WorldWideScience

Sample records for buried pipeline systems

  1. New perspectives on the damage estimation for buried pipeline systems due to seismic wave propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda Porras, Omar Andrey [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Over the past three decades, seismic fragility fonnulations for buried pipeline systems have been developed following two tendencies: the use of earthquake damage scenarios from several pipeline systems to create general pipeline fragility functions; and, the use of damage scenarios from one pipeline system to create specific-system fragility functions. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of both tendencies are analyzed and discussed; in addition, a summary of what can be considered the new challenges for developing better pipeline seismic fragility formulations is discussed. The most important conclusion of this paper states that more efforts are needed to improve the estimation of transient ground strain -the main cause of pipeline damage due to seismic wave propagation; with relevant advances in that research field, new and better fragility formulations could be developed.

  2. Seismic fragility formulations for segmented buried pipeline systems including the impact of differential ground subsidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda Porras, Omar Andrey [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ordaz, Mario [UNAM, MEXICO CITY

    2009-01-01

    Though Differential Ground Subsidence (DGS) impacts the seismic response of segmented buried pipelines augmenting their vulnerability, fragility formulations to estimate repair rates under such condition are not available in the literature. Physical models to estimate pipeline seismic damage considering other cases of permanent ground subsidence (e.g. faulting, tectonic uplift, liquefaction, and landslides) have been extensively reported, not being the case of DGS. The refinement of the study of two important phenomena in Mexico City - the 1985 Michoacan earthquake scenario and the sinking of the city due to ground subsidence - has contributed to the analysis of the interrelation of pipeline damage, ground motion intensity, and DGS; from the analysis of the 48-inch pipeline network of the Mexico City's Water System, fragility formulations for segmented buried pipeline systems for two DGS levels are proposed. The novel parameter PGV{sup 2}/PGA, being PGV peak ground velocity and PGA peak ground acceleration, has been used as seismic parameter in these formulations, since it has shown better correlation to pipeline damage than PGV alone according to previous studies. By comparing the proposed fragilities, it is concluded that a change in the DGS level (from Low-Medium to High) could increase the pipeline repair rates (number of repairs per kilometer) by factors ranging from 1.3 to 2.0; being the higher the seismic intensity the lower the factor.

  3. Integral evaluation of the external corrosion control system for buried pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalski, A.R. [Asesoria Adiestramiento y Construccion, Caracas (Venezuela)

    1998-12-31

    The External Corrosion Control System of a 16 inch diameter (406 mm), 70 miles long (113 km) pipeline, was evaluated using the Direct Current Voltage Gradient DCVG, Close Interval Potential Survey CIPS and Continuous Soil Resistivity Evaluation CSRE techniques. Sixteen thousand five hundred meters (16,500 meters) of the pipeline were evaluated using the three techniques simultaneously and the rest was inspected separately in previous years. The results from the survey were taken as parameters to classify all defects found on the protective coating. A Defect Severity Classification (DSC) was established and used as an input for a maintenance program for the rehabilitation of the pipeline integrity. The parameters taken to establish the DSC were: (a) Instant Off Potential, (b) %IR, (c) Soil Resistivity, (d) defect shape, (e) Geographic location, (f) Distance from drain point. A Maintenance Program for the Pipeline External Corrosion Control System was designed by implementing the Integral Evaluation of the Corrosion Control System for Buried Pipelines (IEECCSBP). The priority was to achieve pipeline integrity and then, gradually improve the protection level of the system. The implementation of IEECCSBP will help to reduce the frequency of Electromagnetic Metal Loss Inspections, which in the future will serve only as an audit of the External Corrosion Control System performance.

  4. Review of Detection and Monitoring Systems for Buried High Pressure Pipelines : Final Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asadollahi Dolatabad, Saeid; Doree, Andries G.; olde Scholtenhuis, Léon Luc; Vahdatikhaki, Faridaddin

    2017-01-01

    The Netherlands has approximately two million kilometers of underground cables and pipelines. One specific type of buried infrastructure is the distribution network of hazardous material such as gas, oil, and chemicals (‘transportleiding gevaarlijke stoffen’). This network comprises 22.000

  5. 49 CFR 195.248 - Cover over buried pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.248 Cover over buried pipeline. (a) Unless specifically... (457) Any other area 30 (762) 18 (457) 1 Rock excavation is any excavation that requires blasting or...

  6. Dynamic Pressure of Seabed around Buried Pipelines in Shallow Water

    OpenAIRE

    Changjing Fu; Guoying Li; Tianlong Zhao; Donghai Guan

    2015-01-01

    Due to the obvious nonlinear effect caused by the shallow waves, the nonlinear wave loads have a great influence on the buried pipelines in shallow water. In order to ensure their stability, the forces on the pipelines that resulted from nonlinear waves should be considered thoroughly. Based on the Biot consolidation theory and the first-order approximate cnoidal wave theory, analytical solutions of the pore water pressure around the buried pipelines in shallow water caused by waves are first...

  7. Modeling of the Uplift Response of Buried Pipelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choobbasti, Asskar Janalizadeh; Vahdatirad, Mohammadjavad; Firouzianbandpey, Sarah;

    2009-01-01

    Over the years, researchers have tried to understand the complex behavior of buried pipelines subjected to ground ruptures due to landslides, earthquakes, faults and uplift forces in shallow trenches. In an attempt to understand this complex behavior, an experimental investigation program has been...

  8. 城市埋地钢质燃气管道预警系统研究%Study on the Early Warning System of Urban Buried Steel Gas Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁金彪; 乔武康

    2012-01-01

    Pipeline risk disaster early warning is one of the important non-engineering measures in the risk defense of pipeline accidents in urban buried gas pipe network.Pipeline risk early warning system is actually to analyze the pipeline risk status and the development trend of pipeline dangerous risk factors,and to obtain the grade of pipeline safety warning.As a result,the corresponding action notice may be delivered to the affected areas.Therefore,enterprises and community can make timely,effective,appropriate responses.In the paper,the goal of the early warning system of urban buried steel gas pipeline was presented,and the four phases of the system were analyzed.The early warning system of urban buried steel gas pipeline was set up and the corresponding process was proposed.%管道风险灾害预警是城市燃气埋地管网防御管道事故风险中重要的非工程措施之一。管道风险预警系统实际上是对管道危险状态和管道危险危害因素的发展趋势进行客观分析,得出管道安全预警等级,并对可能受影响的区域发出相应的行动通告,以便企业、社会做出及时、有效、恰当的响应。文章提出城市埋地钢质燃气管道预警系统目标,分析系统的四个阶段,研发了城市埋地钢质燃气管道预警系统的构建方法,并阐述了相应的流程。

  9. Surface wave propagation effects on buried segmented pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peixin Shi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with surface wave propagation (WP effects on buried segmented pipelines. Both simplified analytical model and finite element (FE model are developed for estimating the axial joint pullout movement of jointed concrete cylinder pipelines (JCCPs of which the joints have a brittle tensile failure mode under the surface WP effects. The models account for the effects of peak ground velocity (PGV, WP velocity, predominant period of seismic excitation, shear transfer between soil and pipelines, axial stiffness of pipelines, joint characteristics, and cracking strain of concrete mortar. FE simulation of the JCCP interaction with surface waves recorded during the 1985 Michoacan earthquake results in joint pullout movement, which is consistent with the field observations. The models are expanded to estimate the joint axial pullout movement of cast iron (CI pipelines of which the joints have a ductile tensile failure mode. Simplified analytical equation and FE model are developed for estimating the joint pullout movement of CI pipelines. The joint pullout movement of the CI pipelines is mainly affected by the variability of the joint tensile capacity and accumulates at local weak joints in the pipeline.

  10. Safety Monitoring and Early Warning System for Buried Pipeline Crossing Fault%跨断层埋地管道安全监测预警系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯王刚; 张文涛; 王蕴玉; 叶富艳

    2015-01-01

    Long-distance buried pipeline crossing fault is prone to crack, dislocate and buckle, so the implementation of pipeline security monitoring and early warning can not only offer the earthquake quick report, but also provide basis for the safe operation of the pipeline condition assessment and risk tube section of the emergency rescue. Through monitoring of the force of fault hazard-affected body,pipeline of hazard-affected body and soil mass on pipeline,thus forming the function of ground acceler-ation early warning, fault displacement early warning, pipeline strain early warning, pipeline leakage warning, location of pipe-line inspection, real time display of deformation and stress of pipe, the dynamic change of the relative displacement and the in-teraction force of the pipe soil. It can effectively reduce the damage caused by the sudden disasters and the occurrence of second-ary damage.%穿越断裂带长输埋地管道易发生拉裂、错断及屈曲破坏,实施管道安全监测预警,可以进行震后速报,为管道安全运行状态评估、危险管段应急抢险提供依据. 利用传感器对断层致灾体、管道承灾体以及土体对管道作用力进行监测,形成地震动加速度预警、断层位移预警、管道应变预警、管道泄漏预警、管道检修定位、管道变形及受力状况显示,管土相对位移和相互作用力动态变化功能的监测预警系统,有效减少突发性灾害导致的管道受损破坏及次生危害的发生.

  11. Effect of soil restraint on the buckling response of buried pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdavi Amiri, H.; Kenny, Shawn [Memorial University of Newfoundland (Canada); Phillips, Ryan [C-CORE (Canada); Popescu, Radu [URS Corporation (United States)

    2010-07-01

    In the oil and gas sector, transportation and distribution are mainly done suing onshore buried steel pipelines. These pipelines are subjected to numerous geohazards which can provoke significant deformations and it is thus important to evaluate the pipeline strain capacity. Common practice is to use a model developed using the pipeline mechanical response for in-air conditions; however, this does not account for the soil effect and the authors have developed a criterion for pipelines buried in stiff clay. The aim of this paper is to compare both methods and evaluate the effect of soil restraint on local buckling response. Results of the investigations showed that the in-air based criteria provide lower critical strain values than the developed criterion; they also showed that the soil has a restraining effect, which increases the pipeline bending resistance. This paper demonstrated that the soil effect should be considered when calculating the strain capacity of a buried pipeline.

  12. Experimental Study of Surface Detection of Gas Pipeline Buried in Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Pipeline is a key segment in the transportation of city gas and its safety affects the safety of industrial and domestic application. The characteristics of Shi Dongkou east gas steel pipeline buried in soil were discussed and its parameters related to safety were measured, including the state of anticorrosive layer, the soil resistivity,the natural potential and the protective potential of gas pipeline. The experimental results were confirmed by excavating, which are of value to the knowledge of the gas pipeline buried in soil in Shanghai. The experimental data were analyzed which provide the scientific basis for the assurance of the gas pipeline safety and the reparation of anticorrosivelayer.

  13. Centrifuge modelling of lateral displacement of buried pipelines; Modelagem fisica centrifuga de flambagem lateral de dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Jose Renato Moreira da Silva de; Almeida, Marcio de Souza Soares de; Marques, Maria Esther Soares; Almeida, Maria Cascao Ferreira de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE); Costa, Alvaro Maia da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2003-07-01

    This work discusses soil-structure interaction applied to the buckling phenomena of buried pipelines subjected to heated oil flow. A set of physical modelling tests on lateral buckling of pipelines buried on soft clay is presented using COPPE/UFRJ geotechnical centrifuge. A 1:30 pipeline model was moved side ward through a soft clay layer during centrifuge flight, varying the burial depth, in order to simulate the lateral buckling in plane strain condition. The results show different behaviour concerning horizontal and vertical forces measured at pipeline level due to soil reaction. (author)

  14. Estimation of Corrosion Induced Flaw Sizes on Buried Gas Pipeline in the Nigerian Sector of Niger Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.F. Evans

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A geoelectrical survey was conducted to investigate pipeline corrosion in the coastal plain sands of the Nigerian sector of the Niger Delta. The objective is to estimate corrosion flaw sizes on the pipeline quantitatively instead of direct excavation of the pipeline and eventual use of measuring tape to measure the flaws on the pipeline. The pipelines buried in the Benin sands at Ikot Abasi, South of the Niger Delta Basin became instructive for this study. The survey consisted of electrical potential profiling using Close Interval Pipe-Soil potential survey (CIPS and Horizontal Electrical Profiling (HEP according to Wenner electrodes arrangement. Two permanent test points (PS were used for the study and the flaw sizes were estimated at points delineated to be of high corrosion risk in the study area. The data for close interval potential and HEP were analyzed and interpreted in line with the threshold protective potential (-850 mV as well as the American Water Works Association (AWWA soil corrosivity rating. Results indicate high risk zones due to external corrosion at pipeline length 25-30 m from PS1 and 80 m from PS2. These locations contain significant saline groundwater that facilitates corrosion of metal pipes buried within the area. The results also suggest that the corrosion protection systems for the pipeline need to be reinforced to mitigate further growth of the flaws on the pipeline segment. The impact of the flaws could be severe if allowed to continue.

  15. 49 CFR 192.459 - External corrosion control: Examination of buried pipeline when exposed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... pipeline when exposed. 192.459 Section 192.459 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... exposed. Whenever an operator has knowledge that any portion of a buried pipeline is exposed, the exposed... operator shall investigate circumferentially and longitudinally beyond the exposed portion (by...

  16. Diagnosing plant pipeline system performance using radiotracer techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasban, H.; Ali, Elsayed H.; Arafa, H. [Engineering Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas (Egypt)

    2017-02-15

    This study presents an experimental work in a petrochemical company for scanning a buried pipeline using Tc{sup 99m} radiotracer based on the measured velocity changes, in order to determine the flow reduction along a pipeline. In this work, Tc{sup 99m} radiotracer was injected into the pipeline and monitored by sodium iodide scintillation detectors located at several positions along the pipeline. The flow velocity has been calculated between every two consecutive detectors along the pipeline. Practically, six experiments have been carried out using two different data acquisition systems, each of them being connected to four detectors. During the fifth experiment, a bypass was discovered between the scanned pipeline and another buried parallel pipeline connected after the injection point. The results indicate that the bypass had a bad effect on the volumetric flow rate in the scanned pipeline.

  17. Finite element analysis of fluid-structure interaction in buried liquid-conveying pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱庆杰; 陈艳华; 刘廷权; 代兆立

    2008-01-01

    Long distance buried liquid-conveying pipeline is inevitable to cross faults and under earthquake action,it is necessary to calculate fluid-structure interaction(FSI) in finite element analysis under pipe-soil interaction.Under multi-action of site,fault movement and earthquake,finite element model of buried liquid-conveying pipeline for the calculation of fluid structure interaction was constructed through combinative application of ADINA-parasolid and ADINA-native modeling methods,and the direct computing method of two-way fluid-structure coupling was introduced.The methods of solid and fluid modeling were analyzed,pipe-soil friction was defined in solid model,and special flow assumption and fluid structure interface condition were defined in fluid model.Earthquake load,gravity and displacement of fault movement were applied,also model preferences.Finite element research on the damage of buried liquid-conveying pipeline was carried out through computing fluid-structure coupling.The influences of pipe-soil friction coefficient,fault-pipe angle,and liquid density on axial stress of pipeline were analyzed,and optimum parameters were proposed for the protection of buried liquid-conveying pipeline.

  18. Investigation of Corrosion of Buried Oil Pipeline by the Electrical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    The resistivity and self potential values of the soil along the pipeline were obtained ... These methods applied in the study are quick, economic and efficient for detecting likely ... metallic materials is a very widespread problem. Structures such ...

  19. Seismic damage estimation for buried pipelines - challenges after three decades of progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda-porras, Omar Andrey [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Najafi, Mohammand [U. OF TEXAS

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the evolution over the past three decades of seismic damage estimation for buried pipelines and identifies some challenges for future research studies on the subject. The first section of this paper presents a chronological description of the evolution since the mid-1970s of pipeline fragility relations - the most common tool for pipeline damage estimation - and follows with a careful analysis of the use of several ground motion parameters as pipeline damage indicators. In the second section of the paper, four gaps on the subject are identified and proposed as challenges for future research studies. The main conclusion of this work is that enhanced fragility relations must be developed for improving pipeline damage estimation, which must consider relevant parameters that could influence the seismic response of pipelines.

  20. Study of criterion for assuring the effectiveness of cathodic protection of buried steel pipelines being interfered with alternative current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, X.; Jiang, G.; Qiu, Y.; Tang, H. [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Zhang, G.; Jin, X.; Xiang, Z. [Huazhong Natural Gas Subsidiary of PetroChina Pipeline Company, Wuhan (China); Zhang, Z. [Dwell Company Limited, PetroChina Engineering Company, Ltd, Beijing (China)

    2012-06-15

    Interference of alternative current (AC) on corrosion of X65 steel was investigated in soil. It was observed that the unfavorable effect of interfering AC was able to be effectively inhibited by increasing the direct current density of the cathodic protection (CP) system. A clear correlation was established between the CP current density and the tolerable AC current density. This led to a new criterion for assuring the effectiveness of CP of buried pipelines being interfered with AC. Field experimental results on a buried pipeline running below a 500 kV transmission line showed that the criterion could satisfactorily predict the risk of AC interfering on the CP system. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Interaction of Soil Static and Dynamic Stiffness and Buried Pipeline Under Harmonic Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza M.G. Roshan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: When earthquake is occur, many damages were occurred in pipelines that San Francisco (1906 and Manson (1908, Kobe (Japan and ate are samples of this topic. So many researchers studied on the pipelines and dynamic forces. Approach: Determine static and dynamic performance parameters of the pipeline and the surrounding soil such as static stiffness, dynamic stiffness, damping and additional mass share of soil which take part with pipe mass in dynamic performance. In the static case relationship between friction forces and joint deflections in a buried element pipe had be calculated and with using of some experimental results and results are compared together. For dynamic cases, Dynamic equilibrium equation of pipeline element axial vibration in continuous system, with neglecting the effect of soil mass share which participates in producing vibration and with considering of it were abstained and values of displacement and forces were calculated. In continuous, these formulations were process for many cases and were drawn in graphs for comparison. Results: Stiffness for ω/ωn doesn’t change much but for the values more than 1 it increase rising. when ω/ωn the ratio of dynamic stiffness to the static stiffness is less than unique except in big amount of damping ratio (ρ>0.5 which the ratio becomes more than 1. Finally for ω/ωn>1, the ratio of dynamic to static stiffness rises rapidly and by increasing the additional mass, the value of dynamic stiffness in case of ω/ωn>1 would increase highly. Conclusion: The static performance between soil and pipe is nonlinear in axial direction and when the hysteric dominates grows, the value of force dominates between soil and pipe and dynamic stiffness would ascend. Also by increasing damping ratio, the dynamic stiffness would increase too however it depends on the static to dynamic stiffness ratio and the damping ratio.

  2. Interaction of Buried Pipeline with Soil Under Different Loading Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magura, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Gas pipelines pass through different topographies. Their stress level is influenced not only by gas pressure, but also by the adjacent soil, the thickness of any covering layers, and soil movements (sinking, landslides). The stress level may be unevenly spread over a pipe due to these causes. When evaluating experimental measurements, errors may occur. The value of the resistance reserve of steel can be adjusted by a detailed analysis of any loading. This reserve can be used in the assessment of a pipeline's actual state or in reconstructions. A detailed analysis of such loading and its comparison with the simple theory of elasticity is shown in this article.

  3. A one dimensional numerical approach for computing the eigenmodes of elastic waves in buried pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wenbo; Kirby, Ray; Mudge, Peter; Gan, Tat-Hean

    2016-12-01

    Ultrasonic guided waves are often used in the detection of defects in oil and gas pipelines. It is common for these pipelines to be buried underground and this may restrict the length of the pipe that can be successfully tested. This is because acoustic energy travelling along the pipe walls may radiate out into the surrounding medium. Accordingly, it is important to develop a better understanding of the way in which elastic waves propagate along the walls of buried pipes, and so in this article a numerical model is developed that is suitable for computing the eigenmodes for uncoated and coated buried pipes. This is achieved by combining a one dimensional eigensolution based on the semi-analytic finite element (SAFE) method, with a perfectly matched layer (PML) for the infinite medium surrounding the pipe. This article also explores an alternative exponential complex coordinate stretching function for the PML in order to improve solution convergence. It is shown for buried pipelines that accurate solutions may be obtained over the entire frequency range typically used in long range ultrasonic testing (LRUT) using a PML layer with a thickness equal to the pipe wall thickness. This delivers a fast and computationally efficient method and it is shown for pipes buried in sand or soil that relevant eigenmodes can be computed and sorted in less than one second using relatively modest computer hardware. The method is also used to find eigenmodes for a buried pipe coated with the viscoelastic material bitumen. It was recently observed in the literature that a viscoelastic coating may effectively isolate particular eigenmodes so that energy does not radiate from these modes into the surrounding [elastic] medium. A similar effect is also observed in this article and it is shown that this occurs even for a relatively thin layer of bitumen, and when the shear impedance of the coating material is larger than that of the surrounding medium.

  4. Reliability-based management of buried pipelines considering external corrosion defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miran, Seyedeh Azadeh

    Corrosion is one of the main deteriorating mechanisms that degrade the energy pipeline integrity, due to transferring corrosive fluid or gas and interacting with corrosive environment. Corrosion defects are usually detected by periodical inspections using in-line inspection (ILI) methods. In order to ensure pipeline safety, this study develops a cost-effective maintenance strategy that consists of three aspects: corrosion growth model development using ILI data, time-dependent performance evaluation, and optimal inspection interval determination. In particular, the proposed study is applied to a cathodic protected buried steel pipeline located in Mexico. First, time-dependent power-law formulation is adopted to probabilistically characterize growth of the maximum depth and length of the external corrosion defects. Dependency between defect depth and length are considered in the model development and generation of the corrosion defects over time is characterized by the homogenous Poisson process. The growth models unknown parameters are evaluated based on the ILI data through the Bayesian updating method with Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation technique. The proposed corrosion growth models can be used when either matched or non-matched defects are available, and have ability to consider newly generated defects since last inspection. Results of this part of study show that both depth and length growth models can predict damage quantities reasonably well and a strong correlation between defect depth and length is found. Next, time-dependent system failure probabilities are evaluated using developed corrosion growth models considering prevailing uncertainties where three failure modes, namely small leak, large leak and rupture are considered. Performance of the pipeline is evaluated through failure probability per km (or called a sub-system) where each subsystem is considered as a series system of detected and newly generated defects within that sub-system

  5. Fouling detection in buried water pipelines by observation of the scattered electromagnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frezza, Fabrizio; Mangini, Fabio; Santini, Carlo; Stoja, Endri; Tedeschi, Nicola

    2014-05-01

    The electromagnetic scattered field by a buried pipeline is calculated by means of frequency-domain numerical simulations and by making use of the scattered-field formulation. The pipeline, supposed to be used for water conveyance, is modeled as a cylindrical shell made of poly-vinyl chloride (PVC) material buried in a wall or pavement composed of cement with very low losses and filled with water. In order to make the model simpler, the pipeline is supposed running parallel to the air-cement interface. To excite the model, a linearly-polarized plane wave impinging normally on the above-mentioned interface is adopted. We consider two different polarizations in order to determine the most useful in terms of scattered-field sensitivity. Moreover, a preliminary frequency sweep allows us to choose the most suitable operating frequency depending on the dimensions of the pipeline cross-section. All the three components of the scattered field are monitored along a line just above the interface. The electromagnetic properties of the materials employed in this study are present in the literature and, since a frequency-domain technique is adopted, no further approximation is needed. Once the ideal problem has been studied, we further complicate the model by introducing two fouling scenarios due to limestone formation on the pipeline walls. In the first case, the fouling is deposited at the bottom of the pipeline when the water pressure is low enough and the second one considers the fouling to deposit on the entire internal perimeter of the pipeline's cross-section by forming an additional limestone cylindrical layer. The results obtained in these cases are compared with those of the initial problem with the goal of determining the scattered field dependency on the fouling geometrical characteristics. One of the practical applications in the field of Civil Engineering of this study may be the use of ground penetrating radar (GPR) techniques to monitor the fouling conditions of

  6. 埋地钢管外防腐系统腐蚀因素的检测评价与控制%Detection Assessment and Control of Corrosion Factors on External Anti-corrosion System of Buried Steel Pipelines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄桂云

    2012-01-01

    Based on the external anti-corrosion detection of buried steel pipelines in North Shanghai Gas Business CO., Ltd, the artilce analyses the influences of the external anti-corrosion coating, the cathode protection effectiveness, the influences of the stray current, and puts forward the corrosion controlling method.%文章通过对上海燃气市北销售有限公司埋地钢管外防腐系统的检测,分析了外防腐层保护效果、阴极保护效果以及杂散电流对钢管腐蚀的影响,并提出了腐蚀控制措施。

  7. An integrated system for pipeline condition monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strong, Andrew P.; Lees, Gareth; Hartog, Arthur; Twohig, Richard; Kader, Kamal; Hilton, Graeme; Mullens, Stephen; Khlybov, Artem [Schlumberger, Southampton (United Kingdom); Sanderson, Norman [BP Exploration, Sunbury (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    In this paper we present the unique and innovative 'Integriti' pipeline and flow line integrity monitoring system developed by Schlumberger in collaboration with BP. The system uses optical fiber distributed sensors to provide simultaneous distributed measurements of temperature, strain and vibration for the detection, monitoring, and location of events including: Third Party Interference (TPI), including multiple simultaneous disturbances; geo-hazards and landslides; gas and oil leaks; permafrost protection. The Integriti technology also provides a unique means for tracking the progress of cleaning and instrumented pigs using existing optical telecom and data communications cables buried close to pipelines. The Integriti solution provides a unique and proactive approach to pipeline integrity management. It performs analysis of a combination of measurands to provide the pipeline operator with an event recognition and location capability, in effect providing a hazard warning system, and offering the operator the potential to take early action to prevent loss. Through the use of remote, optically powered amplification, an unprecedented detection range of 100 km is possible without the need for any electronics and therefore remote power in the field. A system can thus monitor 200 km of pipeline when configured to monitor 100 km upstream and downstream from a single location. As well as detecting conditions and events leading to leaks, this fully integrated system provides a means of detecting and locating small leaks in gas pipelines below the threshold of present online leak detection systems based on monitoring flow parameters. Other significant benefits include: potential reductions in construction costs; enhancement of the operator's existing integrity management program; potential reductions in surveillance costs and HSE risks. In addition to onshore pipeline systems this combination of functionality and range is available for practicable

  8. Numerical study of heat transfer from an offshore buried pipeline under steady-periodic thermal boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barletta, A.; Zanchini, E.; Lazzari, S. [Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Energetica, Nucleare e del Controllo Ambientale (DIENCA), Laboratorio di Montecuccolino, Via dei Colli 16, I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Terenzi, A. [Snamprogetti S.p.A., Via Toniolo 1, I-61032 Fano (PS) (Italy)

    2008-07-15

    The steady-periodic heat transfer between offshore buried pipelines for the transport of hydrocarbons and their environment is investigated. This heat transfer regime occurs for shallow water buried pipelines, as a consequence of the temperature changes of the seabed during the year. First, the unsteady two dimensional conduction problem is written in a dimensionless form; then, it is transformed into a steady two dimensional problem and solved numerically by means of the finite-element software package Comsol Multiphysics (copyright Comsol, Inc.). Several values of the burying depth and of the radius of the pipeline, as well as of the thermal properties of the soil are considered. The numerical results are compared with those obtainable by means of an approximate method employed in industrial design. The comparison reveals that important discrepancies with respect to this approximate method may occur. (author)

  9. Factors related to external loads in buried pipelines; Consideracoes quanto as variaveis relacionadas ao carregamento externo em dutos enterrados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provenzano, Carlos E.C.; Silva, Breno S.; Fernandes, Lincoln F.; Santos Junior, Sergio J.F. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Louzada, Carlos H.C.M.

    2005-07-01

    Work of heavy equipment or vehicles above existent right-of-ways, may cause undesired external overload at buried pipelines in operation. The effect of these loads shall be analyzed considering the deflections and stresses on the pipelines. The major variables, nominal diameter, thickness, material, soil parameters, operation pressure and external loads shall be related and verified according to the limits from original project. Cases when the external loads cause higher efforts, the traffic over the pipelines shall be restricted in order to avoid damages. In other cases, it may be adapted to any technical alternatives to modify the parameters in such a way to make possible work above the right-of-way, such as increase the machine support area, increase backfill covering, a reduction in the internal operation pressure in a short time, etc. This work presents the study on the parameters used to establish the maximum allowable external loads over buried pipelines in operation. (author)

  10. Innovation design of long-distance pipelines buried under high-filling planned roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueshen Zhou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available If a long-distance gas pipeline is unavoidably buried under a planned high-filling road, the high fill subgrade setting will result in the change of the pipe's mechanical shape and the local stress concentration on the pipe, which will pose threats to the safe operation of the pipeline. Protection culverts are generally adopted to solve this issue, but the construction of protection culverts are difficult and high in cost and usually unable to meet the requirements of construction schedule of the planned road project by the local government. For this reason, the stress on pipelines in high fill subgrade was analyzed and a rectification measure was proposed and its safety and rationality was also calculated. The results show that increasing pipe thickness is a feasible rectification measure. Thus, we analyzed the stability of and stress on the pipe caused by the uneven high fill setting by using the ABAQUS finite element software package, in which the pipe was simulated as the beam element, the backfill above the pipe as the stress load, and the elastic foundation underneath the pipe as the evenly-distributed spring. From the stress cloud charts, we can see the stress concentration on the pipe where a sudden change occurs in high fill setting. Without proper measures, accidents would be inevitable in the end. The analysis results from the ABAQUS also show that the scheme of increasing the pipe thickness will be the most cost-effective and practical way to deal with the stress resulted from the uneven high fill setting above the pipe. But it is pointed out that the pipeline laying route should avoid planned high filling roads as far as possible to ensure its safe operation.

  11. Detection of Two Buried Cross Pipelines by Observation of the Scattered Electromagnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangini, Fabio; Di Gregorio, Pietro Paolo; Frezza, Fabrizio; Muzi, Marco; Tedeschi, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    In this work we present a numerical study on the effects that can be observed in the electromagnetic scattering of a plane wave due to the presence of two crossed pipelines buried in a half-space occupied by cement. The pipeline, supposed to be used for water conveyance, is modeled as a cylindrical shell made of metallic or poly-vinyl chloride (PVC) material. In order to make the model simpler, the pipelines are supposed running parallel to the air-cement interface on two different parallel planes; moreover, initially we suppose that the two tubes make an angle of 90 degrees. We consider a circularly-polarized plane wave impinging normally to the interface between air and the previously-mentioned medium, which excites the structure in order to determine the most useful configuration in terms of scattered-field sensitivity. To perform the study, a commercially available simulator which implements the Finite Element Method was adopted. A preliminary frequency sweep allows us to choose the most suitable operating frequency depending on the dimensions of the commercial pipeline cross-section. We monitor the three components of the scattered electric field along a line just above the interface between the two media. The electromagnetic properties of the materials employed in this study are taken from the literature and, since a frequency-domain technique is adopted, no further approximation is needed. Once the ideal problem has been studied, i.e. having considered orthogonal and tangential scenario, we further complicate the model by considering different crossing angles and distances between the tubes, in two cases of PVC and metallic material. The results obtained in these cases are compared with those of the initial problem with the goal of determining the scattered field dependence on the geometrical characteristics of the cross between two pipelines. One of the practical applications in the field of Civil Engineering of this study may be the use of ground

  12. Introduction to Directly Buried Steam Pipeline Technology%浅谈蒸汽管道直埋技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段祥斌

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of economy, our country directly buried steam pipeline technology is constantly improving, in the city heat supply network gradually replaced the traditional way of aerial installation. Introduced the development of directly buried steam pipeline technology, the three different types of insulation structure on the basis of the comparison, the thermal compensation of directly buried steam pipeline is analyzed, helps to further improve in the production practice directly buried steam pipeline technology.%随着经济的飞速发展,我国蒸汽管道直埋技术水平在不断的提高,在城市热网中逐步取代了传统的架空敷设方式。介绍了蒸汽管道直埋技术的发展概况,对三种不同的保温结构形式进行了比较,分析了蒸汽直埋管道的热补偿,有助于在生产实践中进一步完善蒸汽管道直埋技术。

  13. Permanent cathodic protection monitoring systems for offshore pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, Jim [Deepwater Corrosion Services Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Historically offshore pipeline cathodic protection monitoring has relied on the use of portable survey techniques. This has typically relied on ROV assisted or surface deployed survey methods. These methods have been shown to have technical as well as economic shortcomings, this is particularly true of buried offshore pipelines where accuracy is always questionable. As more focus is being placed on offshore pipeline integrity, it was time for a new method to emerge. The technology discussed involves the retro-placement of permanent clamp-on monitors onto the pipeline which can measure pipeline to seawater potential as well as current density. The sensors can be interrogated locally using light powered subsea voltage readouts. Application of the technology can be either during pipeline construction, during installation of life extension CP systems, or during routine subsea pipeline interventions. The new method eliminates the need for long cables or expensive acoustic or modulated data transfer and provides all the information required to fully verify CP system performance, thus eliminating the need for expensive close-interval surveys. Some deployment case histories will be presented along with feasibility of application on deep water pipelines and comparative economics. (author)

  14. VLT Instruments Pipeline System Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Y.; Ballester, P.; Banse, K.; Hummel, W.; Izzo, C.; McKay, D. J.; Kiesgen, M.; Lundin, L. K.; Modigliani, A.; Palsa, R. M.; Sabet, C.

    2004-07-01

    Since the beginning of the VLT operations in 1998, substantial effort has been put in the development of automatic data reduction tools for the VLT instruments. A VLT instrument pipeline is a complex system that has to be able to identify and classify each produced FITS file, optionally retrieve calibration files from a database, use an image processing software to reduce the data, compute and log quality control parameters, produce FITS images or tables with the correct headers, optionally display them in the control room and send them to the archive. Each instrument has its own dedicated pipeline, based on a common infrastructure and installed with the VLT Data Flow System (DFS). With the increase in the number and the complexity of supported instruments and in the rate of produced data, these pipelines are becoming vital for both the VLT operations and the users, and request more and more resources for development and maintenance. This paper describes the different pipeline tasks with some real examples. It also explains how the development process has been improved to both decrease its cost and increase the pipelines quality using the lessons learned from the first instruments pipelines development.

  15. 直埋蒸汽管道的保温防腐及管道设计中的几个问题%Talking About the Directly Buried Steam Pipeline Insulation Corrosion and Pipeline Design Related Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田丽娜

    2014-01-01

    Current, heating pipes directly buried installation of directly buried hot water pipe has, also have the directly buried steam pipeline. This article is in directly buried pipeline design on the basis of practical experience, only for directly buried steam pipeline insulation corrosion, pipeline design related problems, put forward some views.%当前,热力管道的直埋敷设方式有直埋热水管道,也有直埋蒸汽管道。在直埋管道设计实践经验的基础上,仅对直埋蒸汽管道的保温防腐、管道设计中的有关问题提出一些看法。

  16. Kvitebjoern gas pipeline repair - baptism of remote pipeline repair system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjertveit, Erling

    2010-07-01

    On the 1st of November 2007, severe anchor damage was discovered on the 30 inch Kvitebjoern gas export pipeline. The damage constituted a localised dent and a 17deg buckle, but no leakage. Statoil has invested in building an effective repair contingency structure for the large pipeline network on the Norwegian Continental shelf, with particular focus on the large gas export pipelines. The repair method for the Kvitebjoern pipeline was remotely operated using two Morgrip couplings and a spool. The installation used the purpose built Pipeline Repair System stored at Killingoey and couplings produced and tested back in 2005. This presentation will cover the initial damage investigations, the temporary operational phase, the repair preparations, the actual repair and lessons learned. (Author)

  17. Corrosion and coating defects on buried pipelines under CP: Excavations data collection and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karcher, Sebastien; Campaignolle, Xavier; Masson, Bernard; Meyer, Michel [Gaz de France Research and Development Division, 361 avenue du President Wilson, BP33 93211 Saint Denis La Plaine (France)

    2004-07-01

    Onshore gas transmission pipelines are conjointly protected against external corrosion by an organic coating and by cathodic protection (CP). Owing to particular defects or coating aging in the long term in ground, the protective efficiency of this dual system may be impaired. Consequently, external corrosion may develop and, eventually, threaten the integrity of the line if not detected and mitigated in time. To ensure continued protection of its lines against external corrosion, Gaz de France carries out, routinely, several maintenance and monitoring activities on the CP system. In addition, above ground surveys allow a better assessment of possible coating faults. However, it is necessary to continuously improve the reliability of the corrosion prediction to optimize the maintenance of pipelines. When indications and measurements from any mean of inspection (in-line inspection or above ground surveys) lead to suspect the presence of any significant metal defect, an excavation of the concerned pipe section is performed. At each excavation location, many parameters are collected to document the existing conditions of coating and steel. If sufficiently extended and reliable, this information may help to understand the root causes for development of corrosion. Eventually, thorough analysis of field data resulting either from inspection or from maintenance operations could lead to corrosion prediction. Since the volume of these data is large, reliability and consistency of information is absolutely required. Gaz de France has implemented a systematic data collection procedure on excavation sites, together with data analysis through a range of treatment methods. Data on more than 1400 excavations, pertaining to a set of different selected pipelines, have been collected in a single database. The later contains data such as pipelines characteristics, local cathodic protection parameters at the time of excavation, coating defect description if any, characterization of

  18. Method and system for pipeline communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson,; John, G [Idaho Falls, ID

    2008-01-29

    A pipeline communication system and method includes a pipeline having a surface extending along at least a portion of the length of the pipeline. A conductive bus is formed to and extends along a portion of the surface of the pipeline. The conductive bus includes a first conductive trace and a second conductive trace with the first and second conductive traces being adapted to conformally couple with a pipeline at the surface extending along at least a portion of the length of the pipeline. A transmitter for sending information along the conductive bus on the pipeline is coupled thereto and a receiver for receiving the information from the conductive bus on the pipeline is also couple to the conductive bus.

  19. Buried waste containment system materials. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidner, J.R.; Shaw, P.G.

    1997-10-01

    This report describes the results of a test program to validate the application of a latex-modified cement formulation for use with the Buried Waste Containment System (BWCS) process during a proof of principle (POP) demonstration. The test program included three objectives. One objective was to validate the barrier material mix formulation to be used with the BWCS equipment. A basic mix formula for initial trials was supplied by the cement and latex vendors. The suitability of the material for BWCS application was verified by laboratory testing at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A second objective was to determine if the POP BWCS material emplacement process adversely affected the barrier material properties. This objective was met by measuring and comparing properties of material prepared in the INEEL Materials Testing Laboratory (MTL) with identical properties of material produced by the BWCS field tests. These measurements included hydraulic conductivity to determine if the material met the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements for barriers used for hazardous waste sites, petrographic analysis to allow an assessment of barrier material separation and segregation during emplacement, and a set of mechanical property tests typical of concrete characterization. The third objective was to measure the hydraulic properties of barrier material containing a stop-start joint to determine if such a feature would meet the EPA requirements for hazardous waste site barriers.

  20. 埋地钢质管道交流干扰测试与评价%Testing and Assement of AC Interference on Buried Steel Pipelines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新华; 陈振华; 何仁洋

    2011-01-01

    高压交流输电线路及交流电气化铁路对与其临近铺设的埋地钢质管道会引起交流干扰,产生交流腐蚀,并对阴极保护系统的安全运行带来不利影响.因此,埋地钢质管道中交流干扰的检测与评估是必要的.国内外对于埋地金属管道受交流干扰的测试与分析,主要围绕交流干扰电压、交流电流密度、腐蚀速率等参数的测试来开展.在交流干扰及阴极保护有效性评价方面,国外以交流电流密度及交/直流电流密度比为主要参量.本工作通过对交流干扰下的管地电位信号时频特征研究,得出管地电位信号时频特征与交流干扰源频率存在一致性,为检测和判定埋地钢质管道上的交流干扰提供了一定的依据.%AC interference on buried steel pipelines can cause AC corrosion and destroy cathodic protection (CP) system when pipelines are layed down near a high voltage AC power transmission line or electric railway. So, it is necessary to the test and assess the AC interference from the high voltage AC power transmission lines or electric railway. The test and assessment parameters of AC interference at home and abroad are mainly concerned with the AC voltage, AC current density, corrosion rate, AC/DC density ratio and so on. By studying time-frequency domain characteristics of pipe-to-soil potential signal of buried steel pipelines, there is consistency between the time frequency of pipe-to-soil potential signal and frequency of AC interference source, thus provides a basis for test and judgment of AC interference on buried steel pipelines.

  1. Wave propagation versus transient ground displacement as a credible hazard to buried oil and gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The cause of damage to a natural gas pipeline during the 1994 Northridge earthquake in the San Fernando Valley in California was examined in a collaborative effort by Southern California Gas Co., Pacific Gas and Electric Co., and with support from Tokyo Gas, Osaka Gas and Toho Gas. Extensive field and laboratory studies were conducted on a 1925 gas pipeline that suffered several girth weld failures in Potrero Canyon where significant ground displacement was observed. Ground cracking and sand boils were observed in the area following the earthquake but there were few other signs of permanent ground deformation near the pipeline damage. Damage consisted mostly of girth weld tensile failure and two cases of buckling of the pipe wall. Initial evidence suggested that the damage may have been caused by wave propagation, but a detailed study has shown that wave propagation effect was not a significant factor in the pipeline damage. A simple analytical model was developed to determine the transient ground deformation that might have occurred in the area of the pipeline damage. The model also provides clues regarding the cause of the ground cracking observed at the margins of the canyon. It also provides approximate magnitudes of differential ground displacements resulting from the earthquake. The model also considers the reasons for spatial distribution of pipeline damage. 13 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  2. Stress and thermal expansion numerical analysis of subsea buried pipelines; Analise numerica de tensoes e expansao termica de dutos submarinos enterrados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souto, Marcio de S.; Vaz, Murilo A. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia; Solano, Rafael F. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The design of Capixaba North Terminal pipelines (TNC) became very complex, once the pipelines are exposed to elevated temperature variations. As the pipelines are buried, the interaction with the seabed can become critical with the thermal expansion development, since an axial compressive force arise, reaching critical values and then leading the pipeline to the thermo mechanical instability phenomenon. To minimize these effects, the pipeline will cross the shore approach through a horizontal directional drilling, and expansion loops and intermediate tie-ins took place on his route in order to permit pipeline displacements, working thermally. The objective of this present work is to develop a numerical model, able to analyze the entire pipeline stress, strain and displacements, considering different kinds of soil along of his route. The influence of expansion loops is evaluated and a comparative analysis in order to discover the minimum curvature radius at the directional drilling region is carried out. This study defines a methodology based on the developed numerical model which will be extended to future applications in subsea buried pipeline design. (author)

  3. Geotechnical monitoring of a pipeline buried in slope; Monitoramento geotecnico de um duto enterrado em encosta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Marcio de Souza Soares de; Lacerda, Willy Alvarenga; Marques, Maria Esther Soares; Freitas, Nicolle Cruz de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE); Costa, Alvaro Maia da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2003-07-01

    When a pipeline is installed inside a slope, it is subjected to stress variation due to slope movements, which could compromise its operation. On this paper it is presented a preliminary study of the behavior of a slope in which it was installed a pipeline, denominated ORBIG (Km 48 + 300 and Km 48 + 500), at Coroa Grande, Rio de Janeiro. The analysis of displacements and velocity of displacement and the comparison with rainfall data will provide a better understanding of the mechanics of the slope movements. The main objective is to analyze the risk of pipeline rupture and the environmental consequences, and to provide means to define actions for risk reduction on those areas. (author)

  4. Detection of leaks in buried rural water pipelines using thermal infrared images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidenshink, Jeffery C.

    1985-01-01

    Leakage is a major problem in many pipelines. Minor leaks called 'seeper leaks', which generally range from 2 to 10 m3 per day, are common and are difficult to detect using conventional ground surveys. The objective of this research was to determine whether airborne thermal-infrared remote sensing could be used in detecting leaks and monitoring rural water pipelines. This study indicates that such leaks can be detected using low-altitude 8.7- to 11.5. micrometer wavelength, thermal infrared images collected under proper conditions.

  5. Risk rank evaluation on AC corrosion of buried oil pipeline%埋地石油管道交流腐蚀风险等级评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    生迎夏; 曾晓; 王益敏; 陶刚

    2012-01-01

    With the acceleration of modernization process in China, the construction of pipeline and power facilities present rapid development. However, it must pay close attention to the serious interference corrosion of buried pipeline in high voltage current, direct current electric power facilities, and so on. For pipeline accident by 80% occurring in underground, on the basis of full understanding of corrosion mechanism, the orthogonal design method was applied, focusing concern effect factors of AC corrosion on buried pipeline , and obtained its mutual mathematics relationship. Then, combining corrosion mechanism and orthogonal experimental results , the main factors , secondary factors, and less impact factor were determined by the orthogonal experiment screening process, choose the reasonable indicators, while by using fault tree analysis, expert advice, and secondary data analysis, as well as reference to the study summarization both at home and abroad, comprehensive absorption, induction, reorganization, additions and deletions were conducted on existing evaluation indicators, those little influance factors were deleted to establish risk grade assessment index system of AC corrosion on buried pipeline, and comprehensive e-valuation method of fuzzy mathematics was applied on systematic evaluation of AC corrosion risk grade, in order to provide reliable data for security management of duried pipeline.%随着我国现代化进程的加快,管道建设与电力设施的建设呈现出高速发展的局面.然而,高压交流、直流电力设施对埋地管道存在着严重的干扰腐蚀情况.采用正交实验的方法,重点关注交流腐蚀对埋地管道的影响因素,并得出其相互间的数学关系,然后综合腐蚀机理以及正交实验结果,通过正交实验的筛选过程确定主要因素、次要因素以及影响较小的因素,选择合理的指标,运用故障树分析、专家咨询以及二手资料的分析法,并参考国内外的研究

  6. An electrochemical method for evaluating the resistance to cathodic disbondment of anti-corrosion coatings on buried pipelines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Methods for evaluating the resistance to cathodic disbondment (RCD) of anti-corrosion coatings on buried pipelines were reviewed. It is obvious that these traditional cathodic disbondment tests (CDT) have some disadvantages and the evaluated results are only simple figures and always rely on the subjective experience of the operator. A new electrochemical method for evaluating the RCD of coatings, that is, the potentiostatic evaluation method (PEM), was developed and studied. During potentiostatic anodic polarization testing, the changes of stable polarization current of specimens before and after cathodic disbonding (CD) were measured,and the degree of cathodic disbondment of the coating was quantitatively evaluated, among which the equivalent cathodic disbonded distance △D was suggested as a parameter for evaluating the RCD. A series of testing parameters of the PEM were determined in these experiments.

  7. Seismic behavior of buried pipelines constructed by design criteria and construction specifications of both Korea and the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-S. Jeon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Earthquake loss estimation systems in the US, for example HAZUS (Hazard in US, have been established based on sufficient damage records for the purpose of prevention and efficient response to earthquake hazards; however, in Korea, insufficient data sets of earthquakes and damage records are currently available. In this study, the earthquake damages to pipelines in Korea using the pipeline repair rate (RR recommended in HAZUS was reevaluated with the degree of confidence when RR is used without modification for the damage estimation of pipelines in Korea. The numerical analyses using a commercial finite element model, ABAQUS, were carried out to compare stresses and strains mobilized in both brittle and ductile pipelines constructed by the design criteria and construction specifications of both Korea and the US. These pipelines were embedded in dense sand overlying three different in situ soils (clay, sand, and gravel subjected to earthquake excitations with peak ground accelerations (PGAs of 0.2 to 1.2 g and 1994 Northridge and 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake loadings. The numerical results show that differences in the stress and strain rates are less than 10%. This implies that RR in HAZUS can be used for earthquake damage estimation of pipelines with a 90% confidence level in Korea.

  8. External coatings for buried pipelines - a project approach; Revestimento externo para dutos enterrados - uma abordagem de projeto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Laerce de P.; Gomes, Luiz Paulo; Nunes, Alessandra de M. [IEC - Instalacoes e Engenharia de Corrosao Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The transport of liquid or gas fluids, such as water, fuel, chemical products, minerals, among others, through underground pipelines, is becoming more significant in the whole world, specially in Brazil, due to low cost, operational security and low physical interference at the surface. By the other hand, the ambient matters, the population's security in pipeline tracing and economic aspects lead to greater requirements in relation to the integrity of those installations. Corrosion is one of the most important causes of underground pipelines' deterioration and coating and cathodic protection are recommended to prevent it from occurring. However, both techniques must be considered in the pipeline project for it to be successful. At the present work the most important kinds of coating for underground pipelines are presented, as well as the applications, limitations, reference norms and the interface with the cathodic protection systems in relation to the efficiencies to be adopted and the expected performance. Is it also discussed the welded piping joints confection and the protection difficulties when the efficiencies are not corresponded to those foreseen in the cathodic protection systems project. (author)

  9. Seismic behavior of buried pipelines constructed by design criteria and construction specifications of both Korea and the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-S. Jeon

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Lifeline damage induced by earthquake loading not only causes structure damage but also communication problems resulting from the interruption of various energy utilities such as electric power, gas, and water resources. Earthquake loss estimation systems in the US, for example HAZUS (Hazard in US, have been established for the purpose of prevention and efficient response to earthquake hazards. Sufficient damage records obtained from earthquakes are required to establish these systems, however, in Korea, insufficient data sets of damage records are currently available. In this study, according to the design criteria and construction specifications of pipelines in Korea and the US, the behavior of both brittle and ductile pipelines embedded in dense sand overlying various in-situ soils, such as clay, sand, and gravel, were examined and compared with respect to the mechanical characteristics of pipelines under various earthquake loadings.

  10. Efficiency improvements in pipeline transportation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.; Horton, J. F.

    1977-09-09

    This report identifies potential energy-conservative pipeline innovations that are most energy- and cost-effective and formulates recommendations for the R, D, and D programs needed to exploit those opportunities. From a candidate field of over twenty classes of efficiency improvements, eight systems are recommended for pursuit. Most of these possess two highly important attributes: large potential energy savings and broad applicability outside the pipeline industry. The R, D, and D program for each improvement and the recommended immediate next step are described. The eight technologies recommended for R, D, and D are gas-fired combined cycle compressor station; internally cooled internal combustion engine; methanol-coal slurry pipeline; methanol-coal slurry-fired and coal-fired engines; indirect-fired coal-burning combined-cycle pump station; fuel-cell pump station; drag-reducing additives in liquid pipelines; and internal coatings in pipelines.

  11. The use of differential GPS as an inspection tool in the external corrosion control of buried pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalski, A.R. [Asesoria Adiestramiento y Construccion, Caracas (Venezuela)

    1998-12-31

    A maintenance program was designed to improve the cathodic protection level of two oil gathering pipelines of an oil production facility in Eastern Venezuela. The program was built upon the information obtained from a coating condition evaluation and the soil resistivity profile along the pipeline corridors. The external coating was inspected with the Direct Current Voltage Gradient technique, DCVG; the soil resistivity of the pipeline corridor was measured every 100 meters (328 ft.). All the geographical information was obtained with Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS). This allowed the pipeline operator to relocate all coating defects with a sub metric accuracy that considerably reduced the rehabilitation costs. The coating inspection covered a total distance of twelve thousand, nine hundred and thirty-six meters (12,936 meters). Two hundred and ninety two (292) defects were found; 54 defects belonged to Category 3 and will need immediate repair. The soil corrosiveness along the pipeline corridors was established by the resistivity gradient. Critical areas were established and exploratory digs were recommended to assess exposed metal condition.

  12. Communication systems vital to Colombian pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrato, E. [Ecopetrol, Bogota (Colombia); Mailloux, R. [Bristol Babcock Inc., Watertown, CT (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Construction of the Centro Oriente Gas Pipeline represents a major step in Colombia`s goal to strengthen the emerging natural gas business. With construction beginning in 1995, the Centro Oriente is scheduled to begin operation early this year transporting 150 MMcf/d. The 779-kilometer (484-mile) pipeline ranging in diameter from 22-inch to 12-inches, provides the central transportation link between major gas suppliers in both the northern and western regions of Colombia and new markets throughout their immediate regions as well as in the central and eastern regions. TransCanada, operating company for the Centro Oriente pipeline, will develop and manage the support organizations required to operate and maintain the system. The central control system for the CPC is the Gas SCADA system, ADACS, provided by Bristol Babcock Inc. (BBI). This control system provides the data acquisition and control capabilities necessary to operate the entire pipeline safely and efficiently from Burcaramanga.

  13. A theoretical study of the fundamental torsional wave in buried pipes for pipeline condition assessment and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggleton, J. M.; Kalkowski, M.; Gao, Y.; Rustighi, E.

    2016-07-01

    Waves that propagate at low frequencies in buried pipes are of considerable interest in a variety of practical scenarios, for example leak detection, remote pipe detection, and pipeline condition assessment and monitoring. Whilst there has been considerable research and commercial attention on the accurate location of pipe leakage for many years, the various causes of pipe failures and their identification, have not been well documented; moreover, there are still a number of gaps in the existing knowledge. Previous work has focused on two of the three axisymmetric wavetypes that can propagate: the s=1, fluid-dominated wave; and the s=2, shell-dominated wave. In this paper, the third axisymmetric wavetype, the s=0 torsional wave, is investigated. The effects of the surrounding soil on the characteristics of wave propagation and attenuation are analysed for a compact pipe/soil interface for which there is no relative motion between the pipe wall and the surrounding soil. An analytical dispersion relationship is derived for the torsional wavenumber from which both the wavespeed and wave attenuation can be obtained. How torsional waves can subsequently radiate to the ground surface is then investigated. Analytical expressions are derived for the ground surface displacement above the pipe resulting from torsional wave motion within the pipe wall. A numerical model is also included, primarily in order to validate some of the assumptions made whilst developing the analytical solutions, but also so that some comparison in the results may be made. Example results are presented for both a cast iron pipe and an MDPE pipe buried in two typical soil types.

  14. Reduce operational cost and extend the life of pipeline infrastructure by automating remote cathodic protection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosado, Elroy [Freewave Technologies, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States). Latin America

    2009-07-01

    Energy and Pipeline Companies wrestle to control operating costs largely affected by new government regulations, ageing buried metal assets, rising steel prices, expanding pipeline operations, new interference points, HCA encroachment, restrictive land use policies, heightened network security, and an ageing soon-to-retire work force. With operating costs on the rise, seemingly out of control, many CP and Operations Professionals look to past best practices in cost containment through automation. Many companies achieve solid business results through deployment of telemetry and SCADA automation of remote assets and now hope to expand this success to further optimize operations by automating remote cathodic protection systems. This presentation will provide examples of how new remote cathodic protection systems are helping energy and pipeline companies address the growing issue of the aging pipeline infrastructure and reduce their costs while optimizing their operations. (author)

  15. Global Earthing Systems: Characterization of Buried Metallic Parts

    OpenAIRE

    Tommasini, Riccardo; Colella, Pietro; Pons, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    International Standards IEC 61936-1 and EN 50522 define a Global Earthing System (GES) as the earthing network, created by the interconnection of local earthing systems, that should guarantee the absence of dangerous touch voltages. This is achieved through two effects: the division of the earth fault current between many earthing systems and the creation of a quasi equipotential surface. The second effect can be enhanced by the presence of buried metallic parts, such as light poles and water...

  16. Modeling the effect of the seismic wave propagation in buried continuous pipelines; Modelacion del efecto de propagacion de ondas sismicas en tuberias continuas enterradas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melchor Garcia, Nicolas Ageo

    2005-02-15

    This work presents the state of art of the behavior of buried pipelines facing the effect of the propagation of seismic waves. Special attention has been given to the modeling of the soil-piping system. Some analytical models are presented and discussed in great detail. The purpose of this is to contribute, in particular, to the following aspects: First, it attempts to be a reference work for the geotechnical engineers facing problems related to the seismic wave propagation phenomenon in buried structures, since within the consulted literature there are many of the principles presented in here, that are related with the seismic engineering, the reaction module, as well as expressions or investigations performed in piles. Second, a cuasi-static numerical model is presented that analyzes the continuous piping through a stress vector of sinusoidal type. The analysis of the stresses and deformations that the ground transmits to the pipe is made using a ground-to-pipe interaction model. For a low level of deformations an elastic behavior of transference in the interface is considered in the inter-phase ground-piping. In the case of greater deformations it is assumed that sliding is presented because the surrounding ground presents fault by shearing stress in the surrounding ground. The analysis covers solely the case with axial deformations in straight sections. Finally, it intends to give a series of recommendations for future research works on the modeling of buried pipelines. In this work, the influence of several aspects on the response of the pipelines to the propagation of seismic waves is analyzed and discussed; such as the conditions of topography, geology, ground stratigraphy and the rigidity changes in the surrounding ground of the pipe. [Spanish] Este trabajo presenta el estado del arte sobre el comportamiento de tuberias enterradas ante efecto de programacion de ondas sismicas. Una especial atencion ha sido dada a la modelacion del sistema suelo

  17. Aviation Fuel Pipeline Buried Corrosion and Protection%航空燃料埋地输送管道的腐蚀与防护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦一峰

    2012-01-01

    随着航空事业的发展,管输方式成为航空燃料又一广泛运用的运输方式,但腐蚀穿孔成为埋地管道的重要安全隐患。文章从腐蚀的分类分析了航空燃料埋地输送管道腐蚀的原因、影响因素,并重点从外防腐涂层和阴极保护两方面论述了当前对管道腐蚀防护的技术。%With the development of aviation,aviation fuel pipeline has become a widely used means of transport,but the corrosion of buried pipeline safety become important.In the paper the classification of corrosion analysis of aviation fuel buried pipeline corrosion,influencing factors,and from the point of external anticorrosive coating and cathodic protection are discussed in two aspects of the pipeline corrosion protection technology.

  18. Determination of Erosion/Corrosion Rates in Hanford Tank Farms Radioactive Waste Transfer System Pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washenfelder, D. J.; Girardot, C. L.; Wilson, E. R.; Page, J. A.; Engeman, J. K.; Gunter, J. R.; Johnson, J. M.; Baide, D. G.; Cooke, G. A.; Larson, J. D.; Castleberry, J. L.; Boomer, K. D.

    2015-11-05

    The twenty-eight double-shell underground radioactive waste storage tanks at the U. S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site near Richland, WA are interconnected by the Waste Transfer System network of buried steel encased pipelines and pipe jumpers in below-grade pits. The pipeline material is stainless steel or carbon steel in 51 mm to 152 mm (2 in. to 6 in.) sizes. The pipelines carry slurries ranging up to 20 volume percent solids and supernatants with less than one volume percent solids at velocities necessary to prevent settling. The pipelines, installed between 1976 and 2011, were originally intended to last until the 2028 completion of the double-shell tank storage mission. The mission has been subsequently extended. In 2010 the Tank Operating Contractor began a systematic evaluation of the Waste Transfer System pipeline conditions applying guidelines from API 579-1/ASME FFS-1 (2007), Fitness-For-Service. Between 2010 and 2014 Fitness-for-Service examinations of the Waste Transfer System pipeline materials, sizes, and components were completed. In parallel, waste throughput histories were prepared allowing side-by-side pipeline wall thinning rate comparisons between carbon and stainless steel, slurries and supernatants and throughput volumes. The work showed that for transfer volumes up to 6.1E+05 m3 (161 million gallons), the highest throughput of any pipeline segment examined, there has been no detectable wall thinning in either stainless or carbon steel pipeline material regardless of waste fluid characteristics or throughput. The paper describes the field and laboratory evaluation methods used for the Fitness-for-Service examinations, the results of the examinations, and the data reduction methodologies used to support Hanford Waste Transfer System pipeline wall thinning conclusions.

  19. Overview of interstate hydrogen pipeline systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillette, J .L.; Kolpa, R. L

    2008-02-01

    . The following discussion will focus on the similarities and differences between the two pipeline networks. Hydrogen production is currently concentrated in refining centers along the Gulf Coast and in the Farm Belt. These locations have ready access to natural gas, which is used in the steam methane reduction process to make bulk hydrogen in this country. Production centers could possibly change to lie along coastlines, rivers, lakes, or rail lines, should nuclear power or coal become a significant energy source for hydrogen production processes. Should electrolysis become a dominant process for hydrogen production, water availability would be an additional factor in the location of production facilities. Once produced, hydrogen must be transported to markets. A key obstacle to making hydrogen fuel widely available is the scale of expansion needed to serve additional markets. Developing a hydrogen transmission and distribution infrastructure would be one of the challenges to be faced if the United States is to move toward a hydrogen economy. Initial uses of hydrogen are likely to involve a variety of transmission and distribution methods. Smaller users would probably use truck transport, with the hydrogen being in either the liquid or gaseous form. Larger users, however, would likely consider using pipelines. This option would require specially constructed pipelines and the associated infrastructure. Pipeline transmission of hydrogen dates back to late 1930s. These pipelines have generally operated at less than 1,000 pounds per square inch (psi), with a good safety record. Estimates of the existing hydrogen transmission system in the United States range from about 450 to 800 miles. Estimates for Europe range from about 700 to 1,100 miles (Mohipour et al. 2004; Amos 1998). These seemingly large ranges result from using differing criteria in determining pipeline distances. For example, some analysts consider only pipelines above a certain diameter as transmission lines

  20. Diagnostics and reliability of pipeline systems

    CERN Document Server

    Timashev, Sviatoslav

    2016-01-01

    The book contains solutions to fundamental problems which arise due to the logic of development of specific branches of science, which are related to pipeline safety, but mainly are subordinate to the needs of pipeline transportation.          The book deploys important but not yet solved aspects of reliability and safety assurance of pipeline systems, which are vital aspects not only for the oil and gas industry and, in general, fuel and energy industries , but also to virtually all contemporary industries and technologies. The volume will be useful to specialists and experts in the field of diagnostics/ inspection, monitoring, reliability and safety of critical infrastructures. First and foremost, it will be useful to the decision making persons —operators of different types of pipelines, pipeline diagnostics/inspection vendors, and designers of in-line –inspection (ILI) tools, industrial and ecological safety specialists, as well as to researchers and graduate students.

  1. Remote Excavation System technology evaluation report: Buried Waste Robotics Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This document describes the results from the Remote Excavation System demonstration and testing conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory during June and July 1993. The purpose of the demonstration was to ascertain the feasibility of the system for skimming soil and removing various types of buried waste in a safe manner and within all regulatory requirements, and to compare the performances of manual and remote operation of a backhoe. The procedures and goals of the demonstration were previously defined in The Remote Excavation System Test Plan, which served as a guideline for evaluating the various components of the system and discussed the procedures used to conduct the tests.

  2. System Reliability Assessment of Offshore Pipelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mustaffa, Z.

    2011-01-01

    The title of this thesis, System Reliability Assessment of Offshore Pipelines, portrays the application of probabilistic methods in assessing the reliability of these structures. The main intention of this thesis is to identify, apply and judge the suitability of the probabilistic methods in evalua

  3. Flexibility, savings chief returns of new pipeline system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broadbent, G.E.; Williams, T. (Pipelines Authority of South Australia, Glenside (AU))

    1990-04-30

    This paper reports on the development of an optimization system for operation of a gas-pipeline network. The system employs a steady-state model to predict pipeline compressor configurations and setpoints. The system allowed greater accuracy in operations of the pipeline network even when subject to highly transient flows. This article provides a detailed description of the system.

  4. Diverless pipeline repair system for deep water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinelli, Carlo M. [Eni Gas and Power, Milan (Italy); Fabbri, Sergio; Bachetta, Giuseppe [Saipem/SES, Venice (Italy)

    2009-07-01

    SiRCoS (Sistema Riparazione Condotte Sottomarine) is a diverless pipeline repair system composed of a suite of tools to perform a reliable subsea pipeline repair intervention in deep and ultra deep water which has been on the ground of the long lasting experience of Eni and Saipem in designing, laying and operating deep water pipelines. The key element of SiRCoS is a Connection System comprising two end connectors and a repair spool piece to replace a damaged pipeline section. A Repair Clamp with elastomeric seals is also available for pipe local damages. The Connection System is based on pipe cold forging process, consisting in swaging the pipe inside connectors with suitable profile, by using high pressure seawater. Three swaging operations have to be performed to replace the damaged pipe length. This technology has been developed through extensive theoretical work and laboratory testing, ending in a Type Approval by DNV over pipe sizes ranging from 20 inches to 48 inches OD. A complete SiRCoS system has been realised for the Green Stream pipeline, thoroughly tested in workshop as well as in shallow water and is now ready, in the event of an emergency situation.The key functional requirements for the system are: diverless repair intervention and fully piggability after repair. Eni owns this technology and is now available to other operators under Repair Club arrangement providing stand-by repair services carried out by Saipem Energy Services. The paper gives a description of the main features of the Repair System as well as an insight into the technological developments on pipe cold forging reliability and long term duration evaluation. (author)

  5. Corrosion Mechanism of Buried Oil Pipelines and Protection%埋地油气管道腐蚀机理研究及防护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林新宇; 吴明; 程浩力; 龙世华; 王鹏

    2011-01-01

    埋地油气管道的腐蚀一直是油气储运及集输工程的一个重要问题.分析了埋地油气输送管道腐蚀的各种形式及主要腐蚀机理.针对输油管道的腐蚀问题,从土壤微生物、理化性质以及交流电对管道的腐蚀影响等方面进行了分析.介绍了埋地油气混输管道腐蚀防护的方法:加缓蚀剂、外涂层、内涂层和衬里保护、阴极保护法、杂散电流排流保护等.提出要提高油气输送管道的使用寿命,就应在合理选择防腐护方法的同时,加强防腐管道的维护和保养,这些是管道防腐工作的的重中之重.%The corrosion of buried oil and gas pipeline has always been a problem for oil and gas storage and transportation and oil-gas gathering. In this paper, main corrosion forms of buried pipelines and the corrosion mechamsm were analyzed. Then effects of soil microorganism, soil physical and chemical properties and alternating current on pipeline corrosion were also analyzed. Some methods of corrosion protection were introduced, such as adding inhibitor, external coating, internal coating and lining protection, cathodic protection, stray current protection and so on. To solve the corrosion problem, the methods of corrosion protection must be selected reasonably, and maintenance of the pipeline must be strengthened, which is the key work in pipeline anticorrosion.

  6. 49 CFR 192.455 - External corrosion control: Buried or submerged pipelines installed after July 31, 1971.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External corrosion control: Buried or submerged... SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.455 External corrosion control: Buried or... against external corrosion, including the following: (1) It must have an external protective...

  7. 49 CFR 192.457 - External corrosion control: Buried or submerged pipelines installed before August 1, 1971.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External corrosion control: Buried or submerged... SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.457 External corrosion control: Buried or... areas in which active corrosion is found: (1) Bare or ineffectively coated transmission lines. (2)...

  8. Development of an automatic pipeline scanning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae H.; Lee, Jae C.; Moon, Soon S.; Eom, Heung S.; Choi, Yu R

    1999-11-01

    Pressure pipe inspection in nuclear power plants is one of the mandatory regulation items. Comparing to manual ultrasonic inspection, automatic inspection has the benefits of more accurate and reliable inspection results and reduction of radiation disposal. final object of this project is to develop an automatic pipeline inspection system of pressure pipe welds in nuclear power plants. We developed a pipeline scanning robot with four magnetic wheels and 2-axis manipulator for controlling ultrasonic transducers, and developed the robot control computer which controls the robot to navigate along inspection path exactly. We expect our system can contribute to reduction of inspection time, performance enhancement, and effective management of inspection results. The system developed by this project can be practically used for inspection works after field tests. (author)

  9. Experimental Studies on the Impressed Current Cathodic Joint Protection of Buried Metallic Pipelines%埋地钢质管道强制电流阴极联合保护研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周兰; 陶文亮; 李龙江

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Objective To verify the stray current corrosion caused to the adjacent pipelines by the cathodic protection system when protecting the target pipeline, compare the stray current pollution generated by flexible anode and anode ground bed during pipeline protection process, and propose joint protection of different pipelines buried in the same ditch. Methods The different pipelines in same region were jointly protected through the same drainage device, using the grounding device of the cathodic protec-tion system as the only anode, and the multiple buried pipelines as the cathode of the electrochemical cell. Results The stray cur-rent interference caused by the anode ground bed was obviously stronger than that of the flexible anode material. In drainage protec-tion, when the two 20 m buried metallic pipelines reached the range of drainage protection, the drainage voltage of the flexible an- ode was 1. 2 V to 1. 52 V, which was far smaller than that of the carbon steel anode ground bed (3. 5~15 V), effectively reducing the power consumption during the protection process. Conclusion The drainage protection of multiple metallic pipelines or metallic structures using the same cathodic system was feasible.%目的:验证阴极保护系统在保护目标管道的同时对临近管道造成的杂散电流腐蚀,对比柔性阳极与阳极地床在保护管道的过程中产生的杂散电流污染情况,确定同沟铺设的不同管道联合保护方案。方法通过同一排流设备对相同区域的不同管线进行统一保护,阴极保护系统中的接地装置作为唯一的阳极,多条埋地管线作为电化学电池的阴极实现保护。结果阳极地床产生的杂散电流干扰明显强于柔性阳极材料;排流保护中,两条20 m埋地金属管道达到排流保护的范围时,柔性阳极的排流电压为1.2~1.52 V,远小于碳钢阳极地床的3.5~15 V,能够有效减少防护过程中电能的使用。结论同一阴极系统同时

  10. Virtual Pipeline System Testbed to Optimize the U.S. Natural Gas Transmission Pipeline System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby S. Chapman; Prakash Krishniswami; Virg Wallentine; Mohammed Abbaspour; Revathi Ranganathan; Ravi Addanki; Jeet Sengupta; Liubo Chen

    2005-06-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a Virtual Pipeline System Testbed (VPST) for natural gas transmission. This study uses a fully implicit finite difference method to analyze transient, nonisothermal compressible gas flow through a gas pipeline system. The inertia term of the momentum equation is included in the analysis. The testbed simulate compressor stations, the pipe that connects these compressor stations, the supply sources, and the end-user demand markets. The compressor station is described by identifying the make, model, and number of engines, gas turbines, and compressors. System operators and engineers can analyze the impact of system changes on the dynamic deliverability of gas and on the environment.

  11. 海底管线埋设沟槽边坡稳定性分析%Analysis for Slope Stability of Trench Buried with Submarine Pipelines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张树森; 赵敏

    2014-01-01

    海底石油管线埋设已经成为海洋工程的重要组成部分,在埋设管线的过程中沟槽的稳定性和坡度选择直接影响到埋设工程的工作量。利用强度折减有限单元法对某海域海底管线埋设的沟槽进行了分析,通过计算不同坡脚时沟槽边坡的稳定性,选择了符合工程要求的最佳坡脚。同时比较了最大总位移和x方向最大位移作为边坡失稳判据的区别,结果证明用最大总位移作为判据判断海底沟槽边坡稳定性更直观。%To bury submarine petroleum pipeline has become one of important parts of marine engineering,the stability and gradient of trench affect the submarine pipeline burying quantities. One submarine pipeline trench was analyzed by using strength-reduction finite element method. The best base of slope that satisfies engineering requirement was chosen through the stability calculation of trenches with different bases of slope. At the same time, maximum displacement in total and maximum displacement in x direction are compared each other as slope destabilization criteria. The results prove that the criterion of maximum displacement in total is more obvious to evaluate the slope stability of submarine trench.

  12. Overview of Upheaval Buckling Theoretical Studies for Submarine Buried Pipeline%海底埋设管线屈曲剧变理论研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高喜峰; 刘润; 杜尊峰; 谭振东

    2011-01-01

    Pipelines constitute a vital means of transporting and distributing liquids and gases such as oil, gas and water over large geographical areas. A pipeline containing hot oil (and possibly insulated in order to prevent the solidification of wax in the pipe) will expand longitudinally on account of the rise in temperature; and if such expansion is resisted, for example by frictional affects over a kilometer or so of pipeline; compressive axial stress will be set up in the pipe-wall.The compressive forces are frequently large enough to induce lateral buckling of untrenched pipelines,or vertical buckling of trenched pipelines. The recent growth in interest in high temperature pipelines in China and some failures in Bohai Gulf have led to an explosion of interest in these phenomena for Chinese ocean engineers. This paper describes the history of the theoretical studies on the submarine buried pipeline vertical buckling and the author's experiences with this problem.%海上生产的烃类必须在高温高压下运输以使流体舒缓而避免蜡组分的凝固.由于内外压差和温差引起强制膨胀导致轴向压缩力,此时便产生了海底管线的屈曲.此压缩力既能引起管线在海床平面内的侧向屈曲,也能造成垂向屈曲.通常将管线埋于沟槽内从而确保与其它海洋活动的干扰最小化.在此情况下,侧向土约束超过了由管线浮重造成的垂向隆起约束.因此,要特别注意挖沟埋设管线的垂向屈曲.最近对中国高温管线和渤海湾几起事故的关注引发中国海洋工程师对此现象的强烈兴趣.文章综述了海底埋设管线垂向屈曲的理论研究历史,以及作者对此问题的一些经验.希望海洋工程师能从本领域的文献综述和总结中受益.文中同时研究了管线的防护层设计,最后明确了未来发展的方向.

  13. A Natural Seismic Isolating System: The Buried Mangrove Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Gueguen, Philippe; Foray, Pierre; Rousseau, Christophe; Maury, Julie; 10.1785/0120100129

    2011-01-01

    The Belleplaine test site, located in the island of Guadeloupe (French Lesser Antilles) includes a three-accelerometer vertical array, designed for liquefac- tion studies. The seismic response of the soil column at the test site is computed using three methods: the spectral ratio method using the vertical array data, a numerical method using the geotechnical properties of the soil column, and an operative fre- quency domain decomposition (FDD) modal analysis method. The Belleplaine test site is characterized by a mangrove layer overlaid by a stiff sandy deposit. This con- figuration is widely found at the border coast of the Caribbean region, which is exposed to high seismic hazard. We show that the buried mangrove layer plays the role of an isolation system equivalent to those usually employed in earthquake engineering aimed at reducing the seismic shear forces by reducing the internal stress within the structure. In our case, the flexibility of the mangrove layer reduces the distortion and the stress in the...

  14. Autonomous underwater pipeline monitoring navigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Byrel; Mahmoudian, Nina; Meadows, Guy

    2014-06-01

    This paper details the development of an autonomous motion-control and navigation algorithm for an underwater autonomous vehicle, the Ocean Server IVER3, to track long linear features such as underwater pipelines. As part of this work, the Nonlinear and Autonomous Systems Laboratory (NAS Lab) developed an algorithm that utilizes inputs from the vehicles state of the art sensor package, which includes digital imaging, digital 3-D Sidescan Sonar, and Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers. The resulting algorithms should tolerate real-world waterway with episodic strong currents, low visibility, high sediment content, and a variety of small and large vessel traffic.

  15. 半埋热油管道传热研究%Study on Heat Transfer of Partially Buried Hot Oil Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯; 李清平; 宫敬; 宇波

    2012-01-01

    受飓风、暴雨、泥石流等恶劣天气的影响,埋地管道可能局部处于半掩埋状态.目前半埋管道传热计算多采用“线性插值”模型.建立了半埋热油管道的流(空气水)-管-土耦合传热机理模型,并利用数值模拟手段对不同条件下管道的传热特性进行了研究.结果表明,管道的总传热系数、出口温度和土壤蓄热量与管道的相对埋入面积呈明显的非线性关系;线性模型与机理模型的计算结果在趋势与数值方面均具有较大偏差;管道刚好完全掩埋时与完全不掩埋时相比,总传热系数出口温度的差异较大,且管径越大,差异越显著;当环境流体的温度较低时,管道出口温度对相对埋入面积更敏感.%As a result of bad weather, such as hurricane, storm or landslide, some part of buried pipeline may be in a semi-buried state. Currently the "linear interpolation" model is used to calculate the heat loss of partially buried pipe. A mechanism model of heat transfer of fluid (air/water)-pipe-soil coupling is developed, and the thermal behaviors of pipeline are studied by numerical simulation. The results show that the changes of the overall heat transfer coefficient, outlet temperature and soil heat storage of pipeline with the fraction of outside surface of pipe in touch with soil have obvious non-linear characters, both the trend and value of the linear model deviate from that of the mechanism model greatly. There are significant differences in the overall heat transfer coefficients/outlet temperatures between the pipe completely exposed to the surrounding fluid and that just covered by soil. The bigger the pipe diameter is, the greater the differences are. When the temperature of the surrounding fluid is lower, the outlet temperature is more sensitive to the fraction of outside surface of pipe covered by soil.

  16. Economic model of pipeline transportation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.

    1977-07-29

    The objective of the work reported here was to develop a model which could be used to assess the economic effects of energy-conservative technological innovations upon the pipeline industry. The model is a dynamic simulator which accepts inputs of two classes: the physical description (design parameters, fluid properties, and financial structures) of the system to be studied, and the postulated market (throughput and price) projection. The model consists of time-independent submodels: the fluidics model which simulates the physical behavior of the system, and the financial model which operates upon the output of the fluidics model to calculate the economics outputs. Any of a number of existing fluidics models can be used in addition to that developed as a part of this study. The financial model, known as the Systems, Science and Software (S/sup 3/) Financial Projection Model, contains user options whereby pipeline-peculiar characteristics can be removed and/or modified, so that the model can be applied to virtually any kind of business enterprise. The several dozen outputs are of two classes: the energetics and the economics. The energetics outputs of primary interest are the energy intensity, also called unit energy consumption, and the total energy consumed. The primary economics outputs are the long-run average cost, profit, cash flow, and return on investment.

  17. Optical Fiber Pipeline Security Forewarning System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Qishan; Ren Ruijun; Ren Peikui

    2010-01-01

    @@ With the rapid development of China's economy,such incidents occurring to oil & gas pipelines as industrial and agricultural production,natural disasters,oil stealing,etc.have been prevailing and brought negative influences to the normal operation of pipelines.On account of all such destructive activities,firstly the soil around the pipeline should be vibrated,and then the cable laid in the pipe trench could respond to the vibration.Using this technology,the Department of Science & Technology of CNPC has embarked on the research of relevant equipment to monitor pipeline activities along the pipeline since 2001.

  18. Computer models of complex multiloop branched pipeline systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudinov, I. V.; Kolesnikov, S. V.; Eremin, A. V.; Branfileva, A. N.

    2013-11-01

    This paper describes the principal theoretical concepts of the method used for constructing computer models of complex multiloop branched pipeline networks, and this method is based on the theory of graphs and two Kirchhoff's laws applied to electrical circuits. The models make it possible to calculate velocities, flow rates, and pressures of a fluid medium in any section of pipeline networks, when the latter are considered as single hydraulic systems. On the basis of multivariant calculations the reasons for existing problems can be identified, the least costly methods of their elimination can be proposed, and recommendations for planning the modernization of pipeline systems and construction of their new sections can be made. The results obtained can be applied to complex pipeline systems intended for various purposes (water pipelines, petroleum pipelines, etc.). The operability of the model has been verified on an example of designing a unified computer model of the heat network for centralized heat supply of the city of Samara.

  19. Thermal processing system concepts and considerations for RWMC buried waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, T.L.; Kong, P.C.; Raivo, B.D.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents a preliminary determination of ex situ thermal processing system concepts and related processing considerations for application to remediation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated buried wastes (TRUW) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Beginning with top-level thermal treatment concepts and requirements identified in a previous Preliminary Systems Design Study (SDS), a more detailed consideration of the waste materials thermal processing problem is provided. Anticipated waste stream elements and problem characteristics are identified and considered. Final waste form performance criteria, requirements, and options are examined within the context of providing a high-integrity, low-leachability glass/ceramic, final waste form material. Thermal processing conditions required and capability of key systems components (equipment) to provide these material process conditions are considered. Information from closely related companion study reports on melter technology development needs assessment and INEL Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) research are considered. Five potentially practicable thermal process system design configuration concepts are defined and compared. A scenario for thermal processing of a mixed waste and soils stream with essentially no complex presorting and using a series process of incineration and high temperature melting is recommended. Recommendations for applied research and development necessary to further detail and demonstrate the final waste form, required thermal processes, and melter process equipment are provided.

  20. An EM Modeling for Rescue System Design of Buried People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. De Leo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a rescue system for buried persons is a subject of growing importance in case of occurrence of natural disasters such as earthquake, landslides, or avalanches. In this paper a fully analytical model has been developed to get some fundamental a priori design characteristics. The proposed system is based on the detection of the victim movements due to its respiratory activity: in particular, when an electromagnetic (EM wave impinges on a human body, the analysis of the reflected wave parameters such as amplitude, frequency, phase, or delay time allows for the detection of the breathing frequency. The model is simple on purpose because the great uncertainty concerning the characterization of many environmental parameters of a general situation makes a very detailed model useless. However, it is accurate enough to provide useful information about system design, filling the gap in the literature concerning the electromagnetic formulation of such kinds of problems. A system prototype was built using laboratory equipment to experimentally validate the model, and subsequently breathing frequency measurements were carried on, both in a lossless laboratory environment and in a lossy realistic scenario.

  1. Corrosion Evaluation of Buried Pipeline in the 4th Area of the Tahe Oilifeld%塔河四区埋地管线腐蚀综合评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何小龙; 刘生福

    2014-01-01

    The buried pipelines in the 4th area of Tahe oilfield were corrupted seriously and accidents happened frequently recently. Pipeline external coating evaluation, PCM detection, cathodic protection system potential detection, pipeline wall thickness detection and corrosion medium analysis were carried to analyse the corrosion reason. The results showed that perforation of pipeline was mainly caused by internal corrosion and the external coating was intact. But cathodic protection system existed excessive or insufficient problems. With the development of the Tahe Oilfield, the moisture content of each well will be gradually increased and the corrosion of pipelines will be more serious. In order to mitigate corrosion of pipelines, some measures such as corrosion inhibitor, internal coating and FRP pipes should be applied.%根据塔河四区埋地管线腐蚀穿孔频繁发生的现状,现场进行管线外防腐层评价。通过塔河四区埋地PCM检测、阴极保护系统电位检测与效果评价、管线壁厚及结合四区管线内腐蚀介质腐蚀性资料等综合分析,结果表明塔河四区埋地管线阴极保护目前存在保护过度和不足的问题,PCM检测埋地管线外防腐层优良。管线腐蚀穿孔主要是内腐蚀引起的,随着塔河油田的逐步开发,各单井的含水率将逐渐上升,管壁腐蚀将更加严重,建议进行缓蚀剂的投加、管线进行内涂层,并对部分站内及长输管线采用玻璃钢管线。

  2. 埋地管道交流腐蚀的研究进展%INVESTIGATION PROGRESS OF ALTERNATING CURRENT CORROSION ON BURIED PIPELINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董亮; 路民旭; 杜艳霞; 姜子涛

    2011-01-01

    Alternating current (AC) corrosion on buried pipelines has drawn much attention. Current status of the researches is reviewed in this article. The understanding of AC corrosion is mentioned. Characteristics, mechanisms, and mitigations of AC corrosion and the evaluation methods for AC corrosion risk are concluded. Finally, the issues for further investigations are proposed.%综述了埋地管道交流腐蚀的研究现状,包括人们对交流腐蚀的认识过程,交流腐蚀的特征和机理,交流腐蚀风险的评价方法以及交流腐蚀的缓解措施.最后提出了埋地管道交流腐蚀有待解决的问题.

  3. A novel method for the remote condition assessment of buried pipelines using low-frequency axisymmetric waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggleton, J. M.; Rustighi, E.

    2016-09-01

    “Mapping the Underworld” is a large multi-disciplinary, multi-university research programme taking place in the UK, which aims to revolutionize the way we undertake streetworks. Within this programme, a number of vibration-based techniques for remotely detecting and locating buried pipes have been developed. Relying either on the direct excitation of a pipe as it comes up to the surface or excitation of the ground in the vicinity of a buried pipe, mapping the ground surface vibration response allows information to be gathered concerning the pipe's exact position. However, contained within this surface response is often information which could, if utilized appropriately, provide insights into the condition of the pipe as well as its location. Furthermore, critical information regarding the condition of the ground in which a pipe is buried could, in some circumstances, be gleaned. In this paper, how this additional information might be extracted, used and eventually exploited is explored. Providing the basis for work currently being undertaken in a new programme, “Assessing the Underworld”, example results are presented which demonstrate the immense potential of the proposed methods.

  4. Applications of API RP 1102 in stress analysis of buried pipelines at automated cultivation land; Avaliacao de tensoes em dutos enterrados, em area de cultura mecanizada, a luz da norma API RP 1102

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spagnolo, Rodrigo Alves; Castro, Newton Camelo de [PETROBRAS Transportes S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    According to the development of the agriculture business in the Midwest of Brazil, it can be noted that the cultivated land has imposed to the right of way pipeline weight and quantity increasing of vehicles moving above TRANSPETRO pipelines. This paper has the objective promoting discussions about this theme, presenting preceding conclusions when analyzing pipeline stresses, when the pipeline equipment are submitted to great loadings of agricultural machines. In order to execute this analysis, analytical formulations were used to compute static and dynamic loadings. These evaluations were referenced from API RP 1102 american norm. Many loading simulations, with different operating and environment configurations to the buried installations, were realized. These data were applied having the purpose of diagnosing typical situations existing in automated cultivated land crossings, related to OSBRA (Oleoduto Sao Paulo - Brasilia) right of way pipeline. (author)

  5. Modelling ruptures of buried high pressure dense phase CO2 pipelines in carbon capture and storage applications - Part I. Validation

    OpenAIRE

    Wareing, CJ; Fairweather, M.; Falle, SAEG; Woolley, RM

    2015-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage presents a short-term option for significantly reducing the amount of CO2 released into the atmosphere and mitigating the effects of climate change. To this end, National Grid initiated the COOLTRANS research programme to consider the pipeline transportation of high pressure dense phase CO2, including the development and application of a mathematical model for predicting the sonic near-field dispersion of pure CO2 following the venting or failure of su...

  6. Efficiency improvements in pipeline transportation systems. Technical report, Task 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.; Horton, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    This report identifies those potential energy-conservative pipeline innovations that are most energy- and cost-effective, and formulates recommendations for the R, D, and D programs needed to exploit those opportunities. From a candidate field of over twenty classes of efficiency improvements, eight systems are recommended for pursuit. Most of these possess two highly important attributes: large potential energy savings and broad applicability outside the pipeline industry. The R, D, and D program for each improvement and the recommended immediate next step are described. The eight programs recommended for pursuit are: gas-fired combined-cycle compressor station; internally cooled internal combustion engine; methanol-coal slurry pipeline; methanol-coal slurry-fired and coal-fired engines; indirect-fired coal-burning combined-cycle pump station; fuel-cycle pump station; internal coatings in pipelines; and drag-reducing additives in liquid pipelines.

  7. 钢套钢直埋蒸汽(热水)保温管道施工技术%Construction Technology of the Steel Buried Steam (Hot Water) Heat Preservation Pipeline with Steel Casing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭平

    2014-01-01

    This paper from aspects as the deepening design, prefabrication, pipeline surveying and trench excavation, pipe welding, testing and cleaning introduces the steel casing buried steam (hot water) heat preservation pipeline construction. The construction has reasonable and advanced process, good effect.%本文从深化设计、工厂化预制、管线测量和管沟开挖、管道焊接、试验和清洗等方面介绍了钢套钢直埋蒸汽(热水)保温管道施工。其施工工艺合理先进,效果良好。

  8. 49 CFR 191.13 - Distribution systems reporting transmission pipelines; transmission or gathering systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Distribution systems reporting transmission pipelines; transmission or gathering systems reporting distribution pipelines. 191.13 Section 191.13... Distribution systems reporting transmission pipelines; transmission or gathering systems reporting...

  9. 埋地输气管线腐蚀综合评价%Comprehensive Assessment for the Corrosion of Buried Gas Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓存; 薛继军

    2015-01-01

    为了保证输气管道的安全平稳运行,通过对某沙漠地区输气管线的腐蚀情况进行综合评价,包括PCM检测,阴极保护有效性检测,管体内腐蚀缺陷检测、成像与剩余强度评价以及剩余寿命评价。结果表明,该埋地输气管线的外防腐层存在漏点80个,阴极保护全部达标,管体外表面腐蚀是由防腐层破损而引起的,管体壁厚减薄处最小值为5.45 mm,该管道腐蚀缺陷在接受范围内,管道平均腐蚀速率较低。。%To ensure the gas pipeline running safely and smoothly, this paper focused on a comprehensive assessment for the corrosion of a gas pipeline in desert area by the methods of PCM detection, cathodic protection system detection, internal corrosion defect detection, imaging and residual strength valuation and remaining lifetime assessment. The results showed that there are 80 leak sources on the external anti-corrosion coating, the cathodic protection system is qualified, the external surface corrosion of the pipeline is caused by coating damages, the outer surface corrosion of pipe body is caused by coating damage, the minimum wall thickness of the pipeline is 5.45 mm, the corrosion defects on the pipeline are acceptable and the average corrosion rate is low.

  10. 寒区地下输水管道合理埋置深度的研究%Research on Rational Burying Depth of Underground Water Pipeline in Cold Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张科亮; 刘建军

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,the factors affecting the burying depth of underground water pipelines in cold regions are analyzed and some relevant improvements are proposed to solve problems.Practical engineering applications show that the rational burying depth of water pipelines is about 0.9 m in the area of Shihezi.%对影响寒区地下输水管道埋深的因素进行了分析,针对存在的问题提出了相应的改进措施,并通过实际工程验证,应用表明:在石河子地区的土壤冻深等条件下,输水管道合理埋置深度可为0.9m。

  11. Cathodic Protection of Pipeline Using Distributed Control System

    OpenAIRE

    Gopalakrishnan Jayapalan; Ganga Agnihotri; D. M. Deshpande

    2014-01-01

    Distributed control system (DCS) is available in most of the compressor stations of cross-country pipeline systems. Programmable logic controller (PLC) is used in all the intermediate pigging (IP) stations/sectional valve (SV) stations to collect the field data and to control the remote actuated valves. This paper presents how DCS or PLC can be used for cathodic protection of gas pipelines. Virtual instrumentation (VI) software is used here for simulation and real-time implementation purpose....

  12. Investigations on friction to cyclic axial shifted buried pipelines; Untersuchung zur Reibung an zyklisch axial verschobenen erdverlegten Rohren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidlich, I.

    2008-07-01

    The presented thesis is about the investigation of soil-pipe interaction in district heating pipes. District heating pipes are often subjected to large displacements due to considerable temperature differences during operation and exhibit intensive soil-pipe interaction. The acting forces on the pipe depend on this interaction and should be known as exactly as possible for an economic design. The friction forces, which limit the temperature dependent strain, are in this case of particular interest. From the investigations of other authors, the reduction of friction to a constant remaining minimum value due to cyclic loading is already known. However, significant parameters that control the reduction of the friction forces have so far not been well investigated. This is reflected in the existing German design regulations on district heating pipes where friction reduction is inadequately or poorly estimated. In order to get a better insight in the process of friction reduction due to cyclic loading on buried pipes, experimental and numerical investigations were carried out. A special testing box was developed for cyclic axial displacement of district heating pipes in sand. The required forces for the movement of the pipe were measured. The effects of the box geometry and its variation were investigated using Finite-Element-Modelling. The evaluation of the results in a cross section of the model made the visualization of changes in compaction due to cyclic displacement possible. Based on cycle constant normal stiffness shear tests with sand and polyethylene, which is the material of the coating of a district heating pipe, the soil-pipe interface was also examined. Due to the variation of the boundary conditions in the different tests, the relative density of the sand and the normal pressure acting on the pipe were identified as the main parameters that influence friction reduction. For the used testing pipes with the nominal widths DN40, DN65 and DN80 and dense sand

  13. Azimuth calculation for buried pipelines using a synthetic array of emitters, a single survey line and scattering matrix formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullo, Darío; Villela, Almendra; Bonomo, Néstor

    2016-11-01

    We evaluate the simultaneous application of a synthetic-emitter array (SEA) methodology and formulation derived from the analysis of the rotation transformations of the scattering matrix (RTSM) to calculate the orientation of buried pipes from GPR data acquired along a single survey line. The main objective of this study is to analyze if the SEA-RTSM combination can improve the azimuth calculation obtained from the usual single-offset-RTSM (SO-RTSM) procedure. This possibility is based on the SEA ability of increasing the continuity and amplitude of the primary reflections with respect to the background clutter and noise, which is expected to reduce the fluctuations involved in the RTSM calculation of the azimuth, so that its accuracy and precision are improved. A SEA methodology designed to be used in conjunction with the RTSM methodology is described. A procedure that optimizes the results of the SEA methodology is explained. A statistical RTSM calculation is adopted in order to obtain the final azimuth. Different relevant parameters of the soil and the array of emitters are varied in order to evaluate the SEA-RTSM methodology and its results. Numerically simulated and experimental data are used in this evaluation. The SEA-RTSM and the SO-RTSM results are compared between them. These results are also compared with an equivalent common-midpoint-RTSM (CMP-RTSM) calculation. Improved precision and accuracy are obtained from the SEA-RTSM methodology in the great majority of the examples. The height/width of the resulting azimuth distribution increases 102% in average when using this procedure instead of the usual SO-RTSM procedure, the average standard deviation diminishes 12%, and the average differences between the calculated and true azimuths reduce 34%. Minor improvements with respect to SO are obtained with the CMP-RTSM methodology. The proposed SEA-RTSM methodology and its results are especially relevant in civil engineering applications in which it is

  14. Deliverability on the interstate natural gas pipeline system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    Deliverability on the Interstate Natural Gas Pipeline System examines the capability of the national pipeline grid to transport natural gas to various US markets. The report quantifies the capacity levels and utilization rates of major interstate pipeline companies in 1996 and the changes since 1990, as well as changes in markets and end-use consumption patterns. It also discusses the effects of proposed capacity expansions on capacity levels. The report consists of five chapters, several appendices, and a glossary. Chapter 1 discusses some of the operational and regulatory features of the US interstate pipeline system and how they affect overall system design, system utilization, and capacity expansions. Chapter 2 looks at how the exploration, development, and production of natural gas within North America is linked to the national pipeline grid. Chapter 3 examines the capability of the interstate natural gas pipeline network to link production areas to market areas, on the basis of capacity and usage levels along 10 corridors. The chapter also examines capacity expansions that have occurred since 1990 along each corridor and the potential impact of proposed new capacity. Chapter 4 discusses the last step in the transportation chain, that is, deliverability to the ultimate end user. Flow patterns into and out of each market region are discussed, as well as the movement of natural gas between States in each region. Chapter 5 examines how shippers reserve interstate pipeline capacity in the current transportation marketplace and how pipeline companies are handling the secondary market for short-term unused capacity. Four appendices provide supporting data and additional detail on the methodology used to estimate capacity. 32 figs., 15 tabs.

  15. Failure Analysis of a Water Supply Pumping Pipeline System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Pozos-Estrada

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the most important results of a theoretical, experimental and in situ investigation developed in connection with a water supply pumping pipeline failure. This incident occurred after power failure of the pumping system that caused the burst of a prestressed concrete cylinder pipe (PCCP. Subsequently, numerous hydraulic transient simulations for different scenarios and various air pockets combinations were carried out in order to fully validate the diagnostic. As a result, it was determined that small air pocket volumes located along the pipeline profile were recognized as the direct cause of the PCCP rupture. Further, a detail survey of the pipeline was performed using a combination of non-destructive technologies in order to determine if immediate intervention was required to replace PCC pipes. In addition, a hydraulic model was employed to analyze the behavior of air pockets located at high points of the pipeline.

  16. Electrometrical Methods Application for Detection of Heating System Pipeline Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrov, A.; Ilyin, Y.; Isaev, V.; Rondel, A.; Shapovalov, N.

    2004-12-01

    Coated steel underground pipelines are widely used for the petroleum and gaze transportation, for the water and heat supply. The soils, where the pipelines are placed, are usually highly corrosive for pipe's metal. In the places of crippling of external coating the corrosion processes begin, and this can provoke a pipe breakage. To ensure the pipeline survivability it is necessary to carry out the control of pipeline conditions. The geophysical methods are used to provide such diagnostic. Authors have studied the corrosion processes of the municipal heating system pipelines in Saint-Petersburg (Russia) using the air thermal imaging method, the investigation of electromagnetic fields and spontaneous polarization, measurements of electrode potentials of metal tubes. The pipeline reparation works, which have been provided this year, allowed us to make the visual observation of pipes. The investigation object comprises a pipeline composed of two parallel tubes, which are placed 1-2 meters deep. The fact that the Russian Federation and CIS countries still use the direct heat supply system makes impossible any addition of anticorrosion components to circulating water. Pipelines operate under high pressure (up to 5 atm) and high temperature (designed temperature is 150°C). Tube's isolation is meant for heat loss minimization, and ordinary has poor hydro-isolation. Some pipeline construction elements (sliding and fixed bearings, pressure compensators, heat enclosures) are often non-isolated, and tube's metal contacts with soil. Hard usage condition, ingress of technical contamination cause, stray currents etc. cause high accidental rate. Realization of geophysical diagnostics, including electrometry, is hampered in a city by underground communication systems, power lines, isolating ground cover (asphalt), limitation of the working area with buildings. These restrictions form the investigation conditions. In order to detect and localize isolation (coat) defects authors

  17. Real-time corrosion control system for cathodic protection of buried pipes for nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Tae; Kim, Hae Woong; Kim, Young Sik [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Hyun Young; Lim, Bu Taek; Park, Heung Bae [Power Engineering Research Institute, KEPCO Engineering and Construction Company, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Since the operation period of nuclear power plants has increased, the degradation of buried pipes gradually increases and recently it seems to be one of the emerging issues. Maintenance on buried pipes needs high quality of management system because outer surface of buried pipe contacts the various soils but inner surface reacts with various electrolytes of fluid. In the USA, USNRC and EPRI have tried to manage the degradation of buried pipes. However, there is little knowledge about the inspection procedure, test and manage program in the domestic nuclear power plants. This paper focuses on the development and build-up of real-time monitoring and control system of buried pipes. Pipes to be tested are tape-coated carbon steel pipe for primary component cooling water system, asphalt-coated cast iron pipe for fire protection system, and pre-stressed concrete cylinder pipe for sea water cooling system. A control system for cathodic protection was installed on each test pipe which has been monitored and controlled. For the calculation of protection range and optimization, computer simulation was performed using COMSOL Multiphysics (Altsoft co.)

  18. High-throughput bioinformatics with the Cyrille2 pipeline system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Groot Joost CW

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modern omics research involves the application of high-throughput technologies that generate vast volumes of data. These data need to be pre-processed, analyzed and integrated with existing knowledge through the use of diverse sets of software tools, models and databases. The analyses are often interdependent and chained together to form complex workflows or pipelines. Given the volume of the data used and the multitude of computational resources available, specialized pipeline software is required to make high-throughput analysis of large-scale omics datasets feasible. Results We have developed a generic pipeline system called Cyrille2. The system is modular in design and consists of three functionally distinct parts: 1 a web based, graphical user interface (GUI that enables a pipeline operator to manage the system; 2 the Scheduler, which forms the functional core of the system and which tracks what data enters the system and determines what jobs must be scheduled for execution, and; 3 the Executor, which searches for scheduled jobs and executes these on a compute cluster. Conclusion The Cyrille2 system is an extensible, modular system, implementing the stated requirements. Cyrille2 enables easy creation and execution of high throughput, flexible bioinformatics pipelines.

  19. 某电厂灰水管道腐蚀泄漏原因分析及对策%Leakage Analyses Caused by Corrosion of Buried Ash Pipeline in a Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟繁强; 陈向上; 谭厚章; 朴志杰; 郑海国; 张雪丽; 赵忠强

    2011-01-01

    某电厂输送灰水的埋地钢管腐蚀穿孔导致泄漏频繁发生。对管道外防腐蚀层进行了质量评估和破损点的查找;对土壤的腐蚀性、外部干扰电流等进行了检测。结果表明,管道腐蚀的主要原因是:较差的外防腐蚀层、较多的防腐蚀层破损点、强腐蚀性土壤、严重的干扰腐蚀和电偶腐蚀的共同作用等。提出了管道的维修措施:对部分腐蚀严重的钢管进行更换,对部分管道进行防腐蚀层大修,并补加阴极保护。并对类似管道的埋设和维护提出了建议。%Serious corrosion and leakage of buried ash pipelines happened frequently in a power plant. The method of Pipeline Current Mapper(PCM) was used to assess the pipeline:s coating and inspect the leaking point. The soil corrosivity and the exterior interference current were examined separately. The results showed that the main reasons of pipeline corrosion were strong soil corrosivity, badly damaged outer coating of pipeline, serious external interference current corrosion and galvanic corrosion. Some suggestions were proposed to deal with the corrosion, induding the replacement partial pipelines and repair of the pipe and the coating, as well as cathodic protection. Several suggestions were proposed for the buried pipeline maintenance.

  20. 基于检查片的埋地管道阴极保护检测与评估%Detection and Assessment of the Cathodic Protection for Buried Pipeline by Coupon Tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍欣; 张卓; 杨诗怡

    2016-01-01

    阴极保护作为埋地管道的主要防护措施,在管道保护方面起到重要作用。为了准确地评估管道阴极保护效果,文中介绍了管道阴极保护检查片检测技术,重点阐述了国内外发展状况以及利用检查片检测管道阴极保护效果的优势,分析了目前国外对检查片检测技术的改进方式和评价准则,对埋地管道阴极保护检查片检测评估技术提出了展望,并成功应用于某长输管道阴极保护的检测与评估。%As the main protection of buried pipelines, cathodic protection played an important role in the pipeline protec-tion. In order to accurately assess the pipeline cathodic protection, detection technology of cathodic protection by coupon was de-scribed in this article. The development status at home and abroad and the advantage of use coupon to detect the pipeline cathodic were expounded. The improvement mode and evaluation criteria of checking coupon technology, some prospects are put forwards to detection and effective evaluation technology by coupon for buried pipelines, and it is successfully applied to the detection and assessment of cathodic protection of pipeline.

  1. Pipeline engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Henry

    2003-01-01

    PART I: PIPE FLOWSINTRODUCTIONDefinition and Scope Brief History of PipelinesExisting Major PipelinesImportance of PipelinesFreight (Solids) Transport by PipelinesTypes of PipelinesComponents of PipelinesAdvantages of PipelinesReferencesSINGLE-PHASE INCOMPRESSIBLE NEWTONIAN FLUIDIntroductionFlow RegimesLocal Mean Velocity and Its Distribution (Velocity Profile)Flow Equations for One-Dimensional AnalysisHydraulic and Energy Grade LinesCavitation in Pipeline SystemsPipe in Series and ParallelInterconnected ReservoirsPipe NetworkUnsteady Flow in PipeSINGLE-PHASE COMPRESSIBLE FLOW IN PIPEFlow Ana

  2. Pipelined multiprocessor system-on-chip for multimedia

    CERN Document Server

    Javaid, Haris

    2014-01-01

    This book describes analytical models and estimation methods to enhance performance estimation of pipelined multiprocessor systems-on-chip (MPSoCs).  A framework is introduced for both design-time and run-time optimizations. For design space exploration, several algorithms are presented to minimize the area footprint of a pipelined MPSoC under a latency or a throughput constraint.  A novel adaptive pipelined MPSoC architecture is described, where idle processors are transitioned into low-power states at run-time to reduce energy consumption. Multi-mode pipelined MPSoCs are introduced, where multiple pipelined MPSoCs optimized separately are merged into a single pipelined MPSoC, enabling further reduction of the area footprint by sharing the processors and communication buffers. Readers will benefit from the authors’ combined use of analytical models, estimation methods and exploration algorithms and will be enabled to explore billions of design points in a few minutes.   ·         Describes the ...

  3. Pipeline information system, a tool for making decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polanco, R.P.; Betancourt, E.R. [Pemex Gas y Petroquimica Basica (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    Issues regarding the operation, maintenance, safety and inspection of the 11,000 km of pipeline located in 24 of the 32 Mexican states was discussed with focus on the technical information system that Pemex Gas y Petroquimica Basica established to integrate digitalized pipeline trajectory with several geographic maps and technical databases. The objective was to establish a means for technical consultation in decision-making processes. Most of the pipelines carry natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas or basic petrochemical products. Information managing and worker safety in surrounding populated areas requires an effective system to accurately locate transportation and distribution facilities. Pemex's technical information system makes use of a geographic positioning satellite (GPS) to show aboveground facilities and pipeline trajectory on digitized geographic maps. The system can also be used to manipulate technical databases, upgrade pipelines' cathodic protection values, plus measure and pinpoint regular or serious problems detected by internal surveillance inspection equipment. Some of the most important parameters that the system deals with is the integration of information on pipe construction codes, pipe thickness and diameter, design and construction year, and pipe maximum allowance pressure. The authors emphasized how important data transmission through digital media will be in the coming years. 1 ref., 6 figs.

  4. Hydraulic calculation of gravity transportation pipeline system for backfill slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qin-li; HU Guan-yu; WANG Xin-min

    2008-01-01

    Taking cemented coal gangue pipeline transportation system in Suncun Coal Mine, Xinwen Mining Group, Shandong Province, China, as an example, the hydraulic calculation approaches and process about gravity pipeline transportation of backfill slurry were investigated. The results show that the backfill capability of the backfill system should be higher than 74.4m3/h according to the mining production and backfill times in the mine; the minimum velocity (critical velocity) and practical working velocity of the backfill slurry are 1.44 and 3.82m/s, respectively. Various formulae give the maximum ratio of total length to vertical height of pipeline (L/H ratio) of the backfill system of 5.4, and then the reliability and capability of the system can be evaluated.

  5. Crude value management through pipeline systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segato, R. [Suncor Energy Marketing Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation reviewed Suncor's integrated oil flow operations with particular focus on the best practices in crude oil quality management from source rocks to refineries. Suncor produces synthetic crude at its operations in Fort McMurray, Alberta. The crude reaches destinations across North America. The quality of injected and delivered crude varies because of pipeline and terminal logistics, which implies changes in valuation. Refinery planners, engineers and crude traders are faced with the challenge of maximizing profitability while minimizing risk. Refiners face a continuously changing landscape in terms of crude classifications, new commodity developments, batch interferences, shared tank bottoms and sampling limitations. tabs., figs.

  6. An milp formulation for the scheduling of multiproduct pipeline systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejowski Jr. R.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Pipelines provide an economic mode of fluid transportation for petroleum systems, specially when large amounts of these products have to be pumped for large distances. The system discussed in this paper is composed of a petroleum refinery, a multiproduct pipeline connected to several depots and the corresponding consumer markets that receive large amounts of gasoline, diesel, LPG and aviation fuel. An MILP optimization model that is based on a convex-hull formulation is proposed for the scheduling system. The model must satisfy all the operational constraints, such as mass balances, distribution constraints and product demands. Results generated include the inventory levels at all locations, the distribution of products between the depots and the best ordering of products in the pipeline.

  7. Biplastic pipes for high-pressure oil pipeline systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anoshkin, A. N.; Tashkinov, A. A.; Larionov, A. F.; Pospelov, A. B.

    2000-05-01

    A high-performance, corrosion-resistant biplastic pipe for high-pressure oil pipeline systems is presented. The pipe combines an outer load-carrying layer formed from unidirectionally glass-reinforced plastic (GRP) sublayers by wet multi-circuit winding and an inner sealing layer of high-density polyethylene. Both demountable and permanent joints, tees, and other parts are constructed for these pipes. The biplastic pipes ensure reliable operation of oil pipeline systems under a pressure of up to 200 bar. The experimental results and calculated estimates of the strength of biplastic pipes are presented. The results of using these pipes in oil pipeline systems in the Perm' region are discussed.

  8. Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter description report. INEL Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration System Analysis project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Brien, M.C.; Morrison, J.L.; Morneau, R.A.; Rudin, M.J.; Richardson, J.G.

    1992-05-01

    A formal methodology has been developed for identifying technology gaps and assessing innovative or postulated technologies for inclusion in proposed Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) remediation systems. Called the Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter, the methodology provides a formalized selection process where technologies and systems are rated and assessments made based on performance measures, and regulatory and technical requirements. The results are auditable, and can be validated with field data. This analysis methodology will be applied to the remedial action of transuranic contaminated waste pits and trenches buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL).

  9. Sectional pipeline bundles. Design, fabrication and testing of a subsea pipeline connection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    The tests of the prototype system indicated that the system is applicable for connecting pipeline bundle sections. The overall performance of the system is therefore concluded to be satisfactory. Some modifications are required though, for improving the reliability of the system to the level required for offshore North Sea application. The tests showed that connection of the pipeline bundle sections can be performed for alignment tolerances larger than those expected during a typical subsea installation. Pull-in of bundle end sections can be performed with pull-in wires deployed from surface. The offshore tests showed that handling of wires must be done with great care to avoid possibility for wire entanglement, especially if a fully diverless system is to be used. The flowline connection tool was found to be suitable for final alignment of the individual spool ends. It was demonstrated that face to face contact between the hub faces in the connector was obtained after tie-in. Pressure tests showed that the connector could be sealed by the tie-in force applied by the connection tool tie-in system. However, the standard connector clamp which was used, was found to be insuficient for maintaining the connector effectively sealed after removal of the pull-in force applied by the connection tool. Based on the results proposals for improvements of the system are included. Improvements are applicable to the current system for connection of bundle sections or for tie-in operations, relating to conventional pipelines. The improvements also includes a strong connection clamp suitable for subsea use. The connection clamp will replace the standard clamp devise used in this project. (au) EFP-96. 41 refs.

  10. FUZZY INFERENCE BASED LEAK ESTIMATION IN WATER PIPELINES SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lavanya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pipeline networks are the most widely used mode for transporting fluids and gases around the world. Leakage in this pipeline causes harmful effects when the flowing fluid/gas is hazardous. Hence the detection of leak becomes essential to avoid/minimize such undesirable effects. This paper presents the leak detection by spectral analysis methods in a laboratory pipeline system. Transient in the pressure signal in the pipeline is created by opening and closing the exit valve. These pressure variations are captured and power spectrum is obtained by using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT method and Filter Diagonalization Method (FDM. The leaks at various positions are simulated and located using these methods and the results are compared. In order to determine the quantity of leak a 2 × 1 fuzzy inference system is created using the upstream and downstream pressure as input and the leak size as the output. Thus a complete leak detection, localization and quantification are done by using only the pressure variations in the pipeline.

  11. The RoboPol Pipeline and Control System

    CERN Document Server

    King, O G; Ramaprakash, A N; Myserlis, I; Angelakis, E; Baloković, M; Feiler, R; Fuhrmann, L; Hovatta, T; Khodade, P; Kougentakis, A; Kylafis, N; Kus, A; Paleologou, E; Panopoulou, G; Papadakis, I; Papamastorakis, I; Paterakis, G; Pavlidou, V; Pazderska, B; Pazderski, E; Pearson, T J; Rajarshi, C; Readhead, A C S; Reig, P; Rouneq, R; Steiakaki, A; Tassis, K; Zensus, J A

    2013-01-01

    We describe the data reduction pipeline and control system for the RoboPol project. The RoboPol project is monitoring the optical $R$-band magnitude and linear polarization of a large sample of active galactic nuclei that is dominated by blazars. The pipeline calibrates and reduces each exposure frame, producing a measurement of the magnitude and linear polarization of every source in the $13'\\times 13'$ field of view. The control system combines a dynamic scheduler, real-time data reduction, and telescope automation to allow high-efficiency unassisted observations.

  12. The RoboPol pipeline and control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, O. G.; Blinov, D.; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Myserlis, I.; Angelakis, E.; Baloković, M.; Feiler, R.; Fuhrmann, L.; Hovatta, T.; Khodade, P.; Kougentakis, A.; Kylafis, N.; Kus, A.; Modi, D.; Paleologou, E.; Panopoulou, G.; Papadakis, I.; Papamastorakis, I.; Paterakis, G.; Pavlidou, V.; Pazderska, B.; Pazderski, E.; Pearson, T. J.; Rajarshi, C.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Reig, P.; Steiakaki, A.; Tassis, K.; Zensus, J. A.

    2014-08-01

    We describe the data reduction pipeline and control system for the RoboPol project. The RoboPol project is monitoring the optical R-band magnitude and linear polarization of a large sample of active galactic nuclei that is dominated by blazars. The pipeline calibrates and reduces each exposure frame, producing a measurement of the magnitude and linear polarization of every source in the 13 arcmin × 13 arcmin field of view. The control system combines a dynamic scheduler, real-time data reduction, and telescope automation to allow high-efficiency unassisted observations.

  13. Analysis on municipal road buried plastic drainage pipeline collapse causes%市政道路埋设塑料排水管道塌陷原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海俊

    2015-01-01

    Combining with engineering examples,starting from aspects of geological conditions,pipeline location and construction technology,the paper analyzes urban road buried plastic drainage pipeline collapse causes,and puts forward corresponding solving measures,with a view to guar-antee municipal engineering construction quality and to improve social and economic benefits as well.%结合工程实例,从地质条件、管道位置、施工工艺等方面,分析了城市道路埋设塑料排水管道发生塌陷的原因,并提出了针对性的解决措施,以保证市政工程的施工质量,从而提高社会及经济效益。

  14. Cathodic Protection of Pipeline Using Distributed Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopalakrishnan Jayapalan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Distributed control system (DCS is available in most of the compressor stations of cross-country pipeline systems. Programmable logic controller (PLC is used in all the intermediate pigging (IP stations/sectional valve (SV stations to collect the field data and to control the remote actuated valves. This paper presents how DCS or PLC can be used for cathodic protection of gas pipelines. Virtual instrumentation (VI software is used here for simulation and real-time implementation purpose. Analog input channels available in DCS/PLC can be used to measure pipe to soil potential (PSP with the help of half-cell and voltage transducer. Logic blocks available in DCS can be used as low selector switch to select the lowest PSP. Proportional-integral (PI controller available in DCS/PLC can be used for taking the controlling action. PI controller output varies the firing angle of AC phase controller. Phase controller output is rectified, filtered, and fed to the pipeline as cathodic protection current. Proposed scheme utilizes existing infrastructure to control pipeline corrosion.

  15. Capturing buried defects in metal interconnections with electron beam inspection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hong; Jiang, Ximan; Trease, David; Van Riet, Mike; Ramprasad, Shishir; Bhatia, Anadi; Lefebvre, Pierre; Bastard, David; Moreau, Olivier; Maher, Chris; MacDonald, Paul; Campochiaro, Cecelia

    2013-04-01

    In this paper we present a novel mode of electron beam inspection (EBI), entitled super wide optics (SWO) mode, which can effectively detect buried defects in tungsten (W) plugs and copper (Cu) wires. These defects are defects of interest (DOI) to integrated circuit (IC) manufacturers because they are not detectable in optical inspection, voltage contrast (VC) mode EBI or physical mode EBI. We used engineering systems to study two samples, a tungsten chemical mechanical polish (CMP) wafer and a copper CMP wafer with a silicon carbon nitride (SiCN) cap layer. EBI with our novel SWO mode was found to capture many dark defects on these two wafers. Furthermore, defect review with all three EBI modes found some of these dark defects were unique to SWO mode. For verification, physical failure analysis was performed on some SWO-unique DOI. The cross-sectional scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and transmission electron microscope (TEM) images confirmed that the unique DOI were buried voids in W-plugs and copper wire thinning caused by either buried particles or buried particle induced metal trench under-etch. These DOI can significantly increase the resistance of metal interconnects of IC chip and affect the chip yield. This new EBI mode can provide an in-line monitoring solution for these DOI, which does not exist before this study.

  16. Using Geographic Information System - GIS - for pipeline management: case of Urucu-Coari LPG pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furquim, Maysa P.O. [ESTEIO Engenharia e Aerolevantamentos S.A, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This technical paper seeks to demonstrate the stages run during the GIS - Geographic Information System accomplishment as for the follow-up of a pipeline work. The GLPDUTO (LPG Pipeline) Urucu-Coari work shall be the focus of this paper. The main challenges in the compilation of data generated in the work site will be presented, as well the importance for the definition of which data should be relevant, so that the construction company and PETROBRAS could follow up its evolution. The GIS development has been performed since January 2007 and should be finished by the first semester of 2009. The following stages for GIS definition for the work management will be presented: brief history of the project - project conception, purpose, structure implemented and accomplishment expectations; survey data in loco - raw data obtained directly during the carrying out of the work and generated in the project and implantation stage; treated data - data resulting from raw data, but already treated as for the GIS environment; routines developed - specific tools created for the consolidation of the data to be manipulated on GIS in an optimized and functional way; result presented - GIS in its final conception, developed and input with the routines and data regarding the project. (author)

  17. United Detector Experimental Study of the Buried Metal Pipeline Leakage Point%埋地金属管道泄漏点综合检测试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈杰; 陈丽娜

    2012-01-01

    针对现有检测技术难以解决埋地金属管道泄漏点定位的技术难题。通过综合利用交流电压梯度检测技术及连续式瞬变电磁技术,可以确定管体壁厚异常变化区域。试验结果表明,将防腐层检测与管体检测技术相结合可以进行埋地管道泄漏点检测,定位精度约为±1.0m。%Existing detection technology is diffieuh to loation the leakage point of buried pipeline, this paper carried out the related experimental research. The abnormal change area of pipe thickness was confirmed by using united inspection technology of ACVG and the continuous transient electromagnetic technology. The experimental results show that combined anticorrosive coating testing and body detection technology will accurately locate the buried pipeline leakage point. And, the positioning accuracy is about ± 1.0m.

  18. 直埋蒸汽管道隔热环绝热材料的选用分析%Insulation Material Selection for the Heat Insulation Ring of Directly Buried Steam Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周善植

    2013-01-01

    目前直埋蒸汽保温管道的应用越来越广泛,本文针对直埋蒸汽管道隔热环绝热材料的选用作了相应的分析。首先介绍了隔热环的设置、作用和技术要求,其次对隔热环绝热材料的选用进行了分析比较,并分别介绍了耐高温隔热钢、石棉橡胶、纳米绝热材料和普通石棉板这四种绝热材料的性能和优缺点。%The directly buried steam insulation pipeline is widely used at present. This article analyzes the material selection of the heat insulation ring of directly buried steam pipeline. First, the setting, function and technical requirement of heat insulation ring are introduced. Then different materials for heat insulation ring are compared and analyzed. The features and advantages & disadvantages of high temperature resistant insulation steel, asbestos rubber, nanometer thermal insulation material and ordinary asbestos board are introduced respectively.

  19. The special application of RD-PCM pipeline current mapping system in the detection of underground pipeline in Chongqing City%RD-PCM管道电流测绘系统在重庆市地下管线探测中的特殊应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江周勇

    2015-01-01

    Pipeline detection is an important part of the city sur-vey. The large, deep buried pipeline detection is difficult in the detec-tion of pipeline. This paper focuses on the detection, in the Chongqing area on the large, deep buried pipeline through examples, introducing the specific application of RD-PCM pipeline current mapping system, through the examples the detection of underground pipeline in Chongqing city.%管线探测工作是城市基础调查工作的重要组成部分。而超大、深埋管线探测则是管线探测中的难点。本文着重探讨在重庆地区对超大、深埋管线的探测,通过实例,介绍RD-PCM管道电流测绘系统在重庆市地下管线探测中的特殊应用。

  20. Detection of buried targets using a new enhanced very early time electromagnetic (VETEM) prototype system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, T.J.; Chew, W.C.; Aydiner, A.A.; Wright, D.L.; Smith, D.V.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, numerical simulations of a new enhanced very early time electromagnetic (VETEM) prototype system are presented, where a horizontal transmitting loop and two horizontal receiving loops are used to detect buried targets, in which three loops share the same axis and the transmitter is located at the center of receivers. In the new VETEM system, the difference of signals from two receivers is taken to eliminate strong direct-signals from the transmitter and background clutter and furthermore to obtain a better SNR for buried targets. Because strong coupling exists between the transmitter and receivers, accurate analysis of the three-loop antenna system is required, for which a loop-tree basis function method has been utilized to overcome the low-frequency breakdown problem. In the analysis of scattering problem from buried targets, a conjugate gradient (CG) method with fast Fourier transform (FFT) is applied to solve the electric field integral equation. However, the convergence of such CG-FFT algorithm is extremely slow at very low frequencies. In order to increase the convergence rate, a frequency-hopping approach has been used. Finally, the primary, coupling, reflected, and scattered magnetic fields are evaluated at receiving loops to calculate the output electric current. Numerous simulation results are given to interpret the new VETEM system. Comparing with other single-transmitter-receiver systems, the new VETEM has better SNR and ability to reduce the clutter.

  1. 基于弹性地基梁法的沉陷区埋地管道应力变形分析%Stress and Deformation Analysis of Buried Pipelines on Subsidence Area by Base Beam Method of Elastic Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱彦鹏; 赵忠忠

    2016-01-01

    The differential settlement of ground is one of the main reasons which causes pipeline damages. The research and analysis on buried pipelines under effect of settlement usually divide the pipeline crossing area into subsidence area and non-subsidence area.Deflection curve equation of deformation of pipelines in non-subsidence area can be simulated and deduced by using base beam model of elastic foundation.Pipeline deformation on subsidence area can be stimulated into cubic curve equation,and then concluded internal force and displacement equation of pipeline on subsidence area by using boundary conditions.The conclu-sions after combining living examples and analysis indicate that maximum stress of pipelines locates on the interface between subsidence area and non-subsidence area.Maximum stress of pipeline on subsidence area is jointly constituted by axial stress caused by pipeline internal pressure,bending stress and axial stress caused by effect of settlement.As pipeline of non-subsidence area mainly suffers axial stress caused by in-ternal pressure,the effect of internal pressure shall be taken into consideration.The principle influence fac-tors that affect pipeline deformation on subsidence area are settlement volume,width of subsidence area, pipeline diameter and burial depth,among which settlement volume and width of subsidence area have the biggest influence,and burial depth mainly affects axial stress of pipeline,which nearly has no influence on blending stress.%场地的不均匀沉降是导致管道破坏的主要原因之一.对沉陷作用下埋地管道进行研究分析,将管道跨越区分为沉陷区和非沉陷区,非沉陷区管道的变形可利用弹性地基梁模型模拟推导出其挠曲线方程,沉陷区管道变形可模拟成三次曲线方程,然后利用边界条件,求得沉陷区管道的内力和位移方程.最后通过实例分析表明:管道的最大应力位于沉陷区与非沉陷区交界面处,且沉陷区管道的最大应

  2. Research on a New-style Pipeline Inspection Robot System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiao-yun; YAN Guo-zheng; YAN Bo; DING Yong-sheng

    2004-01-01

    The pipe inspection robot system is developed for automatic inspection of gas pipeline with pipe diameter between 400mm and 650mm. It is composed of a pipe robot crawling mechanism controlled by remote network system, nondestructive examination sensor system, ground working station and so on. This paper presents the pipe inspection robot system design, the key technique and the performance experiment of the robot. The main performance index of the pipe robot system prototype has reached domestic advanced level. The prototype has also the technical potential to be developed as a product used in industry for periodic check of main gas/oil pipe.

  3. A system and approach for total pipeline integrity management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Todd; Neidhardt, Dietmar [Tuboscope Pipeline Services, Houston, TX (United States); Gonzalez, Oscar [Tuboscope Mexico S.A. de C.V., Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    Pipeline rehabilitation and maintenance decisions are made using a wide variety of data, criteria, and expertise. The goal is to arrive at an optimal plan that considers risk and best return on Repair and Maintenance (R and M) expenditures for aging pipeline systems in both regulated and non-regulated environments. In order to achieve these goals, historical, operations, and assessment data is gathered, aligned and integrated as part of a baseline assessment. Integrity threats are identified based on operations and industry experience, and combined with potential consequences to public safety, the environment, and business to clearly delineate high risk exposure segments in the system. Integrity assessments are conducted in a prioritized manner, using the most appropriate technology and methods to address the threats. These include In Line Inspection technologies: MFL, Deformation, UT, INS (combinations thereof), Direct Assessment for EC and SCC threats, Hydro testing, and other indirect methods. From these results, decisions are made and R and M plans developed. To arrive at an optimal R and M plan, proper use of existing data, new integrity assessment data, and decision risk models is required. This paper presentation will detail the tactical aspect of an effective integrity management platform. Experience in decision support, operations priorities and execution of a rehabilitation plan using LinaView Pro{sup TM} integrity management system with risk-based integrity tools and maintenance planning will be presented. A process overview, results, and benefits will be given using these examples from operating oil and gas transmission pipelines. (author)

  4. Transient drift flux modelling of severe slugging in pipeline-riser systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malekzadeh, R.; Belfroid, S.P.C.; Mudde, R.F.

    2012-01-01

    A large number of pipelines in the petroleum industry simultaneously transport gas and liquid. Transient behaviour of multiphase flow is frequently encountered in these pipelines. A common example is severe slugging that can occur in multiphase flow systems where a pipeline segment with a downward o

  5. 77 FR 6857 - Pipeline Safety: Notice of Public Meetings on Improving Pipeline Leak Detection System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... and Research 5:45 p.m. Wrap-Up/Next Steps 6 p.m. Adjournment Preliminary Agenda for the Public Meeting... Pipelines 12:30 p.m. Lunch 2 p.m. Panel 3: Valve Capabilities, Limitations and Research 4 p.m. Wrap-Up/Next... Administrator for Pipeline Safety. BILLING CODE 4910-60-P...

  6. Engineering considerations for corrosion monitoring of gas gathering pipeline systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, T.G.; Asperger, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    Proper corrosion monitoring of gas gathering pipelines requires a system review to determine the appropriate monitor locations and types of monitoring techniques. This paper develops and discusses a classification of conditions such as flow regime and gas composition. Also discussed are junction categories which, for corrosion monitoring, need to be considered from two points of view. The first is related to fluid flow in the line and the second is related corrosion inhibitor movement along the pipeline. The appropriate application of the various monitoring techniques such as coupons, hydrogen detectors, electrical resistance probe and linear polarization probes are discussed in relation to flow regime and gas composition. Problems caused by semi-conduction from iron sulfide are considered. Advantages and disadvantages of fluid gathering methods such as pots and flow-through drips are discussed in relation to their reliability as on-line monitoring locations.

  7. Practical approach on gas pipeline compression system availability analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Sidney Pereira dos [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Kurz, Rainer; Lubomirsky, Matvey [Solar Turbines, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2009-12-19

    Gas pipeline projects traditionally have been designed based on load factor and steady state flow. This approach exposes project sponsors to project sustainability risks due to potential losses of revenues and transportation contract penalties related to pipeline capacity shortage as consequence of compressor unit's unavailability. Such unavailability should previously be quantified during the design phase. This paper presents a case study and a methodology that highlights the practical benefits of applying Monte Carlo simulation for the compression system availability analysis in conjunction with quantitative risk analysis and economic feasibility study. Project economics main variables and their impacts on the project NPV (Net Present Value) are evaluated with their respective statistics distribution to quantify risk and support decision makers to adopt mitigating measures to guarantee competitiveness while protecting project sponsors from otherwise unpredictable risks. This practical approach is compared to load factor approach and the results are presented and evaluated. (author)

  8. Modelling ruptures of buried high-pressure dense-phase CO2 pipelines in carbon capture and storage applications - Part II. A full-scale rupture

    OpenAIRE

    Wareing, CJ; Fairweather, M.; Falle, SAEG; Woolley, RM

    2015-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) presents a short-term option for significantly reducing the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) released into the atmosphere. National Grid initiated the COOLTRANS research programme to consider the CCS pipeline transportation of high-pressure dense-phase CO2, including the development and application of a mathematical model for predicting the sonic near-field dispersion of pure CO2 following pipeline venting or failure. In Part I (Wareing et al., 2015a) validation...

  9. Pitting growth modelling in buried oil and gas pipelines using statistical techniques; Modelado del crecimiento de picaduras en tuberias enterradas que transportan hidrocarburos utilizando tecnicas estadisticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez, J. C.; Caleyo, F.; Valorm, A.; Hallen, J. M.

    2011-07-01

    New deterministic and stochastic predictive models are proposed for external pitting corrosion in underground pipelines. The deterministic model takes into consideration the local chemical and physical properties of the soil as well as the pipeline coating to predict the time dependence of pitting depth and rate in a range of soils. This model, based on results from a field study, was used to conduct Monte Carlo simulations that established the probability distribution of pitting depth and growth rate in the studied soils and their evolution over the life of the pipeline. In the last stage of the study, an empirical Markov chain-based stochastic model was developed for predicting the evolution of pitting corrosion depth and rate distributions from the observed properties of the soil. (Author) 18 refs.

  10. On the friction forces on buried district heating pipelines. Influence factors for the tunnel effect; Zur Reibung an erdverlegten Fernwaermeleitungen. Einflussfaktoren fuer den Tunneleffekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidlich, Ingo; Achmus, Martin [Leibniz Univ. Hannover (DE). Inst. fuer Grundbau, Bodenmechanik und Energiewasserbau (IGBE)

    2008-11-15

    The extent of friction forces depends on the type and degree of compacting of the filling material, the thickness of the earth cover and many other parameters that may be difficult to assess quantitatively. In practice, only the minimum and maximum possible friction forces are therefore determined. The article starts by presenting physical models for calculating the friction forces to be expected. After this, a numerical method is presented for calculating the loads and deformations of a straight pipeline; the method permits the consideration of temperature-dependent friction forces. Finally, an exemplary pipeline is calculated and interpreted. (orig./GL)

  11. Maintenance of transport pipeline systems; Instandhaltung von Transportleitungssystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorge, Hans-Christian; Christen, Thomas; Maelzer, Hans-Joachim [IWW Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Institut fuer Wasser, Regionalstandort Rhein-Main, Bibesheim am Rhein (Germany). Bereich Wassernetze; Kappler, Kathrein [Hessenwasser GmbH und Co. KG, Gross-Gerau (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    The authors of the contribution under consideration describe a multi-criteria approach for the evaluation the timing and location of appropriate maintenance measures as part of a maintenance strategy for long-distance water pipelines and taking into account technical and economic risks. The innovative core consists of a powerful combination for the lifetime prediction, static component calculation, condition assessment and detailed cost analysis. The approach described here provides a detailed risk assessment of any number of line segments. For operators of transport systems, the required maintenance measures are identified and together with the associated costs compiled in an action plan.

  12. Estimating Performance of Pipelined Spoken Language Translation Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rayner, M; Price, P; Lyberg, B; Rayner, Manny; Carter, David; Price, Patti; Lyberg, Bertil

    1994-01-01

    Most spoken language translation systems developed to date rely on a pipelined architecture, in which the main stages are speech recognition, linguistic analysis, transfer, generation and speech synthesis. When making projections of error rates for systems of this kind, it is natural to assume that the error rates for the individual components are independent, making the system accuracy the product of the component accuracies. The paper reports experiments carried out using the SRI-SICS-Telia Research Spoken Language Translator and a 1000-utterance sample of unseen data. The results suggest that the naive performance model leads to serious overestimates of system error rates, since there are in fact strong dependencies between the components. Predicting the system error rate on the independence assumption by simple multiplication resulted in a 16\\% proportional overestimate for all utterances, and a 19\\% overestimate when only utterances of length 1-10 words were considered.

  13. The Reliability of Wireless Sensor Network on Pipeline Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafizh Prihtiadi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The wireless sensor network (WSN is an attractive technology, which combines embedded systems and communication networks making them more efficient and effective. Currently, WSNs have been developed for various monitoring applications. In this research, a wireless mesh network for a pipeline monitoring system was designed and developed. Sensor nodes were placed at each branch in the pipe system. Some router fails were simulated and the response of each node in the network was evaluated. Three different scenarios were examined to test the data transmission performance. The results proved that the wireless mesh network was reliable and robust. The system is able to perform link reconfiguration, automatic routing and safe data transmission from the beginning node to the end node.

  14. PGPB's pipeline integrity management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urencio, Claudio; Sanchez, Luis; Moreno, Carlos [PGPB - Pemex Gas y Petroquimica Basica (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    Pemex Gas has 12,134 km of natural gas transmission pipelines, 1,835 Km for LPG and 1,216 Km for basic petrochemicals. The must part of this infrastructure was built in the 70's and reaching their 35 years of operating life. To manage the integrity of the three systems, Pemex Gas has a portfolio of technological tools. This tools allow the Company to improves the decision taking, align the budget with their strategic goals, achieve efficient asset utilization, and increase the value generation. The process of integrity management starts with the risk evaluation on assets, with the use of a software called IAP (Integrity Assessment Program). This information is integrated to the SIIA (Assets Identification System). The results of both software are used to the construction of the Risk Atlas, which identifies graphically each pipeline segment, with their related risk and factors that influence their behavior. The Risk Atlas gives us information about the consequences to the people, environment and facilities, so we can design customized plans to prevent or mitigate emergencies. Finally a detailed analysis of the resulting information and scenarios simulations help us to determine the best investment projects that will minimize the risk through all our assets. (author)

  15. Anchor Loads on Pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Anchor hooking on a subsea pipeline has been investigated in this thesis. Anchor loads on pipelines is in general a rarely occurring event, however, the severity when it occurs could easily jeopardize the integrity of any pipeline. It is considered as an accidental load in the design of pipelines. Pipeline Loads, limit state criteria and anchor categories are defined by the DNV standards. For pipeline, DNV-OS-F101 (08.2012), Submarine Pipeline Systems is adopted. Offshore standard DNV-RP...

  16. 在用对二甲苯(PX)输送埋地管道的外腐蚀检测%External Corrosion Testing of In-Service Buried Pipeline for PX Transportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明阳; 孔令昌; 丛成龙

    2012-01-01

    将外腐蚀直接评价方法应用于对二甲苯(PX)输送埋地管道的外腐蚀检测。分别对其进行敷设环境调查、土壤腐蚀性检测、阴极保护检测和防腐层检测,并对检测结果进行评级。防腐层检测中,应用C扫描检测防腐层绝缘电阻率,综合运用Pearson法和密间隔电位法(CIPS)确定防腐层破损点位置。通过开挖,验证了该组合检测方法的有效性,为埋地管道防腐层检漏提供高效、准确的新方法。%External corrosion direct assessment method was applied to PX transportation pipeline External Corrosion Testing. The buried pipeline testing consisted of environmental investigation, soil corrosion detection, cathodic protection testing and detection of anticorrosive coating. The testing results were rated. In the detection of anticorrosive coating, C-scan was applied to test coating insulation resistance, and Pearson method and the closeinterval potential survey(CIPS) were used to determine coating damage point. The excavation confirmed that the combination of detection methods was effective. Efficient and accurate new method was provided for underground leak detection of pipeline coatings.

  17. Numerical simulation of CO2 dispersion from punctures and ruptures of buried high-pressure dense phase CO2 pipelines with experimental validation

    OpenAIRE

    Wareing, CJ; Fairweather, M.; Woolley, RM; Falle, SAEG

    2014-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) presents an option for significantly reducing the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) released into the atmosphere and mitigating the effects of climate change. Pipelines are considered to be the most likely method for transporting captured CO2 and their safe operation is of paramount importance as their contents are likely to be in the region of several thousand tonnes and CO2 poses a number of concerns upon release due to its unusual physical properties. To this ...

  18. Thinking on Sichuan-Chongqing gas pipeline transportation system reform under market-oriented conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yanzhi

    2017-01-01

    The gas pipeline networks in Sichuan and Chongqing (Sichuan-Chongqing) region have formed a fully-fledged gas pipeline transportation system in China, which supports and promotes the rapid development of gas market in Sichuan-Chongqing region. In the circumstances of further developed market-oriented economy, it is necessary to carry out further the pipeline system reform in the areas of investment/financing system, operation system and pricing system to lay a solid foundation for improving future gas production and marketing capability and adapting itself to the national gas system reform, and to achieve the objectives of multiparty participated pipeline construction, improved pipeline transportation efficiency and fair and rational pipeline transportation prices. In this article, main thinking on reform in the three areas and major deployment are addressed, and corresponding measures on developing shared pipeline economy, providing financial support to pipeline construction, setting up independent regulatory agency to enhance the industrial supervision for gas pipeline transportation, and promoting the construction of regional gas trade market are recommended.

  19. Comprehensive long distance and real-time pipeline monitoring system based on fiber optic sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikles, Marc; Ravet, Fabien; Briffod, Fabien [Omnisens S.A., Morges (Switzerland)

    2009-07-01

    An increasing number of pipelines are constructed in remote regions affected by harsh environmental conditions. These pipeline routes often cross mountain areas which are characterized by unstable grounds and where soil texture changes between winter and summer increase the probability of hazards. Due to the long distances to be monitored and the linear nature of pipelines, distributed fiber optic sensing techniques offer significant advantages and the capability to detect and localize pipeline disturbance with great precision. Furthermore pipeline owner/operators lay fiber optic cable parallel to transmission pipelines for telecommunication purposes and at minimum additional cost monitoring capabilities can be added to the communication system. The Brillouin-based Omnisens DITEST monitoring system has been used in several long distance pipeline projects. The technique is capable of measuring strain and temperature over 100's kilometers with meter spatial resolution. Dedicated fiber optic cables have been developed for continuous strain and temperature monitoring and their deployment along the pipeline has enabled permanent and continuous pipeline ground movement, intrusion and leak detection. This paper presents a description of the fiber optic Brillouin-based DITEST sensing technique, its measurement performance and limits, while addressing future perspectives for pipeline monitoring. (author)

  20. Automatic latency equalization in VHDL-implemented complex pipelined systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabołotny, Wojciech M.

    2016-09-01

    In the pipelined data processing systems it is very important to ensure that parallel paths delay data by the same number of clock cycles. If that condition is not met, the processing blocks receive data not properly aligned in time and produce incorrect results. Manual equalization of latencies is a tedious and error-prone work. This paper presents an automatic method of latency equalization in systems described in VHDL. The proposed method uses simulation to measure latencies and verify introduced correction. The solution is portable between different simulation and synthesis tools. The method does not increase the complexity of the synthesized design comparing to the solution based on manual latency adjustment. The example implementation of the proposed methodology together with a simple design demonstrating its use is available as an open source project under BSD license.

  1. Analysis of nonlinear dynamic character in the surrounding rock system for deep buried underground engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yu; PENG Hai-you

    2010-01-01

    Combining the field monitoring results of a deep-buried tunnel in Chongqing,the dynamic characteristics of the surrounding rock system under high in situ stress was analyzed by phase space reconstruction, calculating correlation dimension, Kolmogorov entropy and largest Lyapunov exponents. Both the Kolmogorov entropy and largest Lyapunov exponents show that the surrounding rock system is a chaotic one. Based on this, a local model was applied to predict surrounding rock displacement, and a nonlinear dynamic model was derived to forecast the interaction of the surrounding rock and support structure. The local method was found to have an extremely small total error. Also, the nonlinear dynamic model forecasting curves agree with the monitoring ones very well. It is proved that the nonlinear dynamic characteristic study is very important in analyzing rock stability and predicting the evolution of rock systems.

  2. 埋地热油管道投产方案模拟分析%Simulation analysis of commission process of a buried hot oil pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海涛

    2016-01-01

    In order to get an economic scheme of preheating pipeline,pipeline simulation software SPS is used to analyse the preheating process.According to the result calculated by SPS,the fluid temperature is firstly increased and then decreased to a stable temperature,with the increase of preheating.The fluid density goes steadly at first and then decreases a lot to a new stable value.The economic scheme is determined by choosing the reasonable oil condensation point as 3℃ higher than the temperature of oil/water mixture at the end of the pipeline.Considering preheating time and the amount of hot water,the optimal and economic scheme is finally screened out.%为获得原油预热投产的经济环保方案,对某即将投产管线进行热力学仿真计算.通过建立SPS仿真模型并分析计算结果后发现,在投产过程中,末端流体温度随着预热投产时间先上升而后下降至平稳温度,末端流体密度先保持平稳而后迅速下降至稳定.选取油水混合物进站温度高于原油凝点3℃为边界条件,且综合考虑预热时间、用水量后确定了最优的投产方案,为现场操作提供技术支持.

  3. Therapies in the Pipeline for Systemic Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Felipe Betancur

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The current goals in the development of novel therapeutics of systemic autoimmune diseases are to develop agents more effective than conventional therapies as well as to reduce the risk of organ damage. To achieve this goal, large multicentre randomised controlled trials are needed to confirm the efficacy and safety of novel agents. Whether these novel modalities are synergistic to conventional drugs, the optimal dosages, and duration of treatment, need to be explored. As expected, the development of new molecules for the treatment of autoimmune diseases is constant, and there are different ongoing clinical trials. We review the different molecules in the pipeline, summarised in Tables 1, 2, and 3. We also show the successes, failures, and molecules that require more evidence.

  4. Analysis of rockfall impact on buried oil pipeline at Yangba%阳坝落石对输油管道的冲击分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东源; 赵宇; 王成华

    2013-01-01

    Lanzhou-Chengdu-Chongqing end product oil pipeline suffered serious rockfall disaster in the section of Kangxian County,Gansu Province.Yangba rockfall triggered in 2008 Wenchuan earthquake seriously damaged the pipeline and brought about enormous property loss.Based on the investigation of rockfalls,this study provided an analysis method and theoretical basis for the prevention of rockfall disasters.In this paper,five calculation methods of rock fall impact force commonly used at home and abroad were systematically compared and analyzed,and the most realistic algorithms were recommended.Through field investigation and laboratory experiments,the mechanical strength parameters of the soil were obtained.Then the experimental data and empirical data recommend in engineering geological manuals were compared,and the most suitable parameters were selected to calculate.The trench pipe vertical sold pressure calculation model proposed by Marston was used to analyze pipeline's stress and deformation.Results show that:first,the pipe strength and deformation are not enough to resist the intensive impact of falling rocks,which would cause the stress and deformation failure and pipeline damage; second,the method recommended by the Japanese Road Association is advised to calculate the maximum rock fall impact force in collapse zone; third,collapse hazard of the pipeline is likely to occur again in Kangxian County,and investigation of collapse hazard points in the region is necessary for take effective protection measures in advance.%兰成渝成品油管道在甘肃康县段遭受了严重的落石灾害,其中08年汶川地震触发的阳坝落石造成管道破坏和巨大经济损失.根据对阳坝落石现场的调查和管道遭受落石冲击的分析,为管道在康线段的减灾防灾提供理论依据和分析方法.系统对比分析了国内外普遍采用的5种落石冲击力算法,并推荐了最出符合实际的算法.通过现场取样和室内实验获取土

  5. Multi-pipeline geographical information system based on high accuracy inertial surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czyz, J.A.; Pettigrew, C. [BJ Pipeline Inspection Services, Calgary, AB (Canada); Pino, H.; Gomez, R. [Pemex Refinacion, Mexico City, (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The GIS system developed for the Pemex pipeline network in the Valley of Mexico was described. The system makes it possible to retrieve information on the precise location of pipelines and their features. It also displays their relative position to each other and other landmarks. It is useful in accurately identifying linear features. The system facilitates the management of various pipeline data. The UTM coordinates which are the basis of the geographical information system (GIS) were obtained from Geopig{sup R} inertial and caliper surveys which provided information on pipeline features and anomalies. The information was incorporated into the GIS along with metal loss data from past in-line inspections. The system is based on the ArcView{sup R} GIS Software with the ArcView 3D Analyst{sup TM} extension that makes it possible to view the cartography and pipeline data in 3D. One of the biggest advantages of the GIS system is that it stores a multitude of information from various pipelines into one database which is easy to manage and update. For example, it stores information on pipeline plan, profile, girth weld locations, dents, wall thickness, bending strains, metal loss and other features such as roads, buildings, political boundaries and hydrology. This makes it possible to detect defects and anomalies and helps to eliminate unnecessary excavations. It also helps to plan and schedule pipeline repairs. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  6. An Approach for Predicting the Shape and Size of a Buried Basic Object on Surface Ground Penetrating Radar System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Rachmana Syambas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface ground-penetrating radar (GPR is one of the radar technology that is widely used in many applications. It is nondestructive remote sensing method to detect underground buried objects. However, the output target is only hyperbolic representation. This research develops a system to identify a buried object on surface GPR based on decision tree method. GPR data of many basic objects (with circular, triangular, and rectangular cross-section are classified and extracted to generate data training model as a unique template for each type of basic object. The pattern of object under test will be known by comparing its data with the training data using a decision tree method. A simple powerful algorithm to extract feature parameters of object which is based on linear extrapolation is proposed. The result showed that tested buried basic objects can be correctly predicted and the developed system works properly.

  7. Energy study of pipeline transportation systems. Executive summary. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.

    1977-12-31

    The basic objectives of the overall study were to (1) characterize the pipeline industry and understand its energy consumption in each of the five major pipeline-industry segments: gas, oil, slurry, fresh water, and waste water; (2) identify opportunities for energy conservation in the pipeline industry, and to recommend the necessary R, D, and D programs to exploit those opportunities; (3) characterize and understand the influence of the Federal government on introduction of energy conservative innovations into the pipeline industry; and (4) assess the future potential of the pipeline industry for growth and for contribution to the national goal of energy conservation. This project final report is an executive summary presenting the results from the seven task reports.

  8. Simulation of Heat Transfer of Heating-System and Water Pipelines Under Northern Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, A. V.; Egorova, G. N.

    2016-09-01

    A mathematical model of joint laying of water pipelines and of city-block heating-system pipelines is considered. The effect of radiation on the process of combined heat transfer in the heat insulation jacket between the construction elements is investigated. The results of mathematical simulation of heat losses with account of the radiant component are given.

  9. Cost reducing factors in effective pipeline piling structure design and construction in Alberta's thermal SAGD gathering pipeline systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrokhzad, M.A. [IMV Projects, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    Oil sands steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) gathering pipeline systems are typically arranged so that above-ground steam pipeline and production pipelines lay next to each other on the same steel structure. Longitudinal and lateral loads build up in the pipeline supports, and the loads are consistently changing until pipeline temperatures reach a steady state condition. SAGD pipelines are required to have enough flexibility to absorb thermal expansion or contraction movements. However, most pipeline engineers only consider upper and lower temperature limits in the design of steel structures and pilings. This paper examined the effect of considering both the thermal gradient and time factor in designing supports for pipelines. The study examined how the factors impacted on standard load calculations and pile sizings. Sixteen stress analysis models for steam and production lines were prepared and designated thermal gradients were introduced to each model. Longitudinal and lateral loads caused by thermal gradient movements were calculated for all supports. The models were analyzed and absolute values for longitudinal and lateral loads were recorded. Results of the study showed that engineers do not necessarily need to rely on maximum temperatures as the condition that results in maximum longitudinal and lateral loads on supports. It was concluded that costs related to pipeline construction can be significantly reduced by considering the effects of thermal gradients in stress analyses and load calculations. 5 refs., 14 figs.

  10. Distributed acoustic sensing for pipeline monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, David; McEwen-King, Magnus [OptaSense, QinetiQ Ltd., London (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    Optical fibre is deployed widely across the oil and gas industry. As well as being deployed regularly to provide high bandwidth telecommunications and infrastructure for SCADA it is increasingly being used to sense pressure, temperature and strain along buried pipelines, on subsea pipelines and downhole. In this paper we present results from the latest sensing capability using standard optical fibre to detect acoustic signals along the entire length of a pipeline. In Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) an optical fibre is used for both sensing and telemetry. In this paper we present results from the OptaSense{sup TM} system which has been used to detect third party intervention (TPI) along buried pipelines. In a typical deployment the system is connected to an existing standard single-mode fibre, up to 50km in length, and was used to independently listen to the acoustic / seismic activity at every 10 meter interval. We will show that through the use of advanced array processing of the independent, simultaneously sampled channels it is possible to detect and locate activity within the vicinity of the pipeline and through sophisticated acoustic signal processing to obtain the acoustic signature to classify the type of activity. By combining spare fibre capacity in existing buried fibre optic cables; processing and display techniques commonly found in sonar; and state-of-the-art in fibre-optic distributed acoustic sensing, we will describe the new monitoring capabilities that are available to the pipeline operator. Without the expense of retrofitting sensors to the pipeline, this technology can provide a high performance, rapidly deployable and cost effective method of providing gapless and persistent monitoring of a pipeline. We will show how this approach can be used to detect, classify and locate activity such as; third party interference (including activity indicative of illegal hot tapping); real time tracking of pigs; and leak detection. We will also show how an

  11. The correlation between materials, processes and final properties in the pipeline coating system with polyethylene in triple layer; A correlacao entre materiais, processos e propriedades finais no sistema de revestimento de tubos com polietileno em tripla camada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luiz C.; Campos, Paulo H. [Confab Industrial S.A., Pindamonhangaba, SP (Brazil); Silva, Christian E.; Santos, Paulo T. [Soco-Ril do Brasil S.A., Pindamonhangaba, SP (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The use of anticorrosion coating is a common practice in industrial pipeline applications. Among the several coatings types to buried and submerged pipelines, over all, the Fusion Bonded Epoxy and Three Layer Polyethylene coating systems have been large employed. They have showed an excellent performance protecting the pipe metal from external corrosive environment, considerably decreasing the designed cathodic protection requirements, basically in the first years of pipeline operation. Coating system success depends on not only of a suitable design or of the materials technology, but also depends on the process parameters and the raw material characteristics exhibited during the application. In this paper will be presented in a theoretical approach how the process parameters and the raw materials characteristics may affect the three layer polyethylene anticorrosion coating final properties. (author)

  12. Solution of magnetometry problems related to monitoring remote pipeline systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeev, Andrey V.; Denisov, Alexey Y.; Narkhov, Eugene D.; Sapunov, Vladimir A.

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to solve two fundamental tasks, i.e., to design the pipeline model with sufficient adequacy and reproducibility, and to solve the inverse problem for the transition from the experimental data on the magnetic field in the measurement area directly to the pipeline characteristics, which are necessary for mapping pipes location and finding coordinates of welds. The paper presents a mathematical ideal pipeline model in the geomagnetic field without considering the pipe material. The solution of the direct and inverse problems are described, and the directions of the model development and methods of data interpretation are presented.

  13. Lowering of pipeline in the Peloneas's Beach and mechanical protection of pipeline in main and secondary piers; Rebaixamento de dutos na Praia das Peloneas e protecao mecanica de dutos nos piers principal e secundario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Ana Paula da Silva M.; Basilio, Kenia Afonso [PLANAVE, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The growing concern of PETROBRAS with the environmental protection aspects is intimately related with the need of developing preventive works of protection to the pipelines of the company. A study was accomplished in the pipelines inside the Guanabara Bay, whose goals was divided in three parts: identification of the risk areas for the pipelines; determination of the minimum depth of burying of the pipelines so that the risk in appreciation is minimized; identification of the areas in that the burying or a complemental burying make herself necessary. The study went based on to theory of conservation of energy, being admitted the non preservative embarkation system, and in the theory of the elasticity. For such a commercial program of finite elements was used. With base in the limits foreseen in the study, two critical areas of the Guanabara Bay were considered, which already suffered intervention with lowering. (author)

  14. National Wildlife Refuge System Oil and Gas Pipelines

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This dataset is comprised of all pipeline activity, both past and present, located on National Wildlife Refuges. The dataset was acquired from the U.S. Department of...

  15. A queuing model for designing multi-modality buried target detection systems: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malof, Jordan M.; Morton, Kenneth D.; Collins, Leslie M.; Torrione, Peter A.

    2015-05-01

    Many remote sensing modalities have been developed for buried target detection, each one offering its own relative advantages over the others. As a result there has been interest in combining several modalities into a single detection platform that benefits from the advantages of each constituent sensor, without suffering from their weaknesses. Traditionally this involves collecting data continuously on all sensors and then performing data, feature, or decision level fusion. While this is effective for lowering false alarm rates, this strategy neglects the potential benefits of a more general system-level fusion architecture. Such an architecture can involve dynamically changing which modalities are in operation. For example, a large standoff modality such as a forward-looking infrared (FLIR) camera can be employed until an alarm is encountered, at which point a high performance (but short standoff) sensor, such as ground penetrating radar (GPR), is employed. Because the system is dynamically changing its rate of advance and sensors, it becomes difficult to evaluate the expected false alarm rate and advance rate. In this work, a probabilistic model is proposed that can be used to estimate these quantities based on a provided operating policy. In this model the system consists of a set of states (e.g., sensors employed) and conditions encountered (e.g., alarm locations). The predictive accuracy of the model is evaluated using a collection of collocated FLIR and GPR data and the results indicate that the model is effective at predicting the desired system metrics.

  16. Multi objective optimization of line pack management of gas pipeline system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebouba, A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the Line Pack Management of the "GZ1 Hassi R'mell-Arzew" gas pipeline. For a gas pipeline system, the decision-making on the gas line pack management scenarios usually involves a delicate balance between minimization of the fuel consumption in the compression stations and maximizing gas line pack. In order to select an acceptable Line Pack Management of Gas Pipeline scenario from these two angles for "GZ1 Hassi R'mell- Arzew" gas pipeline, the idea of multi-objective decision-making has been introduced. The first step in developing this approach is the derivation of a numerical method to analyze the flow through the pipeline under transient isothermal conditions. In this paper, the solver NSGA-II of the modeFRONTIER, coupled with a matlab program was used for solving the multi-objective problem.

  17. SPADOCK: Adaptive Pipeline Technology for Web System using WebSocket

    OpenAIRE

    Aries RICHI; Riri Fitri SARI

    2013-01-01

    As information technology grows to the era of IoT(Internet of Things) and cloud computing, the performance ofweb application and web service which acts as the informationgateway becomes an issue. Horizontal quality of serviceimprovement through system performance escalation becomesan issue pursued by engineers and scientists, giving birth toBigPipe pipeline technology which was developed by Facebook.We make SPADOCK, an adaptive pipeline system which is builtunder distributed system architectu...

  18. Work in Progress: Malleable Software Pipelines for Efficient Many-core System Utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Jahn, Janmartin; Kobbe, Sebastian; Pagani, Santiago; Chen, Jian-Jia; Henkel, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    International audience; This paper details our current research project on the efficient utilization of many-core systems by utilizing applications based on a novel kind of software pipelines. These pipelines form malleable applications that can change their degree of parallelism at runtime. This allows not only for a well-balanced load, but also for an efficient distribution of the cores to the individual, competing applications to maximize the overall system performance. We are convinced th...

  19. 埋地钢质管道新型三层PE防腐层的结构设计%Structural Design on the Polyethylene Coating of Long Distance Buried Spiral-Welded Steel Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈群尧; 王善学; 李建忠; 张东江; 王金喜; 李伟林

    2001-01-01

    The new structure design and research on multi-polyethylenecoating of long distance buried spiral-welded steel pipeline have been carried out based on some standards and codes like CAN/CSA-Z245.21 98 and SY/T4013 95 and the corresponding foreign standards.A new kind of structure for the multi-polyethylene coating of oil/gas pipeline has been proposed.The technical data for the FBE coating is that the thickness of FBE layer is between 120~160 μm,the thickness of binder layer is between 170~250 μm;the PE thickness is between 1.8~2.0 mm,the thickness of coating layer at spiral seam is not less than 1.0 mm.The authors consider that this new multi-polyethylene coating can achieve a optimal performance price ratio and decrease production cost,but it needs to be further verified in actual site application.%对我国用于埋地长输螺旋焊缝钢质管道三层PE防腐层的结构在原《埋地钢质管道聚乙烯防腐层技术标准》(SY/T4013-95)的基础上进行了新结构设计和耐蚀性研究。提出了FBE层的新结构方案即FBE厚度为120~160 μm;粘胶剂层厚度为170~250 μm;三层PE防腐层厚度为1.8~2.0 mm;焊缝处防腐层厚度不低于1.0 mm。在保持防腐性能和机械性能的前提下,对防腐层结构进行调整,合理减薄聚乙烯层厚度,增加环氧粉末厚度,实现防腐层最佳的性价比,减少成本投资。

  20. Vision-Based System of AUV for An Underwater Pipeline Tracker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Tie-dong; ZENG Wen-jing; WAN Lei; QIN Zai-bai

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a new framework for detection and tracking of underwater pipeline,which includes software system and hardware system.It is designed for vision system of AUV based on monocular CCD camera.First,the real-time data flow from image capture card is pre-processed and pipeline features are extracted for navigation.The region saturation degree is advanced to remove false edge point group after Sobel operation.An appropriate way is proposed to clear the disturbance around the peak point in the process of Hough transform.Second,the continuity of pipeline layout is taken into account to improve the efficiency of line extraction.Once the line information has been obtained,the reference zone is predicted by Kalman filter.It denotes the possible appearance position of the pipeline in the image.Kalman filter is used to estimate this position in next frame so that the information of pipeline of each frame can be known in advance.Results obtained on real optic vision data in tank experiment are displayed and discussed.They show that the proposed system can detect and track the underwater pipeline online,and is effective and feasible.

  1. Rehabilitation and certification of the PGPB Cactus-San Fernando gas pipeline system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graciano, L.S. [Permex Gas y Petroquimica Basica, Mexico City (Mexico); Clyne, A. [GE Energy PII Pipeline Solutions, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cazenave, P.; Willis, S. [GE Energy PII Pipeline Solutions, Houston, TX (United States); Kania, R. [GE Energy Pipeline Solutions, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    The Cactus-San Fernando gas pipeline system is 650 km in length and was constructed in the late 1970s. The system transports more than 1100 million standard cubic feet per day of dry natural gas to electricity generators in Mexico. This paper described a project undertaken to re-validate the pipeline and demonstrate the future integrity of the pipeline system and ensure that it was suitable for operation to 1219 psig. Pipeline sections were inspected using high resolution magnetic flux leakage (MFL) in-line inspection (ILI) tools, and inertial mapping unit vehicles equipped with global positioning surveys (GPS). The combined inspections allowed the project team to accurately identify features of the pipeline that required repairs. External and internal corrosion were identified as the most prevalent defects. RSTRENG methodologies were used to investigate the interaction of individual corrosion anomalies. Corrosion patterns were compared, and above-ground survey data were used to establish the causes of both the external and internal corrosion, as well as to establish future corrosion growth rates. Decision tree analysis was then used to analyze the growth rates and to identify statistical differences between corrosion growth rates as a function of distance along the pipeline. After the ILI reports were generated, an integrity assessment was then conducted to identify necessary repair options. Repairs plans were then developed along with recommended re-inspection intervals for each section. After the integrity assessments were accepted by a certification company, field work was conducted to locate and measure defects. Defects characteristic of major volumetric welding flaws introduced during pipeline construction were identified and repaired with an epoxy sleeve technique. It was concluded that repairs needed to operate the pipeline at the requested pressure were accomplished within a period of 8 months. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  2. Numerical Recovery of Gas Flows in Pipeline Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim E. Seleznev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimal control, prevention and investigation of accidents, and detection of discrepancies in estimated gas supply and distribution volumes are relevant problems of trunkline operation. Efficient dealing with these production tasks is based on the numerical recovery of spacetime distribution of nonisothermal transient flow parameters of transmitted gas mixtures based on full-scale measurements in a substantially limited number of localities spaced considerable distances apart along the gas pipelines. The paper describes a practical method of such recovery by defining and solving a special identification problem. Simulations of product flow parameters in extended branched pipelines, involving calculations of the target function and constraint function for the identification problem of interest, are done in the 1D statement. In conclusion, results of practical application of the method in the gas industry are briefly discussed.

  3. Analysis of pipeline transportation systems for carbon dioxide sequestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witkowski Andrzej

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A commercially available ASPEN PLUS simulation using a pipe model was employed to determine the maximum safe pipeline distances to subsequent booster stations as a function of carbon dioxide (CO2 inlet pressure, ambient temperature and ground level heat flux parameters under three conditions: isothermal, adiabatic and with account of heat transfer. In the paper, the CO2 working area was assumed to be either in the liquid or in the supercritical state and results for these two states were compared. The following power station data were used: a 900 MW pulverized coal-fired power plant with 90% of CO2 recovered (156.43 kg/s and the monothanolamine absorption method for separating CO2 from flue gases. The results show that a subcooled liquid transport maximizes energy efficiency and minimizes the cost of CO2 transport over long distances under isothermal, adiabatic and heat transfer conditions. After CO2 is compressed and boosted to above 9 MPa, its temperature is usually higher than ambient temperature. The thermal insulation layer slows down the CO2 temperature decrease process, increasing the pressure drop in the pipeline. Therefore in Poland, considering the atmospheric conditions, the thermal insulation layer should not be laid on the external surface of the pipeline.

  4. Analysis of pipeline transportation systems for carbon dioxide sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, Andrzej; Majkut, Mirosław; Rulik, Sebastian

    2014-03-01

    A commercially available ASPEN PLUS simulation using a pipe model was employed to determine the maximum safe pipeline distances to subsequent booster stations as a function of carbon dioxide (CO2) inlet pressure, ambient temperature and ground level heat flux parameters under three conditions: isothermal, adiabatic and with account of heat transfer. In the paper, the CO2 working area was assumed to be either in the liquid or in the supercritical state and results for these two states were compared. The following power station data were used: a 900 MW pulverized coal-fired power plant with 90% of CO2 recovered (156.43 kg/s) and the monothanolamine absorption method for separating CO2 from flue gases. The results show that a subcooled liquid transport maximizes energy efficiency and minimizes the cost of CO2 transport over long distances under isothermal, adiabatic and heat transfer conditions. After CO2 is compressed and boosted to above 9 MPa, its temperature is usually higher than ambient temperature. The thermal insulation layer slows down the CO2 temperature decrease process, increasing the pressure drop in the pipeline. Therefore in Poland, considering the atmospheric conditions, the thermal insulation layer should not be laid on the external surface of the pipeline.

  5. Qualification of the system for thermal coating rehabilitation in situ of oil pipeline in operation; Qualificacao de sistema de reabilitacao in situ de revestimento termico para oleodutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koebsch, Andre; Correa, Anyr Rosa; Cabral, Glaucia Brazuna; Castanheiras Junior, Wilson Gil [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Oliver, Joao Hipolito de Lima; Pinto, Mucio Eduardo Amarante Costa [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The transfer of some derived products of petroleum with high viscosity is accomplished with the same ones heated up. These buried pipelines are provided of Thermal Isolation System (TIS). Those TIS are composed with a polyurethane foam layer (PU) that is externally protected by polyethylene layer (PE). The acids production was generated by the deterioration of TIS. This associated with an absence of anticorrosive coating on the pipeline cause the corrosion with its thickness loss and consequently it's endangered. The rehabilitation of the existent TIS was done necessary to control this corrosive process, by reason of the Cathodic Protection System usually used in complement to the anticorrosive coating does not work on this TIS. A TIS rehabilitation process with the pipeline in operation was specified by PETROBRAS - ENGINEER and TRANSPETRO. It's qualified and was composed by two stages: Pre-qualification: tests in factory using pipes with original TIS and operating with hot water to 85 deg C. This stage was composed by the removal of original TIS, pipe surface preparation, application and tests on the anticorrosive coating, application and tests of the PU foam and application and tests of the PE casing. Qualification: stage composed by the application in field of the new TIS in a thousand meters of the pipeline OBATI-SP, operated by TRANSPETRO, and tests of the pipe assembly. This work presents the results of the Qualification for the rehabilitation of the thermal coating. It achieves the quality level demanded by PETROBRAS - Engineer and TRANSPETRO. (author)

  6. Applications of ZigBee Technology in the Safety Monitoring System of Low Gas Pipeline Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Deyu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing safety monitoring system of low gas pipeline transportation establishes a wired communication network monitoring system mainly on the basis of industrial bus. It has problems such as large transmission signal attenuation, complex wiring, high-labor intensity, inconvenient installation and maintenance, high maintenance cost, and so on. Featuring low cost, power-saving, reliability, stability and flexibility, the wireless sensor network established by ZigBee wireless communication technology can realize the real-time all-dimensional dynamic monitoring on parameters of low gas pipeline transportation system and overcome the shortcomings and deficiencies of wired network system.

  7. Coal/oil mixture pipeline: a viable alternative coal transportation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkness, J. B.L.; Petrovic, L. J.

    1979-01-01

    Slurry pipeline systems have been promoted as minimizing the environmental and socio-economic impacts of rail transportation and as increasing competition in interstate coal transportation. However, the scarce water resources of the coal rich western states may limit the number and/or capacity of these systems. Furthermore, these systems are not without their own operating and environmental problems. In this paper, a coal transportation system which utilizes coal/oil mixture technology is compared to the coal/water system and to another alternative, coal/methanol system. The primary considerations addressed are the system design considerations and trade-offs, the resource requirements (including capital) and the cost of delivered energy. Considerations such as the system environmental impacts, the status of the technologies, oil quality and supply, and the potential system flexibilities are discussed qualitatively. This qualitative comparison shows that the coal/oil slurry pipeline is an attractive economic, environmental, and technical alternative for transporting coal PROVIDED that oil is available in the region. Coal/water pipelines are a second choice based on economics and, furthermore, are limited by their demands on western water resources. The third choice is coal/oil slurry pipelines using oil generated onsite. The main attraction is the saving of about 1/2 the water requirements. However, the capital costs will be high. Coal/methanol slurry pipelines do not appear to have any economic or environmental advantages. Further secondary considerations must be addressed before a technically and economically viable coal/oil surry pipeline could be implemented.

  8. A computational platform for modeling and simulation of pipeline georeferencing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, A.G.; Pellanda, P.C.; Gois, J.A. [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Roquette, P.; Pinto, M.; Durao, R. [Instituto de Pesquisas da Marinha (IPqM), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, M.S.V.; Martins, W.F.; Camillo, L.M.; Sacsa, R.P.; Madeira, B. [Ministerio de Ciencia e Tecnologia (CT-PETRO2006MCT), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos (FINEP). Plano Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Setor Petroleo e Gas Natural

    2009-07-01

    This work presents a computational platform for modeling and simulation of pipeline geo referencing systems, which was developed based on typical pipeline characteristics, on the dynamical modeling of Pipeline Inspection Gauge (PIG) and on the analysis and implementation of an inertial navigation algorithm. The software environment of PIG trajectory simulation and navigation allows the user, through a friendly interface, to carry-out evaluation tests of the inertial navigation system under different scenarios. Therefore, it is possible to define the required specifications of the pipeline geo referencing system components, such as: required precision of inertial sensors, characteristics of the navigation auxiliary system (GPS surveyed control points, odometers etc.), pipeline construction information to be considered in order to improve the trajectory estimation precision, and the signal processing techniques more suitable for the treatment of inertial sensors data. The simulation results are analyzed through the evaluation of several performance metrics usually considered in inertial navigation applications, and 2D and 3D plots of trajectory estimation error and of recovered trajectory in the three coordinates are made available to the user. This paper presents the simulation platform and its constituting modules and defines their functional characteristics and interrelationships.(author)

  9. Development of Deposit Detection System in Pipelines of the Steelworks Using CS-137 Gamma-Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Won-Joon; Lee, Seung-Hee; Jeong, Hee-Dong

    2008-02-01

    The deposit is built up in the pipeline of the steelworks by the chemical reaction among COG (coke oven gas), BFG (blast furnace gas), moisture, and steel in the high temperature environment and obstructs the smooth gas flow. In this study a gamma-ray system is developed to detect the deposit accumulated in pipelines and calculate the accumulation rate with respect to the cross section area of pipes. Cs-137 is used as the gamma-ray source and the system is designed to apply to pipes of various diameters. This system also includes the DB for storage and display of the measurement results so that it can be used for the efficient management of the pipelines.

  10. 3 D numerical simulation on leakage of buried natural gas pipeline in valley area%山谷地区埋地天然气管道泄漏三维数值模拟∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新; 马贵阳; 杨玉林; 刘伟; 张月

    2015-01-01

    针对山谷地区埋地天然气泄漏问题,建立三维泄漏模型,将管道模型建立于土壤下,给出山谷地区风随海拔高度变化边界条件,在此基础上对山谷地区高含硫天然气泄漏问题进行六组模拟。结果表明:六组工况下硫化氢的危险区域全部大于甲烷的危险区域,突显出天然气泄漏问题中硫化氢的危害性之大。风速对危险范围的影响很大,在山谷地形条件下危险范围大小与风速大小成反比,且风速越大,危险范围越小。三个泄漏口方向中漏口斜向上45°时空气中泄漏气体的总质量分数最大,扩散的范围最大,但部分范围内并未达到泄漏气体的危险浓度,危险范围比实际扩散范围要小,漏口斜向下45°时危险区域是最大的,漏口水平介于中间。%Aiming at the problems in leakage and dispersion of buried gas pipeline in valley area, a three-dimen-sional leakage mode was established with building the pipeline model under the soil. The boundary conditions of wind changes with altitude in the valley area were given, on this basis, 6 sets of simulation were made on leakage of natural gas with high hydrogen sulfide in the valley area. The results showed that:the danger zones of hydrogen sulfide are all greater than those of methane in the 6 sets of conditions, which highlighted the dangers of hydrogen sulfide in natural gas leakage problem. Wind speed has much effect on the danger range, under the condition of valley terrain, the size of danger range is inversely proportional to wind speed, the larger the wind speed, the smal-ler the risk. In the three directions of leakage hole, when the direction of leakage hole is 45° oblique to upward, the total mass fraction of leaking gas in the air is the maximum, and the diffusion range is the largest, but in some range, it does not reach the dangerous concentration of leaking gas, and the danger range is smaller than the practi

  11. Study on the flow in the pipelines of the support system of circulating fluidized bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, L.; Yang, J.; Zhou, L. J.; Wang, Z. W.; Zhuang, X. H.

    2013-12-01

    In the support system of Circulating Fluidized Bed (Below referred to as CFB) of thermal power plant, the pipelines of primary wind are used for transporting the cold air to the boiler, which is important in controlling and combustion effect. The pipeline design will greatly affect the energy loss of the system, and accordingly affect the thermal power plant economic benefits and production environment. Three-dimensional numerical simulation is carried out for the pipeline internal flow field of a thermal power plant in this paper. Firstly three turbulence models were compared and the results showed that the SST k-ω model converged better and the energy losses predicted were closer to the experimental results. The influence of the pipeline design form on the flow characteristics are analysed, then the optimization designs of the pipeline are proposed according to the energy loss distribution of the flow field, in order to reduce energy loss and improve the efficiency of tunnel. The optimization plan turned out to be efficacious; about 36% of the pressure loss is reduced.

  12. A Concept for the One Degree Imager (ODI) Data Reduction Pipeline and Archiving System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knezek, Patricia; Stobie, B.; Michael, S.; Valdes, F.; Marru, S.; Henschel, R.; Pierce, M.

    2010-05-01

    The One Degree Imager (ODI), currently being built by the WIYN Observatory, will provide tremendous possibilities for conducting diverse scientific programs. ODI will be a complex instrument, using non-conventional Orthogonal Transfer Array (OTA) detectors. Due to its large field of view, small pixel size, use of OTA technology, and expected frequent use, ODI will produce vast amounts of astronomical data. If ODI is to achieve its full potential, a data reduction pipeline must be developed. Long-term archiving must also be incorporated into the pipeline system to ensure the continued value of ODI data. This paper presents a concept for an ODI data reduction pipeline and archiving system. To limit costs and development time, our plan leverages existing software and hardware, including existing pipeline software, Science Gateways, Computational Grid & Cloud Technology, Indiana University's Data Capacitor and Massive Data Storage System, and TeraGrid compute resources. Existing pipeline software will be augmented to add functionality required to meet challenges specific to ODI, enhance end-user control, and enable the execution of the pipeline on grid resources including national grid resources such as the TeraGrid and Open Science Grid. The planned system offers consistent standard reductions and end-user flexibility when working with images beyond the initial instrument signature removal. It also gives end-users access to computational and storage resources far beyond what are typically available at most institutions. Overall, the proposed system provides a wide array of software tools and the necessary hardware resources to use them effectively.

  13. Third-Generation Partnerships for P-16 Pipelines and Cradle-through-Career Education Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Hal A.

    2013-01-01

    Amid unprecedented novelty, complexity, turbulence, and conflict, it is apparent that a new education system is needed. Focused on a new outcome--postsecondary education completion with advanced competence--heretofore separate systems for early childhood, K-12 schools, and postsecondary education are being joined in P-16 pipelines and…

  14. Multi-level access control in the data pipeline of the international supply chain system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruksasri, P.; Berg, J. van den; Hofman, W.; Daskapan, S.

    2013-01-01

    The Seamless Integrated Data Pipeline system was proposed to the European Union in order to overcome the information quality shortcomings of the current international supply chain information exchange systems. Next to identification and authorization of stakeholders, secure access control needs to b

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF SOFTWARE SYSTEM FOR MONITORING OF STRESS CORROSION CRACKING OF THE PIPELINE UNDER TENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. K. Abaev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The software and hardware development tendency, providing the automated monitoring and control of basic and auxiliary technological processes of gas transportation via system of main gas pipelines has been revealed. The article discusses the stages of creation of the software of system of monitoring corrosion cracking under tension (SCC. The new useful adequate regression models development determining the risk level of LCC is shown. A ranking sections algorithm of main gas pipeline (MG on the propensity to SCC is presented. Adequate developed regression equation determining the LCC risk level has been developed. To count the main gas pipeline lifetime the variable rank of the danger of SCC (RSCC on the basis of methods of fuzzy logic is proposed to use. Implementation of the fuzzy model was carried out using the graphical tools developed in MATLAB using the expansion pack Fuzzy Logic Toolbox. The working algorithm of developed program and the screen forms are presented.

  16. Expert system for the reliability assessment of hydro-carbon transporting pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukacs, J.; Nagy, G.; Toeroek, I. [Department of Mechanical Technology, University of Miskolc, Miskolc-Egyetemvaros (Hungary)

    1998-12-31

    Safety operation, condition monitoring, periodical inspection and rehabilitation of high-pressure hydro-carbon transporting pipelines are a complex problem. To answer arising questions is inconceivable without technical-critical evaluation of defects - originated during manufacturing or operation - can be found on the pipeline. This evaluation must be in line with requirements of our age, i.e. it has to assert such concept of which basis is not the `possible worst` but the `just happening wrong`. Solving these problems without application of computer resources is inconceivable in our time. The final purpose of the solution is the expert system and among the components of the expert system primarily the development of the knowledge base is needed. The paper demonstrates a possible structure of the knowledge base, furthermore its fundamental elements and their contents (defect types, evaluation possibilities of defects, categorisation of pipelines) and summaries the prospective advantages of its application. (orig.) 27 refs.

  17. Modelling of non-equilibrium flow in the branched pipeline systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumskoi, S. I.; Sverchkov, A. M.; Lisanov, M. V.; Egorov, A. F.

    2016-09-01

    This article presents a mathematical model and a numerical method for solving the task of water hammer in the branched pipeline system. The task is considered in the onedimensional non-stationary formulation taking into account the realities such as the change in the diameter of the pipeline and its branches. By comparison with the existing analytic solution it has been shown that the proposed method possesses good accuracy. With the help of the developed model and numerical method the task has been solved concerning the transmission of the compression waves complex in the branching pipeline system when several shut down valves operate. It should be noted that the offered model and method may be easily introduced to a number of other tasks, for example, to describe the flow of blood in the vessels.

  18. Corrosion Behavior of Pipeline Carbon Steel under Different Iron Oxide Deposits in the District Heating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Sang Kim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behavior of pipeline steel covered by iron oxides (α-FeOOH; Fe3O4 and Fe2O3 was investigated in simulated district heating water. In potentiodynamic polarization tests; the corrosion rate of pipeline steel is increased under the iron oxide but the increaseing rate is different due to the differnet chemical reactions of the covered iron oxides. Pitting corrosion was only observed on the α-FeOOH-covered specimen; which is caused by the crevice corrosion under the α-FeOOH. From Mott-Schottky and X-ray diffraction results; the surface reaction and oxide layer were dependent on the kind of iron oxides. The iron oxides deposit increases the failure risk of the pipeline and localized corrosion can be occurred under the α-FeOOH-covered region of the pipeline. Thus, prevention methods for the iron oxide deposit in the district pipeline system such as filtering or periodic chemical cleaning are needed.

  19. Scour Monitoring System for Subsea Pipeline Based on Active Thermometry: Numerical and Experimental Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Du

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A scour monitoring system for subsea pipeline based on active thermometry is proposed in this paper. The temperature reading of the proposed system is based on a distributed Brillouin optical fiber sensing technique. A thermal cable acts as the main component of the system, which consists of a heating belt, armored optical fibers and heat-shrinkable tubes which run parallel to the pipeline. The scour-induced free span can be monitored through different heat transfer behaviors of in-water and in-sediment scenarios during heating and cooling processes. Two sets of experiments, including exposing different lengths of the upper surface of the pipeline to water and creating free spans of various lengths, were carried out in laboratory. In both cases, the scour condition was immediately detected by the proposed monitoring system, which confirmed the system is robust and very sensitive. Numerical study of the method was also investigated by using the finite element method (FEM with ANSYS, resulting in reasonable agreement with the test data. This brand new system provides a promising, low cost, highly precise and flexible approach for scour monitoring of subsea pipelines.

  20. Modelling a real-world buried valley system with vertical non-stationarity using multiple-point statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiulan; Sonnenborg, Torben O.; Jørgensen, Flemming; Jensen, Karsten H.

    2017-03-01

    Stationarity has traditionally been a requirement of geostatistical simulations. A common way to deal with non-stationarity is to divide the system into stationary sub-regions and subsequently merge the realizations for each region. Recently, the so-called partition approach that has the flexibility to model non-stationary systems directly was developed for multiple-point statistics simulation (MPS). The objective of this study is to apply the MPS partition method with conventional borehole logs and high-resolution airborne electromagnetic (AEM) data, for simulation of a real-world non-stationary geological system characterized by a network of connected buried valleys that incise deeply into layered Miocene sediments (case study in Denmark). The results show that, based on fragmented information of the formation boundaries, the MPS partition method is able to simulate a non-stationary system including valley structures embedded in a layered Miocene sequence in a single run. Besides, statistical information retrieved from the AEM data improved the simulation of the geology significantly, especially for the deep-seated buried valley sediments where borehole information is sparse.

  1. Fiber optic accelerometer for pipeline surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valente, Luiz C.G.; Cabral, Bruno S. [LUPATECH Monitoring Systems, Caxias do Sul, RS (Brazil); Braga, Arthur M.B. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2009-07-01

    The use of accelerometers for monitoring vibration due to impacts and other sources associated with pipeline operation is not new, but conventional electric accelerometers present practical problems to be deployed in the field. In this paper we evaluate the use of both commercially available and prototypes of new optical fiber accelerometers for this application. They all share the possibility of operating at long distances from the reading unit. All tests were performed at CTDUT facilities on free pipes as well as on a 14 pol-OD, 100 meters long pipeline loop. Using controlled impacts, several aspects of the application have been analyzed such as different ways of fixing the accelerometers to the pipeline wall, influence of barriers between impact and sensor, and signal propagation through buried sections of pipeline. Results of measurements performed during the operation of the loop are also presented. They include passing PIGs, pumping water out from the system, and working on the tubes to open the loop. Results indicate that the accelerometers can be placed at distances measuring hundreds of meters from the source of vibration, and that the difference in time and frequency behavior of signals measured by sensors placed in different locations along the pipeline may be used to locate and identify that source. (author)

  2. Operational Challenges in Gas-To-Liquid (GTL) Transportation Through Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godwin A. Chukwu; Santanu Khataniar; Shirish Patil; Abhijit Dandekar

    2006-06-30

    Oil production from Alaskan North Slope oil fields has steadily declined. In the near future, ANS crude oil production will decline to such a level (200,000 to 400,000 bbl/day) that maintaining economic operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) will require pumping alternative products through the system. Heavy oil deposits in the West Sak and Ugnu formations are a potential resource, although transporting these products involves addressing important sedimentation issues. One possibility is the use of Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) technology. Estimated recoverable gas reserves of 38 trillion cubic feet (TCF) on the North Slope of Alaska can be converted to liquid with GTL technology and combined with the heavy oils for a product suitable for pipeline transport. Issues that could affect transport of this such products through TAPS include pumpability of GTL and crude oil blends, cold restart of the pipeline following a prolonged winter shutdown, and solids deposition inside the pipeline. This study examined several key fluid properties of GTL, crude oil and four selected blends under TAPS operating conditions. Key measurements included Reid Vapor Pressure, density and viscosity, PVT properties, and solids deposition. Results showed that gel strength is not a significant factor for the ratios of GTL-crude oil blend mixtures (1:1; 1:2; 1:3; 1:4) tested under TAPS cold re-start conditions at temperatures above - 20 F, although Bingham fluid flow characteristics exhibited by the blends at low temperatures indicate high pumping power requirements following prolonged shutdown. Solids deposition is a major concern for all studied blends. For the commingled flow profile studied, decreased throughput can result in increased and more rapid solid deposition along the pipe wall, resulting in more frequent pigging of the pipeline or, if left unchecked, pipeline corrosion.

  3. Risk based maintenance of a cross-country petroleum pipeline system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dawotola, A.W.; Trafalis, T.B.; Mustaffa, Z.; Van Gelder, P.H.A.J.M.; Vrijling, J.K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a data-driven approach in determining an optimal inspection interval for a petroleum pipeline system. The approach accounts for the determination of both the probability of failure and its associated consequences. The probability of failure is estimated by fitting the historical

  4. The strategic priorities of the national oil and gas pipeline transport system development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ірина Миколаївна Ісаєва

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The retrospective analysis of legal documents governing relations between Ukraine, Russia and the European Union as part of their energy policies was performed. The strategic interests of participating countries and the strategic priorities of the governance with national oil and gas pipeline transport system development in particular were designated

  5. Investigation of Water Hammer Effect Through Pipeline System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Wee Choon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper we study the condition where the water hammer effect is occurs in pipe line. Water hammer can cause the pipe to break if the pressure is high enough. The experiment will be set-up to investigate the water hammer effect in order to avoid the water hammer effect happen. The prevention of water hammer effect will be propose and prove the prevention method is successfully reduce the water hammer effect. The prevention method using is installing the bypass pipe with non-return valve. The experiment is done by capture the vibration signal by using data acquisition device and accelerometer. The pressure signal is capture after a sudden shutoff for the valve. The signal is than analyze and convert to wave speed. The project is differentiating and compares the water hammer phenomenon with different pipe material, pipe length, inlet diameter of pipe, and pressure in pipeline. From the experiment, result shown that the lower strength material pipe, smaller inlet diameter pipe, and longer pipe will deal with lager water hammer effect. Besides, the prevention method by installing by pass pipe with non-return valve of water hammer effect is proved successfully reduce the water hammer phenomenon by 33.33% of pressure.

  6. DNV RP-F116 integrity management of submarine pipeline system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leinum, B.H.; Etterdal, B. [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Hoevik (Norway); Augustinovic, Z. [Dong Energy, Fredericia (Denmark); Paula, A. [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    The need to keep pipelines operating safely and efficiently is paramount for any operator. Additionally, there is an increasing awareness at both regulatory and public level. Authorities around the world are adopting a more proactive approach as they seek to minimize the risk of human injuries or harm to the environment resulting from pipeline leaks. A joint industry project (JIP) led by DNV Energy is formulating guidelines for how to manage the integrity of submarine pipeline system. The resultant document of recommended practice, DNV RP-F116, will provide the oil and gas industry with a useful tool in an area where no such formal guidance currently exists. This paper gives an overview of the RP and demonstrates the use with a case study for the Siri field. The Siri field is operated by DONG Energy, Denmark and all infield pipelines were subjected to an integrity assessment using the Integrity Management process as outlined in the upcoming DNV RP-116. In parallel with establishing the RP, DNV has further developed the web-based software system, Orbit+, which is aligned with the RP. The software system is implemented and used by Dong Energy. (author)

  7. Feasibility assessment of path-planning for pipeline system construction of electric utilities network enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, C.C.; Huang, S.J. [National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    This paper proposed an algorithm to improve the power transmission network in Taiwan which has experienced increased competition since the addition of competitive local exchange carriers (CLEC) into the telecommunication market. Recently, the CLECs requested to rent pipelines from the original incumbent local exchange carriers (ILECs) and from the Taiwan Power Company. The Taiwan Power Company not only builds transmission lines, but also telecommunication networks using different kinds of fiber optic cables, including Optical Power Ground Wire (OPGW), All-Dielectric Self-Supporting (ADSS), and Wrapped types (WOC). This paper also discussed the integration of pipeline rent-out work with AM/FM/geographic information system software. The Java-based software determines a shortest path-planning method for the piping layout to help improve the pipeline system and the construction of an electricity network. The method is expected to increase the use of existing pipelines by improving the efficiency of network planning and maintenance. The method also reduces the potential for design faults and is easy to apply in the field due to the clear criteria. This paper described the proposed system architecture in detail and presented test results. It was shown that the use of a shortest path for the piping layout can reduce the distance between manholes in the huge network. According to test results, the proposed method is considered to be feasible. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  8. Development of a full-scale laboratory testing facility for soil-pipeline interaction research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, C.; Wijewickreme, D. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    This paper describes the capabilities of a new full-scale testing facility at the University of British Columbia to investigate soil-pipe interactions of common utility pipeline installations. The range of applications was also presented. The capacity to displace pipeline segments up to one meter in order to study the highly flexible behaviour of polyethylene pipelines was incorporated into the modular construction of the soil box. This system can study the response of a wide range of typical buried pipe configurations subjected to axial and transverse soil loadings corresponding to multiple applications. This test facility was used to study the performance of buried polyethylene (PE) gas distribution pipelines subjected to slow, axial permanent ground displacements. Axial load test results showed that mobilized axial soil resistance on the piping depends on the interface friction angle and the potential reduction of stress levels due to arching of the soil outside the interface shear zone. For polyethylene pipes, the axial soil resistance is affected by the associated reduction of the diameter of the pipeline due to tensile straining. Much more deformation occurred in polyethylene pipelines from direct strain measurements, compared to what might be expected in steel pipelines for a given level of loading. 15 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Integrated system for coal-methanol liquefaction and slurry pipeline transportation. Final report. [In slurry transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W.F.; Davidson, J.K.; Horton, J.H.; Summers, C.W.

    1980-03-31

    The engineering economics of an integrated coal-to-methanol conversion system and coal-in-methanol transportation system are examined, under the circumstances of the western coalfields, i.e., long distances from major markets and scarcity of water in the vicinity of the mines. The transportation economics are attractive, indicating tariffs of approximately 40 cents per million Btu per thousand miles for the coal-methanol pipeline vs 60 cents via coal-water pipelines and upwards of a dollar via rail. Energy consumption is also less in the coal-methanol pipeline than in the coal-water pipeline, and about equal to rail. It is also concluded that, by a proper marriage of the synthetic fuel (methanolization) plant to the slurrification plant, most, and in some cases all, of the water required by the synthetic fuel process can be supplied by the natural moisture of the coal itself. Thus, the only technology which presently exists and by which synthetic fuel from western coal can displace petroleum in the automotive fuel market is the integrated methanol conversion and tranportation system. The key element is the ability of the methanol slurry pipeline to accept and to deliver dry (1 to 5% moisture) coal, allowing the natural coal moisture to be used as synthesis feedstock in satisfaction of the large water requirement of any synthetic fuel plant. By virtue of these unique properties, this integrated system is seen as the only means in the foreseeable future whereby western coal can be converted to synthetic fuel and moved to distant markets.

  10. The role of soil data in pipeline integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marr, J.E.; Bates, N.; Portelance, D.; Farthing, S. [Marr Associates, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Protective coatings and cathodic protection (CP) are routinely used to mitigate external corrosion on buried metallic pipelines. These methods place a barrier between the soil and the pipe surface. When properly designed and maintained, these systems can protect the pipeline for its entire service life. However, coating systems deteriorate with time to the point that the environment can either migrate through the coating or come in direct contact with the pipe surface. Although CP systems can also deteriorate, they can be monitored through measurement techniques at a given interval. The CP system can provide a sufficient level of protection, thereby minimizing potential threats to pipeline integrity. This paper presented a historical review of the use of soils and soil survey information. Experiences regarding the use of data effecting external corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) on line pipe steels were also outlined. The soil measurement criteria that have been developed to define a corrosive soil condition were summarized along with a soil survey and soil sampling issues. The soil parameters that must be properly identified in order to assess integrity threat include soil type and oxygen availability; soil resistivity and moisture; pH, total acidity and cation exchange capacity; redox potential; chlorides and sulfates; carbonates; and, bacteria. It was shown that pipeline operators can predict where significant external corrosion, SCC and other integrity threats may occur on a pipeline by incorporating soil survey data and soils related information with other surveys and maintenance information on a pipeline. 26 refs., 7 tabs., 2 figs.

  11. Deciding between compensated volume balance and real time transient models for pipeline leak detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Renan Martins [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Div. de Explotacao]. E-mail: renan@cenpes.petrobras.com.br

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes a technical procedure to assess a software based leak detection system (LDS), by deciding between a simpler low cost, less effective product, having a fast installation and tuning, and a complex one with high cost and efficiency, which however takes a long time to be properly installed. This is a common decision among the pipeline operating companies, considering that the majority of the lines are short, with single phase liquid flow (which may include batches), basic communication system and instrumentation. Service companies offer realistic solutions for liquid flow, but usually designed to big pipeline networks, flowing multiple batches and allowing multiple fluid entrances and deliveries. Those solutions are sometimes impractical to short pipelines, due to its high cost, as well as long tuning procedures, complex instrumentation, communication and computer requirements. It is intended to approach here the best solution according to its cost. In a practical sense, it means to differentiate the various LDS techniques. Those techniques are available in a considerable number, and they are still spreading, according to the different scenarios. However, two most known and worldwide implemented techniques hold the majority of the market: the Compensated Volume Balance (CVB), which is less accurate, reliable and robust, but cheaper, simpler and faster to install, and the Real Time Transient Model (RTTM), which is very reliable, accurate and robust, but expensive and complex. This work will describe a way to define whether one can use or not a CVB in a pipeline. (author)

  12. Response of CO2 Concentration in Andisol to Rainfall Events by Using Buried Tubing Gas Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Toshifumi; Tokida, Takeshi; Imoto, Hiromi; Nishimura, Taku; Miyazaki, Tsuyoshi

    For the purpose of continuous soil CO2 gas monitoring, gas permeable resins were evaluated. Among polytetrafluoroethylen (PTFE), polyfluoroethylene propylene (PFEP) and silicone, the silicone rubber tube had highest permeability for oxygen gas. Buried Tubing Gas Monitoring System (BT-GMS) consisting of silicone rubber tube connected to a Non-diffuse infrared (NDIR) -CO2 gas and galvanic cell O2 gas sensors were constructed, and buried into an Andisol upland field at a depth of 20cm. Thermo-couples and EC-5 soil moisture sensors were inserted into 10 and 20cm deep layers. Soil CO2 gas concentration, temperature and moisture were continuously monitored for 5 months. Soil CO2 concentration was sensitive to rainfall events and soil moisture change. Responses were keen during summer until early autumn when soil temperature was higher than 20°C. Then, when soil temperature got lower the response tended to be dull. This suggested quick CO2 gas concentration change following a rainfall event was mostly due to enhancement in soil respiration with soil moisture rise.

  13. Ecoulements diphasiques instables dans les systèmes pipeline/riser Unsteady Two-Phase Flows in Pipeline/Riser Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabre J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les instabilités hydrodynamiques de l'écoulement dans les systèmes pipeline/riser ont été étudiées sur une boucle d'essais en tubes transparents de diamètre intérieur 0,053 m, longueur 25 m pour la partie pipeline et 13,5 m pour la partie riser. Les expériences effectuées sur de l'eau et de l'air, à différentes pentes du pipeline et pour plusieurs valeurs du débit d'entrée, ont permis l'observation d'instabilités à grande échelle à faible débit de liquide et de gaz. Les cartes de configuration d'écoulement ont été établies pour trois pentes différentes du pipeline. Le modèle numérique développé à partir de ces données résout les équations locales instantanées de bilan de masse et de quantité de mouvement de ces écoulements par la méthode des caractéristiques. L'évolution des pressions, fraction de vide, débit de gaz et de liquide au cours du temps, prévue par le modèle, est généralement en bon accord avec les données expérimentales. Hydrodynamic instabilities of flow in pipeline/riser systems were studied on a test loop made of transparent tubes with an ID of 0. 053 m and 25 m long for the pipeline part and 13. 5 m long for the riser. Experiments performed with water and air, with different slopes of the pipeline and with several inlet flow rates, reveal large-scale instabilities at low liquid and gas flow rates. Flow configuration maps were compiled for three different pipeline slopes. The numerical model developed from these data solves instantaneous local equations for the mass balance and amount of movement of such flows by the method of characteristics. Variations in pressures, in the void fraction and in gas and liquid flow in the time forecast by the model are generally in good agreement with experimental data.

  14. Reliability and risk analysis and evaluation of a port oil pipeline transportation system in variable operation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soszynska, Joanna [Gdynia Maritime University, Gdynia (Poland)

    2009-07-01

    In the paper the semi-Markov model is applied to describe the port oil pipeline transportation system operation processes and its selected parameters are determined. Multi-state systems are considered and their reliability and risk are found. Next, the joint model of the systems' operation process and the systems' multi-state reliability is applied to the reliability and risk evaluation of the port oil pipeline transportation system. (author)

  15. A case study in flow assurance of a pipeline-riser system using OLGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, Rafael Horschutz; Balino, Jorge Luis [Nucleo de Dinamica e Fluidos. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Universidade de Sao Paulo (EP/USP), SP (Brazil)], e-mails: rafael.nemoto@usp.br, jlbalino@usp.br; Tanaka, Rafael Loureiro; Godinho, Carlos Alberto [Prysmian Cables and Systems, Cariacica, ES (Brazil)], e-mails: rafael.tanaka@prysmian.com, carlos.godinho@prysmian.com

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, a case study in flow assurance is performed considering an offshore operating system, using the software OLGA. As operating system we consider a pipeline-riser geometry with typical dimensions of offshore oil production systems, and a three-phase flow of oil, gas and water. The model developed in OLGA considers the composition and dimensions of the tubes, heat transfer parameters, process equipment and fluid sources. The fluids properties are calculated using the software PVTsim. Simulations are ran in order to determine the pipeline inner diameter and insulation required to satisfy pressure and temperature requirements. It is also possible to simulate the transient behavior of the system, which allows to evaluate if production instabilities are present. In case instabilities exist, two mitigation alternatives are evaluated: closure of a choke valve before the separator and gas lift. Considering a possible production shutdown, the tubes insulation is calculated in order to avoid hydrate formation. (author)

  16. Pipeline inwall 3D measurement system based on the cross structured light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Da; Lin, Zhipeng; Xue, Lei; Zheng, Qiang; Wang, Zichi

    2014-01-01

    In order to accurately realize the defect detection of pipeline inwall, this paper proposes a measurement system made up of cross structured light, single CCD camera and a smart car, etc. Based on structured light measurement technology, this paper mainly introduces the structured light measurement system, the imaging mathematical model, and the parameters and method of camera calibration. Using these measuring principles and methods, the camera in remote control car platform achieves continuous shooting of objects and real-time rebound processing as well as utilizing established model to extract 3D point cloud coordinate to reconstruct pipeline defects, so it is possible to achieve 3D automatic measuring, and verifies the correctness and feasibility of this system. It has been found that this system has great measurement accuracy in practice.

  17. Leakage location system for oil pipeline on basis of stress wave detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bangfeng WANG; Renwen CHEN

    2008-01-01

    An online monitoring system was developed for rapidly determining the exact location of the holing position in an oil pipeline by monitoring and analyzing the characteristics of the strain wave caused by the hole. The system has a master-slaver computer structure based on a remote wireless network. The master system takes charge of managing and controlling the whole system, identifying the holing stress wave, and calculating the holing position. The slaver system is responsible for sampling the strain wave signal from the pipeline. The characteristics of the strain wave signal are extracted by a Hilbert-Huang trans-form based on a signal processing approach. The exact holing position can be obtained by a time delay locating method with stress wave characteristics. The experimental results of the in-service pipeline show that the average locating error of the system is less than 10 m, the accuracy ratio for the holing alarm is more than 90%, and the time that the system takes to respond to the leakage is less than 10 s.

  18. Spatial analysis in PGPB's risk administration system for pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, L.R.C.S.; Mendoza, J.L.M.; Betancourt, E.R. [Pemex Gas and Petrochemical Basics, Huasteca (Mexico); Polanco, R.P. [Petroleos Mexicanos, Huasteca (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    Pemex Gas and Petrochemical Basics (PGPB) has been using Bass Trigon's Integrity Assessment Program (IAP) for risk administration. The software includes a risk administration system for pipelines (RASP), making it possible to identify and evaluate risks that could affect the transportation capacity of the petrochemical, liquefied petroleum gas and natural gas transmission system. The pipeline division of PGPB uses a geographic information system (GIS) called the facilities and assets information system (FAIS) for maintenance of its pipelines, as well as the design, construction and operation of pumping and compression stations. Some specific applications using the integrated FAIS and RASP system were presented to demonstrate risk assessment data analysis and their consequences. In particular, it described how PGPB used FAIS to analyse RASP data to decide if a liquefied petroleum gas terminal should change location. RASP considers over 200 variables that contribute to risk factors for external and internal corrosion, design and materials, third parties, ground movement and system operation. The spatial analysis system proved effective in supporting decision making, preventing accidents, and developing emergency plans. 4 refs., 5 tabs., 13 figs.

  19. FBG Temperature and Pressure Sensing System for Hot Water Pipeline of Petrochemical Factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Hui Lü; Shao-Hua Shang; Xu Jiang; Jin-Ping Ou; Chao Yang; Chuan-Di Li; Wei Xu

    2008-01-01

    A spatial and wavelength division multi-plexing fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensing system is reported for monitoring the temperature and the pressure (T-P) of hot water pipeline in petrochemical factory. The FBG sensing system has 72 channels independently, and it provides the capability to monitor large number sensors at same time. A resolution of 0.1 ℃ and 0.01 MPa with a measurement bandwidth of 150 Hz has been achieved.

  20. PageRank Pipeline Benchmark: Proposal for a Holistic System Benchmark for Big-Data Platforms

    CERN Document Server

    Dreher, Patrick; Hill, Chris; Gadepally, Vijay; Kuszmaul, Bradley; Kepner, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    The rise of big data systems has created a need for benchmarks to measure and compare the capabilities of these systems. Big data benchmarks present unique scalability challenges. The supercomputing community has wrestled with these challenges for decades and developed methodologies for creating rigorous scalable benchmarks (e.g., HPC Challenge). The proposed PageRank pipeline benchmark employs supercomputing benchmarking methodologies to create a scalable benchmark that is reflective of many real-world big data processing systems. The PageRank pipeline benchmark builds on existing prior scalable benchmarks (Graph500, Sort, and PageRank) to create a holistic benchmark with multiple integrated kernels that can be run together or independently. Each kernel is well defined mathematically and can be implemented in any programming environment. The linear algebraic nature of PageRank makes it well suited to being implemented using the GraphBLAS standard. The computations are simple enough that performance predictio...

  1. SPADOCK: Adaptive Pipeline Technology for Web System using WebSocket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aries RICHI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As information technology grows to the era of IoT(Internet of Things and cloud computing, the performance ofweb application and web service which acts as the informationgateway becomes an issue. Horizontal quality of serviceimprovement through system performance escalation becomesan issue pursued by engineers and scientists, giving birth toBigPipe pipeline technology which was developed by Facebook.We make SPADOCK, an adaptive pipeline system which is builtunder distributed system architecture with the utilization ofHTML5 WebSocket, then measure its performance. Parametersused for the measurement includes latency, workload, andbandwidth. The result shows that SPADOCK could reduceserving latency by 68.28% compared with the conventional web,and it is 20.63% faster than BigPipe.

  2. 49 CFR 192.755 - Protecting cast-iron pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protecting cast-iron pipelines. 192.755 Section... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.755 Protecting cast-iron pipelines. When an operator has knowledge that the support for a segment of a buried...

  3. Reliability, risk and availability analysis and evaluation of a port oil pipeline transportation system in constant operation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolowrocki, Krzysztof [Gdynia Maritime University, Gdynia (Poland)

    2009-07-01

    In the paper the multi-state approach to the analysis and evaluation of systems' reliability, risk and availability is practically applied. Theoretical definitions and results are illustrated by the example of their application in the reliability, risk and availability evaluation of an oil pipeline transportation system. The pipeline transportation system is considered in the constant in time operation conditions. The system reliability structure and its components reliability functions are not changing in constant operation conditions. The system reliability structure is fixed with a high accuracy. Whereas, the input reliability characteristics of the pipeline components are not sufficiently exact because of the lack of statistical data necessary for their estimation. The results may be considered as an illustration of the proposed methods possibilities of applications in pipeline systems reliability analysis. (author)

  4. Detection of Unauthorized Construction Equipment in Pipeline Right-of-Ways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurice Givens; James E. Huebler

    2004-09-30

    The leading cause of incidents on transmission pipelines is damage by third-party construction equipment. A single incident can be devastating, causing death and millions of dollars of property loss. This damage would be prevented if potentially hazardous construction equipment could be detected, identified, and an alert given before the pipeline is hit. Currently there is no method for continuously monitoring a pipeline right-of-way. Instead, companies periodically walk or fly over the pipeline to find unauthorized construction activities. Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is developing a system to solve this problem by using an optical fiber buried above the pipeline as a distributed sensor. A custom optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR) is used to interrogate the fiber. Key issues in the development of this technology are the ability to detect encroachment and the ability to discriminate among potentially hazardous and benign encroachments. Advantages of the reflectometry technique are the ability to accurately pinpoint the location of the construction activity and the ability to separately monitor simultaneously occurring events. The basic concept of using OTDR with an optical fiber buried above the pipeline to detect encroachment of construction equipment into the right of way works. Sufficiently rapid time response is possible; permitting discrimination between encroachment types. Additional work is required to improve the system into a practical device.

  5. A Novel MagPipe Pipeline transportation system using linear motor drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, J.R.; Montgomery, D.B.; Roderick, L. [Magplane Technology Inc., Littleton, MA (United States)

    2009-11-15

    A novel capsule pipeline transportation system using linear motor drives, called Magplane MagPipe, is under development with the intention to replace trucks and railways for hauling materials from the mine to the rail head, power plant, or processing plant with reduced operating cost and energy consumption. The initial demonstration of a MagPipe line in Inner Mongolia will be a 500-m-long double-pipe coal transport system with the design transportation capacity of 3 Mega-Mg per year. The pipeline consists of 6-m-long plastic pipe modules with an I-beam suspension system inside the pipe to carry sets of five coupled capsules. The pipe will also contain noncontinuous motor winding modules spaced at 50-m intervals. A set of Halbach-arrayed permanent magnets on the bottom of the capsules interact with the linear motor windings to provide propulsion. The motor is driven by variable frequency drives outside the pipe to control the speed. This paper briefly describes the overall MagPipe pipeline transportation system, including the preliminary conclusions of the linear synchronous motor analysis.

  6. Brazil pipelines system crossings; Sistema de dutovias do Brasil - interferencias nos transportes terrestres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Roberto; Barbosa, Sylvio [Agencia Nacional de Transportes Terrestres (ANTT), Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Abib, Osvaldo

    2005-07-01

    The Law 10.233/2001 of 2001 designated the National Agency of Land Transportation (ANTT) as responsible for the gathering and organizing of information about Brazilian pipeline infrastructure. In order to fulfill this legal requirement, ANTT is developing the Brazilian Pipeline Catalog System (SISDUT) and is creating a geo referenced database. The priority is to collect information on the critical points, those where the pipelines intersect with road and rail networks. The SISDUT geo processing catalog will store all information required to manage and track critical points, such as: technical construction standards, as built plans, adjustments terms with roads and rail networks, special usage grants, inspection procedures, pictures taken on local visits, ANTT deliberations, usage of soil, etc. The system was designed using the Object Oriented Analysis and Design paradigms, modeled in the Unified Modeling Language. The database will be populated by ANTT and with data imported from partners. The queries for literal and geographic data will be available on the Internet using Web mapping. SISDUT system will allow spatial cross referencing among its many entities, allowing complex analysis and tracking of events in the critical points. (author)

  7. INEL Operable Unit 7-13 Retrieval/Ex Situ Thermal Treatment configuration options: INEL Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Systems Analysis project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, J.G.; Rudin, M.J.; O' Brien, M.C.; Morrison, J.L.; Raivo, B.

    1992-07-01

    The mission of the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Systems Analysis project is to identify and evaluate cradle-to-grave systems for the remediation of Transuranic (TRU)Contaminated Waste Pits and Trenches within the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The BWID program will use the results of the BWID Systems Analysis in conjunction with identified Department of Energy (DOE) Complex buried waste needs to develop a long-term strategy for improving buried waste remediation capabilities throughout the DOE system. This report presents Buried Waste Retrieval/Ex Situ Thermal Treatment configuration option concepts in the form of block diagrams. These configuration options are: Retrieval/Melter Treatment; Retrieval/Metal Sort/Thermal Treatment; Retrieval/No Sort/Incineration/Melter Treatment; Retrieval/Interim Storage/Melter Treatment; Retrieval/Interim Storage/Metal Sort/Thermal Treatment; and Retrieval/Interim Storage/No Sort/Incineration/Melter Treatment. Each option is presented as a complete end-to-end system.

  8. Vulnerability assessment of critical infrastructure : activity 2 progress report : information of SCADA systems and other security monitoring systems used in oil and gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, G.P. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory

    2007-12-15

    Many pipelines are located in remote regions and subjected to harsh environmental conditions. Damage to pipelines can have significant economic and environmental impacts. This paper discussed the use of supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems to monitor and control oil and gas pipeline infrastructure. SCADA systems are a real time, distributed computerized system with an intelligent capability for condition identification and fault diagnosis. SCADA systems can be used to capture thousands of miles of pipeline system process data and distribute it to pipeline operators, whose work stations are networked with the SCADA central host computer. SCADA architectures include monolithic, distributed, and networked systems that can be distributed across wide area networks (WANs). SCADA security strategies must be implemented to ensure corporate network security. Case studies of SCADA systems currently used by oil and gas operators in Alberta were also presented. 15 refs., 1 fig.

  9. Research on Ring E-Tag Used to Orient the Buried Pipeline%埋地管道定位用环型电子标签的研发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁坚; 梁莎莎

    2015-01-01

    It is an important device for the e-tag to orient theburied PE pipeline, but the traditional e-tag is expensive and has the risk of deviation which can’t orient the pipeline precisely. A new ring e-tag put forward in the paper is cheap and can be set on the pipeline, which can meet the demand of digital safety management.%电子标签是埋地聚乙烯管道检测定位的重要装置,传统的电子标签价格高昂,还存在被拆移使之偏离管道的风险,文中介绍的环型电子标签价格低廉且直接套在管道上,较好地满足了数字化安全管理的要求。

  10. Public inquiry concerning stress corrosion cracking on Canadian oil and gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollman, K.W.; Cote-Verhaaf, A.; Illing, R.

    1996-11-01

    An comprehensive inquiry was conducted into the serious problem of near-neutral pH stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in Canada`s buried oil and gas pipelines. The inquiry was prompted by evidence of the widespread nature of SCC and awareness that research was producing new insights into the problem. Two major ruptures and fires occurred on the TransCanada system in February and July of 1995. The July rupture was in a location where it was believed SCC could not occur. SCC on pipelines occurs when small cracks develop on the outside surface of the buried pipeline. With time the cracks grow large enough until the pipeline fails or ruptures. SCC results from an interaction of the following three conditions: a potent environment at the pipe surface, a susceptible pipe material, and a tensile stress. Recommendations to resolve the problem included implementation of an SCC management program by pipeline companies, changes to the design of the pipeline, continued research, establishment of an SCC database, improved emergency response practices, and information sharing. 84 refs., 8 tabs., 67 figs.

  11. A survey on the state-of-the-technique on software based pipeline leak detection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Renan Martins [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Div. de Explotacao]. E-mail: renan@cenpes.petrobras.com.br

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes a general technical survey on software based leak detection systems (LDS), approaching its main technological features, the operational situations where they are feasible, and the scenarios within the Brazilian pipeline network. The decision on what LDS to choose for a given pipeline is a matter of cost, suitability and feasibility. A simpler low cost, less effective product, but with a fast installation and tuning procedure, may be more suitable for a given operational site (pipeline configuration, kind of fluid, quality of instrumentation and communication), than a complex, high cost, efficient product, but taking a long time to be properly installed. Some other may really have a level of complexity that will require a more sophisticated system. A few number of them will simply not be suitable to have a LDS: it may be caused by the poor quality or absence of instrumentation, or, the worst case, due to the lack of technology to approach that specific case, e. g., multiphase flow lines, or those lines that commonly operates in slack condition. It is intended to approach here the general state-of-the-technique and make some initial comments on the costs. (author)

  12. GIS (Geographic Information Systems) based automatic tool for selection of gas pipeline corridors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Denise F.; Menezes, Paulo Cesar P.; Paz, Luciana R.L.; Garcia, Katia C.; Cruz, Cristiane B.; Pires, Silvia H.M.; Damazio, Jorge M.; Medeiros, Alexandre M.

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes a methodology developed to build total accumulated surfaces in order to better select gas pipelines corridor alternatives. The methodology is based on the minimization of negative impacts and the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), allowing an automatic method of construction, evaluation and selection of alternatives, that will contribute to the decision making process. It is important to emphasize that this paper follows the assumptions presented on the research reports of a project sponsored by the Ministry of Mines and Energy (MME) and elaborated at the Electric Power Research Center (CEPEL), called 'Development of a Geographic Information System to Oil and Gas Sectors in Brazil', and also the studies d GTW Project (Gas to Wire). Gas pipelines, as for their linear characteristic, may cross a variety of habitats and settlements, increasing the complexity of their environmental management. Considering this reality, this paper presents a methodology that takes into account different environmental criteria (layers), according to the area impacted. From the synthesis of the criteria it is presented the total accumulated surface. It is showed an example of a hypothetical gas pipeline connection between two points using the total accumulated surface. To select the 'impact scores' of the features, the gas pipeline was considered as a linear feature, but the result is a region, formed by pixels, each pixel with an accumulated impact score lower than some arbitrary measure. This region is called 'corridor', and it is the final result obtained using the proposed methodology. (author)

  13. Engineering Measures for Preventing Upheaval Buckling of Buried Submarine Pipelines%防止温度应力下海底管线发生整体屈曲的工程措施研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘润; 王武刚; 闫澍旺; 吴新利

    2012-01-01

    In-service hydrocarbons must be transported at high temperature and pressure to ease the flow and prevented solidification of the wax fraction.High temperature and pressure induced addition stress in the pipeline,and its accumulation will cause upheaval buckling of the pipeline.If such expansion is resisted,for example by frictional affects of the foundation soil o-ver a kilometer or so of pipeline,compressive axial stress will be set up in the pipe-wall.When the value exceeds the constraint of foundation soil on the pipeline,sudden deformation will occur to release internal stress,which is similar to the sudden deformation of strut due to stability problems.The upheaval buckling may jeopardize the structural integrity of the pipeline.Therefore,the effective engineering measure against this phenomenon plays an important role in submarine pipeline design.In terms of the pipeline installation and protection measures commonly used in Bohai Gulf,three engineering measures was investigated in great details.The analytical method was introduced and developed to consider the protection effect of anti-upheaval buckling of the pipeline.The analyzing results showed that the amplitude of initial imperfection had a great effect on the pipeline thermal upheaval buckling.Both trenching and burial and discrete dumping were effective on preventing the pipeline from buckling.The initial imperfection and operation conditions of the pipelines determined the covered depth and the number of layers of protection measures.%为减小油气输送难度和避免原油固化,石油、天然气通常在高温高压下输送.输送过程中的高温和高压导致海底管线中产生较大的附加应力,附加应力的不断累积造成管线发生整体屈曲.对于埋地的海底管线通常会产生竖向屈曲大变形而影响使用甚至破坏.因此,需对有可能产生整体屈曲的管线采取工程防护措施.结合我国海洋工程中管线常用的铺设及保护措施,对

  14. 78 FR 41991 - Pipeline Safety: Potential for Damage to Pipeline Facilities Caused by Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... gallons of crude oil into the Yellowstone River. The rupture was caused by debris washing downstream in... structure and by impact and/or waterborne forces. Washouts and erosion may result in loss of support for both buried and exposed pipelines. The flow of water against an exposed pipeline may also result...

  15. Therapies in the Pipeline for Systemic Autoimmune Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Felipe Betancur; Jose Fernando Molina; Gabriel J. Tobón

    2016-01-01

    The current goals in the development of novel therapeutics of systemic autoimmune diseases are to develop agents more effective than conventional therapies as well as to reduce the risk of organ damage. To achieve this goal, large multicentre randomised controlled trials are needed to confirm the efficacy and safety of novel agents. Whether these novel modalities are synergistic to conventional drugs, the optimal dosages, and duration of treatment, need to be explored. As expected, the dev...

  16. Special purpose computer system with highly parallel pipelines for flow visualization using holography technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Nobuyuki; Sugie, Takashige; Ito, Tomoyoshi; Tanaka, Shinjiro; Hamada, Yu; Satake, Shin-ichi; Kunugi, Tomoaki; Sato, Kazuho

    2010-12-01

    We have designed a PC cluster system with special purpose computer boards for visualization of fluid flow using digital holographic particle tracking velocimetry (DHPTV). In this board, there is a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) chip in which is installed a pipeline for calculating the intensity of an object from a hologram by fast Fourier transform (FFT). This cluster system can create 1024 reconstructed images from a 1024×1024-grid hologram in 0.77 s. It is expected that this system will contribute to the analysis of fluid flow using DHPTV.

  17. An Experimental Simulation of Load-Leveling Through Adsorption for Natural Gas Pipeline System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周理; 陈海华

    2002-01-01

    A lo9adleveling method through adsorption was presented to adjust the supply quantity according to the consumption rate of natural gas with time,An experimental simulation set up was designed and used to test the load-leveling function for a real pipline system.A storage tank filled with activated carbon together with a filter constitutes the major part of the load-leveling facility,Pressure and temperature of the system,as well as the real gas output of the storage tank were recorded.It is proven that load-leveling by adsorption in technically feasible even for low pipeline pressure of natural gas supply system.

  18. Towards photometry pipeline of the Indonesian space surveillance system

    CERN Document Server

    Priyatikanto, R; Rachman, A; Dani, T

    2015-01-01

    Optical observation through sub-meter telescope equipped with CCD camera becomes alternative method for increasing orbital debris detection and surveillance. This observational mode is expected to eye medium-sized objects in higher orbits (e.g. MEO, GTO, GSO \\& GEO), beyond the reach of usual radar system. However, such observation of fast-moving objects demands special treatment and analysis technique. In this study, we performed photometric analysis of the satellite track images photographed using rehabilitated Schmidt Bima Sakti telescope in Bosscha Observatory. The Hough transformation was implemented to automatically detect linear streak from the images. From this analysis and comparison to USSPACECOM catalog, two satellites were identified and associated with inactive Thuraya-3 satellite and Satcom-3 debris which are located at geostationary orbit. Further aperture photometry analysis revealed the periodicity of tumbling Satcom-3 debris. In the near future, it is not impossible to apply similar sche...

  19. Pipelining the Fast Multipole Method over a Runtime System

    CERN Document Server

    Agullo, Emmanuel; Coulaud, Olivier; Darve, Eric; Messner, Matthias; Toru, Takahashi

    2012-01-01

    Fast Multipole Methods (FMM) are a fundamental operation for the simulation of many physical problems. The high performance design of such methods usually requires to carefully tune the algorithm for both the targeted physics and the hardware. In this paper, we propose a new approach that achieves high performance across architectures. Our method consists of expressing the FMM algorithm as a task flow and employing a state-of-the-art runtime system, StarPU, in order to process the tasks on the different processing units. We carefully design the task flow, the mathematical operators, their Central Processing Unit (CPU) and Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) implementations, as well as scheduling schemes. We compute potentials and forces of 200 million particles in 48.7 seconds on a homogeneous 160 cores SGI Altix UV 100 and of 38 million particles in 13.34 seconds on a heterogeneous 12 cores Intel Nehalem processor enhanced with 3 Nvidia M2090 Fermi GPUs.

  20. Development of a Neural Fuzzy System for Advanced Prediction of Gas Hydrate Formation Rate in Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad JALALNEZHAD

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the natural gas industry in the 20th century, the production, processing and distribution of natural gas under high-pressure conditions has become necessary. Under these conditions, it was found that the production and transmission pipelines were becoming blocked with what looked like to be ice. Hammerschmidt determined that hydrates were the cause of plugged natural gas pipelines. Gas hydrates and difficulties related to their formation in production and transmission pipelines and equipment, are the major concerns of the gas industry. The main objective of this study was to present a novel approach to access more accurate hydrate formation rate predicting models based on a combination of flow loop experimental data with learning power of adaptive neural-fuzzy inference systems and more than 900 data points of the , , , and i-  hydrate formation rate. Using this data set different predictive models were developed. It was found that such models can be used as powerful tools, with total errors less than 6 % for the developed models, in predicting hydrate formation rate in these cases.

  1. Accelerating root system phenotyping of seedlings through a computer-assisted processing pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuy, Lionel X; Wright, Gladys; Thompson, Jacqueline A; Taylor, Anna; Dekeyser, Sebastien; White, Christopher P; Thomas, William T B; Nightingale, Mark; Hammond, John P; Graham, Neil S; Thomas, Catherine L; Broadley, Martin R; White, Philip J

    2017-01-01

    There are numerous systems and techniques to measure the growth of plant roots. However, phenotyping large numbers of plant roots for breeding and genetic analyses remains challenging. One major difficulty is to achieve high throughput and resolution at a reasonable cost per plant sample. Here we describe a cost-effective root phenotyping pipeline, on which we perform time and accuracy benchmarking to identify bottlenecks in such pipelines and strategies for their acceleration. Our root phenotyping pipeline was assembled with custom software and low cost material and equipment. Results show that sample preparation and handling of samples during screening are the most time consuming task in root phenotyping. Algorithms can be used to speed up the extraction of root traits from image data, but when applied to large numbers of images, there is a trade-off between time of processing the data and errors contained in the database. Scaling-up root phenotyping to large numbers of genotypes will require not only automation of sample preparation and sample handling, but also efficient algorithms for error detection for more reliable replacement of manual interventions.

  2. Finite element analysis of fluid-structure interaction in pipeline systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreejith, B.; Jayaraj, K.; Ganesan, N.; Padmanabhan, C. E-mail: ouli@iitm.ac.in; Chellapandi, P.; Selvaraj, P

    2004-02-01

    Pipes used for transporting high velocity pressurized fluids often pe rate under time-varying conditions due to pump and valve operations. This an cause vibration problems. In the present work, a finite element formulation for the fully coupled dynamic equations of motion to include the effect of fluid-structure interaction (FSI) is introduced and applied to a pipe line system used in nuclear reactors. The fluid finite element model is based on flow velocity as the variable. The response of fluid filled pipe lines to valve closure excitation has been studied. The model is validated with an experimental pipeline system.

  3. Research on On-line detection system for natural gas pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuo Jianyong; Yan Guozheng; Ding Guoqing; Fu Xiguang; Zhang Yunwei

    2005-01-01

    Four methods for testing the thickness and defect of pipeline are compared and analyzed in this paper. The testing principle of magnetic leakage flux based on electromagnetism is discussed in detail. From the experiments of sensor character, the effects caused by some factors are found, which give some important information for sensor design, and this method is proved reasonable and effective. The mechanical and electrical structures of inspection equipment, as well as its working principle and technical features are introduced. In this paper, control flow and software design are discussed, too. This detection system has been successfully developed. Experiments show that this detection system has high resolution and can be put into practice.

  4. The optimization of design parameters for surge relief valve for pipeline systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunjun; Hur, Jisung; Kim, Sanghyun

    2017-06-01

    Surge is an abnormal pressure which induced by rapid changes of flow rate in pipeline systems. In order to protect pipeline system from the surge pressure, various hydraulic devices have been developed. Surge-relief valve(SRV) is one of the widely applied devices to control surge due to its feasibility in application, efficiency and cost-effectiveness. SRV is designed to automatically open under abnormal pressure and discharge the flow and makes pressure of the system drop to the allowable level. The performance of the SRV is influenced by hydraulics. According to previous studies, there are several affecting factors which determine performance of the PRV such as design parameters (e.g. size of the valve), system parameters (e.g. number of the valves and location of the valve), and operation parameters (e.g. set point and operation time). Therefore, the systematic consideration for factors affecting performance of SRV is required for the proper installation of SRV in the system. In this study, methodology for finding optimum parameters of the SRV is explored through the integration of Genetic Algorithm(GA) into surge analysis.

  5. Intelligent systems for pipeline infrastructure reliability ISPIR progress report 9 : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, G.P.; Doiron, A.; Mohapatra, B.; Papavinasam, S.; Revie, R.W. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory

    2004-05-15

    This paper described a multifunctional pipeline monitoring system that used fiber optic sensors and a microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) sensor designed by researchers at Natural Resources Canada's CANMET laboratory. The intelligent system for pipeline infrastructure reliability (ISPIR) was developed to monitor pressure and temperature changes; corrosion; cracking and crack propagation; third party intrusion; and pH and dissolved carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) concentrations. The ISPIR is also capable of detecting and inspecting leaks, buckling, bending, soil movement, and microbial activity. The fiber optics system measures chemical and microbiological environmental conditions on external pipe surfaces. A structural integrity monitoring software system was used to provide a user-friendly interface for modelling and developing decision-making algorithms. The paper included the results of laboratory tests conducted to evaluate the system's fiber optic pH and CO{sub 2} sensors as well as to assess the accuracy of long gauge monitoring data. Further research is being conducted to develop methods of monitoring disbondment; the development of high axial stresses; and the absence of protective cathodic potential. 11 refs., 9 figs., 1 appendix.

  6. Field experience with a novel pipe protection and monitoring system for large offshore pipeline construction projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magerstaedt, Michael; Blitz, Gunther [ROSEN Swiss AG, Stans (Switzerland); Sabido, Carlos E. [ROSEN Technology and Research Center, Lingen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    For pipe joints stored during large-scale offshore pipeline construction projects, corrosion protection as well as protection from physical damage of pipelines is very important. Integrity Management does not just start with the operation of a pipeline. In the past, with the much lower risks and cost at stake in on shore constriction, this factor was often overlooked. Sometimes, newly laid pipelines failed upon hydrostatic testing or even during operation. Causes were corrosion or damage the pipe joints took before pipeline laying. For offshore projects, the cost and consequences associated with such failures are orders of magnitude higher and must be avoided by all means. Within six months from the conception of the idea, a system was developed and deployed that protected (and in part still protects) a large number of pipe joints used in a European offshore gas pipeline project more than 2000 km. The pipe joints were physically protected from corrosion, interior contamination, and condensation. At the same time, the system provided real-time monitoring of more than 100'000 pipe joints stored at 5 storage yards distributed over 3 countries with distances of more than 1200 km apart from each other. Every single joint was identified with its location and status at every time during the storage period. Any third-party interference was transmitted to a central control room in real time as well. Protection of the pipe joints was provided vs.: corrosion of pipe joint end cutbacks exposed to the maritime climate for up to 2 years; contamination of the pipe interior by: foreign material, dirt, water, ice, animals. Third party damage to the pipe joints; damage to the protection system or to the transmission network; fire; theft of pipe joints or other equipment. System features were: modular pipe caps that, protect the pipe interior, cover both inner and outer cutback, allow ventilation of the pipe interior, continuously monitor each pipe joint for third party damage

  7. Environmental management systems methodology for pipeline systems implementation; Metodologia para implantacao de sistemas de gestao ambiental na implementacao de empreendimentos dutoviarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paz, Claudio Marques [JPTE Engenharia Ltda., Barueri, SP (Brazil); Pinaud, Rodrigo Zambrotti [AJR Engenharia - Seguranca, Meio Ambiente e Saude Ltda. (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The implementation of oil and gas pipeline systems are commonly made in a own or shared with power transmission, rail and crossroads right-of-way. Pipelines are a 'linear' structure, such as power transmission lines, which are established on landscapes with several conformations (accent slopes, swamp and rocky soils), including sites with high environmental sensibility. The services involved on pipeline implementation are very dynamic, involving several number of employees, vehicles, heavy equipment of excavation and welding that results in a high potential to cause environmental and social impacts. This article, based on the Brazilian and foreign experience on pipeline construction, proposes a methodology to prevent and minimize social and environmental impacts during the construction stage of a pipeline system. (author)

  8. EST Pipeline System: Detailed and Automated EST Data Processing and Mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Xu; Liang Zhang; Hong Yu; Yan Zhou; Ling He; Yuanzhong Zhu; Wei Huang; Lijun Fang; Lin Tao; Yuedong Zhu; Lin Cai; Huayong Xu

    2003-01-01

    Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are widely used in gene survey research these years. The EST Pipeline System, software developed by Hangzhou Genomics Institute (HGI), can automatically analyze different scalar EST sequences by suitable methods. All the analysis reports, including those of vector masking, sequence assembly, gene annotation, Gene Ontology classification, and some other analyses,can be browsed and searched as well as downloaded in the Excel format from the web interface, saving research efforts from routine data processing for biological rules embedded in the data.

  9. Water hammer in the pump-rising pipeline system with an air chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KIM Sang-Gyun; LEE Kye-Bock; KIM Kyung-Yup

    2014-01-01

    Water hammer following the tripping of pumps can lead to overpressure and negative pressure. Reduction in overpressure and negative pressure may be necessary to avoid failure, to improve the efficiency of operation and to avoid fatigue of system components. The field tests on the water hammer have been conducted on the pump rising pipeline system with an air chamber. The hydraulic transient was simulated using the method of characteristics. Minimizing the least squares problem representing the difference between the measured and predicted transient response in the system performs the calibration of the simulation program. Among the input variables used in the water hammer analysis, the polytropic exponent, the discharge coefficient and the wave speed were calibrated. The computer program developed in this study will be useful in designing the optimum parameters of an air chamber for the real pump pipeline system. The correct selection of air chamber size and the effect of the inner diameter of the orifice to minimize water hammer have been investigated by both field measurements and numerical modeling.

  10. Modeling and Controlling Flow Transient in Pipeline Systems: Applied for Reservoir and Pump Systems Combined with Simple Surge Tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itissam ABUIZIAH

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available When transient conditions (water hammer exist, the life expectancy of the system can be adversely impacted, resulting in pump and valve failures and catastrophic pipe rupture. Hence, transient control has become an essential requirement for ensuring safe operation of water pipeline systems. To protect the pipeline systems from transient effects, an accurate analysis and suitable protection devices should be used. This paper presents the problem of modeling and simulation of transient phenomena in hydraulic systems based on the characteristics method. Also, it provides the influence of using the protection devices to control the adverse effects due to excessive and low pressure occuring in the transient. We applied this model for two main pipeline systems: Valve and pump combined with a simple surge tank connected to reservoir. The results obtained by using this model indicate that the model is an efficient tool for water hammer analysis. Moreover, using a simple surge tank reduces the unfavorable effects of transients by reducing pressure fluctuations.

  11. SCADA System for the Modeling and Optimization of Oil Collecting Pipeline Network: A Case Study of Hassi Messaoud Oilfield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aouadj

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims are data acquisition, control and online modeling of an oil collection pipeline network using a SCADA «Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition» system, allowing the optimization of this network in real time by creating more exact models of onsite facilities. Indeed, fast development of computing systems makes obsolete usage of old systems for which maintenance became more and more expensive and their performances don’t comply any more with modern company operations. SCADA system is a telemetry and control system adapted for particular requirements of an oilfield management. Thanks to its different functions, we take advantage of this system to solve production problems especially those related to oil collecting pipeline network. In fact this network is confronted to some problems, in particular pressure losses which has significant effect on the production. This problem can be taken under control by the awareness of pipeline network operation and all its process data (especially junctions in real time. This will allow online creation of representative and accurate computerized models for the oil collecting pipeline network including producing wells, collecting pipelines, manifolds and others facilities.

  12. Small Area Inertial Navigation Tracking (SAINT) System for Precise Location of Buried UXO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    inertial navigation tracking system (SAINT) technology integrated with an EM61-HH metal detector . The primary objective of this demonstration was to...positioning reference frame. This demonstration highlighted the integration of SAINT with a standard EM61-HH metal detector . The primary objective was to

  13. Low-Frequency Synthetic Aperture Sonar System for the Detection of Objects Buried in Mud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, R. van; Quesson, B.A.J.; Beckers, A.L.D.; Zampolli, M.; Colin M.E.G.D.; Hunter, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Naval mines, underwater improvised explosive devices (UW-IEDs), and underwater unexploded ordnance (UW-UXO) are concerns for harbour security. In conditions without burial, existing commercial systems, such as the REMUS unmanned underwater vehicle equipped with a (very) high frequency side scan sona

  14. Standardization process aligned to integrated management system: the case of TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Maria Fatima Ludovico de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio/ITUC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Tecnologico; Labrunie, Charles; Araujo, Dario Doria de [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Terminais e Oleodutos

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the implementation by PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. - TRANSPETRO of its Oil Pipelines and Terminals Standardization Program (PRONOT) within the scope of the 'Integrated Management System' (IMS). This program, launched in 2006 in the regions where the company operates, aims at standardizing all of its oil pipeline and terminal operations. Its implementation was planned in two phases: the first, already successfully concluded, refers to pipeline operations, industrial maintenance and right-of-way activities management; and the second, initiated in 2009, encompasses cross-sectional activities including health, safety and environment (HSE); training and development of oil pipeline workforce; communication with stake holders; oil pipeline integrity; and engineering project requirements. The documental structures of TRANSPETRO IMS and PRONOT are described and represented graphically to emphasize the intentional alignment of the standardization process carried out by the Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit to the corporate IMS, based upon national and international literature review and through practical research focusing on the best international practices. (author)

  15. Evaluation results on the effectiveness of the corrosion protection system for underground pipelines, using the DC-voltage gradient technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Antonio Carlos [Petroquimica Uniao S.A., Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    A pipeline of diameter 6'' with 17.694 km of extension was evaluated how much to the integrity of its external covering and the effectiveness of the system of cathodic protection, using the method DC-Voltage Gradient. The Cathodic Protection in this pipeline is made by seven rectifiers. The gotten data indicate that the potential pipe-ground registered in some check points to the long one of the pipeline is extremely negative, what has led to a super protection of the pipeline for the CP. This if explains for the great proximity between the anodes and the pipeline. For km had been identified 917 failures with a mean density of 50,1 per Km. Beyond the analysis of the data, this work includes conclusions and recommendations detailed for the repairs of the covering of the pipeline and for improvement of the effectiveness of the CP. One sends regards to a combination of repairs in the covering and reevaluation of the CP, in way to improve the protection level and to assure the reduction of the risk of external corrosion. (author)

  16. A Proposed Scalable Design and Simulation of Wireless Sensor Network-Based Long-Distance Water Pipeline Leakage Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz S. Almazyad

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Anomalies such as leakage and bursts in water pipelines have severe consequences for the environment and the economy. To ensure the reliability of water pipelines, they must be monitored effectively. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs have emerged as an effective technology for monitoring critical infrastructure such as water, oil and gas pipelines. In this paper, we present a scalable design and simulation of a water pipeline leakage monitoring system using Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID and WSN technology. The proposed design targets long-distance aboveground water pipelines that have special considerations for maintenance, energy consumption and cost. The design is based on deploying a group of mobile wireless sensor nodes inside the pipeline and allowing them to work cooperatively according to a prescheduled order. Under this mechanism, only one node is active at a time, while the other nodes are sleeping. The node whose turn is next wakes up according to one of three wakeup techniques: location-based, time-based and interrupt-driven. In this paper, mathematical models are derived for each technique to estimate the corresponding energy consumption and memory size requirements. The proposed equations are analyzed and the results are validated using simulation.

  17. A proposed scalable design and simulation of wireless sensor network-based long-distance water pipeline leakage monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almazyad, Abdulaziz S; Seddiq, Yasser M; Alotaibi, Ahmed M; Al-Nasheri, Ahmed Y; BenSaleh, Mohammed S; Obeid, Abdulfattah M; Qasim, Syed Manzoor

    2014-02-20

    Anomalies such as leakage and bursts in water pipelines have severe consequences for the environment and the economy. To ensure the reliability of water pipelines, they must be monitored effectively. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have emerged as an effective technology for monitoring critical infrastructure such as water, oil and gas pipelines. In this paper, we present a scalable design and simulation of a water pipeline leakage monitoring system using Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) and WSN technology. The proposed design targets long-distance aboveground water pipelines that have special considerations for maintenance, energy consumption and cost. The design is based on deploying a group of mobile wireless sensor nodes inside the pipeline and allowing them to work cooperatively according to a prescheduled order. Under this mechanism, only one node is active at a time, while the other nodes are sleeping. The node whose turn is next wakes up according to one of three wakeup techniques: location-based, time-based and interrupt-driven. In this paper, mathematical models are derived for each technique to estimate the corresponding energy consumption and memory size requirements. The proposed equations are analyzed and the results are validated using simulation.

  18. 49 CFR 195.567 - Which pipelines must have test leads and what must I do to install and maintain the leads?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE... the leads? (a) General. Except for offshore pipelines, each buried or submerged pipeline or segment of... the connection to the pipeline, coat each bared test lead wire and bared metallic area with an...

  19. Total on-line monitoring system of Tokyo gas transmission pipelines; Systeme global de controle et de surveillance des canalisations de transport du gaz developpe par Tokyo gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, M. [Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    As Tokyo Gas transmission pipeline is located in residential areas of Metropolitan Tokyo, more precise and advanced maintenance and inspection methods become necessary. A more efficient maintenance and inspection management system is being sought in line with the extension of gas transmission pipelines. Research and development is underway for various types of maintenance /monitoring systems that predict or detect pipeline damage or failure. Some systems have already been put to practical use. Tokyo Gas has developed a total online monitoring system featuring upgraded performance and centralized data processing. This system carries out 24-hour monitoring for damage and failure, and sends warnings to operators at the Pipeline Regional Network Office. This paper introduces the functions of the system, as well as the functions which are currently in the R and D stage. (author)

  20. A circulation mud system used in long-distance ore pipeline transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Youling; Wang, Hua

    2011-10-01

    The long-distance ore pipeline transportation is a new and high-tech industry, which is non-polluting, zero emissions, and in line with the strategy needs of national low-carbon economy and energy demand reduction. The long-distance ore transport needs multi-station pumping station transportation, however, the low concentration slurry that does not match the technological requirements, such as slurry head and so on. This paper designs a circulation mud system used in long-distance pipeline transportation, which solves the following issues: (1) the technical pool can't storage water during the period of cleaning mine, so can't meet the needs of non-suspension production; (2) slurry spot cool dry easy to bring serious environmental pollution; (3) the refined iron dug out from the process pool need transport to iron and steel industry, trucking transportation needs a huge costs. Experience has shown that the system effectively improve the production efficiency and propagate.

  1. Ultrasound monitoring of pipelines; Ultraschallueberwachung an Pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kircher, W.; Skerra, B.; Kobitsch-Meyer, S. [SONOTEC Ultraschallsensorik, Halle GmbH (Germany)

    2007-01-15

    Pipelines are the most modern, effective and safest transport system, which is world widely spread in a network of millions km length and is annually enlarged about thousands of km. It is sure that these systems, if they should stay save and effective, must be maintained adequately. A technique, which provides accurate and reliable measurement data without interrupting the pipeline operation, ''through the wall'', is the ultrasonic technology. This non-intrusive technology provides data for pig detection as well as it is used for recognising products in pipelines, detecting levels or full/empty states and accomplishment of sediment measurement, distance measurements, position detections and leak search. The article gives a review and describes some applications of ultrasonic technology in pipeline technique. (orig.)

  2. Biomolecular Systems of Disease Buried Across Multiple GWAS Unveiled by Information Theory and Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Younghee; Li, Jianrong; Gamazon, Eric; Chen, James L.; Tikhomirov, Anna; Cox, Nancy J.; Lussier, Yves A.

    2010-01-01

    A key challenge for genome-wide association studies (GWAS) is to understand how single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) mechanistically underpin complex diseases. While this challenge has been addressed partially by Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment of large list of host genes of SNPs prioritized in GWAS, these enrichment have not been formally evaluated. Here, we develop a novel computational approach anchored in information theoretic similarity, by systematically mining lists of host genes of SNPs prioritized in three adult-onset diabetes mellitus GWAS. The “gold-standard” is based on GO associated with 20 published diabetes SNPs’ host genes and on our own evaluation. We computationally identify 69 similarity-predicted GO independently validated in all three GWAS (FDR<5%), enriched with those of the gold-standard (odds ratio=5.89, P=4.81e-05), and these terms can be organized by similarity criteria into 11 groupings termed “biomolecular systems”. Six biomolecular systems were corroborated by the gold-standard and the remaining five were previously uncharacterized. http://lussierlab.org/publications/ITS-GWAS PMID:21347143

  3. Design of high-speed data collecting system for pipeline magnetic flux leakage inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Weidong; Xu, Hongbing

    2013-03-01

    In the process of high-speed magnetic flux leakage inspection, a large amount of signals containing pipeline status, characteristics and defects need to be collected and transmitted. High sampling frequency, high real-time, high precision and intellectualization for data collecting are long-term trend. This paper proposed a new design method of high speed data collecting system. In the system, dual CPU structure is applied in main controller and the high-speed communication between DSP and MCU is realized through dual-port RAM technology. With the Dual CPU structure being applied, the measurement, control and the communication are charged by two CPUs respectively, which can improve the system adaptability. Dual-port RAM can raise communication efficiency by improving the parallel processing ability among different type of multiprocessors.

  4. Use of geographic information systems for applications on gas pipeline rights-of-way

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sydelko, P.J.; Wilkey, P.L.

    1992-12-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) applications for the siting and monitoring of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWS) were developed for areas near Rio Vista, California. The data layers developed for this project represent geographic features, such as landcover, elevation, aspect, slope, soils, hydrography, transportation, endangered species, wetlands, and public line surveys. A GIS was used to develop and store spatial data from several sources; to manipulate spatial data to evaluate environmental and engineering issues associated with the siting, permitting, construction, maintenance, and monitoring of gas pipeline ROWS; and to graphically display analysis results. Examples of these applications include (1) determination of environmentally sensitive areas, such as endangered species habitat, wetlands, and areas of highly erosive soils; (2) evaluation of engineering constraints, including shallow depth to bedrock, major hydrographic features, and shallow water table; (3) classification of satellite imagery for landuse/landcover that will affect ROWS; and (4) identification of alternative ROW corridors that avoid environmentally sensitive areas or areas with severe engineering constraints.

  5. Use of geographic information systems for applications on gas pipeline rights-of-way

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sydelko, P.J.; Wilkey, P.L.

    1992-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) applications for the siting and monitoring of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWS) were developed for areas near Rio Vista, California. The data layers developed for this project represent geographic features, such as landcover, elevation, aspect, slope, soils, hydrography, transportation, endangered species, wetlands, and public line surveys. A GIS was used to develop and store spatial data from several sources; to manipulate spatial data to evaluate environmental and engineering issues associated with the siting, permitting, construction, maintenance, and monitoring of gas pipeline ROWS; and to graphically display analysis results. Examples of these applications include (1) determination of environmentally sensitive areas, such as endangered species habitat, wetlands, and areas of highly erosive soils; (2) evaluation of engineering constraints, including shallow depth to bedrock, major hydrographic features, and shallow water table; (3) classification of satellite imagery for landuse/landcover that will affect ROWS; and (4) identification of alternative ROW corridors that avoid environmentally sensitive areas or areas with severe engineering constraints.

  6. Use of geographic information systems for applications on gas pipeline rights-of-way

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sydelko, P.J.

    1993-10-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) applications for the siting and monitoring of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWS) were developed for areas near Rio Vista, California. The data layers developed for this project represent geographic features, such as landcover, elevation, aspect, slope, soils, hydrography, transportation, endangered species, wetlands, and public line surveys. A GIS was used to develop and store spatial data from several sources; to manipulate spatial data to evaluate environmental and engineering issues associated with the siting, permitting, construction, maintenance, and monitoring of gas pipeline ROWS; and to graphically display analysis results. Examples of these applications include (1) determination of environmentally sensitive areas, such as endangered species habitat, wetlands, and areas of highly erosive soils; (2) evaluation of engineering constraints, including shallow depth to bedrock, major hydrographic features, and shallow water table; (3) classification of satellite imagery for land use/landcover that will affect ROWS; and (4) identification of alternative ROW corridors that avoid environmentally sensitive areas or areas with severe engineering constraints.

  7. Implementation of an integrity management program in a crude oil pipeline system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Maria; Tomasella, Marcelo [Oleoductos del Valle, General Roca (Argentina); Rossi, Juan; Pellicano, Adolfo [SINTEC S.A. , Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2005-07-01

    The implementation of an Integrity Management Program (IMP) in a crude oil pipeline system is focused on the accomplishment of two primary corporative objectives: to increase safety operation margins and to optimize available resources. A proactive work philosophy ensures the safe and reliable operation of the pipeline in accordance with current legislation. The Integrity Management Program is accomplished by means of an interdisciplinary team that defines the strategic objectives that complement and are compatible with the corporative strategic business plan. The implementation of the program is based on the analysis of the risks due to external corrosion, third party damage, design and operations, and the definition of appropriate mitigation, inspection and monitoring actions, which will ensure long-term integrity of the assets. By means of a statistical propagation model of the external defects, reported by high-resolution magnetic inspection tool (MFL), together with the information provided by corrosion sensors, field repair interventions, close internal surveys and operation data, projected defect depth; remaining strength and failure probability distributions were obtained. From the analysis, feasible courses of action were established, including the inspection and repair plan, the internal inspection program and both corrosion monitoring and mitigation programs. (author)

  8. IMPROVEMENT TO PIPELINE COMPRESSOR ENGINE RELIABILITY THROUGH RETROFIT MICRO-PILOT IGNITION SYSTEM -- PHASE III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Chase; Daniel Olsen; Ted Bestor

    2005-03-01

    This report documents the third year's effort towards a 3-year program conducted by the Engines & Energy Conversion Laboratory (EECL) at Colorado State University (CSU) to develop micropilot ignition systems for existing pipeline compressor engines. Research activities for the overall program were conducted with the understanding that the efforts are to result in a commercial product to capture and disseminate the efficiency and environmental benefits of this new technology. Commercially-available fuel injection products were identified and applied to the program where appropriate. This approach will minimize the overall time-to-market requirements, while meeting performance and cost criteria. Two earlier phases of development precede this report. The objective for Phase I was to demonstrate the feasibility of retrofit micropilot ignition (RMI) systems for large bore, slow speed engines operating at low compression ratios under laboratory conditions at the EECL. The objective for Phase II was to further develop and optimize the micropilot ignition system at the EECL for large bore, slow speed engines operating at low compression ratios. These laboratory results were enhanced, then verified via a field demonstration project during Phase III of the Micropilot Ignition program. An Implementation Team of qualified engine retrofit service providers was assembled to install the retrofit micropilot ignition system for an engine operated by El Paso Pipeline Group at a compressor station near Window Rock, Arizona. Testing of this demonstration unit showed that the same benefits identified by laboratory testing at CSU, i.e., reduced fuel consumption and exhaust emissions (NOx, THC, CO, and CH2O). Installation efforts at Window Rock were completed towards the end of the budget period, which did not leave sufficient time to complete the durability testing. These efforts are ongoing, with funding provided by El Paso Pipeline Group, and the results will be documented in a

  9. A New Software for Management, Scheduling, and Optimization for the Light Hydrocarbon Pipeline Network System of Daqing Oilfield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongtu Liang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the new software which specifically developed based on Visual Studio 2010 for Daqing Oilfield China includes the most complex light hydrocarbon pipeline network system in Asia, has become a powerful auxiliary tool to manage field data, makes scheduling plans for batching operation, and optimizes pumping plans. Firstly, DMM for recording and managing field data is summarized. Then, the batch scheduling simulation module called SSM for the difficult batch-scheduling issues of the multiple-source pipeline network system is introduced. Finally, SOM, that is Scheduling Optimization Module, is indicated for solving the problem of the pumps being started up/shut-down frequently.

  10. The Herschel Data Processing System - Hipe And Pipelines - During The Early Mission Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, David R.; Herschel Science Ground Segment Consortium

    2010-01-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory, the fourth cornerstone mission in the ESA science program, was launched 14th of May 2009. With a 3.5 m telescope, it is the largest space telescope ever launched. Herschel's three instruments (HIFI, PACS, and SPIRE) perform photometry and spectroscopy in the 55 - 672 micron range and will deliver exciting science for the astronomical community during at least three years of routine observations. Here we summarize the state of the Herschel Data Processing System and give an overview about future development milestones and plans. The development of the Herschel Data Processing System started seven years ago to support the data analysis for Instrument Level Tests. Resources were made available to implement a freely distributable Data Processing System capable of interactively and automatically reduce Herschel data at different processing levels. The system combines data retrieval, pipeline execution and scientific analysis in one single environment. The software is coded in Java and Jython to be platform independent and to avoid the need for commercial licenses. The Herschel Interactive Processing Environment (HIPE) is the user-friendly face of Herschel Data Processing. The first PACS preview observation of M51 was processed with HIPE, using basic pipeline scripts to a fantastic image within 30 minutes of data reception. Also the first HIFI observations on DR-21 were successfully reduced to high quality spectra, followed by SPIRE observations on M66 and M74. The Herschel Data Processing System is a joint development by the Herschel Science Ground Segment Consortium, consisting of ESA, the NASA Herschel Science Center, and the HIFI, PACS and SPIRE consortium members.

  11. Discrete wavelet transform-based fault diagnosis for driving system of pipeline detection robot arm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Huiyu; Wang Xinli; Ma Peisun

    2005-01-01

    A real-time wavelet multi-resolution analysis (MRA)-based fault detection algorithm is proposed. The first stage detailed MRA signals extracted from the original signals were used as the criteria for fault detection. By measuring sharp variations in the detailed MRA signals, faults in the motor driving system of pipeline detection robot arm could be detected. The fault type was then identified by comparison of the three-phase MRA sharp variations. The effects of the faults were examined. The simulation results show that this algorithm is effective and robust, it is promising for fault detection in a robot's joint driving system. The method is simple, rapid and it can operate in real time.

  12. Low-cost failure sensor design and development for water pipeline distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, K; Widdop, P D; Day, A J; Wood, A S; Mounce, S R; Machell, J

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the design and development of a new sensor which is low cost to manufacture and install and is reliable in operation with sufficient accuracy, resolution and repeatability for use in newly developed systems for pipeline monitoring and leakage detection. To provide an appropriate signal, the concept of a "failure" sensor is introduced, in which the output is not necessarily proportional to the input, but is unmistakably affected when an unusual event occurs. The design of this failure sensor is based on the water opacity which can be indicative of an unusual event in a water distribution network. The laboratory work and field trials necessary to design and prove out this type of failure sensor are described here. It is concluded that a low-cost failure sensor of this type has good potential for use in a comprehensive water monitoring and management system based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANN).

  13. Integrity management program for geo-hazards in the OCENSA pipeline system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Hugo; Nieves, Carlos; Colonia, Juan Diego [Oleoducto Central S.A (Colombia)

    2010-07-01

    In the hydrocarbon sector, transportation and distribution are mainly done through onshore steel pipelines which are confronted with various geological and hydrological formations along their routes. These specificities have to be taken into account to ensure the integrity of the pipeline and the aim of this paper is to present the comprehensive right of way (ROW) program implemented for the OCENSA pipeline. This pipeline, constructed in 1997, transports crude oil from the Andes to the Caribbean Coast. The ROW program was implemented right from the design phase and is now used in the 'Plan, Do, Verify and Adjust' continuous improvement cycle. This methodology has been successful in monitoring the pipeline's behaviour and has enabled the adoption of a maintenance strategy in accordance with changes in the environment. Thanks to the implementation of this strategy, no ruptures due to natural hazards have occurred in the OCENSA oil pipeline.

  14. Numerical calculation for temperature coupled with moisture and stress of soil around buried pipeline in permafrost regions%永冻区埋地管道周围土壤水热力耦合数值计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马贵阳; 杜明俊; 李丹

    2011-01-01

    基于中俄原油管道永冻区工程建设特点,建立冻土多孔介质水热耦合数学模型.地表环境温度采用周期性边界条件,利用SIMPLER算法进行数值求解,得到埋地热油管道自第一年4月末投产,不同月份土壤温度场、水分场、冰水相变界面移动规律随环境温度周期波动的变化关系,并利用ANSYS软件对土壤水热耦合温度场进行冻胀应力分析.结果表明:在地表温度的周期波动下,较长时间内管道周围土壤温度变化剧烈,且受温差和重力的影响,土壤中水分产生了沿管道中心线自上而下的自然对流,随地表以下不同土层温度的不断变化,自然对流涡旋中心形态及强度变化明显,温度梯度对水分迁移影响较大;随着地表温度的升高,管道上方土体的融沉速率略大于管道融沉速率;伴随着融化圈的不断扩大,管道附近土体受较小应力作用范围大,容易发生不均匀冻胀.%Based on the construction characteristics of Sino-Russian crude oil pipeline permafrost regions project, a mathematical model of porous medium coupling of moisture-heat of the frozen soil was established.The periodic boundary conditions were adopted for obtaining the ambient temperature and SIMPLER method was used for numerical simulation.The relationship between the cyclic swing of the ambient temperature and the rule of soil temperature, moisture field and ice phase change interface movement was obtained since the late April of the first year when the pipeline was put into operation.The frost heave stress with the field of temperature coupled with moisture was analyzed by the software ANSYS.The results show that the soil temperature around the pipeline changes dramatically in a long period due to the periodic fluctuations of earth' s surface temperature.Top-down free convection of the moisture contained in the soil is generated along the center line of the pipeline by the effect of temperature difference and

  15. 分布内存系统中节点间软流水优化技术%Exploiting Inter-node Pipelining Parallelism in Distributed Memory Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈莉; 张兆庆; 冯晓兵

    2002-01-01

    Maximize parallelism and minimize communication overheads are important issues for distributed memory systems. Communication and data redistribution cannot be avoided even when considering global optimization of data distribution and computation decomposition. A new approach based on loop fusion is presented exploiting pipelining parallelism, thus communication overhead can be hidden and data redistribution can be avoided. This technique exploits pipelining from complex loop structures, which distinguishes itself from traditional pipelining techniques. Ex-periments show that the technique is superior to other optimizations.

  16. The NOAO Pipeline Data Manager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiriart, R.; Valdes, F.; Pierfederici, F.; Smith, C.; Miller, M.

    2004-07-01

    The Data Manager for NOAO Pipeline system is a set of interrelated components that are being developed to fulfill the pipeline system data needs. It includes: (1) management of calibration files (flat, bias, bad pixel mask and xtalk calibration data.); (2) management of the pipeline stages' configuration parameters; and (3) management of the pipeline processing historic information, for each of the data products generated by the pipeline. The Data Manager components uses a distributed, CORBA based architecture, providing a flexible and extensible object oriented framework, capable of accommodating the present and future pipeline data requirements. The Data Manager communicates with the pipeline modules, with internal and external databases, and with other NOAO systems such as the NOAO Archive and the NOAO Data Transport System.

  17. The Planet Pipeline: data curation and mining of Solar System images from WFPC2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutchler, Max

    2010-09-01

    With the removal of the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 {WFPC2} in May 2009, during Hubble Space Telescope {HST} Servicing Mission 4 {SM4}, came the end of a remarkable scientific tour-de-force. The collection of WFPC2 Solar System observations is enormous and diverse: on the order of 10,000 individual exposures spanning over 15 years. It includes long-term monitoring of planetary surfaces and atmospheres, targeted and serendipitous observations of moons, and many cometary targets-of-opportunity. Some of these observations were taken to support the planning of other NASA and ESA planetary missions, and to complement the data they obtain. The standard HST data pipelines, which calibrate and combine images, are largely optimized for the processing of fixed-target data. Moving-target data cannot be simply combined and cleaned, due to the rapid motion and rotation of the targets. New multi-extension FITS formats and recent improvements to basic WFPC2 calibrations means that the entire data set can now be reduced better than ever before. We propose to take full advantage of this by creating a comprehensive, uniformly processed, well documented, and searchable collection of Solar System data. Our "planet pipeline" will populate the image headers with information unique to planetary data, to produce a truly science-ready collection of WFPC2 Solar System imaging data. Our final data products will be ingested into the Multimission Archive at Space Telescope {MAST}, as High Level Science Products {HLSP}. We will conduct new scientific analyses of our own, but we expect our data products to enable a wide range of analyses by other researchers for many years to come, and form an essential piece of Hubble's archival legacy.

  18. Plasmonics in buried structures

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, I. T.; García de Abajo, Francisco Javier

    2009-01-01

    We describe plasmon propagation in silica-filled coupled nanovoids fully buried in gold. Propagation bands and band gaps are shown to be tunable through the degree of overlap and plasmon hybridization between contiguous voids. The effect of disorder and fabrication imperfections is thoroughly investigated. Our work explores a novel paradigm for plasmon photonics relying on plasmon modes in metal-buried structures, which can benefit from long propagation distances, cancelation of radiative los...

  19. A Prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array Pipelines Framework: Modular Efficiency Simple System (MESS)

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2015-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a ground-based $\\gamma$-ray observatory that will observe the full sky in the energy range from 20 GeV to 100 TeV from facilities in both hemispheres. It is proposed to consist of more than 100 telescopes, producing large amounts of data. Apart from the storage system, there are also requirements on the software framework to allow efficient data processing, i.e. robustness, execution speed and coding efficiency. This contribution will present a plain and simple pipeline framework design prototype for CTA that builds upon well-known tools, allowing the users to focus on physics problems without learning complicated software paradigms.

  20. The pipeline system for Octave and Matlab (PSOM: a lightweight scripting framework and execution engine for scientific workflows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre eBellec

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of neuroimaging databases typically involves a large number of inter-connected steps called a pipeline. The pipeline system for Octave and Matlab (PSOM is a flexible framework for the implementation of pipelines in the form of Octave or Matlab scripts. PSOM does not introduce new language constructs to specify the steps and structure of the workflow. All steps of analysis are instead described by a regular Matlab data structure, documenting their associated command and options, as well as their input, output and cleaned-up files. The PSOM execution engine provides a number of automated services: (1 it executes jobs in parallel on a local computing facility as long as the dependencies between jobs allow for it and sufficient resources are available; (2 it generates a comprehensive record of the pipeline stages and the history of execution, which is detailed enough to fully reproduce the analysis; (3 if an analysis is started multiple times, it executes only the parts of the pipeline that need to be reprocessed. PSOM is distributed under an opensource MIT license and can be used without restriction for academic or commercial projects. The package has no external dependencies besides Matlab or Octave, is straightforward to install and supports of variety of operating systems (Linux, Windows, Mac. We ran several benchmark experiments on a public database including 200 subjects, using a pipeline for the preprocessing of functional magnetic resonance images. The benchmark results showed that PSOM is a powerful solution for the analysis of large databases using local or distributed computing resources.

  1. The pipeline system for Octave and Matlab (PSOM): a lightweight scripting framework and execution engine for scientific workflows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellec, Pierre; Lavoie-Courchesne, Sébastien; Dickinson, Phil; Lerch, Jason P; Zijdenbos, Alex P; Evans, Alan C

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of neuroimaging databases typically involves a large number of inter-connected steps called a pipeline. The pipeline system for Octave and Matlab (PSOM) is a flexible framework for the implementation of pipelines in the form of Octave or Matlab scripts. PSOM does not introduce new language constructs to specify the steps and structure of the workflow. All steps of analysis are instead described by a regular Matlab data structure, documenting their associated command and options, as well as their input, output, and cleaned-up files. The PSOM execution engine provides a number of automated services: (1) it executes jobs in parallel on a local computing facility as long as the dependencies between jobs allow for it and sufficient resources are available; (2) it generates a comprehensive record of the pipeline stages and the history of execution, which is detailed enough to fully reproduce the analysis; (3) if an analysis is started multiple times, it executes only the parts of the pipeline that need to be reprocessed. PSOM is distributed under an open-source MIT license and can be used without restriction for academic or commercial projects. The package has no external dependencies besides Matlab or Octave, is straightforward to install and supports of variety of operating systems (Linux, Windows, Mac). We ran several benchmark experiments on a public database including 200 subjects, using a pipeline for the preprocessing of functional magnetic resonance images (fMRI). The benchmark results showed that PSOM is a powerful solution for the analysis of large databases using local or distributed computing resources.

  2. An asynchronous, pipelined, electronic acquisition system for Active Matrix Flat-Panel Imagers (AMFPIs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, W.; Antonuk, L.E. E-mail: antonuk@umich.edu; Berry, J.; Maolinbay, M.; Martelli, C.; Mody, P.; Nassif, S.; Yeakey, M

    1999-07-11

    The development of a full-custom electronic acquisition system designed for readout of large-area active matrix flat-panel imaging arrays is reported. The arrays, which comprise two-dimensional matrices of pixels utilizing amorphous silicon thin-film transistors, are themselves under development for a wide variety of X-ray imaging applications. The acquisition system was specifically designed to facilitate detailed, quantitative investigations of the properties of these novel imaging arrays and contains significant enhancements compared to a previously developed acquisition system. These enhancements include pipelined preamplifier circuits to allow faster readout speed, expanded addressing capabilities allowing a maximum of 4096 array data lines, and on-board summing of image frames. The values of many acquisition system parameters, including timings and voltages, may be specified and downloaded from a host computer. Once acquisition is enabled, the system operates asynchronously of its host computer. The system allows image capture in both radiographic mode (corresponding to the capture of individual X-ray images), and fluoroscopic mode (corresponding to the capture of a continual series of X-ray images). A detailed description of the system architecture and the underlying motivations for the design is reported in this paper. (author)

  3. A Novel Fiber Optic Based Surveillance System for Prevention of Pipeline Integrity Threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedor, Javier; Macias-Guarasa, Javier; Martins, Hugo F; Piote, Daniel; Pastor-Graells, Juan; Martin-Lopez, Sonia; Corredera, Pedro; Gonzalez-Herraez, Miguel

    2017-02-12

    This paper presents a novel surveillance system aimed at the detection and classification of threats in the vicinity of a long gas pipeline. The sensing system is based on phase-sensitive optical time domain reflectometry (ϕ-OTDR) technology for signal acquisition and pattern recognition strategies for threat identification. The proposal incorporates contextual information at the feature level and applies a system combination strategy for pattern classification. The contextual information at the feature level is based on the tandem approach (using feature representations produced by discriminatively-trained multi-layer perceptrons) by employing feature vectors that spread different temporal contexts. The system combination strategy is based on a posterior combination of likelihoods computed from different pattern classification processes. The system operates in two different modes: (1) machine + activity identification, which recognizes the activity being carried out by a certain machine, and (2) threat detection, aimed at detecting threats no matter what the real activity being conducted is. In comparison with a previous system based on the same rigorous experimental setup, the results show that the system combination from the contextual feature information improves the results for each individual class in both operational modes, as well as the overall classification accuracy, with statistically-significant improvements.

  4. A Novel Fiber Optic Based Surveillance System for Prevention of Pipeline Integrity Threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Tejedor

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel surveillance system aimed at the detection and classification of threats in the vicinity of a long gas pipeline. The sensing system is based on phase-sensitive optical time domain reflectometry (ϕ-OTDR technology for signal acquisition and pattern recognition strategies for threat identification. The proposal incorporates contextual information at the feature level and applies a system combination strategy for pattern classification. The contextual information at the feature level is based on the tandem approach (using feature representations produced by discriminatively-trained multi-layer perceptrons by employing feature vectors that spread different temporal contexts. The system combination strategy is based on a posterior combination of likelihoods computed from different pattern classification processes. The system operates in two different modes: (1 machine + activity identification, which recognizes the activity being carried out by a certain machine, and (2 threat detection, aimed at detecting threats no matter what the real activity being conducted is. In comparison with a previous system based on the same rigorous experimental setup, the results show that the system combination from the contextual feature information improves the results for each individual class in both operational modes, as well as the overall classification accuracy, with statistically-significant improvements.

  5. A Novel Fiber Optic Based Surveillance System for Prevention of Pipeline Integrity Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedor, Javier; Macias-Guarasa, Javier; Martins, Hugo F.; Piote, Daniel; Pastor-Graells, Juan; Martin-Lopez, Sonia; Corredera, Pedro; Gonzalez-Herraez, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a novel surveillance system aimed at the detection and classification of threats in the vicinity of a long gas pipeline. The sensing system is based on phase-sensitive optical time domain reflectometry (ϕ-OTDR) technology for signal acquisition and pattern recognition strategies for threat identification. The proposal incorporates contextual information at the feature level and applies a system combination strategy for pattern classification. The contextual information at the feature level is based on the tandem approach (using feature representations produced by discriminatively-trained multi-layer perceptrons) by employing feature vectors that spread different temporal contexts. The system combination strategy is based on a posterior combination of likelihoods computed from different pattern classification processes. The system operates in two different modes: (1) machine + activity identification, which recognizes the activity being carried out by a certain machine, and (2) threat detection, aimed at detecting threats no matter what the real activity being conducted is. In comparison with a previous system based on the same rigorous experimental setup, the results show that the system combination from the contextual feature information improves the results for each individual class in both operational modes, as well as the overall classification accuracy, with statistically-significant improvements. PMID:28208687

  6. Gas-turbine expander power generating systems for internal needs of compressor stations of gas-main pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimanov, A. A.; Biryuk, V. V.; Sheludko, L. P.; Shabanov, K. Yu.

    2017-08-01

    In the framework of this paper, there have been analyzed power station building methods to construct a power station for utilities for gas-main pipelines compressor stations. The application efficiency of turbo expanders in them to expand the power gas of compressor stations' gas compressor units has been shown. New schemes for gas-turbine expander power generating systems have been proposed.

  7. Modeling and monitoring - important elements in a pipeline integrity management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsen, Roy; Gartland, Per O. [Force Technology (Norway); Baxandall, Daryl [Force Technology (Canada); Souza Junior, Helio A. de [Corrocean do Brasil Ltda., RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    A unique model for prediction of corrosion profiles in oil and gas pipelines has been created. The model is based on multiphase flow modeling, water wetting predictions, pH calculations and models of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S corrosion. The input data are typically the pipeline profile, fluid composition data, production rates and data on injected chemicals. It is possible to combine the model with inspection or monitoring data. Based on the uncertainty related to the model and the available data, a probability distribution for the corrosion predictions is established. The result is combined with existing codes for the allowable corrosion attack in pressurized pipes and used to assess the need for pipeline inspection based on the risk of pipeline failure. Detailed example is given for a crude oil pipeline. (author)

  8. Water quality regulation during construction of the trans-Alaska oil pipeline system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemansky, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    The trans-Alaska oil pipeline system (TAPS) was constructed by a consortium including some of the largest oil companies in the world. They had a strong economic incentive in rapid construction of the project, perceiving delay as equivalent to loss of large amounts of profit. State and federal governments had similarly compelling economic, political, and policy reasons to adopt this objective of the oil companies as their own. This dissertation is a retrospective assessment of water quality regulation during construction of the TAPS project (1974 through mid-1977). Its theoretical framework involves the degree to which regulatory redundancy (overlap) produced reliability in achieving compliance with water pollution control requirements. It was found during this research that noncompliance was widespread, frequent, and of a magnitude which was often large. The root cause of this unnecessary noncompliance was the overriding economic interest of the pipeline builders in rapid construction coupled with the failure of regulatory agencies to enforce. There was a greater appearance of regulatory redundancy than was actually the case. The same economic, political, and policy reasons that had led to TAPS project authorization and bureaucratic dynamics resulted in enforcement failure with regard to water pollution control requirements. Under a mandate to facilitate rapid construction, the regulatory agencies demonstrated an inability to accomplish any other objective at the same time. Common-mode failure largely defeated the beneficial potential of what limited regulatory redundancy there was. Additionally, meaningful public participation was prevented by lack of resources, lack of procedural opportunity, and resistance to it from industry and government. The dissertation is concluded with recommendations for improving regulatory performance through strengthened redundancy mechanisms.

  9. Leadership Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård

    2012-01-01

    Artiklen analyserer grundlaget for Leadership Pipeline modellen med henblik på en vurdering af substansen bag modellen, og perspektiverne for generalisering af modellen til en dansk organisatorisk kontekst.......Artiklen analyserer grundlaget for Leadership Pipeline modellen med henblik på en vurdering af substansen bag modellen, og perspektiverne for generalisering af modellen til en dansk organisatorisk kontekst....

  10. SCADA System for the Modeling and Optimization of Oil Collecting Pipeline Network: A Case Study of Hassi Messaoud Oilfield

    OpenAIRE

    M. Aouadj; F. Naceri; M. Touileb; D. Sellami; M. Boukhatem

    2015-01-01

    This study aims are data acquisition, control and online modeling of an oil collection pipeline network using a SCADA «Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition» system, allowing the optimization of this network in real time by creating more exact models of onsite facilities. Indeed, fast development of computing systems makes obsolete usage of old systems for which maintenance became more and more expensive and their performances don’t comply any more with modern company operations. SCADA sys...

  11. DETECTION OF UNAUTHORIZED CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT IN PIPELINE RIGHT-OF-WAYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James E. Huebler

    2002-07-19

    Natural gas transmission companies mark the right-of-way areas where pipelines are buried with warning signs to prevent accidental third-party damage. Nevertheless, pipelines are sometimes damaged by third-party construction equipment. A single incident can be devastating, causing death and millions of dollars of property loss. This damage would be prevented if potentially hazardous construction equipment could be detected, identified, and an alert given before the pipeline was damaged. The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is developing a system to solve this problem by using an optical fiber as a distributed sensor and interrogating the fiber with an custom optical time domain reflectometer. Key issues are the ability to detect encroachment and the ability to discriminate among potentially hazardous and benign encroachments. The work performed in the third quarter of the project (2nd quarter of 2002) includes design of the diode laser driver and high-speed detector electronics and programming of the custom optical time domain reflectometer.

  12. Logistics aspects of petroleum pipeline operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Pienaar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper identifies, assesses and describes the logistics aspects of the commercial operation of petroleum pipelines. The nature of petroleum-product supply chains, in which pipelines play a role, is outlined and the types of petroleum pipeline systems are described. An outline is presented of the nature of the logistics activities of petroleum pipeline operations. The reasons for the cost efficiency of petroleum pipeline operations are given. The relative modal service effectiveness of petroleum pipeline transport, based on the most pertinent service performance measures, is offered. The segments in the petroleum-products supply chain where pipelines can play an efficient and effective role are identified.

  13. Buried Craters of Utopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-365, 19 May 2003Beneath the northern plains of Mars are numerous buried meteor impact craters. One of the most heavily-cratered areas, although buried, occurs in Utopia Planitia, as shown in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image. The history of Mars is complex; impact craters provide a tool by which to understand some of that history. In this case, a very ancient, cratered surface was thinly-buried by younger material that is not cratered at all. This area is near 48.1oN, 228.2oW; less than 180 km (112 mi) west of the Viking 2 lander site. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  14. Research and Development on Control System of Novel Winding Machine for High-pressure FRP Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU Bo; XU Jiazhong; HU Haiyan; CHENG Ningbo; ZHANG Qingli

    2006-01-01

    The novel winding machine adopted steam inside solidification technics, can wind, solidify and extract high-pressure fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) pipelines in one single machine. Its control system consisted of the winding and extraction subsystem and the steam inside solidification subsystem. In order to improve the control precision and stability, a real-time control method was adopted in the winding and extraction subsystem. In this method, high-precision TRIO motion controller combined with industrial personal computer (IPC) forms an open-type CNC system which supports multitask. The Modbus protocol was adopted for the communication between the IPC and TRIO motion controller. The human-machine interface (HMI) was developed with VC++ 6.0 and the control software of the motion controller was developed with TRIO BASIC language. In the steam inside solidification subsystem, embedded IPC and PLC were used to realize the closed-loop control of the steam temperature and the HMI was developed with MCGS 5.1 under WinCE. Practices show that this system has the good performances of high precision, good stability and high efficiency.

  15. Plasmonics in buried structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, I; García de Abajo, F J

    2009-10-12

    We describe plasmon propagation in silica-filled coupled nanovoids fully buried in gold. Propagation bands and band gaps are shown to be tunable through the degree of overlap and plasmon hybridization between contiguous voids. The effect of disorder and fabrication imperfections is thoroughly investigated. Our work explores a novel paradigm for plasmon photonics relying on plasmon modes in metal-buried structures, which can benefit from long propagation distances, cancelation of radiative losses, minimum crosstalk between neighboring waveguides, and maximum optical integration in three-dimensional arrangements.

  16. Decontamination of a drinking water pipeline system contaminated with adenovirus and Escherichia coli utilizing peracetic acid and chlorine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Ari; Ikonen, Jenni; Pursiainen, Anna; Pitkänen, Tarja; Miettinen, Ilkka T

    2012-09-01

    A contaminated drinking water distribution network can be responsible for major outbreaks of infections. In this study, two chemical decontaminants, peracetic acid (PAA) and chlorine, were used to test how a laboratory-scale pipeline system can be cleaned after simultaneous contamination with human adenovirus 40 (AdV40) and Escherichia coli. In addition, the effect of the decontaminants on biofilms was followed as heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) and total cell counts (TCC). Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to determine AdV40 and plate counting was used to enumerate E. coli. PAA and chlorine proved to be effective decontaminants since they decreased the levels of AdV40 and E. coli to below method detection limits in both water and biofilms. However, without decontamination, AdV40 remained present in the pipelines for up to 4 days. In contrast, the concentration of cultivable E. coli decreased rapidly in the control pipelines, implying that E. coli may be an inadequate indicator for the presence of viral pathogens. Biofilms responded to the decontaminants by decreased HPCs while TCC remained stable. This indicates that the mechanism of pipeline decontamination by chlorine and PAA is inactivation rather than physical removal of microbes.

  17. Development of buried cable location survey system by underground rader for power distribution cables under pavements. Haiden chichuka no tame no chika radar ni yoru maisetsukan tansa system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, K.; Kitano, K.

    1990-06-01

    To execute construction work for power distribution cables under pavements reasonably, it is important to develop a technology capable of non-destructive detection of the location of existing buried cables from the ground surface. This study is to clarify the principle, measurement method, effectiveness, and limitation of the underground radar system which is at present considered as the most effective survey method for buried cables. In this system, accuracy in measuring the depth of underground cable location by a separated type antenna has been improved, software to improve resolution by a migration process has been developed, and a compact survey system which can analyze the data on the site has been realized. As aresult of the survey at city areas, all pipes buried less than 1m in depth with the resistivity value of more than 100 {Omega} m were detected as well as those less than 2m in depth with more than some 100 {Omega} m. However, non-metal pipes buried deeper than 1m in the ground of less than 100 {Omega} m were not detected. Consequently, improvement of the system is necessary in future. 7 refs., 23 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Multi -omics and metabolic modelling pipelines: challenges and tools for systems microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondi, Marco; Liò, Pietro

    2015-02-01

    Integrated -omics approaches are quickly spreading across microbiology research labs, leading to (i) the possibility of detecting previously hidden features of microbial cells like multi-scale spatial organization and (ii) tracing molecular components across multiple cellular functional states. This promises to reduce the knowledge gap between genotype and phenotype and poses new challenges for computational microbiologists. We underline how the capability to unravel the complexity of microbial life will strongly depend on the integration of the huge and diverse amount of information that can be derived today from -omics experiments. In this work, we present opportunities and challenges of multi -omics data integration in current systems biology pipelines. We here discuss which layers of biological information are important for biotechnological and clinical purposes, with a special focus on bacterial metabolism and modelling procedures. A general review of the most recent computational tools for performing large-scale datasets integration is also presented, together with a possible framework to guide the design of systems biology experiments by microbiologists. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  19. Dynamic strain measurement of hydraulic system pipeline using fibre Bragg grating sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue failure is a serious problem in hydraulic piping systems installed in the machinery and equipment working in harsh operational conditions. To alleviate this problem, health monitoring of pipes can be conducted by measuring and analysing vibration-induced strain. Fibre Bragg grating is considered as a promising sensing approach for dynamic load monitoring. In this article, dynamic strain measurements based on fibre Bragg grating sensors for small-bore metal pipes have been investigated. The quasi-distributed strain sensing of fibre Bragg grating sensors is introduced. Two comparison experiments were carried out under vibration and impact loads among the methods of electrical strain gauge, piezoelectric accelerometer and fibre Bragg grating sensor. Experimental results indicate that fibre Bragg grating sensor possesses an outstanding ability to resist electromagnetic interference compared with strain gauge. The natural frequency measurement results, captured by fibre Bragg grating sensor, agree well with the modal analysis results obtained from finite element analysis. In addition, the attached fibre Bragg grating sensor brings a smaller impact on the dynamic characteristics of the measured pipe than the accelerometer due to its small size and lightweight. Fibre Bragg grating sensors have great potential for the quasi-distributed measurement of dynamic strain for the dynamic characteristic research and health monitoring of hydraulic system pipeline.

  20. IMPROVEMENT TO PIPELINE COMPRESSOR ENGINE RELIABILITY THROUGH RETROFIT MICRO-PILOT IGNITION SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Chase; Daniel Olsen; Ted Bestor

    2005-05-01

    This report documents a 3-year research program conducted by the Engines & Energy Conversion Laboratory (EECL) at Colorado State University (CSU) to develop micropilot ignition systems for existing pipeline compressor engines. Research activities for the overall program were conducted with the understanding that the efforts are to result in a commercial product to capture and disseminate the efficiency and environmental benefits of this new technology. An extensive state-of-art review was conducted to leverage the existing body of knowledge of micropilot ignition with respect to retrofit applications. Additionally, commercially-available fuel injection products were identified and applied to the program where appropriate. This approach will minimize the overall time-to-market requirements, while meeting performance and cost criteria. The objective for Phase I was to demonstrate the feasibility of micropilot ignition for large bore, slow speed engines operating at low compression ratios under laboratory conditions at the EECL. The primary elements of Micropilot Phase I were to develop a single-cylinder test chamber to study the injection of pilot fuel into a combustion cylinder and to develop, install and test a multi-cylinder micropilot ignition system for a 4-cylinder, natural gas test engine. In all, there were twelve (12) tasks defined and executed to support these two (2) primarily elements in a stepwise fashion. Task-specific approaches and results are documented in this report. The four-cylinder prototype data was encouraging for the micro-pilot ignition technology when compared to spark ignition. The objective for Phase II was to further develop and optimize the micropilot ignition system at the EECL for large bore, slow speed engines operating at low compression ratios. The primary elements of Micropilot Phase II were to evaluate the results for the 4-cylinder system prototype developed for Phase I, then optimize this system and prepare the technology for

  1. Flow Tones in a Pipeline-Cavity System: Effect of Pipe Asymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Erdem; D. Rockwell; P.L. Oshkai; M. Pollack

    2001-02-28

    Flow tones in a pipeline-cavity system are characterized in terms of unsteady pressure within the cavity and along the pipe. The reference case corresponds to equal lengths of pipe connected to the inlet and outlet ends of the cavity. Varying degrees of asymmetry of this pipe arrangement are investigated. The asymmetry is achieved by an extension of variable length, which is added to the pipe at the cavity outlet. An extension length as small as a few percent of the acoustic wavelength of the resonant mode can yield a substantial reduction in the pressure amplitude of the flow tone. This amplitude decrease occurs in a similar fashion within both the cavity and the pipe resonator, which indicates that it is a global phenomenon. Furthermore, the decrease of pressure amplitude is closely correlated with a decrease of the Q (quality)-factor of the predominant spectral component of pressure. At a sufficiently large value of extension length, however, the overall form of the pressure spectrum recovers to the form that exists at zero length of the extension. Further insight is provided by variation of the inflow velocity at selected values of extension length. Irrespective of its value, both the magnitude and frequency of the peak pressure exhibit a sequence of resonant-like states. moreover, the maximum attainable magnitude of the peak pressure decreases with increasing extension length.

  2. Flow Tones in a Pipeline-Cavity System: Effect of Pipe Asymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Erdem; D. rockwell; P. Oshkai; M. Pollack

    2002-05-29

    Flow tones in a pipeline-cavity system are characterized in terms of unsteady pressure within the cavity and along the pipe. The reference case corresponds to equal lengths of pipe connected to the inlet and outlet ends of the cavity. Varying degrees of asymmetry of this pipe arrangement are investigated. The asymmetry is achieved by an extension of variable length, which is added to the pipe at the cavity outlet. An extension length as small as a few percent of the acoustic wavelength of the resonant mode can yield a substantial reduction in the pressure amplitude of the flow tone. This amplitude decrease occurs in a similar fashion within both the cavity and the pipe resonator, which indicates that it is a global phenomenon. Furthermore, the decrease of pressure amplitude is closely correlated with a decrease of the Q (quality)-factor of the predominant spectral component of pressure. At a sufficiently large value of extension length, however, the overall form of the pressure spectrum recovers to the form that exists at zero length of the extension. Further insight is provided by variation of the inflow velocity at selected values of extension length. Irrespective of its value, both the magnitude and frequency of the peak pressure exhibit a sequence of resonant-like states. Moreover, the maximum attainable magnitude of the peak pressure decreases with increasing extension length.

  3. Efficiency of Pipeline System for Sprinkler Irrigation in Well Irrigation Areas%井灌区喷灌管路系统的效率分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高传昌; 冯跃志

    2000-01-01

    就井灌区低压管道输水灌溉工程改造成喷灌工程后,对影响喷灌管路系统效率的因素进行了分析,给出了其管路系统效率的计算公式。最后探讨了提高喷灌管路系统效率的途径。%This paper analyses the factors that influence efficiency of pipeline system for sprinkler irri-gation, under condition of changing existing low pressture pipeline irrigation system into sprinkler irri-gation system. The formulas used to calculated efficiency of sprinkler irrigation pipeline system andthe measures to improve pipeline system efficiency are also presented.

  4. RIKEN integrated sequence analysis (RISA) system--384-format sequencing pipeline with 384 multicapillary sequencer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, K; Itoh, M; Aizawa, K; Nagaoka, S; Sasaki, N; Carninci, P; Konno, H; Akiyama, J; Nishi, K; Kitsunai, T; Tashiro, H; Itoh, M; Sumi, N; Ishii, Y; Nakamura, S; Hazama, M; Nishine, T; Harada, A; Yamamoto, R; Matsumoto, H; Sakaguchi, S; Ikegami, T; Kashiwagi, K; Fujiwake, S; Inoue, K; Togawa, Y

    2000-11-01

    The RIKEN high-throughput 384-format sequencing pipeline (RISA system) including a 384-multicapillary sequencer (the so-called RISA sequencer) was developed for the RIKEN mouse encyclopedia project. The RISA system consists of colony picking, template preparation, sequencing reaction, and the sequencing process. A novel high-throughput 384-format capillary sequencer system (RISA sequencer system) was developed for the sequencing process. This system consists of a 384-multicapillary auto sequencer (RISA sequencer), a 384-multicapillary array assembler (CAS), and a 384-multicapillary casting device. The RISA sequencer can simultaneously analyze 384 independent sequencing products. The optical system is a scanning system chosen after careful comparison with an image detection system for the simultaneous detection of the 384-capillary array. This scanning system can be used with any fluorescent-labeled sequencing reaction (chain termination reaction), including transcriptional sequencing based on RNA polymerase, which was originally developed by us, and cycle sequencing based on thermostable DNA polymerase. For long-read sequencing, 380 out of 384 sequences (99.2%) were successfully analyzed and the average read length, with more than 99% accuracy, was 654.4 bp. A single RISA sequencer can analyze 216 kb with >99% accuracy in 2.7 h (90 kb/h). For short-read sequencing to cluster the 3' end and 5' end sequencing by reading 350 bp, 384 samples can be analyzed in 1.5 h. We have also developed a RISA inoculator, RISA filtrator and densitometer, RISA plasmid preparator which can handle throughput of 40,000 samples in 17.5 h, and a high-throughput RISA thermal cycler which has four 384-well sites. The combination of these technologies allowed us to construct the RISA system consisting of 16 RISA sequencers, which can process 50,000 DNA samples per day. One haploid genome shotgun sequence of a higher organism, such as human, mouse, rat, domestic animals, and plants, can be

  5. Subsea Target Measurement Technique of High Resolution Multi-Beam Sonar System -A Case Study of Ocean Oil & Gas Production Platform and Pipeline Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, J.; Tang, Q.; Zhou, X.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract: with fast development of modern science and technology, subsea pipeline detection means have been increasingly improved which have not only improved detection efficiency, but also extremely advanced the detection precision. The article has integrated the performance characteristics of high resolution multi-beam measurement system in recent years, which has introduced the relevant technique and detection achievement of subsea pipeline detecting (especially for exposed pipeline) by detection cases. The final detection result has been verified that high resolution multi-beam measurement system could accurately detect subsea minisize target object, which has provided the technical reference with popularization and application of new characteristics.

  6. Effects of ditch-buried straw return on water percolation, nitrogen leaching and crop yields in a rice-wheat rotation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haishui; Xu, Mingmin; Koide, Roger T; Liu, Qian; Dai, Yajun; Liu, Ling; Bian, Xinmin

    2016-03-15

    Crop residue management and nitrogen loss are two important environmental problems in the rice-wheat rotation system in China. This study investigated the effects of burial of straw on water percolation, nitrogen loss by leaching, crop growth and yield. Greenhouse mesocosm experiments were conducted over the course of three simulated cropping seasons in a rice1-wheat-rice2 rotation. Greater amounts of straw resulted in more water percolation, irrespective of crop season. Burial at 20 and 35 cm significantly reduced, but burial at 50 cm increased nitrogen leaching. Straw at 500 kg ha(-1) reduced, but at 1000 kg ha(-1) and at 1500 kg ha(-1) straw increased nitrogen leaching in three consecutive crop rotations. In addition, straw at 500 kg ha(-1) buried at 35 cm significantly increased yield and its components for both crops. This study suggests that N losses via leaching from the rice-wheat rotation may be reduced by the burial of the appropriate amount of straw at the appropriate depth. Greater amounts of buried straw, however, may promote nitrogen leaching and negatively affect crop growth and yields. Complementary field experiments must be performed to make specific agronomic recommendations. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Centrifuge modeling of PGD response of buried pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael O'Rourke; Vikram Gadicherla; Tarek Abdoun

    2005-01-01

    A new centrifuge based method for determining the response of continuous buried pipe to PGD is presented.The physical characteristics of the RPI's 100 g-ton geotechnical centrifuge and the current lifeline experiment split-box are described: The split-box contains the model pipeline and surrounding soil and is manufactured such that half can be offset, in flight, simulating PGD. In addition, governing similitude relations which allow one to determine the physical characteristics,(diameter, wall thickness and material modulus of elasticity) of the model pipeline are presented. Finally, recorded strains induced in two buried pipes with prototype diameters of 0.63 m and 0.95 m (24 and 36 inch) subject to 0.6 and 2.0 meters (2and 6 feet) of full scale fault offsets and presented and compared to corresponding FE results.

  8. Mathematical Modeling of Fuel Pressure inside High Pressure Fuel Pipeline of Combination Electronic Unit Pump Fuel Injection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qaisar Hayat

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to completely understand the trend of pressure variations inside High Pressure (HP fuel pipeline of Combination Electronic Unit Pump (CEUP fuel injection system and study the impact of two major physical properties of fuel i.e., density and dynamic viscosity on pressure a 1D nonlinear dynamic mathematical model of fuel pressure inside pipeline using Wave Equation (WE has been developed in MATLAB using finite difference method. The developed model is based on the structural parameters of CEUP fuel injection system. The impact of two major physical properties of the fuel has been studied as a function of pressure at various operating conditions of diesel engine. Nearly 13.13 bars of increase in pressure is observed by increasing the density from 700 kg/m3 to 1000 kg/m3. Whereas an increase of viscosity from 2 kg/m.s to 6 kg/m.s results in decrease of pressures up to 44.16 bars. Pressure corrections in the mathematical model have been incorporated based on variations of these two fuel properties with the pressure. The resultant pressure profiles obtained from mathematical model at various distances along the pipeline are verified by correlating them with the profiles obtained from simulated AMESim numerical model of CEUP. The results show that MATLAB mathematical results are quite coherent with the AMESim simulated results and validate that the model is an effective tool for predicting pressure inside HP pipelines. The application of the this mathematical model with minute changes can therefore be extended to pressure modeling inside HP rail of Common Rail (CR fuel injection system.

  9. Whole new ball game : pipeline leak detection system undergoes first field trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsters, S.

    2007-07-15

    This article described an innovative and portable technology that detects leaks in oil and gas pipelines. Pure Technologies Ltd. completed the first field trial of its SoundPrint SmartBall, a free-swimming foam ball with an embedded sensor in an aluminum core that detects leaks as the ball moves through the pipe. The technology is based on the premise that sound is released when a pressurized fluid is escaping. The field trial was performed over 18 kilometres of a 10-inch crude oil pipeline in Texas. The SmartBall was first sent through a pipeline without any artificial leaks. It was then sent through a pipeline with an artificial leak constructed at one of the block valves. The SmartBall was able to detect the artificial leak from hundreds of metres away. The device was deployed and retrieved without incident by pipeline operations personnel using existing pigging infrastructure. It was determined that the device can detect leaks of less than 3.78 litres per minute at an operating pressure of 8.6 bars. The size of the SmartBall is generally between 50 to 80 per cent of the diameter of the pipeline and depends on other factors such as location of in-line vales, the size of the appurtenances through which the ball is inserted and retrieved and the presence of other lateral lines. The device records acoustic information as it travels in the pipe. Alternatively, transducers that emit an acoustic pulse can be installed on pipe appurtenances. The leaks can be located by analyzing the relative arrival time of pulses. The device can operate for up to 40 hours, enough to travel 100 kilometres in a single deployment. Pure Technologies is now working on getting this new technology accepted by the industry. 2 figs.

  10. An integrated multi−period planning of the production and transportation of multiple petroleum products in a single pipeline system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Herrán

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A multiproduct pipeline provides an economic way to transport large volumes of refined petroleum products over long distances. In such a pipeline, different products are pumped back−to−back without any separation device between them. The sequence and lengths of such pumping runs must be carefully selected in order to meet market demands while minimizing pipeline operational costs and satisfying several constraints. The production planning and scheduling of the products at the refinery must also be synchronized with the transportation in order to avoid the usage of the system at some peak−hour time intervals. In this paper, we propose a multi−period mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP model for an optimal planning and scheduling of the production and transportation of multiple petroleum products from a refinery plant connected to several depots through a single pipeline system. The objective of this work is to generalize the mixed integer linear programming (MILP formulation proposed by Cafaro and Cerdá (2004, Computers and Chemical Engineering where only a single planning period was considered and the production planning and scheduling was not part of the decision process. Numerical examples show how the use of a single period model for a given time period may lead to infeasible solutions when it is used for the upcoming periods. These examples also show how integrating production planning with the transportation and the use of a multi−period model may result in a cost saving compared to using a single−period model for each period, independently.

  11. Slurry pipeline technology: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Jay P. [Pipeline Systems Incorporated (PSI), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lima, Rafael; Pinto, Daniel; Vidal, Alisson [Ausenco do Brasil Engenharia Ltda., Nova Lima, MG (Brazil). PSI Div.

    2009-12-19

    Slurry pipelines represent an economical and environmentally friendly transportation means for many solid materials. This paper provides an over-view of the technology, its evolution and current Brazilian activity. Mineral resources are increasingly moving farther away from ports, processing plants and end use points, and slurry pipelines are an important mode of solids transport. Application guidelines are discussed. State-of-the-Art technical solutions such as pipeline system simulation, pipe materials, pumps, valves, automation, telecommunications, and construction techniques that have made the technology successful are presented. A discussion of where long distant slurry pipelines fit in a picture that also includes thickened and paste materials pipe lining is included. (author)

  12. Leadership Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård

    2013-01-01

    I artiklen undersøges det empiriske grundlag for Leader- ship Pipeline. Først beskrives Leadership Pipeline modellen om le- delsesbaner og skilleveje i opadgående transitioner mellem orga- nisatoriske ledelsesniveauer (Freedman, 1998; Charan, Drotter and Noel, 2001). Dernæst sættes fokus på det...... forholdet mellem kontinuitet- og diskontinuitet i ledel- seskompetencer på tværs af organisatoriske niveauer præsenteres og diskuteres. Afslutningsvis diskuteres begrænsningerne i en kompetencebaseret tilgang til Leadership Pipeline, og det foreslås, at succesfuld ledelse i ligeså høj grad afhænger af...

  13. Leadership Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård

    2013-01-01

    I artiklen undersøges det empiriske grundlag for Leader- ship Pipeline. Først beskrives Leadership Pipeline modellen om le- delsesbaner og skilleveje i opadgående transitioner mellem orga- nisatoriske ledelsesniveauer (Freedman, 1998; Charan, Drotter and Noel, 2001). Dernæst sættes fokus på det...... forholdet mellem kontinuitet- og diskontinuitet i ledel- seskompetencer på tværs af organisatoriske niveauer præsenteres og diskuteres. Afslutningsvis diskuteres begrænsningerne i en kompetencebaseret tilgang til Leadership Pipeline, og det foreslås, at succesfuld ledelse i ligeså høj grad afhænger af...

  14. On the modelling and the analysis of two-phase flow instabilities in pipeline-riser systems; Modelisation et analyse des instabilites d'ecoulements diphasiques dans les conduites petrolieres du type pipeline-riser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakarian, E.

    2000-03-10

    Recent estimations predict that over half the remaining offshore oil and gas reserves are located in deep water and marginal fields. For such reserves, economic recovery methods are required. Then, multiphase flows are transported within pipelines and separated on treatment platforms built in shallow water or processed in onshore facilities. Unfortunately, hydrodynamic instabilities may occur whenever gas and liquid flow in a pipeline, generating serious operating problems. This dissertation presents a new way to model two-phase flows in pipelines such as pipeline-riser systems. Equations are algebraic and differential. Their smoothness depends on the closure laws of the problem such as slip or friction laws. Smooth forms of these closure laws are presented for the first time in this dissertation. Therefore, a mathematical analysis of our model fits into a classical frame: a linear analysis leads to an analytical expression of the boundary between stable and unstable flows. A nonlinear analysis provides for the first time, the bifurcation curves of gas-liquid flows in pipe-riser systems, locally round their stability boundary. (author)

  15. System-Enforced Deterministic Streaming for Efficient Pipeline Parallelism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张昱; 李兆鹏; 曹慧芳

    2015-01-01

    Pipeline parallelism is a popular parallel programming pattern for emerging applications. However, program-ming pipelines directly on conventional multithreaded shared memory is difficult and error-prone. We present DStream, a C library that provides high-level abstractions of deterministic threads and streams for simply representing pipeline stage work-ers and their communications. The deterministic stream is established atop our proposed single-producer/multi-consumer (SPMC) virtual memory, which integrates synchronization with the virtual memory model to enforce determinism on shared memory accesses. We investigate various strategies on how to efficiently implement DStream atop the SPMC memory, so that an infinite sequence of data items can be asynchronously published (fixed) and asynchronously consumed in order among adjacent stage workers. We have successfully transformed two representative pipeline applications – ferret and dedup using DStream, and conclude conversion rules. An empirical evaluation shows that the converted ferret performed on par with its Pthreads and TBB counterparts in term of running time, while the converted dedup is close to 2.56X, 7.05X faster than the Pthreads counterpart and 1.06X, 3.9X faster than the TBB counterpart on 16 and 32 CPUs, respectively.

  16. DETECTION OF UNAUTHORIZED CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT IN PIPELINE RIGHT-OF-WAYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James E. Huebler

    2003-04-17

    Natural gas transmission companies mark the right-of-way areas where pipelines are buried with warning signs to prevent accidental third-party damage. Nevertheless, pipelines are sometimes damaged by third-party construction equipment. A single incident can be devastating, causing death and millions of dollars of property loss. This damage would be prevented if potentially hazardous construction equipment could be detected, identified, and an alert given before the pipeline was damaged. The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is developing a system to solve this problem by using an optical fiber as a distributed sensor and interrogating the fiber with a custom optical time domain reflectometer. Key issues are the ability to detect encroachment and the ability to discriminate among potentially hazardous and benign encroachments. The work performed in the 1st quarter of 2003 included fine-tuning and debugging of the custom Optical Time Domain Reflectometer being constructed for data collection and analysis. The detector was redesigned reducing the noise floor by over a factor of ten. While GTI's OTDR was being improved, a new, commercial OTDR was used to verify that the technique is capable of measuring one pound continuous force applied to the Hergalite. Optical fibers were installed at the ANR Pipeline test site along an operating pipeline.

  17. Response of a pipeline to ground movements caused by trenching in compressible alluvium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carder, D. R.; Taylor, M. E.; Pocock, R. G.

    Disturbance of the ground due to work on buried services, such as the renewal, replacement or construction of deep sewers, is likely to cause differential ground movements in the vicinity. This may be a factor contributing to failure in nearby service pipelines such as drainage, gas and water mains. The response of an instrumented shallow buried pipeline to ground movements caused by adjacent deep trenching in a compressible alluvium is described.

  18. Development of systems for detection, early warning, and control of pipeline leakage in drinking water distribution: A case study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weifeng Li; Wencui Ling; Suoxiang Liu; Jing Zhao; Ruiping Liu; Qiuwen Chen; Zhimin Qiang; Jiuhui Qu

    2011-01-01

    Water leakage in drinking water distribution systems is a serious problem for many cities and a huge challenge for water utilities.An integrated system for the detection,early warning,and control of pipeline leakage has been developed and successfully used to manage the pipeline networks in selected areas of Beijing.A method based on the geographic information system has been proposed to quickly and automatically optimize the layout of the instruments which detect leaks.Methods are also proposed to estimate the probability of each pipe segment leaking (on the basis of historic leakage data),and to assist in locating the leakage points (based on leakage signals).The district metering area (DMA) strategy is used.Guidelines and a flowchart for establishing a DMA to manage the large-scale looped networks in Beijing are proposed.These different functions have been implemented into a central software system to simplify the day-to-day use of the system.In 2007 the system detected 102 non-obvious leakages (i.e.,14.2% of the total detected in Beijing) in the selected areas,which was estimated to save a total volume of 2,385,000 m3 of water.These results indicate the feasibility,efficiency and wider applicability of this system.

  19. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostelnik, K.M.

    1991-12-01

    This document presents the plan of activities for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program which supports the environmental restoration (ER) objectives of the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. Discussed in this plan are the objectives, organization, roles and responsibilities, and the process for implementing and managing BWID. BWID is hosted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), but involves participants from throughout the DOE Complex, private industry, universities, and the international community. These participants will support, demonstrate, and evaluate a suite of advanced technologies representing a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The processes for identifying technological needs, screening candidate technologies for applicability and maturity, selecting appropriate technologies for demonstration, field demonstrating, evaluation of results and transferring technologies to environmental restoration programs are also presented. This document further describes the elements of project planning and control that apply to BWID. It addresses the management processes, operating procedures, programmatic and technical objectives, and schedules. Key functions in support of each demonstration such as regulatory coordination, safety analyses, risk evaluations, facility requirements, and data management are presented.

  20. Uplifting behavior of shallow buried pipe in liquefiable soil by dynamic centrifuge test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo; Liu, Jingwen; Lin, Peng; Ling, Daosheng

    2014-01-01

    Underground pipelines are widely applied in the so-called lifeline engineerings. It shows according to seismic surveys that the damage from soil liquefaction to underground pipelines was the most serious, whose failures were mainly in the form of pipeline uplifting. In the present study, dynamic centrifuge model tests were conducted to study the uplifting behaviors of shallow-buried pipeline subjected to seismic vibration in liquefied sites. The uplifting mechanism was discussed through the responses of the pore water pressure and earth pressure around the pipeline. Additionally, the analysis of force, which the pipeline was subjected to before and during vibration, was introduced and proved to be reasonable by the comparison of the measured and the calculated results. The uplifting behavior of pipe is the combination effects of multiple forces, and is highly dependent on the excess pore pressure.

  1. Uplifting Behavior of Shallow Buried Pipe in Liquefiable Soil by Dynamic Centrifuge Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Underground pipelines are widely applied in the so-called lifeline engineerings. It shows according to seismic surveys that the damage from soil liquefaction to underground pipelines was the most serious, whose failures were mainly in the form of pipeline uplifting. In the present study, dynamic centrifuge model tests were conducted to study the uplifting behaviors of shallow-buried pipeline subjected to seismic vibration in liquefied sites. The uplifting mechanism was discussed through the responses of the pore water pressure and earth pressure around the pipeline. Additionally, the analysis of force, which the pipeline was subjected to before and during vibration, was introduced and proved to be reasonable by the comparison of the measured and the calculated results. The uplifting behavior of pipe is the combination effects of multiple forces, and is highly dependent on the excess pore pressure.

  2. IMPROVEMENT TO PIPELINE COMPRESSOR ENGINE RELIABILITY THROUGH RETROFIT MICRO-PILOT IGNITION SYSTEM-PHASE I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ted Bestor

    2003-03-04

    This report documents the first year's effort towards a 3-year program to develop micropilot ignition systems for existing pipeline compressor engines. In essence, all Phase I goals and objectives were met. We intend to proceed with the Phase II research plan, as set forth by the applicable Research Management Plan. The objective for Phase I was to demonstrate the feasibility of micropilot ignition for large bore, slow speed engines operating at low compression ratios. The primary elements of Micropilot Phase I were to develop a single-cylinder test chamber to study the injection of pilot fuel into a combustion cylinder and to develop, install and test a multi-cylinder micropilot ignition system for a 4-cylinder, natural gas test engine. In all, there were twelve (12) tasks defined and executed to support these two (2) primarily elements in a stepwise fashion. Task-specific approaches and results are documented in this report. Research activities for Micropilot Phase I were conducted with the understanding that the efforts are expected to result in a commercial product to capture and disseminate the efficiency and environmental benefits of this new technology. An extensive state-of-art review was conducted to leverage the existing body of knowledge of micropilot ignition with respect to retrofit applications. Additionally, commercially-available fuel injection products were identified and applied to the program where appropriate. This approach will minimize the overall time-to-market requirements, while meeting performance and cost criteria. The four-cylinder prototype data was encouraging for the micro-pilot ignition technology when compared to spark ignition. Initial testing results showed: (1) Brake specific fuel consumption of natural gas was improved from standard spark ignition across the map, 1% at full load and 5% at 70% load. (2) 0% misfires for all points on micropilot ignition. Fuel savings were most likely due to this percent misfire improvement

  3. Pipeliners go regulator shopping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byfield, M.

    1996-12-09

    The weakening of Alberta`s regulatory grip on gas pipelines was discussed. Palliser Pipeline Limited has challenged Nova Corp`s monopoly by applying to the National Energy Board (NEB) for permission to build a 150-mile pipeline from Calgary to the Saskatchewan border. If the $350 million project proceeds, it would mean that gas would be flowing out of Alberta for the first time through a line that is not operated by Nova Corp. Palliser would operate with a lower shipping toll, set by the NEB rather than Alberta`s Energy and Utilities Board. Alliance Pipeline Ltd. will also apply to the NEB to build a 1850-mile pipeline that would originate in British Columbia, cross Alberta and terminate in Chicago. Nova Corp has implied that it might have to consider charging distance-based tolls if the Palliser bypass line proceeds. However, Palliser countered that it should not be necessary to change the postage stamp system for that small a fraction. Palliser suggested that Nova was simply reacting because it was facing competition for the first time. Final decision is in the hands of the federal government.

  4. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration stakeholder involvement model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaupanger, R.M.; Kostelnik, K.M.; Milam, L.M.

    1994-04-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is a program funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development. BWID supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that together form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. Stakeholder participation in the DOE Environmental Management decision-making process is critical to remediation efforts. Appropriate mechanisms for communication with the public, private sector, regulators, elected officials, and others are being aggressively pursued by BWID to permit informed participation. This document summarizes public outreach efforts during FY-93 and presents a strategy for expanded stakeholder involvement during FY-94.

  5. IMPROVEMENT TO PIPELINE COMPRESSOR ENGINE RELIABILITY THROUGH RETROFIT MICRO-PILOT IGNITION SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ted Bestor

    2004-06-01

    This report documents the second year's effort towards a 3-year program to develop micropilot ignition systems for existing pipeline compressor engines. In essence, all Phase II goals and objectives were met. We intend to proceed with the Phase III research plan, as set forth by the applicable Research Management Plan. The objective for Phase II was to further develop and optimize the micropilot ignition system for large bore, slow speed engines operating at low compression ratios. The primary elements of Micropilot Phase II were to evaluate the results for the 4-cylinder system prototype developed for Phase I, then optimize this system to demonstrate the technology's readiness for the field demonstration phase. In all, there were twelve (12) tasks defined and executed to support objectives in a stepwise fashion. Task-specific approaches and results are documented in this report. Research activities for Micropilot Phase II were conducted with the understanding that the efforts are expected to result in a commercial product to capture and disseminate the efficiency and environmental benefits of this new technology. Commercially-available fuel injection products were identified and applied to the program where appropriate. Modifications to existing engine components were kept to a minimum. This approach will minimize the overall time-to-market requirements, while meeting performance and cost criteria. The optimized four-cylinder system data demonstrated significant progress compared to Phase I results, as well as traditional spark ignition systems. An extensive testing program at the EECL using the GMV-4 test engine demonstrated that: (1) In general, the engine operated more stable fewer misfires and partial combustion events when using the 3-hole injectors compared to the 5-hole injectors used in Phase I. (2) The engine had, in general, a wider range of operation with the 3-hole injectors. Minimum operational boost levels were approximately 5&apos

  6. WAVELET TRANSFORM THRESHOLD NOISE REDUCTION METHODS IN THE OIL PIPELINE LEAKAGE MONITORING AND POSITIONING SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Chao; Zhou Shanxue

    2010-01-01

    This letter investigates the wavelet transform,as well as the principle and the method of the noise reduction based on wavelet transform,it chooses the threshold noise reduction,and discusses in detail the principles,features and design steps of the threshold method. Rigrsure,heursure,sqtwolog and minimization four kinds of threshold selection method are compared qualitatively,and quantitatively. The wavelet analysis toolbox of MATLAB helps to realize the computer simulation of the signal noise reduction. The graphics and calculated standard deviation of the various threshold noise reductions show that,when dealing with the actual pressure signal of the oil pipeline leakage,sqtwolog threshold selection method can effectively remove the noise. Aiming to the pressure signal of the oil pipeline leakage,the best choice is the wavelet threshold noise reduction with sqtwolog threshold. The leakage point is close to the actual position,with the relative error of less than 1%.

  7. ML-o-Scope: A Diagnostic Visualization System for Deep Machine Learning Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-16

    images scraped from the web . Despite its small size, CIFAR- 10’s origins make it a rich and challenging data set for object classification. ML-o-scope... Web Services, Google, SAP, The Thomas and Stacey Siebel Foundation, Apple, Inc., Cisco, Cloudera, EMC, Ericsson, Facebook, GameOnTalis, Guavus, HP...exploratory analysis ap- plied to convolutional neural network pipeline optimiza- tion. ML-o-scope is a light-weight web application that allows users

  8. Intelligent leak detection system for oil pipelines; Sistema inteligente para deteccao de vazamentos em dutos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Ricardo Dantas Gadelha de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    One of the most challenging tasks in an oil field is implementation of a software-based leak detection system on a multi-phase flow pipeline. This paper will discuss implementation of a leak detection system in a particular oil field using state-of-the-art signal processing techniques to apply to the data collected in a oil pipeline. This leak detection system is still in development and uses a more practical approach to the problem than traditional methods and was implemented on a PC under the Windows operating system. Windowing, joint time-frequency analysis and wavelets were considered to develop methods of detecting leaks by watching for the wavefront. The idea behind these techniques is to cut the signal of interest into several parts and then analyze the parts separately. It is impossible to know the exact frequency and the exact time of occurrence of the leak frequency in a signal. In other words, a leak signal can simply not be represented as a point in the time-frequency space. It is very important how one cuts the signal to implement the analysis. The wavelet transform or wavelet analysis is probably the most recent solution to overcome the shortcomings of the Fourier transform. So, this paper shows some tests and how these techniques are being implementing during the development of the system. (author)

  9. Research on Pipeline Holdup Measurement Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU; Wen-guang; XU; Zheng; CHENG; Yi-mei; SUI; Hong-zhi; YIN; Hong-he

    2012-01-01

    <正>Some of the nuclear material could be deposited in the pipeline system of the nuclear facilities in the operation process. That kind of nuclear materials in the pipeline are called holdup. The measurement of pipeline holdup is not only important for the nuclear material accounting and control of facilities, but also important for the safe operation of facilities.

  10. Influence of remanent magnetization on pitting corrosion in pipeline steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espina-Hernandez, J. H. [ESIME Zacatenco, SEPI Electronica Instituto Politecnico Nacional Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Caleyo, F.; Hallen, J. M. [DIM-ESIQIE, Instituto Politecnico Nacional Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Lopez-Montenegro, A.; Perez-Baruch, E. [Pemex Exploracion y Produccion, Region Sur Villahermosa, Tabasco (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    Statistical studies performed in Mexico indicate that leakage due to external pitting corrosion is the most likely cause of failure of buried pipelines. When pipelines are inspected with the magnetic flux leakage (MFL) technology, which is routinely used, the magnetization level of every part of the pipeline changes as the MFL tool travels through it. Remanent magnetization stays in the pipeline wall after inspection, at levels that may differ from a point to the next. This paper studies the influence of the magnetic field on pitting corrosion. Experiments were carried out on grade 52 steel under a level of remanent magnetization and other laboratory conditions that imitated the conditions of a pipeline after an MLF inspection. Non-magnetized control samples and magnetized samples were subjected to pitting by immersion in a solution containing chlorine and sulfide ions for seven days, and then inspected with optical microscopy. Results show that the magnetic field in the pipeline wall significantly increases pitting corrosion.

  11. Integrated natural gas pipeline control and customer service system of Gasum; Le systeme integre de controle des canalisations de gaz et de service au consommateur chez Gasum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aho, J.; Manty, O.; Ahlnas, B. [Gasul Oy (Finland)

    2000-07-01

    Due to the rapid development of the information technology, ageing is not the only driving force for replacing old computer systems with more sophisticated ones. The Finnish natural Gas company, Gasum Oy, has recently taken into use a new control and monitoring system for natural gas pipeline. A special customer service system, developed by Gasum Oy, is closely connected to monitoring system. It provides up-to-date information to all customers of Gasum Oy. The information is layered in three confidential levels: general information, operational data and invoicing information. The system is operating interactively in confidential Extranet. Inside Gasum Oy to meet the needs of departments outside the control room, a new GID system is developed. GID is a way to present pipeline process data and its further modifications with a very user-friendly interface based on geographical map. The system is based on data warehouse architecture and it is working on company's Intranet. This makes it possible to present various secrecy level information based on user ID. Gasum's new SCADA is not only the base for operating the pipeline, but it also provides lot of vital information to other systems serving different user groups within natural gas business in Finland. (authors)

  12. FPGA-based fast pipeline-parameterized-sorter implementation for first level trigger systems in HEP experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Pozniak, Krzysztof T

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes a behavioral model of fast, pipeline sorter dedicated to electronic triggering applications in the experiments of high energy physics (HEP). The sorter was implemented in FPGA for the RPC Muon Detector of CMS experiment (LHC accelerator, CERN) and for Backing Calorimeter (BAC) in ZEUS experiment (HERA accelerator, DESY) . A general principle of the applied sorting algorithm was presented. The implementation results were debated in detail for chosen FPGA chips by ALTERA and XILINX manufactures. The realization costs have been calculated as function of system parameters.

  13. MONITORING TECHNOLOGY FOR EARLY DETECTION OF INTERNAL CORROSION FOR PIPELINE INTEGRITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn M. Light; Sang Y. Kim; Robert L. Spinks; Hegeon Kwun; Patrick C. Porter

    2003-09-01

    Transmission gas pipelines are an important part of energy-transportation infrastructure vital to the national economy. The prevention of failures and continued safe operation of these pipelines are therefore of national interest. These lines, mostly buried, are protected and maintained by protective coating and cathodic protection systems, supplemented by periodic inspection equipped with sensors for inspection. The primary method for inspection is ''smart pigging'' with an internal inspection device that traverses the pipeline. However, some transmission lines are however not suitable for ''pigging'' operation. Because inspection of these ''unpiggable'' lines requires excavation, it is cost-prohibitive, and the development of a methodology for cost-effectively assessing the structural integrity of ''unpiggable'' lines is needed. This report describes the laboratory and field evaluation of a technology called ''magnetostrictive sensor (MsS)'' for monitoring and early detection of internal corrosion in known susceptible sections of transmission pipelines. With the MsS technology, developed by Southwest Research Institute{reg_sign} (SwRI{reg_sign}), a pulse of a relatively low frequency (typically under 100-kHz) mechanical wave (called guided wave) is launched along the pipeline and signals reflected from defects or welds are detected at the launch location in the pulse-echo mode. This technology can quickly examine a long length of piping for defects, such as corrosion wastage and cracking in circumferential direction, from a single test location, and has been in commercial use for inspection of above-ground piping in refineries and chemical plants. The MsS technology is operated primarily in torsional guided waves using a probe consisting of a thin ferromagnetic strip (typically nickel) bonded to a pipe and a number of coil-turns (typically twenty or so turns) wound

  14. MONITORING TECHNOLOGY FOR EARLY DETECTION OF INTERNAL CORROSION FOR PIPELINE INTEGRITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn M. Light; Sang Y. Kim; Robert L. Spinks; Hegeon Kwun; Patrick C. Porter

    2003-09-01

    Transmission gas pipelines are an important part of energy-transportation infrastructure vital to the national economy. The prevention of failures and continued safe operation of these pipelines are therefore of national interest. These lines, mostly buried, are protected and maintained by protective coating and cathodic protection systems, supplemented by periodic inspection equipped with sensors for inspection. The primary method for inspection is ''smart pigging'' with an internal inspection device that traverses the pipeline. However, some transmission lines are however not suitable for ''pigging'' operation. Because inspection of these ''unpiggable'' lines requires excavation, it is cost-prohibitive, and the development of a methodology for cost-effectively assessing the structural integrity of ''unpiggable'' lines is needed. This report describes the laboratory and field evaluation of a technology called ''magnetostrictive sensor (MsS)'' for monitoring and early detection of internal corrosion in known susceptible sections of transmission pipelines. With the MsS technology, developed by Southwest Research Institute{reg_sign} (SwRI{reg_sign}), a pulse of a relatively low frequency (typically under 100-kHz) mechanical wave (called guided wave) is launched along the pipeline and signals reflected from defects or welds are detected at the launch location in the pulse-echo mode. This technology can quickly examine a long length of piping for defects, such as corrosion wastage and cracking in circumferential direction, from a single test location, and has been in commercial use for inspection of above-ground piping in refineries and chemical plants. The MsS technology is operated primarily in torsional guided waves using a probe consisting of a thin ferromagnetic strip (typically nickel) bonded to a pipe and a number of coil-turns (typically twenty or so turns) wound

  15. InSAR for risk-based asset management of pipeline networks (poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, F. van den; Schouten,M.; Abspoel, L.; Courage, W.; Kruse, H.; Langius, E.

    2016-01-01

    Pipeline networks for gas and water are the lifelines of our society. Most pipelines are buried, which impedes direct monitoring of the structural reliability of the networks. The behavior of the soil surrounding the pipes may impose hazardous loads or deformations threatening the integrity of the n

  16. 49 CFR 195.563 - Which pipelines must have cathodic protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... protection as a result of electrical inspections. See previous editions of this part in 49 CFR, parts 186 to... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Which pipelines must have cathodic protection? 195... have cathodic protection? (a) Each buried or submerged pipeline that is constructed,...

  17. Improving oceanographic data delivery through pipeline processing in a Commercial Cloud Services environment: the Australian Integrated Marine Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnard, Laurent; Blain, Peter; Mancini, Sebastien; Proctor, Roger

    2017-04-01

    The Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) is a national project funded by the Australian government established to deliver ocean observations to the marine and climate science community. Now in its 10th year its mission is to undertake systematic and sustained observations and to turn them into data, products and analyses that can be freely used and reused for broad societal benefits. As IMOS has matured as an observing system expectation on the system's availability and reliability has also increased and IMOS is now seen as delivering 'operational' information. In responding to this expectation, IMOS has relocated its services to the commercial cloud service Amazon Web Services. This has enabled IMOS to improve the system architecture, utilizing more advanced features like object storage (S3 - Simple Storage Service) and autoscaling features, and introducing new checking procedures in a pipeline approach. This has improved data availability and resilience while protecting against human errors in data handling and providing a more efficient ingestion process.

  18. Pipeline coating comparison methods for northern pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, P. [Shaw Pipe Protection, Calgary, AB (Canada); Purves, G.A. [Cimarron Engineering Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Two high-quality pipe coatings designed for northern environments were compared for their relative costs and suitability for the conditions that will be encountered in the field. Coating selection should consider local conditions to achieve the optimum life-cycle costs for the system. Some of the key factors affecting the integrity of the protective coating on a pipe include the effects of cold temperature and soil types. In this study, both Fusion Bonded Epoxy (FBE) and High Performance Composite Coatings (HPCC) were evaluated for an entire pipeline installation in a northern environment, from the coating plant to the pipe trench. The evaluation focused on the advantages of better abrasion resistance of the HPCC coating. This was compared against the incremental cost of HPCC coating over FBE on large diameter NPS 30 to NPS 48 pipelines. The following parameters influenced the choice of coating: storage, transportation and handling; bending ability under cold weather conditions; pipe installation and backfilling; weld joint coatings; coating repair and cathodic protection and pipeline integrity. Some of the construction costs that are indirectly affected by the choice of pipe coating include right-of-way preparation and restoration; trenching; supervision, service and downtime and specialist crossings. It was concluded that HPCC has better resistance to abrasion than FBE and is more flexible in extremely cold temperatures. Standard FBE is about 10 per cent less expensive than HPCC. In general HPCC will require less coating protection than FBE, depending on site conditions. 3 refs., 18 tabs., 8 figs.

  19. Logistic management system for natural gas transportation by pipelines; Sistema de gestao de logistica de transporte de gas por gasodutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Sidney Pereira dos; Castro, Antonio Orestes de Salvo [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Leal, Jose Eugenio [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    An efficient management of the natural gas business chain, based on pipeline transmission network and taking into consideration the interaction between the main players such as shippers, suppliers, transmission companies and local distribution companies, requires the use of decision-making support systems to maximize resources and mitigate contingencies due to gas supply shortfalls, operational contingencies from scheduled and non-scheduled equipment outages as well as market demand shortfalls. This work presents a practical utilization of technologies such as thermohydraulic simulation of gas flow through pipelines, Monte Carlo simulation for compressor station availability studies and economic risk evaluation related to potential revenue losses and contractual penalties and linear programming for maximization and minimization objective function. The proposed system allows the definition of the optimum availability level to be maintained by the Transporter, by means of installing redundancy, to mitigate losses related to revenue and contractual penalties. Identifies, quantifies and justifies economically the installation of stand-by compressor units, mitigating Transporter exposure to losses due to capacity shortfalls as consequence of scheduled and non-scheduled outages. (author)

  20. Network challenges for cyber physical systems with tiny wireless devices: a case study on reliable pipeline condition monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Salman; Qaisar, Saad Bin; Saeed, Husnain; Khan, Muhammad Farhan; Naeem, Muhammad; Anpalagan, Alagan

    2015-03-25

    The synergy of computational and physical network components leading to the Internet of Things, Data and Services has been made feasible by the use of Cyber Physical Systems (CPSs). CPS engineering promises to impact system condition monitoring for a diverse range of fields from healthcare, manufacturing, and transportation to aerospace and warfare. CPS for environment monitoring applications completely transforms human-to-human, human-to-machine and machine-to-machine interactions with the use of Internet Cloud. A recent trend is to gain assistance from mergers between virtual networking and physical actuation to reliably perform all conventional and complex sensing and communication tasks. Oil and gas pipeline monitoring provides a novel example of the benefits of CPS, providing a reliable remote monitoring platform to leverage environment, strategic and economic benefits. In this paper, we evaluate the applications and technical requirements for seamlessly integrating CPS with sensor network plane from a reliability perspective and review the strategies for communicating information between remote monitoring sites and the widely deployed sensor nodes. Related challenges and issues in network architecture design and relevant protocols are also provided with classification. This is supported by a case study on implementing reliable monitoring of oil and gas pipeline installations. Network parameters like node-discovery, node-mobility, data security, link connectivity, data aggregation, information knowledge discovery and quality of service provisioning have been reviewed.

  1. Network Challenges for Cyber Physical Systems with Tiny Wireless Devices: A Case Study on Reliable Pipeline Condition Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Ali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The synergy of computational and physical network components leading to the Internet of Things, Data and Services has been made feasible by the use of Cyber Physical Systems (CPSs. CPS engineering promises to impact system condition monitoring for a diverse range of fields from healthcare, manufacturing, and transportation to aerospace and warfare. CPS for environment monitoring applications completely transforms human-to-human, human-to-machine and machine-to-machine interactions with the use of Internet Cloud. A recent trend is to gain assistance from mergers between virtual networking and physical actuation to reliably perform all conventional and complex sensing and communication tasks. Oil and gas pipeline monitoring provides a novel example of the benefits of CPS, providing a reliable remote monitoring platform to leverage environment, strategic and economic benefits. In this paper, we evaluate the applications and technical requirements for seamlessly integrating CPS with sensor network plane from a reliability perspective and review the strategies for communicating information between remote monitoring sites and the widely deployed sensor nodes. Related challenges and issues in network architecture design and relevant protocols are also provided with classification. This is supported by a case study on implementing reliable monitoring of oil and gas pipeline installations. Network parameters like node-discovery, node-mobility, data security, link connectivity, data aggregation, information knowledge discovery and quality of service provisioning have been reviewed.

  2. Pipeline repair in crossing river; Reparo de oleoduto em travessia de rio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Walter Manoel [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The inspection and repair of buried pipelines in rivers crossings request the perfect study and use of techniques committed with the people's safety, environmental and pipelines integrity. The planning, elaboration and training in the constructive methods, analysis of technical alternatives and the logistics are preponderant factors. This paper describes step by step, since the risks and difficulties to find a pipe defect indicated in the report of intelligent pig, as well as the actions, experiences and techniques (project, pipeline location, excavation, underwater lowering, reinforcement metallic trench, water exhaustion, rock dismount and pipeline repair sleeves) that allowed repair a pipeline in river crossing. (author)

  3. 基于GPRS的输油管道实时监控系统%The Design of Oil Pipeline Monitoring System Based on GRRS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗会玖

    2013-01-01

    In order to ensure the security of the Oil Pipeline, An oil pipeline monitoring system based on GRRS is designed in this paper, the system mainly adopts a "negative pressure wave" method for Leakage detection and localization, through the RTU control unit samples the signal, the data is transmitted through GPRS wireless, the data is analyzed on PC monitoring system, and then locate the pipeline leaks.%为了确保输油管道的安全运行,设计了基于GPRS的输油管道实时监控系统,系统采用“负压波”法进行泄露检测,通过RTU控制数据采集,利用GPRS无线传输通信实现现场RTU与监控室数据通信,从而完成对输油管道实时监控功能.

  4. New application technology for 'in situ' pipeline protection using pigging techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pretorius, Louis Charles [Corrocoat SA (PTY) Ltd., Durban (South Africa)

    2005-07-01

    Pigging of long pipelines is a technique for in situ (field) coating, creating seamless internal structural linings. Originally developed for cleaning pipes, the system was adapted to apply internal anti-corrosion protection to pipes using a thin epoxy layer, which had some problems in weld coverage, stress cracking, poor cold weather curing and the inability to fill pitting corrosion metal loss. New coating materials, revised application methods and modified pigging equipment have made it possible to apply in situ liquid film coatings up to 1 mm thick, as an internal corrosion barrier to pipes, in a single application (similar to continuous screeding) resulting in a bonded 'GRP pipe within a steel pipe'. The method can be used for new projects on fully welded pipe lines avoiding coating problems associated with flange joints and/or couplings, or for refurbishment of old pipelines, varying from 150-900 mm diameter, up to 12 km long. Pipes can be buried, submerged, continuously welded or flanged. Many different pipes, such as oil platform to shore based pipelines, can all be treated using this method. Thick film polymer pigging techniques create new possibilities for Engineers to extend the life of pipeline systems, with significant cost savings compared to replacement pipe. (author)

  5. Simulation of bending stress variation in long buried thick-walled pipes under the earth’s movement using combined linear dynamics and beam theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salau Tajudeen A.O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reported a simulation approach to the understanding of the interactions between a buried pipe and the soil system by computing the bending stress variation of harmonically-excited buried pipes. The established principles of linear dynamics theory and simple beam theory were utilised in the analysis of the problem of buried pipe bending stress accumulation and its dynamics. With regards to the parameters that influence the bending stress variations, the most important are the isolation factor, uniform external load, and the corresponding limiting conditions. The simulated mathematical expressions, containing static and dynamic parameters of the buried pipe and earth, were coded in Fortran programming language and applied in the simulation experiment. The results obtained showed that harmonically-excited buried thick-walled pipe became stable and effective when the ratio of the natural frequency of vibration to the forced frequency is greater than 2.0, whenever the damped factor is used as the control parameter for the maximum bending stress. The mirror image of the stress variation produces variation in the location of the maximum bending stress in quantitative terms. The acceptable pipe materials for the simulated cases must have yield strength in bending greater than or equal to 13.95 MPa. The results obtained in this work fill a gap in the literature and will be useful to pipeline engineers and designers, as well as to environmental scientists in initialising and controlling environmental issues and policy formulation concerning the influence of buried pipe on the soil and water in the environment.

  6. Integration of Wind Energy, Hydrogen and Natural Gas Pipeline Systems to Meet Community and Transportation Energy Needs: A Parametric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahryar Garmsiri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The potential benefits are examined of the “Power-to-Gas” (P2G scheme to utilize excess wind power capacity by generating hydrogen (or potentially methane for use in the natural gas distribution grid. A parametric analysis is used to determine the feasibility and size of systems producing hydrogen that would be injected into the natural gas grid. Specifically, wind farms located in southwestern Ontario, Canada are considered. Infrastructure requirements, wind farm size, pipeline capacity, geographical dispersion, hydrogen production rate, capital and operating costs are used as performance measures. The model takes into account the potential production rate of hydrogen and the rate that it can be injected into the local gas grid. “Straw man” systems are examined, centered on a wind farm size of 100 MW integrating a 16-MW capacity electrolysis system typically producing 4700 kg of hydrogen per day.

  7. PCM管道电流检测系统介绍及应用%PIPELINE CURRENT MAPPING SYSTEM FOR DETECTING AND ASSESSING THE COATING'S QUALITY OF THE BURIED PIPELINE IN SHENGLI OIL FIELD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿铂; 余越泉; 王健健

    2002-01-01

    介绍一种新型的防护层质量检测方法——PCM管道电流检测系统.通过对胜利油田几个采油厂埋地钢质管道外防护层质量的检测,较系统地评价了部分输油管道外防护层的质量状况.

  8. An Analysis Pipeline with Statistical and Visualization-Guided Knowledge Discovery for Michigan-Style Learning Classifier Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanowicz, Ryan J; Granizo-Mackenzie, Ambrose; Moore, Jason H

    2012-11-01

    Michigan-style learning classifier systems (M-LCSs) represent an adaptive and powerful class of evolutionary algorithms which distribute the learned solution over a sizable population of rules. However their application to complex real world data mining problems, such as genetic association studies, has been limited. Traditional knowledge discovery strategies for M-LCS rule populations involve sorting and manual rule inspection. While this approach may be sufficient for simpler problems, the confounding influence of noise and the need to discriminate between predictive and non-predictive attributes calls for additional strategies. Additionally, tests of significance must be adapted to M-LCS analyses in order to make them a viable option within fields that require such analyses to assess confidence. In this work we introduce an M-LCS analysis pipeline that combines uniquely applied visualizations with objective statistical evaluation for the identification of predictive attributes, and reliable rule generalizations in noisy single-step data mining problems. This work considers an alternative paradigm for knowledge discovery in M-LCSs, shifting the focus from individual rules to a global, population-wide perspective. We demonstrate the efficacy of this pipeline applied to the identification of epistasis (i.e., attribute interaction) and heterogeneity in noisy simulated genetic association data.

  9. Northern pipelines : challenges and needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, D.; Brownie, D. [ProLog Canada Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Fafara, R. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Working Group 10 presented experiences acquired from the operation of pipeline systems in a northern environment. There are currently 3 pipelines operating north of 60, notably the Shiha gas pipeline near Fort Liard, the Ikhil gas pipeline in Inuvik and the Norman Wells oil pipeline. Each has its unique commissioning, operating and maintenance challenges, as well as specific training and logistical support requirements for the use of in-line inspection tools and other forms of integrity assessment. The effectiveness of cathodic protection systems in a permafrost northern environment was also discussed. It was noted that the delay of the Mackenzie Gas Pipeline Project by two to three years due to joint regulatory review may lead to resource constraints for the project as well as competition for already scarce human resources. The issue of a potential timing conflict with the Alaskan Pipeline Project was also addressed as well as land use issues for routing of supply roads. Integrity monitoring and assessment issues were outlined with reference to pipe soil interaction monitoring in discontinuous permafrost; south facing denuded slope stability; base lining projects; and reclamation issues. It was noted that automatic welding and inspection will increase productivity, while reducing the need for manual labour. In response to anticipated training needs, companies are planning to involve and train Aboriginal labour and will provide camp living conditions that will attract labour. tabs., figs.

  10. Reducing water loss in a water supply system using a district metering area (DMA: A case study of the Provincial Waterworks Authority (PWA, Lop Buri Branch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thee Jitong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Water loss from broken or leaking pipe networks is still a major water management problem for the Provincial Waterworks Authority (PWA in Thailand. To reduce this loss and benefit from the savings, a district metering area (DMA was applied as a management measure to control leaking water losses at the PWA Lop Buri Branch. The DMA was divided into 8 zones, covering about 60.47 % of the total service area. A surveillance system was set up that compared the observed flow rates and the upper limit of warning values for each DMA. Comparison of results before and after implementation of the DMA showed that rate of water loss decreased from 34.55 to 30.87 %. To further reduce these losses, sensitive warning values based on seasonal and daily patterns of water consumption were defined and implemented with an increased number of DMAs covering the entire service area. Financial analysis confirmed that the DMA measures are worth the investment because they significantly reduce the operational costs for water production.

  11. External corrosion control of northern pipelines : influence of construction conditions on the performance of coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papavinasam, S.; Doiron, A.

    2008-09-15

    Risk management is a key consideration in the construction of northern pipelines operating in harsh environments with extreme temperature conditions and ground movement. As such, it is important to acquire information on the properties of construction materials, including the steel itself, the girth welds that are made in the field and the coating and cathodic protection (CP) that will protect the pipes from corrosion and degradation. The use of polymeric coatings and CP are standard procedures for controlling external corrosion on buried or submerged metallic piping systems. When both systems fail, the pipeline is susceptible to stress corrosion cracking (SCC). This paper described methodologies to evaluate both external coatings under conditions anticipated during construction of the pipelines and to simulate the influence of freeze-thaw settlements on coating. The performance of an external pipeline coating depends on the events that occur during the 5 stages of the coating lifetime, notably manufacture, application, transportation, installation and operation. This paper reported on laboratory experiments that were conducted for 0, 4, 8 and 12 months to simulate 4 months of Canadian winter conditions in which samples were exposed to temperatures as low as -45 degrees C. Cathodic disbondment, impact resistance, flexibility, peel resistance, shearing and soil adhesion were tested. Field experiments were also carried out at Devon and Norman Wells for 0, 12, 24 and 36 months to investigate impact resistance and the squeeze test. The studies showed that Canadian Standards Association (CSA) standards CSA Z662, CSA Z245.20 and CSA Z245.21 adequately cover evaluation of coatings for northern pipelines. However, the pipelines specimens should be exposed for at least 4 months in order to evaluate the effects of low temperatures. 21 refs., 10 tabs., 25 figs., 4 appendices.

  12. RUSSIA AND ITS PIPELINE WEAPON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FODOR Cosmin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we intend to present the new power which is given to Russia upon EU due to her great natural resources and due to her control upon pipelines. Now Moscow can exert influence upon countries in Europe not through its revolutionary zeal and its tanks and army, but through its resources. And she knows how to use them and how make the EU dependent on her will: this is a new geopolitics, a 21-th century geopolitics, which is centered upon the control of gas pipelines in Central Asian states and upon EU states great dependence on Russian pipeline system.

  13. Natural gas pipeline technology overview.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folga, S. M.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2007-11-01

    The United States relies on natural gas for one-quarter of its energy needs. In 2001 alone, the nation consumed 21.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. A large portion of natural gas pipeline capacity within the United States is directed from major production areas in Texas and Louisiana, Wyoming, and other states to markets in the western, eastern, and midwestern regions of the country. In the past 10 years, increasing levels of gas from Canada have also been brought into these markets (EIA 2007). The United States has several major natural gas production basins and an extensive natural gas pipeline network, with almost 95% of U.S. natural gas imports coming from Canada. At present, the gas pipeline infrastructure is more developed between Canada and the United States than between Mexico and the United States. Gas flows from Canada to the United States through several major pipelines feeding U.S. markets in the Midwest, Northeast, Pacific Northwest, and California. Some key examples are the Alliance Pipeline, the Northern Border Pipeline, the Maritimes & Northeast Pipeline, the TransCanada Pipeline System, and Westcoast Energy pipelines. Major connections join Texas and northeastern Mexico, with additional connections to Arizona and between California and Baja California, Mexico (INGAA 2007). Of the natural gas consumed in the United States, 85% is produced domestically. Figure 1.1-1 shows the complex North American natural gas network. The pipeline transmission system--the 'interstate highway' for natural gas--consists of 180,000 miles of high-strength steel pipe varying in diameter, normally between 30 and 36 inches in diameter. The primary function of the transmission pipeline company is to move huge amounts of natural gas thousands of miles from producing regions to local natural gas utility delivery points. These delivery points, called 'city gate stations', are usually owned by distribution companies, although some are owned by

  14. Correlation between designed wall thickness of gas pipelines and external and internal corrosion processes; Adequacao de espessura de parede projetada em funcao de processos de corrosao externa e interna em gasodutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Jose Antonio da Cunha Ponciano [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Engenharia Metalurgica

    2004-07-01

    Corrosion control on gas pipelines plays an important role on the assessment of pipeline integrity and reliability. In many countries a great extension of buried pipelines is used on transport and distribution systems. This extension will be certainly increased in a near future due to the increasing consumption of natural gas. Inadequate corrosion control can drive to pipeline failures, bringing up the possibility of accidents in populated or environmental protected areas, bringing together severe economical, legal and environmental consequences. Corrosion is frequently considered as a natural and inevitable phenomenon. Based upon this assumption, some recommendations are included on design standards of gas pipelines in order to compensate its detrimental effect. The aim of this work is to present a review of the correlation between external corrosion process and the guidelines established during the project phase of gas pipelines. It is intended to contribute for a better understanding of the impacts of corrosion on integrity, reliability and readiness of gas transport and distribution systems. Some aspects regarding external corrosion of pipelines extracted from technical papers will be summarised. Information provided will be compared to design criterion prescribed by the NBR 12712 Standard. (author)

  15. DETECTION OF UNAUTHORIZED CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT IN PIPELINE RIGHT-OF-WAYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James E. Huebler

    2003-01-29

    Natural gas transmission companies mark the right-of-way areas where pipelines are buried with warning signs to prevent accidental third-party damage. Nevertheless, pipelines are sometimes damaged by third-party construction equipment. A single incident can be devastating, causing death and millions of dollars of property loss. This damage would be prevented if potentially hazardous construction equipment could be detected, identified, and an alert given before the pipeline was damaged. The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is developing a system to solve this problem by using an optical fiber as a distributed sensor and interrogating the fiber with a custom optical time domain reflectometer. Key issues are the ability to detect encroachment and the ability to discriminate among potentially hazardous and benign encroachments. The work performed in the 4th quarter of 2002 included fine-tuning and debugging of the custom Optical Time Domain Reflectometer being constructed for data collection and analysis. It also included installation of optical fibers at the test site along an operating pipeline.

  16. DETECTION OF UNAUTHORIZED CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT IN PIPELINE RIGHT-OF-WAYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James E. Huebler

    2002-10-30

    Natural gas transmission companies mark the right-of-way areas where pipelines are buried with warning signs to prevent accidental third-party damage. Nevertheless, pipelines are sometimes damaged by third-party construction equipment. A single incident can be devastating, causing death and millions of dollars of property loss. This damage would be prevented if potentially hazardous construction equipment could be detected, identified, and an alert given before the pipeline was damaged. The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is developing a system to solve this problem by using an optical fiber as a distributed sensor and interrogating the fiber with a custom optical time domain reflectometer. Key issues are the ability to detect encroachment and the ability to discriminate among potentially hazardous and benign encroachments. The work performed in the third quarter of the project (2nd quarter of 2002) includes design and construction of the diode laser driver and high-speed detector electronics. Fine-tuning of the electronics is proceeding. A new test site along an operating pipeline has been obtained.

  17. 探地雷达在地下管线探测中的应用%Application of Ground Penetrating Radar in Underground Pipeline Detecting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永义; 杨磊; 王瑞芳

    2015-01-01

    介绍了探地雷达的工作原理和数据采集系统,利用探地雷达进行地下管线的探测,探明了指定路线上的管线埋深情况,对结果进行精度分析比较,表明探地雷达探测出的管线点埋深符合限差要求,可以用于地下非金属管线的探测,对管线探测仪是一种补充。%The working principle and data acquisition system of ground penetrating radar are introduced in this paper .The detection of underground pipeline using GPR proves the buried depth in the designated route .The accuracy of analysis and comparison ,shows that the buried depth detected using GPR is in line with the requirements and can be used for the detection of underground non metal pipeline .At the same time ,it is a supplement to the nondestructive detection of pipeline detector cases only metal pipeline .

  18. Efficiency of wave impeding barrier in pipeline construction under earthquake excitation using nonlinear finite element analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fatih Goktepe; H Serdar Kuyuk; Erkan Celebi

    2014-04-01

    Earthquakes have caused colossal casualties and severe damages to engineering structures and especially leading to substantial economic loss to the underground structures and/or infrastructures. Pipelines are one of most important component of lifeline engineering. For instance, the Southern Caucasus- Eastern Turkey energy corridors are formed by several key pipelines carrying crude oil and natural gas from Azerbaijan, via Georgia, to world markets through Mediterranean Sea. Many project accomplished recently and construction of new corridors are still going on. They should be protected from earthquake disaster especially when they pass through high seismicity zones. The installation of wave impeding barriers (WIB) below the vulnerable infrastructures as pipelines established in soft soil can be used to reduce the effect of the earthquake induced ground borne vibrations. In this paper, a WIB as artificial bedrock based on the cut-off frequency of a soil layer over bedrock is proposed as isolation measurement in order to mitigate the dynamic response of the buried pipelines under earthquake strong ground motion. The computational simulation of the wave propagation problem is directly achieved by employing nonlinear 2D finite element modelling for prediction of screening performance of WIB on the dynamic response of vibrating coupled soil-pipeline system. Energy absorbing boundaries along the truncated interfaces of the unbounded nature of the underlying soil media are implemented in the time domain along with Newmark’s integration. An extensive parametric investigation and systematic computations are performed with different controlling parameters. The obtained numerical results point out that WIB can be very promising as an isolator to protect pipelines when they establish for a certain depth.

  19. Sinopec Fuels Development of Pipelines in East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xuemei

    2004-01-01

    @@ Crude pipeline completed in Yangtze River Delta The Ningbo-Shanghai-Nanjing crude pipeline was recently wound up for construction following completion of the subsea segment in Hangzhou Bay,the last part of the pipeline. The 711 mm-diameter crude pipeline, designed and constructed by Sinopec, adopts the advanced SCADA system for full automation control. The pipeline is designed to have an annual crude transmission capacity of 20million tons.

  20. Investigation of guided waves propagation in pipe buried in sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leinov, Eli; Cawley, Peter; Lowe, Michael J.S. [NDE Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-18

    The inspection of pipelines by guided wave testing is a well-established method for the detection of corrosion defects in pipelines, and is currently used routinely in a variety of industries, e.g. petrochemical and energy. When the method is applied to pipes buried in soil, test ranges tend to be significantly compromised because of attenuation of the waves caused by energy radiating into the soil. Moreover, the variability of soil conditions dictates different attenuation characteristics, which in-turn results in different, unpredictable, test ranges. We investigate experimentally the propagation and attenuation characteristics of guided waves in pipes buried in fine sand using a well characterized full scale experimental apparatus. The apparatus consists of an 8 inch-diameter, 5.6-meters long steel pipe embedded over 3 meters of its length in a rectangular container filled with fine sand, and an air-bladder for the application of overburden pressure. Longitudinal and torsional guided waves are excited in the pipe and recorded using a transducer ring (Guided Ultrasonics Ltd). Acoustic properties of the sand are measured independently in-situ and used to make model predictions of wave behavior in the buried pipe. We present the methodology and the systematic measurements of the guided waves under a range of conditions, including loose and compacted sand. It is found that the application of overburden pressure modifies the compaction of the sand and increases the attenuation, and that the measurement of the acoustic properties of sand allows model prediction of the attenuation of guided waves in buried pipes with a high level of confidence.

  1. Compact Buried Ducts in a Hot-Humid Climate House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, Dave [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2016-01-07

    "9A system of compact, buried ducts provides a high-performance and cost-effective solution for delivering conditioned air throughout the building. This report outlines research activities that are expected to facilitate adoption of compact buried duct systems by builders. The results of this research would be scalable to many new house designs in most climates and markets, leading to wider industry acceptance and building code and energy program approval. The primary research question with buried ducts is potential condensation at the outer jacket of the duct insulation in humid climates during the cooling season. Current best practices for buried ducts rely on encapsulating the insulated ducts with closed-cell spray polyurethane foam insulation to control condensation and improve air sealing. The encapsulated buried duct concept has been analyzed and shown to be effective in hot-humid climates. The purpose of this project is to develop an alternative buried duct system that performs effectively as ducts in conditioned space - durable, energy efficient, and cost-effective - in a hot-humid climate (IECC warm-humid climate zone 3A) with three goals that distinguish this project: 1) Evaluation of design criteria for buried ducts that use common materials and do not rely on encapsulation using spray foam or disrupt traditional work sequences; 2) Establishing design criteria for compact ducts and incorporate those with the buried duct criteria to further reduce energy losses and control installed costs; 3) Developing HVAC design guidance for performing accurate heating and cooling load calculations for compact buried ducts.

  2. Thermo-hydraulic modelling of the South East Gas Pipeline System - an integrated model; Modelagem termo-hidraulica do Sistema de Gasodutos do Sudeste : um modelo integrado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vianna Neto, Armando M.; Santos, Arnaldo M.; Mercon, Eduardo G. [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents the development of an integrated simulation model, for the numerical calculation of thermal-hydraulic behaviors in the Brazilian southeast onshore gas pipeline flow system, remotely operated by TRANSPETRO's Gas Pipeline Control Centre (CCG). In its final application, this model is supposed to provide simulated results at the closer range to reality, in order to improve gas pipeline simulation studies and evaluations for the system in question. Considering the fact that numerical thermo-hydraulic simulation becomes the CCG's most important tool to analyze the boundary conditions to adjust the mentioned gas flow system, this paper seeks and takes aim to the optimization of the following prime attributions of a gas pipeline control centre: verification of system behaviors, face to some unit maintenance stop or procedure, programmed or not, or to some new gas outlet or inlet connection to the system; daily operational compatibility analysis between programmed and realized gas volumes; gas technical expedition and delivery analysis. Finally, all this work was idealized and carried out within the one-phase flow domain (dry gas) (author)

  3. ALMA Pipeline Heuristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, J.; Wyrowski, F.; Muders, D.; Boone, F.; Davis, L.; Shepherd, D.; Wilson, C.

    2006-07-01

    The ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter Array) Pipeline Heuristics system is being developed to automatically reduce data taken with the standard observing modes. The goal is to make ALMA user-friendly to astronomers who are not experts in radio interferometry. The Pipeline Heuristics system must capture the expert knowledge required to provide data products that can be used without further processing. Observing modes to be processed by the system include single field interferometry, mosaics and single dish `on-the-fly' maps, and combinations of these modes. The data will be produced by the main ALMA array, the ALMA Compact Array (ACA) and single dish antennas. The Pipeline Heuristics system is being developed as a set of Python scripts. For interferometry these use as data processing engines the CASA/AIPS++ libraries and their bindings as CORBA objects within the ALMA Common Software (ACS). Initial development has used VLA and Plateau de Bure data sets to build and test a heuristic script capable of reducing single field data. In this paper we describe the reduction datapath and the algorithms used at each stage. Test results are presented. The path for future development is outlined.

  4. Intelligent Control of Welding Gun Pose for Pipeline Welding Robot Based on Improved Radial Basis Function Network and Expert System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwen Tian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the control system of the welding gun pose in whole‐position welding is complicated and nonlinear, an intelligent control system of welding gun pose for a pipeline welding robot based on an improved radial basis function neural network (IRBFNN and expert system (ES is presented in this paper. The structure of the IRBFNN is constructed and the improved genetic algorithm is adopted to optimize the network structure. This control system makes full use of the characteristics of the IRBFNN and the ES. The ADXRS300 micro‐mechanical gyro is used as the welding gun position sensor in this system. When the welding gun position is obtained, an appropriate pitch angle can be obtained through expert knowledge and the numeric reasoning capacity of the IRBFNN. ARM is used as the controller to drive the welding gun pitch angle step motor in order to adjust the pitch angle of the welding gun in real‐time. The experiment results show that the intelligent control system of the welding gun pose using the IRBFNN and expert system is feasible and it enhances the welding quality. This system has wide prospects for application.

  5. Compact Buried Ducts in a Hot-Humid Climate House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, D. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A system of compact, buried ducts provides a high-performance and cost-effective solution for delivering conditioned air throughout the building. This report outlines research activities that are expected to facilitate adoption of compact buried duct systems by builders. The results of this research would be scalable to many new house designs in most climates and markets, leading to wider industry acceptance and building code and energy program approval.

  6. Design of a Prediction System for Hydrate Formation in Gas Pipelines using Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Raed Moukhtar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Before the evolution of the Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN technology, many production wells in the oil and gas industry were suffering from the gas hydration formation process, as most of them are remotely located away from the host location. By taking the advantage of the WSN technology, it is possible now to monitor and predict the critical conditions at which hydration will form by using any computerized model. In fact, most of the developed models are based on two well-known hand calculation methods which are the Specific gravity and K-Factor methods. In this research, the proposed work is divided into two phases; first, the development of a three prediction models using the Neural Network algorithm (ANN based on the specific gravity charts, the K-Factor method and the production rates of the flowing gas mixture in the process pipelines. While in the second phase, two WSN prototype models are designed and implemented using National Instruments WSN hardware devices. Power analysis is carried out on the designed prototypes and regression models are developed to give a relation between the sensing nodes (SN consumed current, Node-to-Gateway distance and the operating link quality. The prototypes controller is interfaced with a GSM module and connected to a web server to be monitored via mobile and internet networks.

  7. PIPELINES AS COMMUNICATION NETWORK LINKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelvin T. Erickson; Ann Miller; E. Keith Stanek; C.H. Wu; Shari Dunn-Norman

    2005-03-14

    This report presents the results of an investigation into two methods of using the natural gas pipeline as a communication medium. The work addressed the need to develop secure system monitoring and control techniques between the field and control centers and to robotic devices in the pipeline. In the first method, the pipeline was treated as a microwave waveguide. In the second method, the pipe was treated as a leaky feeder or a multi-ground neutral and the signal was directly injected onto the metal pipe. These methods were tested on existing pipeline loops at UMR and Batelle. The results reported in this report indicate the feasibility of both methods. In addition, a few suitable communication link protocols for this network were analyzed.

  8. Pipelines integrity management in Transportadora de Gas del Sur; Gerenciamento de la integridad de gasoductos en Transportadora de Gas del Sur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espineira, Eduardo [Transportadora de Gas del Sur (TGS) (Argentina). Gerencia de Integridad de Gasoductos

    2003-07-01

    To control the integrity of a buried gas pipeline system is not an easy task for a gas pipeline operator. As the threats that affect pipeline integrity are many, it is critical to obtain, visualize, and analyze a great quantity of data in order to ensure a safe and continuous gas supply. This task becomes even more complex in the case of pipelines installed long time ago, where time pays an important role in the formation and development of defects. It is essential to maintain a policy of permanent evaluation, monitoring and repair that allows to evaluate the integrity plan developed and to make the changes that might be necessary. The TGS pipeline system consists of 7400 Km of pipe with an average age of 30 years, going across a great variety of soils and zones with distinctive geographical features that demand the continuous investment of money. This study describes the integrity plan set up by TGS and its evolution in time, including the main tasks related to information gathering and analysis, as well as all rehabilitation tasks. The evaluation of the integrity plan implementation, and the evolution of failure rates in time with respect to the related investments are also described. Finally, the analysis includes the information management systems applied by TGS such as the Geographic Information System . (author)

  9. Instrumented Pipeline Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Piro; Michael Ream

    2010-07-31

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative agreement between Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) and U.S. Department of Energy to address the need for a for low-cost monitoring and inspection sensor system as identified in the Department of Energy (DOE) National Gas Infrastructure Research & Development (R&D) Delivery Reliability Program Roadmap.. The Instrumented Pipeline Initiative (IPI) achieved the objective by researching technologies for the monitoring of pipeline delivery integrity, through a ubiquitous network of sensors and controllers to detect and diagnose incipient defects, leaks, and failures. This report is organized by tasks as detailed in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The sections all state the objective and approach before detailing results of work.

  10. ALMA Pipeline Heuristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muders, D.; Boone, F.; Wyrowski, F.; Lightfoot, J.; Kosugi, G.; Wilson, C.; Davis, L.; Shepherd, D.

    2007-10-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array / Atacama Compact Array (ALMA / ACA) Pipeline Heuristics system is being developed to automatically reduce data taken with the standard observing modes such as single fields, mosaics or on-the-fly maps. The goal is to make ALMA user-friendly to astronomers who are not experts in radio interferometry. The Pipeline Heuristics must capture the expert knowledge required to provide data products that can be used without further processing. The Pipeline Heuristics system is being developed as a set of Python scripts using as the data processing engines the Common Astronomy Software Applications (CASA[PY]) libraries and the ATNF Spectral Analysis Package (ASAP). The interferometry heuristics scripts currently provide an end-to-end process for the single field mode comprising flagging, initial calibration, re-flagging, re-calibration, and imaging of the target data. A Java browser provides user-friendly access to the heuristics results. The initial single-dish heuristics scripts implement automatic spectral line detection, baseline fitting and image gridding. The resulting data cubes are analyzed to detect source emission spectrally and spatially in order to calculate signal-to-noise ratios for comparison against the science goals specified by the observer.

  11. The inverse electroencephalography pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, David Michael

    The inverse electroencephalography (EEG) problem is defined as determining which regions of the brain are active based on remote measurements recorded with scalp EEG electrodes. An accurate solution to this problem would benefit both fundamental neuroscience research and clinical neuroscience applications. However, constructing accurate patient-specific inverse EEG solutions requires complex modeling, simulation, and visualization algorithms, and to date only a few systems have been developed that provide such capabilities. In this dissertation, a computational system for generating and investigating patient-specific inverse EEG solutions is introduced, and the requirements for each stage of this Inverse EEG Pipeline are defined and discussed. While the requirements of many of the stages are satisfied with existing algorithms, others have motivated research into novel modeling and simulation methods. The principal technical results of this work include novel surface-based volume modeling techniques, an efficient construction for the EEG lead field, and the Open Source release of the Inverse EEG Pipeline software for use by the bioelectric field research community. In this work, the Inverse EEG Pipeline is applied to three research problems in neurology: comparing focal and distributed source imaging algorithms; separating measurements into independent activation components for multifocal epilepsy; and localizing the cortical activity that produces the P300 effect in schizophrenia.

  12. Underground pipeline corrosion

    CERN Document Server

    Orazem, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Underground pipelines transporting liquid petroleum products and natural gas are critical components of civil infrastructure, making corrosion prevention an essential part of asset-protection strategy. Underground Pipeline Corrosion provides a basic understanding of the problems associated with corrosion detection and mitigation, and of the state of the art in corrosion prevention. The topics covered in part one include: basic principles for corrosion in underground pipelines, AC-induced corrosion of underground pipelines, significance of corrosion in onshore oil and gas pipelines, n

  13. Locating a buried earth penetrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caffey, T.W.H.

    1977-11-01

    The purpose of this work was to assist the recovery of a buried earth penetrator by locating the vertical projection of the penetator upon the surface within a horizontal radius error of one meter. The penetrator will carry a small coil which is driven by an alternating current to form a magnetic dipole. Five measurements of the magnetic field vector upon the surface of the earth are shown to be sufficient for determining not only the xyz-coordinates of the dipole, but also the orientation of the dipole axis. The theory, computation process, and field tests are comprehensively described. Results of 26 field tests with the dipole at 9 different combinations of location and orientation are given. Average radial and vertical location errors are 0.27 m and -0.05 m, respectively, while the mean errors in the tilt and orientation angles of the dipole axis are 3 degrees and 8 degrees, respectively. The results are applied to the design of a locating system for a Pershing II penetrator which contains a recessed, rear-mounted coil.

  14. An approach to coating and cathodic protection design on long distance gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacchi, L.; Brugnetti, F.; Zanardo, F. [Snam Rete Gas, Milan (Italy); Castano, M. [Eni Gas and Power Div., Milan (Italy)

    2004-07-01

    This paper provided details of a pilot gas pipeline using X100 grade steel planned as part of the TAP project in Italy. The full-scale experimental line is located at a military base in Sardinia, and is comprised of two 48-inch diameter buried pipelines which extend for approximately 700 m. One of the lines is coated, has good cathodic protection (CP) and no mechanical damage. The other line has been mechanically damaged and has artificial defects in the pipe coating as well as areas that are subjected to bacteria cultures. The damaged line has also been divided into 3 parts that are protected with different levels of cathodic protection. The aim of the project is to examine the pipeline's susceptibility to environmentally assisted cracking, hydrogen embrittlement, and near-neutral stress corrosion cracking. A full scale burst test will be conducted on the undamaged line in order to analyze the mechanical behaviour of high-grade steel in optimal conditions. Three layer high density polyethylene (HDPE) and dual layer fusion bond epoxy lining are being considered by the project, which also aims to investigate the performance of field joint coatings. The project is also investigating power generation systems for CP. The CP systems will be monitored by periodic visits from technical operators as well as with the use of telemetry and remote control systems. Reference electrodes will be used to monitor the CP level of the pilot pipelines. A Cu-CuSO{sub 4} electrode will be used to monitor soil resistivity. It was concluded that the project will provide information concerning the reliability and duration of experimental electrodes, as well as the life cycle costs of corrosion protection in long-distance pipelines. 1 ref., 6 tabs., 3 figs.

  15. Crude Oil Pipeline Integrity Management System and Its Application%输油管道完整性管理体系及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王福众; 帅健

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the integrity management system was constructed for crude oil pipeline. Management model was presented, based on plan-do-check-action cycle. The implementation essentials of the pipeline integrity management system were outlined. A pipeline integrity management information platform was developed and its functions with data management, high consequence identification, risk assessment, integrity evaluation and activity planning. Integrity management activities, such as data integration, hazard identification, risk assessment, internal inspection, external corrosion direct assessment and maintenance, were conducted. Simultaneously, the problems in pipeline integrity management system construction and application were pointed out, and the suggestion of improving pipeline integrity management system was raised.%构建了输油管道完整性管理体系,提出了基于“计划-实施-检查-改进”循环的管理模式,总结了管道完整性管理体系的实施要点,研制开发了具有数据管理、高后果区识别、风险评价、完整性评价及活动管理的输油管道完整性管理信息平台。开展了数据收集与整合、危害因素识别与风险评价、管道内检测、外腐蚀直接评价以及维修维护等完整性管理活动。同时,指出管道完整性管理体系构建与应用中的问题,提出了进一步改进和完善管道完整性管理体系的建议。

  16. 77 FR 70543 - Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee and the Liquid Pipeline Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... for natural gas pipelines and for hazardous liquid pipelines. Both committees were established under... TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee and the Liquid Pipeline Advisory Committee AGENCY: Pipeline and...

  17. Soil corrosion monitoring near a pipeline under CP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullard, Sophie J.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Ziomek-Moroz, Margaret; Locke, M.L. (NW Natural); Warthen, M.R. (NW Natural); Kane, Russell D. (Intercorr International Inc.); Eden, Dawn C. (Intercorr International Inc.)

    2005-01-01

    Electrochemical noise (EN), linear polarization resistance (LPR), and harmonic distortion analysis (HDA) were used with three-electrode probes to monitor the corrosion occurring in soil in dry and wet conditions near a gas pipeline under cathodic protection. The test site was a cathodic protection (CP) test station where impressed current CP was applied to a 2 in. (5.1 cm) diameter FBE coated steel pipe using an 84 in. (0.2 m) TA-2 high-silicon cast iron anode. Electrochemical measurements were made at three locations, two inside the CP field and one outside the CP field. Electrochemical measurements were first made with the CP system off to establish the baseline corrosion and then with increasing levels of CP. The degree of protection was based on polarized potential and the adequacy of protection was determined by depolarization measurements. CP of an adjacent pipeline did not affect the measurement of either corrosion rate or pitting factor when using buried soil corrosion probes and the EN, LPR, and HDA techniques.

  18. A systems biology pipeline identifies new immune and disease related molecular signatures and networks in human cells during microgravity exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sayak; Saha, Rohini; Palanisamy, Anbarasi; Ghosh, Madhurima; Biswas, Anupriya; Roy, Saheli; Pal, Arijit; Sarkar, Kathakali; Bagh, Sangram

    2016-05-01

    Microgravity is a prominent health hazard for astronauts, yet we understand little about its effect at the molecular systems level. In this study, we have integrated a set of systems-biology tools and databases and have analysed more than 8000 molecular pathways on published global gene expression datasets of human cells in microgravity. Hundreds of new pathways have been identified with statistical confidence for each dataset and despite the difference in cell types and experiments, around 100 of the new pathways are appeared common across the datasets. They are related to reduced inflammation, autoimmunity, diabetes and asthma. We have identified downregulation of NfκB pathway via Notch1 signalling as new pathway for reduced immunity in microgravity. Induction of few cancer types including liver cancer and leukaemia and increased drug response to cancer in microgravity are also found. Increase in olfactory signal transduction is also identified. Genes, based on their expression pattern, are clustered and mathematically stable clusters are identified. The network mapping of genes within a cluster indicates the plausible functional connections in microgravity. This pipeline gives a new systems level picture of human cells under microgravity, generates testable hypothesis and may help estimating risk and developing medicine for space missions.

  19. 铰接车辆转向系统液压管路动态特性%Dynamic characteristics of hydraulic pipelines of steering system of articulated vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯友山; 石博强; 肖成勇; 王慧; 郭朋彦

    2009-01-01

    对于铰接车辆转向系统,管路特性对转向系统性能影响较大,其影响因素不能被忽略.基于功率键合图-方块图方法及SIMULINK控制仿真软件,建立了铰接车辆转向系统液压管路至油缸及负载的通用数学模型.定量地研究分析了铰接车辆转向系统液压管路的动态特性以及液压管路参数对转向系统动态特性的影响.研究结果表明:对于小管径管路,液阻和液感较大,液容较小,系统振荡幅度小,响应速度快;随着管路长度的增加,液阻、液感和液容皆逐渐增大,系统振荡次数逐渐减少,振荡幅度逐渐减小,但是系统动态响应较慢;提高油液的等效体积弹性模量有利于改善系统的动态响应速度和稳定性.%For articulated vehicles steering system, the pipelines characteristics have great effects on the steering system performance, the impacts can not be ignored. Based on power bond graph-block diagram method and SIMULINK software, the general mathematical model of the hydraulic pipelines to the load of the articulated vehicles steering system was established. The dynamic characteristics of hydraulic pipelines of the articulated vehicles and the influence of the pipelines parameters on the articulated vehicles steering system were analyzed quantitatively. The study results show that for smaller diameter pipelines, the fluid resistance and fluid sense get larger, the fluid capacity gets smaller instead. The system oscillation amplitude is smaller and the dynamic response is faster; with an increase in the length of pipelines, the fluid sense, fluid resistance and fluid capacity are all increasing gradually, the system oscillation frequency reduces gradually, the oscillation amplitude also gradually decreases, but the dynamic response is getting slower. Increasing the oil volume elastic modulus of the system is conducive to improve the dynamic response speed and stability.

  20. Baia de Guanabara pipelines - rehabilitation and integrity management; Reabilitacao e gerenciamento da integridade dos dutos da Baia de Guanabara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Ricardo D. de; Matsuura, Minoru [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    In 2001 PETROBRAS implemented a new Standard for Pipeline Structural Integrity Management of PETROBRAS (PID). All pipelines operated by PETROBRAS had to be adapted to the new requirements imposed by this Standard. When this standard was applied to the Guanabara Bay pipeline many facilities had to be adapted, new inspection procedures implemented and inspection reports reviewed. The first action was to map all pipelines, using a range of techniques, to determine their accurate 3D position. The sections not buried were inspected by divers to identify free spans that exceeded the recommended limits. Launchers were installed in the lines going to the piers to allow in-line inspection. This inspection detected many dents caused by vessels, internal corrosion and external corrosion in the inter-tidal zone. The corrosion monitoring system was redesigned and new monitoring points were installed to provide more accurate information on the high risk areas. The cathodic protection system was adapted to provide remote monitoring and data analysis. A new routine of geotechnical inspections, on-shore inspections and helicopter surveys has been implemented. Defects identified by the in-line inspection have been assessed in a conservative way and all lines have been hydrostatically tested to demonstrate continued fitness for purpose. (author)

  1. 78 FR 71036 - Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate; Contractor Management Information System Reporting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ...; Contractor Management Information System Reporting; and Obtaining Drug and Alcohol Management Information... Operators to Report Contractor Management Information System (MIS) Data; and New Method for Operators to... ``user name'' and ``password'' for the Drug and Alcohol Management Information System (DAMIS)...

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF AN EMAT IN-LINE INSPECTION SYSTEM FOR DETECTION, DISCRIMINATION, AND GRADING OF STRESS CORROSION CRACKING IN PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeff Aron; Jon Gore, Roger Dalton; Stuart Eaton; Adrian Bowles; Owen Thomas; Tim Jarman

    2003-07-01

    This report describes progress, experiments, and results for a project to develop a pipeline inline inspection tool that uses electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) to detect and grade stress corrosion cracking (SCC). There is a brief introduction that gives background material about EMATs and relevant previous Tuboscope work toward a tool. This work left various choices about the modes and transducers for this project. The experimental section then describes the lab systems, improvements to these systems, and setups and techniques to narrow the choices. Improvements, which involved transducer matching networks, better magnetic biasing, and lower noise electronics, led to improved signal to noise (SNR) levels. The setups permitted transducer characterizations and interaction measurements in plates with man-made cracks, pipeline sections with SCC, and a full pipe with SCC. The latter were done with a moveable and compact EMAT setup, called a lab mouse, which is detailed. Next, the results section justifies the mode and transducer choices. These were for magnetostrictive EMATs and the use of EMAT launched modes: SH0 (at 2.1 MHz-mm) and SV1 (at 3.9 MHz-mm). This section then gives details of measurements on these modes. The measurements consisted of signal to noise ratio, insertion loss, magnetic biasing sensitivities crack reflection and transmission coefficients, beam width, standoff and tilt sensitivities. For most of the measurements the section presents analysis curves, such as reflection coefficient versus crack depth. Some notable results for the chosen modes are: that acceptable SNRs were generated in a pipe with magnetostrictive EMATs, that optimum bias for magnetostrictive transmitters and receivers is magnetic saturation, that crack reflection and transmission coefficients from crack interactions agree with 2 D simulations and seem workable for crack grading, and that the mouse has good waveform quality and so is ready for exhaustive measurement EMAT

  3. The spatial distribution of pollutants in pipe-scale of large-diameter pipelines in a drinking water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingqing; Chen, Huanyu; Yao, Lingdan; Wei, Zongyuan; Lou, Liping; Shan, Yonggui; Endalkachew, Sahle-Demessie; Mallikarjuna, Nadagouda; Hu, Baolan; Zhou, Xiaoyan

    2016-11-05

    In large-diameter drinking water pipelines, spatial differences in hydraulic and physiochemical conditions may also result in spatial variations in pipe corrosion, biofilm growth and pollutant accumulation. In this article, the spatial distributions of various metals and organic contaminants in two 19-year-old grey cast iron pipes which had an internal diameter of 600mm (DN600), were investigated and analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, Energy Dispersive Spectrometer, X-ray Diffraction, etc. The spatial distribution of heavy metals varied significantly across the pipe section, and iron, manganese, lead, copper, and chromium were highest in concentration in the upper portion pipe-scales. However, the highest aluminum and zinc content was detected in the lower portion pipe-scales. Apart from some common types of hydrocarbons formed by microbial metabolites, there were also some microalgae metabolites and exogenous contaminants accumulated in pipe-scale, which also exhibited high diversity between different spatial locations. The spatial distributions of the physical and chemical properties of pipe-scale and contaminants were quite different in large-diameter pipes. The finding put forward higher requirements on the research method about drinking water distribution system chemical safety. And the scientific community need understand trend and dynamics of drinking water pipe systems better.

  4. Pipelining Computational Stages of the Tomographic Reconstructor for Multi-Object Adaptive Optics on a Multi-GPU System

    KAUST Repository

    Charara, Ali

    2014-11-01

    The European Extremely Large Telescope project (E-ELT) is one of Europe\\'s highest priorities in ground-based astronomy. ELTs are built on top of a variety of highly sensitive and critical astronomical instruments. In particular, a new instrument called MOSAIC has been proposed to perform multi-object spectroscopy using the Multi-Object Adaptive Optics (MOAO) technique. The core implementation of the simulation lies in the intensive computation of a tomographic reconstruct or (TR), which is used to drive the deformable mirror in real time from the measurements. A new numerical algorithm is proposed (1) to capture the actual experimental noise and (2) to substantially speed up previous implementations by exposing more concurrency, while reducing the number of floating-point operations. Based on the Matrices Over Runtime System at Exascale numerical library (MORSE), a dynamic scheduler drives all computational stages of the tomographic reconstruct or simulation and allows to pipeline and to run tasks out-of order across different stages on heterogeneous systems, while ensuring data coherency and dependencies. The proposed TR simulation outperforms asymptotically previous state-of-the-art implementations up to 13-fold speedup. At more than 50000 unknowns, this appears to be the largest-scale AO problem submitted to computation, to date, and opens new research directions for extreme scale AO simulations. © 2014 IEEE.

  5. 75 FR 63774 - Pipeline Safety: Safety of On-Shore Hazardous Liquid Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... an operator's Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system for controlling the pipeline... activation timing, or methods for integration of EFRD operation with an operator's SCADA and leak...

  6. 一种新型埋地输水管线腐蚀监测专家系统的开发%The Development of a New Underground Water Pipeline Corrosion Monitoring System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李威力; 玄晓阳; 王亚平

    2015-01-01

    本文主要讲述了一种新型的用于长距离输水管线的在线腐蚀监测专家系统的开发,该系统可以在线监测输水管线的腐蚀状况并且可以对输水管线的阴极保护寿命进行评价。%The article expresses the development of a new long distance underground water pipeline corrosion monitoring system, this system can monitor the corrosion condition of water pipeline and evaluate the life of water pipeline cathodic protect system.

  7. Analysis of the changes in the consumption profile of the system use gas in Bolivia-Brazil Gas Pipeline after integration with the Campinas-Rio Gas Pipeline; Analise das alteracoes do perfil de consumo de gas de sistema no Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil apos a interligacao deste gasoduto com o Campinas-Rio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Almir Beserra dos; Bisaggio, Helio da Cunha; Veloso, Luciano de Gusmao [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The natural gas pipeline transport is carried out by one or more compression stations. Each station possesses one or more compressors. The compressor's fuel is usually natural gas itself. The amount of natural gas consumed by the compressors fluctuates daily according to the demand at the city-gates. The daily operational result of a pipeline is known as imbalance. The imbalance is the difference between the natural gas entering into a in a pipeline and the volume delivered in the city-gates added to system use gas. The imbalance analyses in a pipeline that uses natural gas powered compressors requires the analyses of the system use gas. The aim of this work is to study the system use gas in the Bolivia-Brazil pipeline using the available data from the Superintendencia de Comercializacao e Movimentacao de Petroleo, seus Derivados e Gas Natural - ANP and compare the change of the volume consumed before and after the entry into operation of the Campinas-Rio gas pipeline. (author)

  8. Urban natural gas pipeline prewarning system and SCADA technology%城市天然气管道预警系统&SCADA技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭道新

    2012-01-01

    随着我国近年来管道的大力发展,管道周边的第三方施工以及恶意破坏对管道安全带来了极大的危害.尤其是天然气管道,一旦发生第三方施工或者破坏导致的管道泄漏,后果很严重.如何在管道遭受破坏之前发现并制止危害事件是管道业主最为关心的问题!因此管道光纤预警技术的出现对于管道安全具有不可估量的意义.该文重点阐述西宁环城高压工程项目燃气通信光缆安全预警系统解决方案.%With the rapid development of natural gas pipeline in recent years, the third party construction around the pipeline and malicious damage have brought great harm to the pipeline safety. If natural gas leakage caused by third-party construction or malicious damage occurred, the consequence would be horrific. How to detect and stop the destruction before the pipeline is damaged is the deep concern for pipeline constructors. So the occurrence of optical fiber pipe warning technology has immeasurable significance for pipe security. This paper mainly describes the solutions of communication optical cable security warning system for Xining city high pressure gas project.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF AN EMAT IN-LINE INSPECTION SYSTEM FOR DETECTION, DISCRIMINATION, AND GRADING OF STRESS CORROSION CRACKING IN PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeff Aron; Jeff Jia; Bruce Vance; Wen Chang; Raymond Pohler; Jon Gore; Stuart Eaton; Adrian Bowles; Tim Jarman

    2005-02-01

    This report describes prototypes, measurements, and results for a project to develop a prototype pipeline in-line inspection (ILI) tool that uses electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) to detect and grade stress corrosion cracking (SCC). The introduction briefly provides motivation and describes SCC, gives some background on EMATs and guided ultrasonic waves, and reviews promising results of a previous project using EMATs for SCC. The experimental section then describes lab measurement techniques and equipment, the lab mouse and prototypes for a mule, and scan measurements made on SCC. The mouse was a moveable and compact EMAT setup. The prototypes were even more compact circuits intended to be pulled or used in an ILI tool. The purpose of the measurements was to determine the best modes, transduction, and processing to use, to characterize the transducers, and to prove EMATs and mule components could produce useful results. Next, the results section summarizes the measurements and describes the mouse scans, processing, prototype circuit operating parameters, and performance for SH0 scans. Results are given in terms of specifications--like SNR, power, insertion loss--and parametric curves--such as signal amplitude versus magnetic bias or standoff, reflection or transmission coefficients versus crack depth. Initially, lab results indicated magnetostrictive transducers using both SH0 and SV1 modes would be worthwhile to pursue in a practical ILI system. However, work with mule components showed that SV1 would be too dispersive, so SV1 was abandoned. The results showed that reflection measurements, when normalized by the direct arrival are sensitive to and correlated with SCC. This was not true for transmission measurements. Processing yields a high data reduction, almost 60 to 1, and permits A and C scan display techniques and software already in use for pipeline inspection. An analysis of actual SH0 scan results for SCC of known dimensions showed that length

  10. Overview of the design, construction, and operation of interstate liquid petroleum pipelines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pharris, T. C.; Kolpa, R. L.

    2008-01-31

    The U.S. liquid petroleum pipeline industry is large, diverse, and vital to the nation's economy. Comprised of approximately 200,000 miles of pipe in all fifty states, liquid petroleum pipelines carried more than 40 million barrels per day, or 4 trillion barrel-miles, of crude oil and refined products during 2001. That represents about 17% of all freight transported in the United States, yet the cost of doing so amounted to only 2% of the nation's freight bill. Approximately 66% of domestic petroleum transport (by ton-mile) occurs by pipeline, with marine movements accounting for 28% and rail and truck transport making up the balance. In 2004, the movement of crude petroleum by domestic federally regulated pipelines amounted to 599.6 billion tonmiles, while that of petroleum products amounted to 315.9 billion ton-miles (AOPL 2006). As an illustration of the low cost of pipeline transportation, the cost to move a barrel of gasoline from Houston, Texas, to New York Harbor is only 3 cents per gallon, which is a small fraction of the cost of gasoline to consumers. Pipelines may be small or large, up to 48 inches in diameter. Nearly all of the mainline pipe is buried, but other pipeline components such as pump stations are above ground. Some lines are as short as a mile, while others may extend 1,000 miles or more. Some are very simple, connecting a single source to a single destination, while others are very complex, having many sources, destinations, and interconnections. Many pipelines cross one or more state boundaries (interstate), while some are located within a single state (intrastate), and still others operate on the Outer Continental Shelf and may or may not extend into one or more states. U.S. pipelines are located in coastal plains, deserts, Arctic tundra, mountains, and more than a mile beneath the water's surface of the Gulf of Mexico (Rabinow 2004; AOPL 2006). The network of crude oil pipelines in the United States is extensive. There are

  11. Organization of industrial maintenance in oil pipeline and terminals activities: a project for the implantation of a corporative management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Paulo de Tarso Arruda [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Terminais e Oleodutos; Arruda, Daniela Mendonca; Oliveira, Italo Luiz [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper discusses the definition and implementation of a corporate management model for industrial maintenance within TRANSPETRO's Terminals and Oil Pipelines business segment. A project is under way to answer the company's needs for better coordination of its maintenance activities as well as to face the challenge of increasing performance with higher systems and equipment' availability, at lower costs. To achieve this target, the project has been employing updating management tools for industrial maintenance planning and control. Its scope comprises the definition of: industrial maintenance process guidelines; industrial maintenance normative requirements and operational procedures; industrial maintenance performance indicators; local organizational charts; training of maintenance personnel; qualification and certification policies; conceptualization of maintenance engineering and maintenance based on risk; updating technologies such as asset management; warehousing and logistics for maintenance support in the supply of spare parts and materials. The project will also consider the results of a previous strategic sourcing study, concerning the definition of the most suitable out sourcing strategy for each operational unit, considering its characteristics as well as the characteristics of the region where it is located. (author)

  12. Hydroxyl carboxylate based non-phosphorus corrosion inhibition process for reclaimed water pipeline and downstream recirculating cooling water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Wang, Dong; Hou, Deyin

    2016-01-01

    A combined process was developed to inhibit the corrosion both in the pipeline of reclaimed water supplies (PRWS) and in downstream recirculating cooling water systems (RCWS) using the reclaimed water as makeup. Hydroxyl carboxylate-based corrosion inhibitors (e.g., gluconate, citrate, tartrate) and zinc sulfate heptahydrate, which provided Zn(2+) as a synergistic corrosion inhibition additive, were added prior to the PRWS when the phosphate (which could be utilized as a corrosion inhibitor) content in the reclaimed water was below 1.7 mg/L, and no additional corrosion inhibitors were required for the downstream RCWS. Satisfactory corrosion inhibition was achieved even if the RCWS was operated under the condition of high numbers of concentration cycles. The corrosion inhibition requirement was also met by the appropriate combination of PO4(3-) and Zn(2+) when the phosphate content in the reclaimed water was more than 1.7 mg/L. The process integrated not only water reclamation and reuse, and the operation of a highly concentrated RCWS, but also the comprehensive utilization of phosphate in reclaimed water and the application of non-phosphorus corrosion inhibitors. The proposed process reduced the operating cost of the PRWS and the RCWS, and lowered the environmental hazard caused by the excessive discharge of phosphate. Furthermore, larger amounts of water resources could be conserved as a result.

  13. Vulnerability assessment of critical infrastructure : activity 2 final report : information on SCADA systems and other security monitoring techniques used in oil and gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, G.P.; Revie, R.W. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory

    2008-03-15

    This study evaluated various technologies for monitoring the security of remote pipeline infrastructure. The technologies included flow, pressure and mass variations; negative pressure waves; dynamic and statistical modelling; hydrocarbon-sensitive cables; fiber optic systems; infrared thermography; spectral imaging; and synthetic aperture radar and radio frequency identification methods. A brief outline of the technologies was provided, along with suggestions for integrating the technology with other commercially available tools designed to manage security and reduce risk. The study demonstrated that many monitoring technologies are suitable for detecting pipeline leaks and identifying third party intrusions. A combination of different methods may provide optimal security and accuracy in leak detection and location. Automatic range and plausibility checks can be used to enhance system security and to recognize invalid changes in measuring devices and poorly parameterized media. Detailed reviews of the technologies were included in 2 appendices. 28 refs., 2 appendices.

  14. 区域供能地下敷设输配管网传热分析方法%Heat transfer analysis of buried pipes in district heating and cooling system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    衣健光

    2014-01-01

    地下敷设是区域供能输配管网的主要敷设方式,其传热计算用于确定保温层厚度、输配管网附加负荷、热损坏可能性。分析了影响地下敷设管网传热的因素,包括:流体与土壤之间的温差、管道的保温隔热性能、埋深、土壤导热系数以及相邻管道之间的间距。介绍了基于热阻的简化稳态计算方法,该方法极大地简化了计算工作量,且计算结果能够满足工程需要,同时该方法适用于大多数地下敷设管网的形式,可供工程设计人员参考。%Buried pipe network is the main way of distribution system in district heating and cooling systems,and its heat transfer calculation is used to determine the thickness of the insulation layer,accessory load of distribution system,and the possibility of thermal damage.Analyses the factors that influence the heat transfer calculation of buried pipe network,including temperature difference between fluid and soil, pipe insulation properties,depth,soil thermal conductivity and distance between adjacent pipes.Present the steady-state thermal calculation method based on thermal resistance formulations,which greatly simplifies the computational effort,and the calculated results can meet project needs.This method is suitable for the majority types of buried pipe network,so it can be used as reference for engineering design.

  15. Testing the School-to-Prison Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Emily G.

    2017-01-01

    The School-to-Prison Pipeline is a social phenomenon where students become formally involved with the criminal justice system as a result of school policies that use law enforcement, rather than discipline, to address behavioral problems. A potentially important part of the School-to-Prison Pipeline is the use of sworn School Resource Officers…

  16. 47 CFR 32.2423 - Buried cable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buried cable. 32.2423 Section 32.2423... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2423 Buried cable. (a) This account shall include the original cost of buried cable as well as the cost of other material...

  17. China Oil & Gas Pipeline Survey & Design Institute, Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bureau of CNPC; Zhao Surong

    1995-01-01

    @@ China Oil/Gas Pipeline Bureau(P.B) is the only professional organization in China specialized in oil/gas pipelines design and construction since 1980s. It has ever cooperated with certain number of well known companies from Japan,USA, Germany, Canada, as well as Italy in the designs of many large oil/gas pipeline projects, during the course of which, personnel from P.B accumulated much experience in international project designs. During the execution of each particular project, they strictly followed the common-use international codes and standards with computers as the auxiliary design system combined with the self-developed software. All its clients showed their trust in this organization and gave it high praise for its outstanding survey, design and technical service.

  18. Automated system of hydrostatic test - one reality of the analysis of the pipeline integrity; Sistema de teste hidrostatico automatizado - uma realidade na analise da integridade dos dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laxe, Victor; Ataide, Leonardo [CONDUTO, Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The accomplishment of hydrostatic tests in pipeline has been used to long years in the certification of the construction methods and assembly. Now with the considerable increase of the installed pipeline, the hydrostatic tests became a tool of significant importance in the evaluation and analysis of the structural integrity of the mesh pipeline. Inserted in this purpose, to CONDUIT it developed an automated system of hydrostatic tests for lines Onshore and Offshore, where the monitoring and registrations, of the essential variables - in 'real team' - such as pressure, temperature, flows and volumes, they made possible to detect leaks, besides the one of small scales, with larger speed and reliability. A supervisory system controlled with PLC's, interlinked the sensor ones and computers, they register and operate the essential variables and the injection of chemical during whole the test, besides generating graphs in 'real team' with inferior input to 5 seconds, making possible the monitoring of several lines, simultaneous and independently. With a system compact, versatile, of easy and fast mobilization, it allows installation in places where the traditional measurement instruments and control are unviable, as uninhabited and automated platforms, points in field open of difficult access, guaranteeing like this continuity and reliability in all of the stages of the test. The application of this technology results in the reduction of work hand and period, bringing reliable necessary results in any situation. (author)

  19. Valves maintenance of the ANCAP's Jose Ignacio - La Teja Crude Pipeline, ANCAP, Uruguay; Mantenimiento de valvulas en el Oleoducto Jose Ignacio - La Teja de ANCAP, Uruguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Haedo, Juan Carlos [ANCAP - Administracion Nacional de Combustibles, Alcohol y Portland, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2003-07-01

    At the end of september, 2002, the ANCAP La Teja's Refinery, stopped its operation in order to make a scheduled maintenance and to prepare a plant enlargement. This stop would enable, for the first time in the Company, the complete maintenance of more than 120 valves along a 178 km crude pipeline which connects the SBM Ocean Terminal to the refinery on the Montevideo's Bay. The pipeline is a 16 inches ND pipeline, installed in 1978, buried at an average depth of 1,2 m. It crosses four rivers near their mouth, deep inside seaside resorts. The successful operation consisted in emptying out the pipeline, dismantling the hole valves of the system, inspection, repair and testing; mounting, pipeline hydraulic test and return to operation. All jobs were made with the coordinated efforts between two private companies and the own ANCAP's resources. The main problems were the pipeline emptying operation and the valves and plug valves repairing because there were not enough spare parts. (author)

  20. DETECTION OF UNAUTHORIZED CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT IN PIPELINE RIGHT-OF-WAYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James E. Huebler

    2004-07-26

    Natural gas transmission companies mark the right-of-way areas where pipelines are buried with warning signs to prevent accidental third-party damage. Nevertheless, pipelines are sometimes damaged by third-party construction equipment. A single incident can be devastating, causing death and millions of dollars of property loss. This damage would be prevented if potentially hazardous construction equipment could be detected, identified, and an alert given before the pipeline was damaged. The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is developing a system to solve this problem by using an optical fiber as a distributed sensor and interrogating the fiber with a custom optical time domain reflectometer. Key issues are the ability to detect encroachment and the ability to discriminate among potentially hazardous and benign encroachments. The work continues on improving the signal-to-noise ratio of the technique. We are now able to detect weights sitting on the Hergalite fiber of as low as 0.2 pound. A brighter diode laser increased our sensitivity by a factor of ten. Detection of load fluctuations with frequencies greater than 5 Hertz is also possible. The next step is beginning measurements at the field site.

  1. DETECTION OF UNAUTHORIZED CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT IN PIPELINE RIGHT-OF-WAYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James E. Huebler

    2003-07-17

    Natural gas transmission companies mark the right-of-way areas where pipelines are buried with warning signs to prevent accidental third-party damage. Nevertheless, pipelines are sometimes damaged by third-party construction equipment. A single incident can be devastating, causing death and millions of dollars of property loss. This damage would be prevented if potentially hazardous construction equipment could be detected, identified, and an alert given before the pipeline was damaged. The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is developing a system to solve this problem by using an optical fiber as a distributed sensor and interrogating the fiber with a custom optical time domain reflectometer. Key issues are the ability to detect encroachment and the ability to discriminate among potentially hazardous and benign encroachments. The work continues on improving the signal-to-noise ratio of the custom OTDR. An avalanche photo-detector, was purchased. It was able to detect weights on the Hergalite fiber as low as one pound. We are also investigating a brighter laser for use with the multimode fibers.

  2. DETECTION OF UNAUTHORIZED CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT IN PIPELINE RIGHT-OF-WAYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James E. Huebler

    2004-04-12

    Natural gas transmission companies mark the right-of-way areas where pipelines are buried with warning signs to prevent accidental third-party damage. Nevertheless, pipelines are sometimes damaged by third-party construction equipment. A single incident can be devastating, causing death and millions of dollars of property loss. This damage would be prevented if potentially hazardous construction equipment could be detected, identified, and an alert given before the pipeline was damaged. The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is developing a system to solve this problem by using an optical fiber as a distributed sensor and interrogating the fiber with a custom optical time domain reflectometer. Key issues are the ability to detect encroachment and the ability to discriminate among potentially hazardous and benign encroachments. The work continues on improving the signal-to-noise ratio of the technique. We are now able to detect weights sitting on the Hergalite fiber of as low as 0.2 pound. Detection of load fluctuations with frequencies greater than 1 Hertz is also possible. We have also purchased a brighter diode laser for use with the multimode fibers that should improve our sensitivity by a factor of ten.

  3. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; George Ritter; Matt Boring; Mark Lozev; Ian Harris; Bill Mohr; Dennis Harwig; Robin Gordon; Chris Neary; Mike Sullivan

    2005-07-20

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  4. The spatial distribution of pollutants in pipe-scale of large-diameter pipelines in a drinking water distribution system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jingqing [College of Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Chen, Huanyu [College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Binhai Industrial Technology Research Institute of Zhejiang University, Tianjin 300000 (China); Yao, Lingdan; Wei, Zongyuan [College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Lou, Liping, E-mail: loulp@zju.edu.cn [College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Shan, Yonggui; Endalkachew, Sahle-Demessie; Mallikarjuna, Nadagouda [Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, NRMRL, Cincinnati, OH 45220 (United States); Hu, Baolan [College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhou, Xiaoyan [Shaoxing Water Environmental Science Institute Co. Ltd, Zhejiang 312000 (China)

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • First investigating the spatial distribution of pollutants in pipe-scale. • Spatial distribution of heavy metals indicated their sources were different. • Three main factors effete the distribution of pollutants. • Organic deposits mainly included microbial and microalgae metabolites. - Abstract: In large-diameter drinking water pipelines, spatial differences in hydraulic and physiochemical conditions may also result in spatial variations in pipe corrosion, biofilm growth and pollutant accumulation. In this article, the spatial distributions of various metals and organic contaminants in two 19-year-old grey cast iron pipes which had an internal diameter of 600 mm (DN600), were investigated and analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry, Energy Dispersive Spectrometer, X-ray Diffraction, etc. The spatial distribution of heavy metals varied significantly across the pipe section, and iron, manganese, lead, copper, and chromium were highest in concentration in the upper portion pipe-scales. However, the highest aluminum and zinc content was detected in the lower portion pipe-scales. Apart from some common types of hydrocarbons formed by microbial metabolites, there were also some microalgae metabolites and exogenous contaminants accumulated in pipe-scale, which also exhibited high diversity between different spatial locations. The spatial distributions of the physical and chemical properties of pipe-scale and contaminants were quite different in large-diameter pipes. The finding put forward higher requirements on the research method about drinking water distribution system chemical safety. And the scientific community need understand trend and dynamics of drinking water pipe systems better.

  5. Technical progress in pipeline design and construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausken, K.B.

    1995-12-31

    This paper considers the technical progress in offshore pipeline construction with limitation to some general subjects covering pipeline design, installation and start-up. In future the use of limit state pipeline design philosophy, may be implemented as an alternative to the stress based design commonly used to day giving a potential for further optimisation of the pipeline design and consequently reduction of the initial investment. Comprehensive research and development efforts in Norway in the second half of the 1970`s, made it technically feasible to cross the deep water Norwegian Trench in the 1980`s. In addition, the development of several offshore pipeline systems until to day including gas distribution systems to the European continent, have brought Norway to the forefront of technical expertise

  6. Emergency preparedness of OSBRA Pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Milton P.; Torres, Carlos A.R.; Almeida, Francisco J.C. [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the experience of PETROBRAS Transporte S. A. - TRANSPETRO in the preparation for emergencies in the OSBRA pipeline, showing specific aspects and solutions developed. The company has a standardized approach for the emergency management, based on risk analysis studies, risk management plan and contingency plans. To cover almost 1,000 km of pipeline, the Company avails of Emergency Response Centers and Environmental Defense Center, located at strategic points. In order to achieve preparation, fire fighting training and oil leakage elimination training are provided. Additionally, simulation exercises are performed, following a schedule worked out according to specific criteria and guidelines. As a conclusion, a picture is presented of the evolution of the preparation for emergencies in the OSBRA System which bears the enormous responsibility of transporting flammable products for almost 1,000 km of pipeline, crossing 40 municipalities, 3 states and the Federal District. (author)

  7. Trace Software Pipelining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王剑; AndreasKrall; 等

    1995-01-01

    Global software pipelining is a complex but efficient compilation technique to exploit instruction-level parallelism for loops with branches.This paper presents a novel global software pipelining technique,called Trace Software Pipelining,targeted to the instruction-level parallel processors such as Very Long Instruction Word (VLIW) and superscalar machines.Trace software pipelining applies a global code scheduling technique to compact the original loop body.The resulting loop is called a trace software pipelined (TSP) code.The trace softwrae pipelined code can be directly executed with special architectural support or can be transformed into a globally software pipelined loop for the current VLIW and superscalar processors.Thus,exploiting parallelism across all iterations of a loop can be completed through compacting the original loop body with any global code scheduling technique.This makes our new technique very promising in practical compilers.Finally,we also present the preliminary experimental results to support our new approach.

  8. Theory buried under heavy description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian B. Martin Ph.D.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In journalism when a reporter puts the main news or point of the story deep down in the text, we say she’s buried the lead, the lead being the main point of the story and usually the first paragraph. In Children in Genocide: extreme traumatization and affect regulation, psychoanalyst Suzanne Kaplan buries her theory. Her study of the after effects of trauma among Holocaust survivors who were children during their persecution and survivors of atrocities during the Rwandan atrocities of the 1990s, is filled with highly descriptive material from the many interviews that serve as data. An interesting grounded theory is peeking out from under all the disciplinary discourse and historical background one must read through to get to what grounded theory readers will consider the juicy parts: concepts on affect regulation in trauma survivors.

  9. Optical fiber sensing technology in the pipeline industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, A.M.B.; Llerena, R.W.A. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: abraga@mec.puc-rio.br; roberan@mec.puc-rio.br; Valente, L.C.G.; Regazzi, R.D. [Gavea Sensors, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: guedes@gaveasensors.com; regazzi@gaveasensors.com

    2003-07-01

    This paper is concerned with applications of optical fiber sensors to pipeline monitoring. The basic principles of optical fiber sensors are briefly reviewed, with particular attention to fiber Bragg grating technology. Different potential applications in the pipeline industry are discussed, and an example of a pipeline strain monitoring system based on optical fiber Bragg grating sensors is presented. (author)

  10. Development of Automatic Phased Array Inspection System for Long-distance Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XueZhenkui; BaiShiwu; ZhanHua; XiaXin; XiangYang

    2004-01-01

    In the paper the development of phased array technique home and abroad is summarized, the overall structure and main research on phased array inspection system are introduced, and meanwhile the future field of study and development of phased array ultrasonic inspection technique is pointed out.

  11. Development of a wrinkled pipeline fatigue ultimate limit state criterion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semiga, V.; Tiku, S.; Dinovitzer, A. [BMT Fleet Technology Ltd., Kanata (Canada); Zhou, J.; Sen, M. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper described research currently being conducted to develop a mechanics-based wrinkle ultimate limit state for evaluating the long-term integrity of wrinkled pipeline segments. Efforts included testing and non-linear finite element analysis (FEA) of small-scale and full-scale wrinkled pipeline segments. The aim of the program was to develop a set of monotonic and cyclic material properties for use in designing a failure assessment procedure. A failure criterion has also been developed to predict the fatigue life of experimental pipeline specimens. An experimental material properties database was developed for several pipeline materials ranging from API grade X60 to X100 steel pipelines. Multiple monotonic tensile tests were conducted for all materials used in the program. Experimental stress-strain curves were used to develop finite element material models during the modelling phase of the project. Complete strain life curves were also obtained. A small scale strip test was developed to predict the fatigue life of strip test specimens. Nonlinear kinematic material models were also developed. Results of the program to date indicate that the finite element method (FEM) model is capable of accurately estimating the cyclic fatigue life of pipelines with wrinkles. It was concluded that the FEM model will also be used to examine the interactions between soil and buried pipelines. 6 refs., 14 figs.

  12. Study and application on optical fiber pipeline security forewarning system%光纤管道安全预警系统的研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾科宏; 张金权; 王飞

    2011-01-01

    A new distributed optical fiber pipeline security forewarning system based on Mach-Zehnder optical fiber intefferometer is introducad. PSFS uses the optical fiber in the general communication cables lying with the oil & gas pipelines in one ditch as the distributed sensor to long-distance and continuously monitor the soil vibration condition along the oil and gas pipelines. The malicious events that may threat the oil and gas pipeline security is analyzed and a alarm information in time that act as security forewarning, as well as accurately analyses and position are implemented. The composition and operation principle of the system is described. Theory analysis and experimental result show that the proposed detection technology has high measurement sensitivity and location precision.%介绍了一种基于Mach-Zehnder光纤干涉仪原理的分布式光纤管道安全预警系统.该系统利用与油气管道同沟敷设的普通通信光缆中的3根光纤作为分布式传感器,长距离连续监测油气管道沿线的土壤振动情况,并分析判断可能威胁油气管道安全的破坏事件,及时报警,起到安全预警的作用,能够对这些事件进行精确的分析和定位,详细阐述了系统的原理和组成.经过理论分析和测试结果表明,该系统具有较高的灵敏度和定位精度.

  13. Design and Research of Medical Gas Pipeline System Based on Redundancy Design%冗余医用气体管道系统设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨斌

    2012-01-01

    目的 解决传统医用气体管道系统在维护关键控制节点时遇到的风险.方法 采用冗余设计方法,将医用气体管道系统从气源敷设双主管到医疗建筑,通过双立管到护理单元,采用U型管道结构,用维修隔离阀将气体终端划分成较小区域.结果 此系统增加了管道结构的复杂度,增加了15%~30%的前期投入成本,但提高了系统的可靠性,降低后期维护费用和医疗维护风险成本.在管道分配系统中,任何部位出现故障需要维护时,气体终端的连续供气不受影响,或仅影响几间病房.结论 适用于规模较大的医院和局部生命支持区域.%Objective To solve the high risk when maintaining the key node of medical gas pipeline systems in large scale hospitals. Methods Adopting redundancy design method, medical gas pipeline system could transfer the air across double main pipes to medical building, through the double riser pipe to nursing unit, maintenance isolation valve, using U pipe structure, also could divide gas terminal into smaller area. Results On one hand, the medical gas pipeline system based on redundancy increases 15%~30% cost of installation, and makes the structure of pipeline complex, on the other hand, it improves the reliability of this system and reduces the follow-up maintenance cost and risk. It can also guarantee the continuous gas supply of terminal not be affected when fixing the failure, or only effect several wards. Conclusion The pipeline system is suitable to large scale hospitals and lifeline support areas.

  14. Pipeline integrity: ILI baseline data for QRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Todd R. [Tuboscope Pipeline Services, Houston, TX (United States)]. E-mail: tporter@varco.com; Silva, Jose Augusto Pereira da [Pipeway Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: guto@pipeway.com; Marr, James [MARR and Associates, Calgary, AB (Canada)]. E-mail: jmarr@marr-associates.com

    2003-07-01

    The initial phase of a pipeline integrity management program (IMP) is conducting a baseline assessment of the pipeline system and segments as part of Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA). This gives the operator's integrity team the opportunity to identify critical areas and deficiencies in the protection, maintenance, and mitigation strategies. As a part of data gathering and integration of a wide variety of sources, in-line inspection (ILI) data is a key element. In order to move forward in the integrity program development and execution, the baseline geometry of the pipeline must be determined with accuracy and confidence. From this, all subsequent analysis and conclusions will be derived. Tuboscope Pipeline Services (TPS), in conjunction with Pipeway Engenharia of Brazil, operate ILI inertial navigation system (INS) and Caliper geometry tools, to address this integrity requirement. This INS and Caliper ILI tool data provides pipeline trajectory at centimeter level resolution and sub-metre 3D position accuracy along with internal geometry - ovality, dents, misalignment, and wrinkle/buckle characterization. Global strain can be derived from precise INS curvature measurements and departure from the initial pipeline state. Accurate pipeline elevation profile data is essential in the identification of sag/over bend sections for fluid dynamic and hydrostatic calculations. This data, along with pipeline construction, operations, direct assessment and maintenance data is integrated in LinaViewPRO{sup TM}, a pipeline data management system for decision support functions, and subsequent QRA operations. This technology provides the baseline for an informed, accurate and confident integrity management program. This paper/presentation will detail these aspects of an effective IMP, and experience will be presented, showing the benefits for liquid and gas pipeline systems. (author)

  15. Overview of the design, construction, and operation of interstate liquid petroleum pipelines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pharris, T. C.; Kolpa, R. L.

    2008-01-31

    The U.S. liquid petroleum pipeline industry is large, diverse, and vital to the nation's economy. Comprised of approximately 200,000 miles of pipe in all fifty states, liquid petroleum pipelines carried more than 40 million barrels per day, or 4 trillion barrel-miles, of crude oil and refined products during 2001. That represents about 17% of all freight transported in the United States, yet the cost of doing so amounted to only 2% of the nation's freight bill. Approximately 66% of domestic petroleum transport (by ton-mile) occurs by pipeline, with marine movements accounting for 28% and rail and truck transport making up the balance. In 2004, the movement of crude petroleum by domestic federally regulated pipelines amounted to 599.6 billion tonmiles, while that of petroleum products amounted to 315.9 billion ton-miles (AOPL 2006). As an illustration of the low cost of pipeline transportation, the cost to move a barrel of gasoline from Houston, Texas, to New York Harbor is only 3 cents per gallon, which is a small fraction of the cost of gasoline to consumers. Pipelines may be small or large, up to 48 inches in diameter. Nearly all of the mainline pipe is buried, but other pipeline components such as pump stations are above ground. Some lines are as short as a mile, while others may extend 1,000 miles or more. Some are very simple, connecting a single source to a single destination, while others are very complex, having many sources, destinations, and interconnections. Many pipelines cross one or more state boundaries (interstate), while some are located within a single state (intrastate), and still others operate on the Outer Continental Shelf and may or may not extend into one or more states. U.S. pipelines are located in coastal plains, deserts, Arctic tundra, mountains, and more than a mile beneath the water's surface of the Gulf of Mexico (Rabinow 2004; AOPL 2006). The network of crude oil pipelines in the United States is extensive. There are

  16. Regular pipeline maintenance of gas pipeline using technical operational diagnostics methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volentic, J. [Gas Transportation Department, Slovensky plynarensky priemysel, Slovak Gas Industry, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1997-12-31

    Slovensky plynarensky priemysel (SPP) has operated 17 487 km of gas pipelines in 1995. The length of the long-line pipelines reached 5 191 km, distribution network was 12 296 km. The international transit system of long-line gas pipelines ranged 1 939 km of pipelines of various dimensions. The described scale of transport and distribution system represents a multibillion investments stored in the ground, which are exposed to the environmental influences and to pipeline operational stresses. In spite of all technical and maintenance arrangements, which have to be performed upon operating gas pipelines, the gradual ageing takes place anyway, expressed in degradation process both in steel tube, as well as in the anti-corrosion coating. Within a certain time horizon, a consistent and regular application of methods and means of in-service technical diagnostics and rehabilitation of existing pipeline systems make it possible to save substantial investment funds, postponing the need in funds for a complex or partial reconstruction or a new construction of a specific gas section. The purpose of this presentation is to report on the implementation of the programme of in-service technical diagnostics of gas pipelines within the framework of regular maintenance of SPP s.p. Bratislava high pressure gas pipelines. (orig.) 6 refs.

  17. Acoustic imaging of objects buried in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, C H; Cadalli, N; Munson, D C; O'Brien, W D

    2000-07-01

    In this study, we demonstrate an acoustic system for high-resolution imaging of objects buried in soil. Our goal is to image cultural artifacts in order to assess in a rapid manner the historical significance of a potential construction site. We describe the imaging system and present preliminary images produced from data collected from a soil phantom. A mathematical model and associated computer software are developed in order to simulate the signals acquired by the system. We have built the imaging system, which incorporates a single element source transducer and a receiver array. The source and receiver array are moved together along a linear path to collect data. Using this system, we have obtained B-mode images of several targets by using delay-and-sum beamforming, and we have also applied synthetic aperture theory to this problem.

  18. The genetic-algorithm-enhanced blind system identification for water distribution pipeline leak detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin; Wen, Yumei; Li, Ping

    2007-07-01

    The conventional leak location is based on the correlation of leak acoustic signals acquired spatially separately. By correlation, the time lag is estimated for localizing the leakage. In these methods, the detection distance is a prerequisite that has to be known beforehand. However, in practice, this prerequisite is not always satisfied. In this case, the correlation-based methods are not feasible. Actually, the acquired signals contain the characteristics related to the acoustic propagation channels; thus the blind system identification strategy is applied to estimate the transmission performances of acoustic channels. Then the times due to the propagation of the leak source signal travelling from the leak point to sensors are determined. In this way, for leak location, the detection distance is no longer a prerequisite. In blind system identification, due to the long impulse responses of the leak acoustic channels, the channels are inevitably ill conditioned and sensitive to the initial values. To overcome the ill conditions, the overlap-save and cross-correlation fitting techniques are utilized to identify the long impulse sequences under a built constraint. In order to avoid converging to the local minima, the genetic algorithm is used to minimize the cost functions. The practical detection results show the validity of the proposed scheme.

  19. Buried Quaternary Valleys In NW Europe - Aquifers and Drilling Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huuse, M.; Lykke-Andersen, H.; Piotrowski, J.

    Buried Quaternary valleys are extremely widespread in the formerly glaciated, low- land areas of NW Europe (Huuse &Lykke-Andersen 2000, Fig. 4). The valleys may be several hundred metres deep, some kilometres across and few to several tens of kilometres long. Most of the deep valleys have irregular length profiles with sills and basins, unlike standard subaerial river systems. We interpret these as overdeepened valleys, formed mainly by subglacial meltwater erosion. Buried valleys located on- shore often provide sheltered reservoirs of clean groundwater, and much attention is presently focused on locating onshore valleys and quantifying their potential as groundwater aquifers. In nearshore areas, buried valleys may be a risk factor by pro- viding pathways of salt-water intrusion of onshore groundwater aquifers. Far offshore, buried valleys are located in the shallow subsurface above the prolific oil and gas fields of the central North Sea. Here, the valleys pose a risk for drilling operations by hosting shallow gas and potentially unstable sediments. The central North Sea is now largely covered by 3D seismic data, which often image the buried valleys in a level of de- tail much greater than that available onshore. Hence offshore valleys imaged by 3D seismic data may be used as analogues for groundwater reservoirs onshore NW Eu- rope. Here, we present examples of buried valleys from onshore, nearshore and far offshore locations, to illustrate how genetically and morphologically identical valleys may benefit or hamper the exploitation of subsurface accummulations of groundwater and hydrocarbons. Huuse, M. &Lykke-Andersen, H. 2000. Buried Quaternary valleys in the eastern Dan- ish North Sea: morphology and origin. Quaternary Science Reviews 19, 1233-1253.

  20. Green pipeline dreams; Gruene Pipeline-Traeume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedemann, Karsten

    2010-11-15

    In theory, Germany and the other EU states would be able to cover their natural gas demand completely with pipeline-supplied biomethane. But will this be really possible in practice? The contribution takes a closer look. (orig.)

  1. 76 FR 72666 - Pipeline Safety: Expanding the Use of Excess Flow Valves in Gas Distribution Systems to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ... safety. Unfortunately, on rare occasions, the layers of protection fail and the results can have serious..., Virginia, killing one person and injuring three others. NTSB investigated the incident and determined that..., 2006, Congress enacted the Pipeline Inspection, Protection, Enforcement, and Safety (PIPES) Act of 2006...

  2. Management of a multi-product pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettoli, R.; Iacovoni, A. [Nuovo Pignone S.p.A., Roma (Italy). Div. Sistemi Automazione; Holden, D. [LICconsult, Stockton-on-Tees (United Kingdom)

    1996-09-01

    The paper describes the SCADA (System Control and Data Acquisition) Tele-supervisory System for the Kandla-Bhatinda (KBPL) multi-product pipeline. The KBPL pipeline is 1,443 km in length; it is to carry petroleum products, in a batch cycle organization, from the Kandla foreshore terminal to Bhatinda. It consists of two inlet stations, four pumping stations, five delivery stations, and two terminal stations, and is equipped with a total of 85 block valves. All the stations have the capability for launching and receiving scrapers. The SCADA system consists of 10 Station Control Centers (SCC) and one Master Control Center (MCC), all located along the pipeline.

  3. ALMA Pipeline: Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinnaga, H.; Humphreys, E.; Indebetouw, R.; Villard, E.; Kern, J.; Davis, L.; Miura, R. E.; Nakazato, T.; Sugimoto, K.; Kosugi, G.; Akiyama, E.; Muders, D.; Wyrowski, F.; Williams, S.; Lightfoot, J.; Kent, B.; Momjian, E.; Hunter, T.; ALMA Pipeline Team

    2015-12-01

    The ALMA Pipeline is the automated data reduction tool that runs on ALMA data. Current version of the ALMA pipeline produces science quality data products for standard interferometric observing modes up to calibration process. The ALMA Pipeline is comprised of (1) heuristics in the form of Python scripts that select the best processing parameters, and (2) contexts that are given for book-keeping purpose of data processes. The ALMA Pipeline produces a "weblog" that showcases detailed plots for users to judge how each step of calibration processes are treated. The ALMA Interferometric Pipeline was conditionally accepted in March 2014 by processing Cycle 0 and Cycle 1 data sets. From Cycle 2, ALMA Pipeline is used for ALMA data reduction and quality assurance for the projects whose observing modes are supported by the ALMA Pipeline. Pipeline tasks are available based on CASA version 4.2.2, and the first public pipeline release called CASA 4.2.2-pipe has been available since October 2014. One can reduce ALMA data both by CASA tasks as well as by pipeline tasks by using CASA version 4.2.2-pipe.

  4. Heating and cooling potential of buried pipes in southern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abadie, Marc O.; Santos, Gerson H. dos; Freire, Roberto Z.; Mendes, Nathan [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Parana (PUC-PR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Lab. de Sistemas Termicos], e-mail: mabadie@univ-lr.fr, e-mail: gerson.santos@pucpr.br, e-mail: rozafre@terra.com.br; Mendes, Nathan [Pontifical Catholic University of Parana (PUCPR/CCET), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Thermal Systems Laboratory - LST], e-mail: nathan.mendes@pucpr.br

    2006-07-01

    The present numerical study aims to evaluate the heating and cooling potential of buried pipes in three cities of South Brazil i.e. Curitiba, Florianopolis and Porto-Alegre. In a first part, ground temperatures at the buried pipe location (between 1 and 3 m depth) are calculated by both a simplified model and a three-dimensional volume-finite code (SOLUM). Then, a prototypical house and its buried pipe are modeled with a building energy simulation tool (TRNSYS) to evaluate the positive and negative effects of such system on thermal comfort and heating and cooling energy. Results show that this passive system is particularly efficient in Curitiba, can reduce energy consumption in Porto Alegre and is not well-adapted to Florianopolis. (author)

  5. Pipeline modeling and assessment in unstable slopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caceres, Carlos Nieves [Oleoducto Central S.A., Bogota, Cundinamarca (Colombia); Ordonez, Mauricio Pereira [SOLSIN S.A.S, Bogota, Cundinamarca (Colombia)

    2010-07-01

    The OCENSA pipeline system is vulnerable to geotechnical problems such as faults, landslides or creeping slopes, which are well-known in the Andes Mountains and tropical countries like Colombia. This paper proposes a methodology to evaluate the pipe behaviour during the soil displacements of slow landslides. Three different cases of analysis are examined, according to site characteristics. The process starts with a simplified analytical model and develops into 3D finite element numerical simulations applied to the on-site geometry of soil and pipe. Case 1 should be used when the unstable site is subject to landslides impacting significant lengths of pipeline, pipeline is straight, and landslide is simple from the geotechnical perspective. Case 2 should be used when pipeline is straight and landslide is complex (creeping slopes and non-conventional stabilization solutions). Case 3 should be used if the pipeline presents vertical or horizontal bends.

  6. OPUS: the FUSE science data pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, James F.; Heller-Boyer, C.; Rose, M. A.; Swam, M.; Miller, W.; Kriss, G. A.; Oegerle, William R.

    1998-07-01

    This paper describes how the OPUS pipeline, currently used for processing science data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), was used as the backbone for developing the science data pipeline for a much smaller mission. The far ultraviolet spectroscopic explorer (FUSE) project selected OPUS for its data processing pipeline platform and selected the OPUS team at the STScI to write the FUSE pipeline applications. A total of 105 new modules were developed for the FUSE pipeline. The foundation of over 250 modules in the OPUS libraries allowed development to proceed quickly and with considerable confidence that the underlying functionality is reliable and robust. Each task represented roughly 90 percent reuse, and the project as a whole shows over 70 percent reuse of the existing OPUS system. Taking an existing system that is operational, and will be maintained for many years to come, was a key decision for the FUSE mission. Adding the extensive experience of the OPUS team to the task resulted in the development of a complete telemetry pipeline system within a matter of months. Reusable software has been the siren song of software engineering and object- oriented design for a decade or more. The development of inexpensive software systems by adapting existing code to new applications is as attractive as it has been elusive. The OPUS telemetry pipeline for the FUSE mission has proven to be a significant exception to that trend.

  7. Pipeline risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kariyawasam, S. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Weir, D. [Enbridge Pipelines Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)] (comps.)

    2009-07-01

    Risk assessments and risk analysis are system-wide activities that include site-specific risk and reliability-based decision-making, implementation, and monitoring. This working group discussed the risk management process in the pipeline industry, including reliability-based integrity management and risk control processes. Attendants at the group discussed reliability-based decision support and performance measurements designed to support corporate risk management policies. New developments and technologies designed to optimize risk management procedures were also presented. The group was divided into 3 sessions: (1) current practice, strengths and limitations of system-wide risk assessments for facility assets; (2) accounting for uncertainties to assure safety; and (3) reliability based excavation repair criteria and removing potentially unsafe corrosion defects. Presentations of risk assessment procedures used at various companies were given. The role of regulators, best practices, and effective networking environments in ensuring the success of risk assessment policies was discussed. Risk assessment models were also reviewed.

  8. Python Bindings for the Common Pipeline Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streicher, O.; Weilbacher, P. M.

    2012-09-01

    The Common Pipeline Library is a set of routines written by ESO to provide a standard interface for VLT instrument data reduction tasks (“pipelines”). To control these pipelines from Python, we developed a wrapper called PYTHON-CPL that allows one to conveniently work interactively and to process data as part of an automated data reduction system. The package will be used to implement the MUSE pipeline in the AstroWISE data management system. We describe the features and design of the package.

  9. Location of coating defects and assessment of level of cathodic protection on underground pipelines using AC impedance, deterministic and non-deterministic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaneda-Lopez, Homero

    A methodology for detecting and locating defects or discontinuities on the outside covering of coated metal underground pipelines subjected to cathodic protection has been addressed. On the basis of wide range AC impedance signals for various frequencies applied to a steel-coated pipeline system and by measuring its corresponding transfer function under several laboratory simulation scenarios, a physical laboratory setup of an underground cathodic-protected, coated pipeline was built. This model included different variables and elements that exist under real conditions, such as soil resistivity, soil chemical composition, defect (holiday) location in the pipeline covering, defect area and geometry, and level of cathodic protection. The AC impedance data obtained under different working conditions were used to fit an electrical transmission line model. This model was then used as a tool to fit the impedance signal for different experimental conditions and to establish trends in the impedance behavior without the necessity of further experimental work. However, due to the chaotic nature of the transfer function response of this system under several conditions, it is believed that non-deterministic models based on pattern recognition algorithms are suitable for field condition analysis. A non-deterministic approach was used for experimental analysis by applying an artificial neural network (ANN) algorithm based on classification analysis capable of studying the pipeline system and differentiating the variables that can change impedance conditions. These variables include level of cathodic protection, location of discontinuities (holidays), and severity of corrosion. This work demonstrated a proof-of-concept for a well-known technique and a novel algorithm capable of classifying impedance data for experimental results to predict the exact location of the active holidays and defects on the buried pipelines. Laboratory findings from this procedure are promising, and

  10. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Plan. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostelnik, K.M.

    1991-12-01

    This document presents the plan of activities for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program which supports the environmental restoration (ER) objectives of the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. Discussed in this plan are the objectives, organization, roles and responsibilities, and the process for implementing and managing BWID. BWID is hosted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), but involves participants from throughout the DOE Complex, private industry, universities, and the international community. These participants will support, demonstrate, and evaluate a suite of advanced technologies representing a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The processes for identifying technological needs, screening candidate technologies for applicability and maturity, selecting appropriate technologies for demonstration, field demonstrating, evaluation of results and transferring technologies to environmental restoration programs are also presented. This document further describes the elements of project planning and control that apply to BWID. It addresses the management processes, operating procedures, programmatic and technical objectives, and schedules. Key functions in support of each demonstration such as regulatory coordination, safety analyses, risk evaluations, facility requirements, and data management are presented.

  11. BATATA: a buried muon hodoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, F.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Paic, G.; Salazar, M. E. Patiño; D'Olivo, J. C.; Molina, R. Alfaro

    2009-04-01

    Muon hodoscopes have several applications, ranging from astrophysics to fundamental particle physics. In this work, we present a detector dedicated to the study, at ground level, of the main signals of cosmic-ray induced showers above 6 PeV. The whole detector is composed by a set of three parallel dual-layer scintillator planes buried at fix depths ranging from 120 g/cm2 to 600 g/cm2 and by a triangular array of water cerenkov detectors located nearby on ground.

  12. A Novel Method to Enhance Pipeline Trajectory Determination Using Pipeline Junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahli, Hussein; El-Sheimy, Naser

    2016-04-21

    Pipeline inspection gauges (pigs) have been used for many years to perform various maintenance operations in oil and gas pipelines. Different pipeline parameters can be inspected during the pig journey. Although pigs use many sensors to detect the required pipeline parameters, matching these data with the corresponding pipeline location is considered a very important parameter. High-end, tactical-grade inertial measurement units (IMUs) are used in pigging applications to locate the detected problems of pipeline using other sensors, and to reconstruct the trajectories of the pig. These IMUs are accurate; however, their high cost and large sizes limit their use in small diameter pipelines (8″ or less). This paper describes a new methodology for the use of MEMS-based IMUs using an extended Kalman filter (EKF) and the pipeline junctions to increase the position parameters' accuracy and to reduce the total RMS errors even during the unavailability of above ground markers (AGMs). The results of this new proposed method using a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)-based IMU revealed that the position RMS errors were reduced by approximately 85% compared to the standard EKF solution. Therefore, this approach will enable the mapping of small diameter pipelines, which was not possible before.

  13. A Novel Method to Enhance Pipeline Trajectory Determination Using Pipeline Junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Sahli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pipeline inspection gauges (pigs have been used for many years to perform various maintenance operations in oil and gas pipelines. Different pipeline parameters can be inspected during the pig journey. Although pigs use many sensors to detect the required pipeline parameters, matching these data with the corresponding pipeline location is considered a very important parameter. High-end, tactical-grade inertial measurement units (IMUs are used in pigging applications to locate the detected problems of pipeline using other sensors, and to reconstruct the trajectories of the pig. These IMUs are accurate; however, their high cost and large sizes limit their use in small diameter pipelines (8″ or less. This paper describes a new methodology for the use of MEMS-based IMUs using an extended Kalman filter (EKF and the pipeline junctions to increase the position parameters’ accuracy and to reduce the total RMS errors even during the unavailability of above ground markers (AGMs. The results of this new proposed method using a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS-based IMU revealed that the position RMS errors were reduced by approximately 85% compared to the standard EKF solution. Therefore, this approach will enable the mapping of small diameter pipelines, which was not possible before.

  14. Type Selection and Application of SCADA System of Long Transportation Pipeline%长输管道SCADA系统选型及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秀丽

    2012-01-01

    长输管道站点分布广、数量多,操作控制方式以站控和中控相结合且以中控统一集中调度为主。通过对长输管道SCADA系统国内外情况及发展的分析,比较了目前在长输管道应用中的ScADA系统调度中心两种典型系统结构;通过对两种结构的优缺点和故障率的比较和分析,论述了不同条件下相应的系统结构在长输管道中的应用场合和选择方式;提出了远控站、分控站和主控站设立的依据和方法,最大限度地发挥不同结构的作用。%Long transportatxon plpehne has large amount oI WlClely dlstrlbutecl stations. Ntatlon control and centralized control are combined, and unified and centralized scheduling through central is mainly adopted. By analyzing the status and development of SCADA system of long transportation pipeline at home and abroad, the structure of two typical systems used in SCADA system scheduling centre for long transportation pipeline are compared. By comparing and analyzing the advantages and disadvantages and failure rate of these two structures, the application sites and selection modes of related system structure under different conditions in long transportation pipeline are discussed. The setting bases and method of remote control station, separate control station and central control station are put forward to maximize the roles of different structures.

  15. Military Petroleum Pipeline Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-06-01

    tive less Evaluation of Alternativo Vill 175 48 C’ost and Operatioinal I kt~tvtjvncless1(-ults 177 IxI METRIC CONVERSION FACTORS Approximate...Jersey 07901 Little Rock , Arkansas 72209 (See IBA-GIGY)Vlctaullo Company of America CRC-Crose International, Inc. 3102 Hamilton Boulevard Post Office

  16. Buried waste integrated demonstration FY 94 deployment plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, R.A.; Walker, S.; Garcia, M.M.

    1994-05-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is a program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Technology Development. BWID supports the applied research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that together form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The fiscal year (FY) 1994 effort will fund thirty-eight technologies in five areas of buried waste site remediation: site characterization, waste characterization, retrieval, treatment, and containment/stabilization. This document is the basic operational planning document for deployment of all BWID projects. Discussed in this document are the BWID preparations for INEL field demonstrations, INEL laboratory demonstrations, non-INEL demonstrations, and paper studies. Each technology performing tests will prepare a test plan to detail the specific procedures, objectives, and tasks of each test. Therefore, information specific to testing each technology is intentionally omitted from this document.

  17. End effectors and attachments for buried waste excavation equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, R.H.

    1993-09-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. Their efforts are identified and coordinated in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER&WM) Department`s needs and objectives. The present focus of BWID is to support retrieval and ex-situ treatment configuration options. Future activities will explore and support containment, and stabilization efforts in addition to the retrieval/ex situ treatment options. This report presents a literature search on the state-of-the-art in end effectors and attachments in support of excavator of buried transuranic waste. Included in the report are excavator platforms and a discussion of the various attachments. Also included is it list of vendors and specifications.

  18. 75 FR 4134 - Pipeline Safety: Leak Detection on Hazardous Liquid Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... safety study on pipeline Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems (NTSB/SS-05/02). The... indications of a leak on the SCADA interface was the impetus for this study. The NTSB examined 13 hazardous... large pipeline breaks. The line balance processes incorporating SCADA or other technology are geared...

  19. Recovery of the external anticorrosion protection systems of onshore pipelines - evaluation methods and practical results; Recuperacao de sistemas de protecao anticorrosiva externa de dutos terrestres - metodos de avaliacao e resultados praticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castinheiras, Wilson; Koebsch, Andre; Silva, Flavio A. da [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The rehabilitation of an old pipeline means to increase its lifetime, making it safety to operate in the necessaries conditions to transport the product. The pipe steel wall evaluation, related to it thickness reduction, due to, basically, internal and external corrosion, is fundamental to guide its rehabilitation. The techniques used to this evaluation are 'pig' and specials field survey. These last surveys are realized over the soil surface (digs is not necessary to access the pipeline or the pipeline operation is not necessary to stop) and objective to verify the pipeline coating and Cathodic Protection System conditions. Due to the actual authors experience, this paper will only treat of the Rehabilitation of the External Anti corrosive Protection System (coating and cathodic protection) of onshore pipelines. This paper present the techniques current attenuation, ON-OFF pipe-to-soil potential close interval survey and DCVG and same practical results obtained with the application of these techniques on the Sergipe/Bahia gas pipeline. (author)

  20. A pipeline VLSI design of fast singular value decomposition processor for real-time EEG system based on on-line recursive independent component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kuan-Ju; Shih, Wei-Yeh; Chang, Jui Chung; Feng, Chih Wei; Fang, Wai-Chi

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a pipeline VLSI design of fast singular value decomposition (SVD) processor for real-time electroencephalography (EEG) system based on on-line recursive independent component analysis (ORICA). Since SVD is used frequently in computations of the real-time EEG system, a low-latency and high-accuracy SVD processor is essential. During the EEG system process, the proposed SVD processor aims to solve the diagonal, inverse and inverse square root matrices of the target matrices in real time. Generally, SVD requires a huge amount of computation in hardware implementation. Therefore, this work proposes a novel design concept for data flow updating to assist the pipeline VLSI implementation. The SVD processor can greatly improve the feasibility of real-time EEG system applications such as brain computer interfaces (BCIs). The proposed architecture is implemented using TSMC 90 nm CMOS technology. The sample rate of EEG raw data adopts 128 Hz. The core size of the SVD processor is 580×580 um(2), and the speed of operation frequency is 20MHz. It consumes 0.774mW of power during the 8-channel EEG system per execution time.

  1. Effect of the Stray Current on Oil Pipeline of Linghai Station in Tieqin Pipeline%杂散电流对铁秦线凌海站输油管道的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙蕾; 申龙涉; 李岩; 孙浩; 李亮; 李武华; 牛辰瑞; 刘畅

    2013-01-01

    杂散电流在土壤中的强度和方向是变化不定的,它们来自多种多样的杂散电流源。电气化铁路、以接地为回路的输电系统等的客观存在,不可避免地会产生杂散电流,并使埋地管道因杂散电流而产生腐蚀。通过对铁秦线凌海站输油管道电位的测量,对比了凌海站全年不同月份的电位图,从而进一步分析杂散电流对输油管道的影响及在不同温度下对杂散电流的变化情况。%The intensity and direction of stray currents in the soil are volatile, they come from a variety of stray current sources. Electrified railways and power transmission systems with ground-loop will inevitably produce stray currents, and the stray current can cause buried pipelines corrosion. In this article, through measuring the potential of oil pipeline of Linghai station in Tieqin pipeline, potential maps of the oil pipeline of Linghai station in different months in whole year were compared, and effects of the stray current on the pipeline were analyzed as well as the change rule of the stray current with temperature.

  2. 基于流水线ADC的高速数据采集系统设计%Design of High Speed Data Acquisition System with Pipelined ADC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄峰

    2011-01-01

    Pipelined Analog-to-Digital Converter(ADC)can achieves high conversion rate and medium to high resolution at very low power consumption,which is widely used in data acquisition systems in the application of radar,communication,medical image and precision control area.The basic principle and the latest development of pipelined ADC are introduced.A 14-bit 125 MSPS data acquisition system based on pipelined ADC is designed to meet the need of high-speed signal sampling.Tested results show the data acquisition system achieves spurious free dynamic range(SFDR)of 84 dB,signal-to-noise ratio(SNR)of 65dB for a 4.9MHz input at 75Msps sampling rate.%由于流水线模数转换器(ADC)能在较低的功耗条件下实现中、高精度高速数据采样功能,因而被广泛应用于雷达、通信、医学成像、精确控制等技术领域的数据采集系统。文章介绍了流水线ADC的基本原理及其最新研究成果,并且基于流水线ADC完成了一种14位精度125Msps高速数据采集系统的设计。测试结果表明,该系统在75Msps采样速率下对于4.9MHz输入信号的信噪比达到65dB,无杂散动态范围(SFDR)达84dB,满足系统的性能需求。

  3. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-04-12

    The two broad categories of deposited weld metal repair and fiber-reinforced composite liner repair technologies were reviewed for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Preliminary test programs were developed for both deposited weld metal repair and for fiber-reinforced composite liner repair. Evaluation trials have been conducted using a modified fiber-reinforced composite liner provided by RolaTube and pipe sections without liners. All pipe section specimens failed in areas of simulated damage. Pipe sections containing fiber-reinforced composite liners failed at pressures marginally greater than the pipe sections without liners. The next step is to evaluate a liner material with a modulus of elasticity approximately 95% of the modulus of elasticity for steel. Preliminary welding parameters were developed for deposited weld metal repair in preparation of the receipt of Pacific Gas & Electric's internal pipeline welding repair system (that was designed specifically for 559 mm (22 in.) diameter pipe) and the receipt of 559 mm (22 in.) pipe sections from Panhandle Eastern. The next steps are to transfer welding parameters to the PG&E system and to pressure test repaired pipe sections to failure. A survey of pipeline operators was conducted to better understand the needs and performance requirements of the natural gas transmission industry regarding internal repair. Completed surveys contained the following principal conclusions: (1) Use of internal weld repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling (HDD) when a new bore must be created

  4. 深挖沟铺管技术在渤西南联网供气项目上的应用%Application of the Pipeline-Laying Technology for Deep Trenching on the Gas Pipeline Network System of Boxi & Bonan Oil/Gas Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲玉成

    2012-01-01

    There is a great deal of methods in the submarine pipeline-laying, methods adopted are different from each other due to the various situations of seawater depth, geological conditions and so on. In order to avoid the damage by any kind of vessel anchoring at anchorage, and to ensure the safety of submarine pipelines, The project of the Gas Pipeline Network System of Boxi & Bonan Oil/gas Fields is carried out by Offshore Oil Engineering Co., Ltd. (COOEC) and Tianjin Junhao Offshore Engineering Co., Ltd. (JHHG) by the use of the contact type submersible jet flow spray gas lift type trenching machine (it's the patent facility), the submarine pipeline-laying and post-trenching works are first successfully completed with burial depth up to 4m for domestic deep trenching operation pipeline with. It is shown that the initiate procedure could be applied to more deep trenching works of the submarine pipeline in the future through this methodological description of the deep trenching, as well as could be recommended to that the submarine pipeline crossing sea-routes or the anchorage and the similar pipeline constructions which not only be able to protect pipelines but also have to ensure the sea-route unobstructed.%海底管道的铺设有很多种挖沟方法,因海水深度,地质条件等情况的不同,采用的方法也不相同.渤西南联网供气项目为避免锚地的各类船只抛描破坏,保证海管的安全,海洋石油工程股份有限公司和天津俊昊海洋工程有限公司在海底管道铺设和后挖沟施工中进行合作,采用接触武潜水射流喷冲气举式挖沟机(此系专利设备),首次成功完成了国内海管埋深达到4米的深挖沟作业.通过这次深挖沟埋管的实施,证明这种新的工艺,可以应用到更多的海底管道深挖沟埋管工程中,也可以应用到海管穿越航道、锚地等类似的既要保护管道又要保证通航安全的管道施工工程中.

  5. Study on CAD Method for Aeroengine Pipeline System%管路系统计算机辅助设计方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志英; 唐文哲

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes nine principles of CAD aeroengine pipe routing and considers three approaches of CAD pipe routing.According to the complexity of aeroengine pipeline system and the features of computer-aided routing,WRS(Wide in diameter,Region,Stride) approach is provided,that is first to route tubes Wide in diameter,then in dividing Region,last tubes of Striding regions.The approach conforms to rules of routing from wide in diameter to narrow,from short in length to long,from difficult in layout to easy.It bases on the principle that optimization in local region can reach to overall optimization of pipeline system.Considering the feature of 3D view for computer-aided pipe routing,the WRS method avoids exchanging between the overall view and local view in the electronic engine mockup ,especially routing in dividing region.A pipeline system layout was successfully made on an electronic mockup by using the WRS approach.It is proven that the WRS method can gain success for only once,and shorten the period of design.The presented method is useful to aeroengine pipeline system design.%为进行计算机辅助管路系统敷设,本文归纳出9条管路CAD规则,探讨了3种管路敷设方法。为满足管路设计规则,根据管路系统的复杂性和计算机辅助敷设的特点,本文提出了先敷设粗管再分区敷设最后解决跨区域管路的WRS法。它按照先重后轻、先短后长、先难后易的敷管原则,体现了局部最优从而达到全局最佳的原理。文中着重介绍了该方法的思路,并结合在电子模型样机上的敷管实例及过程,分析了该方法的特点,为计算机辅助航空发动机管路系统敷设提供了一种可行的工程应用方法。

  6. 高压液氧供应系统管路设计%Design of pipelines in high pressure LOX supply system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫峰

    2012-01-01

    The high pressure LOX supply system is the important sub-system in the extruding li- quid rocket engine test stand and is the highest pressure gas-pressurized feed system in China. Some problems existing in the design of high-pressure low-temperature propulsive agent pipelines were solved through the rational pipeline arrangement, design of special supports, self compensation and pile-up heat insulation technology. This system was proved to be reliable after several times of hot fire tests and can meet the design requirements.%高压液氧供应系统是我国压力最高的挤压式液体火箭发动机试验台的关键分系统。在系统设计过程中,通过合理布置管路,设计专用固定支架,采用自然补偿和堆积绝热技术,解决了高压低温推进剂系统管路设计中的难题。该系统顺利通过气密性检查和调试,经多次热试车考核,系统稳定可靠,满足设计要求。

  7. Pipeline operators training and certification using thermohydraulic simulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, Claudio V.; Plasencia C, Jose [Pontificia Universidade Catolica (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Nucleo de Simulacao Termohidraulica de Dutos (SIMDUT); Montalvao, Filipe; Costa, Luciano [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The continuous pipeline operators training and certification of the TRANSPETRO's Pipeline National Operations Control Center (CNCO) is an essential task aiming the efficiency and safety of the oil and derivatives transport operations through the Brazilian pipeline network. For this objective, a hydraulic simulator is considered an excellent tool that allows the creation of different operational scenarios for training the pipeline hydraulic behavior as well as for testing the operator's responses to normal and abnormal real time operational conditions. The hydraulic simulator is developed based on a pipeline simulation software that supplies the hydraulic responses normally acquired from the pipeline remote units in the field. The pipeline simulation software has a communication interface system that sends and receives data to the SCADA supervisory system database. Using the SCADA graphical interface to create and to customize human machine interfaces (HMI) from which the operator/instructor has total control of the pipeline/system and instrumentation by sending commands. Therefore, it is possible to have realistic training outside of the real production systems, while acquiring experience during training hours with the operation of a real pipeline. A pilot Project was initiated at TRANSPETRO - CNCO targeting to evaluate the hydraulic simulators advantages in pipeline operators training and certification programs. The first part of the project was the development of three simulators for different pipelines. The excellent results permitted the project expansion for a total of twenty different pipelines, being implemented in training programs for pipelines presently operated by CNCO as well as for the new ones that are being migrated. The main objective of this paper is to present an overview of the implementation process and the development of a training environment through a pipe simulation environment using commercial software. This paper also presents

  8. A Survey of Visual Analytic Pipelines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu-Meng Wang; Tian-Ye Zhang; Yu-Xin Ma; Jing Xia; Wei Chen

    2016-01-01

    Visual analytics has been widely studied in the past decade. One key to make visual analytics practical for both research and industrial applications is the appropriate definition and implementation of the visual analytics pipeline which provides effective abstractions for designing and implementing visual analytics systems. In this paper we review the previous work on visual analytics pipelines and individual modules from multiple perspectives: data, visualization, model and knowledge. In each module we discuss various representations and descriptions of pipelines inside the module, and compare the commonalities and the differences among them.

  9. Holdup Measurement of Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU; Wen-guang; XU; Zheng

    2015-01-01

    This research mainly adopts gamma spectroscopy to detect the pipeline retention.The calculation of retention of uranium has been obtained based on the intensity of gamma rays of 185.715 keV emitted by 235U,and the analysis method for the pipeline retention has been established.

  10. Concept and cost of a pipeline system to supply hydrogen to fuel cell cars in Germany; Konzept und Kosten eines Pipelinesystems zur Versorgung des deutschen Strassenverkehrs mit Wasserstoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krieg, Dennis

    2012-11-01

    Fuel cells and hydrogen have the potential to be essential contributors for meeting the challenges of the future traffic sector. The key challenges include: - reducing global and local emissions - reducing import dependencies - preserving Germany's competitiveness - ensuring sufficient availability of the energy carrier Hydrogen is assumed to be the most appropriate energy carrier, since it can be produced via any primary energy and in terms of security is comparable to natural gas. In the long run, renewable energy, e.g. via wind power electrolysis, will make emission-free driving feasible. In order to use hydrogen to fuel cars, a comprehensive distribution infrastructure is required. This is completely different than the case of conventional fuels such as gasoline or diesel. Large amounts of hydrogen can be transported in a gaseous state in pipelines, as is common practice for natural gas. This option has not been examined to date. In particular, at the moment no suitable material has been identified for transporting hydrogen, which degrades the stability of the pipe. The aim of this thesis was to design a technical concept for a pipeline system that would make it possible to supply hydrogen to fuel cell cars. Using the assumptions of the study GermanHy, crucial technical questions were investigated. These questions comprise aspects such as general material requirements, feed-in, transportation and feed-out of the hydrogen. With respect to the material challenges, different potential possibilities are provided in order to ensure that no embrittlement will occur. Taking Germany as an example, the design and length of the pipeline system were investigated as well as the related economic and ecological aspects. A Monte Carlo simulation was conducted in order to calculate the probability density of both the investment and the specific cost. These results were placed in the overall context by calculating the economic impact of production, storage and fuelling

  11. Slurry pipeline hydrostatic testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betinol, Roy G.; Navarro Rojas, Luis Alejandro [BRASS Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

    2009-07-01

    The transportation of concentrates and tailings through long distance pipeline has been proven in recent years to be the most economic, environmentally friendly and secure means of transporting of mine products. This success has led to an increase in the demand for long distance pipeline throughout the mining industry. In year 2007 alone, a total of over 500 km of pipeline has been installed in South America alone and over 800 km are in the planning stages. As more pipelines are being installed, the need to ensure its operating integrity is ever increasing. Hydrostatic testing of long distance pipeline is one of the most economical and expeditious way to proving the operational integrity of the pipe. The intent of this paper is to show the sound reasoning behind construction hydro testing and the economic benefit it presents. It will show how hydro test pressures are determined based on ASME B31.11 criteria. (author)

  12. Slurry pipeline design approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betinol, Roy; Navarro R, Luis [Brass Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

    2009-12-19

    Compared to other engineering technologies, the design of a commercial long distance Slurry Pipeline design is a relatively new engineering concept which gained more recognition in the mid 1960 's. Slurry pipeline was first introduced to reduce cost in transporting coal to power generating units. Since then this technology has caught-up worldwide to transport other minerals such as limestone, copper, zinc and iron. In South America, the use of pipeline is commonly practiced in the transport of Copper (Chile, Peru and Argentina), Iron (Chile and Brazil), Zinc (Peru) and Bauxite (Brazil). As more mining operations expand and new mine facilities are opened, the design of the long distance slurry pipeline will continuously present a commercially viable option. The intent of this paper is to present the design process and discuss any new techniques and approach used today to ensure a better, safer and economical slurry pipeline. (author)

  13. 管道完整性系统智能手机访问平台设计%The Design of Intelligent Mobile Phone Access Platf orm f or the Pipeline Integrality System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆道明; 黄金钊; 杨珍

    2013-01-01

    The pipeline integrality system is a computer management system designed to ensure completely reliable operation of the pipeline. Mobile phone access platform which is based on Android system is an access termination for pipeline integrity system. The platform is capable of uploading detect data, scene photos and videos, also can be used for risk assessment of pipeline and information query such as pipeline lose efficacy, pipeline residual strength and pipeline basic information. The platform employs mobile phone SIM recognition and fingerprint recognition technology for authentication and uses B/S model for data access.%  管道完整性系统是为了保证管道能完全可靠运行而设计的计算机管理系统,手机访问平台端是管道完整性系统的一个访问终端,访问平台采用Android系统进行设计,平台可以进行监测数据上传、现场拍照、录像及上传功能,还可以进行管道风险评价、管道失效、管道剩余强度、管道基本信息等查询,平台采用手机SIM识别和指纹识别技术进行身份验证,使用B/S模式进行数据访问。

  14. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-08-17

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners

  15. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-12-31

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  16. Markov chain model helps predict pitting corrosion depth and rate in underground pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caleyo, F.; Velazquez, J.C.; Hallen, J. M. [ESIQIE, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Esquivel-Amezcua, A. [PEMEX PEP Region Sur, Villahermosa, Tabasco (Mexico); Valor, A. [Universidad de la Habana, Vedado, La Habana (Cuba)

    2010-07-01

    Recent reports place pipeline corrosion costs in North America at seven billion dollars per year. Pitting corrosion causes the higher percentage of failures among other corrosion mechanisms. This has motivated multiple modelling studies to be focused on corrosion pitting of underground pipelines. In this study, a continuous-time, non-homogenous pure birth Markov chain serves to model external pitting corrosion in buried pipelines. The analytical solution of Kolmogorov's forward equations for this type of Markov process gives the transition probability function in a discrete space of pit depths. The transition probability function can be completely identified by making a correlation between the stochastic pit depth mean and the deterministic mean obtained experimentally. The model proposed in this study can be applied to pitting corrosion data from repeated in-line pipeline inspections. Case studies presented in this work show how pipeline inspection and maintenance planning can be improved by using the proposed Markovian model for pitting corrosion.

  17. Depletion Interactions in a Cylindric Pipeline with a Small Shape Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chun-Shu; GAO Hai-Xia; XIAO Chang-Ming

    2007-01-01

    Stressed by external forces, it is possible for a cylindric pipeline to change into an elliptic pipeline. To expose the effect of small shape change of the pipeline on the depletion interactions, both the depletion potentials and depletion forces in the hard sphere systems confined by a cylindric pipeline or by an elliptic pipeline are studied by Monte Carlo simulations. The numerical results show that the depletion interactions are strongly affected by the small change of the shape of the pipeline in a way. Furthermore, it is also found that the depletion interactions will be strengthened if the short axis of the elliptic pipeline is decreased.

  18. IODP Expedition 337: Deep Coalbed Biosphere off Shimokita - Microbial processes and hydrocarbon system associated with deeply buried coalbed in the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Fumio; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Kubo, Yusuke; IODP Expedition 337 Scientists

    2016-06-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 337 was the first expedition dedicated to subseafloor microbiology that used riser-drilling technology with the drilling vessel Chikyu. The drilling Site C0020 is located in a forearc basin formed by the subduction of the Pacific Plate off the Shimokita Peninsula, Japan, at a water depth of 1180 m. Primary scientific objectives during Expedition 337 were to study the relationship between the deep microbial biosphere and a series of ˜ 2 km deep subseafloor coalbeds and to explore the limits of life in the deepest horizons ever probed by scientific ocean drilling. To address these scientific objectives, we penetrated a 2.466 km deep sedimentary sequence with a series of lignite layers buried around 2 km below the seafloor. The cored sediments, as well as cuttings and logging data, showed a record of dynamically changing depositional environments in the former forearc basin off the Shimokita Peninsula during the late Oligocene and Miocene, ranging from warm-temperate coastal backswamps to a cool water continental shelf. The occurrence of small microbial populations and their methanogenic activity were confirmed down to the bottom of the hole by microbiological and biogeochemical analyses. The factors controlling the size and viability of ultra-deep microbial communities in those warm sedimentary habitats could be the increase in demand of energy and water expended on the enzymatic repair of biomolecules as a function of the burial depth. Expedition 337 provided a test ground for the use of riser-drilling technology to address geobiological and biogeochemical objectives and was therefore a crucial step toward the next phase of deep scientific ocean drilling.

  19. A LiDAR and IMU Integrated Indoor Navigation System for UAVs and Its Application in Real-Time Pipeline Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, G Ajay; Patil, Ashok Kumar; Patil, Rekha; Park, Seong Sill; Chai, Young Ho

    2017-06-02

    Mapping the environment of a vehicle and localizing a vehicle within that unknown environment are complex issues. Although many approaches based on various types of sensory inputs and computational concepts have been successfully utilized for ground robot localization, there is difficulty in localizing an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) due to variation in altitude and motion dynamics. This paper proposes a robust and efficient indoor mapping and localization solution for a UAV integrated with low-cost Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) sensors. Considering the advantage of the typical geometric structure of indoor environments, the planar position of UAVs can be efficiently calculated from a point-to-point scan matching algorithm using measurements from a horizontally scanning primary LiDAR. The altitude of the UAV with respect to the floor can be estimated accurately using a vertically scanning secondary LiDAR scanner, which is mounted orthogonally to the primary LiDAR. Furthermore, a Kalman filter is used to derive the 3D position by fusing primary and secondary LiDAR data. Additionally, this work presents a novel method for its application in the real-time classification of a pipeline in an indoor map by integrating the proposed navigation approach. Classification of the pipeline is based on the pipe radius estimation considering the region of interest (ROI) and the typical angle. The ROI is selected by finding the nearest neighbors of the selected seed point in the pipeline point cloud, and the typical angle is estimated with the directional histogram. Experimental results are provided to determine the feasibility of the proposed navigation system and its integration with real-time application in industrial plant engineering.

  20. A LiDAR and IMU Integrated Indoor Navigation System for UAVs and Its Application in Real-Time Pipeline Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, G. Ajay; Patil, Ashok Kumar; Patil, Rekha; Park, Seong Sill; Chai, Young Ho

    2017-01-01

    Mapping the environment of a vehicle and localizing a vehicle within that unknown environment are complex issues. Although many approaches based on various types of sensory inputs and computational concepts have been successfully utilized for ground robot localization, there is difficulty in localizing an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) due to variation in altitude and motion dynamics. This paper proposes a robust and efficient indoor mapping and localization solution for a UAV integrated with low-cost Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) sensors. Considering the advantage of the typical geometric structure of indoor environments, the planar position of UAVs can be efficiently calculated from a point-to-point scan matching algorithm using measurements from a horizontally scanning primary LiDAR. The altitude of the UAV with respect to the floor can be estimated accurately using a vertically scanning secondary LiDAR scanner, which is mounted orthogonally to the primary LiDAR. Furthermore, a Kalman filter is used to derive the 3D position by fusing primary and secondary LiDAR data. Additionally, this work presents a novel method for its application in the real-time classification of a pipeline in an indoor map by integrating the proposed navigation approach. Classification of the pipeline is based on the pipe radius estimation considering the region of interest (ROI) and the typical angle. The ROI is selected by finding the nearest neighbors of the selected seed point in the pipeline point cloud, and the typical angle is estimated with the directional histogram. Experimental results are provided to determine the feasibility of the proposed navigation system and its integration with real-time application in industrial plant engineering. PMID:28574474

  1. Analytic prognostic for petrochemical pipelines

    CERN Document Server

    Jaoude, Abdo Abou; El-Tawil, Khaled; Noura, Hassan; Ouladsine, Mustapha

    2012-01-01

    Pipelines tubes are part of vital mechanical systems largely used in petrochemical industries. They serve to transport natural gases or liquids. They are cylindrical tubes and are submitted to the risks of corrosion due to high PH concentrations of the transported liquids in addition to fatigue cracks due to the alternation of pressure-depression of gas along the time, initiating therefore in the tubes body micro-cracks that can propagate abruptly to lead to failure. The development of the prognostic process for such systems increases largely their performance and their availability, as well decreases the global cost of their missions. Therefore, this paper deals with a new prognostic approach to improve the performance of these pipelines. Only the first mode of crack, that is, the opening mode, is considered.

  2. Developement of AutoCAD-based underground pipeline front-end acqusition system%基于AutoCAD地下管线前端数据采集系统的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许国安; 朱旭红; 季超伦

    2011-01-01

    地下管线信息管理系统建成后,进行数据更新以保证各类管线的现势性和准确性是该项建设后续的棘手问题.地下管线竣工测馈是对地下管线信息管理系统数据更新的一个重要手段.结合,叙述地下管线竣工测量前端数据采集系统开发的原理和方法,保证竣丁更新管线的数据质量,提高工作效率.%The underground pipeline information management system is completed, but how to update the data, and guarantee the accuracy of the current situation is the thorny issue of follow-up of the building.Underground pipeline construction surveying is an important means of underground pipeline information management system updating. This paper, combined with Underground Pipeline Detection Ningbo Technical Specification, describes the completion of the underground pipeline measurement front-end data acquisition system development principles. Those methods ensure the quality of the updating data and improve efficiency.

  3. Pipeline four-dimension management is the trend of pipeline integrity management in the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaohua, Dong; Feifan; Zhongchen, Han [China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), Beijing (China)

    2009-07-01

    Pipeline integrity management is essential for today's operators to operate their pipelines safety and cost effectively. The latest developments of pipeline integrity management around the world are involved with change of regulation, industry standard and innovation of technology. And who know the trend of PIM in the future, which can be answered in the paper. As a result, the concept of P4DM was set up firstly in the world. The paper analyzed the pipeline HSE management, pipeline integrity management (PIM) and asset integrity management (AIM), the problem of management was produced, and also the Pipeline 4-dimension Management (P4DM) theory was brought forward. According to P4DM, from the hierarchy of P4DM, the management elements, fields, space and time was analyzed. The main content is P4DM integrate the space geography location and time, control and manage the pipeline system in whole process, anywhere and anytime. It includes the pipeline integrity, pipeline operation and emergency, which is integrated by IT system. It come true that the idea, solution, technology, organization, manager alternately intelligently control the process of management. What the paper talks about included the definition of pipeline 4D management, the research develop of P4DM, the theory of P4DM, the relationship between P4DM and PIM, the technology basis of P4DM, how to perform the P4DM and conclusion. The P4DM was produced, which provide the development direction of PIM in the future, and also provide the new ideas for PetroChina in the field of technology and management. (author)

  4. An integrated sensing technique for smart monitoring of water pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernini, Romeo; Catapano, Ilaria; Soldovieri, Francesco; Crocco, Lorenzo

    2014-05-01

    Lowering the rate of water leakage from the network of underground pipes is one of the requirements that "smart" cities have to comply with. In fact, losses in the water supply infrastructure have a remarkable social, environmental and economic impact, which obviously conflicts with the expected efficiency and sustainability of a smart city. As a consequence, there is a huge interest in developing prevention policies based on state-of-art sensing techniques and possibly their integration, as well as in envisaging ad hoc technical solutions designed for the application at hand. As a contribution to this framework, in this communication we present an approach aimed to pursue a thorough non-invasive monitoring of water pipelines, with both high spatial and temporal resolution. This goal is necessary to guarantee that maintenance operations are performed timely, so to reduce the extent of the leakage and its possible side effects, and precisely, so to minimize the cost and the discomfort resulting from operating on the water supply network. The proposed approach integrates two sensing techniques that work at different spatial and temporal scales. The first one is meant to provide a continuous (in both space and time) monitoring of the pipeline and exploits a distributed optic fiber sensor based on the Brillouin scattering phenomenon. This technique provides the "low" spatial resolution information (at meter scale) needed to reveal the presence of a leak and call for interventions [1]. The second technique is based on the use of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and is meant to provide detailed images of area where the damage has been detected. GPR systems equipped with suitable data processing strategies [2,3] are indeed capable of providing images of the shallow underground, where the pipes would be buried, characterized by a spatial resolution in the order of a few centimeters. This capability is crucial to address in the most proper way maintenance operations, by for

  5. High-Level Waste System Process Interface Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    d' Entremont, P.D.

    1999-01-14

    The High-Level Waste System is a set of six different processes interconnected by pipelines. These processes function as one large treatment plant that receives, stores, and treats high-level wastes from various generators at SRS and converts them into forms suitable for final disposal. The three major forms are borosilicate glass, which will be eventually disposed of in a Federal Repository, Saltstone to be buried on site, and treated water effluent that is released to the environment.

  6. An Experimental Simulation of Load-Leveling Through Adsorption for Natural Gas Pipeline System%天然气管网吸附调峰可行性的模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周理; 王怡琳; 陈海华; 周亚平

    2002-01-01

    A load-leveling method through adsorption was presented to adjust the supply quantity according to the consumption rate of naturalgas with time. An experimental simulation set up was designed and used to test the load-leveling function for a real pipeline system. A storagetank filled with activated carbon together with a filter constitutes the major part of the load-leveling facility. Pressure and temperature of thesystem, as well as the reai gas output of the storage tank were recorded. It is proven that load-leveling by adsorption is technically feasible evenfor low pipeline pressure of natural gas supply system.

  7. Stress-strain analysis of pipelines laid in permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkov, P.; Yan‘nan', Van; Burkova, S.

    2016-09-01

    Increasing reliability of pipelines becomes a real challenge at all stages: design, construction and operation of pipeline systems. It is very important to determine the behaviour of the constructed pipeline under the operational and environmental loads using the design model in accordance with that one adopted in the rules and regulations. This article presents the simulation of pipeline in permafrost. The evaluation of the stress-strain state is given herein and the areas of the stress concentration are detected with the account for different loads occurred during the pipeline operation. Information obtained from the assessment of the stress-strain state of the pipeline allows determining sections in pre-emergency state (even before damages) and take all the necessary measures for eliminating them, thus increasing the pipeline system reliability. It is shown that the most critical pipeline cross-section is observed at the point of transition from one environment to another. The maximum strains decrease the level of the pipeline reliability. The finite element model is presented to determine the pipeline sections in pre-emergency state.

  8. Natural Gas Liquid Pipelines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Natural gas interstate and intrastate pipelines in the United States. Based on a variety of sources with varying scales and levels of accuracy and therefore accuracy...

  9. BSEE_Pacific_Pipelines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains the locations of oil and gas pipelines in the Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement Pacific OCS Region

  10. Central oxygen pipeline failure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaesthetic and critical care staff play a governing role in the comprehension of a ... complete central oxygen pipeline failure occurred throughout. Tygerberg Hospital. ..... emergency stations and at plant room emergency supply manifolds.

  11. Development and application of an information-analytic system on the problem of flow accelerated corrosion of pipeline elements in the secondary coolant circuit of VVER-440-based power units at the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Povarov, V. P.; Shipkov, A. A.; Gromov, A. F.; Kiselev, A. N.; Shepelev, S. V.; Galanin, A. V.

    2015-02-01

    Specific features relating to development of the information-analytical system on the problem of flow-accelerated corrosion of pipeline elements in the secondary coolant circuit of the VVER-440-based power units at the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant are considered. The results from a statistical analysis of data on the quantity, location, and operating conditions of the elements and preinserted segments of pipelines used in the condensate-feedwater and wet steam paths are presented. The principles of preparing and using the information-analytical system for determining the lifetime to reaching inadmissible wall thinning in elements of pipelines used in the secondary coolant circuit of the VVER-440-based power units at the Novovoronezh NPP are considered.

  12. 基于物联网和GIS技术的自来水管线系统的设计与实现%Design and Implementation of Water Pipeline System Based on Internet of Things(IOT) and GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕华新; 周学龙; 周文; 元利坚

    2014-01-01

    According to the current situation of the water pipeline management, put forward the concept of tap water pipeline manage-ment information system of Internet of things and based on GIS technology, describes the overall architecture of the system, the main function module and key technology, and mainly introduces the important application of GIS technology and network technology in the pipeline pressure and flow monitoring.%针对自来水管线管理的现状,提出了基于物联网和GIS技术的自来水管线管理信息系统的概念,介绍了系统的总体架构、主要功能模块及关键技术,并重点介绍了GIS技术和物联网技术在管道压力和流量监控上的重要应用。

  13. Nearshore Pipeline Installation Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    179. 5. Aldridge, R. G., and Bomba , J. G., "Deep Water Pipelines - Interdependence of Design and Construction", ASCE Paper. 6. American Society Civil...October 13, 1967. 24. Bomba , J. G. and Seeds, K. J., "Pipelining in 600 feet of water .... A Case Study of Washington Natural Gas Company’s Puget Sound...Crossing", Offshore Technology Conference, paper OTC 1188, 1970. 25. Bomba , J., "Submarine Pipe Construction Methods", Petroleum Engineer, Vol. 32

  14. Expert systems for integrity management in a crude oil pipeline; Sistemas expertos para gestion de integridad en sistemas de transporte de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, M.P.; Pini, J. [Oldelval S.A., General Roca RN (Argentina)]. E-mail: mmartine@oldelval.com.ar; jpini@oldelval.com.ar; Rossi, J.P.; Pellicano, A. [Sintec S.A., Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: icesing@infovia.com.ar

    2003-07-01

    The study and modeling of corrosion processes aim at the accomplishment of three primary objectives: to increase safety operation margins, to reduce maintenance costs and to optimize available resources. The Integrity Expert System is based on a statistical propagation model of defects reported by high resolution magnetic inspection tool (MFL), fed with the information provided by corrosion sensors, repair interventions, field surveys and future inspections. As model results, defect depth, remaining strength and failure probability distributions were obtained. From the analysis, feasible courses of action were established: a medium term repair plan, an internal inspection program and both monitoring and mitigation technologies. System implementation in OLDELVAL was translated into two major effects of importance for the company integrity program: reduction in the pipeline probability of failure by corrosion by means of programmed repairs and optimization of the internal inspection investment plan by mans of an alternative programming. (author)

  15. A road damage and life-cycle greenhouse gas comparison of trucking and pipeline water delivery systems for hydraulically fractured oil and gas field development in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthu, Ray C; Bradley, Thomas H

    2017-01-01

    The process of hydraulic fracturing for recovery of oil and natural gas uses large amounts of fresh water and produces a comparable amount of wastewater, much of which is typically transported by truck. Truck transport of water is an expensive and energy-intensive process with significant external costs including roads damages, and pollution. The integrated development plan (IDP) is the industry nomenclature for an integrated oil and gas infrastructure system incorporating pipeline-based transport of water and wastewater, centralized water treatment, and high rates of wastewater recycling. These IDP have been proposed as an alternative to truck transport systems so as to mitigate many of the economic and environmental problems associated with natural gas production, but the economic and environmental performance of these systems have not been analyzed to date. This study presents a quantification of lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and road damages of a generic oil and gas field, and of an oil and gas development sited in the Denver-Julesburg basin in the northern Colorado region of the US. Results demonstrate that a reduction in economic and environmental externalities can be derived from the development of these IDP-based pipeline water transportation systems. IDPs have marginal utility in reducing GHG emissions and road damage when they are used to replace in-field water transport, but can reduce GHG emissions and road damage by factors of as much as 6 and 7 respectively, when used to replace fresh water transport and waste-disposal routes for exemplar Northern Colorado oil and gas fields.

  16. Managing changes of location classes of gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Sergio B.; Sousa, Antonio Geraldo de [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    Most of the gas pipeline design codes utilize a class location system, where the design safety factor and the hydrostatic test factor are determined according to the population density in the vicinities of the pipeline route. Consequently, if an operator is requested or desires to maintain an existing gas pipeline in compliance with its design code, it will reduce the operational pressure or replace pipe sections to increase the wall thickness whenever a change in location class takes place. This article introduces an alternative methodology to deal with changes in location classes of gas pipelines. Initially, selected codes that utilize location class systems are reviewed. Afterwards, a model for the area affected by an ignition following a natural gas pipeline leak is described. Finally, a methodology to determine the MAOP and third part damage mitigation measures for gas transport pipelines that underwent changes in location class is presented. (author)

  17. Crack detection in pipelines using multiple electromechanical impedance sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Chunyuan; Feng, Xin; Zhang, Yu; Lu, Lu; Zhou, Jing

    2017-10-01

    An extensive network of pipeline systems is used to transport and distribute national energy resources that heavily influence a nation’s economy. Therefore, the structural integrity of these pipeline systems must be monitored and maintained. However, structural damage detection remains a challenge in pipeline engineering. To this end, this study developed a modified electromechanical impedance (EMI) technique for crack detection that involves fusing information from multiple sensors. We derived a new damage-sensitive feature factor based on a pipeline EMI model that considers the influence of the bonding layer between the EMI sensors and pipeline. We experimentally validated the effectiveness of the proposed method. Finally, we used a damage index—root mean square deviation—to examine the degree and position of crack damage in a pipeline.

  18. Numerical investigation of flow around a pipeline with a spoiler near a rigid bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Alper Öner

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Interaction of current with circular cylinders near a rigid bed is significant in the design of offshore structures, such as pipelines. Pipelines are buried to the seabed to be protected from damages caused by hydrodynamic forces or human activities. The pipeline laid on movable bed can be buried due to local scouring. A vertical plate on pipeline, called spoiler, has been developed to increase the rate and extend of scouring. In this study, the two-dimensional turbulent flow around a smooth pipeline with a spoiler was investigated at ReD = 9500 near the bed. The governing equations for the current problem were solved using ANSYS® 11.0-Flotran program package based on finite element method. The performance of the standard k–ε, standard k–ω, and shear stress transport turbulence models were examined on five computational meshes with different densities. The results obtained were compared with the published experimental measurements in literature. Present results showed that the attachment of a spoiler caused a large separation area in both upstream and downstream of the pipeline. The attachment of spoiler on top of the pipe increased the drag and decreased the lift force on pipe. Moreover, the spoiler causes non-zero downward lift. It is concluded that the k–ω turbulence model on the finest mesh is found relatively better in simulation of the flow field.

  19. Deep water construction on live oil and gas pipelines using the SmartPlug high-pressure pipeline isolation tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrott, Ralph; Tveit, Edd; Sauthier, Daniel [PSI, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    The world first successful SmartPlug operation took place at the Dimlington process plant in UK in 1999. Since 1999, the SmartPlug system has been deployed on more than 80 projects worldwide allowing the operators to perform pipeline repair work, modifications, or tie-ins with the pipeline systems full of product, and at full production pressure. Mid-line applications of the SmartPlug system allows the operator to tie a new pipeline into an existing pipeline without displacing the oil or gas and eliminates time needed to flare, depressurize, empty the line and commission the line before start up. The first SmartPlug installations were done to isolate pig trap valves or ESD valve from the pipeline allowing the valve to be replaced at full pipeline pressure, and in some instances while production was flowing. Some pipelines have multiple platforms or fields tied in along the pipeline, and the SmartPlug system is frequently used to isolate a single platform to allow platform removal or riser repair without impacting the production flow in the remaining part of the pipeline system. (author)

  20. 信息化在美国国家油气管道监管体系中的作用%Role of informatization in the national pipeline regulation system of the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周利剑; 李振宇; 贾韶辉; 唐森; 张雨杉

    2016-01-01

    The oil and gas pipeline transportation system of the United States is the largest and the most complicated in the world,so its regulation is a big challenge.In order to meet the regulation requirements of different departments and agencies,a pipeline regulation system in which federal ministries,state governments,professional associations,pipeline operators and the public are dependent on each other has been established gradually.Based on the division of regulation powers,information platforms (e.g.national pipeline mapping system) are established by information technologies and measures,and they can act as effective tools to guarantee pipeline safety and formulate integrity plans.In this paper,the pipeline regulation system of the United States was analyzed in detail in terms of specific requirements,role of informatization,and activities involved in the informatization.Accordingly,it was pointed out that China could learn from the pipeline regulation system of the United States to strengthen safety and economic regulation of pipelines by means of informatization.%美国拥有世界上最复杂和庞大的油气管道输送系统,监管工作挑战巨大,为满足不同部门和机构监管需求,逐步建立起以联邦各职能部门、各州政府、各种技术协会、管道运营商和公众互为依存的管道监管体系.在体系运转中,充分依托信息化的技术和手段,根据不同的监管权力划分,建设了国家管道地图系统等信息平台,为保障管道安全,制定完整性计划等具体监管要求提供了有效的工具.基于此,分析了美国实施管道监管过程中的具体需求,研究了信息化在监管体系中发挥的作用,介绍了美国在管道监管的信息化中开展的相关工作,指出我国可以从美国油气管道监管体系中得到启示,通过开展信息化工作,加强管道的安全和经济监管.

  1. Identification and assessment of geohazards affecting pipelines and urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strokova, L. A.; Teterin, E. A.

    2016-09-01

    The paper addresses methods and criteria of risk assessment associated with land subsidence threatening pipelines, buildings, and constructions. Currently, there are some practical issues relating to geohazards that should be taken into account while constructing a pipeline. The article provides comparison data on the effects of Spitak earthquake and the natural disaster in Neftegorsk in terms of geohazards impact on the pipeline systems. The suggested risk assessment procedure embraces a wide range of aspects: from soil properties to economic and management issues.

  2. Comparing Existing Pipeline Networks with the Potential Scale of Future U.S. CO2 Pipeline Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

    2008-02-29

    There is growing interest regarding the potential size of a future U.S. dedicated CO2 pipeline infrastructure if carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies are commercially deployed on a large scale. In trying to understand the potential scale of a future national CO2 pipeline network, comparisons are often made to the existing pipeline networks used to deliver natural gas and liquid hydrocarbons to markets within the U.S. This paper assesses the potential scale of the CO2 pipeline system needed under two hypothetical climate policies and compares this to the extant U.S. pipeline infrastructures used to deliver CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and to move natural gas and liquid hydrocarbons from areas of production and importation to markets. The data presented here suggest that the need to increase the size of the existing dedicated CO2 pipeline system should not be seen as a significant obstacle for the commercial deployment of CCS technologies.

  3. Field Oil Pipeline Design and Implementation of Geographic Information System%机动输油管线地理信息系统设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵翔; 于承浩; 张伟明; 王峰

    2014-01-01

    The current file classification management method of fiel d oil pipeline survey and design data has such drawbacks as failing to manage the relationship between data and present the relationship of graphic data and attribute data on the map. In or-der to improve the combat readiness and management capabilities of field oil pipeline route and establish an efficient management and assistant decision-making system, ArcSDE database engine and SQL Server database technology are employed to manage the pi-pleline data with ArcGIS as a development platform and the overall development of the function of the system module and applica-tion interface is conducted with ArcEngine components and Visual C#. The direction of the line and visualization of line resource management are standardized, the intelligent-aided generation of the line process plan and configuration plan can be achieved as as to improve the management level of combat readiness of pipelines.%当前机动输油管线勘察与设计资料采用的文件夹分类管理方式,难以管理各类资料间的关联关系,也难以在地图上进行图形数据与属性数据的关联呈现。为了提高机动输油管线战备线路管理能力,建立了管理与辅助决策系统,以ArcGIS作为GIS平台,利用ArcSDE数据库引擎和SQL Server数据库统一管理管线数据,通过ArcEngine组件库和Visual C#对系统的功能模块和应用界面进行整体开发,实现了线路走向、线路资源可视化的规范管理和线路工艺方案、人装配置方案的智能辅助生成,提高了部队战备线路管理水平。

  4. Stress analysis of the second out-pipeline in 130 000t/a ammonia synthesis system%13万t/a氨合成系统中二出管线的应力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明; 谭永新; 殷建玲; 季延军

    2014-01-01

    The paper introduces stress analysis of pipeline (the second out-pipeline)from ammonia synthesis tower to waste heat boiler in 130 000t/a ammonia synthesis system by using CAESARII software, optimizes piping design according to stress analysis results, eliminating high temperature high pressure pipeline operating risks.%介绍用CAESARⅡ软件对13万t/a氨合成系统中从氨合成塔至废热锅炉的管线(即二出管线)进行应力分析,并根据应力分析结果优化配管设计,消除高温高压管道的运行隐患。

  5. American burying beetle site records : Valentine NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is specific site records of American burying beetle on Valentine Nationl Wildlife Refuge to date. It includes a map of site location. A discussion...

  6. 78 FR 23972 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... installing new computational pipeline monitoring (CPM) leak detection systems or replacing components of existing CPM systems to comply with section 4.2 of the American Petroleum Institute's recommended practice.... Section 195.444 requires operators of single-phase hazardous liquid pipeline facilities that use CPM...

  7. Satellites and solid state electronics test concrete pressure water pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumo, John; Worthington, Will

    2000-06-01

    Like all structures, water pressure pipelines have a finite life. Pipelines will eventually begin to fail, leaving the pipeline owner to deal with the quandary: what caused this to happen, can we prevent future failures, must we replace this structure now? The causes for pipeline failure include defects and anomalies which may occur in any phase of a pipeline's life: during the engineering, the manufacture, the construction, or the operation. Failure may simply be the result of environmental conditions or old age. In the past five years, passive acoustic emission detection technology has been adapted to concrete pressure pipelines. This method of inspection is based on the caustic emissions made by the prestressed reinforcing wire as it releases its energy. A recently patented method of using this technology relies on a series of remote, independent test stations to detect, record and time-stamp these acoustic emissions. A low-powered, high- performance embedded processor system makes use of global positioning system time signals to synchronize multiple stations. These methods are re-defining the standard of care of water pressure pipelines. This paper describes pipeline failure mechanisms and a state-of-the-art data sampling system which has been developed to evaluate pipeline structural integrity.

  8. A streamlined approach for pipeline integrity management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, T.R. [Tuboscope Pipeline Services, Houston, TX (United States); Marr, J.E. [Marr and Associates, A Tuboscope Company, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    While regulations call for safe and reliable operation of pipelines, business calls for economic return and reduced liability. This paper presented a system that provides rapid, comprehensive and economic improvements for pipeline integrity decision support. The first phase of a pipeline integrity management plan (IMP) involves the identification of integrity threats to the pipeline. This may involve 22 root causes as defined by the Pipeline Research Council International (PRCI), grouped into 9 categories of related failure types, further grouped into time related defect types. Time dependent defects include external corrosion, internal corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. Stable defects include manufacturing related or welding defects, while time independent defects include mechanical damage, incorrect operations and outside forces. In designing an IMP, high consequence areas (HCAs) must be defined along with the integrity threats that could affect the pipeline. A baseline risk assessment is then performed using data from the integrity threat models to identify risks areas, individual lines, pipe segments or joints. Integrity management decisions are made based on the outcome of initial assessments, resulting in integrity assessment tools such as in line inspection (ILI) technologies, direct assessment (DA), and hydrostatic testing. Pipeline engineers benefit from having ILI, DA and other data integrated and interacting with geographic information system (GIS) data. This paper presented the LinaView PRO{sup TM} IMP tool developed by Tuboscope that enhances dig smart excavation decision making; remediation and mitigation planning; responding to one-call emergency response; implementation of government regulations; HCA identification; integration of a wide variety of data; comprehensive dynamic segmentation; and, data validation in support of risk assessment. The objective of an IMP is the safe and reliable delivery system for oil and gas product to markets. 9

  9. Bauxite slurry pipeline: start up operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othon, Otilio; Babosa, Eder; Edvan, Francisco; Brittes, Geraldo; Melo, Gerson; Janir, Joao; Favacho, Orlando; Leao, Marcos; Farias, Obadias [Vale, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Goncalves, Nilton [Anglo Ferrous Brazil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The mine of Miltonia is located in Paragominas-PA, in the north of Brazil. Bauxite slurry pipeline starts at the Mine of Miltonia and finishes in the draining installation of Alunorte refinery at the port of Barcarena-PA, located approximately 244km away from the mine. The pipeline runs over seven cities and passes below four great rivers stream beds. The system was designed for an underground 24 inches OD steel pipe to carry 9.9 million dry metric tonnes per annum (dMTAs) of 50.5% solid concentration bauxite slurry, using only one pumping station. The system is composed by four storage tanks and six piston diaphragm pumps, supplying a flow of 1680 m3/h. There is a cathodic protection system along the pipeline extension to prevent external corrosion and five pressure monitoring stations to control hydraulic conditions, there is also a fiber optic cable interconnection between pump station and terminal station. Pipeline Systems Incorporated (PSI) was the designer and followed the commissioning program of the start up operations. This paper will describe the beginning of the pipeline operations, technical aspects of the project, the operational experiences acquired in these two years, the faced problems and also the future planning. (author)

  10. 77 FR 2126 - Pipeline Safety: Implementation of the National Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Operators AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... registry of pipeline and liquefied natural gas operators. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jamerson Pender... 72878), titled: ``Pipeline Safety: Updates to Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Reporting...

  11. Development Prospect of Oil & Gas Pipelines of CNPC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Yaorong; Chen Hao; Zhang Jinjun; Zhang Kegang

    2008-01-01

    @@ Technology progress of oil & gas pipelines transportation project of CNPC since the 11th Five-Year Plan period An introduction to oil & gas pipelines transportationproject As a large industrious system, pipelines transportation industry is playing a more and more important role in oil and natural gas industry even in the world economy.Thanks to the efforts of 40 years, substantial progress has been achieved in the oil & gas pipelines construction in China. Till now, long distance oil & gas transportation trunk pipelines with large caliber have been completed one after another, with a total length exceeding 50 thousand kilometers (kin). CNPC boasts a long distancel and oil transportation pipeline of 30 thousand km.

  12. Protecting a pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, D.H (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)); Garcia-Lopez, M. (Ingenieria y Geotecnia Ltda., Santafe de Bogota (Colombia))

    1994-12-01

    This article describes some of the difficulties in constructing an oil pipeline in Colombia across a forested mountain range that has erosion-prone slopes. Engineers are finding ways to protect the pipeline against slope failures and severe erosion problems while contending with threats of guerrilla attacks. Torrential rainfall, precipitous slopes, unstable soils, unfavorable geology and difficult access make construction of an oil pipeline in Colombia a formidable undertaking. Add the threat of guerrilla attacks, and the project takes on a new dimension. In the country's central uplands, a 76 cm pipeline traverses some of the most daunting and formidable terrain in the world. The right-of-way crosses rugged mountains with vertical elevations ranging from 300 m to 2,000 mm above sea level over a distance of some 30 km. The pipeline snakes up and down steep forested inclines in some spots and crosses streams and faults in others, carrying the country's major export--petroleum--from the Cusiana oil field, located in Colombia's lowland interior, to the coast.

  13. Supervision system for safety valves and operative metering station of the Yacuiba-Rio Grande Gas Pipeline; Sistema de supervisao para valvulas de seguranca e estacoes de medicao operativas do gasoducto Yacuiba-Rio Grande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera, Fernando; Marques, Ailton [Transierra S.A., La Paz (Bolivia)

    2005-07-01

    One of the most critical points for the opportune intervention that compromises the operations of TRANSIERRA S.A., is the integrity of the facilities, the adjacent communities and the environment are the Shut Down Valves (SDV) of the GASYRG Gas pipeline. The GASYRG (Yacuiba Rio Grande Gas pipeline) with an extension of 432 Km and a Pipeline diameter of 32 inches presents 2 Receipt Stations, 1 Delivery Point and 11 Line Valves. The pipeline operation is made by satellite and SCADA applications; it is supervised and controlled on-line at the points of delivery and receipt; monitoring of the SDV's was left aside; because of this it was necessary to develop a Remote Supervision System. This system combines remote devices with the Control Philosophy of Report By-Exception, Low Orbit Satellite System, Internet application and Intranet. The mentioned information is sent in e-mail format to a Satellite Teleport located in London, England. The process information is sent via Internet to TRANSIERRA's SCADA Servers for its interpretation and display in the HMI of the GASYRG supervisory system. (author)

  14. Assessment of the impact of a Trans-Alaska Pipeline oil spill on the birds and mammals of the Atigun River system

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An oil spill resulting from a crack in the Trans-Alaska Pipeline was discovered on June 10, 1979 near pipeline mile post 166, on the north side of Atigun Pass....

  15. Pipelines. Economy's veins; Pipelines. Adern der Wirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizlmayr, Adolf; Goestl, Stefan [ILF Beratende Ingenieure, Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    According to the existing prognoses more than 1 million km of gas pipelines, oil pipelines and water pipelines are built up to the year 2030. The predominant portion is from gas pipelines. The safe continued utilization of the aging pipelines is a large challenge. In addition, the diagnostic technology, the evaluation and risk assessment have to be developed further. With the design of new oil pipelines and gas pipelines, aspects of environmental protection, the energy efficiency of transport and thus the emission reduction of carbon dioxide, the public acceptance and the market strategy of the exporters gain in importance. With the offshore pipelines one soon will exceed the present border of 2,000 m depth of water and penetrate into larger sea depths.

  16. 77 FR 31827 - Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... excavation damage prevention law enforcement programs; establish an administrative process for making... excavation damage prevention law enforcement programs; and establish the adjudication process...

  17. Natural Gas Gathering and Transporting Pipeline Networks in Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Xuehou

    1995-01-01

    @@ It is over 30 years since Baxian-Chongqing Gas Transmission Pipeline has been put into operation in 1960s. So far approximately 8 000 km pipelines of various kinds have been built in Sichuan, among which about 1 800 km are gas pipelines (the maximum diameter of 720 mm ),therefor a gathering pipeline system has been established which connects more than 80 gas fields over ten of major industrial cities in Sichuan, such as Chengdu, Chongqing,Zigong, Luzhou, Daxian, Deyang, Mianyang, Nanchong,and more than 600 large and medium size end-users and the chemical fertilizer manufacturing bases in the neighboring provinces of Yunnan and Guizhou.

  18. Energy efficiency evaluation of a natural gas pipeline based on an analytic hierarchy process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xie, Ying; Ma, Xiufen; Ning, Haifeng; Yuan, Zongming; Xie, Ting

    2017-01-01

    A long-distance natural gas pipeline system consists of considerable equipment and many pipe segments, but the conventional energy efficiency index of a natural gas pipeline is considered as a whole...

  19. Energy saving measures of Shaanxi-Beijing Natural Gas Pipeline System%陕京天然气管网系统的节能措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋明智; 程凤亭

    2012-01-01

    To reduce energy consumption of gas in logistics, Shannxi-Beijing Natural Gas Pipeline System is taken as a case to analyze the natural gas storage and transportation systems. In accordance with operating characteristics and energy consumption conditions of natural gas pipelines, compressor stations, distribution stations and gas storages as well as electric power and natural gas energy consumption in the production, by the use of thermal equilibrium of energy flow, energy cascade utilization, thermodynamic exergy value and other analysis methods, energy-saving measures are researched from different aspects. It is indicated that waste heat utilization, differential pressure power generation and gas storage transformation can be used for energy saving, and the feasibility of various energy-saving measures is analyzed. Exhaust temperature of gas compressor units in the natural gas pipeline network is higher, so the waste heat has a larger potential and value for recycling. Differential pressure, enthalpy and internal energy are calculated on the basis of differential pressure energy of pipeline network distribution stations and converted by the exergy analysis principle to indicate a higher energy use value. In accordance with relevant geological conditions, it is indicated that gas-fired unit exhaust, inert gas or CO2 can replace the natural gas as the bedding gas of the gas storage. This measure can reduce more than 50% of production energy consumption. The research results can provide a reference to the natural gas logistics enterprises to improve production processes and reduce energy consumption.%为降低天然气物流能耗,以陕京天然气管网系统为例,针对天然气储运体系展开分析,根据天然气运输管道、压气站、分输站和储气库运行特征和能耗情况,运用能源流动热平衡、能量梯阶利用和热力学值等分析方法,结合生产中电力和天然气能耗情况,进行不同角度的节能措施研究.指出

  20. CPL: Common Pipeline Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    ESO CPL Development Team

    2014-02-01

    The Common Pipeline Library (CPL) is a set of ISO-C libraries that provide a comprehensive, efficient and robust software toolkit to create automated astronomical data reduction pipelines. Though initially developed as a standardized way to build VLT instrument pipelines, the CPL may be more generally applied to any similar application. The code also provides a variety of general purpose image- and signal-processing functions, making it an excellent framework for the creation of more generic data handling packages. The CPL handles low-level data types (images, tables, matrices, strings, property lists, etc.) and medium-level data access methods (a simple data abstraction layer for FITS files). It also provides table organization and manipulation, keyword/value handling and management, and support for dynamic loading of recipe modules using programs such as EsoRex (ascl:1504.003).

  1. Pipeline rehabilitation planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer-Jones, Roland; Hopkins, Phil; Eyre, David [PENSPEN (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    An operator faced with an onshore pipeline that has extensive damage must consider the need for rehabilitation, the sort of rehabilitation to be used, and the rehabilitation schedule. This paper will consider pipeline rehabilitation based on the authors' experiences from recent projects, and recommend a simple strategy for planning pipeline rehabilitation. It will also consider rehabilitation options: external re-coating; internal lining; internal painting; programmed repairs. The main focus will be external re-coating. Consideration will be given to rehabilitation coating types, including tape wraps, epoxy, and polyurethane. Finally it will discuss different options for scheduling the rehabilitation of corrosion damage including: the statistical comparison of signals from inspection pigs; statistical comparison of selected measurements from inspection pigs and other inspections; the use of corrosion rates estimated for the mechanisms and conditions; expert judgement. (author)

  2. Reducing flow-transient effects key to pipeline's efficiency efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broadbent, G.E.; Williams, T

    1990-04-23

    An optimization system for operation of the Moomba-Adelaide gas-pipeline network has been developed through use of a steady-state model to predict pipeline compressor configurations and setpoints. This paper reports how the system has allowed greater accuracy in operations of the pipeline network even when subject to highly transient flows.

  3. 78 FR 70623 - Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee and the Liquid Pipeline Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ... gas pipelines and for hazardous liquid pipelines. Both committees were established under the Federal... Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2009-0203] Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee and the Liquid Pipeline Advisory Committee AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety...

  4. Redefining the Data Pipeline Using GPUs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, C.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Packham, C.

    2013-10-01

    There are two major challenges facing the next generation of data processing pipelines: 1) handling an ever increasing volume of data as array sizes continue to increase and 2) the desire to process data in near real-time to maximize observing efficiency by providing rapid feedback on data quality. Combining the power of modern graphics processing units (GPUs), relational database management systems (RDBMSs), and extensible markup language (XML) to re-imagine traditional data pipelines will allow us to meet these challenges. Modern GPUs contain hundreds of processing cores, each of which can process hundreds of threads concurrently. Technologies such as Nvidia's Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) platform and the PyCUDA (http://mathema.tician.de/software/pycuda) module for Python allow us to write parallel algorithms and easily link GPU-optimized code into existing data pipeline frameworks. This approach has produced speed gains of over a factor of 100 compared to CPU implementations for individual algorithms and overall pipeline speed gains of a factor of 10-25 compared to traditionally built data pipelines for both imaging and spectroscopy (Warner et al., 2011). However, there are still many bottlenecks inherent in the design of traditional data pipelines. For instance, file input/output of intermediate steps is now a significant portion of the overall processing time. In addition, most traditional pipelines are not designed to be able to process data on-the-fly in real time. We present a model for a next-generation data pipeline that has the flexibility to process data in near real-time at the observatory as well as to automatically process huge archives of past data by using a simple XML configuration file. XML is ideal for describing both the dataset and the processes that will be applied to the data. Meta-data for the datasets would be stored using an RDBMS (such as mysql or PostgreSQL) which could be easily and rapidly queried and file I/O would be

  5. Detection system for urban pipeline based on IOT and UGW%基于物联网和超声导波的管道检测系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志奎; 贾少攀; 赵亮; 张清辰

    2013-01-01

    To reduce the complexity of manual handling operations of current detection systems for urban pipeline and meet the requirements of pipeline working environmental information analyzing and early warning function, a detection system for urban pipeline based on internet of things (IOT) and ultrasonic guided wave (UGW) was designed and developed. IOT technology, UGW testing and signal processing methods are integrated with this system. To implement the functions such as detection of pipeline, environmental information gathering and early warning, the system transmits data over wireless network to cloud data processing center which analyzes the pipeline detection data. Simulation results show that this system can meet the accuracy requirement of defect location, and reduce manual handling operations with early warning function.%针对当前城市管道检测系统实际应用时复杂的人工操作问题和管道工作环境信息的分析预警功能缺失问题,设计开发一套基于物联网和超声导波的城市管道检测系统.该系统将物联网、超声导波检测、信号处理等技术相融合,通过无线网络将数据传到云端数据处理中心并由数据处理中心分析管道检测信息,实现管道缺陷检测、环境信息采集以及预警等功能.实验仿真表明:该系统的缺陷定位精度达到了(能够满足)城市管道检测的要求,在减少人工操作的同时,能有效提供预警功能.

  6. A graph-based approach for designing extensible pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Maíra R; Magalhães, Wagner C S; Machado, Moara; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo

    2012-07-12

    In bioinformatics, it is important to build extensible and low-maintenance systems that are able to deal with the new tools and data formats that are constantly being developed. The traditional and simplest implementation of pipelines involves hardcoding the execution steps into programs or scripts. This approach can lead to problems when a pipeline is expanding because the incorporation of new tools is often error prone and time consuming. Current approaches to pipeline development such as workflow management systems focus on analysis tasks that are systematically repeated without significant changes in their course of execution, such as genome annotation. However, more dynamism on the pipeline composition is necessary when each execution requires a different combination of steps. We propose a graph-based approach to implement extensible and low-maintenance pipelines that is suitable for pipeline applications with multiple functionalities that require different combinations of steps in each execution. Here pipelines are composed automatically by compiling a specialised set of tools on demand, depending on the functionality required, instead of specifying every sequence of tools in advance. We represent the connectivity of pipeline components with a directed graph in which components are the graph edges, their inputs and outputs are the graph nodes, and the paths through the graph are pipelines. To that end, we developed special data structures and a pipeline system algorithm. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach by implementing a format conversion pipeline for the fields of population genetics and genetic epidemiology, but our approach is also helpful in other fields where the use of multiple software is necessary to perform comprehensive analyses, such as gene expression and proteomics analyses. The project code, documentation and the Java executables are available under an open source license at http://code.google.com/p/dynamic-pipeline. The system

  7. The TROBAR pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanon, Mauro

    TROBAR is a 60cm robotic telescope installed at the Observatrio de Aras de los Olmos (OAO), approximately 100km north-west of Valencia (Spain). It is currently equipped with a 4K×4K optical camera covering a FoV of 30×30 arcmin^2. We are now implementing a pipeline for the automatic reduction of its data. In this paper we will present the main features of the pipeline, with particular care to some of the algorithms implemented to assess the quality of the produced data and showing their application to synthetic images.

  8. Bedrock mapping of buried valley networks using seismic reflection and airborne electromagnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenborger, G. A.; Logan, C. E.; Hinton, M. J.; Pugin, A. J.-M.; Sapia, V.; Sharpe, D. R.; Russell, H. A. J.

    2016-05-01

    In glaciated terrain, buried valleys often host aquifers that are significant groundwater resources. However, given the range of scales, spatial complexity and depth of burial, buried valleys often remain undetected or insufficiently mapped. Accurate and thorough mapping of bedrock topography is a crucial step in detecting and delineating buried valleys and understanding formative valley processes. We develop a bedrock mapping procedure supported by the combination of seismic reflection data and helicopter time-domain electromagnetic data with water well records for the Spiritwood buried valley aquifer system in Manitoba, Canada. The limited spatial density of water well bedrock observations precludes complete depiction of the buried valley bedrock topography and renders the water well records alone inadequate for accurate hydrogeological model building. Instead, we leverage the complementary strengths of seismic reflection and airborne electromagnetic data for accurate local detection of the sediment-bedrock interface and for spatially extensive coverage, respectively. Seismic reflection data are used to define buried valley morphology in cross-section beneath survey lines distributed over a regional area. A 3D model of electrical conductivity is derived from inversion of the airborne electromagnetic data and used to extrapolate buried valley morphology over the entire survey area. A spatially variable assignment of the electrical conductivity at the bedrock surface is applied to different features of the buried valley morphology identified in the seismic cross-sections. Electrical conductivity is then used to guide construction of buried valley shapes between seismic sections. The 3D locus of points defining each morphological valley feature is constructed using a path optimization routine that utilizes deviation from the assigned electrical conductivities as the cost function. Our resulting map represents a bedrock surface of unprecedented detail with more

  9. FY-94 buried waste integrated demonstration program report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a multitude of advanced technologies. These technologies are being integrated to form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. These efforts are identified and coordinated in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER/WM) needs and objectives. This document summarizes previous demonstrations and describes the FY-94 BWID technology development and demonstration activities. Sponsored by the DOE Office of Technology Development (OTD), BWID works with universities and private industry to develop these technologies, which are being transferred to the private sector for use nationally and internationally. A public participation policy has been established to provide stakeholders with timely and accurate information and meaningful opportunities for involvement in the technology development and demonstration process.

  10. Submarine Pipeline Routing Risk Quantitative Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐慧; 于莉; 胡云昌; 王金英

    2004-01-01

    A new method for submarine pipeline routing risk quantitative analysis was provided, and the study was developed from qualitative analysis to quantitative analysis.The characteristics of the potential risk of the submarine pipeline system were considered, and grey-mode identification theory was used. The study process was composed of three parts: establishing the indexes system of routing risk quantitative analysis, establishing the model of grey-mode identification for routing risk quantitative analysis, and establishing the standard of mode identification result. It is shown that this model can directly and concisely reflect the hazard degree of the routing through computing example, and prepares the routing selection for the future.

  11. Buried plastic scintillator muon telescope (BATATA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfaro, R. [Inst. de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F., C.P. 04510 (Mexico); De Donato, C.; D' Olivo, J.C.; Guzman, A.; Medina-Tanco, G. [Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F., C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Moreno Barbosa, E. [Fac. de Ciencias Fisico Matematicas, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Paic, G.; Patino Salazar, E. [Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F., C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Salazar Ibarguen, H. [Fac. de Ciencias Fisico Matematicas, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Sanchez, F.A., E-mail: federico.sanchez@nucleares.unam.m [Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F., C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Supanitsky, A.D. [Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F., C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Valdes-Galicia, J.F. [Inst. de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F., C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Vargas Trevino, A.D.; Vergara Limon, S. [Fac. de Ciencias de la Electronica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Villasenor, L.M. [Inst. de Fisica y Matematicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas Hidalgo Morelia (Mexico); Observatorio Pierre Auger, Av. San Martin Norte 304 (5613) Malarguee, Prov. Mendoza (Argentina)

    2010-05-21

    Muon telescopes have multiple applications in the area of cosmic ray research. We are currently building such a detector with the objective of comparing the ground penetration of muon vs. electron-gamma signals originated in cosmic ray showers. The detector is composed by a set of three parallel dual-layer scintillator planes, buried at fixed depths ranging from 120 to 600g/cm{sup 2}. Each layer is 4m{sup 2} and is composed by 49 rectangular strips of 4cmx2m, oriented at a 90{sup 0} angle with respect to its companion layer, which gives an xy-coincidence pixel of 4x4cm{sup 2}. The scintillators are MINOS extruded polystyrene strips, with an embedded Bicron BC92 wavelength shifting (WLS) fibers, of 1.5 mm in diameter. Light is collected by Hamamatsu H7546B multi-anode PMTs of 64 pixels. The front-end (FE) electronics works in counting mode and signals are transmitted to the surface DAQ stage using low-voltage differential signaling (LVDS). Any strip signal above threshold opens a GPS-tagged 2{mu}s data collection window. Data, including signal and background, are acquired by a system of FPGA (Spartan 2E) boards and a single-board computer (TS7800).

  12. Buried plastic scintillator muon telescope (BATATA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, R.; de Donato, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Guzmán, A.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Moreno Barbosa, E.; Paic, G.; Patiño Salazar, E.; Salazar Ibarguen, H.; Sánchez, F. A.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Valdés-Galicia, J. F.; Vargas Treviño, A. D.; Vergara Limón, S.; Villaseñor, L. M.; Auger Collaboration

    2010-05-01

    Muon telescopes have multiple applications in the area of cosmic ray research. We are currently building such a detector with the objective of comparing the ground penetration of muon vs. electron-gamma signals originated in cosmic ray showers. The detector is composed by a set of three parallel dual-layer scintillator planes, buried at fixed depths ranging from 120 to 600g/cm2. Each layer is 4m2 and is composed by 49 rectangular strips of 4cm×2m, oriented at a 90∘ angle with respect to its companion layer, which gives an xy-coincidence pixel of 4×4cm2. The scintillators are MINOS extruded polystyrene strips, with an embedded Bicron BC92 wavelength shifting (WLS) fibers, of 1.5 mm in diameter. Light is collected by Hamamatsu H7546B multi-anode PMTs of 64 pixels. The front-end (FE) electronics works in counting mode and signals are transmitted to the surface DAQ stage using low-voltage differential signaling (LVDS). Any strip signal above threshold opens a GPS-tagged 2μs data collection window. Data, including signal and background, are acquired by a system of FPGA (Spartan 2E) boards and a single-board computer (TS7800).

  13. Modeling and monitoring of pipelines and networks advanced tools for automatic monitoring and supervision of pipelines

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Lizeth

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the analysis and design of advanced techniques for on-line automatic computational monitoring of pipelines and pipe networks. It discusses how to improve the systems’ security considering mathematical models of the flow, historical flow rate and pressure data, with the main goal of reducing the number of sensors installed along a pipeline. The techniques presented in the book have been implemented in digital systems to enhance the abilities of the pipeline network’s operators in recognizing anomalies. A real leak scenario in a Mexican water pipeline is used to illustrate the benefits of these techniques in locating the position of a leak. Intended for an interdisciplinary audience, the book addresses researchers and professionals in the areas of mechanical, civil and control engineering. It covers topics on fluid mechanics, instrumentation, automatic control, signal processing, computing, construction and diagnostic technologies.

  14. Underwater Adhesives Retrofit Pipelines with Advanced Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Houston-based Astro Technology Inc. used a partnership with Johnson Space Center to pioneer an advanced fiber-optic monitoring system for offshore oil pipelines. The company's underwater adhesives allow it to retrofit older deepwater systems in order to measure pressure, temperature, strain, and flow properties, giving energy companies crucial data in real time and significantly decreasing the risk of a catastrophe.

  15. Remote monitoring of pipeline operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bost, R.C. [ERM-Southwest, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); White, D. [Glenrose Systems, Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The demands for monitoring of pipeline operations have recently increased greatly due to new regulatory requirements. Most companies rely upon conventional System Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system architecture to meet their needs. Current systems are often plagued by limited data conversion and processing capacity at the workstations. A state-of-the-art Data Acquisition Node (DAN) that relieves the workstation of much of its workload is described in this paper. Use of this DAN may eliminate the need for installing completely new systems. It facilitates marrying foreign devices to existing operation monitoring systems to satisfy new regulatory requirements. The DAN allows a system to utilize commercial communications satellites or other communication networks and real-time, object oriented programming and different devices and data requirements without the necessity of custom software development.

  16. Detection of buried objects using reflected GNSS signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarpietro, Riccardo; De Mattia, Salvatore; Campanella, Maurizio; Pei, Yuekun; Savi, Patrizia

    2014-12-01

    The use of reflected Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals for sensing the Earth has been growing rapidly in recent years. This technique is founded on the basic principle of detecting GNSS signals after they have been reflected off the Earth's surface and using them to determine the properties of the reflecting surface remotely. This is the so-called GNSS reflectometry (GNSS-R) technique. In this paper, a new application regarding the detection of metallic buried objects is analyzed and it is validated through several experimental campaigns. Although the penetration depth of GNSS signals into the ground is not optimal and depends on the soil moisture, GNSS signals can likely interact approximately with the first 10 cm of the ground and therefore can be reflected back by any metallic object buried on the first terrain layer. A very light and low-cost GNSS receiver prototype based on a software-defined radio approach was developed. This receiver can be used as a payload on board small drones or unmanned aerial systems to detect metallic objects (mines or other explosive devices). A signal processing tool based on an open-loop GNSS signal acquisition strategy was developed. The results of two experiments which show the possibility of using GNSS-R signals to detect buried metallic objects and to provide an estimate of their dimensions are discussed.

  17. Pipelined Two-Operand Modular Adders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Czyzak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pipelined two-operand modular adder (TOMA is one of basic components used in digital signal processing (DSP systems that use the residue number system (RNS. Such modular adders are used in binary/residue and residue/binary converters, residue multipliers and scalers as well as within residue processing channels. The design of pipelined TOMAs is usually obtained by inserting an appriopriate number of latch layers inside a nonpipelined TOMA structure. Hence their area is also determined by the number of latches and the delay by the number of latch layers. In this paper we propose a new pipelined TOMA that is based on a new TOMA, that has the smaller area and smaller delay than other known structures. Comparisons are made using data from the very large scale of integration (VLSI standard cell library.

  18. Pipelined CPU Design with FPGA in Teaching Computer Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Hyuk; Lee, Seung Eun; Yu, Heon Chang; Suh, Taeweon

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a pipelined CPU design project with a field programmable gate array (FPGA) system in a computer architecture course. The class project is a five-stage pipelined 32-bit MIPS design with experiments on the Altera DE2 board. For proper scheduling, milestones were set every one or two weeks to help students complete the project on…

  19. Pipelined CPU Design with FPGA in Teaching Computer Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Hyuk; Lee, Seung Eun; Yu, Heon Chang; Suh, Taeweon

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a pipelined CPU design project with a field programmable gate array (FPGA) system in a computer architecture course. The class project is a five-stage pipelined 32-bit MIPS design with experiments on the Altera DE2 board. For proper scheduling, milestones were set every one or two weeks to help students complete the project on…

  20. Sinopec: Pipeline Goes Ahead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Ye

    2002-01-01

    @@ Asia's largest refinery, Sinopec Corp, will proceed with a 1,600-kilometre oil pipeline across southern provinces of China, although speculation continues to linger that the company will scrap the plan due to a postponement of the multi-million-dollar project.