sterols exhibit a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity comparable to squalamine.

  1. Progress report. Task 1 - quaternary tectonics, 1 October 1991--30 September 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Progress is reported on a study concerned with the quaternary tectonics of Yucca Mountain, the proposed site for an underground disposal facility for high-level radioactive wastes. Refinement and revision of crater Flat Quaternary stratigraphy continued and consisted of several activities: revision of rock varnish cation leaching curve; sample comparison of RV manganese;,iron microlaminations;and correlation of Crater Flat allostratigraphic units with regional chronologies.

  2. Hydrogeologic and geochemical characterization of groundwater resources in Rush Valley, Tooele County, Utah (United States)

    Gardner, Philip M.; Kirby, Stefan


    The water resources of Rush Valley were assessed during 2008–2010 with an emphasis on refining the understanding of the groundwater-flow system and updating the groundwater budget. Surface-water resources within Rush Valley are limited and are generally used for agriculture. Groundwater is the principal water source for most other uses including supplementing irrigation. Most groundwater withdrawal in Rush Valley is from the unconsolidated basin-fill aquifer where conditions are generally unconfined near the mountain front and confined at lower altitudes near the valley center. Productive aquifers also occur in fractured bedrock along the valley margins and beneath the basin-fill deposits in some areas.Drillers’ logs and geophysical gravity data were compiled and used to delineate seven hydrogeologic units important to basin-wide groundwater movement. The principal basin-fill aquifer includes the unconsolidated Quaternary-age alluvial and lacustrine deposits of (1) the upper basin-fill aquifer unit (UBFAU) and the consolidated and semiconsolidated Tertiary-age lacustrine and alluvial deposits of (2) the lower basin-fill aquifer unit (LBFAU). Bedrock hydrogeologic units include (3) the Tertiary-age volcanic unit (VU), (4) the Pennsylvanian- to Permian-age upper carbonate aquifer unit (UCAU), (5) the upper Mississippian- to lower Pennsylvanian-age upper siliciclastic confining unit (USCU), (6) the Middle Cambrian- to Mississippian-age lower carbonate aquifer unit (LCAU), and (7) the Precambrian- to Lower Cambrian-age noncarbonate confining unit (NCCU). Most productive bedrock wells in the Rush Valley groundwater basin are in the UCAU.Average annual recharge to the Rush Valley groundwater basin is estimated to be about 39,000 acre-feet. Nearly all recharge occurs as direct infiltration of snowmelt and rainfall within the mountains with smaller amounts occurring as infiltration of streamflow and unconsumed irrigation water at or near the mountain front. Groundwater

  3. Quaternary continetal back-arc evolution from southern Mendoza, Argentina (United States)

    Espanon, Venera; Chivas, Allan; Dosseto, Anthony; Honda, Masahiko; Phillips, David; Matchan, Erin; Price, David


    The Quaternary evolution of the Payenia Basaltic Province (PBP) in southern Mendoza, Argentina has been investigated using a multi-dating approach in combination with pre-exiting geochemical data. This basaltic province covers an area of approximately 40000 km2 and is mainly characterised by backarc volcanism. In the current investigation nine new radiometric ages obtained using surface exposure, 40Ar/39Ar and thermoluminescence dating are presented. Six ages correspond to the late Pleistocene and three to the Holocene. The surface exposure ages obtained using cosmogenic 3He and 21Ne are in good agreement with previous publications and confidently suggest that part of this basaltic province was active at least 4000 years ago (taking a conservative approach). In addition, we combined the available geochronological and geochemical data to reconstruct the Quaternary evolution of this basaltic province. This approach was used to create maps of geospatial distribution of trace-element ratios to determine geochemical changes during the Pleistocene. Employing this method it is evident that two geochemical distinct types of magma were erupting at the same time interval within the PBP. In the north eastern part (Nevado volcanic field) of the PBP an arc-like signature is evident, while in the southern part (Río Colorado volcanic field) of the same basaltic province an Ocean Island Basalt (OIB) signature is evident. The arc-like signature in the north eastern part of the PBP, decreased during the Pleistocene in a north-west direction indicated by a reduction in Ba/La and La/Ta in the Nevado and Llancanelo volcanic field. The Holocene volcanism is restricted to the western side of the Payún Matrú volcanic field and is dominated by OIB-like signatures such as high Ta/Hf and low Ba/La and La/Ta. This contribution presents new geochronology for the PBP and confirms that two different types of volcanism occurred simultaneously during the Pleistocene, while the Holocene

  4. Quaternary Deformation of Sumba, Indonesia: Evidence from Carbonate Terraces (United States)

    Dahlquist, M. P.; West, A. J.; Dolan, J. F.


    The Banda Arc of Indonesia remains one of the least understood tectonic domains on the modern Earth. The island of Sumba, located approximately 50 km south of Flores and 120 km north of the Java Trench, northwest of where it transitions into the Timor Trough, lies in a region of tectonic transition and potentially offers insights into regional dynamics. The Banda Arc is volcanically active, but Sumba itself is not volcanic. The northern coast of Sumba is covered in Quaternary coral terraces, with the rest of the island's surface geology composed of Mio-pliocene carbonates and uplifted Late Cretaceous-Oligocene forearc basin and volcanic rocks. The purpose of this study is to remotely map the topographic expression of the coral terraces and use the information gained to better understand deformation on Sumba since their deposition. The ages of the coral terraces, of which many platforms are exposed over significant areas of the island, have been constrained at Cape Luandi in north central Sumba, but uplift rates calculated from those ages may not be representative of the island as a whole. The lateral continuity of these dated terraces can help constrain the extent to which uplift of Sumba is spatially variable. Analysis of the terraces using SRTM digital elevation data with ArcGIS software makes it possible to trace the same terrace platforms over large distances, and shows that the north central part of the island has experienced the most uplift since the deposition of the terraces, forming an anticline with the east limb dipping more steeply than the west. The terraces are not well preserved on the southern half of the island. Exposure of older rocks and lack of terrace preservation, as well as a south-skewed drainage divide suggests the southern half of the island experiences greater exhumation, but this could be driven by climate or other factors and does not necessarily indicate more rapid uplift. Study of Quaternary deformation of Sumba can offer greater

  5. Spatial/temporal patterns of Quaternary faulting in the southern limb of the Yellowstone-Snake River Plain seismic parabola, northeastern Basin and Range margin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCalpin, J.P. (GEO-HAZ Consultants, Estes Park, CO (United States))


    During the period 1986--1991, 11 backhoe trenches were excavated across six Quaternary faults on the northeastern margin of the Basin and Range province. These faults comprise the southern limb of a parabola of Quaternary faults and historic moderate-magnitude earthquakes which is roughly symmetrical about the Snake River Plain, and heads at the Yellowstone hot spot. Fifteen Holocene paleoseismic events have been bracketed by radiocarbon or thermoluminescence ages. On the six central faults, the latest rupture event occurred in a relatively short time interval between 3 ka and 6 ka. The period between 6 ka and the end of the latest glaciation (ca. 15 ka) was a period of relative tectonic quiescence on the central faults, but not on the two end faults with higher slip rates (Wasatch and Teton faults). Southward-younging of events in the 3--6 ka period may indicate that temporally-clustered faulting was initiated at the Yellowstone hot spot. Faults at the same latitude, such as the Star Valley-Grey's River pair of faults, or the East Cache-Bear Lake-Rock Creek system of faults, show nearly identical timing of latest rupture events within the pairs or systems. Faults at common latitudes probably sole into the same master decollement, and thus are linked mechanically like dominoes. The timing of latest ruptures indicates that faulting on the westernmost fault preceded faulting on successively more eastern faults by a few hundred years. This timing suggests that slip on the westernmost faults mechanically unloaded the system, causing tectonic instabilities farther east.

  6. The influence of buried nodules on the mobility of metals in deep sea sediments (United States)

    Heller, Christina; Kuhn, Thomas


    Hydrothermal fluids can extract significant amounts of heat from oceanic lithosphere by lateral fluid flow through permeable basaltic crust of an age of up to 65 Ma. Fluid recharge and discharge occur at basement outcrops in between impermeable pelagic deep sea sediments. Recharge of oxic seawater causes upward oxygen diffusion into sediments overlying the permeable basalt in areas proximal to recharge sites. It is suggested that this oxygen has a strong impact on sediments and Mn-nodules during fluid exposure time. The aim of this study is to investigate if/how fluid flow through oceanic crust influence the distribution and element budget of Mn-nodules. Nodules occur widespread at the seafloor of the Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ) in the equatorial North Pacific and were analyzed in many studies worldwide. Nodules buried in the deep sea sediments could be found only rarely (von Stackelberg, 1997, Geol. Soc. Spec. Publ., 119: 153-176). High resolution side-scan sonar recordings (unpublished Data BGR Hannover) indicate that there exist a coherent layer of nodules buried in the sediments of the working area. During the expedition SO 240/FLUM nodules were found on the sediment surface in 4200 to 4300 m water depth as well as in the sediment down to 985 cm below seafloor. In general, nodules consist of different nm- to µm-thick, dense and porous layers. The geochemical composition of bulk nodules and single nodule layers were determined by XRF, ICP-MS/OES, XRD and by high resolution analyses with electron microprobe and LA-ICP-MS. Dense layers have low Mn/Fe ratios ( 10) and high Ni+Cu and Li concentrations. The different compositions depend on different formation processes of the layers. They were formed by metal precipitation from oxic (hydrogenetic) and suboxic (diagenetic) bottom-near seawater and/or pore water (Wegorzewski and Kuhn, 2014, Mar. Geol. 357, 123-138). Preliminary results show that there are significant differences between the geochemical composition

  7. Fluorine-Substituted Molecular Motors with a Quaternary Stereogenic Center. (United States)

    Štacko, Peter; Kistemaker, Jos C M; Feringa, Ben L


    A series of unprecedented second generation molecular motors featuring a quaternary stereogenic center substituted with a fluorine atom has been synthesized. It is demonstrated that a seemingly benign replacement of the stereogenic hydrogen for a fluorine atom, regarded as a common substituent in pharmacology, resulted in a dramatic change in the energetic profile of thermal helix inversion. The barrier for the thermal helix inversion was found to increase considerably (by 20-30 kJ mol -1 ), presumably due to destabilization of the transition state by increased steric hindrance when the fluorine atom is forced to pass over the lower half of the motor. This results in the activation barrier for the thermal helix inversion to be higher than the barrier for backward thermal E-Z isomerization, impairing the motor function. A fluorine-substituted motor capable of performing unidirectional rotation is successfully prepared when these limitations are considered in the design phase. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Quaternary history of the Kiseiba Oasis region, southern Egypt (United States)

    Maxwell, Ted A.; Haynes, C. Vance; Nicoll, Kathleen; Johnston, Andrew K.; Grant, John A.; Kilani, Ali


    Kiseiba Oasis and depression are located in southern Egypt between the Selima Sand Sheet to the west and the Nile to the east, an important area that hosted Late Cenozoic drainage, Middle Pleistocene lakes, and numerous Paleolithic and Neolithic cultural sites. A synthesis of orbital data, field surveying and near-surface stratigraphy provides new insights into the Quaternary history of this region. Shuttle Imaging Radar data show a complex of fluvial channels that are due to stringers of surficial fluvial lag, subsurface fluvial deposits, and areas of deep alluvium. Three topographic surfaces are described: 1) the Atmur El-Kibeish, above 230 m elevation, which displays a linear pattern of light radar returns, possibly formed from northeast drainage; 2) the Acheulean Surface, at 200 m elevation, that has dark radar patterns resulting from thick alluvium bounded by pebble sand and calcrete strata, and 3) the Kiseiba Surface, below 190 m, that has a complex series of surface and subsurface fluvial and aeolian sediments. Initial drainage from the Early through Middle Pleistocene was to the northeast, which may have lasted through the Last Interglacial. Later reworking of sediments during the Last Glacial Maximum and the Holocene resulted in topographic inversion, with any subsequent local drainage on the Kiseiba Surface to the southwest, towards the Kiseiba Scarp.

  9. Antibacterial Activity of Dental Cements Containing Quaternary Ammonium Polyethylenimine Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurit Beyth


    Full Text Available Glass ionomer cements (GICs are commonly used for cementing full cast crown restorations. Regrettably, although the dental cements fill the gap between the tooth and the crown, bacterial microleakage may occur, resulting in secondary caries. As microleakage cannot be completely prevented, GICs possessing antibacterial properties are in demand. In the present study the antibacterial activity of insoluble, cross-linked quaternary ammonium polyethylenimine (QPEI nanoparticles incorporated at 1% w/w in two clinically available GICs were studied. The antibacterial activity was tested against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus casei using the direct contact test (DCT and the agar diffusion test (ADT. Using the direct contact test, antibacterial activity (<0.05 was found in both tested GICs with incorporated QPEI nanoparticles, the effect lasting for at least one month. However, the ADT showed no inhibition halo in the test bacteria, indicating that the antimicrobial nanoparticles do not diffuse into the agar. The results show that the incorporation of QPEI nanoparticles in glass ionomer cements has a long-lasting antibacterial effect against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus casei. Changing the antibacterial properties of glass ionomer cements by incorporating QPEI antibacterial nanoparticles may prolong the clinical performance of dental crowns.

  10. Preliminary Groundwater Assessment using Electrical Method at Quaternary Deposits Area (United States)

    Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Raqib, A. G. A.; Aziman, M.; Azhar, A. T. S.; Khaidir, A. T. M.; Fairus, Y. M.; Rosli, S.; Fakhrurrazi, I. M.; Izzaty, R. A.


    Alternative water sources using groundwater has increasingly demand in recent years. In the past, proper and systematic study of groundwater potential was varies due to several constraints. Conventionally, tube well point was drilled based on subjective judgment of several parties which may lead to the uncertainties of the project success. Hence, this study performed an electrical method to investigate the groundwater potential at quaternary deposits area particularly using resistivity and induced polarization technique. Electrical method was performed using ABEM SAS4000 equipment based on pole dipole array and 2.5 m electrode spacing. Resistivity raw data was analyzed using RES2DINV software. It was found that groundwater was able to be detected based on resistivity and chargeability values which varied at 10 - 100 Ωm and 0 - 1 ms respectively. Moreover, suitable location of tube well was able to be proposed which located at 80 m from the first survey electrode in west direction. Verification of both electrical results with established references has shown some good agreement thus able to convince the result reliability. Hence, the establishment of electrical method in preliminary groundwater assessment was able to assist several parties in term groundwater prospective at study area which efficient in term of cost, time, data coverage and sustainability.

  11. Electrochemically stable fluorohydrogenate ionic liquids based on quaternary phosphonium cations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanematsu, Shunsuke; Matsumoto, Kazuhiko; Hagiwara, Rika [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)


    Fluorohydrogenate ionic liquids of quaternary phosphonium cations, tri-n-butylmethylphosphonium (P{sub 4441}) fluorohydrogenate, tetra-n-butylphosphonium (P{sub 4444}) fluorohydrogenate, and tri-n-butyl-n-octylphosphonium (P{sub 4448}) fluorohydrogenate, have been synthesized by the metatheses of anhydrous hydrogen fluoride and the corresponding phosphonium chloride precursors. All the obtained salts have melting points below room-temperature with a vacuum-stable composition of P{sub 444m}(FH){sub 2.3}F (m = 1, 4, and 8) and were characterized by density, conductivity, and viscosity measurements. Linear sweep voltammetry with a glassy carbon working electrode shows that the P{sub 444m}(FH){sub 2.3}Fs have wide electrochemical windows exceeding 5.2 V. In particular, P{sub 4441}(FH){sub 2.3}F has an electrochemical window of 6.0 V, which is the widest among fluorohydrogenate ionic liquids reported to date. The thermal stability of these ionic liquids is also improved compared to the salts of N-heterocyclic ammonium cations. (author)

  12. Quaternary climate change and the geographic ranges of mammals. (United States)

    Davies, T Jonathan; Purvis, Andy; Gittleman, John L


    A species' range can be a proxy for its ecological well-being. Species with small and shrinking range distributions are particularly vulnerable to extinction. Future climate change scenarios are predicted to affect species' geographical extents, but data on how species' distributions respond to changing climate are largely anecdotal, and our understanding of the determinants and limits to species geographic ranges is surprisingly poor. Here we show that mammal species in more historically variable environments have larger geographical ranges. However, the relationship between range size and long-term climate trends cannot be explained by variation in our estimates of habitat specificity. We suggest that large oscillations in Quaternary temperatures may have shaped the contemporary distribution of range sizes via the selective extirpation of small-ranged species during glacial expansion and/or recolonization by good dispersers after glacial retreats. The effect of current climate change on species' distributions and extinctions may therefore be determined by the geographical coincidence between historical and future climate scenarios, the "mesh size" of the extinction/dispersal filter imposed by past climate change, and whether similar ecological and evolutionary responses to historical climatic change are appropriate in an increasingly transformed and fragmented landscape.

  13. Quaternary ammonium sulfanilamide: a membrane-impermeant carbonic anhydrase inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, R.P.


    A novel carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitor, quaternary ammonium sulfanilamide (QAS), was tested for potency as a CA inhibitor and for its ability to be excluded from permeating biological membranes. Inhibitor titration plots of QAS vs. pure bovine CA II and CA from the gills of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, yielded K/sub i/ values of approx. 15; thus QAS is a relatively weak but effective CA inhibitor. Permeability of the QAS was directly tested by two independent methods. The inhibitor was excluded from human erythrocytes incubated in 5 mM QAS for 24 h as determined using an /sup 18/O-labeled mass spectrometer CA assay for intact cells. Also QAS injected into the hemolymph of C. sapidus (1 or 10 mM) did not cross the basal membrane of the gill. The compound was cleared from the hemolymph by 96 h after injection, and at no time during that period could the QAS be detected in homogenates of gill tissue. Total branchial CA activity was only slightly reduced following the QAS injection. These data indicate that QAS is a CA inhibitor to which biological membranes are impermeable and that can be used in vivo and in vitro in the study of membrane-associated CA.

  14. Quaternary subsidence of the Oahu Coastal Plain, Hawaiian Islands (United States)

    Toomey, M.; Sandstrom, R. M.; Huppert, K.; Taylor, F. W.; Cronin, T. M.


    Inter-plate hotspots continue to test our understanding of how the Earth's lithosphere deforms in response to an applied load, in part, because many current models are based on short or discontinuous observational datasets. Here we reconstruct a record of relative sea level rise spanning nearly two million years using the strontium isotope stratigraphy (SIS) of shallow water carbonates (e.g. corals, mollusks) recovered from a >300 m long drill core through the coastal plain of Oahu. We then compare it to model-predicted subsidence histories for our site that incorporate displacements at Ewa Beach, Oahu, due to the flexural isostatic response of the lithosphere to loading of each volcano along the Hawaiian Ridge as well as its migration over the Hawaiian Swell. Preliminary results indicate Oahu experienced relatively rapid rates of subsidence ( 0.45 mm/yr) during the mid-Pleistocene—vertical displacements our model largely attributes to loading of West Molokai. An abrupt slowing of subsidence over the past million years may be driven by the relative eastward progression of volcanism, including construction of large shields on Maui and Hawaii. Shallowly buried, late Pleistocene aged corals, however, may suggest: (1) a more limited flexural response to this loading for southeastern Oahu than has been inferred from raised marine isotope stage (MIS) 11/13 dated, shallow-water, deposits found elsewhere on the island and/or (2) substantial dissolution of coastal plain carbonates between MIS 31 and 11.

  15. Electromagnetic mapping of buried paleochannels in eastern Abu Dhabi Emirate, U.A.E. (United States)

    Fitterman, D.V.; Menges, C.M.; Al Kamali, A.M.; Essa, Jama F.


    Transient electromagnetic soundings and terrain conductivity meter measurements were used to map paleochannel geometry in the Al Jaww Plain of eastern Abu Dhabi Emirate, U.A.E. as part of an integrated hydrogeologic study of the Quaternary alluvial aquifer system. Initial interpretation of the data without benefit of well log information was able to map the depth to a conductive clay layer of Tertiary age that forms the base of the aquifer. Comparison of the results with induction logs reveals that a resistive zone exists that was incorporated into the interpretation and its lateral extent mapped with the transient electromagnetic sounding data. ?? 1991.

  16. Electrophoretic Extraction and Proteomic Characterization of Proteins Buried in Marine Sediments

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    Eli K. Moore


    Full Text Available Proteins are the largest defined molecular component of marine organic nitrogen, and hydrolysable amino acids, the building blocks of proteins, are important components of particulate nitrogen in marine sediments. In oceanic systems, the largest contributors are phytoplankton proteins, which have been tracked from newly produced bloom material through the water column to surface sediments in the Bering Sea, but it is not known if proteins buried deeper in sediment systems can be identified with confidence. Electrophoretic gel protein extraction methods followed by proteomic mass spectrometry and database searching were used as the methodology to identify buried phytoplankton proteins in sediments from the 8–10 cm section of a Bering Sea sediment core. More peptides and proteins were identified using an SDS-PAGE tube gel than a standard 1D flat gel or digesting the sediment directly with trypsin. The majority of proteins identified correlated to the marine diatom, Thalassiosira pseudonana, rather than bacterial protein sequences, indicating an algal source not only dominates the input, but also the preserved protein fraction. Abundant RuBisCO and fucoxanthin chlorophyll a/c binding proteins were identified, supporting algal sources of these proteins and reinforcing the proposed mechanisms that might protect proteins for long time periods. Some preserved peptides were identified in unexpected gel molecular weight ranges, indicating that some structural changes or charge alteration influenced the mobility of these products during electrophoresis isolation. Identifying buried photosystem proteins suggests that algal particulate matter is a significant fraction of the preserved organic carbon and nitrogen pools in marine sediments.

  17. Parametric Study of the Scattered Electromagnetic Field by Differently-Shaped Buried Objects in Various Scenarios (United States)

    Stoja, Endri; Hoxha, Julian; Domnori, Elton; Pajewski, Lara; Frezza, Fabrizio


    In this study the electromagnetic field scattered by a buried object is obtained by use of a commercial full-wave frequency-domain solver which implements the Finite Element Method (FEM). The buried object is supposed to have different simple shapes and material composition such as a cylinder or cylindrical shell modelling for example a void in concrete or a poly-vinyl chloride (PVC) pipeline, respectively. Material properties available in literature are correctly modelled by data interpolation. The model is excited by a linearly-polarized plane wave impinging normally on the interface between air and soil/cement half-space. Comparison with simulation data provided by another simulator implementing the finite-difference time domain (FDTD) technique in the case of a simple buried perfect electric cylinder allows for FEM data validation. We further study the properties and the spatial variation of the scattered fields in different contexts by varying the geometrical and material properties of the model relative to the impinging wave characteristics. The aim is to clearly determine the conditions under which detection is possible. Moreover, by application of signal processing techniques to scattered field data, the position, shape, and object orientation recognition problems are considered. Results from different DSP algorithms are compared with the goal to find the best performing one relative to the context. Performance is evaluated in terms of detection success and resolving ability. The use of ground penetrating radar (GPR) techniques in the field of Civil Engineering offers inspection capabilities in the structure with no destructive intervention. Acknowledgement This abstract is a contribution to COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar",,

  18. Effect of Biostimulation and Bioaugmentation on Degradation of Polyurethane Buried in Soil▿ (United States)

    Cosgrove, L.; McGeechan, P. L.; Handley, P. S.; Robson, G. D.


    This work investigated biostimulation and bioaugmentation as strategies for removing polyurethane (PU) waste in soil. Soil microcosms were biostimulated with the PU dispersion agent “Impranil” and/or yeast extract or were bioaugmented with PU-degrading fungi, and the degradation of subsequently buried PU was determined. Fungal communities in the soil and colonizing buried PU were enumerated on solid media and were analyzed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Biostimulation with yeast extract alone or in conjunction with Impranil increased PU degradation 62% compared to the degradation in untreated control soil and was associated with a 45% increase in putative PU degraders colonizing PU. Specific fungi were enriched in soil following biostimulation; however, few of these fungi colonized the surface of buried PU. Fungi used for soil bioaugmentation were cultivated on the surface of sterile wheat to form a mycelium-rich inoculum. Wheat, when added alone to soil, increased PU degradation by 28%, suggesting that wheat biomass had a biostimulating effect. Addition of wheat colonized with Nectria haematococca, Penicillium viridicatum, Penicillium ochrochloron, or an unidentified Mucormycotina sp. increased PU degradation a further 30 to 70%, suggesting that biostimulation and bioaugmentation were operating in concert to enhance PU degradation. Interestingly, few of the inoculated fungi could be detected by DGGE in the soil or on the surface of the PU 4 weeks after inoculation. Bioaugmentation did, however, increase the numbers of indigenous PU-degrading fungi and caused an inoculum-dependent change in the composition of the native fungal populations, which may explain the increased degradation observed. These results demonstrate that both biostimulation and bioaugmentation may be viable tools for the remediation of environments contaminated with polyurethane waste. PMID:19948849

  19. Sliding enhances fluid and solute transport into buried articular cartilage contacts. (United States)

    Graham, B T; Moore, A C; Burris, D L; Price, C


    Solutes and interstitial water are naturally transported from cartilage by load-induced interstitial fluid pressures. Fluid and solute recovery during joint articulation have been primarily attributed to passive diffusion and mechanical 'pumping' from dynamic loading. This paper tests if the sliding action of articulation is a significant and independent driver of fluid and solute transport in cartilage. The large osteochondral samples utilized in the present study preserve the convergent wedges necessary for physiological hydrodynamics. Following static load-induced fluid exudation and prior to sliding, a fluorescent solute (AlexaFluor 633) was added to the lubricant bath. In situ confocal microscopy was used to quantify the transport of solute from the bath into the buried stationary contact area (SCA) during sliding. Following static exudation, significant reductions in friction and strain during sliding at 60 mm/s were accompanied by significant solute transport into the inaccessible center of the buried contact; no such transport was detected for the 0- or 1 mm/s sliding conditions. The results suggest that external hydrodynamic pressures from sliding induced advective flows that carried solutes from the bath toward the center of contact. These results provide the first direct evidence that the action of sliding is a significant contributor to fluid and solute recovery by cartilage. Furthermore, they indicate that the sliding-induced transport of solutes into the buried interface was orders of magnitude greater than that attributable to diffusion alone, a result with critical implications for disease prevention and tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. An Integration of Geophysical Methods to Explore Buried Structures on the Bench and in the Field (United States)

    Booterbaugh, A. P.; Lachhab, A.


    In the following study, an integration of geophysical methods and devices were implemented on the bench and in the field to accurately identify buried structures. Electrical resistivity and ground penetrating radar methods, including both a fabricated electrical resistivity apparatus and an electrical resistivity device were all used in this study. The primary goal of the study was to test the accuracy and reliability of the apparatus which costs a fraction of the price of a commercially sold resistivity instrument. The apparatus consists of four electrodes, two multimeters, a 12-volt battery, a DC to AC inverter and wires. Using this apparatus, an electrical current, is injected into earth material through the outer electrodes and the potential voltage is measured across the inner electrodes using a multimeter. The recorded potential and the intensity of the current can then be used to calculate the apparent resistivity of a given material. In this study the Wenner array, which consists of four equally spaced electrodes, was used due to its higher accuracy and greater resolution when investigating lateral variations of resistivity in shallow depths. In addition, the apparatus was used with an electrical resistivity device and a ground penetrating radar unit to explore the buried building foundation of Gustavus Adolphus Hall located on Susquehanna University Campus, Selinsgrove, PA. The apparatus successfully produced consistent results on the bench level revealing the location of small bricks buried under a soil material. In the summer of 2010, seventeen electrical resistivity transects were conducted on the Gustavus Adolphus site where and revealed remnants of the foundation. In the summer of 2011, a ground penetrating radar survey and an electrical resistivity tomography survey were conducted to further explore the site. Together these methods identified the location of the foundation and proved that the apparatus was a reliable tool for regular use on the bench