Sample records for buried oxide silicon-on-insulator

  1. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions (United States)

    McCarthy, Anthony M.


    A method for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors.

  2. Study of silicon-on-insulator substrates incorporated with buried MoSi{sub 2} layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Chao [Nano Technology Laboratory, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology (SIMIT), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shanghai 200050 (China); Liu Weili [Nano Technology Laboratory, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology (SIMIT), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shanghai 200050 (China)], E-mail:; Ma Xiaobo; Shen Qinwo; Song Zhitang; Lin Chenglu [Nano Technology Laboratory, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology (SIMIT), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shanghai 200050 (China)


    Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) substrates incorporated with buried MoSi{sub 2} were fabricated using room temperature plasma bonding technology and smart cut technology. The molybdenum disilicide phase formation and morphology were studied by means of four-point probe measurements, X-ray diffraction analysis, atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy examination. It is found that the transition of high-resistance phase Mo{sub 3}Si to low-resistance phase h-MoSi{sub 2} occurs at approximately 750 deg. C . The t-MoSi{sub 2} phase emerges at approximately 900 deg. C . SOI substrate incorporated with buried silicide layer of complete t-MoSi{sub 2} phase can be achieved by 900 deg. C annealing for 20 min.

  3. Design, fabrication and characterisation of advanced substrate crosstalk suppression structures in silicon on insulator substrates with buried ground planes (GPSOI)

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanou, S


    Substrate crosstalk or coupling has been acknowledged to be a limiting factor in mixed signal RF integration. Although high levels of integration and high frequencies of operation are desirable for mixed mode RF and microwave circuits, they make substrate crosstalk more pronounced and may lead to circuit performance degradation. High signal isolation is dictated by requirements for low power dissipation, reduced number of components and lower integration costs for feasible system-on-chip (SoC) solutions. Substrate crosstalk suppression in ground plane silicon-on-insulator (GPSOI) substrates is investigated in this thesis. Test structures are designed and fabricated on SOI substrates with a buried WSi sub 2 plane that is connected to ground; hence it is called a ground plane. A Faraday cage structure that exhibits very high degrees of signal isolation is presented and compared to other SOI isolation schemes. The Faraday cage structure is shown to achieve 20 dB increased isolation in the frequency range of 0.5-...

  4. Silicon-on-insulator-based complementary metal oxide semiconductor integrated optoelectronic platform for biomedical applications (United States)

    Mujeeb-U-Rahman, Muhammad; Scherer, Axel


    Microscale optical devices enabled by wireless power harvesting and telemetry facilitate manipulation and testing of localized biological environments (e.g., neural recording and stimulation, targeted delivery to cancer cells). Design of integrated microsystems utilizing optical power harvesting and telemetry will enable complex in vivo applications like actuating a single nerve, without the difficult requirement of extreme optical focusing or use of nanoparticles. Silicon-on-insulator (SOI)-based platforms provide a very powerful architecture for such miniaturized platforms as these can be used to fabricate both optoelectronic and microelectronic devices on the same substrate. Near-infrared biomedical optics can be effectively utilized for optical power harvesting to generate optimal results compared with other methods (e.g., RF and acoustic) at submillimeter size scales intended for such designs. We present design and integration techniques of optical power harvesting structures with complementary metal oxide semiconductor platforms using SOI technologies along with monolithically integrated electronics. Such platforms can become the basis of optoelectronic biomedical systems including implants and lab-on-chip systems.

  5. Process-induced strain in silicon-on-insulator materials

    CERN Document Server

    Tiberj, A; Blanc, C; Contreras, S; Camassel, J


    We present a detailed investigation of the influence of oxidation and thinning processes on the in-plane stress in silicon-on-insulator materials. Combining double x-ray diffraction, Fourier transformed infrared and micro-Raman spectroscopy, we show that one can separately evaluate the stress present in the silicon over layer, the buried oxide and the underlying (handle) silicon wafer at any time of a device-forming process.

  6. A New Analytical Subthreshold Behavior Model for Single-Halo, Dual-Material Gate Silicon-on-Insulator Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (United States)

    Chiang, Te-Kuang


    On the basis of the exact solution of the two-dimensional Poisson equation, a new analytical subthreshold behavior model consisting of the two-dimensional potential, threshold voltage, and subthreshold current for the single-halo, dual-material gate (SHDMG) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) is developed. The model is verified by the good agreement with a numerical simulation using the device simulator MEDICI. The model not only offers a physical insight into device physics but is also an efficient device model for the circuit simulation.

  7. Silicon on insulator achieved using electrochemical etching (United States)

    McCarthy, Anthony M.


    Bulk crystalline silicon wafers are transferred after the completion of circuit fabrication to form thin films of crystalline circuitry on almost any support, such as metal, semiconductor, plastic, polymer, glass, wood, and paper. In particular, this technique is suitable to form silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers, whereby the devices and circuits formed exhibit superior performance after transfer due to the removal of the silicon substrate. The added cost of the transfer process to conventional silicon fabrication is insignificant. No epitaxial, lift-off, release or buried oxide layers are needed to perform the transfer of single or multiple wafers onto support members. The transfer process may be performed at temperatures of C. or less, permits transparency around the circuits and does not require post-transfer patterning. Consequently, the technique opens up new avenues for the use of integrated circuit devices in high-brightness, high-resolution video-speed color displays, reduced-thickness increased-flexibility intelligent cards, flexible electronics on ultrathin support members, adhesive electronics, touch screen electronics, items requiring low weight materials, smart cards, intelligent keys for encryption systems, toys, large area circuits, flexible supports, and other applications. The added process flexibility also permits a cheap technique for increasing circuit speed of market driven technologies such as microprocessors at little added expense.

  8. Fully tensile strained partial silicon-on-insulator n-type lateral-double-diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor using localized contact etching stop layers (United States)

    Wang, Xiangzhan; Tan, Changgui; Zou, Xi; Zhang, Yi; Pan, Jianhua; Liu, Yang


    The use of contact etching stop layer (CESL) stressors is a popular technique for introducing stress into a transistor channel. However, when tensile stress is applied to an n-type lateral double-diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor (LDMOS) by covering the whole device with a CESL, the drift region adjacent to the channel will be compressively strained, which is detrimental to device performance. The current work presents a strained partial silicon-on-insulator LDMOS in which tensile stress was introduced in both the channel and drift region via a CESL to reduce the device's on-resistance and improve its frequency performance. An n-type LDMOS device with a top-layer Si thickness that was varied between 300 and 20 nm was simulated to investigate the effect of CESLs on device performance. Devices in which the channel and drift region were fully strained had larger carrier mobilities, and their cut-off frequencies were increased by 25% compared with a normal unstrained partial silicon-on-insulator LDMOS field effect transistor. Meanwhile stress was shown to have little impact on the breakdown voltage of the two types of LDMOS field effect transistor studied here.

  9. New Analytical Model for Short-Channel Fully Depleted Dual-Material-Gate Silicon-on-Insulator Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors (United States)

    Te-Kuang Chiang,


    Using the exact solution of the two-dimensional Poisson equation, a new analytical model comprising two-dimensional potential and threshold voltage for short-channel fully depleted dual-material-gate silicon-on-insulator (SOI) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) is developed. The model shows that the minimum acceptable channel length can be sustained while repressing the short-channel effects if a thin gate oxide and a thin silicon body are employed in the device. Moreover, by increasing the ratio of the screen gate length to control gate length, the threshold voltage roll-off can be more effectively reduced. The model is verified by the close agreement of its results with those of a numerical simulation using the device simulator MEDICI. The model not only offers an insight into the device physics but is also an efficient model for circuit simulation.

  10. Advanced silicon on insulator technology (United States)

    Godbey, D.; Hughes, H.; Kub, F.


    Undoped, thin-layer silicon-on-insulator was fabricated using wafer bonding and selective etching techniques employing a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) grown Si0.7Ge0.3 layer as an etch stop. Defect free, undoped 200-350 nm silicon layers over silicon dioxide are routinely fabricated using this procedure. A new selective silicon-germanium etch was developed that significantly improves the ease of fabrication of the bond and etch back silicon insulator (BESOI) material.

  11. A Novel Step-Doping Fully-Depleted Silicon-on-Insulator Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor for Reliable Deep Sub-micron Devices (United States)

    Elahipanah, Hossein; Orouji, Ali A.


    For first time, we report a novel deep sub-micron fully-depleted silicon-on-insulator metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor (FD SOI MOSFET) where the channel layer consists of two sections with a step doping (SD) region in order to increase performance and reliability of the device. This new structure that called SD FD SOI structure (SDFD-SOI MOSFET), were used for reaching suitable threshold voltage upon device scaling and reliability improvement. We demonstrate that the electric field was modified in the channel and common peak near the source junction have been reduced in the SDFD-SOI structure. The device demonstrates large enhancements in performance areas such as current drive capability, output resistance, hot-carrier reliability and threshold voltage roll-off. It was found that the device performance is very much dependent upon the SD region parameters. Simulation results show that the proposed structure improved on/off current ratio, and saturated output characteristics compared with conventional SOI structure (C-SOI MOSFET). Also, it was shown that substrate current of SDFD-SOI MOSFET is much lower than the C-SOI MOSFET which presented the lower hot-carrier degradation in proposed MOSFET. Results show that the most short-channel problems in very large scale integrated circuits (VLSI) could be solved and the proposed SDFD-SOI MOSFETs can work very well in deep sub-micron and nanoscale regime.

  12. Silicon photonics beyond silicon-on-insulator (United States)

    Chiles, Jeff; Fathpour, Sasan


    The standard platform for silicon photonics has been ridge or channel waveguides fabricated on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers. SOI waveguides are so versatile and the technology built around it is so mature and popular that silicon photonics is almost regarded as synonymous with SOI photonics. However, due to several shortcomings of SOI photonics, novel platforms have been recently emerging. The shortcomings could be categorized into two sets: (a) those due to using silicon as the waveguide core material; and (b) those due to using silicon dioxide as the bottom cladding layer. Several heterogeneous platforms have been developed to address the first set of shortcomings. In such important heterogeneous integrated photonic platforms, the top silicon layer of SOI is typically replaced by a thin film of another optical material with a refractive index higher than the buried oxide (BOX) bottom cladding layer. Silicon is still usually preferred as the substrate of choice, but silicon has no optical functionality. In contrast, the second category of solutions aim at using silicon as the core waveguide material, while resolving issues related to the BOX layer. Particularly, one of the main drawbacks of SOI is that the BOX layer induces high optical loss in the mid-wavelength infrared (mid-IR) range. Accordingly, a host of platforms have been proposed, and some have been demonstrated, in which the BOX is replaced with insulating materials that have low intrinsic loss in the mid-IR. Examples are sapphire, lithium niobate, silicon nitride and air (suspended Si membrane waveguides). Although silicon is still the preferred substrate, sometimes a thin film of silicon, on which the optical waveguide is formed, is directly placed on top of another substrate (e.g., sapphire or lithium niobate). These alternative substrates act as both mechanical support and the lower cladding layer. In addition to the demands of mid-IR photonics, the non-SOI platforms can potentially offer other

  13. Monolithic optical link in silicon-on-insulator CMOS technology. (United States)

    Dutta, Satadal; Agarwal, Vishal; Hueting, Raymond J E; Schmitz, Jurriaan; Annema, Anne-Johan


    This work presents a monolithic laterally-coupled wide-spectrum (350 nm link in a silicon-on-insulator CMOS technology. The link consists of a silicon (Si) light-emitting diode (LED) as the optical source and a Si photodiode (PD) as the detector; both realized by vertical abrupt n+p junctions, separated by a shallow trench isolation composed of silicon dioxide. Medium trench isolation around the devices along with the buried oxide layer provides galvanic isolation. Optical coupling in both avalanche-mode and forward-mode operation of the LED are analyzed for various designs and bias conditions. From both DC and pulsed transient measurements, it is further shown that heating in the avalanche-mode LED leads to a slow thermal coupling to the PD with time constants in the ms range. An integrated heat sink in the same technology leads to a ∼ 6 times reduction in the change in PD junction temperature per unit electrical power dissipated in the avalanche-mode LED. The analysis paves way for wide-spectrum optical links integrated in smart power technologies.

  14. Silicon-on-insulator field effect transistor with improved body ties for rad-hard applications (United States)

    Schwank, James R.; Shaneyfelt, Marty R.; Draper, Bruce L.; Dodd, Paul E.


    A silicon-on-insulator (SOI) field-effect transistor (FET) and a method for making the same are disclosed. The SOI FET is characterized by a source which extends only partially (e.g. about half-way) through the active layer wherein the transistor is formed. Additionally, a minimal-area body tie contact is provided with a short-circuit electrical connection to the source for reducing floating body effects. The body tie contact improves the electrical characteristics of the transistor and also provides an improved single-event-upset (SEU) radiation hardness of the device for terrestrial and space applications. The SOI FET also provides an improvement in total-dose radiation hardness as compared to conventional SOI transistors fabricated without a specially prepared hardened buried oxide layer. Complementary n-channel and p-channel SOI FETs can be fabricated according to the present invention to form integrated circuits (ICs) for commercial and military applications.

  15. Al transmon qubits on silicon-on-insulator for quantum device integration (United States)

    Keller, Andrew J.; Dieterle, Paul B.; Fang, Michael; Berger, Brett; Fink, Johannes M.; Painter, Oskar


    We present the fabrication and characterization of an aluminum transmon qubit on a silicon-on-insulator substrate. Key to the qubit fabrication is the use of an anhydrous hydrofluoric vapor process which selectively removes the lossy silicon oxide buried underneath the silicon device layer. For a 5.6 GHz qubit measured dispersively by a 7.1 GHz resonator, we find T1 = 3.5 μs and T2* = 2.2 μs. This process in principle permits the co-fabrication of silicon photonic and mechanical elements, providing a route towards chip-scale integration of electro-opto-mechanical transducers for quantum networking of superconducting microwave quantum circuits. The additional processing steps are compatible with established fabrication techniques for aluminum transmon qubits on silicon.

  16. Silicon on insulator self-aligned transistors (United States)

    McCarthy, Anthony M.


    A method for fabricating thin-film single-crystal silicon-on-insulator (SOI) self-aligned transistors. Standard processing of silicon substrates is used to fabricate the transistors. Physical spaces, between the source and gate, and the drain and gate, introduced by etching the polysilicon gate material, are used to provide connecting implants (bridges) which allow the transistor to perform normally. After completion of the silicon substrate processing, the silicon wafer is bonded to an insulator (glass) substrate, and the silicon substrate is removed leaving the transistors on the insulator (glass) substrate. Transistors fabricated by this method may be utilized, for example, in flat panel displays, etc.

  17. Impact of Gate Poly Depletion on Evaluation of Channel Temperature in Silicon-on-Insulator Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors with Four-Point Gate Resistance Measurement Method (United States)

    Beppu, Nobuyasu; Takahashi, Tsunaki; Ohashi, Teruyuki; Uchida, Ken


    Self-heating effects (SHEs) in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) is evaluated and an accurate measurement method for device temperature is developed using the four-point gate resistance measurement method. Although the method of using a polysilicon gate as a temperature sensor was proposed more than 20 years ago, the accuracy of the technique has not been checked. In this work, it is demonstrated that the channel temperature estimated by the conventional method is not accurate under some special conditions. The measurements of gate resistance under various biases revealed that the depletion of the polysilicon gate had a significant impact on gate resistance. We propose a method of accurately evaluating channel temperature, where the effect of poly depletion is successfully subtracted. At an input power of 5 mW the increase in channel temperature is approximately 30 K, corresponding to a thermal resistance of 6.0 K W-1 m-1.

  18. Ultra-low temperature radio-frequency performance of partially depleted silicon-on-insulator n-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors with tunnel diode body contact structures (United States)

    Lu, Kai; Chen, Jing; Huang, Yuping; Liu, Jun; Luo, Jiexin; Wang, Xi


    Radio-frequency (RF) characteristics under ultra-low temperature of multi-finger partially depleted silicon-on-insulator (PD SOI) n-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (nMOSFETs) with tunnel diode body-contact (TDBC) structure and T-gate body-contact (TB) structure are investigated in this paper. When operating at 77 K, TDBC device suppresses floating-body effect (FBE) as well as the TB device. For TB device and TDBC device, cut-off frequency (f T) improves as the temperature decreases to liquid-helium temperature (77 K) while that of the maximum oscillation frequency (f MAX) is opposite due to the decrease of the unilateral power gain. While operating under 77 K, f T and f MAX of TDBC device reach to 125 GHz and 77 GHz, representing 8% and 15% improvements compared with those of TB device, respectively, which is mainly due to the lower parasitic resistances and capacitances. The results indicate that TDBC SOI MOSFETs could be considered as promising candidates for analog and RF applications over a wide range of temperatures and there is immense potential for the development of RF CMOS integrated circuits for cryogenic applications.

  19. Ultra-low-loss inverted taper coupler for silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Minhao; Liu, Liu; Ou, Haiyan


    An ultra-low-loss coupler for interfacing a silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguide and a single-mode fiber in both polarizations is presented. The inverted taper coupler, embedded in a polymer waveguide, is optimized for both the transverse-magnetic and transverse-electric modes through tapering...... the width of the silicon-on-insulator waveguide from 450 nm down to less than 15 nm applying a thermal oxidation process. Two inverted taper couplers are integrated with a 3-mm long silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguide in the fabricated sample. The measured coupling losses of the inverted taper coupler...... for transverse-magnetic and transverse-electric modes are ~0.36 dB and ~0.66 dB per connection, respectively....

  20. A 94GHz Temperature Compensated Low Noise Amplifier in 45nm Silicon-on-Insulator Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (SOI CMOS) (United States)


    current proportional to the difference between the base-emitter voltages of two bipolar junction transistors ( BJTs ), differently biased with a precise...ACRONYM DESCRIPTION 3-D three dimensional AFRL Air Force Research Laboratory BJT bipolar junction transistor CMOS complementary metal-oxide...and performance and, due to the increasing transistor number per die, low area and low power sensors are required, to be spread over the chip and

  1. Cylindrical Silicon-on-Insulator Microdosimeter: Design, Fabrication and TCAD Modeling (United States)

    Lim, Wee Han; Ziebell, Amy L.; Cornelius, Iwan; Reinhard, Mark I.; Prokopovich, Dale A.; Dzurak, Andrew S.; Rosenfeld, Anatoly B.


    A novel silicon-on-insulator (SOI) microdosimeter has been designed and fabricated using planar processing techniques to realise a device with a micron-scale well-defined sensitive volume. Cylindrical structures were employed to allow for an improved definition of the average chord length of the sensitive volume over that of previous elongated parallelepiped solid-state detector designs. The structures were manufactured on individual silicon mesas situated on top of a buried oxide insulating layer. The mesa design eliminated lateral charge diffusion. Two kinds of test structures were designed with sensitive region widths of 2 mum and 10 mum. In addition, an array of 900 cylindrical diodes was fabricated to increase the charge collection statistics. TCAD (Technology Computer Aided Design) modeling of the electrostatic potential and electric field profile of the cylindrical microdosimeter was carried out to obtain 3D potential and electric field profiles. The modeling revealed a radial electric field within the cylindrical-shaped sensitive volume with a 1/r dependence. While the electric field at the core of the cylindrical microdosimeter was not sufficiently high to induce avalanche signal multiplication, the higher electric field at the core should still assist in the measurement of low linear-energy transfer (LET) events.

  2. Micromechanically tuned ring resonator in silicon on insulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kauppinen, L.J.; Chakkalakkal Abdulla, S.M.; Dijkstra, Mindert; de Boer, Meint J.; Berenschot, Johan W.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Pollnau, Markus; de Ridder, R.M.

    Monolithic integration of a micromechanical cantilever with an optical ring resonator in silicon on insulator is demonstrated. The ring is tuned over a 120 pm wavelength range by applying 9 V, without affecting its Q-factor.

  3. Silicon-on-insulator interferometric strain sensor (United States)

    Pearson, Graham N.; Jessop, Paul E.


    An integrated optical strain sensor based on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) optical waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometer has been demonstrated. The common problem of cross sensitivity to temperature changes has been greatly reduced by designing the lengths of the two interferometer arms to be exactly equal, in the absence of strain, so that thermally induced changes in the optical path lengths cancel out in the interference signal. The waveguide path in both arms of the interferometer has a long straight section and is folded back by a 180 degree bend. The straight section in one arm is perpendicular to that in the other arm so that the symmetry in the optical path lengths is broken when the applied strain in these two orthogonal directions is different. The interferometer output is thus a measure of the difference in strain along these two directions. For the initial device, the interferometer's size was approximately 15 x 15 mm, with the straight sections in each of the two arms being 12 mm long. For TM polarized light at a wavelength of 1.55 microns, the interferometer output intensity was observed to vary sinusoidally with applied uniaxial strain at a rate of 10 degrees per microstrain. This is in good agreement with the theoretical prediction. The strain sensitivity, as limited by system noise, was below one microstrain. SOI is an ideal material choice for this device. It is suitable for passive fiber alignment using V-groove techniques, and the ability to use small waveguide bending radii makes possible sensors that are more compact than has been demonstrated here.

  4. A Novel Non-Destructive Silicon-on-Insulator Nonvolatile Memory - LDRD 99-0750 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Defects in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) buried oxides are normally considered deleterious to device operation. Similarly, exposing devices to hydrogen at elevated temperatures often can lead to radiation-induced charge buildup. However, in this work, we take advantage of as-processed defects in SOI buried oxides and moderate temperature hydrogen anneals to generate mobile protons in the buried oxide to form the basis of a ''protonic'' nonvolatile memory. Capacitors and fully-processed transistors were fabricated. SOI buried oxides are exposed to hydrogen at moderate temperatures using a variety of anneal conditions to optimize the density of mobile protons. A fast ramp cool down anneal was found to yield the maximum number of mobile protons. Unfortunately, we were unable to obtain uniform mobile proton concentrations across a wafer. Capacitors were irradiated to investigate the potential use of protonic memories for space and weapon applications. Irradiating under a negative top-gate bias or with no applied bias was observed to cause little degradation in the number of mobile protons. However, irradiating to a total dose of 100 krad(SiO{sub 2}) under a positive top-gate bias caused approximately a 100% reduction in the number of mobile protons. Cycling capacitors up to 10{sup 4} cycles had little effect on the switching characteristics. No change in the retention characteristics were observed for times up to 3 x 10{sup 4} s for capacitors stored unbiased at 200 C. These results show the proof-of-concept for a protonic nonvolatile memory. Two memory architectures are proposed for a protonic non-destructive, nonvolatile memory.

  5. Monolithic optical link in silicon-on-insulator CMOS technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutta, Satadal; Agarwal, Vishal Vishal; Hueting, Raymond Josephus Engelbart; Schmitz, Jurriaan; Annema, Anne J.


    This work presents a monolithic laterally-coupled wide-spectrum (350 nm < λ < 1270 nm) optical link in a silicon-on-insulator CMOS technology. The link consists of a silicon (Si) light-emitting diode (LED) as the optical source and a Si photodiode (PD) as the detector; both realized by vertical

  6. Silicon-on-Insulator Nanowire Based Optical Waveguide Biosensors (United States)

    Li, Mingyu; Liu, Yong; Chen, Yangqing; He, Jian-Jun


    Optical waveguide biosensors based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) nanowire have been developed for label free molecular detection. This paper reviews our work on the design, fabrication and measurement of SOI nanowire based high-sensitivity biosensors employing Vernier effect. Biosensing experiments using cascaded double-ring sensor and Mach-Zehnder- ring sensor integrated with microfluidic channels are demonstrated

  7. Integrated programmable photonic filter on the silicon -on- insulator platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Shasha; Ding, Yunhong; Peucheret, Christophe


    We propose and demonstrate a silicon - on - insulator (SOI) on - chip programmable filter based on a four - tap finite impulse response structure. The photonic filter is programmable thanks to amplitude and phase modulation of each tap controlled by thermal heater s. We further demonstrate...

  8. Initial and long-term frequency degradation of ring oscillators caused by plasma-induced damage in 65 nm bulk and fully depleted silicon-on-insulator processes (United States)

    Kishida, Ryo; Oshima, Azusa; Yabuuchi, Michitarou; Kobayashi, Kazutoshi


    The degradation of reliability caused by plasma-induced damage (PID) has become a significant concern with the miniaturization of device size. In particular, it is difficult to relieve PID in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) because it contains buried oxide (BOX) layers. In this work, we compare PID between a bulk and a silicon on thin BOX (SOTB), which has BOX layers of less than 10 nm. We measure frequencies of ring oscillators with an antenna structure on a single stage. In the bulk, PID is relieved by first connecting an antenna to a drain because electric charge flows to a substrate. The difference in initial frequency is 0.79% between structures, which cause and relieve PID. SOTB also relieves the same amount of PID. Initial frequencies are affected by PID, but there is no effect of PID on the long-term degradation mainly caused by bias temperature instability (BTI).

  9. Formation of ultra-shallow p{sup +}/n junctions in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate using laser annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, K.K. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)]. E-mail:; Pey, K.L. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Lee, P.S. [School of Materials Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Wee, A.T.S. [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Chong, Y.F. [Chartered Semiconductor Manufacturing Ltd., 60 Woodlands Industrial Park D, Street 2, Singapore 738406 (Singapore); Yeo, K.L. [Chartered Semiconductor Manufacturing Ltd., 60 Woodlands Industrial Park D, Street 2, Singapore 738406 (Singapore); Wang, X.C. [Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, 71 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 638075 (Singapore)


    Laser annealing (LA), in which the laser melts the surface layer of silicon and causes the dopants to be distributed uniformly within the melted region, produces abrupt, highly activated and ultrashallow junctions. The degree of melting is determined by the extent of laser absorption and rate of heat dissipation, which are dependent on the substrate properties. When applying LA on substrates such as silicon-on-insulator (SOI), the heating and cooling characteristics are expected to be different from that of a typical Si substrate. This work compares the redistribution of boron atoms in silicon (1 0 0) and SOI substrates after laser annealing. SIMS analysis shows that laser induced melting is significantly deeper for the SOI than the silicon substrates using the same laser fluence. The enhancement of melting is attributed to the heat insulating effect of the buried oxide (BOX) layer. With multiple-pulse LA, the junction depth in the SOI substrate increases with subsequent laser pulses, a feature that is absent in silicon substrate. In the SOI substrate, the sheet resistance remains relatively constant regardless of deeper junction formed with multiple pulse conditions, implying the maximum dopant activation at a given laser fluence is reached. Boron profiles annealed in the non-melt regime with 20 laser pulses or less overlap with the as-implanted profiles, suggesting that no melting has occurred. However, significant melting is observed at 50-pulse annealing. The corresponding sheet resistance shows a sharp decrease with the initial pulses and consequently decreases slightly with increasing pulses.

  10. A novel partial SOI LDMOSFET with periodic buried oxide for breakdown voltage and self heating effect enhancement (United States)

    Jamali Mahabadi, S. E.; Rajabi, Saba; Loiacono, Julian


    In this paper a partial silicon on insulator (PSOI) lateral double diffused metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (LDMOSFET) with periodic buried oxide layer (PBO) for enhancing breakdown voltage (BV) and self-heating effects (SHEs) is proposed for the first time. This new structure is called periodic buried oxide partial silicon on insulator (PBO-PSOI). In this structure, periodic small pieces of SiO2 were used as the buried oxide (BOX) layer in PSOI to modulate the electric field in the structure. It was demonstrated that the electric field is distributed more evenly by producing additional electric field peaks, which decrease the common peaks near the drain and gate junctions in the PBO-PSOI structure. Hence, the area underneath the electric field curve increases which leads to higher breakdown voltage. Also a p-type Si window was introduced in the source side to force the substrate to share the vertical voltage drop, leading to a higher vertical BV. Furthermore, the Si window under the source and those between periodic pieces of SiO2 create parallel conduction paths between the active layer and substrate thereby alleviating the SHEs. Simulations with the two dimensional ATLAS device simulator from the Silvaco suite of simulation tools show that the BV of PBO-PSOI is 100% higher than that of the conventional partial SOI (C-PSOI) structure. Furthermore the PBO-PSOI structure alleviates SHEs to a greater extent than its C-PSOI counterpart. The achieved drain current for the PBO-PSOI structure (100 μA), at drain-source voltage of VDS = 100 V and gate-source voltage of VGS = 25 V, is shown to be significantly larger than that in C-PSOI and fully depleted SOI (FD-SOI) structures (87 μA and 51 μA respectively). Drain current can be further improved at the expense of BV by increasing the doping of the drift region.

  11. Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) active pixel sensors with the photosite implemented in the substrate (United States)

    Zheng, Xinyu (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)


    Active pixel sensors for a high quality imager are fabricated using a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) process by integrating the photodetectors on the SOI substrate and forming pixel readout transistors on the SOI thin-film. The technique can include forming silicon islands on a buried insulator layer disposed on a silicon substrate and selectively etching away the buried insulator layer over a region of the substrate to define a photodetector area. Dopants of a first conductivity type are implanted to form a signal node in the photodetector area and to form simultaneously drain/source regions for a first transistor in at least a first one of the silicon islands. Dopants of a second conductivity type are implanted to form drain/source regions for a second transistor in at least a second one of the silicon islands. Isolation rings around the photodetector also can be formed when dopants of the second conductivity type are implanted. Interconnections among the transistors and the photodetector are provided to allow signals sensed by the photodetector to be read out via the transistors formed on the silicon islands.

  12. Synthesis of wirelike silicon nanostructures by dispersion of silicon on insulator using electroless etching (United States)

    Mantey, Kevin; Shams, Somayeh; Nayfeh, Munir H.; Nayfeh, Osama; Alhoshan, Mansour; Alrokayan, Salman


    We employ electroless etching to disperse silicon on insulator (SOI) wafers in ionic silver HF into wirelike silicon nanostructures. The procedure allows detachment of the nanowires at the oxide interface and enables easy recovery of dispersions for subsequent controlled delivery. Nanowires 10 μm long and 50-100 nm thick are demonstrated using an SOI substrate of 10 μm device thickness. Direct material analysis shows no silver contamination after a wet-etch silver clean. Anodization treatment of the wires was conducted. Our measurements and analysis show that the wires are not amenable to anodization resulting from the fact that the nanowire radius is less than the thickness of depletion layer. The procedure has the potential of providing dispersions of arbitrarily long wirelike nanostructures which are useful for composite and energy applications.

  13. ARROW-based silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal waveguides with reduced losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Novitsky, A.; Zhilko, V.V.


    We employ an antiresonant reflecting layers arrangement with silicon-on-insulator based photonic crystal waveguides. The 3D FDTD numerical modelling reveals improved transmission in such structures with a promising potential for their application in photonic circuits.......We employ an antiresonant reflecting layers arrangement with silicon-on-insulator based photonic crystal waveguides. The 3D FDTD numerical modelling reveals improved transmission in such structures with a promising potential for their application in photonic circuits....

  14. Silicon on insulator bipolar junction transistors for flexible microwave applications (United States)

    Bavier, John McGoldrick

    Microwave frequency flexible electronic devices require a high quality semiconducting material and a set of fabrication techniques that are compatible with device integration onto flexible polymer substrates. Over the past ten years, monocrystalline silicon nanomembranes (SiNMs) have been studied as a flexible semiconducting material that is compatible with industrial Si processing. Fabricated from commercial silicon on insulator (SOI) wafers, SiNMs can be transferred to flexible substrates using a variety of techniques. Due to their high carrier mobilities, SiNMs are a promising candidate for flexible microwave frequency devices. This dissertation presents fabrication techniques for flexible SiNM devices in general, as well as the progress made towards the development of a microwave frequency SiNM bipolar junction transistor (BJT). In order to overcome previous limitations associated with adhesion, novel methods for transfer printing of metal films and SiNMs are presented. These techniques enable transfer printing of a range of metal films and improve the alignment of small transfer printed SiNM devices. Work towards the development of a microwave frequency BJT on SOI for SiNM devices is also described. Utilizing a self-aligned polysilicon sidewall spacer technique, a BJT with an ultra-narrow base region is fabricated and tested. Two regimes of operation are identified and characterized under DC conditions. At low base currents, devices exhibited forward current gain as high as betaF = 900. At higher base current values, a transconductance of 59 mS was observed. Microwave scattering parameters were obtained for the BJTs under both biasing conditions and compared to unbiased measurements. Microwave frequency gain was not observed. Instead, bias-dependent non-reciprocal behavior was observed and examined. Limitations associated with the microwave impedance-matched electrode configuration are presented. High current densities in the narrow electrodes cause localized

  15. Large current MOSFET on photonic silicon-on-insulator wafers and its monolithic integration with a thermo-optic 2 × 2 Mach-Zehnder switch. (United States)

    Cong, G W; Matsukawa, T; Chiba, T; Tadokoro, H; Yanagihara, M; Ohno, M; Kawashima, H; Kuwatsuka, H; Igarashi, Y; Masahara, M; Ishikawa, H


    n-channel body-tied partially depleted metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) were fabricated for large current applications on a silicon-on-insulator wafer with photonics-oriented specifications. The MOSFET can drive an electrical current as large as 20 mA. We monolithically integrated this MOSFET with a 2 × 2 Mach-Zehnder interferometer optical switch having thermo-optic phase shifters. The static and dynamic performances of the integrated device are experimentally evaluated.

  16. Ultra-low loss nano-taper coupler for Silicon-on-Insulator ridge waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Minhao; Liu, Liu; Ou, Haiyan


    A nano-taper coupler is optimized specially for the transverse-magnetic mode for interfacing light between a silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguide and a single-mode fiber. An ultra-low coupling loss of ~0.36dB is achieved for the nano-taper coupler.......A nano-taper coupler is optimized specially for the transverse-magnetic mode for interfacing light between a silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguide and a single-mode fiber. An ultra-low coupling loss of ~0.36dB is achieved for the nano-taper coupler....

  17. Saturation effects in femtosecond laser ablation of silicon-on-insulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, H.; van Oosten, D.; Krol, D.M.; Dijkhuis, J.I.


    We report a surface morphology study on single-shot submicron features fabricated on silicon on insulator by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses. In the regime just below single-shot ablation threshold nano-tips are formed, whereas in the regime just above single-shot ablation threshold, a

  18. Submicrosecond rearrangeable nonblocking silicon-on-insulator thermo-optic 4x4 switch matrix. (United States)

    Li, Yuntao; Yu, Jinzhong; Chen, Shaowu; Li, Yanping; Chen, Yuanyuan


    A rearrangeable nonblocking silicon-on-insulator-based thermo-optic 4x4 switch matrix is designed and fabricated. A spot-size converter is integrated to reduce the insertion loss, and a new driving circuit is designed to improve the response speed. The insertion loss is less than 10 dB, and the response time is 950 ns.

  19. Nonlinear Optical Functions in Crystalline and Amorphous Silicon-on-Insulator Nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baets, R.; Kuyken, B.; Liu, X.


    Silicon-on-Insulator nanowires provide an excellent platform for nonlinear optical functions in spite of the two-photon absorption at telecom wavelengths. Work on both crystalline and amorphous silicon nanowires is reviewed, in the wavelength range of 1.5 to 2.5 µm....

  20. Sensitivity analysis of silicon-on-insulator quadruple Vernier racetrack resonators (United States)

    Boeck, Robert; Chrostowski, Lukas; Jaeger, Nicolas A. F.


    We present a theoretical sensitivity analysis of silicon-on-insulator quadruple Vernier racetrack resonators based on varying, one at a time, various fabrication-dependent parameters. These parameters include the waveguide widths, heights, and propagation losses. We show that it should be possible to design a device that meets typical commercial specifications while being tolerant to changes in these parameters.

  1. Investigation of unique total ionizing dose effects in 0.2 µm partially-depleted silicon-on-insulator technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, YanWei [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials and Application Technology, Xiangtan University, Ministry of Education, Xiangtan, Hunan 411105 (China); Huang, HuiXiang; Bi, DaWei [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Tang, MingHua, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials and Application Technology, Xiangtan University, Ministry of Education, Xiangtan, Hunan 411105 (China); Zhang, ZhengXuan [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)


    The total ionizing dose (TID) radiation effects of partially-depleted (PD) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices fabricated in a commercial 0.2 µm SOI process were investigated. The experimental results show an original phenomenon: the “ON” irradiation bias configuration is the worst-case bias for both front-gate and back-gate transistors. To understand the mechanism, a charge distribution model is proposed. We consider that the performance degradation of the devices is due to the radiation-induced positive charge trapped in the bottom corner of Shallow Trench Isolation (STI) oxide. In addition, by comparing the irradiation responses of short and long channel devices under different drain biases, the short channel transistors show a larger degeneration of leakage current and threshold voltage. The dipole theory is introduced to explain the TID enhanced short channel effect.

  2. Carrier-transport mechanism of Er-silicide Schottky contacts to strained-silicon-on-insulator and silicon-on-insulator. (United States)

    Jyothi, I; Janardhanam, V; Kang, Min-Sung; Yun, Hyung-Joong; Lee, Jouhahn; Choi, Chel-Jong


    The current-voltage characteristics and the carrier-transport mechanism of the Er-silicide (ErSi1.7) Schottky contacts to strained-silicon-on-insulator (sSOI) and silicon-on-insulator (SOI) were investigated. Barrier heights of 0.74 eV and 0.82 eV were obtained for the sSOI and SOI structures, respectively. The barrier height of the sSOI structure was observed to be lower than that of the SoI structure despite the formation of a Schottky contact using the same metal silicide. The sSOI structure exhibited better rectification and higher current level than the SOI structure, which could be associated with a reduction in the band gap of Si caused by strain. The generation-recombination mechanism was found to be dominant in the forward bias for both structures. Carrier generation along with the Poole-Frenkel mechanism dominated the reverse-biased current in the SOI structure. The saturation tendency of the reverse leakage current in the sSOI structure could be attributed to strain-induced defects at the interface in non-lattice-matched structures.

  3. Vertical integration of high-Q silicon nitride microresonators into silicon-on-insulator platform. (United States)

    Li, Qing; Eftekhar, Ali A; Sodagar, Majid; Xia, Zhixuan; Atabaki, Amir H; Adibi, Ali


    We demonstrate a vertical integration of high-Q silicon nitride microresonators into the silicon-on-insulator platform for applications at the telecommunication wavelengths. Low-loss silicon nitride films with a thickness of 400 nm are successfully grown, enabling compact silicon nitride microresonators with ultra-high intrinsic Qs (~ 6 × 10(6) for 60 μm radius and ~ 2 × 10(7) for 240 μm radius). The coupling between the silicon nitride microresonator and the underneath silicon waveguide is based on evanescent coupling with silicon dioxide as buffer. Selective coupling to a desired radial mode of the silicon nitride microresonator is also achievable using a pulley coupling scheme. In this work, a 60-μm-radius silicon nitride microresonator has been successfully integrated into the silicon-on-insulator platform, showing a single-mode operation with an intrinsic Q of 2 × 10(6).

  4. All-silicon photonic crystal photoconductor on silicon-on-insulator at telecom wavelength. (United States)

    Haret, Laurent-Daniel; Checoury, Xavier; Han, Zheng; Boucaud, Philippe; Combrié, Sylvain; De Rossi, Alfredo


    We demonstrate an all-silicon photodetector working at telecom wavelength. The device is a simple metal-semiconductor-metal detector fabricated on silicon-on-insulator. A two-dimensional photonic crystal nanocavity (Q=60,000) is used to increase the response that arises from the linear and two-photon absorption of silicon. The responsivity of the detector is about 20 mA/W and its bandwidth is larger than 1 GHz.

  5. Local flexibility facilitates oxidization of buried methionine residues. (United States)

    Xu, Kuiran; Uversky, Vladimir N; Xue, Bin


    In proteins, all amino acid residues are susceptible to oxidation by various reactive oxygen species (ROS), with methionine and cysteine residues being particularly sensitive to oxidation. Methionine oxidation is known to lead to destabilization and inactivation of proteins, and oxidatively modified proteins can accumulate during aging, oxidative stress, and in various age-related diseases. Although the efficiency of a given methionine oxidation can depend on its solvent accessibility (evaluated from a protein structure as the accessible surface area of the corresponding methionine residue), many experimental results on oxidation rate and oxidation sites cannot be unequivocally explained by the methionine solvent accessible surface area alone. In order to explore other possible mechanisms, we analyzed a set of seventy-one oxidized methionines contained in thirty-one proteins by various bioinformatics tools. In which, 41% of the methionines are exposed, 15% are buried but with various degree of flexibility, and the rest 44% are buried and structured. Buried but highly flexible methionines can be oxidized. Buried and less flexible methionines can acquire additional local structural flexibility from flanking regions to facilitate the oxidation. Oxidation of buried and structured methionine can also be promoted by the oxidation of neighboring methionine that is more exposed and/or flexible. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that protein structural flexibility represents another important factor favoring the oxidation process.

  6. Widely tunable microwave phase shifter based on silicon-on-insulator dual-microring resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Minhao; Liu, Liu; Xue, Weiqi


    We propose and demonstrate tunable microwave phase shifters based on electrically tunable silicon-on-insulator microring resonators. The phase-shifting range and the RF-power variation are analyzed. A maximum phase-shifting range of 0~600° is achieved by utilizing a dual-microring resonator....... A quasi-linear phase shift of 360° with RF-power variation lower than 2dB and a continuous 270° phase shift without RF-power variation at a microwave frequency of 40GHz are also demonstrated....

  7. Compact single-chip VMUX/DEMUX on the silicon-on-insulator platform. (United States)

    Feng, Dazeng; Feng, Ning-Ning; Kung, Cheng-Chih; Liang, Hong; Qian, Wei; Fong, Joan; Luff, B Jonathan; Asghari, Mehdi


    We demonstrate a compact, single-chip 40-channel, dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) variable attenuator multi/demultiplexer (VMUX/DEMUX) by monolithic integration of an echelle grating and high-speed p-i-n VOA on the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform. The demonstrated device has a flat-top filter shape, on chip loss of 5.0 dB, low PDL of 0.3 dB after compensation of the polarization dependent frequency (PDF) shift, a fast attenuation response speed of 3 MHz, and an area of only 25 mm by 10 mm.

  8. Homodyne laser Doppler vibrometer on silicon-on-insulator with integrated 90 degree optical hybrids. (United States)

    Li, Yanlu; Baets, Roel


    A miniaturized homodyne laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) with a compact 90° optical hybrid is experimentally demonstrated on a CMOS compatible silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform. Optical components on this platform usually have inadequate suppressions of spurious reflections, which significantly influence the performance of the LDV. Numerical compensation methods are implemented to effectively decrease the impact of these spurious reflections. With the help of these compensation methods, measurements for both super-half-wavelength and sub-half-wavelength vibrations are demonstrated. Results show that the minimal detectable velocity is around 1.2 μm/s.

  9. High temperature study of flexible silicon-on-insulator fin field-effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Diab, Amer El Hajj


    We report high temperature electrical transport characteristics of a flexible version of the semiconductor industry\\'s most advanced architecture: fin field-effect transistor on silicon-on-insulator with sub-20 nm fins and high-κ/metal gate stacks. Characterization from room to high temperature (150 °C) was completed to determine temperature dependence of drain current (Ids), gate leakage current (Igs), transconductance (gm), and extracted low-field mobility (μ0). Mobility degradation with temperature is mainly caused by phonon scattering. The other device characteristics show insignificant difference at high temperature which proves the suitability of inorganic flexible electronics with advanced device architecture.

  10. Embedded ultrasound sensor in a silicon-on-insulator photonic platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, Amir; Omar, Murad; Estrada, Héctor; Kellnberger, Stephan; Razansky, Daniel; Ntziachristos, Vasilis [Institute for Biological and Medical Imaging (IBMI), Technische Universität München and Helmholtz Zentrum München, Ingoldstädter Landstraße 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany)


    A miniaturized ultrasound sensor is demonstrated in a silicon-on-insulator platform. The sensor is based on a π-phase-shifted Bragg grating formed by waveguide corrugation. Ultrasound detection is performed by monitoring shifts in the resonance frequency of the grating using pulse interferometry. The device is characterized by measuring its response to a wideband acoustic point source generated using the optoacoustic effect. Experimental results show that the sensor's response is dominated by the formation of surface acoustic waves.

  11. Single-event upset in highly scaled commercial silicon-on-insulator PowerPc microprocessors (United States)

    Irom, Farokh; Farmanesh, Farhad H.


    Single event upset effects from heavy ions are measured for Motorola and IBM silicon-on-insulator (SOI) microprocessors with different feature sizes, and core voltages. The results are compared with results for similar devices with build substrates. The cross sections of the SOI processors are lower than their bulk counterparts, but the threshold is about the same, even though the charge collections depth is more than an order of magnitude smaller in the SOI devices. The scaling of the cross section with reduction of feature size and core voltage dependence for SOI microprocessors discussed.

  12. Silicon-on-insulator microring resonator defect-based photodetector with 3.5-GHz bandwidth (United States)

    Ackert, Jason J.; Fiorentino, Marco; Logan, Dylan F.; Beausoleil, Raymond G.; Jessop, Paul E.; Knights, Andrew P.


    We have devised and fabricated high-speed silicon-on-insulator resonant microring photodiodes. The detectors comprise a p-i-n junction across a silicon rib waveguide microring resonator. Light absorption at 1550 nm is enhanced by implanting the diode intrinsic region with boron ions at 350 keV with a dosage of 1 × 1013 cm-2. We have measured 3-dB bandwidths of 2.4 and 3.5 GHz at 5 and 15 V reverse bias, respectively, and observed an open-eye diagram at 5 gigabit/s with 5 V bias.

  13. Ultracompact bottom-up photonic crystal lasers on silicon-on-insulator. (United States)

    Lee, Wook-Jae; Kim, Hyunseok; You, Jong-Bum; Huffaker, Diana L


    Compact on-chip light sources lie at the heart of practical nanophotonic devices since chip-scale photonic circuits have been regarded as the next generation computing tools. In this work, we demonstrate room-temperature lasing in 7 × 7 InGaAs/InGaP core-shell nanopillar array photonic crystals with an ultracompact footprint of 2300 × 2300 nm(2), which are monolithically grown on silicon-on-insulator substrates. A strong lateral confinement is achieved by a photonic band-edge mode, which is leading to a strong light-matter interaction in the 7 × 7 nanopillar array, and by choosing an appropriate thickness of a silicon-on-insulator layer the band-edge mode can be trapped vertically in the nanopillars. The nanopillar array band-edge lasers exhibit single-mode operation, where the mode frequency is sensitive to the diameter of the nanopillars. Our demonstration represents an important first step towards developing practical and monolithic III-V photonic components on a silicon platform.

  14. Peculiarities of electronic structure of silicon-on-insulator structures and their interaction with synchrotron radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir A. Terekhov


    Full Text Available SOI (silicon-on-insulator structures with strained and unstrained silicon layers were studied by ultrasoft X-ray emission spectroscopy and X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy with the use of synchrotron radiation techniques. Analysis of X-ray data has shown a noticeable transformation of the electron energy spectrum and local partial density of states distribution in valence and conduction bands in the strained silicon layer of the SOI structure. USXES Si L2,3 spectra analysis revealed a decrease of the distance between the L2v′ и L1v points in the valence band of the strained silicon layer as well as a shift of the first two maxima of the XANES first derivation spectra to the higher energies with respect to conduction band bottom Ec. At the same time the X-ray standing waves of synchrotron radiation (λ~12–20 nm are formed in the silicon-on-insulator structure with and without strains of the silicon layer. Moreover changing the synchrotron radiation grazing angle θ by 2° leads to a change of the electromagnetic field phase to the opposite.

  15. Development of Pixelated Linear Avalanche Integration Detector Using Silicon on Insulator Technology (United States)

    Koyama, Akihiro; Shimazoe, Kenji; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Hamasaki, Ryutaro; Orita, Tadashi; Onuki, Yoshiyuki; Otani, Wataru; Takeshita, Tohru; Kurachi, Ikuo; Miyoshi, Toshinobu; Nakamura, Isamu; Arai, Yasuo

    In various X-ray imaging applications such as single photon counting X-ray CT, micrometer scale spatial resolution and high detection efficiency possibility using structured porous scintillator took great interests. In order to achieve precise energy- and timing information measurements, high sensitive separately readable photo detector needs to be coupled to porous crystal. Therefore, we fabricated test element group (TEG) of micro sized linear avalanche integration detector (Plaid) on a silicon on insulator (SOI) wafer and inspected performance of each device. Measurements results showed guard ring structure achieved avalanche gain of magnitude from 10 to 1000 with lower gain saturation effect than non-guard ring structure. We concluded guard ring structure is desirable to achieve stable gain performance toward various optical powers and efficient to use for scintillation light read out.

  16. Telecom-Wavelength Bottom-up Nanobeam Lasers on Silicon-on-Insulator. (United States)

    Kim, Hyunseok; Lee, Wook-Jae; Farrell, Alan C; Balgarkashi, Akshay; Huffaker, Diana L


    Semiconductor nanowire lasers are considered promising ultracompact and energy-efficient light sources in the field of nanophotonics. Although the integration of nanowire lasers onto silicon photonic platforms is an innovative path toward chip-scale optical communications and photonic integrated circuits, operating nanowire lasers at telecom-wavelengths remains challenging. Here, we report on InGaAs nanowire array lasers on a silicon-on-insulator platform operating up to 1440 nm at room temperature. Bottom-up photonic crystal nanobeam cavities are formed by growing nanowires as ordered arrays using selective-area epitaxy, and single-mode lasing by optical pumping is demonstrated. We also show that arrays of nanobeam lasers with individually tunable wavelengths can be integrated on a single chip by the simple adjustment of the lithographically defined growth pattern. These results exemplify a practical approach toward nanowire lasers for silicon photonics.

  17. Astable Oscillator Circuits using Silicon-on-Insulator Timer Chip for Wide Range Temperature Sensing (United States)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Culley, Dennis; Hammoud, Ahmad; Elbuluk, Malik


    Two astable oscillator circuits were constructed using a new silicon-on-insulator (SOI) 555 timer chip for potential use as a temperature sensor in harsh environments encompassing jet engine and space mission applications. The two circuits, which differed slightly in configuration, were evaluated between -190 and 200 C. The output of each circuit was made to produce a stream of rectangular pulses whose frequency was proportional to the sensed temperature. The preliminary results indicated that both circuits performed relatively well over the entire test temperature range. In addition, after the circuits were subjected to limited thermal cycling over the temperature range of -190 to 200 C, the performance of either circuit did not experience any significant change.

  18. Evaluation of Silicon-on-Insulator HTOP-01 Operational Amplifier for Wide Temperature Operation (United States)

    Patterson, Richard; Hammoud, Ahmad; Elbuluk, Malik


    Electronics capable of operation under extreme temperatures are required in many of NASA space exploration missions. Aerospace and military applications, as well as some terrestrial industries constitute environments where electronic systems are anticipated to be exposed to extreme temperatures and wide-range thermal swings. Electronics that are able to withstand and operate efficiently in such harsh environments would simplify, if not eliminate, traditional thermal control elements and their associated structures for proper ambient operation. As a result, overall system mass would be reduced, design would be simplified, and reliability would be improved. Electronic parts that are built utilizing silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology are known to offer better radiation-tolerance compared to their conventional silicon counterparts, provide faster switching, and consume less power. They also exhibit reduced leakage current and, thus, they are often tailored for high temperature operation. These attributes make SOI-based devices suitable for use in harsh environments where extreme temperatures and wide thermal swings are anticipated. A new operational amplifier, based on silicon-on-insulator technology and geared for high temperature well-logging applications, was recently introduced by Honeywell Corporation. This HTOP-01 dual precision operational amplifier is a low power device, operates on a single supply, and has an internal oscillator and an external clocking option [1]. It is rated for operation from -55 C to +225 C with a maximum output current capability of 50 mA. The amplifier chip is designed as a 14-pin, hermetically-sealed device in a ceramic package. Table I shows some of the device manufacturer s specifications.

  19. Efficient and compact TE-TM polarization converter built on silicon-on-insulator platform with a simple fabrication process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Liu; Ding, Yunhong; Yvind, Kresten


    An efficient TE-TM polarization converter built on a silicon-on-insulator nanophotonic platform is demonstrated. The strong cross-polarization coupling effect in air-cladded photonic-wire waveguides is employed to realize the conversion. A peak TE-TM coupling efficiency of 87% (-0.6 dB insertion...

  20. Optical microcavities based on surface modes in two-dimensional photonic crystals and silicon-on-insulator photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Sanshui; Qiu, M.


    Surface-mode optical microcavities based on two-dimensional photonic crystals and silicon-on-insulator photonic crystals are studied. We demonstrate that a high-quality-factor microcavity can be easily realized in these structures. With an increasing of the cavity length, the quality factor...

  1. Design for beam splitting components employing silicon-on-insulator rib waveguide structures. (United States)

    Hsiao, C S; Wang, Likarn


    We present a new design for beam splitting components employing a silicon-on-insulator rib waveguide structures. In the new design, a high-index thin-film layer is deposited in the rib section to reduce the wave field dispersive tails in the slab section and accordingly render the mode field a confined spot. This in turn improves the beam splitting performance of some conventional waveguide components such as y branches and multimode interference couplers (MMICs), in terms of the excess loss, fiber coupling loss, and compactness of these components. For a 1 x 2 y-branch beam splitter, the excess loss can be as small as 0.43 dB in the new design, which is much lower than that for a conventional rib waveguide structure (which is 1.28 dB). For a 1 x 2 MMIC in our example, the new rib waveguide structure presents an excess loss of 0.064 dB for the TE mode and 0.046 dB for the TM mode, with negligible nonuniformity in dimensions of 30 microm x 1040 microm, whereas its counterpart (i.e., the one with the same dimensions but without a thin-film layer) presents an excess loss of approximately 0.86 dB for both modes. A conventional MMIC must have dimensions larger than 70 microm x 5650 microm to maintain almost the same low excess loss.

  2. Silicon-on-insulator out-of-plane electrostatic actuator with in situ capacitive position sensing (United States)

    Wang, Jiankun; Yang, Zhenchuan; Yan, Guizhen


    An out-of-plane electrostatic comb actuator with in situ capacitive position sensing is presented. Asymmetrical vertical combs are used as the comb drives and in differential out-of-plane position sensing capacitors. A spring which can realize out-of-plane translational displacement of high-aspect-ratio structures was designed and analyzed both analytically and numerically. A robust silicon-on-insulator (SOI) process was proposed and verified to successfully fabricate the actuator with asymmetrical combs. The in situ capacitive position sensing capability was realized by the integrated out-of-plane sensing capacitors, and calibrated with the gravity as an acceleration reference. Treated as an accelerometer, the scale factor and nonlinearity of the actuator are evaluated to be 93.4 mV/g and 0.03%, respectively, with the input range of ±1 g. The tested static out-of-plane displacement ranges from -0.88 to 1.39 μm when the actuator is placed horizontally, and -1.16 to 1.25 μm when placed vertically, both with the supply voltage of 12 volts.

  3. Thermal nonlinear effect in high Q factor silicon-on-insulator microring resonator (United States)

    Xiaogang, Tong; Jun, Liu; Chenyang, Xue


    In this paper, all-optical switching in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) serially coupled ring resonator based on thermal nonlinear effect is proposed. The radii of the silicon microring resonator are 10 μm. In experiment, firstly measured by single pump injection technology with vertical coupling surface grating coupler method, the highest notch of serially coupled ring resonator is 17 dB. The strong transverse light-confinement nature of the resonator induces nonlinear optical response with low pump power. Thermal nonlinear effect is achieved by controlling the power of the continuous-wave (CW) pump with very low tuning threshold (0.33 nm). And the slop of resonant wavelength as a function of injected pump is 220 pm/mw. Secondly, switching time measured by two pump injection technology is 3.01 μs and 1.03 μs, respectively. Which could be used in integrated photonic communication circuits based optical logic and slow-light structure.

  4. A Temperature Sensor using a Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) Timer for Very Wide Temperature Measurement (United States)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad; Elbuluk, Malik; Culley, Dennis E.


    A temperature sensor based on a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) Timer was designed for extreme temperature applications. The sensor can operate under a wide temperature range from hot jet engine compartments to cryogenic space exploration missions. For example, in Jet Engine Distributed Control Architecture, the sensor must be able to operate at temperatures exceeding 150 C. For space missions, extremely low cryogenic temperatures need to be measured. The output of the sensor, which consisted of a stream of digitized pulses whose period was proportional to the sensed temperature, can be interfaced with a controller or a computer. The data acquisition system would then give a direct readout of the temperature through the use of a look-up table, a built-in algorithm, or a mathematical model. Because of the wide range of temperature measurement and because the sensor is made of carefully selected COTS parts, this work is directly applicable to the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics/Subsonic Fixed Wing Program--Jet Engine Distributed Engine Control Task and to the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program. In the past, a temperature sensor was designed and built using an SOI operational amplifier, and a report was issued. This work used an SOI 555 timer as its core and is completely new work.

  5. Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) Devices and Mixed-Signal Circuits for Extreme Temperature Applications (United States)

    Patterson, Richard; Hammoud, Ahmad; Elbuluk, Malik


    Electronic systems in planetary exploration missions and in aerospace applications are expected to encounter extreme temperatures and wide thermal swings in their operational environments. Electronics designed for such applications must, therefore, be able to withstand exposure to extreme temperatures and to perform properly for the duration of the missions. Electronic parts based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology are known, based on device structure, to provide faster switching, consume less power, and offer better radiation-tolerance compared to their silicon counterparts. They also exhibit reduced current leakage and are often tailored for high temperature operation. However, little is known about their performance at low temperature. The performance of several SOI devices and mixed-signal circuits was determined under extreme temperatures, cold-restart, and thermal cycling. The investigations were carried out to establish a baseline on the functionality and to determine suitability of these devices for use in space exploration missions under extreme temperatures. The experimental results obtained on selected SOI devices are presented and discussed in this paper.

  6. Vertical optical ring resonators fully integrated with nanophotonic waveguides on silicon-on-insulator substrates. (United States)

    Madani, Abbas; Kleinert, Moritz; Stolarek, David; Zimmermann, Lars; Ma, Libo; Schmidt, Oliver G


    We demonstrate full integration of vertical optical ring resonators with silicon nanophotonic waveguides on silicon-on-insulator substrates to accomplish a significant step toward 3D photonic integration. The on-chip integration is realized by rolling up 2D differentially strained TiO(2) nanomembranes into 3D microtube cavities on a nanophotonic microchip. The integration configuration allows for out-of-plane optical coupling between the in-plane nanowaveguides and the vertical microtube cavities as a compact and mechanically stable optical unit, which could enable refined vertical light transfer in 3D stacks of multiple photonic layers. In this vertical transmission scheme, resonant filtering of optical signals at telecommunication wavelengths is demonstrated based on subwavelength thick-walled microcavities. Moreover, an array of microtube cavities is prepared, and each microtube cavity is integrated with multiple waveguides, which opens up interesting perspectives toward parallel and multi-routing through a single-cavity device as well as high-throughput optofluidic sensing schemes.

  7. A high performance charge plasma PN-Schottky collector transistor on silicon-on-insulator (United States)

    Loan, Sajad A.; Bashir, Faisal; Rafat, M.; Alamoud, Abdul Rehman M.; Abbasi, Shuja A.


    In this paper, we propose a new high performance PN-Schottky collector (PN-SC) lateral bipolar junction transistor (BJT) on silicon-on-insulator (SOI). The proposed device addresses the problem of poor speed of conventional lateral PNP-BJT device by using a Schottky collector. Further, it does not use the conventional ways of ion implantation/diffusion to realize n and p type doped region. However, it uses metal electrodes of different work functions to create n and p type charge plasma in an undoped silicon film. The simulation study of the proposed lateral PN-SC bipolar charge plasma transistor on SOI (PN-SC-BCPT) device has shown a significant improvement in current gain (β), cutoff frequency (f T) and switching performance in comparison to conventional PNP-BJT and PNP-bipolar charge plasma transistor (PNP-BCPT) devices. A significantly high β is obtained in the proposed PN-SC-BCPT (˜2100) in comparison to PNP-BCPT (˜1450) and the conventional BJT (˜9) devices, respectively. It has been observed that there is 89.56% and 153.5% increase in f T for the proposed PN-SC-BCPT device (2.18 GHz) in comparison to conventional PNP-BJT (1.15 GHz) and PNP-BCPT (0.86 GHz) devices, respectively. Further, reductions of 24.6% and 15.4% in switching ON-delay and 66% and 30.76% in switching OFF-delay have been achieved in the proposed device based inverters in comparison to PNP-BCPT and the conventional BJT devices based inverters, respectively. Furthermore, the proposed device does not face doping related issues and the requirement of high temperature processing is absent.

  8. Thermo-mechanically tunable Bragg grating filters on silicon-on-insulator rib waveguide bridges (United States)

    Raum, Christopher R.

    This thesis explores the integration of an optical device within a micromechanical structure to enhance its performance and enable behaviour it would otherwise be incapable of. Thermo-mechanically tunable Bragg grating filters on silicon-on-insulator rib waveguide bridges have been designed, fabricated and characterised to demonstrate what happens when an optical device, and the actuator used to tune its optical response, are physically the same structure. The process flow developed to fabricate the device was a five mask process that included a bridge waveguide, integrated filter, and integrated heater. A surface micromachining technique was developed to release up to 4000 mum long, 5 mum thick waveguide bridges. The device has three distinct operating regimes: pre-buckle, buckle, and post-buckle. The pre-buckle experimental thermal sensitivity of the filter was 76 pm/°C and the theoretical sensitivity was 83 pm/°C. During the transient buckle regime, the Bragg filter wavelength was measured to shift 0.95 nm, and theorised to shift 0.55 nm. The post-buckle experimental thermal sensitivity of the filter was 88 pm/°C and the theoretical sensitivity was 99 pm/°C. The rib waveguide bridge was observed to possess a meta-stable regime between the pre- and post-buckle regimes. Before the critical buckle temperature could be attained, the bridge deflected 0.5 mum out-of-plane and remained static over a range of 7.5 °C, whereupon it deflected to its full 15.1 mum buckling mode height. This metastable deflection caused a Bragg wavelength shift of 0.39 nm. The thermal sensitivity of the Bragg filter wavelength in this meta-stable regime was 62 pm/°C. Rectangular cross-section beams did not produce this behaviour. Mechano-optical bi-stability was also observed. In this bi-stable regime there would be two possible Bragg wavelengths for a given temperature, depending on whether the device was in a forward or return path. The bi-stable regime occurred over a span of 15

  9. Solar thermoelectric generators fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator substrate (United States)

    de Leon, Maria Theresa; Chong, Harold; Kraft, Michael


    Solar thermal power generation is an attractive electricity generation technology as it is environment-friendly, has the potential for increased efficiency, and has high reliability. The design, modelling, and evaluation of solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs) fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator substrate are presented in this paper. Solar concentration is achieved by using a focusing lens to concentrate solar input onto the membrane of the STEG. A thermal model is developed based on energy balance and heat transfer equations using lumped thermal conductances. This thermal model is shown to be in good agreement with actual measurement results. For a 1 W laser input with a spot size of 1 mm, a maximum open-circuit voltage of 3.06 V is obtained, which translates to a temperature difference of 226 °C across the thermoelements and delivers 25 µW of output power under matched load conditions. Based on solar simulator measurements, a maximum TEG voltage of 803 mV was achieved by using a 50.8 mm diameter plano-convex lens to focus solar input to a TEG with a length of 1000 µm, width of 15 µm, membrane diameter of 3 mm, and 114 thermocouples. This translates to a temperature difference of 18 °C across the thermoelements and an output power under matched load conditions of 431 nW. This paper demonstrates that by utilizing a solar concentrator to focus solar radiation onto the hot junction of a TEG, the temperature difference across the device is increased; subsequently improving the TEG’s efficiency. By using materials that are compatible with standard CMOS and MEMS processes, integration of solar-driven TEGs with on-chip electronics is seen to be a viable way of solar energy harvesting where the resulting microscale system is envisioned to have promising applications in on-board power sources, sensor networks, and autonomous microsystems.

  10. An experimental study of solid source diffusion by spin on dopants and its application for minimal silicon-on-insulator CMOS fabrication (United States)

    Liu, Yongxun; Koga, Kazuhiro; Khumpuang, Sommawan; Nagao, Masayoshi; Matsukawa, Takashi; Hara, Shiro


    Solid source diffusions of phosphorus (P) and boron (B) into the half-inch (12.5 mm) minimal silicon (Si) wafers by spin on dopants (SOD) have been systematically investigated and the physical-vapor-deposited (PVD) titanium nitride (TiN) metal gate minimal silicon-on-insulator (SOI) complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) field-effect transistors (FETs) have successfully been fabricated using the developed SOD thermal diffusion technique. It was experimentally confirmed that a low temperature oxidation (LTO) process which depresses a boron silicide layer formation is effective way to remove boron-glass in a diluted hydrofluoric acid (DHF) solution. It was also found that top Si layer thickness of SOI wafers is reduced in the SOD thermal diffusion process because of its consumption by thermal oxidation owing to the oxygen atoms included in SOD films, which should be carefully considered in the ultrathin SOI device fabrication. Moreover, normal operations of the fabricated minimal PVD-TiN metal gate SOI-CMOS inverters, static random access memory (SRAM) cells and ring oscillators have been demonstrated. These circuit level results indicate that no remarkable particles and interface traps were introduced onto the minimal wafers during the device fabrication, and the developed solid source diffusion by SOD is useful for the fabrication of functional logic gate minimal SOI-CMOS integrated circuits.

  11. Influence of germanium on thermal dewetting and agglomeration of the silicon template layer in thin silicon-on-insulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, P P; Yang, B; Rugheimer, P P; Roberts, M M; Savage, D E; Lagally, M G [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Liu Feng, E-mail: lagally@engr.wisc.ed [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)


    We investigate the influence of heteroepitaxially grown Ge on the thermal dewetting and agglomeration of the Si(0 0 1) template layer in ultrathin silicon-on-insulator (SOI). We show that increasing Ge coverage gradually destroys the long-range ordering of 3D nanocrystals along the (1 3 0) directions and the 3D nanocrystal shape anisotropy that are observed in the dewetting and agglomeration of pure SOI(0 0 1). The results are qualitatively explained by Ge-induced bond weakening and decreased surface energy anisotropy. Ge lowers the dewetting and agglomeration temperature to as low as 700 {sup 0}C.

  12. Stimulated and spontaneous four-wave mixing in silicon-on-insulator coupled photonic wire nano-cavities


    Azzini, Stefano; Grassani, Davide; Galli, Matteo; Gerace, Dario; Patrini, Maddalena; Liscidini, Marco; Velha, Philippe; Bajoni, Daniele


    We report on four-wave mixing in coupled photonic crystal nano-cavities on a silicon-on-insulator platform. Three photonic wire cavities are side-coupled to obtain three modes equally separated in energy. The structure is designed to be self-filtering, and we show that the pump is rejected by almost two orders of magnitudes. We study both the stimulated and the spontaneous four-wave mixing processes: owing to the small modal volume, we find that signal and idler photons are generated with a h...

  13. Stimulated and spontaneous four-wave mixing in silicon-on-insulator coupled photonic wire nano-cavities (United States)

    Azzini, Stefano; Grassani, Davide; Galli, Matteo; Gerace, Dario; Patrini, Maddalena; Liscidini, Marco; Velha, Philippe; Bajoni, Daniele


    We report on four-wave mixing in coupled photonic crystal nano-cavities on a silicon-on-insulator platform. Three photonic wire cavities are side-coupled to obtain three modes equally separated in energy. The structure is designed to be self-filtering, and we show that the pump is rejected by almost two orders of magnitude. We study both the stimulated and the spontaneous four-wave mixing processes: owing to the small modal volume, we find that signal and idler photons are generated with a hundred-fold increase in efficiency as compared to silicon micro-ring resonators.

  14. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction topography study of bonding-induced strain in silicon-on-insulator wafers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lankinen, A., E-mail: [Department of Micro and Nanosciences, Aalto University, P.O. Box 13500, FIN-00076 AALTO (Finland); Okmetic Oyj, Piitie 2, FI-01510 Vantaa, Koivuhaka (Finland); Tuomi, T.O.; Kostamo, P.; Jussila, H.; Sintonen, S.; Lipsanen, H. [Department of Micro and Nanosciences, Aalto University, P.O. Box 13500, FIN-00076 AALTO (Finland); Tilli, M.; Mäkinen, J. [Okmetic Oyj, Piitie 2, FI-01510 Vantaa, Koivuhaka (Finland); Danilewsky, A.N. [Kristallographie, Institut für Geo- und Umweltnaturwissenschaften, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität, Hermann-Herder-Straße 5, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)


    Large-area back-reflection and transmission X-ray diffraction topographs of bonded silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers made with synchrotron radiation allowed direct and simultaneous imaging of bonding-induced strain patterns of both the 7 μm thick (011) top layers and the (001) Si substrates of the SOI structures. The bonding-induced strain pattern consists of cells having a diameter of about 40 μm. Section topographs show a lattice misorientation of the adjacent cells of about 0.001° and the maximum observed strain-induced lattice plane rotation ten times larger, i.e. about 0.01°. Topographs made after etching away the insulator layer show no indication of residual strain or defects either in the silicon-on-insulator layer or in the substrate. This is in agreement with the experimentally determined maximum bonding stress of 30 MPa, which is much smaller than the estimated stress needed to nucleate dislocations. - Highlights: • SOI wafer strain consists of sharp-edged strain cells. • Bonding-induced strain patterns are not permanent in SOI wafers. • Observed stress was much lower than required for dislocation nucleation.

  15. In-situ thermal annealing of on-membrane silicon-on-insulator semiconductor-based devices after high gamma dose irradiation (United States)

    Amor, S.; André, N.; Kilchytska, V.; Tounsi, F.; Mezghani, B.; Gérard, P.; Ali, Z.; Udrea, F.; Flandre, D.; Francis, L. A.


    In this paper, we investigate the recovery of some semiconductor-based components, such as N/P-type field-effect transistors (FETs) and a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) inverter, after being exposed to a high total dose of gamma ray radiation. The employed method consists mainly of a rapid, low power and in situ annealing mitigation technique by silicon-on-insulator micro-hotplates. Due to the ionizing effect of the gamma irradiation, the threshold voltages showed an average shift of -580 mV for N-channel transistors, and -360 mV for P-MOSFETs. A 4 min double-cycle annealing of components with a heater temperature up to 465 °C, corresponding to a maximum power of 38 mW, ensured partial recovery but was not sufficient for full recovery. The degradation was completely recovered after the use of a built-in high temperature annealing process, up to 975 °C for 8 min corresponding to a maximum power of 112 mW, which restored the normal operating characteristics for all devices after their irradiation.

  16. Formation technology of flat surface with epitaxial growth on ion-implanted (100)-oriented Si surface of thin silicon-on-insulator (United States)

    Furukawa, Kiichi; Teramoto, Akinobu; Kuroda, Rihito; Suwa, Tomoyuki; Hashimoto, Keiichi; Sugawa, Shigetoshi; Suzuki, Daisuke; Chiba, Yoichiro; Ishii, Katsutoshi; Shimizu, Akira; Hasebe, Kazuhide


    For the development of three-dimensional devices, selective epitaxial growth (SEG) technology has attracted much attention. SEG has been applied to fabricate many devices and it is expected to be used in future manufacturing processes. Therefore, its characteristics must be examined in detail to extend its application. For the fabrication of a three-dimensional device structure, the selectivity of epitaxial growth must be accurately controlled not only on Si and SiO2, but also on different impurity-type silicon surfaces. In this work, we investigated some characteristics of the SEG process, especially focusing on the surface roughness after SEG. Both vapor phase epitaxy (VPE) and solid phase epitaxy (SPE) were performed on ion-implanted silicon-on-insulator (SOI) thin wafers. It was often reported that epitaxial growth is very sensitive to the crystal condition of the substrate on which the films are deposited. However, we first revealed that the impurity type (p- or n-type) and its concentration at the substrate surface markedly changed the roughness and incubation times of the deposition. From our results, SPE with the oxide cap layer formation is effective for maintaining almost the same flatness as the original wafer surface. It is also effective to employ the low-temperature H2/Xe plasma treatment after the SEG to reduce roughness.

  17. Out-of-plane Characterization of Silicon-on-insulator Multiuser MEMS Processes-based Tri-axis Accelerometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha L.


    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss the analysis of out-of-plane characterization of a capacitive tri-axis accelerometer fabricated using SOI MUMPS (Silicon-on Insulator Multi user MEMS Processes process flow and the results are compared with simulated results. The device is designed with wide operational 3 dB bandwidth suitable for measuring vibrations in industrial applications. The wide operating range is obtained by optimizing serpentine flexures at the four corners of the proof mass. The accelerometer structure was simulated using COMSOL Multiphysics and the displacement sensitivity was observed as 1.2978 nm/g along z-axis. The simulated resonant frequency of the device was found to be 13 kHz along z axis. The dynamic characterization of the fabricated tri-axis accelerometer produces the out-of-plane vibration mode frequency as 13 kHz which is same as the simulated result obtained in z-axis.

  18. Cell-shaped silicon-on-insulator microdosimeters: characterization and response to 239PuBe irradiations. (United States)

    Mazza, Anthony; Newhauser, Wayne; Pittman, Stephen; Halloran, Andrew; Maggi, Paul; Tran, Linh; Gila, Brent; Rosenfeld, Anatoly; Ziegler, James


    This work tested the feasibility of a silicon-on-insulator microdosimeter, which mimics the size and shape of specific cells within the human body, to determine dose equivalent from neutron irradiation. The microdosimeters were analyzed in terms of their basic diode characteristics, i.e., leakage current as a function of bias voltage. Lineal energy spectra were acquired using two different converter layers placed atop the microdosimeter: a tissue-substitute converter made from high-density polyethylene, and a boron converter consisting of epoxy coated with boron powder. The spectra were then converted into absorbed dose and dose equivalent. Experimental results were compared to Monte Carlo simulations of the neutron irradiations, revealing good agreement. Uncertainty in the dose equivalent determinations was 7.5% when using the cell-shaped microdosimeter with the tissue-substitute converter and 13.1% when using the boron converter. This work confirmed that the SOI approach to cell-mimicking microdosimetry is feasible.

  19. Broadband tunable bandpass filters using phase shifted vertical side wall grating in a submicrometer silicon-on-insulator waveguide. (United States)

    Prabhathan, P; Murukeshan, V M; Jing, Zhang; Ramana, Pamidighantam V


    We propose the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) based, phase shifted vertical side wall grating as a resonant transmission filter suitable for dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) communication channels with 100 GHz channel spacing. The gratings are designed and numerically simulated to obtain a minimum loss in the resonant cavity by adjusting the grating parameters so that a high transmittivity can be achieved for the resonant transmission. The resonant grating, which is designed to operate in the DWDM International Telecommunication Union (ITU) grid C band of optical communication, has a high free spectral range of 51.7 nm and a narrow band resonant transmission. The wavelength selectivity of the filter is improved through a coupled cavity configuration by applying two phase shifts to the gratings. The observed channel band width and channel isolation of the resonant transmission filter are good and in agreement with the ITU specifications.

  20. Thermo-optic Imbert-Fedorov effect in a prism-waveguide coupling system with silicon-on-insulator (United States)

    Tang, Tingting; Li, Chaoyang; Luo, Li; Zhang, Yanfen; Yuan, Quan


    In this paper, a prism-waveguide coupling system based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) is revisited. We find that thermo-optic Imbert-Fedorov (TOIF) effect displays in this four-layer optical system which has not been proposed before. Furthermore, we discuss the TOIF shifts in prism/SiO2/Si/SiO2 and prism/Au/Si/SiO2 waveguides with different parameters and study the observed phenomena from physical point of view. It is shown that the maximum IF shift can achieve 140 μm in a prism/Au/Si/SiO2 waveguide which is large enough to be directly measured by the calculation results. Accordingly, TOIF shift provides a temperature control method for the enhancement and modulation of IF shift.

  1. An optical MEMS accelerometer fabricated using double-sided deep reactive ion etching on silicon-on-insulator wafer (United States)

    Teo, Adrian J. T.; Li, Holden; Tan, Say Hwa; Yoon, Yong-Jin


    Optical MEMS devices provide fast detection, electromagnetic resilience and high sensitivity. Using this technology, an optical gratings based accelerometer design concept was developed for seismic motion detection purposes that provides miniaturization, high manufacturability, low costs and high sensitivity. Detailed in-house fabrication procedures of a double-sided deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer for a micro opto electro mechanical system (MOEMS) device are presented and discussed. Experimental results obtained show that the conceptual device successfully captured motion similar to a commercial accelerometer with an average sensitivity of 13.6 mV G-1, and a highest recorded sensitivity of 44.1 mV G-1. A noise level of 13.5 mV was detected due to experimental setup limitations. This is the first MOEMS accelerometer developed using double-sided DRIE on SOI wafer for the application of seismic motion detection, and is a breakthrough technology platform to open up options for lower cost MOEMS devices.

  2. Single-layer silicon-on-insulator MEMS gyroscope for wide dynamic range and harsh environment applications (United States)

    Kranz, Michael S.; Hudson, Tracy D.; Ashley, Paul R.; Ruffin, Paul B.; Burgett, Sherrie J.; Temmen, Mark; Tuck, Jerry


    The Army Aviation and Missile Command (AMCOM), Morgan Research Corporation, and Aegis Research Corporation are developing an SOI-based vibratory-rate z-axis MEMS gyroscope utilizing force-feedback control, and intended for wide dynamic range and harsh environment applications. Rate sensing in small diameter ballistic missile guidance units requires a rate resolution of less than 1 degree(s)/hr over a range of -3000 to +3000 degree(s)/sec, resulting in a dynamic range of 107. In addition, the devices must operate through military specifications on temperature (-55 degree(s)C to +125 degree(s)C) and vibration (1000 g at 5 - 15 kHz). This paper presents modeling, simulation, and fabrication efforts, as well as initial test data, for an SOI-based rate sensor intended for this application. The prototyped gyroscope is a single layer structure consisting of a proof mass placed in a three-fold mode-decoupled symmetric suspension. The device is fabricated in a cost-effective and highly-controllable Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) process for in-plane inertial devices. The mechanical structure is integrated in a vacuum-sealed hermetic package with a separate CMOS readout ASIC. At the present time, the device has undergone two design iterations, with the most recent just completed.

  3. A Low-Noise X-ray Astronomical Silicon-On-Insulator Pixel Detector Using a Pinned Depleted Diode Structure. (United States)

    Kamehama, Hiroki; Kawahito, Shoji; Shrestha, Sumeet; Nakanishi, Syunta; Yasutomi, Keita; Takeda, Ayaki; Tsuru, Takeshi Go; Arai, Yasuo


    This paper presents a novel full-depletion Si X-ray detector based on silicon-on-insulator pixel (SOIPIX) technology using a pinned depleted diode structure, named the SOIPIX-PDD. The SOIPIX-PDD greatly reduces stray capacitance at the charge sensing node, the dark current of the detector, and capacitive coupling between the sensing node and SOI circuits. These features of the SOIPIX-PDD lead to low read noise, resulting high X-ray energy resolution and stable operation of the pixel. The back-gate surface pinning structure using neutralized p-well at the back-gate surface and depleted n-well underneath the p-well for all the pixel area other than the charge sensing node is also essential for preventing hole injection from the p-well by making the potential barrier to hole, reducing dark current from the Si-SiO₂ interface and creating lateral drift field to gather signal electrons in the pixel area into the small charge sensing node. A prototype chip using 0.2 μm SOI technology shows very low readout noise of 11.0 e-rms, low dark current density of 56 pA/cm² at -35 °C and the energy resolution of 200 eV(FWHM) at 5.9 keV and 280 eV (FWHM) at 13.95 keV.

  4. Monolithic InGaAs Nanowire Array Lasers on Silicon-on-Insulator Operating at Room Temperature (United States)

    Kim, Hyunseok; Lee, Wook-Jae; Farrell, Alan C.; Morales, Juan S. D.; Senanayake, Pradeep; Prikhodko, Sergey V.; Ochalski, Tomasz J.; Huffaker, Diana L.


    Chip-scale integrated light sources are a crucial component in a broad range of photonics applications. III-V semiconductor nanowire emitters have gained attention as a fascinating approach due to their superior material properties, extremely compact size, and the capability to grow directly on lattice-mismatched silicon substrates. Although there have been remarkable advances in nanowire-based emitters, their practical applications are still in the early stages due to the difficulties in integrating nanowire emitters with photonic integrated circuits (PICs). Here, we demonstrate for the first time optically pumped III-V nanowire array lasers monolithically integrated on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform. Selective-area growth of purely single-crystalline InGaAs/InGaP core/shell nanowires on an SOI substrate enables the nanowire array to form a photonic crystal nanobeam cavity with superior optical and structural properties, resulting in the laser to operate at room temperature. We also show that the nanowire array lasers are effectively coupled with SOI waveguides by employing nanoepitaxy on a pre-patterned SOI platform. These results represent a new platform for ultra-compact and energy-efficient optical links, and unambiguously point the way toward practical and functional nanowire lasers.

  5. Fabrication of open-top microchannel plate using deep X-ray exposure mask made with silicon on insulator substrate

    CERN Document Server

    Fujimura, T; Etoh, S I; Hattori, R; Kuroki, Y; Chang, S S


    We propose a high-aspect-ratio open-top microchannel plate structure. This type of microchannel plate has many advantages in electrophoresis. The plate was fabricated by deep X-ray lithography using synchrotron radiation (SR) light and the chemical wet etching process. A deep X-ray exposure mask was fabricated with a silicon on insulator (SOI) substrate. The patterned Si microstructure was micromachined into a thin Si membrane and a thick Au X-ray absorber was embedded in it by electroplating. A plastic material, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) was used for the plate substrate. For reduction of the exposure time and high-aspect-ratio fast wet development, the fabrication condition was optimized with respect to not the exposure dose but to the PMMA mean molecular weight (M.W.) changing after deep X-ray exposure as measured by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Decrement of the PMMA M.W. and increment of the wet developer temperature accelerated the etching rate. Under optimized fabrication conditions, a microc...

  6. Dynamics of solid thin-film dewetting in the silicon-on-insulator system (United States)

    Bussmann, E.; Cheynis, F.; Leroy, F.; Müller, P.; Pierre-Louis, O.


    Using low-energy electron microscopy movies, we have measured the dewetting dynamics of single-crystal Si(001) thin films on SiO2 substrates. During annealing (T>700 °C), voids open in the Si, exposing the oxide. The voids grow, evolving Si fingers that subsequently break apart into self-organized three-dimensional (3D) Si nanocrystals. A kinetic Monte Carlo model incorporating surface and interfacial free energies reproduces all the salient features of the morphological evolution. The dewetting dynamics is described using an analytic surface-diffusion-based model. We demonstrate quantitatively that Si dewetting from SiO2 is mediated by surface-diffusion driven by surface free-energy minimization.

  7. A MEMS Infrared Thermopile Fabricated from Silicon-On-Insulator with Phononic Crystal Structures and Carbon Nanotube Absorption Layer (United States)

    Gray, Kory Forrest

    The goal of this project was to examine the possibility of creating a novel thermal infrared detector based on silicon CMOS technology that has been enhanced by the latest nano-engineering discoveries. Silicon typically is not thought as an efficient thermoelectric material. However recent advancements in nanotechnology have improved the potential for a highly sensitive infrared detector based on nano-structured silicon. The thermal conductivity of silicon has been shown to be reduced from 150 W/mK down to 60 W/mK just by decreasing the scale of the silicon from bulk down to the sub-micron scale. Further reduction of the thermal conductivity has been shown by patterning silicon with a phonon crystal structure which has been reported to have thermal conductivities down to 10 W/mK. The phonon crystal structure consists of a 2D array of holes that are etched into the silicon. The size and pitch of the holes are on the order of the mean free path of the phonons in silicon which is approximately 200-500nm. This particular device had 200nm holes on a 400nm pitch. The Seebeck coefficient of silicon can also be enhanced by the reduction of the material from the bulk to sub-micron scale and with degenerate level doping. The combination of decreased thermal conductivity and increased Seebeck coefficient allow silicon to be a promising material for thermoelectric infrared detectors. The highly doped silicon is desired to reduce the electrical resistance of the device. The low electrical resistance is required to reduce the Johnson noise of the device which is the dominant noise source for most thermal detectors. This project designed a MEMS thermopile using a silicon-on-insulator substrate, and a CMOS compatible process. The basic thermopile consists of a silicon dioxide membrane with phononic crystal patterned silicon thermocouples around the edges of the membrane. Vertical aligned, multi-walled, carbon nanotubes were used as the infrared absorption layer. A MEMS

  8. Color-selective photodetection from intermediate colloidal quantum dots buried in amorphous-oxide semiconductors. (United States)

    Cho, Kyung-Sang; Heo, Keun; Baik, Chan-Wook; Choi, Jun Young; Jeong, Heejeong; Hwang, Sungwoo; Lee, Sang Yeol


    We report color-selective photodetection from intermediate, monolayered, quantum dots buried in between amorphous-oxide semiconductors. The proposed active channel in phototransistors is a hybrid configuration of oxide-quantum dot-oxide layers, where the gate-tunable electrical property of silicon-doped, indium-zinc-oxide layers is incorporated with the color-selective properties of quantum dots. A remarkably high detectivity (8.1 × 1013 Jones) is obtained, along with three major findings: fast charge separation in monolayered quantum dots; efficient charge transport through high-mobility oxide layers (20 cm2 V-1 s-1); and gate-tunable drain-current modulation. Particularly, the fast charge separation rate of 3.3 ns-1 measured with time-resolved photoluminescence is attributed to the intermediate quantum dots buried in oxide layers. These results facilitate the realization of efficient color-selective detection exhibiting a photoconductive gain of 107, obtained using a room-temperature deposition of oxide layers and a solution process of quantum dots. This work offers promising opportunities in emerging applications for color detection with sensitivity, transparency, and flexibility.The development of highly sensitive photodetectors is important for image sensing and optical communication applications. Cho et al., report ultra-sensitive photodetectors based on monolayered quantum dots buried in between amorphous-oxide semiconductors and demonstrate color-detecting logic gates.

  9. Minimization of Gate-Induced Drain Leakage by Controlling Gate Underlap Length for Low-Standby-Power Operation of 20-nm-Level Four-Terminal Silicon-on-Insulator Fin-Shaped Field Effect Transistor (United States)

    Seongjae Cho,; Shinichi O'uchi,; Kazuhiko Endo,; Takashi Matsukawa,; Kunihiro Sakamoto,; Yongxun Liu,; Byung-Gook Park,; Meishoku Masahara,


    Recently, gate-induced drain leakage (GIDL) has become a crucial factor of current characteristics as junction doping concentration becomes more abruptly graded owing to device scaling. It should be effectively suppressed for the low-standby-power operation of ultra small metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) devices. In this work, the appropriate underlap length range for the effective minimization of GIDL in 20-nm-level four-terminal (4-T) fin-shaped FET (FinFET) on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) is established. In order to identify the effect of underlap length on GIDL more precisely, the source and drain (S/D) junction doping profile and the majority/minority carrier lifetimes have been extracted by the measurement of a p-n junction test element group (TEG). The TEG was fabricated under the same process conditions that were used in forming the S/D junctions of 100-nm-level 4-T SOI FinFET in our previous research. The GIDL component in the off-state current is investigated with underlap length variation along with the inspection of basic current characteristics. For low-standby-power operation, an underlap junction is more desirable than an overlap junction, and the underlap length should be at least 10 nm to suppress GIDL effectively.

  10. A Numerical Study on Phonon Spectral Contributions to Thermal Conduction in Silicon-on-Insulator Transistor Using Electron-Phonon Interaction Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hyung-sun; Koh, Young Ha; Jin, Jae Sik [Chosun College of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    The aim of this study is to understand the phonon transfer characteristics of a silicon thin film transistor. For this purpose, the Joule heating mechanism was considered through the electron-phonon interaction model whose validation has been done. The phonon transport characteristics were investigated in terms of phonon mean free path for the variations in the device power and silicon layer thickness from 41 nm to 177 nm. The results may be used for developing the thermal design strategy for achieving reliability and efficiency of the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) transistor, further, they will increase the understanding of heat conduction in SOI systems, which are very important in the semiconductor industry and the nano-fabrication technology.

  11. Estimation of pulsed laser-induced single event transient in a partially depleted silicon-on-insulator 0.18-μm MOSFET (United States)

    Bi, Jin-Shun; Zeng, Chuan-Bin; Gao, Lin-Chun; Liu, Gang; Luo, Jia-Jun; Han, Zheng-Sheng


    In this paper, we investigate the single event transient (SET) occurring in partially depleted silicon-on-insulator (PDSOI) metal—oxide—semiconductor (MOS) devices irradiated by pulsed laser beams. Transient signal characteristics of a 0.18-μm single MOS device, such as SET pulse width, pulse maximum, and collected charge, are measured and analyzed at wafer level. We analyze in detail the influences of supply voltage and pulse energy on the SET characteristics of the device under test (DUT). The dependences of SET characteristics on drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL) and the parasitic bipolar junction transistor (PBJT) are also discussed. These results provide a guide for radiation-hardened deep sub-micrometer PDSOI technology for space electronics applications.

  12. The impact of etched trenches geometry and dielectric material on the electrical behaviour of silicon-on-insulator self-switching diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhi, G; Charlebois, S A [Departement de genie electrique et genie informatique, et Institut interdisciplinaire d' innovation technologique (3IT), Universite de Sherbrooke, 2500, Boulevard de l' Universite, J1K 2R1, Sherbrooke, QC (Canada); Morris, D [Departement de physique et Institut interdisciplinaire d' innovation technologique (3IT), Universite de Sherbrooke, 2500, Boulevard de l' Universite, J1K 2R1, Sherbrooke, QC (Canada); Raskin, J-P, E-mail: [Institute of Information and Communication Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics (ICTEAM), Universite catholique de Louvain, Place du Levant, 3, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)


    Hole electrical transport in a p-doped nanochannel defined between two L-shape etched trenches made on a silicon-on-insulator substrate is investigated using a TCAD-Medici simulator. We study the impact of the etched trenches' geometry and dielectric filling materials on the current-voltage characteristics of the device. Carrier accumulation on frontiers defined by the trenches causes a modulation of the hole density inside the conduction channel as the bias voltage varies and this gives rise to a diode-like characteristic. For a 1.2 {mu}m-long channel, plots of the electric field distribution show that a nonlinear transport regime is reached at a moderate reverse and forward bias of {+-} 2 V. Plots of the carrier velocity along the conduction channel show that holes remain hot for a few hundreds of nm outside the nanometre-wide channel, at a bias of {+-} 10 V. Filling the etched trenches with a high-{kappa} dielectric material gives rise to a lower threshold voltage, V{sub th}. A similar decrease of V{sub th} is also achieved by reducing the longitudinal and/or the transverse trench width. Our simulation results provide useful design guidelines for future integrated self-switching-diode-based circuits.

  13. Design of a High-Performance Micro Integrated Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor Based on Silicon-On-Insulator Rib Waveguide Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengpeng Yuan


    Full Text Available Based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI rib waveguide with large cross-section, a micro integrated surface plasmon resonance (SPR biochemical sensor platform is proposed. SPR is excited at the deeply etched facet of the bend waveguide by the guiding mode and a bimetallic configuration is employed. With the advantages of SOI rib waveguide and the silicon microfabrication technology, an array of the SPR sensors can be composed to implement wavelength interrogation of the sensors’ output signal, so the spectrometer or other bulky and expensive equipment are not necessary, which enables the SPR sensor to realize the miniaturization and integration of the entire sensing system. The performances of the SPR sensor element are verified by using the two-dimensional finite-different time-domain method. The parameters of the sensor element and the array are optimized for the achievement of high performance for biochemical sensing application. As a typical example, a single bimetallic SPR sensor with 3 nm Au over 32 nm Al possesses a high sensitivity of 3.968 × 104 nm/RIU, a detection-accuracy of 14.7 μm−1. For a uniparted SPR sensor, it can achieve a detection limit of 5.04 × 10−7 RIU. With the relative power measurement accuracy of 0.01 dB, the refractive index variation of 1.14 × 10−5 RIU can be detected by the SPR sensor array.

  14. Design Optimization of Back-Gated Thin-Body Silicon-on-Insulator Capacitorless Dynamic Random Access Memory Cell (United States)

    Cho, Min Hee; Shin, Changhwan; King Liu, Tsu-Jae


    Highly scaled (22 nm-node) capacitorless single-transistor dynamic random access memory (DRAM) cell design is investigated via technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulations. It is found that the gate-sidewall spacer width and operating voltages can be adjusted to reduce band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) and thereby increase data retention time for bipolar junction transistor (BJT)-based operation. Read current variations due to random dopant fluctuations (RDF) are investigated via three-dimensional Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations. It is found that BJT-based operation is more robust to RDF effects than metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET)-based operation.

  15. High-performance a-IGZO thin-film transistor with conductive indium-tin-oxide buried layer (United States)

    Ahn, Min-Ju; Cho, Won-Ju


    In this study, we fabricated top-contact top-gate (TCTG) structure of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) with a thin buried conductive indium-tin oxide (ITO) layer. The electrical performance of a-IGZO TFTs was improved by inserting an ITO buried layer under the IGZO channel. Also, the effect of the buried layer's length on the electrical characteristics of a-IGZO TFTs was investigated. The electrical performance of the transistors improved with increasing the buried layer's length: a large on/off current ratio of 1.1×107, a high field-effect mobility of 35.6 cm2/Vs, a small subthreshold slope of 116.1 mV/dec, and a low interface trap density of 4.2×1011 cm-2eV-1 were obtained. The buried layer a-IGZO TFTs exhibited enhanced transistor performance and excellent stability against the gate bias stress.

  16. Numerical analysis of the self-heating effect in SGOI with a double step buried oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Bin; Liu Hongxia; Li Jin; Yuan Bo; Cao Lei, E-mail: [Key Laboratory for Wide Band Gap Semiconductor Materials and Devices of Education, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China)


    To reduce the self-heating effect of strained Si grown on relaxed SiGe-on-insulator (SGOI) n-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (nMOSFETs), this paper proposes a novel device called double step buried oxide (BOX) SGOI, investigates its electrical and thermal characteristics, and analyzes the effect of self-heating on its electrical parameters. During the simulation of the device, a low field mobility model for strained Si MOSFETs is established and reduced thermal conductivity resulting from phonon boundary scattering is considered. A comparative study of SGOI nMOSFETs with different BOX thicknesses under channel and different channel strains has been performed. By reducing moderately the BOX thickness under the channel, the channel temperature caused by the self-heating effect can be effectively reduced. Moreover, mobility degradation, off state current and a short-channel effect such as drain induced barrier lowering can be well suppressed. Therefore, SGOI MOSFETs with a thinner BOX under the channel can improve the overall performance and long-term reliability efficiently. (semiconductor devices)

  17. Generation and confinement of mobile charges in buried oxide of SOI substrates; Generation et confinement de charges mobiles dans les oxydes enterres de substrats SOI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, O.; Krawiec, S.; Musseau, O.; Paillet, Ph.; Courtot-Descharles, A. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, DIF, 91 (France)


    We analyze the mechanisms of generation and confinement of mobile protons resulting from hydrogen annealing of SOI buried oxides. This study of the mechanisms of generation and confinement of mobile protons in the buried oxide of SOI wafers emphasizes the importance of H+ diffusion in the oxide in the formation of a mobile charge. Under specific electric field conditions the irradiation of these devices results in a pinning of this mobile charge at the bottom Si-SiO{sub 2} interface. Ab initio calculations are in progress to investigate the possible precursor defects in the oxide and detail the mechanism for mobile proton generation and confinement. (authors)

  18. Structural analysis of a phosphide-based epitaxial structure with a buried oxidized AlAs sacrificial layer (United States)

    Englhard, M.; Reuters, B.; Baur, J.; Klemp, C.; Zaumseil, P.; Schroeder, T.; Skibitzki, O.


    Phosphide-based thin-film light-emitting diodes (TF-LEDs) lattice-matched to GaAs are well established in optoelectronics in the wavelength range between 550 and 650 nm. In this work, we investigate the impact of oxidized AlAs to overlying phosphide-based pseudomorphically grown epitaxial structures. Oxidation of a buried AlAs sacrificial layer allows the separation of the grown TF-LED epitaxy from its substrates and enables an oxidation lift-off process. To evaluate the strain effect of progressing oxidation on the structure of the chip, we perform high-resolution x-ray diffraction analysis on as-grown, mesa-structured, semi-oxidized, and completely laterally oxidized chips. At each state, a pseudomorphic phosphide-based InAlP layer is found. The InAlP layer exhibits a tensile out-of-plane strain of approximately 0.20% and a compressive in-plane strain of approx. -0.19%. Additionally, scanning transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and μ-photoluminescence were used for investigation of the boundary zone of the oxidation front of AlAs, the interfaces between phosphide-based semiconductors (InAlP/InGaAlP) and oxidized amorphous AlAs and the light emission of InGaAlP multiple quantum wells.

  19. Computer simulation for the formation of the insulator layer of silicon-on-insulator devices by N sup + and O sup + Co-implantation

    CERN Document Server

    Lin Qing; Xie Xin Yun; Lin Chenglu; Liu Xiang Hua


    A buried sandwiched layer consisting of silicon dioxide (upper part), silicon oxynitride (medium part) and silicon nitride (lower part) is formed by N sup + and O sup + co-implantation in silicon wafers at a constant temperature of 550 degree C. The microstructure is performed by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. To predict the quality of the buried sandwiched layer, the authors study the computer simulation for the formation of the SIMON (separated by implantation of oxygen and nitrogen) structure. The simulation program for SIMOX (separated by implantation of oxygen) is improved in order to be applied in O sup + and N sup + co-implantation on the basis of different formation mechanism between SIMOX and SIMNI (separated by implantation of nitrogen) structures. There is a good agreement between experiment and simulation results verifying the theoretical model and presumption in the program

  20. Design and simulation of oxide and doping engineered lateral bipolar junction transistors for high power applications (United States)

    Loan, Sajad A.; Bashir, Faisal; Akhoon, M. Saqib; Alamoud, Abdulrahman M.


    In this paper, we propose new structures of lateral bipolar junction transistor (LBJT) on silicon on insulator (SOI) with improved performance. The proposed devices are lateral bipolar transistors with multi doping zone collector drift region and a thick buried oxide under the collector region. Calibrated simulation studies have revealed that the proposed devices have higher breakdown voltage than the conventional device, that too at higher drift doping concentration. This has resulted in improved tradeoff between the on-resistance and the breakdown voltage of the proposed devices. It has been observed that the proposed device with two collector drift doping zones and a buried oxide thick step results in ∼190% increase in the breakdown voltage than the conventional device. The further increase in the number of collector drift doping zones from two to three has increased the breakdown voltage by 260% than the conventional one. On comparing the proposed devices with the buried oxide double step devices, it has been found that an increase of ∼15-19% in the breakdown voltage is observed in the proposed devices even at higher drift doping concentrations. The use of higher drift doping concentration reduces the on-resistance of the proposed device and thus improves the tradeoff between the breakdown voltage and the on-resistance of the proposed device in comparison to buried oxide double step devices. Further, the use of step doping in the collector drift region has resulted in the reduction of kink effect in the proposed device. Using the mixed mode simulations, the proposed devices have been tested at the circuit level, by designing and simulating inverting amplifiers employing the proposed devices. Both DC and AC analyses of the inverting amplifiers have shown that the proposed devices work well at the circuit level. It has been observed that there is a slight increase in ON delay in the proposed device; however, the OFF delay is more or less same as that of the

  1. Involvement of nitric oxide in anticompulsive-like effect of agmatine on marble-burying behaviour in mice. (United States)

    Gawali, Nitin B; Chowdhury, Amrita A; Kothavade, Pankaj S; Bulani, Vipin D; Nagmoti, Dnyaneshwar M; Juvekar, Archana R


    In view of the reports that nitric oxide modulates the neurotransmitters implicated in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), patients with OCD exhibit higher plasma nitrate levels, and drugs useful in OCD influence nitric oxide. Agmatine is a polyamine and widely distributed in mammalian brain which interacts with nitrergic systems. Hence, the present study was carried out to understand the involvement of nitrergic systems in the anticompulsive-like effect of agmatine. We used marble-burying behaviour (MBB) of mice as the animal model of OCD, and nitric oxide levels in hippocampus (HC) and cortex homogenate were measured. Results revealed that, agmatine (20 and 40mg/kg, i.p) significantly inhibited the MBB. Intraperitoneal administration of nitric oxide enhancers viz. nitric oxide precursor - l-arginine (l-ARG) (400mg/kg and 800mg/kg) increased MBB as well as brain nitrites levels, whereas treatment with N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (30mg/kg and 50mg/kg, i.p.) and 7-nitroindazole (7-NI) (20mg/kg and 40mg/kg) attenuated MBB and nitrites levels in brain. Further, in combination studies, the anticompulsive-like effect of agmatine (20mg/kg, ip) was exacerbated by prior administration of l-ARG (400mg/kg) and conversely l-NAME (15mg/kg) or 7-NI (10.0mg/kg) attenuated OCD-like behaviour with HC and cortex changes in the levels of NO. None of the above treatment had any significant influence on locomotor activity. In conclusion, Agmatine is effective in ameliorating the compulsive-like behaviour in mice which appears to be related to nitric oxide in brain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of additional oxidation after Ge condensation on electrical properties of germanium-on-insulator p-channel MOSFETs (United States)

    Suh, Junkyo; Nakane, Ryosho; Taoka, Noriyuki; Takenaka, Mitsuru; Takagi, Shinichi


    This paper discusses the effects of additional oxidation after Ge condensation on electrical characteristics of fully depleted germanium-on-insulator (FDGOI) p-channel MOSFETs. We highlight the passivation of the back interface of GOI layers by the additional oxidation. Moreover, the electrical characteristics of the fabricated GOI pMOSFETs were systematically analyzed with varying the additional oxidation time and resulting compressive strain. It is found that 12-nm-thick GOI pMOSFETs with 0.94 % compressive strain were realized without any additional oxidation by utilizing strained silicon-on-insulator (sSOI), showing the drive current over twice as high as that of unstrained Ge pMOSFETs. However, the devices exhibit large positive threshold voltage (Vth) shifts, large subthreshold swing (SS), and high off-state current (Ioff), attributable to the poor MOS interfaces with buried oxides (BOX). This back channel MOS interface can be effectively passivated without significant growth of the BOX thickness by additional oxidation, leading to the restoration of the Vth shifts, improved SS, and dramatic reduction of Ioff. It is also found that the improvement of the back interface (Ge/BOX) and the strain relaxation occur simultaneously by the additional oxidation, which is corroborated by Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the electrical characterization of GOI pMOSFETs. As a result, a possible physical model to explain the observed phenomena was proposed.

  3. Improving breakdown voltage and self-heating effect for SiC LDMOS with double L-shaped buried oxide layers (United States)

    Bao, Meng-tian; Wang, Ying


    In this paper, a SiC LDMOS with double L-shaped buried oxide layers (DL-SiC LDMOS) is investigated and simulated. The DL-SiC LDMOS consists of two L-shaped buried oxide layers and two SiC windows. Using 2-D numerical simulation software, Atlas, Silvaco TCAD, the breakdown voltage, and the self-heating effect are discussed. The double-L shaped buried oxide layers and SiC windows in the active area can introduce an additional electric field peak and make the electric field distribution more uniform in the drift region. In addition, the SiC windows, which connect the active area to the substrate, can facilitate heat dissipation and reduce the maximum lattice temperature of the device. Compared with the BODS structure, the DL-SiC LDMOS and BODS structures have the same device parameters, except of the buried oxide layers. The simulation results of DL-SiC LDMOS exhibits outstanding characteristics including an increase of the breakdown voltage by 32.6% to 1220 V, and a low maximum lattice temperature (535 K) at room temperature.

  4. Very low and broad threshold voltage fluctuation caused by ion implantation to silicon-on-insulator triple-gate fin-type field effect transistor using three-dimensional process and device simulations (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Toshiyuki


    The threshold voltage (V th) fluctuation induced by the ion implantation to the source and drain extensions (SDE) of a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) triple-gate (tri-gate) fin-type field-effect transistor (FinFET) was analyzed for the first time with the use of realistic positional information of discretely doped ions by both three-dimensional (3D) process and device simulations. Interestingly, it was found that the V th fluctuation induced by SDE ion implantation has a very low and broad distribution on the low-V th side even in the case of a robust device structure such as SOI tri-gate FinFET. Furthermore, for the first time, it was quantitatively demonstrated using a proposed cluster percolation model that the origin of the very low and broad V th fluctuation is the conductive percolation among unintentionally doped ions in the channel region of the device. These results would contribute to the realization of robust transistors.

  5. Silicon on insulator MESFETs for RF amplifiers (United States)

    Wilk, Seth J.; Balijepalli, Asha; Ervin, Joseph; Lepkowski, William; Thornton, Trevor J.


    CMOS compatible, high voltage SOI MESFETs have been fabricated using a standard 3.3 V CMOS process without any changes to the process flow. A 0.6 μm gate length device operates with a cut-off frequency of 7.3 GHz and a maximum oscillation frequency of 21 GHz. There is no degradation in device performance up to its breakdown voltage, which greatly exceeds that of CMOS devices on the same process. Other figures-of-merit of relevance to RF front-end design are presented, including the maximum stable gain and noise figure. An accurate representation of the device in SPICE has been developed using the commercially available TOM3 model. Using the SOI MESFET model, a source degenerated low noise RF amplifier targeting operation near 1 GHz has been designed. The amplifier was fabricated on a PCB board and operates at 940 MHz with a minimum NF of 3.8 dB and RF gain of 9.9 dB while only consuming 5mW of DC power.

  6. Metal positioning on silicon surfaces using the etching of buried dislocation arrays. (United States)

    Bavard, A; Fournel, F; Eymery, J


    Large-area Si(001) nanopatterned surfaces obtained by etching dislocation line arrays have been used to drive the positioning of metallic islands. A method combining wafer bonding of (001) silicon on insulator layers and preferential chemical etching allows controlling the periodicity of square trench arrays in the 20-50 nm lateral periodicity range with an accuracy of less than 1 nm and a depth of about 4-5 nm. The interfacial area containing the dislocation line plane can be removed and a single crystal maintaining the morphological patterning can be obtained. It is shown that oxidized or deoxidized silicon nanopatterned surfaces can drive the positioning of Ni, Au and Ag islands for a 20 nm lateral periodicity and that a lateral long range order, directly transferred from the dislocation network, can be obtained in the Ni and Au cases.

  7. Linking Taxonomy with Environmental Geochemsitry: the Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane in Cold Seeps & deeply Buried Marine Sediments (United States)

    House, C. H.; Biddle, J. F.; Lipp, J. S.; Orphan, V. J.; Hinrichs, K.


    The linking of molecular taxonomy (including 16s rRNA) to environmental geochemistry is a powerful way to work out the interactions, metabolic activities, and food webs of microorganisms in their natural setting, whether it is sediment, soil, or a water column. To this end, we developed a method for coupling an extant microorganism's genetic information with geochemical data derived from the direct analysis of its cell. FISH-SIMS combines fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) with secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). FISH is a culture-independent technique used to visually identify naturally occurring microorganisms by staining their ribosomal RNA. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is a method by which geochemical information can be obtained from microsamples. Using FISH-SIMS, a researcher can measure a target cell's isotopic or elemental composition in a mixed environment. The identification and study of methane-consuming microorganisms is an important step toward understanding the methane cycle and microbial response to methane release. The recent identification of two distinct Archaea capable of anaerobic methane oxidation was in part accomplished using FISH-SIMS. Because natural methane is highly depleted in 13C, FISH-SIMS is particularly powerful at determining if a particular cell, collected from the environment, consumed methane as a substrate for its cell carbon. This research demonstrated that both the ANME-1 and ANME-2 Archaea from the Eel River Methane Seep are highly depleted in 13C due to growth on methane. The deep marine biosphere is thought to contain abundant microbial inhabitants, estimated to be a tenth of the Earth's total biomass. Sediments from this environment were recovered during Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 201, and were analyzed by both molecular biological and organic geochemical techniques. Of particular interest in these sediments were four sulfate/methane transition zones seen at ODP Sites 1227, 1229 and 1230, two of

  8. The effect of gate length on SOI-MOSFETS operation | Baedi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of gate length on the operation of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) MOSFET structure with a layer of buried silicon oxide added to isolate the device body has been simulated. Three transistors with gate lengths of 100, 200 and 500 nm were simulated. Simulations showed that with a fixed channel length, when the gate ...

  9. A high efficiency lateral light emitting device on SOI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, T.; Le Minh, P.; Holleman, J.; Zieren, V.; Goossens, M.J.; Schmitz, Jurriaan


    The infrared light emission of lateral p/sup +/-p-n/sup +/ diodes realized on SIMOX-SOI (separation by implantation of oxygen - silicon on insulator) substrates has been studied. The confinement of the free carriers in one dimension due to the buried oxide was suggested to be a key point to increase

  10. Quasi-Schottky-Barrier UTBB SOI MOSFET for Low-Power Robust SRAMs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghanatian, Hamdam; Hosseini, Seyed Ebrahim; Zeinali, Behzad


    This paper presents a low-power robust static random access memory (SRAM) using a novel quasi-Schottky-barrier ultrathin body and ultrathin buried oxide (UTBB) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) device. In the proposed device, the drain terminal is highly doped and a metallic source terminal is used. Giv...

  11. Topology optimized design for silicon-on-insulator mode converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frellsen, Louise Floor; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Ding, Yunhong


    The field of photonic integrated circuits (PICs) has attracted interest in recent years as they allow high device density while requiring only low operating power. The possibility of exploiting mode division multiplexing (MDM) in future optical communication networks is being investigated...

  12. Performance of buried pipe installation. (United States)


    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of geometric and mechanical parameters : characterizing the soil structure interaction developed in a buried pipe installation located under : roads/highways. The drainage pipes or culverts instal...

  13. Quantitative Chemically-Specific Coherent Diffractive Imaging of Buried Interfaces using a Tabletop EUV Nanoscope

    CERN Document Server

    Shanblatt, Elisabeth R; Gardner, Dennis F; Mancini, Giulia F; Karl, Robert M; Tanksalvala, Michael D; Bevis, Charles S; Vartanian, Victor H; Kapteyn, Henry C; Adams, Daniel E; Murnane, Margaret M


    Characterizing buried layers and interfaces is critical for a host of applications in nanoscience and nano-manufacturing. Here we demonstrate non-invasive, non-destructive imaging of buried interfaces using a tabletop, extreme ultraviolet (EUV), coherent diffractive imaging (CDI) nanoscope. Copper nanostructures inlaid in SiO2 are coated with 100 nm of aluminum, which is opaque to visible light and thick enough that neither optical microscopy nor atomic force microscopy can image the buried interfaces. Short wavelength (29 nm) high harmonic light can penetrate the aluminum layer, yielding high-contrast images of the buried structures. Moreover, differences in the absolute reflectivity of the interfaces before and after coating reveal the formation of interstitial diffusion and oxidation layers at the Al-Cu and Al-SiO2 boundaries. Finally, we show that EUV CDI provides a unique capability for quantitative, chemically-specific imaging of buried structures, and the material evolution that occurs at these buried ...

  14. [Congenital buried penis in children]. (United States)

    Lardellier-Reynaud, F; Varlet, F; François, M; Mouriquand, P


    Congenital buried penis in children is an uncommon and poorly known entity. The aims of this study were to report an original technique for correction of buried penis and to evaluate its results. It is a retrospective study of buried penis operated between November 1998 and May 2009. The acquired concealed penis and hypospadias were excluded from this study. The procedure includes several stages: degloving of the penis through a ventral anchor-like incision; division of the adherent layers surrounding the corpora cavernosa; anchorage of the Buck's fascia to the corporeal albuginea at the base of the penis; and ventral cutaneous coverage. The long-term results were evaluated by the parents and the surgeon according to anatomical, functional and aesthetic criterion. Twenty-five boys were evaluated. The mean age at surgery was 27 months (seven days-120 months). Two children required an additional plasty. Results were satisfactory in 24 cases (96%). One child required a redo procedure for unsatisfactory outcome. Of seven children with redundant skin (28%), three underwent a complementary cutaneous excision. Congenital buried penis remains a controversial issue. Our technique was simple and easily reproducible. Voiding difficulties, urinary tract infection or strong parental request were the main indications of this surgery in our experience. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Local Oxidation Fin-Field-Effect-Transistor Structure for Nanodevice Applications (United States)

    Ya-Li Tai,; Jam-Wem Lee,; Chen-Hsin Lien,


    Local oxidation (LOCOS) fin field-effect transistors (finFETs), a type of delta-FETs, are studied here for comparison with silicon-on-insulator (SOI) finFETs and bulk silicon finFETs. In our simulation, the LOCOS finFET shows a lower leakage current than the bulk finFET and a driving capability superior to that of the SOI finFET. The results can be attributed to the partial connection between the channel region and the substrate in LOCOS finFETs. The partially isolated oxide layer of LOCOS provides electrical isolation to suppress leakage, and the interspace between isolated oxide layers provides good thermal conduction to sustain a high driving current. For device fabrication, different parameters, fin height (H), gate length (L), and oxide interspace (S), are also investigated. The results show that the LOCOS finFET structure is an exceptional alternative for nanodevice applications.

  16. Theory buried under heavy description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian B. Martin Ph.D.


    Full Text Available In journalism when a reporter puts the main news or point of the story deep down in the text, we say she’s buried the lead, the lead being the main point of the story and usually the first paragraph. In Children in Genocide: extreme traumatization and affect regulation, psychoanalyst Suzanne Kaplan buries her theory. Her study of the after effects of trauma among Holocaust survivors who were children during their persecution and survivors of atrocities during the Rwandan atrocities of the 1990s, is filled with highly descriptive material from the many interviews that serve as data. An interesting grounded theory is peeking out from under all the disciplinary discourse and historical background one must read through to get to what grounded theory readers will consider the juicy parts: concepts on affect regulation in trauma survivors.

  17. Thermographic detection of buried objects (United States)

    Castro, Eduardo H.; Abbate, Horacio A.; Mallaina, Eduardo F.; Santos, Juan M.; Mejail, Marta; Borensztejn, Patricia; Jacobo-Berlles, Julio


    A great development of technologies for the detection of buried objects took place in the last years. Applications in archeology, finding of pipe lines and others were important, but most attention was paid in humanitarian detection of land mines and unexploded ordnances. Among these technologies, thermography is one of the most useful techniques and has been applied concurrent with other ones (Ground Penetrating Radar, Electromagnetic Induction, etc.) We have made several experiments to obtain thermographic images of buried objects in the middle and far infrared, in laboratory and in field, and in different types of terrain: naked ground, ground covered with grass and sand. We employed, as warming methods, natural sun radiation and blowing of warm air or halogen lamps. We have used metallic and dielectric objects of different sizes and shapes so as to recognize them by their characteristics. The acquired images were improved using noise reduction and image enhancement techniques. In this work we present the thermographic images obtained. All measurements were made at short distance, less than 100 cm, as the objective of our work is to develop a thermographic imaging system for the detection of buried objects to be installed in an autonomous ground robot.

  18. Buried penis: classification surgical approach. (United States)

    Hadidi, Ahmed T


    The purpose of this study was to describe morphological classification of congenital buried penis (BP) and present a versatile surgical approach for correction. Sixty-one patients referred with BP were classified into 3 grades according to morphological findings: Grade 1-29 patients with Longer Inner Prepuce (LIP) only, Grade II-20 patients who presented with LIP associated with indrawn penis that required division of the fundiform and suspensory ligaments, and Grade III-12 patients who had in addition to the above, excess supra-pubic fat. A ventral midline penile incision extending from the tip of prepuce down to the penoscrotal junction was used in all patients. The operation was tailored according to the BP Grade. All patients underwent circumcision. Mean follow up was 3 years (range 1 to 10). All 61 patients had an abnormally long inner prepuce (LIP). Forty-seven patients had a short penile shaft. Early improvement was noted in all cases. Satisfactory results were achieved in all 29 patients in grade I and in 27 patients in grades II and III. Five children (Grades II and III) required further surgery (9%). Congenital buried penis is a spectrum characterized by LIP and may include in addition; short penile shaft, abnormal attachment of fundiform, and suspensory ligaments and excess supra-pubic fat. Congenital Mega Prepuce (CMP) is a variant of Grade I BP, with LIP characterized by intermittent ballooning of the genital area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Buried plastic scintillator muon telescope (United States)

    Sanchez, F.; Medina-Tanco, G.A.; D'Olivo, J.C.; Paic, G.; Patino Salazar, M.E.; Nahmad-Achar, E.; Valdes Galicia, J.F.; Sandoval, A.; Alfaro Molina, R.; Salazar Ibarguen, H.; Diozcora Vargas Trevino, M.A.; Vergara Limon, S.; Villasenor, L.M.

    Muon telescopes can have several applications, ranging from astrophysical to solar-terrestrial interaction studies, and fundamental particle physics. We show the design parameters, characterization and end-to-end simulations of a detector composed by a set of three parallel dual-layer scintillator planes, buried at fix depths ranging from 0.30 m to 3 m. Each layer is 4 m2 and is composed by 50 rectangular pixels of 4cm x 2 m, oriented at a 90 deg angle with respect to its companion layer. The scintillators are MINOS extruded polystyrene strips with two Bicron wavelength shifting fibers mounted on machined grooves. Scintillation light is collected by multi-anode PMTs of 64 pixels, accommodating two fibers per pixel. The front-end electronics has a time resolution of 7.5 nsec. Any strip signal above threshold opens a GPS-tagged 2 micro-seconds data collection window. All data, including signal and background, are saved to hard disk. Separation of extensive air shower signals from secondary cosmic-ray background muons and electrons is done offline using the GPS-tagged threefold coincidence signal from surface water cerenkov detectors located nearby in a triangular array. Cosmic-ray showers above 6 PeV are selected. The data acquisition system is designed to keep both, background and signals from extensive air showers for a detailed offline data.

  20. Tabernaemontana divaricata leaves extract exacerbate burying behavior in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Chanchal


    Full Text Available Objective: Tabernaemontana divaricata (TD from Apocynaceae family offers the traditional folklore medicinal benefits such as an anti-epileptic, anti-mania, brain tonic, and anti-oxidant. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of TD leaves on burying behavior in mice. Materials and Methods:Mice were treated with oral administration (p.o. of ethanolic extract of TD (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg. Fluoxetine (FLX, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor was used as a reference drug. Obsessive-compulsive behavior was evaluated using marble-burying apparatus. Results:TD at doses of 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg dose-dependently inhibited the obsessive and compulsive behavior. The similar results were obtained from 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg of FLX. TD and FLX did not affect motor activity. Conclusion: The results indicated that TD and FLX produced similar inhibitory effects on marble-burying behavior.

  1. Performance evaluation of buried pipe installation. (United States)


    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of geometric and mechanical parameters characterizing the soil structure interaction developed in a buried pipe installation located under roads/highways. The drainage pipes or culverts installed ...

  2. TNX Burying Ground: Environmental information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunaway, J.K.W.; Johnson, W.F.; Kingley, L.E.; Simmons, R.V.; Bledsoe, H.W.


    The TNX Burying Ground, located within the TNX Area of the Savannah River Plant (SRP), was originally built to dispose of debris from an experimental evaporator explosion at TNX in 1953. This evaporator contained approximately 590 kg of uranyl nitrate. From 1980 to 1984, much of the waste material buried at TNX was excavated and sent to the SRP Radioactive Waste Burial Grounds for reburial. An estimated 27 kg of uranyl nitrate remains buried at TNX. The TNX Burying Ground consists of three sites known to contain waste and one site suspected of containing waste material. All four sites are located within the TNX security fenceline. Groundwater at the TNX Burying Ground was not evaluated because there are no groundwater monitoring wells installed in the immediate vicinity of this waste site. The closure options considered for the TNX Burying Ground are waste removal and closure, no waste removal and closure, and no action. The predominant pathways for human exposure to chemical and/or radioactive constituents are through surface, subsurface, and atmospheric transport. Modeling calculations were made to determine the risks to human population via these general pathways for the three postulated closure options. An ecological assessment was conducted to predict the environmental impacts on aquatic and terrestrial biota. The relative costs for each of the closure options were estimated.

  3. Concealed epispadias associated with a buried penis. (United States)

    Sol Melgar, Ricardo; Gorduza, Daniela; Demède, Delphine; Mouriquand, Pierre


    The aim was to describe the clinical presentation and the surgical management of penile epispadias associated with a buried penis in five children. This is a 5-year retrospective review of patients presenting with a buried penis, a congenital defect of the penile skin shaft associated with an unretractable foreskin for whom a penile epispadias was found at the time of surgery. All had undergone surgery combining a Cantwell-Ransley procedure and refashioning of the penile skin following the authors' technique. Three children had a glanular epispadias and two had a midshaft epispadias. Four had a satisfactory outcome, and one required a complementary urethroplasty for glanular dehiscence. Buried penis and epispadias are usually isolated congenital anomalies, although they can be associated. It is therefore recommended to warn parents about the possibility of underlying penile anomaly in children with buried penises and unretractable foreskin. Careful palpation of the dorsum of the glans through the foreskin looking for a dorsal cleft could indicate an associated epispadiac urethra. Surgical correction of both anomalies can be done at the same time. Parents of boys with buried penises should be warned that underlying penile anomaly may exist. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Novel Applications of a Thermally Tunable Bistable Buckling Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) Microfabricated Membrane (United States)


    ticular, high performance race cars . Based upon the configuration of the washers, by mechanically preloading them by tightening a bolt, the suspension...sensors, air bags, engine control, and exhaust gas pressure are fueling a rapid growth of MEMS pressure sensors. In 2013, the MEMS pressure sensor...resulting from the dicing process. After dicing, the samples were cleaned with a 30 second acetone rinse, 30 second methanol rinse, and a 30 second

  5. III-V/silicon-on-Insulator nanophotonic cavities for optical network-on-chip. (United States)

    Liu, Liu; Roelkens, Günther; Van Campenhout, Joris; Brouckaert, Joost; Van Thourhout, Dries; Baets, Roel


    We review some opto-electronic devices based on the III-V/SOI heterogeneous integration platform, including lasers, modulators, wavelength converters, and photo-detectors. All of them are critical components for future on-chip interconnect and optical network-on-chip. The footprints of such devices are kept small by employing micro-cavity based structures. We give an overview of the device performances. The advantages over the all-silicon based devices are also discussed.

  6. Topology optimized mode conversion in a photonic crystal waveguide fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material. (United States)

    Frandsen, Lars H; Elesin, Yuriy; Frellsen, Louise F; Mitrovic, Miranda; Ding, Yunhong; Sigmund, Ole; Yvind, Kresten


    We have designed and for the first time experimentally verified a topology optimized mode converter with a footprint of ~6.3 μm × ~3.6 μm which converts the fundamental even mode to the higher order odd mode of a dispersion engineered photonic crystal waveguide. 2D and 3D topology optimization is utilized and both schemes result in designs theoretically showing an extinction ratio larger than 21 dB. The 3D optimized design has an experimentally estimated insertion loss lower than ~2 dB in an ~43 nm bandwidth. The mode conversion is experimentally confirmed in this wavelength range by recording mode profiles using vertical grating couplers and an infrared camera. The experimentally determined extinction ratio is > 12 dB and is believed to be limited by the spatial resolution of our setup.

  7. An ARROW-based silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal waveguides with reduced losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei


    We employ an antiresonant reflecting layers arrangement for siliicon-on-insulator based photonic crystal waveguides with thin cores. 3D FDTD numerical modelling reveals the reduction of losses with a promising potential for competing with membrane-like waveguides.......We employ an antiresonant reflecting layers arrangement for siliicon-on-insulator based photonic crystal waveguides with thin cores. 3D FDTD numerical modelling reveals the reduction of losses with a promising potential for competing with membrane-like waveguides....

  8. Sagnac loop mirror and micro-ring based laser cavity for silicon-on-insulator. (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Yang, Shuyu; Guan, Hang; Lim, Andy Eu-Jin; Lo, Guo-Qiang; Magill, Peter; Baehr-Jones, Tom; Hochberg, Michael


    An integrated laser is a key component in silicon based photonic integrated circuits. Beyond incorporating the gain medium, on-chip cavity design is critical to device performance and yield. Typical recent results involve cavities utilizing distributed Bragg gratings that require ultra-fine feature sizes. We propose to build laser cavity on silicon using a Sagnac loop mirror and a micro-ring wavelength filter for the first time. The Sagnac loop mirror provides broadband reflection, which is simple to fabricate, has an accurately-controlled reflectivity, and negligible excess loss. Single-mode operation is achieved with the intra-cavity micro-ring filter and, using a 248 nm stepper, the laser wavelength can be lithographically controlled within a standard deviation of 3.6 nm. We demonstrate a proof-of-concept device lasing at 1551.7 nm, with 44 dB SMSR, 1.2 MHz linewidth and 4.8 mW on-chip output power.

  9. Thin Film Silicon-On-Insulator of Bipolar Junction Transistor: Process Fabrication and characterization Technology


    Osama S Hammad; Othman Sidek; Kamarul Azizi Ibrahim


    The great success of semiconductor industry has been driven by the advancement in transistor technology in its early era. The industry could improve the performance of their products by shrinking the transistor dimensions and integrating more transistors. However, this strategy is becoming less effective, as the transistors demandedsubstantial interconnections between them, and the speed of integrated circuit products are being dominated by interconnections. Innovations are necessary in the i...

  10. Nanosecond Thermal Processing for Self-Aligned Silicon-on-Insulator Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ramirez, A. D; Offord, , B. W; Popp, S. D. Russell, J. F. Rowland, J. D


    .... Low-resistance metal gates are superior for high-speed devices; however, their low melting point prevented their use in a self-aligned structure that experiences high-temperature processing (>700 oC...

  11. Guided Acoustic and Optical Waves in Silicon-on-Insulator for Brillouin Scattering and Optomechanics (United States)


    standard materials makes integration with silicon foundry processes challenging.10 Released and partially released silicon structures, while using standard ...the envelope functions vary slowly relative to β and ω (or K and Ω for mechanics).13 Assuming the interaction is weak enough such that apa ∗s is nearly

  12. Nanosecond Thermal Processing for Self-Aligned Silicon-on-Insulator Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ramirez, A. D; Offord, B. W; Popp, J. D; Russell, S. D; Rowland, J. F


    .... Low-resistance metal gates are superior for high-speed devices. However, their low melting point prevented their use in a self-aligned structure that experiences high-temperature processing (>700 degrees C...

  13. Electrochemical method for defect delineation in silicon-on-insulator wafers (United States)

    Guilinger, Terry R.; Jones, Howland D. T.; Kelly, Michael J.; Medernach, John W.; Stevenson, Joel O.; Tsao, Sylvia S.


    An electrochemical method for defect delineation in thin-film SOI or SOS wafers in which a surface of a silicon wafer is electrically connected so as to control the voltage of the surface within a specified range, the silicon wafer is then contacted with an electrolyte, and, after removing the electrolyte, defects and metal contamination in the silicon wafer are identified.

  14. Topology optimized mode multiplexing in silicon-on-insulator photonic wire waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frellsen, Louise Floor; Ding, Yunhong; Sigmund, Ole


    We design and experimentally verify a topology optimized low-loss and broadband two-mode (de-)multiplexer, which is (de-)multiplexing the fundamental and the first-order transverse-electric modes in a silicon photonic wire. The device has a footprint of 2.6 μm x 4.22 μm and exhibits a loss 14 d......B in the C-band. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the design method can be expanded to include more modes, in this case including also the second order transverse-electric mode, while maintaining functionality....

  15. Polarization Diversity DPSK Demodulator on the Silicon-on-Insulator Platform with Simple Fabrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yunhong; Huang, Bo; Ou, Haiyan


    We demonstrate a novel polarization diversity DPSK demodulator on the SOI platform with low polarization dependent loss (1.6 dB) and low polarization dependent extinction ratio (<3 dB). System experiments verify the low polarization dependency.......We demonstrate a novel polarization diversity DPSK demodulator on the SOI platform with low polarization dependent loss (1.6 dB) and low polarization dependent extinction ratio (3 dB). System experiments verify the low polarization dependency....

  16. Polarization diversity DPSK demodulator on the silicon-on-insulator platform with simple fabrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yunhong; Huang, Bo; Ou, Haiyan


    of a tapered waveguide followed by a 2 × 2 multimode interferometer. A lowest insertion loss of 0.5 dB with low polarization dependent loss of 1.6 dB and low polarization dependent extinction ratio smaller than 3 dB are measured for the polarization diversity circuit. Clear eye-diagrams and a finite power...... penalty of only 3 dB when the input state of polarization is scrambled are obtained for 40 Gbit/s non return-to-zero DPSK (NRZ-DPSK) demodulation....

  17. Sensor feature fusion for detecting buried objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, G.A.; Sengupta, S.K.; Sherwood, R.J.; Hernandez, J.E.; Buhl, M.R.; Schaich, P.C.; Kane, R.J.; Barth, M.J.; DelGrande, N.K.


    Given multiple registered images of the earth`s surface from dual-band sensors, our system fuses information from the sensors to reduce the effects of clutter and improve the ability to detect buried or surface target sites. The sensor suite currently includes two sensors (5 micron and 10 micron wavelengths) and one ground penetrating radar (GPR) of the wide-band pulsed synthetic aperture type. We use a supervised teaming pattern recognition approach to detect metal and plastic land mines buried in soil. The overall process consists of four main parts: Preprocessing, feature extraction, feature selection, and classification. These parts are used in a two step process to classify a subimage. Thee first step, referred to as feature selection, determines the features of sub-images which result in the greatest separability among the classes. The second step, image labeling, uses the selected features and the decisions from a pattern classifier to label the regions in the image which are likely to correspond to buried mines. We extract features from the images, and use feature selection algorithms to select only the most important features according to their contribution to correct detections. This allows us to save computational complexity and determine which of the sensors add value to the detection system. The most important features from the various sensors are fused using supervised teaming pattern classifiers (including neural networks). We present results of experiments to detect buried land mines from real data, and evaluate the usefulness of fusing feature information from multiple sensor types, including dual-band infrared and ground penetrating radar. The novelty of the work lies mostly in the combination of the algorithms and their application to the very important and currently unsolved operational problem of detecting buried land mines from an airborne standoff platform.

  18. Effect of Pseudomonas fluorescens on Buried Steel Pipeline Corrosion. (United States)

    Spark, Amy J; Law, David W; Ward, Liam P; Cole, Ivan S; Best, Adam S


    Buried steel infrastructure can be a source of iron ions for bacterial species, leading to microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). Localized corrosion of pipelines due to MIC is one of the key failure mechanisms of buried steel pipelines. In order to better understand the mechanisms of localized corrosion in soil, semisolid agar has been developed as an analogue for soil. Here, Pseudomonas fluorescens has been introduced to the system to understand how bacteria interact with steel. Through electrochemical testing including open circuit potentials, potentiodynamic scans, anodic potential holds, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy it has been shown that P. fluorescens increases the rate of corrosion. Time for oxide and biofilms to develop was shown to not impact on the rate of corrosion but did alter the consistency of biofilm present and the viability of P. fluorescens following electrochemical testing. The proposed mechanism for increased corrosion rates of carbon steel involves the interactions of pyoverdine with the steel, preventing the formation of a cohesive passive layer, after initial cell attachment, followed by the formation of a metal concentration gradient on the steel surface.

  19. Test results of a counting type SOI device for a new x-ray area detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, R., E-mail:; Igarashi, N.; Kumai, R.; Kishimoto, S. [Inst. of Materials Structure Science, KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Arai, Y.; Miyoshi, T. [Inst. of Particle and Nuclear Physics. KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)


    Development of a new detector using Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) technology has been started in the Photon Factory, KEK. The aim of this project is to develop a pulse-counting-type X-ray detector that can be used in synchrotron radiation experiments using soft X-rays. We started to make a Test Element Group of SOI chip, which is called CPIXPTEG1 and evaluated its performance. We succeeded in readout of output signals for 16 keV X-rays from the SOI chips. We also found that the middle-SOI structure was effective against a signal distortion caused by hole traps in the buried oxide layer.

  20. Field application of innovative grouting agents for in situ stabilization of buried waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loomis, G.G.; Farnsworth, R.K. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    This paper presents field applications for two innovative grouting agents that were used to in situ stabilize buried waste sites, via jet grouting. The two grouting agents include paraffin and a proprietary iron oxide based cement grout called TECT. These materials were tested in specially designed cold test pits that simulate buried transuranic waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The field demonstrations were performed at the INEL in an area referred to as the Cold Test Pit, which is adjacent to the INEL Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). At the RWMC, 56,000 m{sup 3} of transuranic (TRU) waste is co-mingled with over 170,000 m{sup 3} of soil in shallow land burial. Improving the confinement of this waste is one of the options for final disposition of this waste. Using jet-grouting technology to inject these materials into the pore spaces of buried waste sites results in the creation of buried monolithic waste forms that simultaneously protect the waste from subsidence, while eliminating the migratory potential of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in the waste.

  1. CMOS-compatible method for doping of buried vertical polysilicon structures by solid phase diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turkulets, Yury [Micron Semiconductor Israel Ltd., Qiryat Gat 82109 (Israel); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 8410501 (Israel); Silber, Amir; Ripp, Alexander; Sokolovsky, Mark [Micron Semiconductor Israel Ltd., Qiryat Gat 82109 (Israel); Shalish, Ilan, E-mail: [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 8410501 (Israel)


    Polysilicon receives attention nowadays as a means to incorporate 3D-structured photonic devices into silicon processes. However, doping of buried layers of a typical 3D structure has been a challenge. We present a method for doping of buried polysilicon layers by solid phase diffusion. Using an underlying silicon oxide layer as a dopant source facilitates diffusion of dopants into the bottom side of the polysilicon layer. The polysilicon is grown on top of the oxide layer, after the latter has been doped by ion implantation. Post-growth heat treatment drives in the dopant from the oxide into the polysilicon. To model the process, we studied the diffusion of the two most common silicon dopants, boron (B) and phosphorus (P), using secondary ion mass spectroscopy profiles. Our results show that shallow concentration profiles can be achieved in a buried polysilicon layer using the proposed technique. We present a quantitative 3D model for the diffusion of B and P in polysilicon, which turns the proposed method into an engineerable technique.

  2. [Plastic Surgical Correction of Buried Penis]. (United States)

    Boliglowa, Dominik Krzysztof; Ryu, Seung-Min; Ebrahim, Tarek; Menke, Henrik


    A "buried penis" causes functional problems and embarrassment. In the past, this complex condition was only seen in extremely overweight patients or as a result of severe inflammations in this region. More recently, this problem has also been observed in patients with massive weight loss following bariatric surgery. In these patients there is an abundance of extremely flaccid skin in the suprapubic region, which covers the penis and causes it to "disappear". This leads to balanitis and, in turn, further retraction of the penis. The only solution to this condition is a sophisticated surgical approach in 3 phases: At first, suprapubic tissues must be lifted. Secondly, the penis must be completely denuded and debrided and the correct penopubic/penoscrotal angles must be reconstructed. The last phase includes a strainless coverage of the remaining defect of the penis. This condition has not been widely described in the literature. The general incidence and prevalence in the postbariatric population is unknown, probably due to patients' embarrassment and lack of knowledge on the physicians' end. Nevertheless, the buried penis can be successfully exposed through careful, structured surgical treatment and an interdisciplinary approach between plastic surgeons and urologists. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Virtual environmental applications for buried waste characterization technology evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The project, Virtual Environment Applications for Buried Waste Characterization, was initiated in the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program in fiscal year 1994. This project is a research and development effort that supports the remediation of buried waste by identifying and examining the issues, needs, and feasibility of creating virtual environments using available characterization and other data. This document describes the progress and results from this project during the past year.

  4. Buried injector logic, a vertical IIL using deep ion implantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouthaan, A.J.


    A vertically integrated alternative for integrated injection logic has been realized, named buried injector logic (BIL). 1 MeV ion implantations are used to create buried layers. The vertical pnp and npn transistors have thin base regions and exhibit a limited charge accumulation if a gate is

  5. The surgical correction of buried penis: a new technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boemers, T. M.; de Jong, T. P.


    We report a new surgical technique for the correction of buried penis. The study comprised 10 boys with buried penis. The technique consisted of resection of abnormal dartos attachments, unfurling of the prepuce and correction of the deficient shaft skin by reapproximation of the preputial skin

  6. Including Arbitrary Antenna Patterns in Microwave Imaging of Buried Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meincke, Peter; Kim, Oleksiy S.; Lenler-Eriksen, Hans-Rudolph


    A linear inversion scheme for microwave imaging of buried objects is presented in which arbitrary antennas are accounted for through their plane-wave transmitting and receiving spectra......A linear inversion scheme for microwave imaging of buried objects is presented in which arbitrary antennas are accounted for through their plane-wave transmitting and receiving spectra...

  7. A Buried Vertical Filter for Micro and Nanoparticle Filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, S.J.; Shen, C.; Sarro, P.M.


    This paper presents a silicon micromachined filter for micro- and nanoparticles. The filter is vertical and completely buried beneath the surface. The buried aspect allows additional features to be integrated above the filter, while the vertical aspect allows the creation of highly uniform pores and

  8. Compact Buried Ducts in a Hot-Humid Climate House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, Dave [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)


    "9A system of compact, buried ducts provides a high-performance and cost-effective solution for delivering conditioned air throughout the building. This report outlines research activities that are expected to facilitate adoption of compact buried duct systems by builders. The results of this research would be scalable to many new house designs in most climates and markets, leading to wider industry acceptance and building code and energy program approval. The primary research question with buried ducts is potential condensation at the outer jacket of the duct insulation in humid climates during the cooling season. Current best practices for buried ducts rely on encapsulating the insulated ducts with closed-cell spray polyurethane foam insulation to control condensation and improve air sealing. The encapsulated buried duct concept has been analyzed and shown to be effective in hot-humid climates. The purpose of this project is to develop an alternative buried duct system that performs effectively as ducts in conditioned space - durable, energy efficient, and cost-effective - in a hot-humid climate (IECC warm-humid climate zone 3A) with three goals that distinguish this project: 1) Evaluation of design criteria for buried ducts that use common materials and do not rely on encapsulation using spray foam or disrupt traditional work sequences; 2) Establishing design criteria for compact ducts and incorporate those with the buried duct criteria to further reduce energy losses and control installed costs; 3) Developing HVAC design guidance for performing accurate heating and cooling load calculations for compact buried ducts.

  9. ISV technology development plan for buried waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickelson, D.F.; Callow, R.A. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Luey, J.K. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)


    This report identifies the main technical issues facing the in situ vitrification (ISV) application to buried waste, and presents a plan showing the top-level schedule and projected resources needed to develop and demonstrate the technology for meeting Environmental Restoration Department (ERD) needs. The plan also proposes a model strategy for the technology transfer from the Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development (DOE-OTD) to the Office of Environmental Restoration (DOE-ER) as the technology proceeds from issues resolution (development) to demonstration and remedial readiness. Implementation of the plan would require $34,91 1K in total funding to be spread in the years FY-93 through FY-98. Of this amount, $10,183K is planned to be funded by DOE-OTD through the ISV Integrated Program. The remaining amount, $24,728K, is recommended to be split between the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development ($6,670K) and DOE Office of Environmental Restoration ($18,058K).

  10. ISV technology development plan for buried waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickelson, D.F.; Callow, R.A. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Luey, J.K. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))


    This report identifies the main technical issues facing the in situ vitrification (ISV) application to buried waste, and presents a plan showing the top-level schedule and projected resources needed to develop and demonstrate the technology for meeting Environmental Restoration Department (ERD) needs. The plan also proposes a model strategy for the technology transfer from the Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development (DOE-OTD) to the Office of Environmental Restoration (DOE-ER) as the technology proceeds from issues resolution (development) to demonstration and remedial readiness. Implementation of the plan would require $34,91 1K in total funding to be spread in the years FY-93 through FY-98. Of this amount, $10,183K is planned to be funded by DOE-OTD through the ISV Integrated Program. The remaining amount, $24,728K, is recommended to be split between the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development ($6,670K) and DOE Office of Environmental Restoration ($18,058K).

  11. Buried Target Imaging: A Comparative Study (United States)

    Ghaderi Aram, Morteza; Dehmollaian, Mojtaba; Khaleghi, Ali


    A wide variety of qualitative methods have been proposed for microwave imaging. It is difficult to select only one of these methods based on a priori information and measurement equipment to achieve a reliable reconstruction. Various arrangements for antennas to be used in, for instance, have been proposed which have direct impacts on the complexity of inverse methods as well as the quality of output images. In this study, four qualitative methods of the linear sampling method (LSM), time reversal (TR), diffraction tomography (DT), and back-projection (BP) have been reviewed in a 2D scenario; the performance of the methods is compared within the same framework of a multi-static configuration. The goal is to compare their resolutions and determine their advantages and drawbacks. It is shown that LSM provides the best azimuth resolution but the worst range resolution. It is almost invariant to dielectric contrast and is appropriate for a wide range of dielectric contrasts and relatively large objects. It is also shown that at relatively low dielectric contrasts, TR images are most similar to the true object, show fewer artifacts, and offer high immunity to noise. While suffering from more artifacts due to the presence of some ghost images, DT offers the best range resolution. The results also show that BP has the worst azimuth resolution when reconstructing deeply-buried targets, although its implementation is straightforward and not computationally complex.

  12. Locally oxidized silicon surface-plasmon Schottky detector for telecom regime. (United States)

    Goykhman, Ilya; Desiatov, Boris; Khurgin, Jacob; Shappir, Joseph; Levy, Uriel


    We experimentally demonstrate an on-chip nanoscale silicon surface-plasmon Schottky photodetector based on internal photoemission process and operating at telecom wavelengths. The device is fabricated using a self-aligned approach of local-oxidation of silicon (LOCOS) on silicon on insulator substrate, which provides compatibility with standard complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology and enables the realization of the photodetector and low-loss bus photonic waveguide at the same fabrication step. Additionally, LOCOS technique allows avoiding lateral misalignment between the silicon surface and the metal layer to form a nanoscale Schottky contact. The fabricated devices showed enhanced detection capability for shorter wavelengths that is attributed to increased probability of the internal photoemission process. We found the responsivity of the nanodetector to be 0.25 and 13.3 mA/W for incident optical wavelengths of 1.55 and 1.31 μm, respectively. The presented device can be integrated with other nanophotonic and nanoplasmonic structures for the realization of monolithic opto-electronic circuitry on-chip.

  13. Synthesis of zinc oxide thin films prepared by sol-gel for specific bioactivity (United States)

    Adam, Tijjani; Basri, B.; Dhahi, Th. S.; Mohammed, Mohammed; Hashim, U.; Noriman, N. Z.; Dahham, Omar S.


    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films this device to used for many application like chemical sensor, biosensor, solar energy, etc but my project to use for bioactivity(biosensor). Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been grown using sol-gel technique. Characterization was done using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray(EDX) and Electrical Measurement(I-V). ZnO thin film was successfully synthesized using low cost sol-gel spin coating method. The coupling of DNA probe to ZnO thin film supports modified with carboxylic acid (COOH) is certainly the best practical method to make DNA immobilization and it does not require any coupling agent which could be a source of variability during the spotting with an automatic device. So, selected this coupling procedure for further experiments. The sensor was tested with initial trial with low concentrated DNA and able to detect detection of the disease effectively. Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer device with ZnO can detect at different concentration in order to valid the device capabilities for detecting development. The lowest concentration 1 µM HPV DNA probe can detect is 0.1 nM HPV target DNA.

  14. Effects of compaction and soil moisture on American burying beetles. (United States)


    Silphid beetles in the genus Nicrophorus bury themselves during periods of inactivity, however, the influence of soil characteristics on burial behavior remains unclear. We examined soil preferences of the federally endangered Nicrophorus americanus,...

  15. Buried nodules from the central Indian Ocean basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pattan, J.N.; Parthiban, G.

    studied here. The buried nodules are elliptical, elongated, rounded, sub rounded, irregular and polynucleated. Majority of these nodules are approx. 2 cm in diameter and have both smooth and rough surface texture. Manganese and Fe content of nodules from...

  16. Compact Buried Ducts in a Hot-Humid Climate House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, D. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)


    A system of compact, buried ducts provides a high-performance and cost-effective solution for delivering conditioned air throughout the building. This report outlines research activities that are expected to facilitate adoption of compact buried duct systems by builders. The results of this research would be scalable to many new house designs in most climates and markets, leading to wider industry acceptance and building code and energy program approval.

  17. Optofluidic Lab-on-a-Chip Fluorescence Sensor Using Integrated Buried ARROW (bARROW) Waveguides. (United States)

    Wall, Thomas; McMurray, Johnny; Meena, Gopikrishnan; Ganjalizadeh, Vahid; Schmidt, Holger; Hawkins, Aaron R


    Optofluidic, lab-on-a-chip fluorescence sensors were fabricated using buried anti-resonant reflecting optical waveguides (bARROWs). The bARROWs are impervious to the negative water absorption effects that typically occur in waveguides made using hygroscopic, plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) oxides. These sensors were used to detect fluorescent microbeads and had an average signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) that was 81.3% higher than that of single-oxide ARROW fluorescence sensors. While the single-oxide ARROW sensors were annealed at 300 °C to drive moisture out of the waveguides, the bARROW sensors required no annealing process to obtain a high SNR.

  18. Review of Concrete Biodeterioration in Relation to Buried Nuclear Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turick, C; Berry, C.


    Long-term storage of low level radioactive material in below ground concrete disposal units (DUs) (Saltstone Disposal Facility) is a means of depositing wastes generated from nuclear operations of the U.S. Department of Energy. Based on the currently modeled degradation mechanisms, possible microbial induced effects on the structural integrity of buried low level wastes must be addressed. Previous international efforts related to microbial impacts on concrete structures that house low level radioactive waste showed that microbial activity can play a significant role in the process of concrete degradation and ultimately structural deterioration. This literature review examines the recent research in this field and is focused on specific parameters that are applicable to modeling and prediction of the fate of concrete vaults housing stored wastes and the wastes themselves. Rates of concrete biodegradation vary with the environmental conditions, illustrating a need to understand the bioavailability of key compounds involved in microbial activity. Specific parameters require pH and osmotic pressure to be within a certain range to allow for microbial growth as well as the availability and abundance of energy sources like components involved in sulfur, iron and nitrogen oxidation. Carbon flow and availability are also factors to consider in predicting concrete biodegradation. The results of this review suggest that microbial activity in Saltstone, (grouted low level radioactive waste) is unlikely due to very high pH and osmotic pressure. Biodegradation of the concrete vaults housing the radioactive waste however, is a possibility. The rate and degree of concrete biodegradation is dependent on numerous physical, chemical and biological parameters. Results from this review point to parameters to focus on for modeling activities and also, possible options for mitigation that would minimize concrete biodegradation. In addition, key chemical components that drive microbial

  19. Improvement in the performance of SOI-MESFETs by T-shaped oxide part at channel region: DC and RF characteristics (United States)

    Naderi, Ali; Heirani, Fatemeh


    In this paper, a new structure for silicon on insulator (SOI) metal semiconductor field effect transistor (MESFET) is proposed. This new structure improves DC and RF characteristics of the device by embedding a region of hafnium oxide which is shaped like a reversed T letter in the channel region. This structure is named SOI-MESFET with T-Shaped oxide part (T-SOP). Hafnium oxide region increases the breakdown voltage of the device due to its higher critical electric field in comparison with silicon used in the conventional structure (C-SOI MESFET). The breakdown voltage of the conventional structure is 14 V while it raises to 19.5 V in proposed structure. Furthermore, placing this region in the channel, increases the operating frequencies of the device due to the modification in capacitances. Studying the maximum output power density shows that the proposed structure causes 31.5% improvement compared with the C-SOI MESFET. To improve the device performance, dimensions of the oxide region have been optimized and the more optimum performance achieved by varying the dimensions and finding the most suitable values. Due to the mentioned superiorities of the proposed structure over its conventional counterpart, it can be said that the proposed structure has the capability to be used as a reliable alternative for C-SOI MESFET in high voltage and high frequency applications. Also, from fabrication point of view, a fabrication process flow for T-SOP structure is proposed which shows convenient steps to develop this device.

  20. Study of silicon-on-insulator multiple-gate MOS structures including band-gap engineering and self heating effects


    Braccioli, Marco


    The progresses of electron devices integration have proceeded for more than 40 years following the well–known Moore’s law, which states that the transistors density on chip doubles every 24 months. This trend has been possible due to the downsizing of the MOSFET dimensions (scaling); however, new issues and new challenges are arising, and the conventional ”bulk” architecture is becoming inadequate in order to face them. In order to overcome the limitations related to conventional structure...

  1. Cascaded silicon-on-insulator double-ring sensors operating in high-sensitivity transverse-magnetic mode. (United States)

    Jiang, Xianxin; Ye, Junjun; Zou, Jun; Li, Mingyu; He, Jian-Jun


    We demonstrate ultrahigh-sensitivity silicon photonic sensors based on two cascaded double-ring resonators operating in transverse-magnetic mode. Both wavelength interrogation and intensity interrogation methods are experimentally investigated and the sensitivities reached 24,300 nm/RIU and 2430 dB/RIU, respectively. We also show that the double-ring sensors can be simply cascaded to realize simultaneous detection of multiple species, which is very promising for low-cost array applications.

  2. Mid-infrared to telecom-band supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear silicon-on-insulator wire waveguides. (United States)

    Kuyken, Bart; Liu, Xiaoping; Osgood, Richard M; Baets, Roel; Roelkens, Günther; Green, William M J


    We demonstrate the generation of a supercontinuum in a 2 cm long silicon wire by pumping the wire with mid-infrared picosecond pulses in the anomalous dispersion regime. The supercontinuum extends from 1535 nm up to 2525 nm for a coupled peak power of 12.7 W. It is shown that the supercontinuum originates primarily from the amplification of background noise. A detailed analysis of the spectral components which are generated through phase-matched processes is applied to extract the group velocity dispersion and fourth-order dispersion coefficient of the silicon wire waveguide.

  3. Note: A silicon-on-insulator microelectromechanical systems probe scanner for on-chip atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, Anthony G.; Maroufi, Mohammad; Moheimani, S. O. Reza, E-mail: [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)


    A new microelectromechanical systems-based 2-degree-of-freedom (DoF) scanner with an integrated cantilever for on-chip atomic force microscopy (AFM) is presented. The silicon cantilever features a layer of piezoelectric material to facilitate its use for tapping mode AFM and enable simultaneous deflection sensing. Electrostatic actuators and electrothermal sensors are used to accurately position the cantilever within the x-y plane. Experimental testing shows that the cantilever is able to be scanned over a 10 μm × 10 μm window and that the cantilever achieves a peak-to-peak deflection greater than 400 nm when excited at its resonance frequency of approximately 62 kHz.

  4. Monolithic InGaAs nanowire array lasers on silicon-on-insulator operating at room temperature


    Kim, Hyunseok; Lee, Wook-Jae; Farrell, Alan C.; Morales, Juan S. D.; Senanayake, Pradeep; Prikhodko, Sergey V.; Ochalski, Tomasz J.; Huffaker, Diana L.


    Chip-scale integrated light sources are a crucial component in a broad range of photonics applications. III-V semiconductor nanowire emitters have gained attention as a fascinating approach due to their superior material properties, extremely compact size, and the capability to grow directly on lattice-mismatched silicon substrates. Although there have been remarkable advances in nanowire-based emitters, their practical applications are still in the early stages due to the difficulties in int...

  5. Electrode Placement for Active Tuning of Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) Ring Resonator Structure Clad in Nematic Liquid Crystals (United States)


    1.573, and its threshold voltage is Vt = 1.61V, and saturation voltage Vsat = 2.51 V. LIXON’s clearing point temperature is 123 °C. Figure 4 depicts...applied potential. The field for most of the sample is 1.68 V/μm, which is above the threshold voltage of LIXON™. Saturation voltage, Vsat = 2.51 V

  6. A roadmap to a technological platform for integrating nanophotonic structures with micromechanical systems in silicon-on-insulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zientkiewicz, Jacek K.; Lach, Zbigniew T.; Grabiec, Piotr; Driessen, A.; Jaskorzynska, Bozena; Wosinski, Lech; Pustelny, Tadeusz; Lambeck, Paul; Gorecki, Christophe

    On the foundation of joint experience acquired by several research centres there was defined the roadmap to the desired single technological platform for fabrication of a specific class of photonic integrated circuits, which are controlled by mechanical means. In the paper the challenges of

  7. Size effects in near-ultraviolet Raman spectra of few-nanometer-thick silicon-on-insulator nanofilms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poborchii, Vladimir, E-mail:; Morita, Yukinori; Tada, Tetsuya [Nanoelectronics Research Institute, AIST, Tsukuba Central 5, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba 305-8565 (Japan); Geshev, Pavel I. [Institute of Thermophysics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Lavrentyev Ave. 1, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia and Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova Str. 2, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Utegulov, Zhandos N. [Department of Physics, School of Science and Technology, Nazarbayev University, 53 Kabanbai Batyr Ave., Astana 010000 (Kazakhstan); Volkov, Alexey [Interdisciplinary Instrumentation Center, National Laboratory Astana, Nazarbayev University, 53 Kabanbai Batyr Ave., Astana 010000 (Kazakhstan)


    We have fabricated Si-on-insulator (SOI) layers with a thickness h{sub 1} of a few nanometers and examined them by Raman spectroscopy with 363.8 nm excitation. We have found that phonon and electron confinement play important roles in SOI with h{sub 1} < 10 nm. We have confirmed that the first-order longitudinal optical phonon Raman band displays size-induced major homogeneous broadening due to phonon lifetime reduction as well as minor inhomogeneous broadening due to wave vector relaxation (WVR), both kinds of broadening being independent of temperature. Due to WVR, transverse acoustic (TA) phonons become Raman-active and give rise to a broad band in the range of 100–200 cm{sup −1}. Another broad band appeared at 200–400 cm{sup −1} in the spectrum of SOI is attributed to the superposition of 1st order Raman scattering on longitudinal acoustic phonons and 2nd order scattering on TA phonons. Suppression of resonance-assisted 2-nd order Raman bands in SOI spectra is explained by the electron-confinement-induced direct band gap enlargement compared to bulk Si, which is confirmed by SOI reflection spectra.

  8. Self phase modulation and stimulated raman scattering due to high power femtosecond pulse propagation in silicon-on-insulator waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mégret, P.; Dekker, R.; Wuilpart, M.; Klein, E.J.; Niehusmann, J.; Bette, S.; Staquet, N.; Först, M.; Ondracek, F.; Ctyroky, J.; Usechak, N.; Driessen, A.


    Self Phase Modulation (SPM) and Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) in silicon waveguides have been observed and will be discussed theoretically using a modified Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation. The high optical peak powers needed for the experiments were obtained by coupling sub-picosecond (200fs)

  9. Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Biochemical Sensor Based on Silicon-on-Insulator Rib Waveguide with Large Cross Section. (United States)

    Yuan, Dengpeng; Dong, Ying; Liu, Yujin; Li, Tianjian


    A high-sensitivity Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) biochemical sensing platform based on Silicon-in-insulator (SOI) rib waveguide with large cross section is proposed in this paper. Based on the analyses of the evanescent field intensity, the mode polarization and cross section dimensions of the SOI rib waveguide are optimized through finite difference method (FDM) simulation. To realize high-resolution MZI read-out configuration based on the SOI rib waveguide, medium-filled trenches are employed and their performances are simulated through two-dimensional finite-difference-time domain (2D-FDTD) method. With the fundamental EH-polarized mode of the SOI rib waveguide with a total rib height of 10 μm, an outside rib height of 5 μm and a rib width of 2.5 μm at the operating wavelength of 1550 nm, when the length of the sensitive window in the MZI configuration is 10 mm, a homogeneous sensitivity of 7296.6%/refractive index unit (RIU) is obtained. Supposing the resolutions of the photoelectric detectors connected to the output ports are 0.2%, the MZI sensor can achieve a detection limit of 2.74 × 10(-6) RIU. Due to high coupling efficiency of SOI rib waveguide with large cross section with standard single-mode glass optical fiber, the proposed MZI sensing platform can be conveniently integrated with optical fiber communication systems and (opto-) electronic systems, and therefore has the potential to realize remote sensing, in situ real-time detecting, and possible applications in the internet of things.

  10. Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Biochemical Sensor Based on Silicon-on-Insulator Rib Waveguide with Large Cross Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengpeng Yuan


    Full Text Available A high-sensitivity Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI biochemical sensing platform based on Silicon-in-insulator (SOI rib waveguide with large cross section is proposed in this paper. Based on the analyses of the evanescent field intensity, the mode polarization and cross section dimensions of the SOI rib waveguide are optimized through finite difference method (FDM simulation. To realize high-resolution MZI read-out configuration based on the SOI rib waveguide, medium-filled trenches are employed and their performances are simulated through two-dimensional finite-difference-time domain (2D-FDTD method. With the fundamental EH-polarized mode of the SOI rib waveguide with a total rib height of 10 μm, an outside rib height of 5 μm and a rib width of 2.5 μm at the operating wavelength of 1550 nm, when the length of the sensitive window in the MZI configuration is 10 mm, a homogeneous sensitivity of 7296.6%/refractive index unit (RIU is obtained. Supposing the resolutions of the photoelectric detectors connected to the output ports are 0.2%, the MZI sensor can achieve a detection limit of 2.74 × 10−6 RIU. Due to high coupling efficiency of SOI rib waveguide with large cross section with standard single-mode glass optical fiber, the proposed MZI sensing platform can be conveniently integrated with optical fiber communication systems and (opto- electronic systems, and therefore has the potential to realize remote sensing, in situ real-time detecting, and possible applications in the internet of things.

  11. Evaluation of custom-designed lateral power transistors in a silicon-on-insulator process in a synchronous buck converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okumus, Sinan; Fan, Lin; Nour, Yasser


    Most of todays power converters are based on power semiconductors, which are built in vertical power semiconductor processes. These devices result in limited packaging possibilities, which lead to physically long galvanic connections and therefore high external electromagnetic fields. These fields...

  12. Guided wave attenuation in coated pipes buried in sand (United States)

    Leinov, Eli; Cawley, Peter; Lowe, Michael J. S.


    Long-range guided wave testing (GWT) is routinely used for the monitoring and detection of corrosion defects in above ground pipelines in various industries. The GWT test range in buried, coated pipelines is greatly reduced compared to aboveground pipelines due to energy leakage into the embedding soil. In this study, we aim to increase test ranges for buried pipelines. The effect of pipe coatings on the T(0,1) and L(0,2) guided wave attenuation is investigated using a full-scale experimental apparatus and model predictions. Tests are performed on a fusion-bonded epoxy (FBE)-coated 8" pipe, buried in loose and compacted sand over a frequency range of 10-35 kHz. The application of a low impedance coating is shown to effectively decouple the influence of the sand on the ultrasound leakage from the buried pipe. We demonstrate ultrasonic isolation of a buried pipe by coating the pipe with a Polyethylene (PE)-foam layer that has a smaller impedance than both pipe and sand and the ability to withstand the overburden load from the sand. The measured attenuation in the buried PE-foam-FBE-coated pipe is substantially reduced, in the range of 0.3-1.2 dBm-1 for loose and compacted sand conditions, compared to buried FBE-coated pipe without the PE-foam, where the measured attenuation is in the range of 1.7-4.7 dBm-1. The acoustic properties of the PE-foam are measured independently using ultrasonic interferometry technique and used in model predictions of guided wave propagation in a buried coated pipe. Good agreement is found between the attenuation measurements and model predictions. The attenuation exhibits periodic peaks in the frequency domain corresponding to the through-thickness resonance frequencies of the coating layer. The large reduction in guided wave attenuation for PE-coated pipes would lead to greatly increased GWT test ranges, so such coatings would be attractive for new pipeline installations.

  13. The Challenging Acute Buried Bumper Syndrome: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Pinho


    Full Text Available Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG is the preferred route of feeding and nutritional support in patients requiring long-term enteral nutrition. Major complications related to the procedure are rare. Buried bumper syndrome is a late major complication, occurring in 0.3-2.4% of patients. Although considered a late complication, it can rarely occur in an acute setting early after the procedure. We present the case of an early buried bumper syndrome, presenting 1 week after PEG tube placement, with local stoma infection associated with an infected cavity within the abdominal wall with feeding content, successfully managed with antibiotic therapy and PEG tube repositioning through the original track.

  14. Melter development needs assessment for RWMC buried wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, A.D.; Carpenedo, R.J.; Anderson, G.L.


    This report presents a survey and initial assessment of the existing state-of-the-art melter technology necessary to thermally treat (stabilize) buried TRU waste, by producing a highly leach resistant glass/ceramic waste form suitable for final disposal. Buried mixed transuranic (TRU) waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) represents an environmental hazard requiring remediation. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed the INEL on the National Priorities List in 1989. Remediation of the buried TRU-contaminated waste via the CERCLA decision process is required to remove INEL from the National Priorities List. A Waste Technology Development (WTD) Preliminary Systems Design and Thermal Technologies Screening Study identified joule-heated and plasma-heated melters as the most probable thermal systems technologies capable of melting the INEL soil and waste to produce the desired final waste form (Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) glass/ceramic). The work reported herein then surveys the state of existing melter technology and assesses it within the context of processing INEL buried TRU wastes and contaminated soils. Necessary technology development work is recommended.

  15. Melter development needs assessment for RWMC buried wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, A.D.; Carpenedo, R.J.; Anderson, G.L.


    This report presents a survey and initial assessment of the existing state-of-the-art melter technology necessary to thermally treat (stabilize) buried TRU waste, by producing a highly leach resistant glass/ceramic waste form suitable for final disposal. Buried mixed transuranic (TRU) waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) represents an environmental hazard requiring remediation. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed the INEL on the National Priorities List in 1989. Remediation of the buried TRU-contaminated waste via the CERCLA decision process is required to remove INEL from the National Priorities List. A Waste Technology Development (WTD) Preliminary Systems Design and Thermal Technologies Screening Study identified joule-heated and plasma-heated melters as the most probable thermal systems technologies capable of melting the INEL soil and waste to produce the desired final waste form [Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) glass/ceramic]. The work reported herein then surveys the state of existing melter technology and assesses it within the context of processing INEL buried TRU wastes and contaminated soils. Necessary technology development work is recommended.

  16. Risk and cost tradeoffs for remote retrieval of buried waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, R.A.; Grienbenow, B.E.; Nickelson, D.F.


    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration is supporting the development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation of a suite of technologies that, when integrated with commercially available technologies, form a comprehensive system for the remediation of radioactive and hazardous buried waste. As a part of the program`s technology development, remote retrieval equipment is being developed and tested for the remediation of buried waste. During remedial planning, several factors are considered when choosing remote versus manual retrieval systems. Time that workers are exposed to radioactivity, chemicals, air particulate, and industrial hazards is one consideration. The generation of secondary waste is also a consideration because it amounts to more waste to treat and some wastes may require special handling or treatment. Cost is also a big factor in determining whether remote or manual operations will be used. Other considerations include implementability, effectiveness, and the number of required personnel. This paper investigates each of these areas to show the risk and cost benefits and limitations for remote versus manual retrieval of buried waste.

  17. Identification of buried victims in natural disaster with GPR method (United States)

    Dewi, Rianty Kusuma; Kurniawan, Adityo; Taqwantara, Reyhan Fariz; Iskandar, Farras M.; Naufal, Taufiq Ziyan; Widodo


    Indonesian is one of the most seismically active regions in the world and has very complicated plate convergence because there is meeting point of several tectonic plates. The complexity of tectonic features causes a lot of natural disasters such as landslides, tsunamis, earth quakes, volcanoes eruption, etc. Sometimes, the disasters occurs in high populated area and causing thousands to millions of victim been buried under the rumble. Unfortunately, the evacuation still uses the conventional method such using rescue dogs whereas the sensitivity of smell is decrease when the victims buried under the level of the ground. The purpose of this study is to detect buried bodies using GPR method, so it can enhance the effectiveness and the efficiency in looking for the disaster victims. GPR method is used because it can investigate things under the ground. A detailed GPR research has been done in Cikutra Graveyard, Bandung, with corpse buried two week until two years before the research. The radar profiles from this research showed amplitude contras anomaly between the new corpse and the old ones. We obtained the amplitude contras at 1.2-1.4 meters under the surface. This method proved to be effective but still need more attention on undulated surface and non-soil areas.

  18. Classification System for Individualized Treatment of Adult Buried Penis Syndrome. (United States)

    Tausch, Timothy J; Tachibana, Isamu; Siegel, Jordan A; Hoxworth, Ronald; Scott, Jeremy M; Morey, Allen F


    The authors present their experience with reconstructive strategies for men with various manifestations of adult buried penis syndrome, and propose a comprehensive anatomical classification system and treatment algorithm based on pathologic changes in the penile skin and involvement of neighboring abdominal and/or scrotal components. The authors reviewed all patients who underwent reconstruction of adult buried penis syndrome at their referral center between 2007 and 2015. Patients were stratified by location and severity of involved anatomical components. Procedures performed, demographics, comorbidities, and clinical outcomes were reviewed. Fifty-six patients underwent reconstruction of buried penis at the authors' center from 2007 to 2015. All procedures began with a ventral penile release. If the uncovered penile skin was determined to be viable, a phalloplasty was performed by anchoring penoscrotal skin to the proximal shaft, and the ventral shaft skin defect was closed with scrotal flaps. In more complex patients with circumferential nonviable penile skin, the penile skin was completely excised and replaced with a split-thickness skin graft. Complex patients with severe abdominal lipodystrophy required adjacent tissue transfer. For cases of genital lymphedema, the procedure involved complete excision of the lymphedematous tissue, and primary closure with or without a split-thickness skin graft, also often involving the scrotum. The authors' overall success rate was 88 percent (49 of 56), defined as resolution of symptoms without the need for additional procedures. Successful correction of adult buried penis often necessitates an interdisciplinary, multimodal approach. Therapeutic, IV.

  19. Ground Penetrating Radar Imaging of Buried Metallic Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polat, A. Burak; Meincke, Peter


    During the past decade there has been considerable research on ground penetrating radar (GPR) tomography for detecting objects such as pipes, cables, mines and barrels buried under the surface of the Earth. While the earlier researches were all based on the assumption of a homogeneous background...

  20. Melanin concentrating hormone modulates oxytocin-mediated marble burying. (United States)

    Sanathara, Nayna M; Garau, Celia; Alachkar, Amal; Wang, Lien; Wang, Zhiwei; Nishimori, Katsuhiko; Xu, Xiangmin; Civelli, Olivier


    Repetitive and perseverative behaviors are common features of a number of neuropsychiatric diseases such as Angelman's syndrome, Tourette's syndrome, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and autism spectrum disorders. The oxytocin system has been linked to the regulation of repetitive behavior in both animal models and humans, but many of its downstream targets have still to be found. We report that the melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) system is a target of the oxytocin system in regulating one repetitive behavior, marble burying. First we report that nearly 60% of MCH neurons express oxytocin receptors, and demonstrate using rabies mediated tract tracing that MCH neurons receive direct presynaptic input from oxytocin neurons. Then we show that MCH receptor knockout (MCHR1KO) mice and MCH ablated animals display increased marble burying response while central MCH infusion decreases it. Finally, we demonstrate the downstream role of the MCH system on oxytocin mediated marble burying by showing that central infusions of MCH and oxytocin alone or together reduce it while antagonizing the MCH system blocks oxytocin-mediated reduction of this behavior. Our findings reveal a novel role for the MCH system as a mediator of the role of oxytocin in regulating marble-burying behavior in mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Protection of Buried Pipe under Repeated Loading by Geocell Reinforcement (United States)

    Khalaj, Omid; Joz Darabi, N.; Moghaddas Tafreshi, S. N.; Mašek, Bohuslav


    With increase in cities’ population and development of urbane life, passing buried pipelines near ground’s surface is inevitable in urban areas, roads, subways and highways. This paper presents the results of three-dimensional full scale model tests on high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe with diameter of 250 mm in geocell reinforced soil, subjected to repeated loading to simulate the vehicle loads. The effect of geocell’s pocket size (55*55 mm and 110*110 mm) and embedment depth of buried pipe (1.5 and 2 times pipe diameter) in improving the behaviour of buried pipes was investigated. The geocell’s height of 100 mm was used in all tests. The repeated load of 800 kPa was applied on circular loading plate with diameter of 250 mm. The results show that the pipe displacement, soil surface settlement and transferred pressure on the pipe’s crown has been influenced significantly upon the use of geocells. For example, the vertical diametric strain (VDS) and soil surface settlement (SSS), in a way that using a geocell with pocket size of 110*110 mm reduces by 27% and 43%, respectively, compared with the unreinforced one. Meanwhile, by increasing buried depth of pipe from 1.5D to 2D, the use of geocell of 110*110 mm delivers about 50% reduction in SSS and VDS, compared with the unreinforced soil.

  2. Defensive burying in rodents : ethology, neurobiology and psychopharmacology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, S.F.; Koolhaas, J.M.


    Defensive burying refers to the typical rodent behavior of displacing bedding material with vigorous treading-like movements of their forepaws and shoveling movements of their heads directed towards a variety of noxious stimuli that pose a near and immediate threat, such as a wall-mounted

  3. Evaluating the movement of active faults on buried pipelines | Parish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the earthquake, a buried pipeline may be experienced extreme loading that is the result of the relatively large displacement of the Earth along the pipe. Large movements of ground could occur by faulting, liquefaction, lateral spreading, landslides, and slope failures. Since the pipelines are widely spread, and in ...

  4. Examination of faults active motion on buried pipelines | Parish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During an earthquake, a buried pipeline may experience a severe loading as the result of the ground relatively large displacement along the pipe. Large ground movements may occur by faulting, liquefaction, lateral spreading, landslides and slope failures. Since the pipelines are widely spread, and in some areas ...

  5. Bearing and Range Estimation Algorithm for Buried Object in Underwater Acoustics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Han


    (DOA of objects and objects-sensors distances, is used in MUSIC algorithm instead of classical model. The influence of the depth of buried objects is discussed. Finally, the numerical results are given in the case of buried cylindrical shells.

  6. Enhanced surface plasmon polariton propagation length using a buried metal grating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jose, J.; Segerink, Franciscus B.; Korterik, Jeroen P.; Gomez Casado, A.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Herek, Jennifer Lynn; Offerhaus, Herman L.


    We report an enhancement in the propagation length of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) on a metallic grating when the grating is buried in the substrate. A template-stripping technique has been used to fabricate the buried grating. Near-field measurements on the buried and an exposed grating show

  7. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration lessons learned: 1993 technology demonstrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostelnik, K.M.; Owens, K.J.


    An integrated technology demonstration was conducted by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Cold Test Pit in the summer of 1993. This program and demonstration was sponsored by the US Department of Energy Office of Technology Development. The demonstration included six technologies representing a synergistic system for the characterization and retrieval of a buried hazardous waste site. The integrated technology demonstration proved very successful and a summary of the technical accomplishments is presented. Upon completion of the integrated technology demonstration, cognizant program personnel participated in a lessons learned exercise. This exercise was conducted at the Simplot Decision Support Center at Idaho State University and lessons learned activity captured additional information relative to the integration of technologies for demonstration purposes. This information will be used by BWID to enhance program planning and strengthen future technology demonstrations.

  8. Imaging and controlling plasmonic interference fields at buried interfaces (United States)

    Lummen, Tom T. A.; Lamb, Raymond J.; Berruto, Gabriele; Lagrange, Thomas; Dal Negro, Luca; García de Abajo, F. Javier; McGrouther, Damien; Barwick, B.; Carbone, F.


    Capturing and controlling plasmons at buried interfaces with nanometre and femtosecond resolution has yet to be achieved and is critical for next generation plasmonic devices. Here we use light to excite plasmonic interference patterns at a buried metal-dielectric interface in a nanostructured thin film. Plasmons are launched from a photoexcited array of nanocavities and their propagation is followed via photon-induced near-field electron microscopy (PINEM). The resulting movie directly captures the plasmon dynamics, allowing quantification of their group velocity at ~0.3 times the speed of light, consistent with our theoretical predictions. Furthermore, we show that the light polarization and nanocavity design can be tailored to shape transient plasmonic gratings at the nanoscale. This work, demonstrating dynamical imaging with PINEM, paves the way for the femtosecond and nanometre visualization and control of plasmonic fields in advanced heterostructures based on novel two-dimensional materials such as graphene, MoS2, and ultrathin metal films.

  9. A prolonged buried fish bone mimicking Ludwig angina. (United States)

    Hsu, Chao-Lan; Chen, Cheng-Wei


    Most migrated foreign bodies in the neck were removed immediately in patients with persistent symptoms. It is a rare condition that a fish bone was buried for a prolonged time in the tongue with little discomfort. We report a unique case of an ingested fish bone lodged in the tongue for 16 months until infection ensued. Ludwig angina was considered first because the patient had fever, odynophagia, swelling of the tongue, and mouth floor. The fish bone buried in the tongue was incidentally found on the computed tomography scan and successfully removed by surgical exploration. Although dental infection is the most common underlying cause in Ludwig angina, embedded foreign body should be considered as one of the pathogenesis. On the other hand, computed tomography scan can be useful in identifying extraluminal migration of fish bones in the neck. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Hot Buried Object Detection Technique Using a Temperature Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apik Rusdiarna Indra PRAJA


    Full Text Available Self-construction of a hot object detection system has been prepared by using a commercialized temperature sensor (connected to the computer for data collection to monitor any temperature changes produced by an object buried in the medium (sand. The monitoring was carried out based on real time measurements. For this work, the sensor has been varied its depth (the distance from the sensor to the hot object. From the experimental result, it was found that the apparatus could perform appropriately for the detection. This apparatus set up is potentially to be developed for human rescues detection of any foreign object including survivors buried in the ground caused by natural disaster of earthquake and volcanic eruption.

  11. Analytical Subthreshold Current and Subthreshold Swing Models for a Fully Depleted (FD) Recessed-Source/Drain (Re-S/D) SOI MOSFET with Back-Gate Control (United States)

    Saramekala, Gopi Krishna; Tiwari, Pramod Kumar


    Two-dimensional (2D) analytical models for the subthreshold current and subthreshold swing of the back-gated fully depleted recessed-source/drain (Re-S/D) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) are presented. The surface potential is determined by solving the 2D Poisson equation in both channel and buried-oxide (BOX) regions, considering suitable boundary conditions. To derive closed-form expressions for the subthreshold characteristics, the virtual cathode potential expression has been derived in terms of the minimum of the front and back surface potentials. The effect of various device parameters such as gate oxide and Si film thicknesses, thickness of source/drain penetration into BOX, applied back-gate bias voltage, etc. on the subthreshold current and subthreshold swing has been analyzed. The validity of the proposed models is established using the Silvaco ATLAS™ 2D device simulator.

  12. Thick soi films by rapid thermal processing for high voltage integrated circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilhac, J.M.; Cornibert, L.; Charitat, G.; Nolhier, N.; Zerrouk, D.; Ganibal, C.


    A structure for electrical insulation of control devices used in high voltage integrated circuits, is presented, combining junction and dielectric insulation for vertical and lateral insulation respectively. The insulation performances are first theoretically assessed to estimate the required oxide thickness; then, a method for creating the buried oxide layer is presented and experimentally verified; the method consists in re-crystallizing thick polysilicon films by Lateral Epitaxial Growth over Oxide (LEGO) in order to fabricate substrates with localized SOI (silicon on insulator) layers, and avoids any horizontal thermal gradient in the solid phase and therefore produces less defects, while allowing the formation of much thicker films than in any other melt-based technique

  13. Micromorphological and ultramicroscopic aspects of buried remains: Time-dependent markers of decomposition and permanence in soil in experimental burial. (United States)

    Zangarini, Sara; Trombino, Luca; Cattaneo, Cristina


    A buried body not only determines an environmental response at the deposition site but it is also affected by the soil. The experiment was performed using eleven swine carcasses buried in an open site (Northern Italy). Changes occurring in bone tissue at different post-burial intervals were evaluated observing thin sections of bones through micromorphological and ultramicroscopic (SEM-EDS) techniques. These methods allowed the identification of: (a) magnesium phosphate (Mg3(PO4)2) crystallizations, probably linked to decomposition of bones and soft tissues; (b) significant sulphur levels which seem to be related to hydrogen sulphide (H2S) fixation in bone tissue; (c) metal oxide concentrations in the form of unusual violet-blue colorations, which probably are evidence of the soil's action and penetration in bones, also testified by (d) the presence of mineral grains enclosed in the osseous tissue. The results underline the possibility of identifying both time-dependent markers of decomposition and indicators of permanence in soil in buried bones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. GPR for detecting buried animal bones in controlled sandbox experiments (United States)

    Schneider, B.; Tsoflias, G. P.


    Bone-beds can provide a wealth of information at archeological sites, including age of the site, site formation processes, seasonality of the kill, size and gender of the herd, and paleoenvironmental conditions at the time of the kill. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is a non-invasive, cost-effective technique that has the potential to delineate the horizontal and vertical limits of bone-beds in different geomorphological settings. Furthermore, the identification of a bone signature from geophysical methods can have modern day applications, particularly in forensic research investigations. There have been previous attempts, mostly in forensic studies and studies that involve mapping graveyards, to locate buried bone using geophysics. Although geophysical tools have successfully identified buried remains of homicide victims and the location of graves, these finds resulted from the identification of anomalies related to the disturbed soil in graves and not to an anomalous signal from the bone itself. It is necessary to detect the signal from the bone at these archaeological sites, because prehistoric animal remains typically were not buried immediately upon death, but instead became covered over time by sediment. Initial lab experiments determined the electrical properties (i.e. the relative permittivity, loss factor, and loss tangent values) of modern animal bone and indicate that bone is a desirable low-loss target for GPR detection. In order to test these results, we have built a 1x2x1 meter sandbox and placed modern bison bone inside of it to simulate natural burial conditions. This research presents successful GPR detection of the vertical and horizontal extents of the buried bison bone. In addition, changes in variables such as depth of burial, size and shape of target, and antenna orientation are presented to assess the overall detection capability of GPR for this unique archaeological feature.

  15. New Technique for the Treatment of Buried Penis in Children. (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Lin, Tao; He, Dawei; Wei, Guanghui; Liu, Junhong; Liu, Xing; Hua, Yi; Zhang, Deying; Lu, Peng; Wu, Shengde; Li, Xuliang


    To present our treatment experience of buried penis, which has no consensus therapeutic technique for all cases of buried penis, by using a new technique for the repair of this condition, in which the approach is through the ventral penile root. We performed a retrospective review of 153 patients (median age: 6.5 years) who underwent repair of a buried penis between March 2005 and March 2013. The technique involves the creation of a wedge-shaped cut of the ventral penile skin, followed by fixation of the subcutaneous penile skin at the base of the degloved penis to the Buck fascia at the 2- and 10-o'clock positions. The ventral outer preputial skin is split down the midline, and the dorsal inner preputial skin is cut with oblique incision. All patients were followed for an average of 12 months after repair. Other than 2 cases (1.3%) of trapped penis with a ring of scar tissue, which required subsequent excision, there were no complications and the cosmetic appearance was satisfactory. The described ventral penile approach is a simple and effective procedure with good cosmetic outcomes and few complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A method for the detection of shallow buried objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. McGee


    Full Text Available Numerous geophysical techniques have successfully contributed to geotechnical engineering and environmental problems of the shallow subsurface. Geophysical surveys are used to: delineate geologic features, measure in-situ engineering properties, and detect hidden cultural features. Most technologies for the detection of shallow buried objects are electromagnetic methods which measure the contrast in ferrous content, electrical conductivity, or dielectric constant between the object and surrounding soil. Seismic technologies measure the contrast in mechanical properties of the subsurface, however, scaled down versions of conventional seismic methods are not suitable for the detection shallow buried objects. In this paper, we discuss the development of a method based on acoustic to seismic coupling for the detection of shallow buried object. Surface vibrations induced by an impinging acoustic wave from a loudspeaker is referred to as acoustic to seismic coupling. These vibrations can be remotely detected using a laser-Doppler vibrometer (LDV. If an object is present below the surface of the insonified patch, the transmitted wave is back scattered by the target towards the surface. For targets very close to the surface, the scattered field produces anomalous ground vibrational velocities that are indicative of the shape and size of the target.

  17. Are PEGJs a Risk Factor for the Buried Bumper Syndrome? (United States)

    Goring, Jonathan; Lawson, Anne; Godse, Alok


    Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomies (PEGs) with or without a jejunal extension (PEGJs) are a well-accepted method of enteral feeding. They are associated with a number of complications, including the buried bumper syndrome (BBS). We aimed to identify risk factors for BBS, our current management strategies, and optimal timing for surgical treatment. Hospital coding and a database compiled by our specialist nutrition nurse were used to identify all cases of buried bumpers from January 2012 to December 2014 as well as all PEG/PEGJ devices inserted during this time. A retrospective case note review was performed for each patient with BBS to identify risk factors, management strategies, and outcomes. Two hundred twelve PEGs and 22 PEGJs were inserted. Nine patients were identified with BBS. Patients with PEGJ tubes were significantly more likely to develop BBS (7/22, 32%) than those with PEG tubes (2/212, 0.9%) Pbumper 33days after BBS was diagnosed and before removal was attempted. All other patients underwent laparotomy to remove the bumper. Mean hospital stay was 22days postoperatively. Buried bumper syndrome is a serious condition which warrants urgent intervention. We have demonstrated a higher than expected rate of BBS associated with PEGJ tubes. We hypothesize that this may be related to the jejunal extensions leading to difficulty in the usual maintenance regimen that all carers are taught after PEG/PEGJ insertion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. FY-95 technology catalog. Technology development for buried waste remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program, which is now part of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area (LSFA), supports applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a multitude of advanced technologies dealing with underground radioactive and hazardous waste remediation. These innovative technologies are being developed as part of integrated comprehensive remediation systems for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste sites throughout the DOE complex. These efforts are identified and coordinated in support of Environmental Restoration (EM-40) and Waste Management (EM-30) needs and objectives. Sponsored by the DOE Office of Technology Development (EM-50), BWID and LSFA work with universities and private industry to develop technologies that are being transferred to the private sector for use nationally and internationally. This report contains the details of the purpose, logic, and methodology used to develop and demonstrate DOE buried waste remediation technologies. It also provides a catalog of technologies and capabilities with development status for potential users. Past FY-92 through FY-94 technology testing, field trials, and demonstrations are summarized. Continuing and new FY-95 technology demonstrations also are described.

  19. Strategies for managing rival bacterial communities: Lessons from burying beetles. (United States)

    Duarte, Ana; Welch, Martin; Swannack, Chris; Wagner, Josef; Kilner, Rebecca M


    The role of bacteria in animal development, ecology and evolution is increasingly well understood, yet little is known of how animal behaviour affects bacterial communities. Animals that benefit from defending a key resource from microbial competitors are likely to evolve behaviours to control or manipulate the animal's associated external microbiota. We describe four possible mechanisms by which animals could gain a competitive edge by disrupting a rival bacterial community: "weeding," "seeding," "replanting" and "preserving." By combining detailed behavioural observations with molecular and bioinformatic analyses, we then test which of these mechanisms best explains how burying beetles, Nicrophorus vespilloides, manipulate the bacterial communities on their carcass breeding resource. Burying beetles are a suitable species to study how animals manage external microbiota because reproduction revolves around a small vertebrate carcass. Parents shave a carcass and apply antimicrobial exudates on its surface, shaping it into an edible nest for their offspring. We compared bacterial communities in mice carcasses that were either fresh, prepared by beetles or unprepared but buried underground for the same length of time. We also analysed bacterial communities in the burying beetle's gut, during and after breeding, to understand whether beetles could be "seeding" the carcass with particular microbes. We show that burying beetles do not "preserve" the carcass by reducing bacterial load, as is commonly supposed. Instead, our results suggest they "seed" the carcass with bacterial groups which are part of the Nicrophorus core microbiome. They may also "replant" other bacteria from the carcass gut onto the surface of their carrion nest. Both these processes may lead to the observed increase in bacterial load on the carcass surface in the presence of beetles. Beetles may also "weed" the bacterial community by eliminating some groups of bacteria on the carcass, perhaps through

  20. An accurate simulation study on capacitance-voltage characteristics of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors in novel structures (United States)

    Yu, Eunseon; Cho, Seongjae; Park, Byung-Gook


    An essential and important method for physical and electrical characterization of a metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structure is the capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurement. Judging from the C-V characteristics of a MOS structure, we are allowed to predict the DC and AC behaviors of the field-effect transistor and extract a set of primary parameters. The MOS field-effect transistor (MOSFET) technology has evolved to enhance the gate controllability over the channel in order for effectively suppressing the short-channel effects (SCEs) unwantedly taking place as device scaling progresses. For the goal, numerous novel structures have been suggested for the advanced MOSFET devices. However, the C-V characteristics of such novel MOS structures have not been seldom studied in depth. In this work, we report the C-V characteristics of ultra-thin-body (UTB) MOSFETs on the bulk Si and silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrates by rigorous technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulation. For higher credibility and accuracy, quantum-mechanical models are activated and empirical material parameters are employed from the existing literature. The MOSFET structure and the material configurations are schemed referring advanced logic technology suggested by the most recent technology roadmap. The C-V characteristics of UTB MOSFETs having a floating body with extremely small volume are closely investigated.

  1. Cross-Sectional Channel Shape Dependence of Short-Channel Effects in Fin-Type Double-Gate Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors (United States)

    Liu, Yongxun; Ishii, Kenichi; Masahara, Meishoku; Tsutsumi, Toshiyuki; Takashima, Hidenori; Yamauchi, Hiromi; Suzuki, Eiichi


    The dependence of short-channel effects (SCEs) on the cross-sectional channel shape of the fin-type double-gate metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) has been experimentally investigated from the viewpoint of fin fabrication. The three types of fin-type double-gate MOSFETs (FinFETs) with a rectangular-cross-section channel on a (110)-oriented silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer, and a triangular and trapezoidal channels on a (100)-oriented SOI wafer were fabricated using the same orientation-dependent wet etching process. The experimental results show that the SCEs in rectangular-cross-section silicon (Si)-fin channel devices are well suppressed compared with those in a triangular or a trapezoidal Si-fin channel device fabricated using a similar mask pattern, in the regimes of the gate length of less than 85 nm and Si fin height of larger than 65 nm. The presented experimental results are valuable for FinFET design and fabrication.

  2. Reflection Seismic Imaging of Buried Valleys, Onshore Denmark (United States)

    Lykke-Andersen, H.; Jørgensen, F.; Nørmark, E.

    The steadily increasing demands for securing supplies of clean groundwater have in recent years led to the adoption of reflection seismics in the family of geophysical methods used for groundwater research in Denmark. Buried valleys- often some km wide and a few hundred metres deep - have proved to be important sites for deeply seated, well protected groundwater reservoirs. It is a well known fact that the structure of buried valleys is complicated. With their potential for generation of relatively high resolution images of depositional and tectonic structures, reflection seismics have be- come a valuable supplement to the traditional resistivity methods in the study of buried valleys. Reflection seismic is an expensive method compared to other methods in use for groundwater research; therefore, careful selection of profile locations is mandatory. A practice has developed where selection of locations are based on mapping results obtained by resistivity methods. Results obtained by dynamite and vibrator sources are presented. Experience shows that the quality of the two data types is comparable. Vertical resolution better than ca. 10 m can be obtained, but the bandwidth of data is variable. In areas where non-(water) saturated shallow sediments are present; the bandwidth may be strongly reduced. Depth penetration down to at least one km is normally obtained. The seismic data are tied to wells by means of vertical seismic profiles in exploratory wells. Results are presented to illustrate: 1) potentials and limi- tations of the method and 2) a number of valleys with different types of valley-fill and relationships with the substratum. The genesis of the valleys will be briefly discussed.

  3. Backfill Effects on Response of Buried Reinforced Concrete Slabs (United States)


    38nionui ONVS 01O~ dilO 9.4 57- /j 4 ti tw to It %Lium Lŕ f34 58 CHAPTER 5 FIELD TEST RESULTS 5.1 GEOPHYSICAL SITE CHARACTERIZATION Surface seismic...of these tests and preliminary analysis of the data show that further information can be obtained on backfill effects on buried structures with...further analysis of the AFESC and Backfill Effects data. Two and tree dimensional finite element calculations should be performed to study the relative

  4. Sexual and Overall Quality of Life Improvements After Surgical Correction of "Buried Penis". (United States)

    Hughes, Duncan B; Perez, Edgar; Garcia, Ryan M; Aragón, Oriana R; Erdmann, Detlev


    "Buried penis" is an increasing burden in our population with many possible etiologies. Although surgical correction of buried penis can be rewarding and successful for the surgeon, the psychological and functional impact of buried penis on the patient is less understood. The study's aim was to evaluate the sexual satisfaction and overall quality of life before and after buried penis surgery in a single-surgeon's patient population using a validated questionnaire (Changes in Sexual Functioning Questionnaire short-form). Using Likert scales generated from the questionnaire and 1-tailed paired t test analysis, we found that there was significantly improved sexual function after correction of a buried penis. Variables individually showed that there was significant improvement with sexual pleasure, urinating, and with genital hygiene postoperatively. There were no significant differences concerning frequency of pain with orgasms. Surgical correction of buried penis significantly improves the functional, sexual, and psychological aspects of patient's lives.

  5. Helmet-mounted uncooled FPA camera for buried object detection (United States)

    Miller, John L.; Duvoisin, Herbert A., III; Wiltsey, George


    Software neural nets hosted on a parallel processor can analyze input from an IR imager to evaluate the likelihood of a buried object. However, it is only recently that low weight, staring LWIR sensors have become available in uncooled formats at sensitivities that provide enough information for useful man-portable helmet mounted applications. The images from the IR are presented to a human user through a see-through display after processing and highlighting by a neural net housed in a fanny-pack. This paper describes the phenomenology of buried object detection in the infrared, the neural net based image processing, the helmet mounted IR sensor and the ergonomics of mounting a sensor to head gear. The maturing and commercialization of uncooled focal plane arrays and high density electronics enables lightweight, low cost, small camera packages that can be integrated with hard hats and military helmets. The head gear described has a noise equivalent delta temperature (NEDT) of less than 50 milliKelvin, consumes less than 10 watts and weighs about 1.5 kilograms.

  6. Evidence for aeolian origins of heuweltjies from buried gravel layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Cramer


    Full Text Available Although heuweltjies (19–32 m diameter dominate the surface of much of the southwestern Cape of South Africa, their origins, distribution and age remain controversial. Current hypotheses are that the heuweltjies are (1 constructed by the excavation and mounding habits of burrowing animals; (2 the result of erosion by water of areas between patches protected from fluvial action by denser vegetation or (3 the product of localised aeolian sediment accumulation beneath denser vegetation associated with termitaria. At a site where quartz-containing gravels occur on the soil surface in areas between heuweltjies, these gravels were found to extend as a relatively intact layer of uniform concentration from the inter-mound area into the mound at the same plane as the surrounding soil surface. This buried layer suggests that heuweltjies were either built-up by deposition on a previous soil surface layer or eroded from sediment accumulated above the buried gravel layer. Mounds contain a relatively large proportion of silt consistent with sediment deposition. Mound sediment elemental composition was strongly correlated with that of local shale, indicating a local source of sediment. Pedogenesis was considerably more advanced off- than on-mound. There was no evidence of extensive regional aeolian sediment mantling over the vast area in which the heuweltjies occur. These findings and observations support the aeolian deposition hypothesis of heuweltjie origins combined with a degree of erosion, rather than a termite bioturbation hypothesis or a predominantly erosion-based hypothesis.

  7. Centrifuge modeling of buried continuous pipelines subjected to normal faulting (United States)

    Moradi, Majid; Rojhani, Mahdi; Galandarzadeh, Abbas; Takada, Shiro


    Seismic ground faulting is the greatest hazard for continuous buried pipelines. Over the years, researchers have attempted to understand pipeline behavior mostly via numerical modeling such as the finite element method. The lack of well-documented field case histories of pipeline failure from seismic ground faulting and the cost and complicated facilities needed for full-scale experimental simulation mean that a centrifuge-based method to determine the behavior of pipelines subjected to faulting is best to verify numerical approaches. This paper presents results from three centrifuge tests designed to investigate continuous buried steel pipeline behavior subjected to normal faulting. The experimental setup and procedure are described and the recorded axial and bending strains induced in a pipeline are presented and compared to those obtained via analytical methods. The influence of factors such as faulting offset, burial depth and pipe diameter on the axial and bending strains of pipes and on ground soil failure and pipeline deformation patterns are also investigated. Finally, the tensile rupture of a pipeline due to normal faulting is investigated.

  8. Dynamic model of open shell structures buried in poroelastic soils (United States)

    Bordón, J. D. R.; Aznárez, J. J.; Maeso, O.


    This paper is concerned with a three-dimensional time harmonic model of open shell structures buried in poroelastic soils. It combines the dual boundary element method (DBEM) for treating the soil and shell finite elements for modelling the structure, leading to a simple and efficient representation of buried open shell structures. A new fully regularised hypersingular boundary integral equation (HBIE) has been developed to this aim, which is then used to build the pair of dual BIEs necessary to formulate the DBEM for Biot poroelasticity. The new regularised HBIE is validated against a problem with analytical solution. The model is used in a wave diffraction problem in order to show its effectiveness. It offers excellent agreement for length to thickness ratios greater than 10, and relatively coarse meshes. The model is also applied to the calculation of impedances of bucket foundations. It is found that all impedances except the torsional one depend considerably on hydraulic conductivity within the typical frequency range of interest of offshore wind turbines.

  9. Preliminary observations of arthropods associated with buried carrion on Oahu. (United States)

    Rysavy, Noel M; Goff, M Lee


    Several studies in Hawaii have focused on arthropod succession and decomposition patterns of surface remains, but the current research presents the first study to focus on shallow burials in this context. Three domestic pig carcasses (Sus scrofa L.) were buried at the depths of 20-40 cm in silty clay loam soil on an exposed ridge on the leeward side of the volcanically formed Koolau Mountain Range. One carcass was exhumed after 3 weeks, another after 6 weeks, and the last carcass was exhumed after 9 weeks. An inventory of arthropod taxa present on the carrion and in the surrounding soil and observations pertaining to decomposition were recorded at each exhumation. The longer the carrion was buried, the greater the diversity of arthropod species that were recovered from the remains. Biomass loss was calculated to be 49% at the 3-week interval, 56% at the 6-week interval, and 59% at the 9-week interval. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. Diagenetic Variations between Upper Cretaceous Outcrop and Deeply Buried Reservoir Chalks of the North Sea Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjuler, Morten Leth; Fabricius, Ida Lykke


    In the central North Sea Basin hydrocarbon-bearing chalks are deeply buried (2-3 km) whereas chalks in the rim areas are cropping out in the surrounding countries. The differing diagenetic histories between buried and outcrop chalk result in different rock properties, which is of great importance...... has been replaced by kaolinite. These diagenetic variations are explained by higher temperatures and pressures in the deeply buried reservoir chalks....

  11. Detecting buried remains in Florida using ground-penetrating radar (United States)

    Schultz, John Joseph

    This research tested the applicability of using ground-penetrating radar (GPR) in Florida to detect buried bodies; and assessed the effect of body size, depth, antenna type, time, and soil type on grave detection. Furthermore, because of the emphasis on decomposition, it was possible to address the role of depth, body size, time, and soil type on decomposition. The site was located in an open pasture, where 20 pig (Sus scrofa) cadavers of two average weights (29.7 and 63.8 kg) were buried at two depths (50 to 60 or 100 to 110 cm). The cadavers were monitored monthly for durations up to 21 months with GPR using 900- and 500-MHz antennae. Two different soil types were used: one composed solely of sand horizons and one composed of sand with clay horizons at approximately 1.00 m. The graves were excavated at the termination of each monitoring period to collect soil samples and score decomposition. Overall, depth was the most significant factor controlling decomposition, followed by time. Body size and soil type were not major factors. Ground-penetrating radar can be a very effective tool for grave detection in Florida. Salient anomalies were produced for the duration of this study due to a strong enough contrast between the skeleton, or decomposing body, and the surrounding soil with that of the undisturbed soil. While cadaver size and time were not major factors in grave detection, soil type and antenna choice were. Although it was possible to detect a decomposing body and a skeleton in both shallow and deep sand graves, it was difficult to image large pig cadavers retaining extensive soft tissue buried in proximity to the clay horizon in as little as six months. The clay masked the contrast of the cadavers by reducing their relative dielectric permittivity. Pig cadaver size was not a major factor in grave detection. The imagery of the 500-MHz antenna was preferred over the higher resolution of the 900-MHz, because the increased detail may result in difficulty

  12. Silicon based nanogap device for investigating electronic transport through 12 nm long oligomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strobel, S.; Albert, E.; Csaba, G.


    We have fabricated vertical nanogap electrode devices based on Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) substrates for investigating the electronic transport properties of long, conjugated molecular wires. Our nanogap electrode devices comprise smooth metallic contact pairs situated at the sidewall of an SOI...... structure, obtained by selective recess-etching a few nanometers thin buried oxide layer and subsequent thin film metallization. The electrodes are separated by a predetermined distance down to about 5 nm and feature a well-tailored material layer structure, as characterized by SEM and scanning TEM analysis....... We studied the electronic transport properties of 12 nm long, specifically synthesized dithiolated oligo-phenylene-vinylene derivatives assembled onto the electrode gap from solution. In particular, we observed a pronounced, non-linear current-voltage characteristic featuring a large conductance gap...

  13. TID Simulation of Advanced CMOS Devices for Space Applications (United States)

    Sajid, Muhammad


    This paper focuses on Total Ionizing Dose (TID) effects caused by accumulation of charges at silicon dioxide, substrate/silicon dioxide interface, Shallow Trench Isolation (STI) for scaled CMOS bulk devices as well as at Buried Oxide (BOX) layer in devices based on Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) technology to be operated in space radiation environment. The radiation induced leakage current and corresponding density/concentration electrons in leakage current path was presented/depicted for 180nm, 130nm and 65nm NMOS, PMOS transistors based on CMOS bulk as well as SOI process technologies on-board LEO and GEO satellites. On the basis of simulation results, the TID robustness analysis for advanced deep sub-micron technologies was accomplished up to 500 Krad. The correlation between the impact of technology scaling and magnitude of leakage current with corresponding total dose was established utilizing Visual TCAD Genius program.

  14. Novel Si ion implantation technique for improving the radiation hardness of SOI pseudo-MOS transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yanwei [Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials and Application Technology, Xiangtan University, Ministry of Education, Xiangtan, Hunan 411105 (China); State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Huang, Huixiang; Bi, Dawei [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Tang, Minghua, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials and Application Technology, Xiangtan University, Ministry of Education, Xiangtan, Hunan 411105 (China); Zhang, Zhengxuan [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)


    The pseudo-MOS transistor is a quick and effective technique for characterizing the electrical properties of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer. We investigated the total ionizing dose (TID) response of pseudo-MOS transistors fabricated on SOI wafers hardened by single or multiple step Si ion implantation. It is demonstrated that the two Si ion implantation methods can both improve the radiation hardness of SOI wafers owing to the generation of deep electron traps in the buried oxide (BOX). However, the lattice damage of top silicon film caused by the single step implantation compared with the multiple degenerates the electrical properties of transistors, especially for the sub-threshold swing. The high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) was used to observe the lattice quality.

  15. UTBB FDSOI: Evolution and opportunities (United States)

    Monfray, Stephane; Skotnicki, Thomas


    As today's 28 nm FDSOI (Fully Depleted Silicon On Insulator) technology is at the industrialization level, this paper aims to summarize the key advantages allowed by the thin BOX (Buried Oxide) of the FDSOI, through the technology evolution but also new opportunities, among logic applications and extending the possibilities offered by the platform. We will summarize how the advantages provided by the thin BOX have been first explored and developed, and how the back biasing techniques are the key to the outstanding performances provided by the FDSOI at low voltage. Then, as the FDSOI technology is also a solution to develop innovative platforms and applications, we will detail some opportunities. In particular, we will present monolithic 3D integration, ultra-low power devices for IoT (Internet of Things) and ultra-sensitive sensors.

  16. Measure Guideline: Buried and/or Encapsulated Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, C. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Zoeller, W. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Mantha, P. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)


    Buried and/or encapsulated ducts (BEDs) are a class of advanced, energy-efficiency strategies intended to address the significant ductwork thermal losses associated with ducts installed in unconditioned attics. BEDs are ducts installed in unconditioned attics that are covered in loose-fill insulation and/or encapsulated in closed cell polyurethane spray foam insulation. This Measure Guideline covers the technical aspects of BEDs as well as the advantages, disadvantages, and risks of BEDs compared to other alternative strategies. This guideline also provides detailed guidance on installation of BEDs strategies in new and existing homes through step-by-step installation procedures. Some of the procedures presented here, however, require specialized equipment or expertise. In addition, some alterations to duct systems may require a specialized license.

  17. Structure of ancient buried wood from Phyllocladus trichomanoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attalla, M.I.; Serra, R.G.; Vassallo, A.M.; Wilson, M.A.


    Trees of the fossil gymnosperm Phyllocladus trichomanoides were buried by a volcanic eruption at Taupo, New Zealand about 2000 years ago. Three samples of fossil heartwood and fossil sapwood from this tree have been studied by /sup 13/C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques including dipolar dephasing. The spectra of sapwood contain more resonances from carbohydrates at 66 and 75 ppm whereas the spectra of heartwood contain significantly more signal from methoxyl and other lignin derived carbons. Values obtained for the fraction of aromatic carbon that is protonated in the samples fa are of the order of 0.50, in good agreement with that expected for a lignin-based, mainly guaiacyl structure. In addition to estimating fa dipolar dephasing appears to be useful in accentuating differences in methoxyl content between heartwood and sapwood.

  18. Surface acoustic wave devices as passive buried sensors (United States)

    Friedt, J.-M.; Rétornaz, T.; Alzuaga, S.; Baron, T.; Martin, G.; Laroche, T.; Ballandras, S.; Griselin, M.; Simonnet, J.-P.


    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices are currently used as passive remote-controlled sensors for measuring various physical quantities through a wireless link. Among the two main classes of designs—resonator and delay line—the former has the advantage of providing narrow-band spectrum informations and hence appears compatible with an interrogation strategy complying with Industry-Scientific-Medical regulations in radio-frequency (rf) bands centered around 434, 866, or 915 MHz. Delay-line based sensors require larger bandwidths as they consists of a few interdigitated electrodes excited by short rf pulses with large instantaneous energy and short response delays but is compatible with existing equipment such as ground penetrating radar (GPR). We here demonstrate the measurement of temperature using the two configurations, particularly for long term monitoring using sensors buried in soil. Although we have demonstrated long term stability and robustness of packaged resonators and signal to noise ratio compatible with the expected application, the interrogation range (maximum 80 cm) is insufficient for most geology or geophysical purposes. We then focus on the use of delay lines, as the corresponding interrogation method is similar to the one used by GPR which allows for rf penetration distances ranging from a few meters to tens of meters and which operates in the lower rf range, depending on soil water content, permittivity, and conductivity. Assuming propagation losses in a pure dielectric medium with negligible conductivity (snow or ice), an interrogation distance of about 40 m is predicted, which overcomes the observed limits met when using interrogation methods specifically developed for wireless SAW sensors, and could partly comply with the above-mentioned applications. Although quite optimistic, this estimate is consistent with the signal to noise ratio observed during an experimental demonstration of the interrogation of a delay line buried at a depth of 5

  19. Buried paleosols of the Upper Paleolithic multilayered site Kostenki-1 (United States)

    Aparin, B. F.; Platonova, N. I.; Sukhacheva, E. Yu.; Dudin, A. E.


    The morphology and chemical and physicochemical properties of paleosols buried at the Upper Paleolithic multilayered site Kostenki-1 in Kostenki-Borshchevo district of Voronezh oblast were studied. Four in situ paleosols formed 20-40(45) ka ago were separated in the archaeological excavation. Together with the surface soils, they characterized two different epochs of pedogenesis—the interstadial and interglacial (Holocene) epochs—and three shorter cycles of pedogenesis. The traces of human occupation in the studied hollow in the Late Paleolithic were found in the layers corresponding to the interstadial epoch. The buried paleosols had a simple horizonation: A(W)-C. A shallow thickness of the soil profiles could be due to relatively short periods of pedogenesis and to the shallow embedding by the carbonate geochemical barrier. The degree of the organic matter humification in the paleosols varied from 0.6 to 1.5, which corresponded to the mean duration of the period of biological activity of 60 to 150 days per year characterizing the climatic conditions of the tundra, taiga, forest-steppe, and steppe natural zones. In the excavation Kostenki-1 (2004-2005), soil-sediment sequences composed of five series of lithological layers with soil layers on top of them were found. Their deposition proceeded in two phases—the water phase and the aerial phase—that predetermined the morphology and composition of the soil-sediment sequences. The history of sediment accumulation in the studied hollow consisted of five stages. Similar morphologies and compositions of the soil-sediment sequences corresponding to these stages attest to the cyclic pattern of their development. The stages of sedimentation and soil formation corresponded to cyclic climate fluctuations with changes in the temperature and moisture conditions. A comparative analysis of the morphology and properties of the paleosols and soil-sediment sequences made it possible to characterize the environmental

  20. Searching for the Source of Salt Marsh Buried Mercury. (United States)

    Brooke, C. G.; Nelson, D. C.; Fleming, E. J.


    Salt marshes provide a barrier between upstream mercury contamination and coastal ecosystems. Mercury is sorbed, transported, and deposited in estuarine systems. Once the upstream mercury source has been remediated, the downstream mercury contaminated salt marsh sediments should become "capped" or buried by uncontaminated sediments preventing further ecosystem contamination. Downstream from a remediated mercury mine, an estuarine intertidal marsh in Tomales Bay, CA, USA, scavengers/predators (e.g. Pachygrapsus crassipes, Lined Shore Crab) have leg mercury concentrations as high as 5.5 ppm (dry wt./dry wt.), which increase significantly with crab size, a surrogate for trophic level. These elevated mercury concentrations suggests that "buried" mercury is rereleased into the environment. To locate possible sources of mercury release in Walker Marsh, we sampled a transect across the marsh that included diverse micro-environments (e.g. rhizoshere, stratified sediments, faunal burrows). From each location we determined the sediment structure, sediment color, total sediment mercury, total sediment iron, and microbial composition (n = 28). Where flora or fauna had perturbed the sediment, mercury concentrations were 10% less than undisturbed stratified sediments (1025 ppb vs. 1164 ppb, respectively). High-throughput SSU rRNA gene sequencing and subsequent co-occurrence network analysis genera indicated that in flora- or fauna- perturbed sediments there was an increased likelihood that microbial genera contained mercury mobilizing genes (94% vs 57%; in perturbed vs stratified sediments, respectively). Our observations are consistent with findings by others that in perturbed sites mercury mobility increased. We did however identify a microbial and geochemical profile with increased mercury mobility. For future work we plan to quantify the role these micro-environments have on mercury-efflux from salt marshes.

  1. Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves to Detect Buried Concrete Conduits (United States)

    Hajiani, P.; Anderson, N.; Rogers, J. D.; Elkrry, A.


    The detection of underground cavities is of significant concern to geotechnical engineers working in karst terrain. In spite of the marked progress in nondestructive geophysical methods for detecting shallow underground voids, no unique methodology has emerged that can be applied globally. Various studies have been performed on the use of Rayleigh waves to detect shallow tunnels. In this study, we examined the potential of both Rayleigh and Love waves for detecting subsurface voids. Vertical geophones with Eigen-frequencies of 4.5 Hz, 14 Hz, and 100 Hz were utilized to evaluate Rayleigh waves to resolve near-surface tunnels. Seismic surveys were carried out using horizontal 14 Hz geophones to verify the feasibility of using Love waves to detect shallow tunnels. Two buried conduits of known size and embedment were chosen for the study. One conduit serves as a spillway outfall for an embankment dam, and the other as a low flow outlet for aa flood retention basin. Attenuation analyses of surface waves were performed on all of the data sets to identify locations of the buried concrete conduits. In order to minimize the far-field effects, such as body-wave domination, or low signal-to-noise ratio, it was suggested that we try muting the direct waves, refraction, reflection, air wave, and ambient noise. An amplification of energy on, or in front of the near boundary of the conduits was thereby observed. The muting process greatly reduced the number of false positives. The results of this study not only confirmed previous work, but also displayed the ability of Love waves in detecting the shallow subsurface tunnels or conduits.

  2. Baseline tests for arc melter vitrification of INEL buried wastes. Volume 1: Facility description and summary data report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oden, L.L.; O`Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.; Soelberg, N.R.; Anderson, G.L.


    This report presents field results and raw data from the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Arc Melter Vitrification Project Phase 1 baseline test series conducted by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM). The baseline test series was conducted using the electric arc melter facility at the USBM Albany Research Center in Albany, Oregon. Five different surrogate waste feed mixtures were tested that simulated thermally-oxidized, buried, TRU-contaminated, mixed wastes and soils present at the INEL. The USBM Arc Furnace Integrated Waste Processing Test Facility includes a continuous feed system, the arc melting furnace, an offgas control system, and utilities. The melter is a sealed, 3-phase alternating current (ac) furnace approximately 2 m high and 1.3 m wide. The furnace has a capacity of 1 metric ton of steel and can process as much as 1,500 lb/h of soil-type waste materials. The surrogate feed materials included five mixtures designed to simulate incinerated TRU-contaminated buried waste materials mixed with INEL soil. Process samples, melter system operations data and offgas composition data were obtained during the baseline tests to evaluate the melter performance and meet test objectives. Samples and data gathered during this program included (a) automatically and manually logged melter systems operations data, (b) process samples of slag, metal and fume solids, and (c) offgas composition, temperature, velocity, flowrate, moisture content, particulate loading and metals content. This report consists of 2 volumes: Volume I summarizes the baseline test operations. It includes an executive summary, system and facility description, review of the surrogate waste mixtures, and a description of the baseline test activities, measurements, and sample collection. Volume II contains the raw test data and sample analyses from samples collected during the baseline tests.

  3. Numerical Modeling of Mechanical Behavior for Buried Steel Pipelines Crossing Subsidence Strata. (United States)

    Zhang, J; Liang, Z; Han, C J


    This paper addresses the mechanical behavior of buried steel pipeline crossing subsidence strata. The investigation is based on numerical simulation of the nonlinear response of the pipeline-soil system through finite element method, considering large strain and displacement, inelastic material behavior of buried pipeline and the surrounding soil, as well as contact and friction on the pipeline-soil interface. Effects of key parameters on the mechanical behavior of buried pipeline were investigated, such as strata subsidence, diameter-thickness ratio, buried depth, internal pressure, friction coefficient and soil properties. The results show that the maximum strain appears on the outer transition subsidence section of the pipeline, and its cross section is concave shaped. With the increasing of strata subsidence and diameter-thickness ratio, the out of roundness, longitudinal strain and equivalent plastic strain increase gradually. With the buried depth increasing, the deflection, out of roundness and strain of the pipeline decrease. Internal pressure and friction coefficient have little effect on the deflection of buried pipeline. Out of roundness is reduced and the strain is increased gradually with the increasing of internal pressure. The physical properties of soil have a great influence on the mechanical properties of buried pipeline. The results from the present study can be used for the development of optimization design and preventive maintenance for buried steel pipelines.

  4. Efficient calculation of broadband acoustic scattering from a partially, obliquely buried cylinder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhof, M.J.J.; Espana, A.; Williams, K.


    An efficient model for the Target In Environment Response (TIER) of buried/half buried, mine-like objects and UXOs is essential for the development and training of automatic target detection and classification methods and for use in sonar performance prediction models. For instance, to investigate

  5. Detection of a buried wire with two resistively loaded wire antennas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, S.H.J.A.; Tijhuis, A.G.; Lepelaars, E.S.A.M.; Zwamborn, A.P.M.


    The use of two identical straight thin-wire antennas for the detection of a buried wire is analyzed with the aid of numerical calculations. The buried wire is located below an interface between two homogeneous half-spaces. The detection setup, which is formed by a transmitting and a receiving wire,

  6. Numerical Modeling of Mechanical Behavior for Buried Steel Pipelines Crossing Subsidence Strata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Zhang

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the mechanical behavior of buried steel pipeline crossing subsidence strata. The investigation is based on numerical simulation of the nonlinear response of the pipeline-soil system through finite element method, considering large strain and displacement, inelastic material behavior of buried pipeline and the surrounding soil, as well as contact and friction on the pipeline-soil interface. Effects of key parameters on the mechanical behavior of buried pipeline were investigated, such as strata subsidence, diameter-thickness ratio, buried depth, internal pressure, friction coefficient and soil properties. The results show that the maximum strain appears on the outer transition subsidence section of the pipeline, and its cross section is concave shaped. With the increasing of strata subsidence and diameter-thickness ratio, the out of roundness, longitudinal strain and equivalent plastic strain increase gradually. With the buried depth increasing, the deflection, out of roundness and strain of the pipeline decrease. Internal pressure and friction coefficient have little effect on the deflection of buried pipeline. Out of roundness is reduced and the strain is increased gradually with the increasing of internal pressure. The physical properties of soil have a great influence on the mechanical properties of buried pipeline. The results from the present study can be used for the development of optimization design and preventive maintenance for buried steel pipelines.

  7. Clinical analysis of buried optic nerve drusen with optical coherence tomography examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Liu


    Full Text Available AIM: To explore the specific image of buried optic nerve drusen during optical coherence tomography(OCTexamination. METHODS: A retrospective study was made on 6 patients with buried optic nerve drusen(6 eyesdiagnosed by fundus fluorescein angiography(FFAand B scan examination. RESULTS: The high fluorescence area of optic disc showed on the FFA image of all 6 patients imaged with the spectral OCT revealed cluster of calcium deposits. These deposits demonstrated specific wide bars with high reflectivity casting shadows underneath and had lacunae appearance. CONCLUSION: Buried optic nerve drusen showed specific image in the spectral OCT examination. Thus, spectral OCT can serve as an assistant examination method with relatively prominent features for diagnosing buried optic nerve drusen. It can help to raise the detection rate of buried optic nerve drusen.

  8. Materials with a buried C[sub 60] layer produced by direct wafer bonding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Q.Y.; Eom, C.B.; Goesele, U. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). School of Engineering); Hebard, A.F. (AT and T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ (United States))


    The C[sub 60] molecule has received close attention in the research community because of its high symmetry and unusual properties. Since in combination with other elements it can be made into super conductors, ferromagnets, and photoconductors, there are expectations that a broad range of possible applications may be possible. Si wafers covered with a sublimed C[sub 60] layer have been directly bonded to bare or oxidized Si wafers at room temperature via Van der Waals attraction forces. The interface energies of the bonded pairs increase during storage in air at room temperature and approach saturated values after [approximately]200 h. The typical saturated interface energy of C[sub 60]/SiO[sub 2] ([approximately]40 erg/cm[sup 2]) is higher than that of C[sub 60]/Si (20--30 erg/cm[sup 2]). Other material combinations having a C[sub 60] buried layer may also be realized by wafer bonding for specific applications.

  9. Buried Object Detection Method Using Optimum Frequency Range in Extremely Shallow Underground (United States)

    Sugimoto, Tsuneyoshi; Abe, Touma


    We propose a new detection method for buried objects using the optimum frequency response range of the corresponding vibration velocity. Flat speakers and a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV) are used for noncontact acoustic imaging in the extremely shallow underground. The exploration depth depends on the sound pressure, but it is usually less than 10 cm. Styrofoam, wood (silver fir), and acrylic boards of the same size, different size styrofoam boards, a hollow toy duck, a hollow plastic container, a plastic container filled with sand, a hollow steel can and an unglazed pot are used as buried objects which are buried in sand to about 2 cm depth. The imaging procedure of buried objects using the optimum frequency range is given below. First, the standardized difference from the average vibration velocity is calculated for all scan points. Next, using this result, underground images are made using a constant frequency width to search for the frequency response range of the buried object. After choosing an approximate frequency response range, the difference between the average vibration velocity for all points and that for several points that showed a clear response is calculated for the final confirmation of the optimum frequency range. Using this optimum frequency range, we can obtain the clearest image of the buried object. From the experimental results, we confirmed the effectiveness of our proposed method. In particular, a clear image of the buried object was obtained when the SLDV image was unclear.

  10. An EM Modeling for Rescue System Design of Buried People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. De Leo


    Full Text Available The development of a rescue system for buried persons is a subject of growing importance in case of occurrence of natural disasters such as earthquake, landslides, or avalanches. In this paper a fully analytical model has been developed to get some fundamental a priori design characteristics. The proposed system is based on the detection of the victim movements due to its respiratory activity: in particular, when an electromagnetic (EM wave impinges on a human body, the analysis of the reflected wave parameters such as amplitude, frequency, phase, or delay time allows for the detection of the breathing frequency. The model is simple on purpose because the great uncertainty concerning the characterization of many environmental parameters of a general situation makes a very detailed model useless. However, it is accurate enough to provide useful information about system design, filling the gap in the literature concerning the electromagnetic formulation of such kinds of problems. A system prototype was built using laboratory equipment to experimentally validate the model, and subsequently breathing frequency measurements were carried on, both in a lossless laboratory environment and in a lossy realistic scenario.

  11. Measure Guideline: Buried and/or Encapsulated Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, C.; Zoeller, W.; Mantha, P.


    Buried and/or encapsulated ducts (BEDs) are a class of advanced, energy-efficiency strategies intended to address the significant ductwork thermal losses associated with ducts installed in unconditioned attics. BEDs are ducts installed in unconditioned attics that are covered in loose-fill insulation and/or encapsulated in closed cell polyurethane spray foam insulation. This Measure Guideline covers the technical aspects of BEDs as well as the advantages, disadvantages, and risks of BEDs compared to other alternative strategies. This guideline also provides detailed guidance on installation of BEDs strategies in new and existing homes through step-by-step installation procedures. This Building America Measure Guideline synthesizes previously published research on BEDs and provides practical information to builders, contractors, homeowners, policy analysts, building professions, and building scientists. Some of the procedures presented here, however, require specialized equipment or expertise. In addition, some alterations to duct systems may require a specialized license. Persons implementing duct system improvements should not go beyond their expertise or qualifications. This guideline provides valuable information for a building industry that has struggled to address ductwork thermal losses in new and existing homes. As building codes strengthen requirements for duct air sealing and insulation, flexibility is needed to address energy efficiency goals. While ductwork in conditioned spaces has been promoted as the panacea for addressing ductwork thermal losses, BEDs installations approach - and sometimes exceed - the performance of ductwork in conditioned spaces.

  12. Detection of Buried Human Remains Using Bioreporter Fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vass, A. Dr.; Singleton, G. B.


    The search for buried human remains is a difficult, laborious and time-consuming task for law enforcement agencies. This study was conducted as a proof of principle demonstration to test the concept of using bioreporter microorganisms as a means to cover large areas in such a search. These bioreporter microorganisms are affected by a particular component of decaying organic matter that is distinct from decaying vegetation. The diamino compounds cadaverine and putrescine were selected as target compounds for the proof-of-principle investigation, and a search for microorganisms and genes that are responsive to either of these compounds was conducted. One recombinant clone was singled out for characterization based on its response to putrescine. The study results show that small concentrations of putrescine increased expression from this bioreporter construct. Although the level of increase was small (making it difficult to distinguish the signal from background), the results demonstrate the principle that bioreporters can be used to detect compounds resulting from decaying human remains and suggest that a wider search for target compounds should be conducted.

  13. Thermal processing system concepts and considerations for RWMC buried waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, T.L.; Kong, P.C.; Raivo, B.D.; Anderson, G.L.


    This report presents a preliminary determination of ex situ thermal processing system concepts and related processing considerations for application to remediation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated buried wastes (TRUW) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Beginning with top-level thermal treatment concepts and requirements identified in a previous Preliminary Systems Design Study (SDS), a more detailed consideration of the waste materials thermal processing problem is provided. Anticipated waste stream elements and problem characteristics are identified and considered. Final waste form performance criteria, requirements, and options are examined within the context of providing a high-integrity, low-leachability glass/ceramic, final waste form material. Thermal processing conditions required and capability of key systems components (equipment) to provide these material process conditions are considered. Information from closely related companion study reports on melter technology development needs assessment and INEL Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) research are considered. Five potentially practicable thermal process system design configuration concepts are defined and compared. A scenario for thermal processing of a mixed waste and soils stream with essentially no complex presorting and using a series process of incineration and high temperature melting is recommended. Recommendations for applied research and development necessary to further detail and demonstrate the final waste form, required thermal processes, and melter process equipment are provided.

  14. Visualizing excitations at buried heterojunctions in organic semiconductor blends (United States)

    Jakowetz, Andreas C.; Böhm, Marcus L.; Sadhanala, Aditya; Huettner, Sven; Rao, Akshay; Friend, Richard H.


    Interfaces play a crucial role in semiconductor devices, but in many device architectures they are nanostructured, disordered and buried away from the surface of the sample. Conventional optical, X-ray and photoelectron probes often fail to provide interface-specific information in such systems. Here we develop an all-optical time-resolved method to probe the local energetic landscape and electronic dynamics at such interfaces, based on the Stark effect caused by electron-hole pairs photo-generated across the interface. Using this method, we found that the electronically active sites at the polymer/fullerene interfaces in model bulk-heterojunction blends fall within the low-energy tail of the absorption spectrum. This suggests that these sites are highly ordered compared with the bulk of the polymer film, leading to large wavefunction delocalization and low site energies. We also detected a 100 fs migration of holes from higher- to lower-energy sites, consistent with these charges moving ballistically into more ordered polymer regions. This ultrafast charge motion may be key to separating electron-hole pairs into free charges against the Coulomb interaction.

  15. The Challenging Buried Bumper Syndrome after Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Afifi


    Full Text Available Buried bumper syndrome (BBS is a rare complication developed after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG. We report a case of a 38-year-old male patient who sustained severe traumatic brain injury that was complicated with early BBS after PEG tube insertion. On admission, bedside PEG was performed, and 7 days later the patient developed signs of sepsis with rapid progression to septic shock and acute kidney injury. Abdominal CT scan revealed no collection or leakage of the contrast, but showed malpositioning of the tube bumper at the edge of the stomach and not inside of it. Diagnostic endoscopy revealed that the bumper was hidden in the posterolateral part of the stomach wall forming a tract inside of it, which confirmed the diagnosis of BBS. The patient underwent laparotomy with a repair of the stomach wall perforation, and the early postoperative course was uneventful. Acute BBS is a rare complication of PEG tube insertion which could be manifested with severe complications such as pressure necrosis, peritonitis and septic shock. Early identification is the mainstay to prevent such complications. Treatment selection is primarily guided by the presenting complications, ranging from simple endoscopic replacement to surgical laparotomy.

  16. Parental care buffers against inbreeding depression in burying beetles. (United States)

    Pilakouta, Natalie; Jamieson, Seonaidh; Moorad, Jacob A; Smiseth, Per T


    When relatives mate, their inbred offspring often suffer a reduction in fitness-related traits known as "inbreeding depression." There is mounting evidence that inbreeding depression can be exacerbated by environmental stresses such as starvation, predation, parasitism, and competition. Parental care may play an important role as a buffer against inbreeding depression in the offspring by alleviating these environmental stresses. Here, we examine the effect of parental care on the fitness costs of inbreeding in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides, an insect with facultative parental care. We used a 2 × 2 factorial design with the following factors: (i) the presence or absence of a caring female parent during larval development and (ii) inbred or outbred offspring. We examined the joint influence of maternal care and inbreeding status on fitness-related offspring traits to test the hypothesis that maternal care improves the performance of inbred offspring more than that of outbred offspring. Indeed, the female's presence led to a higher increase in larval survival in inbred than in outbred broods. Receiving care at the larval stage also increased the lifespan of inbred but not outbred adults, suggesting that the beneficial buffering effects of maternal care can persist long after the offspring have become independent. Our results show that parental care has the potential to moderate the severity of inbreeding depression, which in turn may favor inbreeding tolerance and influence the evolution of mating systems and other inbreeding-avoidance mechanisms.

  17. Surface wave propagation effects on buried segmented pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peixin Shi


    Full Text Available This paper deals with surface wave propagation (WP effects on buried segmented pipelines. Both simplified analytical model and finite element (FE model are developed for estimating the axial joint pullout movement of jointed concrete cylinder pipelines (JCCPs of which the joints have a brittle tensile failure mode under the surface WP effects. The models account for the effects of peak ground velocity (PGV, WP velocity, predominant period of seismic excitation, shear transfer between soil and pipelines, axial stiffness of pipelines, joint characteristics, and cracking strain of concrete mortar. FE simulation of the JCCP interaction with surface waves recorded during the 1985 Michoacan earthquake results in joint pullout movement, which is consistent with the field observations. The models are expanded to estimate the joint axial pullout movement of cast iron (CI pipelines of which the joints have a ductile tensile failure mode. Simplified analytical equation and FE model are developed for estimating the joint pullout movement of CI pipelines. The joint pullout movement of the CI pipelines is mainly affected by the variability of the joint tensile capacity and accumulates at local weak joints in the pipeline.

  18. Through-focal HAADF-STEM of buried nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero-Lebrero, M P; Pizarro, J; Guerrero, E; Galindo, P L; Yanez, A [Department Lenguajes y Sist. Informaticos, Universidad de Cadiz (Spain); Molina, S I, E-mail: maria.guerrero@uca.e [Department Ciencia de los Materiales e I.M. y Q.I. Universidad de Cadiz (Spain)


    High-Angle Annular Dark-Field Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (HAADF-STEM) in combination with strain mapping techniques provides a powerful tool for quantitative analysis of crystalline semiconductor materials. Due to the complex interaction of a focused probe and a sample in HAADF, the calculation of each pixel in a simulation process requires a complete multislice iteration, making the overall computing process a rather demanding task in time and memory. SICSTEM is a parallel software code recently developed for running on the University of Cadiz Supercomputer (3.75 Tflops) that allows the simulation of images from large nanostructures containing more than one million atoms. The software has been designed to be able to generate not only one dimensional line scans or two dimensional images, but also to perform optical sectioning in the STEM simulation process, providing an easy way to simulate 3D HAADF-STEM images. In this work we consider GaAs capped GaSb nanostructures epitaxially oriented on a GaAs substrate. A methodology has been developed by combining the through-focal series STEM imaging and image analysis to estimate shape and position of buried GaSb nanostructures.

  19. [Plastic surgery reconstruction of the adult buried penis : Option or obligation? (United States)

    Mühlstädt, S; Anheuser, P; Mohammed, N; Bach, A D


    The adult buried penis afflicts the patient with shame and is also potentially associated with considerable urogenital complications. Due to obesity, chronic urogenital lymphedema or subsequent inflammatory urogenital conditions, such as a lichen sclerosus et atrophicus, the clinical appearance of the adult buried penis is extremely variable. Epidemiological data are non-existent. Therapeutically, a combination of various plastic surgery procedures is often necessary for the best esthetic and functional results. The therapeutic strategy is highly individual and the therapy itself is interdisciplinary. This article provides an overview of the plastic surgery reconstruction of the adult buried penis.

  20. An integrated systems approach to remote retrieval of buried transuranic waste using a telerobotic transport vehicle, innovative end effector, and remote excavator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A.M.; Rice, P.; Hyde, R. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Peterson, R. [RAHCO International, Spokane, WA (United States)


    Between 1952 and 1970, over two million cubic feet of transuranic mixed waste was buried in shallow pits and trenches in the Subsurface Disposal Area at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Commingled with this two million cubic feet of waste is up to 10 million cubic feet of fill soil. The pits and trenches were constructed similarly to municipal landfills with both stacked and random dump waste forms such as barrels and boxes. The main contaminants are micron-sized particles of plutonium and americium oxides, chlorides, and hydroxides. Retrieval, treatment, and disposal is one of the options being considered for the waste. This report describes the results of a field demonstration conducted to evaluate technologies for excavating, and transporting buried transuranic wastes at the INEL, and other hazardous or radioactive waste sites throughout the US Department of Energy complex. The full-scale demonstration, conduced at RAHCO Internationals facilities in Spokane, Washington, in the summer of 1994, evaluated equipment performance and techniques for digging, dumping, and transporting buried waste. Three technologies were evaluated in the demonstration: an Innovative End Effector for dust free dumping, a Telerobotic Transport Vehicle to convey retrieved waste from the digface, and a Remote Operated Excavator to deploy the Innovative End Effector and perform waste retrieval operations. Data were gathered and analyzed to evaluate retrieval performance parameters such as retrieval rates, transportation rates, human factors, and the equipment`s capability to control contamination spread.

  1. [Super-low-frequency spectrum analysis for buried faults in coalfield]. (United States)

    Chen, Li; Qin, Qi-Ming; Zhen, Guang-Wei; Wang, Nan; Bai, Yan-Bing; Chen, Chao


    Based on the super-low-frequency (SLF) electromagnetic detection technology, the advanced detection for the buried fault in the coalfield is still at the exploratory stage, while the technology has a strong practical significance for production and design of the coal mine. Firstly, in this paper, the SLF electromagnetic detection signals were collected in study area. Spectrum analysis of SLF signal by wavelet transform can remove high-frequency noise. Secondly, the profile of the measuring line across the fault was analyzed and interpreted geologically. Accordingly SLF spectrum characteristics of the buried fault could be researched. Finally, combined with the geological and seismic data, the characteristics and distribution of fault structures can be verified in the mining area. The results show that: the buried fault could be detected quickly and effectively by SLF electromagnetic detection Hence, SLF electromagnetic detection technology is an effective method for buried fault detection.

  2. Overwintering biology and tests of trap and relocate as a conservation measure for burying beetles. (United States)


    Burying beetles are carrion beetles and utilize dead animal carcasses for feeding : and reproductive efforts. They assist with decomposition, prevent the spread of disease, : and reduce the number of pest species. The largest species of carrion beetl...

  3. Molecular phylogeny of the burying beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae: Nicrophorinae). (United States)

    Sikes, Derek S; Venables, Chandra


    Burying beetles (Silphidae: Nicrophorus) are well-known for their monopolization of small vertebrate carcasses in subterranean crypts and complex biparental care behaviors. They have been the focus of intense behavioral, ecological, and conservation research since the 1980s yet no thorough phylogenetic estimate for the group exists. Herein, we infer relationships, test past hypotheses of relationships, and test biogeographic scenarios among 55 of the subfamily Nicrophorinae's currently valid and extant 72 species. Two mitochondrial genes, COI and COII, and two nuclear genes, the D2 region of 28S, and the protein coding gene CAD, provided 3,971 nucleotides for 58 nicrophorine and 5 outgroup specimens. Ten partitions, with each modeled by GTR+I+G, were used for a 100 M generation MrBayes analysis and maximum likelihood bootstrapping with Garli. The inferred Bayesian phylogeny was mostly well-resolved with only three weak branches of biogeographic relevance. The common ancestor of the subfamily and of the genus Nicrophorus was reconstructed as Old World with four separate transitions to the New World and four reverse colonizations of the Old World from the New. Divergence dating from analysis with BEAST indicate the genus Nicrophorus originated in the Cretaceous, 127-99 Ma. Most prior, pre-cladistic hypotheses of relationships were strongly rejected while most modern hypotheses were largely congruent with monophyletic groups in our estimated phylogeny. Our results reject a recent hypothesis that Nicrophorus morio Gebler, 1817 (NEW STATUS as valid species) is a subspecies of N. germanicus (L., 1758). Two subgenera of Nicrophorus are recognized: NecroxenusSemenov-Tian-Shanskij, 1933, and NicrophorusFabricius, 1775. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. FOREWORD: Special section on electromagnetic characterization of buried obstacles (United States)

    Lesselier, Dominique; Chew, Weng Cho


    This Inverse Problems special section on electromagnetic characterization of buried obstacles contains a selection of 14 invited papers, involving 41 authors and 19 research groups worldwide. (Though this section consists of invited papers, the standard refereeing procedures of Inverse Problems have been rigorously observed.) We do not claim to have reached all the high-level researchers in the field, but we believe that we have made a fair attempt. As illustrated by the variety of contributions included, the aim of this special section is to address theoretical and practical inversion problems (and the solutions thereof) that arise in the field of electromagnetic characterization of obstacles (artificial or natural) buried on the Earth or in planetary subsoil. Civil and military engineering, archaeological and environmental issues are typically among those within the scope of the investigation. An example is the characterization of a single (or multiple) obstacle(s) located near the interface or at shallow depths via electromagnetic means operating within relevant frequency bands. However, we also welcomed novel and thought-provoking investigations, even though their direct application to the real world, or even to laboratory-controlled settings, may still be far off. Within this general mathematical and applied framework, the submitted papers focused on a combination of theoretical, computational and experimental developments. They either reviewed the most recent advances in a particular area of research or were an original and specialized contribution. Let us now take the opportunity to remind the readers that this special section harks back (in addition to sharing some common contributors) to two special sections already published in the journal which possessed the same flavour of wave-field inversion and its many applications. They were `Electromagnetic imaging and inversion of the Earth's subsurface', which was published in October 2000 (volume 16, issue 5

  5. Rare earth element distribution and behaviour in buried manganese nodules from the Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pattan, J.N.; Banakar, V.K.

    ) 303-312 303 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam Rare earth element distribution and behaviour in buried manganese nodules from the Central Indian Basin J.N. Pattan and V.K. Banakar National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403004..., India (Received September 15, 1992; revision accepted January 6, 1993) ABSTRACT Pattan, J.N. and Banakar, V.K., 1993. Rare earth element distribution and behaviour in buried manganese nodules from the Central Indian Basin. Mar. Geol., 112: 303...

  6. A study of pipe-soil-climate interaction of buried water and gas pipes


    Chan, Derek Chun Chuen


    In Australia, buried water and gas pipes are reported to have more frequent failures in hot and dry summers, which suggests that soil shrinkage and thermal effects are the main factors associated with pipe failure. Shrinkage and swelling are common behaviours of soils especially for reactive clays due to seasonal variation of soil moisture content. As a result, the differential soil movement beneath buried pipe can lead to flexural bending and circumferential fracture of the pipe. In addition...

  7. Thin films and buried interfaces characterization with X-ray standing waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagomarsino, S. [CNR, Rome (Italy). Istituto Elettronica Stato Solido


    The X-ray standing wave techniques is a powerful, non destructive method to study interfaces at the atomic level. Its basic features are described here together with the peculiarities of its applications to epitaxial films and buried interfaces. As examples of applications, experiments carried out on Si/silicide interfaces, on GaAs/InAs/GaAs buried interfaces and on Si/Ge superlattices are shown.

  8. Imaging of Au nanoparticles deeply buried in polymer matrix by various atomic force microscopy techniques. (United States)

    Kimura, Kuniko; Kobayashi, Kei; Matsushige, Kazumi; Yamada, Hirofumi


    Recently, some papers reported successful imaging of subsurface features using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Some theoretical studies have also been presented, however the imaging mechanisms are not fully understood yet. In the preceeding papers, imaging of deeply buried nanometer-scale features has been successful only if they were buried in a soft matrix. In this paper, subsurface features (Au nanoparticles) buried in a soft polymer matrix were visualized. To elucidate the imaging mechanisms, various AFM techniques; heterodyne force microscopy, ultrasonic atomic force microscopy (UAFM), 2nd-harmonic UAFM and force modulation microscopy (FMM) were employed. The particles buried under 960 nm from the surface were successfully visualized which has never been achieved. The results elucidated that it is important for subsurface imaging to choose a cantilever with a suitable stiffness range for a matrix. In case of using the most suitable cantilever, the nanoparticles were visualized using every technique shown above except for FMM. The experimental results suggest that the subsurface features buried in a soft matrix with a depth of at least 1 µm can affect the local viscoelasticity (mainly viscosity) detected as the variation of the amplitude and phase of the tip oscillation on the surface. This phenomenon presumably makes it possible to visualize such deeply buried nanometer-scale features in a soft matrix. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A process for ensuring regulatory compliance at the INEL`s buried waste integrated demonstrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, P.G.; Watson, L.R.; Blacker, P.B. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab.


    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program is funded by the Department of Energy Office of Technology Development. The mission of this Integrated Demonstration is to identify, evaluate, and demonstrate a suite of innovative technologies for the remediation of radioactive and hazardous waste buried throughout the DOE complex between 1950 and 1970. The program approach to development of a long-range strategy for improving buried waste remediation capabilities is to combine systems analysis with already identified remediation needs for DOE complex buried waste. The systems analysis effort has produced several configuration options (a top-level block diagram of a cradle-to-grave remediation system) capable of remediating the transuranic-contaminated waste pits and trenches at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Technologies for demonstration are selected using three criteria: (a) the ability to satisfy a specific buried waste need, (b) the ability to satisfy functional and operational requirements defined for functional sub-elements in a configuration option, and (c) performance against Comprehensive Environmental Restoration and Compensation Liability Act selection criteria, such as effectiveness, implementability, and cost. Early demonstrations experienced problems with missed requirements, prompting the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program Office to organize a Corrective Action Team to identify the cause and recommend corrective actions. The result of this team effort is the focus of this paper.

  10. Reconstruction of buried objects embedded in circular opaque structures (United States)

    Persico, Raffaele; Gennarelli, Gianluca; Soldovieri, Francesco


    This contribution deals with the ground penetrating radar imaging of targets embedded in a visually opaque circular structure. The problem has practical relevance in civil engineering and archeological prospections, where structures of interest such as columns or pillars may have to be inspected in non-invasive way in order to detect the possible presence of anomalies (e.g. cracks, water infiltrations, and so on). In this framework, we investigate the possibility to inspect the circular region of interest thanks to a radar system composed by two antennas that are in contact with the structure and rotate simultaneously around it in order to illuminate and measure the field scattered by buried objects from multiple directions. Two different measurement strategies are examined. The first one is the multimonostatic configuration where the backscattered signal is collected by the transmitting antenna itself, as it moves along the circular observation line. The second acquisition strategy is the multibistatic one, with the transmitting and receiving antennas shifted by a constant angular offset of ninety degrees as they move around the column. From the mathematical viewpoint, the imaging problem is formulated as a linear inverse scattering one holding under Born approximation [1]. Furthermore, the Green's function of a homogeneous medium [2] is used to simplify the evaluation of the kernel of the integral equation. The inverse problem is then solved via the Truncated Singular Value Decomposition algorithm [3] in order to obtain a regularized solution. Tomographic reconstructions based on full-wave synthetic data generated by the Finite Difference Time Domain code GPRmax2D [4] are shown to assess the effectiveness of the reconstruction process. REFERENCES [1] W. C. Chew, Waves and fields in inhomogeneous media, IEEE Press, 1995. [2] R. F. Harrington, Time harmonic electromagnetic waves, McGraw-Hill, New York, USA, 1961. [3] M. Bertero and P. Boccacci, Introduction to

  11. Modelling the buried human body environment in upland climes using three contrasting field sites. (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew S; Janaway, Robert C; Holland, Andrew D; Dodson, Hilary I; Baran, Eve; Pollard, A Mark; Tobin, Desmond J


    Despite an increasing literature on the decomposition of human remains, whether buried or exposed, it is important to recognise the role of specific microenvironments which can either trigger or delay the rate of decomposition. Recent casework in Northern England involving buried and partially buried human remains has demonstrated a need for a more detailed understanding of the effect of contrasting site conditions on cadaver decomposition and on the microenvironment created within the grave itself. Pigs (Sus scrofa) were used as body analogues in three inter-related taphonomy experiments to examine differential decomposition of buried human remains. They were buried at three contrasting field sites (pasture, moorland, and deciduous woodland) within a 15 km radius of the University of Bradford, West Yorkshire, UK. Changes to the buried body and the effect of these changes on hair and associated death-scene textile materials were monitored as was the microenvironment of the grave. At recovery, 6, 12 and 24 months post-burial, the extent of soft tissue decomposition was recorded and samples of fat and soil were collected for gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) analysis. The results of these studies demonstrated that (1) soil conditions at these three burial sites has a marked effect on the condition of the buried body but even within a single site variation can occur; (2) the process of soft tissue decomposition modifies the localised burial microenvironment in terms of microbiological load, pH, moisture and changes in redox status. These observations have widespread application for the investigation of clandestine burial and time since deposition, and in understanding changes within the burial microenvironment that may impact on biomaterials such as hair and other associated death scene materials.

  12. Theoretical-Experimental Analysis of the Effects of Grain Boundaries on the Electrical Properties of SOI (Silicon-on-Insulator) MOSFETS. (United States)


    analysis. At the back surface, -ob -C (csEsf - qNAt + Qfb - qNsbsb + Qcb ) (5) where Cob = %o/tob, Qfb ’ and Qcb are the back-gate counterparts of Cof, Qff...and if Qfb /q is high (- 5xi011 cm- 2 ), which are typically the case LIII, then for VA< V I Gb Gb < v s i wnTfv with VGb, the substrate surface is...sensitivity of VTf to tb is reduced as VGb is decreased. We note that the dependence of VTf on VbB (= - Qfb /Cob) is also given by the j plots in Fig. 4

  13. A Laboratory Project on the Theory, Fabrication, and Characterization of a Silicon-on-Insulator Micro-Comb Drive Actuator with Fixed-Fixed Beams (United States)

    Abbas, K.; Leseman, Z. C.


    A laboratory course on the theory, fabrication, and characterization of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices for a multidisciplinary audience of graduate students at the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, has been developed. Hands-on experience in the cleanroom has attracted graduate students from across the university's engineering…

  14. GPR investigations in galleries buried inside a karstified limestone formation (United States)

    Rousset, D.; Sénéchal, G.; Gaffet, S.


    A large scientific program of geophysical investigations is presently performed inside the Low-Noise Underground Laboratory (Laboratoire Souterrain à Bas Bruit / LSBB, Rustrel, France) which is an decomissioned underground missile control center, buried in a karstified limestone formation. One of the goals of this project is the understanding of the water circulation inside the structure. This experimental site offers a unique opportunity of perfoming measurements within an unweathered limestone massif. The tunnel has been dug in lower cretaceous limestone which is characterized by a low clay content, high electrical resistivity. The dip is around 25 degrees and vertical faults locally affect the structure. The studied zone is located in south-eastern France (Provence) and is characterized by a mediterranean climate with long dry periods and strong, short events of rain. This phenomenon induces large variations of water content within the karstified limestone from dry to saturated conditions. Analysis of the spatial and temporal variations of the water flow in a karstified limestones needs to define the geological context and the adequate geophysical methods. GPR offers a good tradeoff between resolution and ease of use on one hand and investigation depth on the other hand. We present some GPR profiles which have been acquired in April 2008 after a quite long and strong period of rain, inducing a complete water saturation inside the karstified massif. We used several RAMAC shielded antennas from 100 to 500 MHz. The longest profile is around 600 m long, with a 20 cm spacing, running from a raw to a concrete gallery. These data sets are characterized by a very good signal to noise ratio and a signal penetration, up to 18 meters. Signal processing includes very low frequency filtering, amplitude compensation, keeping lateral relative attenuation and ringing suppression. Final sections includes migration and time to depth conversion or depth migration. The estimated

  15. Decomposition patterns of buried remains at different intervals in the Central Highveld region of South Africa. (United States)

    Marais-Werner, A; Myburgh, J; Meyer, A; Nienaber, W C; Steyn, M


    Burial of remains is an important factor when one attempts to establish the post-mortem interval as it reduces, and in extreme cases, excludes oviposition by Diptera species. This in turn leads to modification of the decomposition process. The aim of this study was to record decomposition patterns of buried remains using a pig model. The pattern of decomposition was evaluated at different intervals and recorded according to existing guidelines. In order to contribute to our knowledge on decomposition in different settings, a quantifiable approach was followed. Results indicated that early stages of decomposition occurred rapidly for buried remains within 7-33 days. Between 14 and 33 days, buried pigs displayed common features associated with the early to middle stages of decomposition, such as discoloration and bloating. From 33 to 90 days advanced decomposition manifested on the remains, and pigs then reached a stage of advanced decomposition where little change was observed in the next ±90-183 days after interment. Throughout this study, total body scores remained higher for surface remains. Overall, buried pigs followed a similar pattern of decomposition to those of surface remains, although at a much slower rate when compared with similar post-mortem intervals in surface remains. In this study, the decomposition patterns and rates of buried remains were mostly influenced by limited insect activity and adipocere formation which reduces the rate of decay in a conducive environment (i.e. burial in soil).

  16. Ultrasmooth metallic films with buried nanostructures for backside reflection-mode plasmonic biosensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindquist, N.C.; Johnson, T.W.; Jose, J.; Otto, L.M. [Laboratory of Nanostructures and Biosensing, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Oh, S.H. [Laboratory of Nanostructures and Biosensing, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Department of Biophysics and Chemical Biology, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)


    A new plasmonic device architecture based on ultrasmooth metallic surfaces with buried plasmonic nanostructures is presented. Using template-stripping techniques, ultrathin gold films with less than 5 Aa surface roughness are optically coupled to an arbitrary arrangement of buried metallic gratings, rings, and nanodots. As a prototypical example, linear plasmonic gratings buried under an ultrasmooth 20 nm thick gold surface for biosensing are presented. The optical illumination and collection are completely decoupled from the microfluidic delivery of liquid samples due to the backside, reflection-mode geometry. This allows for sensing with opaque or highly scattering liquids. With the buried nanostructure design, high sensitivity and decoupled backside (reflective) optical access are maintained, as with traditional prism-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors. In addition, the benefits offered by nanoplasmonic sensors such as spectral tunability and high-resolution, wide-field SPR imaging with normal-incidence epi-illumination that is simple to construct and align are gained as well. Beyond sensing, the buried plasmonic nanostructures with ultrasmooth metallic surfaces can benefit nanophotonic waveguides, surface-enhanced spectroscopy, nanolithography, and optical trapping. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Solvent exchange of buried water and hydrogen exchange of peptide NH groups hydrogen bonded to buried waters in bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuechsen, E.; Hayes, J.M.; Ramaprasad, S.; Copie, V.; Woodward, C.


    Solvent exchange of /sup 18/O-labeled buried water in bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI), trypsin, and trypsin-BPTI complex is measured by high-precision isotope ratio mass spectroscopy. Buried water is labeled by equilibrium of the protein in /sup 18/O-enriched water. Protein samples are then rapidly dialyzed against water of normal isotope composition by gel filtration and stored. The exchangeable /sup 18/O label eluting with the protein in 10-300 s is determined by an H/sub 2/O-CO/sub 2/ equilibration technique. Exchange of buried waters with solvent water is complete before 10-15 s in BPTI, trypsin, and BPTI-trypsin, as well as in lysozyme and carboxypeptidase measured as controls. When in-exchange dialysis and storage are carried out at pH greater than or equal to 2.5, trypsin-BPTI and trypsin, but not free BPTI, have the equivalent of one /sup 18/O atom that exchanges slowly (after 300 s and before several days). This oxygen is probably covalently bound to a specific site in trypsin. When in-exchange dialysis and storage are carried out at pH 1.1, the equivalent of three to seven /sup 18/O atoms per molecule is associated with the trypsin-BPTI complex, apparently due to nonspecific covalent /sup 18/O labeling of carboxyl groups at low pH. In addition to /sup 18/O exchange of buried waters, the hydrogen isotope exchange of buried NH groups H bonded to buried waters was also measured. Their base-catalyzed exchange rate constants are on the order of NH groups that in the crystal are exposed to solvent and hydrogen-bonded main chain O, and their pH/sub min/ is similar to that for model compounds. The pH dependence of their exchange rate constants suggests that direct exchange with water may significantly contribute to their observed exchange rate.

  18. Method and apparatus for increasing resistance of bipolar buried layer integrated circuit devices to single-event upsets (United States)

    Zoutendyk, John A. (Inventor)


    Bipolar transistors fabricated in separate buried layers of an integrated circuit chip are electrically isolated with a built-in potential barrier established by doping the buried layer with a polarity opposite doping in the chip substrate. To increase the resistance of the bipolar transistors to single-event upsets due to ionized particle radiation, the substrate is biased relative to the buried layer with an external bias voltage selected to offset the built-in potential just enough (typically between about +0.1 to +0.2 volt) to prevent an accumulation of charge in the buried-layer-substrate junction.

  19. Oxygen dynamics around buried lesser sandeels Ammodytes tobianus (Linnaeus 1785): mode of ventilation and oxygen requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Jane W; Stahl, Henrik J; Steffensen, John F


    down along the body, referred to as ;plume ventilation'. Yet, within approximately 30 min the oxic plume was replenished by oxygen-depleted water from the gills. The potential for cutaneous respiration by the buried fish was thus of no quantitative importance. Calculations derived by three independent......The oxygen environment around buried sandeels (Ammodytes tobianus) was monitored by planar optodes. The oxygen penetration depth at the sediment interface was only a few mm. Thus fish, typically buried at 1-4 cm depth, were generally in anoxic sediment. However, they induced an advective transport...... plume with fish extracted 86.2+/-4.8% (N=7) of the oxygen from the inspired water. However, 13% of the investigated fish (2 of 15) occasionally wriggled their bodies and thereby transported almost fully air-saturated water...

  20. Electron Temperature Measurement of Buried Layer Targets Using Time Resolved K-shell Spectroscopy (United States)

    Marley, Edward; Foord, M. E.; Shepherd, R.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Brown, G.; Chen, H.; Emig, J.; Schneider, M.; Widmann, K.; Scott, H.; London, R.; Martin, M.; Wilson, B.; Iglesias, C.; Mauche, C.; Whitley, H.; Nilsen, J.; Hoarty, D.; James, S.; Brown, C. R. D.; Hill, M.; Allan, P.; Hobbs, L.


    Short pulse laser-heated buried layer experiments have been performed with the goal of creating plasmas with mass densities >= 1 g/cm3 and electron temperatures >= 500 eV. The buried layer geometry has the advantage of rapid energy deposition before significant hydrodynamic expansion occurs. For brief periods (< 40 ps) this provides a low gradient, high density platform for studying emission characteristics under extreme plasma conditions. A study of plasma conditions achievable using the Orion laser facility has been performed. Time resolved K-shell spectroscopy was used to determine the temperature evolution of buried layer aluminum foil targets. The measured evolution is compared to a 2-D PIC simulation done using LSP, which shows late time heating from the non-thermal electron population. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  1. Burying behaviour of two sympatric crab species: Cancer magister and Cancer productus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain J. McGaw


    Full Text Available The mechanics and emergence patterns associated with burying behaviour were investigated in the Dungeness crab, Cancer magister, and the red rock crab, Cancer productus. Cancer magister used both the legs and chelae to excavate the sand, whereas Cancer productus used the legs to pull and push itself down into the sediment only using the chelae in a final push beneath the sediment. Several individuals of each species remained buried for over 50 h, which was accomplished by alterations in ventilatory physiology. More commonly, both species exhibited an endogenous rhythm of circadian periodicity, with peak periods of emergence from the sand occurring during nocturnal high tides. Although burial may act as a means of predator evasion and to ambush prey, it appears the primary reason may be to conserve energy. These two species of crabs often occur sympatrically; the difference in behaviours is closely related to previously reported differences in physiological mechanisms between the two species when buried.

  2. Testing MODFLOW-LGR for simulating flow around Buried Quaternary valleys - synthetic test cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Troels Norvin; Christensen, Steen

    In Denmark the water supply is entirely based on ground water. In some parts of the country these resources are found in buried quaternary tunnel valleys. Intensive mapping has shown that the valleys typically have a complex internal hydrogeology with multiple cut and ­fill structures. The admini......In Denmark the water supply is entirely based on ground water. In some parts of the country these resources are found in buried quaternary tunnel valleys. Intensive mapping has shown that the valleys typically have a complex internal hydrogeology with multiple cut and ­fill structures....... The administration of groundwater resources has been based on simulations using regional scale groundwater models. However, regional scale models have difficulties with accurately resolving the complex geology of the buried valleys, which bears the risk of poor model predictions of local scale effects of groundwater...

  3. 3D Imaging of Dielectric Objects Buried under a Rough Surface by Using CSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Tetik


    Full Text Available A 3D scalar electromagnetic imaging of dielectric objects buried under a rough surface is presented. The problem has been treated as a 3D scalar problem for computational simplicity as a first step to the 3D vector problem. The complexity of the background in which the object is buried is simplified by obtaining Green’s function of its background, which consists of two homogeneous half-spaces, and a rough interface between them, by using Buried Object Approach (BOA. Green’s function of the two-part space with planar interface is obtained to be used in the process. Reconstruction of the location, shape, and constitutive parameters of the objects is achieved by Contrast Source Inversion (CSI method with conjugate gradient. The scattered field data that is used in the inverse problem is obtained via both Method of Moments (MoM and Comsol Multiphysics pressure acoustics model.

  4. Gravity field separation and mapping of buried quaternary valleys in Lolland, Denmark using old geophysical data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, M.J.; Olsen, Henrik; Ploug, C.


    the results): the construction of depth models from industrial seismic data for known geological units; geological stripping with mass density adjustment; high-pass filtering of the residual gravity signals; vibroseis surveys; microgravity surveys along seismic lines; the first modelling of buried valleys.......In this paper we utilise the old industrial data for planning new surveys. The overall purpose is a detailed mapping of possible aquifers for the island of Lolland, Denmark. This is done through detection and modelling of the buried quaternary valleys, which either can serve as potential aquifers...... or potential aquifer barriers. The present paper deals only with one aspect of a larger study; namely a case story leading to the detection of unknown buried valleys and the first attempts to model them in 3D from gravity and seismics. Also, the emphasis here is not on any theoretical or even methodological...

  5. AlGaAs burying growth for InGaAsP/GaAs buried heterostructure lasers by liquid-phase epitaxy (United States)

    Ishikawa, Joji; Tayama, Satoshi; Ito, Toshio; Takahashi, N. Shin-ichi; Kurita, Shoichi


    Liquid-phase-epitaxial (LPE) growth of Al xGa 1- xAs layers at 700°C has been used in the fabrication of 0.8 μ m InGaAsP buried heterostructure (BH) lasers grown on GaAs substrates. The solidus composition, X, was 0.66. By etching the mesa in KKI solution at 3°C for 2 min after a mesa etch in Br-methanol solution, high quality BH wafers with smooth surfaces and interfaces were reproducibly obtained after the AlGaAs secondary BH growth. The InGaAsP active region was entirely surrounded by InGaAsP cladding layers and AlGaAs burying layers providing both lateral and vertical carrier and optical confinement. Lasing action at room temperature under pulsed operation was achieved.

  6. Numerical and experimental investigation of flow and scour around a half-buried sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dixen, Martin; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen


    The paper describes the results of a numerical and experimental investigation of flow and scour around a half-buried sphere exposed to a steady current. Hot-film bed shear stress and Laser Doppler Anemometer measurements were made with a half sphere mounted on the smooth bed in an open channel......-buried sphere in currents. The morphologic model includes a sediment-transport description, and a description of surface-layer sand slides for bed slopes exceeding the angle of repose. The sediment transport description includes, for the first time, the effect of externally-generated turbulence (induced...

  7. Centrifuge modelling of lateral displacement of buried pipelines; Modelagem fisica centrifuga de flambagem lateral de dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Jose Renato Moreira da Silva de; Almeida, Marcio de Souza Soares de; Marques, Maria Esther Soares; Almeida, Maria Cascao Ferreira de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE); Costa, Alvaro Maia da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)


    This work discusses soil-structure interaction applied to the buckling phenomena of buried pipelines subjected to heated oil flow. A set of physical modelling tests on lateral buckling of pipelines buried on soft clay is presented using COPPE/UFRJ geotechnical centrifuge. A 1:30 pipeline model was moved side ward through a soft clay layer during centrifuge flight, varying the burial depth, in order to simulate the lateral buckling in plane strain condition. The results show different behaviour concerning horizontal and vertical forces measured at pipeline level due to soil reaction. (author)

  8. Stability and morphological and molecular-genetic identification of algae in buried soils (United States)

    Temraleeva, A. D.; Moskalenko, S. V.; El'tsov, M. V.; Vagapov, I. M.; Ovchinnikov, A. Yu.; Gugalinskaya, L. A.; Alifanov, V. M.; Pinskii, D. L.


    Living cultural strains of the green algae `Chlorella' mirabilis and Muriella terrestris have been isolated from buried soils, and their identification has been confirmed by morphological and molecular-genetic analysis. It has been shown that the retention of their viability could be related to their small size and the presence of sporopollenin in cell walls. The effect of methods for the reactivation of dormant microbial forms on the growth of algae in paleosols has been estimated. The total DNA content has been determined in buried and recent background soils, and relationship between DNA and the presence and age of burial has been established.

  9. Review of SiGe HBTs on SOI (United States)

    Mitrovic, I. Z.; Buiu, O.; Hall, S.; Bagnall, D. M.; Ashburn, P.


    This paper reviews progress in SiGe Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors (HBT) on Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) technology. SiGe HBTs on SOI are attractive for mixed signal radio frequency (RF) applications and have been of increasing research interest due to their compatibility with SOI CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) technology. In bipolar technology, the use of SOI substrate eliminates parasitic substrate transistors and associated latch-up, and has the ability to reduce crosstalk, particularly when combined with buried groundplanes (GP). Various technological SOI bipolar concepts are reviewed with special emphasis on the state-of-the-art SOI SiGe HBT devices in vertical and lateral design. More in depth results are shown from a UK consortium advanced RF platform technology, which includes SOI SiGe HBTs. Bonded wafer technology was developed to allow incorporation of buried silicide layers both above and below the buried oxide. New electrical and noise characterisation results pointed to reduced 1/ f noise in these devices compared to bulk counterparts. The lower noise is purported to arise from strain relief of the device structure due to the elasticity of the buried oxide layer during the high temperature epitaxial layer growth. The novel concept of the silicide SOI (SSOI) SiGe HBT technology developed for targeting a reduction in collector resistance, as well as for suppressing the crosstalk, is outlined. The buried tungsten silicide layers were found to have negligible impact on junction leakage. Further to vertical SiGe HBTs on SOI, the challenges of fabricating a lateral SOI SiGe HBT structure are presented.

  10. A monolithic active pixel sensor for ionizing radiation using a 180 nm HV-SOI process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemperek, Tomasz; Kishishita, Tetsuichi; Krueger, Hans; Wermes, Norbert [Institute of Physics, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany)


    An improved SOI-MAPS (Silicon On Insulator Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor) for ionizing radiation based on thick-180 nm High Voltage SOI technology (HV-SOI) has been developed. Similar to existing Fully Depleted SOI-based (FD-SOI) MAPS, a buried silicon oxide inter-dielectric (BOX) layer is used to separate the CMOS electronics from the handle wafer which is used as a depleted charge collection layer. Standard FD-SOI MAPS suffer from radiation damage such as transistor threshold voltage shifts due to trapped charge in the buried oxide layer and charged interface states created at the silicon oxide boundaries (back gate effect). The X-FAB 180 nm HV-SOI technology offers an additional isolation using a deep non-depleted implant between the BOX layer and the active circuitry which mitigates this problem. Therefore we see in this technology a high potential to implement radiation-tolerant MAPS with fast charge collection. The design and measurement results from first prototypes are presented including radiation tolerance to total ionizing dose and charge collection properties of neutron irradiated samples.

  11. 49 CFR 192.457 - External corrosion control: Buried or submerged pipelines installed before August 1, 1971. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External corrosion control: Buried or submerged... SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.457 External corrosion control: Buried or... areas in which active corrosion is found: (1) Bare or ineffectively coated transmission lines. (2) Bare...

  12. 49 CFR 192.455 - External corrosion control: Buried or submerged pipelines installed after July 31, 1971. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External corrosion control: Buried or submerged... SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.455 External corrosion control: Buried or... against external corrosion, including the following: (1) It must have an external protective coating...

  13. Static deformation due to a long buried dip-slip fault in an isotropic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Static deformation due to a long buried dip-slip fault in an isotropic half-space welded with an orthotropic half-space. NEERU BALA and SUNITA RANI. ∗. Department of Mathematics, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and. Technology, Hisar 125 001 e-mail: s−b− MS received 29 April 2008; ...

  14. Use of Microsoft HoloLens to survey and visualize buried networks

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    Survey and positioning of buried infrastructure networks are crucial issues for their maintenance and a starting point for every new Civil Engineering project. 3DCity is a research & development project which consists in a development of software providing a method for quick underground pipe networks surveying and holographic visualization, by using Microsoft HoloLens devices.

  15. A Novel Method for Remote Depth Estimation of Buried Radioactive Contamination. (United States)

    Ukaegbu, Ikechukwu Kevin; Gamage, Kelum A A


    Existing remote radioactive contamination depth estimation methods for buried radioactive wastes are either limited to less than 2 cm or are based on empirical models that require foreknowledge of the maximum penetrable depth of the contamination. These severely limits their usefulness in some real life subsurface contamination scenarios. Therefore, this work presents a novel remote depth estimation method that is based on an approximate three-dimensional linear attenuation model that exploits the benefits of using multiple measurements obtained from the surface of the material in which the contamination is buried using a radiation detector. Simulation results showed that the proposed method is able to detect the depth of caesium-137 and cobalt-60 contamination buried up to 40 cm in both sand and concrete. Furthermore, results from experiments show that the method is able to detect the depth of caesium-137 contamination buried up to 12 cm in sand. The lower maximum depth recorded in the experiment is due to limitations in the detector and the low activity of the caesium-137 source used. Nevertheless, both results demonstrate the superior capability of the proposed method compared to existing methods.

  16. Study on dinamic behavior and least burying depth of underground protective pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataoka, Tetsuyuki; Kokusyo, Goji; Tanaka, Yukihisa; Kobayashi, Seiichi


    Effect of unit load per travel wheel on the protective pipe was studied when electricity cable distribution lines were buried in the depth less than the present standard for electric equipment, and logical burying depth was investigated. Test items were material test of the protective pipe, indoor load test, and field test at loamy ground. Impact resistance hard PVC pipe was used as the protective pipe, and its strength and elastic modulus were measured. Along with these tests, it was confirmed that there was no problem of cracking by repeated flattening or breakage by fatigue. By indoor test, it was observed that, in case of shallow burying, creap deformation was small, stress concentrate occured at the middle of axial direction, and that flattening ratio was seriously affected by the method of backfilling. Field test was conducted by applying the static load of a 20 ton dump truck, and the deformation, stress, and subsidence of the protective pipe, were measured. As the conclusion of those experiments, it was found that burying of protective pipe in the depth of not less than 30 cm is allowable, as long as sufficient bakfilling is made. (14 figs, 3 tabs, 3 refs)

  17. Probing buried carbon nanotubes within polymer-nanotube composite matrices by Atomic Force Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phang, In Yee; Liu, Tianxi; Zhang, Wei-De; Schönherr, Holger; Vancso, Gyula J.


    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MW-CNT) inside a polyamide-6 (PA6)–MW-CNT composite were visualized by atomic force microscopy (i) in a field-assisted intermittent contact and (ii) in the tunneling (TUNA) mode. Individual buried MW-CNTs were clearly discerned within the PA6 matrix. An average

  18. Finite Element Modeling of Scattering from Underwater Proud and Buried Military Munitions (United States)


    FINAL REPORT Finite Element Modeling of Scattering from Underwater Proud and Buried Military Munitions SERDP Project MR-2408 JULY 2017...solution and the red dash-dot line repre- sents the coupled finite -boundary element solution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3 The line represents the coupled finite -boundary element solution. . . . . . . . 11 i 4 The scattering amplitude as a function of the receiver angle for

  19. On Resurrecting Buried Agents in Certain Tagalog Verbs. Studies in Philippine Linguistics, Vol. 3, No. 1 (United States)

    Cena, R. M.

    Analysis of the deep structure of certain Tagalog sentences reveals buried agents. In Tagalog, verbs are inflected for the case role of the subject Noun Phrase (NP). However, Tagalog contains many sentences which, on the surface, do not appear to adhere to this rule, because they are missing the agent. Among sentences which deviate from the rule…

  20. Influence of Population Density on Offspring Number and Size in Burying Beetles (United States)

    Rauter, Claudia M.


    This laboratory exercise investigates the influence of population density on offspring number and size in burying beetles. Students test the theoretical predictions that brood size declines and offspring size increases when competition over resources becomes stronger with increasing population density. Students design the experiment, collect and…

  1. Evaluating In Situ Treatment Technologies for Buried Mixed Waste Remediation at the INEEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.F. Nickelson; D.K. Jorgensen; J.J. Jessmore; R.A. Hyde; R.K. Farnsworth


    Mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes were buried at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Subsurface Disposal Area from 1952 to 1969. To begin the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process for the Subsurface Disposal Area, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) added the INEEL to its National Priorities List in 1989. DOE's Office of Environmental Restoration is planning several CERCLA treatability studies of remedial technologies that will be evaluated for potential remediation of the buried waste in the Subsurface Disposal Area. This paper discusses the in situ treatability studies that will be performed, including in situ vitrification, in situ grouting, and in situ thermal desorption. The in situ treatability studies will be conducted on simulated and actual buried wastes at the INEEL in 1999 and 2000. Results from the treatability studies will provide substantial information on the feasibility, implementability, and cost of applying these technologies to the INEEL Subsurface Disposal Area. In addition, much of the treatability study data will be applicable to buried waste site remediation efforts across the DOE complex.

  2. Evaluating In Situ Treatment Technologies for Buried Mixed Waste Remediation at the INEEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgensen, Douglas Kay; Nickelson, David Frank; Nickelson, Reva Anne; Farnsworth, Richard Kent; Jessmore, James Joseph


    Mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes were buried at the Department of Energy’s Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Subsurface Disposal Area from 1952 to 1969. To begin the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process for the Subsurface Disposal Area, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) added the INEEL to its National Priorities List in 1989. DOE’s Office of Environmental Restoration is planning several CERCLA treatability studies of remedial technologies that will be evaluated for potential remediation of the buried waste in the Subsurface Disposal Area. This paper discusses the in situ treatability studies that will be performed, including in situ vitrification, in situ grouting, and in situ thermal desorption. The in situ treatability studies will be conducted on simulated and actual buried wastes at the INEEL in 1999 and 2000. Results from the treatability studies will provide substantial information on the feasibility, implementability, and cost of applying these technologies to the INEEL Subsurface Disposal Area. In addition, much of the treatability study data will be applicable to buried waste site remediation efforts across the DOE complex.

  3. Early Monitoring of the Viability of the Buried Intrathoracic Omental Flap: A Feasibility Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wingerden, Jan J.; Collins, James M. P.; Coret, Elbertus H.; Schröder, Peter J. J.


    Purpose. The value of mobile, high-resolution gray-scale and color Doppler ultrasonography (US) in the immediate postoperative, intensive care setting for monitoring the buried flap and vascular pedicle of the laparoscopic or transdiaphragmatic harvested omentum for intrathoracic reconstruction was

  4. Buried nonmetallic object detection using bistatic ground penetrating radar with variable antenna elevation angle and height (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Orfeo, Dan; Burns, Dylan; Miller, Jonathan; Huston, Dryver; Xia, Tian


    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) has been shown to be an effective device for detecting buried objects that have little or no metal content, such as plastic, ceramic, and concrete pipes. In this paper, buried non-metallic object detection is evaluated for different antenna elevation angles and heights using a bistatic air-launched GPR. Due to the large standoff distance between antennas and the ground surface, the air-launched GPR has larger spreading loss than the hand-held GPR and vehicle-mounted GPR. Moreover, nonmetallic objects may have similar dielectric property to the buried medium, which results in further difficulty for accurate detection using air-launched GPR. To study such effects, both GPR simulations and GPR laboratory experiments are performed with various setups where antennas are placed at different heights and angles. In the experiments, the test surface areas are configured with and without rocks in order to examine surface clutter effect. The experimental results evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of bistatic air-launched GPR for detecting buried nonmetallic objects, which provide valuable insights for subsurface scanning with unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) mounted GPR.

  5. Buried late Pleistocene fluvial channels on the inner continental shelf off Vengurla, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SubbaRaju, L.V.; Krishna, K.S.; Chaubey, A.K.

    with sediments. Cross sectional dimensions between 15 to 100 m width and 2 to 6 m depth suggest a fluvial origin of the channels. These buried channels appear to mark former positions of rivers flowing from the nearby coast and debouching into the Arabian Sea...

  6. Review of Detection and Monitoring Systems for Buried High Pressure Pipelines : Final Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asadollahi Dolatabad, Saeid; Doree, Andries G.; olde Scholtenhuis, Léon Luc; Vahdatikhaki, Faridaddin


    The Netherlands has approximately two million kilometers of underground cables and pipelines. One specific type of buried infrastructure is the distribution network of hazardous material such as gas, oil, and chemicals (‘transportleiding gevaarlijke stoffen’). This network comprises 22.000

  7. Laser-induced acoustic landmine detection with experimental results on buried landmines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, J.C. van den; Putten, F.J.M. van; Koersel, A.C. van; Schleijpen, H.M.A.


    Acoustic landmine detection (ALD) is a technique for the detection of buried landmines including non-metal mines. Since it gives complementary results with GPR or metal detection, sensor fusion of these techniques with acoustic detection would give promising results. Two methods are used for the

  8. Fourier Array Processing for Buried Victims Detection using Ultra Wide Band Radar with Uncalibrated Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lidicky, L.


    The purpose of this paper is to propose a new way to detect victims buried in or under layers of rubble or debris in case of disasters such as earthquakes, fires or terrorist attacks. The method is based on Fourier Processing and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). It utilizes a moving array of

  9. Advancement of Buried Muco- Subcutaneous Sutures for Ostomy Creation in Surgery for Ulcerative Colitis. (United States)

    Uchino, Motoi; Ikeuchi, Hiroki; Matsuoka, Hiroki; Bando, Toshihiro; Okayamaz, Kanako; Takesue, Yoshio; Tomita, Naohiro


    Ostomy creation is a fundamental technique. However, little information is available concerning the procedure and the associated complications. We reviewed the relationship between the ostomy procedure and complications. The records of patients who were diagnosed with ulcerative colitis and underwent ostomy creation between January 2007 and July 2012 were reviewed. Stoma complications, including muco-cutaneous dehiscence, fistula and granulation were also reviewed. The study included 176 patients who received interrupted sutures with removal of the stitches and 202 patients who received subcutaneous sutures without removal of the stitches. Among the patients with buried sutures, 108 received braided absorbable sutures and 94 received with mono filament absorbable sutures. The incidence of dehiscence was significantly higher with the interrupted sutures (43.2%) than with the buried sutures (31.2%), although the granulation and fistula rates were not significantly different. Among the patients with buried sutures, fistula (6.4%) and granulation (21.3%) rates were slightly increased with the mono filament sutures compared with the braided sutures, although the differences were not significant. CONCLUSIONS. Suture removal appeared to be an unnecessary manipulation at ostomy creation. Further study for all colorectal surgery is needed to investigate whether the incidence of fistula increases with buried sutures.

  10. Low dose effects of a Withania somnifera extract on altered marble burying behavior in stressed mice. (United States)

    Dey, Amitabha; Chatterjee, Shyam Sunder; Kumar, Vikas


    Withania somnifera root (WSR) extracts are often used in traditionally known Indian systems of medicine for prevention and cure of psychosomatic disorders. The reported experiment was designed to test whether low daily oral doses of such extracts are also effective in suppressing marble burying behavior in stressed mice or not. Groups of mice treated with 10, 20, or 40 mg/kg daily oral doses of WSR were subjected to a foot shock stress-induced hyperthermia test on the 1(st), 5(th), 7(th), and 10(th) day of the experiment. On the 11(th) and 12(th) treatment days, they were subjected to marble burying tests. Stress response suppressing effects of low dose WSR were estimated by its effects on body weight and basal core temperature of animals during the course of the experiment. Alterations in bodyweight and basal core temperature triggered by repeated exposures to foot shock stress were absent even in the 10 mg/kg/day WSR treated group, whereas the effectiveness of the extract in foot shock stress-induced hyperthermia and marble burying tests increased with its increasing daily dose. Marble burying test in stressed mice is well suited for identifying bioactive constituents of W. somnifera like medicinal plants with adaptogenic, anxiolytic and antidepressant activities, or for quantifying pharmacological interactions between them.

  11. Incidence of Urethral Stricture in Patients with Adult Acquired Buried Penis. (United States)

    Liaw, Aron; Rickborn, Lanette; McClung, Christopher


    Introduction. Concealed-buried penis is an acquired condition associated with obesity, challenging to both manage and repair. Urethral stricture is a more common disorder with multiple etiologies. Lichen sclerosus is a significant known cause of urethral stricture, implicated in up to 30%. We hypothesize that patients with buried penis have a higher rate of urethral stricture and lichen sclerosus than the general population. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed a single surgeon's (CM) case logs for patients presenting with a buried penis. All patients were evaluated for urethral stricture with cystoscopy or retrograde urethrogram either prior to or at the time of repair for buried penis. Those that had surgical repair or biopsy were reviewed for presence of lichen sclerosus. Results. 39 patients met inclusion criteria. Of these, 13 (33%) had associated stricture disease. The location of the strictures was bulbar urethra (38%), penile urethra (15%), and meatus or fossa navicularis (62%). Five patients had lichen sclerosus and urethral stricture disease, while 3 had lichen sclerosus without stricture. 11/13 stricture patients were treated. Six underwent dilation, 3 underwent meatotomy, and 2 underwent urethroplasty. No significant recurrences of stricture were seen. Conclusion. Patients with a concealed penis are more likely than the general population to have a urethral stricture and/or LS. Patients presenting with concealed penis should also be evaluated for a urethral stricture.

  12. The growth and atomic structure of the Si(111)7x7-Pb buried interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edwards, KA; Howes, PB; Macdonald, JE; Hibma, T; Bootsma, T; James, MA

    The formation of the buried, 7 x 7-reconstructed Si(1 1 1)-Pb interface has been studied by X-ray diffraction. Oscillations in the reflected intensity confirm that, at 100 K, the Pb grows layer-by-layer beyond a critical coverage of 6 ml. Measurements of the specular reflectivity show that, at a

  13. Geophysical research results of buried relief and distribution groundwater runoff of the Aragats massif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P. Vardanyan


    Overall, the new data concerning the structure of the buried relief of Aragats massif and the distribution of its underground runoff allow to develop effective measures for the selection of underground waters and their rational usage for the purpose of water supply and irrigation.

  14. Effect of Heat From Buried Metallic Object On Different Soil Textures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was performed in a laboratory at Abeokuta, South Western Nigeria, with the objects buried at a depth of 2cm and heated to a temperature of 400C . A plot of the variation of the temperature (as the ... Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics, Volume 19 (November, 2011), pp 321 – 328 ...

  15. Modified Double-Eyelid Blepharoplasty Using the Single-Knot Continuous Buried Non-Incisional Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Chul Moon


    Full Text Available Background Buried non-incisional double-eyelid blepharoplasty is a popular aesthetic procedure. Although various modified continuous suture techniques have been used to create a more natural appearance and to reduce downtime, complications such as loosening of the double fold, asymmetry, and foreign body reactions have been observed.Methods This study included 250 patients who underwent double-eyelid blepharoplasty between March 1997 and November 2012 using a modified single-knot continuous buried non-incisional technique. With 4 stab incisions in the upper eyelids, one of two needles loaded with double-armed 7-0 nylon was passed in one direction alternately through the dermis and the conjunctiva, while the other needle was passed subconjunctivally in the opposite direction. Both ends of the sutures were knotted within a lateral stab incision of the upper eyelids and were buried in the orbicularis oculi muscle.Results Most patients displayed satisfactory aesthetic results, and no significant complications occurred. There was no obvious regression of the double fold; however, 3 patients required reoperation to correct loosening of the fold on one side during the follow-up period. One patient presented with the suture knot subcutaneously, and the knot was removed in the clinic.Conclusions The modified single-knot continuous buried non-incisional technique is a simple and less time-consuming method for a durable double fold and provides satisfactory aesthetic results.

  16. Hydrology of the alluvial, buried channel, basal Pleistocene and Dakota aquifers in west-central Iowa (United States)

    Runkle, D.L.


    A ground-water resources investigation in west-central Iowa indicates that water is available from alluvial, buried channel, basal Pleistocene, and Dakota aquifers. The west-central Iowa area includes Audubon, Carrol1, Crawford, Greene, Guthrie, Harrison, Monona, and Shelby Counties.

  17. Late diagenetic indicators of buried oil and gas (United States)

    Donovan, Terrence J.; Dalziel, Mary C.


    At least three hydrocarbon seepage mechanisms are interpreted to operate over oil and gas fields. These are: (1) effusion ofh ydrocarbons through inadequate caprocks and along faults and fractures, (2) low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons dissolved in water moving vertically through capping shales as a result of a hydrodynamic or chemical potential drive, and (3) diffusion of gases dissolved in water. Combinations of these mechanisms may also occur. Seeping hydrocarbons are oxidized near the earth's surface, and the resulting carbon dioxide reacts with water producing bicarbonate ions, which combine with calcium and magnesium dissolved in ground waters to yield isotopically distinctive pore-filling carbonate cements and surface rocks. The passage of hydrocarbons and associated compounds such as hydrogen sulfide through surface rocks causes a reducing environment and consequent reduction, mobilization, and loss of iron from iron-bearing minerals commonly resulting in a discoloration. Other metals such as manganese are also mobilized and redistributed. These changes in the physical and chemical properties of surface rocks correlate with the subsurface distribution of petroleum, and potentially can be detected from both airborne and spaceborne platforms.

  18. An 8.68% efficiency chemically-doped-free graphene-silicon solar cell using silver nanowires network buried contacts. (United States)

    Yang, Lifei; Yu, Xuegong; Hu, Weidan; Wu, Xiaolei; Zhao, Yan; Yang, Deren


    Graphene-silicon (Gr-Si) heterojunction solar cells have been recognized as one of the most low-cost candidates in photovoltaics due to its simple fabrication process. However, the high sheet resistance of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) Gr films is still the most important limiting factor for the improvement of the power conversion efficiency of Gr-Si solar cells, especially in the case of large device-active area. In this work, we have fabricated a novel transparent conductive film by hybriding a monolayer Gr film with silver nanowires (AgNWs) network soldered by the graphene oxide (GO) flakes. This Gr-AgNWs hybrid film exhibits low sheet resistance and larger direct-current to optical conductivity ratio, quite suitable for solar cell fabrication. An efficiency of 8.68% has been achieved for the Gr-AgNWs-Si solar cell, in which the AgNWs network acts as buried contacts. Meanwhile, the Gr-AgNWs-Si solar cells have much better stability than the chemically doped Gr-Si solar cells. These results show a new route for the fabrication of high efficient and stable Gr-Si solar cells.

  19. Investigation of veritcal graded channel doping in nanoscale fully-depleted SOI-MOSFET (United States)

    Ramezani, Zeinab; Orouji, Ali A.


    For achieving reliable transistor, we investigate an amended channel doping (ACD) engineering which improves the electrical and thermal performances of fully-depleted silicon-on-insulator (SOI) MOSFET. We have called the proposed structure with the amended channel doping engineering as ACD-SOI structure and compared it with a conventional fully-depleted SOI MOSFET (C-SOI) with uniform doping distribution using 2-D ATLAS simulator. The amended channel doping is a vertical graded doping that is distributed from the surface of structure with high doping density to the bottom of channel, near the buried oxide, with low doping density. Short channel effects (SCEs) and leakage current suppress due to high barrier height near the source region and electric field modification in the ACD-SOI in comparison with the C-SOI structure. Furthermore, by lower electric field and electron temperature near the drain region that is the place of hot carrier generation, we except the improvement of reliability and gate induced drain lowering (GIDL) in the proposed structure. Undesirable Self heating effect (SHE) that become a critical challenge for SOI MOSFETs is alleviated in the ACD-SOI structure because of utilizing low doping density near the buried oxide. Thus, refer to accessible results, the ACD-SOI structure with graded distribution in vertical direction is a reliable device especially in low power and high temperature applications.

  20. Improved Starting Materials for Back-Illuminated Imagers (United States)

    Pain, Bedabrata


    An improved type of starting materials for the fabrication of silicon-based imaging integrated circuits that include back-illuminated photodetectors has been conceived, and a process for making these starting materials is undergoing development. These materials are intended to enable reductions in dark currents and increases in quantum efficiencies, relative to those of comparable imagers made from prior silicon-on-insulator (SOI) starting materials. Some background information is prerequisite to a meaningful description of the improved starting materials and process. A prior SOI starting material, depicted in the upper part the figure, includes: a) A device layer on the front side, typically between 2 and 20 m thick, made of p-doped silicon (that is, silicon lightly doped with an electron acceptor, which is typically boron); b) A buried oxide (BOX) layer (that is, a buried layer of oxidized silicon) between 0.2 and 0.5 m thick; and c) A silicon handle layer (also known as a handle wafer) on the back side, between about 600 and 650 m thick. After fabrication of the imager circuitry in and on the device layer, the handle wafer is etched away, the BOX layer acting as an etch stop. In subsequent operation of the imager, light enters from the back, through the BOX layer. The advantages of back illumination over front illumination have been discussed in prior NASA Tech Briefs articles.

  1. An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Liu; Kumar, R.; Huybrechts, K.


    Ultra-small, low-power, all-optical switching and memory elements, such as all-optical flip-flops, as well as photonic integrated circuits of many such elements, are in great demand for all-optical signal buffering, switching and processing. Silicon-on-insulator is considered to be a promising...... platform to accommodate such photonic circuits in large-scale configurations. Through heterogeneous integration of InP membranes onto silicon-on-insulator, a single microdisk laser with a diameter of 7.5 mu m, coupled to a silicon-on-insulator wire waveguide, is demonstrated here as an all-optical flip-flop...... the only electrically pumped, all-optical flip-flop on silicon built upon complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology....

  2. Effect of buried plates on scour profiles downstream of hydraulic jump in open channels with horizontal and reverse bed slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Abbaspour


    Full Text Available Local scour downstream of sluice gates in erosive beds is one of the main concerns of hydraulic engineers because it can cause considerable damage to structures. Many researchers have conducted various studies to predict the maximum depth and length of scour holes and to develop new methods to control this phenomenon. In the methods that have recently been examined, embedded buried plates are used to control the scour in the erosive beds. In this study, using a physical model, the effect of buried plates in erosive beds on the depth of scour downstream of a hydraulic jump was studied. Several experiments were performed in which plates were buried at 50° and 90° angles at different distances from the apron in open channels with horizontal and reverse bed slopes. The results of experiments in which the scour profiles were drawn in dimensionless forms show that the angle and position of the plates are important to controlling and reducing scour depth. In fact, by reducing the angle of buried plates, the maximum depth of scour is also reduced. Also, comparison of the results of a single buried plate and double buried plates shows that using two buried plates at the distances of 30 and 45 cm from the non-erodible bed is more effective in reducing the scour depth. The best distances of the buried plates with angles of 90° and 50° from the non-erodible bed are 45 cm and 30 cm, respectively, in the condition with a single buried plate.

  3. Impact of solid-phase crystallization of amorphous silicon on the chemical structure of the buried Si/ZnO thin film solar cell interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bar, M.; Wimmer, M.; Wilks, R. G.; Roczen, M.; Gerlach, D.; Ruske, F.; Lips, K.; Rech, B.; Weinhardt, L.; Blum, M.; Pookpanratana, S.; Krause, S.; Zhang, Y.; Heske, C.; Yang, W.; Denlinger, J. D.


    The chemical interface structure between phosphorus-doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon and aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films is investigated with soft x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) before and after solid-phase crystallization (SPC) at 600C. In addition to the expected SPC-induced phase transition from amorphous to polycrystalline silicon, our XES data indicates a pronounced chemical interaction at the buried Si/ZnO interface. In particular, we find an SPC-enhanced formation of Si-O bonds and the accumulation of Zn in close proximity to the interface. For an assumed closed and homogeneous SiO2 interlayer, an effective thickness of (5+2)nm after SPC could be estimated.

  4. Infectivity of Trichinella spiralis larvae in pork buried in the ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovic S.


    Full Text Available Time of survival and infectivity of Trichinella spiralis larvae in pig muscle tissue, buried at various depths in the ground were assessed. In the pork pieces the number of infective larvae was 250 ML/g. Meat originated from pig halves was divided in 39 equal pieces, 0.7 kg each, disposed in three groups of 1 3, and buried in depths of 30, 50, and 100 centimeters respectively. The pork was dug up at 13 intervals, approximately every week, until 91st day of the experiment. After each time interval, infectivity of larvae was assessed by bioassay on rats. The artificially infected rats were sacrificed on 42nd day after the infection and meat was examined by the following methods - artificial digestion and trichinoscopy. It was found that the larvae during all 90 days preserved infectivity in each depth.

  5. The Investigation of Identity Construction: A Foucauldian Reading of Sam Shepard's Buried Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeidabadi S.


    Full Text Available Shepard is peculiarly powerful in his symbolic family problem plays: True West, Buried Child and Curse of the Starving Class. He allegorizes the American experience and undermines the myth of America as the New Eden. The present study seeks to critically explore Sam Shepard's Buried Child in terms of Foucauldian conception of identity construction. Shepard is depicting a dystopian world with its bewildered characters; however he has still got a romantic view of individuals trying to grapple with the society in order to get unity and order. This Shephardian attitude towards human beings is seemingly a free agent that overlaps the Foucauldian view which establishes a philosophy focusing on the relationship between the self and the society. The present essay attempts to demonstrate the complicated relationship between the self and the opposing forces.

  6. Noise characteristics of resistors buried in low-temperature co-fired ceramics

    CERN Document Server

    Kolek, A; Dziedzic, A


    The comparison of noise properties of conventional thick film resistors prepared on alumina substrates and resistors embedded in low-temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCCs) is presented. Both types of resistors were prepared from commercially available resistive inks. Noise measurements of LTCC resistors below 1 kHz show Gaussian 1/f noise. This is concluded from the calculations of the second spectra as well as from studying the volume dependence of noise intensity. It has occurred that noise index of LTCC resistors on average is not worse than that of conventional resistors. A detailed study of co-fired surface resistors and co-fired buried resistors show that burying a resistor within LTCC substrate usually leads to (significant) enhancement of resistance but not of noise intensity. We interpret this behaviour as another argument in favour of tunnelling as the dominant conduction mechanism in LTCC resistors.

  7. Technology evaluation report for the Buried Waste Robotics Program Subsurface Mapping Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griebenow, B.E.


    This document presents a summary of the work performed in support of the Buried Waste Robotics Program Subsurface Mapping Project. The project objective was to demonstrate the feasibility of remotely characterizing buried waste sites. To fulfill this objective, a remotely-operated vehicle, equipped with several sensors, was deployed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Descriptions of the equipment and areas involved in the project are included in this report. Additionally, this document provides data that was obtained during characterization operations at the Cold Test Pit and the Subsurface Disposal Area, both at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s Radioactive Waste Management Complex, and at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The knowledge gained from the experience, that can be applied to the next generation remote-characterization system, is extensive and is presented in this report.

  8. Technology evaluation report for the Buried Waste Robotics Program Subsurface Mapping Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griebenow, B.E.


    This document presents a summary of the work performed in support of the Buried Waste Robotics Program Subsurface Mapping Project. The project objective was to demonstrate the feasibility of remotely characterizing buried waste sites. To fulfill this objective, a remotely-operated vehicle, equipped with several sensors, was deployed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Descriptions of the equipment and areas involved in the project are included in this report. Additionally, this document provides data that was obtained during characterization operations at the Cold Test Pit and the Subsurface Disposal Area, both at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's Radioactive Waste Management Complex, and at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The knowledge gained from the experience, that can be applied to the next generation remote-characterization system, is extensive and is presented in this report.

  9. Novel endoscopic management of buried bumper syndrome in percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy: The Olympus HookKnife. (United States)

    Wolpert, Laura E; Summers, Dominic M; Tsang, Andrew


    Buried bumper syndrome (BBS) is an uncommon but serious complication of percutaneous endoscopic ga-strostomy. It involves the internal fixation device, or "bumper", migrating into the gastric wall and subsequent mucosal overgrowth. We described a case series of four patients with BBS treated with a novel endoscopic technique using a HookKnife between June 2016 and February 2017. The HookKnife is a rotating L-shaped cutting wire designed for hooking tissue and pulling it away from the gastric wall towards the lumen. The technique was successful in all four cases with no complications. Each patient was discharged on the day of treatment. The HookKnife is a manoeuvrable, safe and effective device for endoscopic removal of buried bumpers and could avoid surgery in a high risk group of patients. To our knowledge this technique has not been described previously. We suggest that this technique should be added to the treatment algorithms for managing BBS.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyazi Uğur TERZİ


    Full Text Available Deformation characteristics of polyethylene based flexible pipes are different than rigid pipes such as concrete and iron pipes. Deflection patterns and stress-strain behaviors of flexible pipes have strict relation between the engineering properties of backfill and its settlement method. In this study, deformation behavior of a 100 mm HDPE flexible pipe under vertical loads is investigated in laboratory conditions. Steel test box, pressurized membrane, raining system, linear position transducers and strain gauge rosettes are used in the laboratory tests. In order to analyze the buried pipe performance; Masada Derivation Formula which is mostly used by designers is employed. According to the test and mathematical studies, it is understood that relative density of backfill and its settlement method is a considerable effect on buried pipe performance and Masada Derivation method is very efficient for predicting the pipe performance.

  11. Reducing Thermal Losses and Gains With Buried and Encapsulated Ducts in Hot-Humid Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, C. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States); Magee, A. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States); Zoeller, W. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States)


    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) monitored three houses in Jacksonville, FL, to investigate the effectiveness of encapsulated and encapsulated/buried ducts in reducing thermal losses and gains from ductwork in unconditioned attics. Burying ductwork beneath loose-fill insulation has been identified as an effective method of reducing thermal losses and gains from ductwork in dry climates, but it is not applicable in humid climates where condensation may occur on the outside of the duct jacket. By encapsulating the ductwork in closed cell polyurethane foam (ccSPF) before burial beneath loose-fill mineral fiber insulation, the condensation potential may be reduced while increasing the R-value of the ductwork.

  12. Analysis of buried heterointerfacial hydrogen in highly lattice-mismatched epitaxy on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Eiko Engineering Co., Ltd., Hitachinaka, Ibaraki 312-0024 (Japan); Asaoka, H., E-mail: [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Taguchi, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamazaki, D.; Maruyama, R.; Takeda, M.; Shamoto, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)


    We realized the epitaxial growth of a Sr layer on Si(111) with an atomically abrupt heterointerface - in spite of its large lattice mismatch (12%) with Si - by introducing a monoatomic layer of H on Si. In order to identify the buried H, we carried out a combination analysis involving neutron reflectometry and resonant nuclear reaction of {sup 1}H({sup 15}N,{alpha}{gamma}){sup 12}C analysis. We found different neutron reflectivity profiles resulting from a contrast variation between the H and D atoms at the buried heterointerface. Furthermore, the depth {gamma}-ray intensity profiles revealed that the H at the heterointerface acts as an effective buffer layer that enables it to manage the highly mismatched epitaxy on Si.

  13. Numerical study of the polarization effect of GPR systems on the detection of buried objects (United States)

    Sagnard, Florence


    This work is in line with the studies carried out in our department over the last few years on object detection in civil engineering structures and soils. In parallel to building of the second version of the Sense-City test site where several pipeline networks will be buried [1], we are developing numerical models using the FIT and the FDTD approaches to study more precisely the contribution of the polarization diversity in the detection of conductive and dielectric buried objects using the GPR technique. The simulations developed are based on a ultra-wide band SFCW GPR system that have been designed and evaluated in our laboratory. A parametric study is proposed to evaluate the influence of the antenna configurations and the antenna geometry when considering the polarization diversity in the detection and characterization of canonical objects. [1]

  14. Taphonomic Effects of Mechanical Plowing on Buried Juvenile-Sized Remains. (United States)

    Newcomb, Alyssa M; Pokines, James T; Moore, Tara L


    Agricultural activity is a worldwide taphonomic process and can present unique challenges in the recovery of buried remains. Previous research has been mostly within the realm of site formation processes of archeological sites utilizing only surface material. This research expands upon the previous research by incorporating the distribution of subsurface material by the use of archeological excavation techniques. An experiment was conducted utilizing juvenile pig (Sus scrofa) skeletons buried in relative anatomical position at two different depths (15 cm below the surface [cmbs] and 22 cmbs). The burials were then subjected to different intervals of mechanical plowing: one, three, five, seven, or 10 plow passes. The skeletal material was recovered using pedestrian survey followed by hand excavation and screening of all sediments. This research shows that there is a significant relationship between the degree of plowing and the distance skeletal material is distributed and the percentage of material recovered undamaged. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. Internal deformation of the southeast Levant margin through continued activity of buried mass transport deposits (United States)

    Safadi, M.; Meilijson, A.; Makovsky, Y.


    Mass transport deposits (MTDs) are commonly regarded as motionless evidences of past mass wasting events. Three-dimensional seismic surveys acquired offshore central Israel reveal continued long-lasting and even current deformation of >1.5 Myr old MTDs, now buried hundreds of meters beneath and still impacting the seafloor. Faulting and folding of the Messinian-Pliocene unconformity (M), at the base of the studied interval, represent the possible impacts of tectonic and halokinematic deformation. However, an 200 m thick continuous stratified unit straddles the M and entirely separates the overlaying Plio-Quaternary sedimentary stack from underlying faulting. Overlaying and etched into this stratified unit are headscarp regions of two up to 450 m thick buried MTDs, characterized by distinct combinations of chaotic seismic reflections and typically 1 km wide detached and rotated blocks. "Crowns" of growth faults emanate upward from these MTD headwalls, truncating and deforming the overburden and offsetting overlaying reflections by tens of meters up to 100 m below the seafloor. Moreover, asymmetric sagging and faulting of the overburden mimic the layout and flow pattern of the MTDs and rafted blocks within, providing kinematic indications of combined compaction and lateral flow. These observations imply that the MTDs undergo continuous postslumping differential compaction, combined with lateral mobilization. Additional smaller and younger buried MTDs distributed within the overburden are observed to portray similar deformation kinematics. We suggest that the buried MTDs provide deformational foci and pathways for downslope internal collapse of the continental margin at large, offering a new possible mechanism of thin-skinned extension.

  16. History of the incipient Icelandic plume: Observations from ancient buried landscapes (United States)

    Stucky de Quay, Gaia; Roberts, Gareth G.; Watson, Jonathan S.; Jackson, Christopher A.-L.


    Ancient buried terrestrial landscapes contain records of vertical motions which can be used to probe histories of geodynamical processes. In the North Atlantic Ocean, sedimentary basins contain excellent evidence that the continental shelf experienced staged subaerial exposure. For example, now buried landscapes were uplifted, rapidly eroded, and drowned close to the Paleocene-Eocene boundary. We use commercial wells and three-dimensional seismic data to reconstruct a 57-55 Ma landscape now buried 1.5 km beneath the seabed in the Bressay area of the northern North Sea. Geochemical analyses of organic matter from core samples intersecting the erosional landscape indicate the presence of angiosperm (flowering plant) debris. Combined with the presence of coarse clastic material, mapped beach ridges, and dendritic drainage patterns, these observations indicate that this landscape was of terrestrial origin. Longitudinal profiles of ancient rivers were extracted and inverted for an uplift rate history. The best-fitting uplift rate history has three phases and total cumulative uplift of 350 m. Biostratigraphic data from surrounding marine stratigraphy indicate that this landscape formed within 1-1.5 Ma. This uplift history is similar to that of a slightly older buried landscape in the Faeroe-Shetland basin 400 km to the west. These records of vertical motion can explained by pulses of anomalously hot asthenosphere spreading out from the incipient Icelandic plume. Using simple isostatic calculations we estimate that the maximum thermal anomaly beneath Bressay was 50˚. Our observations suggest that a thermal anomaly departed the Icelandic plume as early as 58.5 Ma and had highest average temperatures at 55.6 Ma.

  17. Reference standard of penile size and prevalence of buried penis in Japanese newborn male infants. (United States)

    Matsuo, Nobutake; Ishii, Tomohiro; Takayama, John I; Miwa, Masayuki; Hasegawa, Tomonobu


    The present study set forth the reference values for penile size and determined the prevalence of buried penis in Japanese full-term newborns. The stretched penile length was measured and the presence of buried penis was assessed at 1-7 days of age in 547 Japanese full-term newborn infants born between 2008 and 2012 in Tokyo. The stretched penile lengths were compared at 1-12 hours and 1-7 days of age in 63 infants and by two observers in 73 infants to estimate postnatal changes and interobserver variation, respectively. The mean stretched penile length was 3.06 cm (SD, 0.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.04-3.08) and the mean ratio of penile length to body length was 6.24 × 100(-1) (SD, 0.55 × 100(-1)), both of which were significantly smaller than those in Caucasian newborn infants. Buried penis was identified in 20 of 547 infants (3.7%; 95% CI, 2.1-5.2%). The first measurements of penile length at 1-12 hours were significantly smaller than the next measurements at 1-7 days (95% CI of the difference, 0.22-0.34). The 95% CI for the limits of agreement in the penile lengths measured by the two observers was -0.58 to -0.40 for the lower limit and 0.33 to 0.51 for the upper limit. These findings indicate that the penile length should be assessed after 24 hours of age by the reference standard of the same ethnicity for identifying micropenis and that buried penis is not uncommon in Japanese full-term newborns.

  18. Gold Electrodes Wired for Coupling with the Deeply Buried Active Site of Arthrobacter globiformis Amine Oxidase


    Hess, Corinna R.; Juda, Gregory A.; Dooley, David M.; Amii, Ricky N.; Hill, Michael G.; Winkler, Jay R.; Gray, Harry B.


    Diethylaniline-terminated oligo(phenyl-ethynyl)-thiol (DEA-OPE-SH) wires on Au-bead electrodes facilitate electron tunneling to and from the deeply buried topaquinone (TPQ) cofactor in Arthrobacter globiformis amine oxidase (AGAO). Reversible cyclic voltammograms were observed when AGAO was adsorbed onto this DEA-OPE-SAu surface:  the 2e^-/2H^+ reduction potential is −140 mV versus SCE.

  19. Electromagnetic diffraction by an impedance cylinder buried halfway between two half-spaces

    KAUST Repository

    Salem, Mohamed


    We consider the problem of electromagnetic diffraction from a cylinder with impedance surface and half-buried between two dielectric media. An arbitrary located electric dipole provides the excitation. The harmonic solution is presented as a series sum over a spectrum of a discrete-index Hankel transform, and the spectral amplitudes are determined by solving an infinite linear system of equations, which is constructed by applying the orthogonality relation of the 1D Green\\'s function. © 2011 IEEE.

  20. Lake stratigraphy implies an 80 000 yr delayed melting of buried dead ice in northern Russia


    Henriksen, Mona; Mangerud, Jan; Matiouchkov, Alexei; Paus, Aage; Svendsen, John-Inge


    Sediment cores from lakes Kormovoye and Oshkoty in the glaciated region of the Pechora Lowland, northern Russia, reveal sediment gravity flow deposits overlain by lacustrine mud and gyttja. The sediments were deposited mainly during melting of buried glacier ice beneath the lakes. In Lake Kormovoye, differential melting of dead ice caused the lake bottom to subside at different places at different times, resulting in sedimentation and erosion occurring only some few metres apar...

  1. Patient-Reported Social, Psychological, and Urologic Outcomes After Adult Buried Penis Repair. (United States)

    Voznesensky, Maria A; Lawrence, W Thomas; Keith, Jerrod N; Erickson, Bradley A


    To assess changes in hygiene, urination, and sexual activity after surgery for adult-acquired buried penis. The study included men who underwent buried penis repair from 2011 to 2015. Patients were asked pre- and postoperative questions on hygiene, urinary difficulties, sexual difficulties, and difficulties with activities of daily living (modified Post-Bariatric Surgery Quality of Life Questionnaire). Postoperative satisfaction was assessed at a minimum of 6 months. Pre- and postoperative data were compared with chi-squared analyses. Of 14 eligible patients, 12 completed postoperative questionnaires. Buried penis repair required debridement of penile skin with split-thickness skin grafting to penis (n = 11; 92%), escutcheonectomy (n = 12; 100%) and abdominoplasty (n = 10; 83%), scrotoplasty (n = 7; 59%), and securing the supra-penile dermis to the pubic dermal or periosteal tissue (n = 12, 100%). The average length of follow-up was 31 months (±20 months). Mean age was 50 (±10.5 years) and mean body mass index was 55 (±13.7 kg/m(2)). Wound complications (all Clavian Grade 1) occurred in 9 of 12 patients. Patients reported improvement in hygiene (100%), urination (91%), and sexual function (41%); 92% of patients reported they would choose to have the surgery again; and 83% felt that surgery had led to a positive change in their lives. The ability to perform most activities of daily living, as assessed by the Post-Bariatric Surgery Quality of Life Questionnaire, improved significantly. Over 90% of men had lost additional body weight at last clinical follow-up. Buried penis repair positively impacts social, psychological, and functional outcomes for patients. Wound complications should be expected but are easily managed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Residency time as an indicator of reproductive restraint in male burying beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlee N Smith

    Full Text Available The cost of reproduction theory posits that there are trade-offs between current and future reproduction because resources that are allocated to current offspring cannot be used for future reproductive opportunities. Two adaptive reproductive strategies have been hypothesized to offset the costs of reproduction and maximize lifetime fitness. The terminal investment hypothesis predicts that as individuals age they will allocate more resources to current reproduction as a response to decreasing residual reproductive value. The reproductive restraint hypotheses predicts that as individuals age they will allocate fewer resources to current reproduction to increase the chance of surviving for an additional reproductive opportunity. In this study, we test for adaptive responses to advancing age in male burying beetles, Nicrophorus orbicollis. Burying beetles use facultative biparental care, but the male typically abandons the brood before the female. Previous work in male burying beetles has suggested several factors to explain variation in male residency time, but no study has observed male behavior throughout their entire reproductive lifetimes to determine whether males change residency time in an adaptive way with age. We compared residency time of males that reproduced biparentally, uniparentally, and on different-sized carcasses to determine if they used an adaptive reproductive strategy. Males did not increase residency time as they aged when reproducing biparentally, but decreased residency time with age when reproducing uniparentally. A decrease in parental care with age is consistent with a reproductive restraint strategy. When female age increased over time, males did not increase their residency time to compensate for deteriorating female condition. To our knowledge, this is the first test of adaptive reproductive allocation strategies in male burying beetles.

  3. Assessment of incineration and melting treatment technologies for RWMC buried waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geimer, R.; Hertzler, T.; Gillins, R. (Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Anderson, G.L. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))


    This report provides an identification, description, and ranking evaluation of the available thermal treatment technologies potentially capable of treating the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) buried mixed waste. The ranking evaluation focused separately upon incinerators for treatment of combustible wastes and melters for noncombustible wastes. The highest rank incinerators are rotary kilns and controlled air furnaces, while the highest rank melters are the hearth configuration plasma torch, graphite electrode arc, and joule-heated melters. 4 refs.

  4. A servo controlled gradient loading triaxial model test system for deep-buried cavern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xu-guang [College of Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Ocean Engineering, Qingdao 266100 (China); Research Center of Geotechnical and Structural Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Zhang, Qiang-yong; Li, Shu-cai [Research Center of Geotechnical and Structural Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)


    A servo controlled gradient loading model test system is developed to simulate the gradient geostress in deep-buried cavern. This system consists of the gradient loading apparatus, the digital servo control device, and the measurement system. Among them, the gradient loading apparatus is the main component which is used for exerting load onto the model. This loading apparatus is placed inside the counterforce wall/beam and is divided to several different loading zones, with each loading zone independently controlled. This design enables the gradient loading. Hence, the “real” geostress field surrounding the deep-buried cavern can be simulated. The loading or unloading process can be controlled by the human-computer interaction machines, i.e., the digital servo control system. It realizes the automation and visualization of model loading/unloading. In addition, this digital servo could control and regulate hydraulic loading instantaneously, which stabilizes the geostress onto the model over a long term. During the loading procedure, the collision between two adjacent loading platens is also eliminated by developing a guide frame. This collision phenomenon is induced by the volume shrinkage of the model when compressed in true 3D state. In addition, several accurate measurements, including the optical and grating-based method, are adopted to monitor the small deformation of the model. Hence, the distortion of the model could be accurately measured. In order to validate the performance of this innovative model test system, a 3D geomechanical test was conducted on a simulated deep-buried underground reservoir. The result shows that the radial convergence increases rapidly with the release of the stress in the reservoir. Moreover, the deformation increases with the increase of the gas production rate. This observation is consistence with field observation in petroleum engineering. The system is therefore capable of testing deep-buried engineering structures.

  5. Paraffin Granuloma Associated with Buried Glans Penis-Induced Sexual and Voiding Dysfunction


    Chon, Wonhee; Koo, Ja Yun; Park, Min Jung; Choi, Kyung-Un; Park, Hyun Jun; Park, Nam Cheol


    A paraffinoma is a type of inflammatory lipogranuloma that develops after the injection of an artificial mineral oil, such as paraffin or silicon, into the foreskin or the subcutaneous tissue of the penis for the purpose of penis enlargement, cosmetics, or prosthesis. The authors experienced a case of macro-paraffinoma associated with sexual dysfunction, voiding dysfunction, and pain caused by a buried glans penis after a paraffin injection for penis enlargement that had been performed 35 yea...

  6. Site Assessment of Multiple-Sensor Approaches for Buried Utility Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander C. D. Royal


    Full Text Available The successful operation of buried infrastructure within urban environments is fundamental to the conservation of modern living standards. Open-cut methods are predominantly used, in preference to trenchless technology, to effect a repair, replace or install a new section of the network. This is, in part, due to the inability to determine the position of all utilities below the carriageway, making open-cut methods desirable in terms of dealing with uncertainty since the buried infrastructure is progressively exposed during excavation. However, open-cut methods damage the carriageway and disrupt society's functions. This paper describes the progress of a research project that aims to develop a multi-sensor geophysical platform that can improve the probability of complete detection of the infrastructure buried beneath the carriageway. The multi-sensor platform is being developed in conjunction with a knowledge-based system that aims to provide information on how the properties of the ground might affect the sensing technologies being deployed. The fusion of data sources (sensor data and utilities record data is also being researched to maximize the probability of location. This paper describes the outcome of the initial phase of testing along with the development of the knowledge-based system and the fusing of data to produce utility maps.

  7. Detection of Microbial sulfate-reduction associated with buried stainless steel coupons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark E. Delwiche; M. Kay Adler Flitton; Alicia Olson


    The objective of this study was to demonstrate applicability of an innovative radioactive isotope method for imaging microbial activity in geological materials to a comprehensive study of metal corrosion. The method was tested on a sample of stainless steel coupons that had been buried as part of a corrosion study initiated by the National Institute of Standards and Testing or NIST (known as National Bureau of Standards prior to 1988) in 1970. The images showed evidence of microbial activity that could be mapped on a millimeter scale to coupon surfaces. A second more conventional isotope tracer method was also used to provide a quantitative measure of the same type of microbial activity in soil proximal to the buried coupons. Together the techniques offer a method for evaluating low metabolic levels of activity that have the potential for significant cumulative corrosion effects. The methods are powerful tools for evaluation of potential for microbial induced corrosion to buried steel components used on pipelines, in the power and communications infrastructure, and in nuclear waste repository containers.

  8. True 3D High Resolution imagery of a Buried Shipwreck: the Invincible (1758) (United States)

    Dix, J. K.; Bull, J. M.; Henstock, T.; Gutowski, M.; Hogarth, P.; Leighton, T. G.; White, P. R.


    This paper will present the first true 3D high resolution acoustic imagery of a wreck site buried in the marine environment. Using a 3D Chirp system developed at the University of Southampton, a marine seismic survey of the mid-eighteenth century wreck site has been undertaken. The Invincible was a 74 gun warship built by the French in 1744, captured by the British in 1747 and subsequently lost off Portsmouth, UK in February 1758. The wreck was re-discovered by divers in 1979, partially buried on the margins of a mobile sandbank in approximately 8 metres of water. In 2004 the system was surveyed using a 60 channel, rigid framed 3D Chirp (1.5-13 kHz source sweep) system with integral RTK GPS and attitude systems. An area of 160 m x 160 m, centered over the wreck site, was surveyed with a total of 150 Gb data being acquired. The data was processed, using 3D Promax, to produce 25 cm bins with typical 3-6 fold coverage. The stacked traces have been visualized and interpreted using Kingdom Suite software. The final imagery shows at unprecedented resolution the full three-dimensional buried form of the wreck and it's relationship to the surrounding sedimentary sequences, enabling the full evolution of the site to be discussed. Further, the data is compared to previously acquired swath bathymetry and 2D seismic data in order to illustrate the impact of such a device for underwater cultural heritage management.

  9. Surgical correction of buried penis after traffic accident – a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masuda Hiroshi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Buried penis, most commonly seen in children, is particularly debilitating in adults, resulting in inability to void while standing and it also affects vaginal penetration. We report a case of buried penis due to a traffic accident, which caused dislocation of the fractured pubic bone that shifted inside and pulled the penis by its suspensory ligament. Case presentation A 55-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with a chief complaint of hidden penis while in the sitting position. He had suffered a pelvic fracture in a traffic accident four years previously, and his penis was covered with suprapubic fat when he was in a sitting position. He was unable to have sexual intercourse. We performed a penile lengthening procedure, including inverse V-Y-plasty of the dorsal skin of the penile root, suspensory desmotomy and fat removal, under general anesthesia. There was a good cosmetic result with satisfactory penile erection, which allowed successful sexual intercourse after surgery. Conculsion We performed penile elongation surgery with inverse V-Y-plasty of the dorsal skin of the penile root, suspensory desmotomy, and fat removal. Surgical treatment of buried penis achieves marked aesthetic and functional improvement, and benefits the majority of patients, resulting in satisfactory erection and successful sexual intercourse.

  10. [Penoplasty with scrotal flap for the treatment of buried penis in children]. (United States)

    Huang, Sheng-Song; Wu, Deng-Long; Yuan, Tao; Jiang, Qi-Quan; Chen, Fang; Xie, Hua


    To investigate the therapeutic effect of penoplasty with scrotal skin flap for the treatment of buried penis in children. The narrow ring was cut vertically at the ventral side of penis and the prepuce inner plate was circularly cut 0.5 cm from the coronary sulcus. The prepuce was degloved to the base of penis. The abnormal aponeurosis was removed completely. The prepuce was designed to cover the coronary sulcus. The scrotal flaps at both sides were formed and advanced to cover the penile base. Then the prepuce was sutured to reconstruct penile-scrotal angle and scrotum plasty was completed. From March 2009 to July 2011, 24 children with buried penis were treated with scrotal flaps. Adhesion at external orifice of urethra was happened in two cases which recovered after urethra expansion. There was one case of necrosis at the distal end of prepuce. All the cases were followed up for 6 months to 2 years with no penile shrinkage. The penile appearance was good without rotation or lateral curvature during erection. The buried penis can be best corrected with scrotal flap. It is an ideal method with less complication.

  11. Acoustic and Doppler radar detection of buried land mines using high-pressure water jets (United States)

    Denier, Robert; Herrick, Thomas J.; Mitchell, O. Robert; Summers, David A.; Saylor, Daniel R.


    The goal of the waterjet-based mine location and identification project is to find a way to use waterjets to locate and differentiate buried objects. When a buried object is struck with a high-pressure waterjets, the impact will cause characteristic vibrations in the object depending on the object's shape and composition. These vibrations will be transferred to the ground and then to the water stream that is hitting the object. Some of these vibrations will also be transferred to the air via the narrow channel the waterjet cuts in the ground. Currently the ground vibrations are detected with Doppler radar and video camera sensing, while the air vibrations are detected with a directional microphone. Data is collected via a Labview based data acquisition system. This data is then manipulated in Labview to produce the associated power spectrums. These power spectra are fed through various signal processing and recognition routines to determine the probability of there being an object present under the current test location and what that object is likely to be. Our current test area consists of a large X-Y positioning system placed over approximately a five-foot circular test area. The positioning system moves both the waterjet and the sensor package to the test location specified by the Labview control software. Currently we are able to locate buried land mine models at a distance of approximately three inches with a high degree of accuracy.

  12. Difference in parenting in two species of burying beetle, Nicrophorus orbicollis and Nicrophorus vespilloides. (United States)

    Benowitz, Kyle M; McKinney, Elizabeth C; Moore, Allen J


    Burying beetles (Nicrophorus) are model parents among insects, with all studied species known to regurgitate flesh from vertebrate carcasses to their offspring. However, most studies focus on a very few species, yet the interpretation of the function and importance of care is typically generalized to all burying beetles. Here we characterize subtle variation within and between individuals and sexes, and how this variation differs between two species of burying beetle. We find that Nicrophorus orbicollis exhibits low variance, with a normal distribution of parental care provided during peak care periods. In N. vespilloides, however, the distribution is more uniform as values of care are spread across the possible phenotypic spectrum. This suggests that there is stabilizing selection on care in N. orbicollis, but relaxed or disruptive selection in N. vespilloides. Although repeatability was similar between both species, transitions from other care behaviors into feeding were more common in N. orbicollis than N. vespilloides. Thus, while parenting is coarsely similar across the genus, variation in its expression should not be extrapolated to all Nicrophorus. We suggest that subtle variation both within and among species merits greater attention, and could inform us about the factors that lead to different distributions of care.

  13. Biparental care is predominant and beneficial to parents in the burying beetle Nicrophorus orbicollis (Coleoptera: Silphidae). (United States)

    Benowitz, Kyle M; Moore, Allen J


    Parenting strategies can be flexible within a species, and may have varying fitness effects. Understanding this flexibility and its fitness consequences is important for understanding why parenting strategies evolve. Here, we investigate the fitness consequences of flexible parenting in the burying beetle Nicrophorus orbicollis, a species known for its advanced provisioning behaviour of regurgitated vertebrate carrion to offspring by both sexes. We show that even when a parent is freely allowed to abandon the carcass at any point in time, biparental post-hatching care is the most common pattern of care adopted in N. orbicollis. Furthermore, two parents together raised more offspring than single parents of either sex, showing that the presence of the male can directly influences parental fitness even in the absence of competitors. This contrasts with studies in other species of burying beetle, where biparental families do not differ in offspring number. This may explain why biparental care is more common in N. orbicollis than in other burying beetles. We suggest how fitness benefits of two parents may play a role in the evolution and maintenance of flexible biparental care in N. orbicollis.

  14. Modelling of coupled heat and moisture flows around a buried electrical cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eslami Hossein


    Full Text Available The admissible current within a buried electrical power cable is limited by the maximum allowed temperature of the cable (Joule effect. The thermal properties of the surrounding soil controls heat dissipation around the cable. The main focus of the study was to evaluate the coupled heat and moisture flow around such buried electrical cables. The heat dissipation of a buried power cable was simulated in the surrounding soil at unsteady conditions. The hydro-thermal coupling was modelled by taking into account the moisture flow of liquid water and vapour, and the heat flow in the soil by convection and advection. As the thermal vapour diffusion enhancement factor (η appears to be a key parameter, the sensitivity study of the coupled heat and moisture flow in the ground regarding this parameter was performed. The variations of the degree of saturation and the temperature of the surrounding soil were studied over 180 days of heating. The results showed that the moisture flow was mainly caused by the vapour transport under temperature gradients. These results emphasized the significant effect of the hydrothermal characteristics of surrounding soil. The radius of influence of the power cable was also evaluated.

  15. Enhanced yields and soil quality in a wheat-maize rotation using buried straw mulch. (United States)

    Guo, Zhibin; Liu, Hui; Wan, Shuixia; Hua, Keke; Jiang, Chaoqiang; Wang, Daozhong; He, Chuanlong; Guo, Xisheng


    Straw return may improve soil quality and crop yields. In a 2-year field study, a straw return method (ditch-buried straw return, DB-SR) was used to investigate the soil quality and crop productivity effects on a wheat-corn rotation system. This study consisted of three treatments, each with three replicates: (1) mineral fertilisation alone (CK0); (2) mineral fertilisation + 7500 kg ha-1 wheat straw incorporated at depth of 0-15 cm (NPKWS); and (3) mineral fertilisation + 7500 kg ha-1 wheat straw ditch buried at 15-30 cm (NPKDW). NPKWS and NPKDW enhanced crop yield and improved soil biotical properties compared to mineral fertilisation alone. NPKDW contributed to greater crop yields and soil nutrient availability at 15-30 cm depths, compared to NPKWS treatment. NPKDW enhanced soil microbial activity and bacteria species richness and diversity in the 0-15 cm layer. NPKWS increased soil microbial biomass, bacteria species richness and diversity at 15-30 cm. The comparison of the CK0 and NPKWS treatments indicates that a straw ditch buried by digging to the depth of 15-30 cm can improve crop yields and soil quality in a wheat-maize rotation system. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Environmental fate and transport of chemical signatures from buried landmines -- Screening model formulation and initial simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelan, J.M.; Webb, S.W.


    The fate and transport of chemical signature molecules that emanate from buried landmines is strongly influenced by physical chemical properties and by environmental conditions of the specific chemical compounds. Published data have been evaluated as the input parameters that are used in the simulation of the fate and transport processes. A one-dimensional model developed for screening agricultural pesticides was modified and used to simulate the appearance of a surface flux above a buried landmine, estimate the subsurface total concentration, and show the phase specific concentrations at the ground surface. The physical chemical properties of TNT cause a majority of the mass released to the soil system to be bound to the solid phase soil particles. The majority of the transport occurs in the liquid phase with diffusion and evaporation driven advection of soil water as the primary mechanisms for the flux to the ground surface. The simulations provided herein should only be used for initial conceptual designs of chemical pre-concentration subsystems or complete detection systems. The physical processes modeled required necessary simplifying assumptions to allow for analytical solutions. Emerging numerical simulation tools will soon be available that should provide more realistic estimates that can be used to predict the success of landmine chemical detection surveys based on knowledge of the chemical and soil properties, and environmental conditions where the mines are buried. Additional measurements of the chemical properties in soils are also needed before a fully predictive approach can be confidently applied.

  17. The Buried Bumper Syndrome: External Bumper Extraction after Radial Mini Incisions and Replacement through an Adjacent Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Benatta


    Full Text Available Although considered as a safe method to provide long-term nutritional support, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG may be complicated by a buried bumper syndrome (BBS, a life-threatening condition. Removal of the PEG tube with its buried bumper and reinsertion of a new PEG tube is often necessary. Since its description in 1988, less than 50 cases of BBS managed by external extraction of the buried bumper have been reported. We report a case of buried bumper that was removed by external traction without the need for endoscopic or laparoscopic treatment but with the need of two radial millimeter skin incisions after abdominal CT study and finally immediate PEG replacement but through an adjacent site.

  18. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 496: Buried Rocket Site, Antelope Lake, Tonopah Test Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada


    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) plan details the activities necessary to close Corrective Action Unit 496: Buried Rocket Site, Antelope Lake. CAU 496 consists of one site located at the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A buried grid solar cell is manufactured by a process for metallising one or more metal contacts of a buried grid solar cell having a body of doped semiconductor material, wherein the electrical contact(s) is/are provided by conducting material being arranged in a pattern of one or more grooves...... conducting contact forming material by electrolytic plating using a conventional electrolytic bath further comprising a levelling additive and a suppressing additive and using substantially constant cell voltage....

  20. Underground riparian wood: Buried stem and coarse root structures of Black Poplar (Populus nigra L.) (United States)

    Holloway, James V.; Rillig, Matthias C.; Gurnell, Angela M.


    Despite the potential importance of tree species in influencing the processes of wood recruitment, transport, retention, and decay that control river wood budgets, focus has been relatively limited on this theme within fluvial wood research. Furthermore, one of the least investigated topics is the belowground living wood component of riparian trees. This paper presents observations of the morphology and age of buried stem and coarse root structures of eight Populus nigra individuals located in the riparian woodland of two sites on the middle to lower Tagliamento River, Italy. This species was selected because of its wide distribution along European rivers and its frequent dominance of riparian woodland. Each tree was excavated by hand to expose a minimum of half of the root system with complete exposure of the main axis. Smaller roots were then removed and larger protruding roots cut back to permit access to the main axis. The excavated structures were photographed from multiple angles for photogrammetric modelling; the structure and character of the exposed sediments around the tree's main axis were recorded; and wood samples were taken from the main aboveground stem(s), sections of the main buried axis, and major roots for dendrochronological analysis. Results from these field observations and laboratory dating of the wood samples were combined to describe the belowground morphology of each tree and to draw inferences concerning the impact of fluvial disturbances. Common features of these excavated structures included: (i) rooting depths to below the bar surface where the original tree established, with many young roots also existing at depth; (ii) translocation of the main buried axis in a downstream direction; (iii) a main buried axis comprised mainly of stems that have become buried and then generated new shoots, including multistem patches, and adventitious roots; (iv) the presence of steps and bends in the main buried axis associated with the generation of

  1. Detection of buried pipes by polarimetric borehole radar; Polarimetric borehole radar ni yoru maisetsukan no kenshutsu jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M.; Niitsuma, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Nakauchi, T. [Osaka Gas Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)


    If the borehole radar is utilized for detection of buried pipes, the underground radar measurement becomes possible even in the situation where the mesurement on the earth surface is difficult, for example, such a place as under the road where there is much traffic. However, since buried pipes are horizontally installed and the existing borehole radar can send/receive only vertical polarization, the measurement conducted comes to be poor in efficiency from a viewpoint of the polarization utilization. Therefore, by introducing the polarimetric borehole radar to the detection of buried pipes, a basic experiment was conducted for the effective detection of horizontal buried pipes. Proposing the use of a slot antenna which can send/receive horizontal polarization in borehole in addition to a dipole antenna which sends/receives vertical polarization, developed was a step frequency type continuous wave radar of a network analyzer basis. As a result of the experiment, it was confirmed that reflection from buried pipes is largely dependent on polarization. Especially, it was found that in the slot dipole cross polarization mesurement, reflection from buried pipes can be emphasized. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Geophysical expression of a buried niobium and rare earth element deposit: the Elk Creek carbonatite, Nebraska, USA (United States)

    Drenth, Benjamin J.


    The lower Paleozoic Elk Creek carbonatite is a 6–8-km-diameter intrusive complex buried under 200 m of sedimentary rocks in southeastern Nebraska. It hosts the largest known niobium deposit in the U.S. and a rare earth element (REE) deposit. The carbonatite is composed of several lithologies, the relations of which are poorly understood. Niobium mineralization is most enriched within a magnetite beforsite (MB) unit, and REE oxides are most concentrated in a barite beforsite unit. The carbonatite intrudes Proterozoic country rocks. Efforts to explore the carbonatite have used geophysical data and drilling. A high-resolution airborne gravity gradient and magnetic survey was flown over the carbonatite in 2012. The carbonatite is associated with a roughly annular vertical gravity gradient high and a subdued central low and a central magnetic high surrounded by magnetic field values lower than those over the country rocks. Geophysical, borehole, and physical property data are combined for an interpretation of these signatures. The carbonatite is denser than the country rocks, explaining the gravity gradient high. Most carbonatite lithologies have weaker magnetic susceptibilities than those of the country rocks, explaining why the carbonatite does not produce a magnetic high at its margin. The primary source of the central magnetic high is interpreted to be mafic rocks that are strongly magnetized and are present in large volumes. MB is very dense (mean density 3200  kg/m3) and strongly magnetized (median 0.073 magnetic susceptibility), producing a gravity gradient high and contributing to the aeromagnetic high. Barite beforsite has physical properties similar to most of the carbonatite volume, making it a poor geophysical target. Geophysical anomalies indicate the presence of dense and strongly magnetized rocks at depths below existing boreholes, either a large volume of MB or another unknown lithology.

  3. Investigating the degradation mechanisms caused by the TID effects in 130 nm PDSOI I/O NMOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Chao, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Science and Technology on Reliability Physics and Application Technology of Electronic Component Laboratory, Guangzhou 510610 (China); Hu, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Zhengxuan [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Science and Technology on Reliability Physics and Application Technology of Electronic Component Laboratory, Guangzhou 510610 (China); Huang, Huixiang; Ning, Bingxu; Bi, Dawei [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)


    This paper evaluates the radiation responses of 3.3 V I/O NMOSFETs from 130 nm partially-depleted silicon-on-insulator (PDSOI) technology. The data obtained from {sup 60}Co ionizing radiation experiments indicate that charge trapped in the shallow trench isolation, particularly at the bottom region of the trench oxide, should be the dominant contributor to the off-state drain-to-source leakage current under ON bias. The body doping profile and device dimension are two key factors affecting the performance degradation of the PDSOI transistors after radiation. Significant front gate threshold voltage shift is observed in the T-shape gate device, which is well known as the Radiation Induced Narrow Channel Effect (RINCE). The charge trapped in the buried oxide can induce large threshold voltage shift in the front gate transistor through coupling effect in the low body doping device. The coupling effect is evaluated through three-dimensional simulation. A degradation of the carrier mobility which relates to shallow trench isolation (STI) oxide trapped charge in the narrow channel device is also discussed. - Highlights: • STI and BOX have different contributions to the TID responses of PDSOI NMOSFETs. • Body doping profile and device dimensions are two key factors affecting TID effect. • Mobility degradation in narrow channel device relates to STI oxide trapped charge.

  4. The influence of buried nodules on the mobility of metals in deep sea sediments (United States)

    Heller, Christina; Kuhn, Thomas


    Hydrothermal fluids can extract significant amounts of heat from oceanic lithosphere by lateral fluid flow through permeable basaltic crust of an age of up to 65 Ma. Fluid recharge and discharge occur at basement outcrops in between impermeable pelagic deep sea sediments. Recharge of oxic seawater causes upward oxygen diffusion into sediments overlying the permeable basalt in areas proximal to recharge sites. It is suggested that this oxygen has a strong impact on sediments and Mn-nodules during fluid exposure time. The aim of this study is to investigate if/how fluid flow through oceanic crust influence the distribution and element budget of Mn-nodules. Nodules occur widespread at the seafloor of the Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ) in the equatorial North Pacific and were analyzed in many studies worldwide. Nodules buried in the deep sea sediments could be found only rarely (von Stackelberg, 1997, Geol. Soc. Spec. Publ., 119: 153-176). High resolution side-scan sonar recordings (unpublished Data BGR Hannover) indicate that there exist a coherent layer of nodules buried in the sediments of the working area. During the expedition SO 240/FLUM nodules were found on the sediment surface in 4200 to 4300 m water depth as well as in the sediment down to 985 cm below seafloor. In general, nodules consist of different nm- to µm-thick, dense and porous layers. The geochemical composition of bulk nodules and single nodule layers were determined by XRF, ICP-MS/OES, XRD and by high resolution analyses with electron microprobe and LA-ICP-MS. Dense layers have low Mn/Fe ratios ( 10) and high Ni+Cu and Li concentrations. The different compositions depend on different formation processes of the layers. They were formed by metal precipitation from oxic (hydrogenetic) and suboxic (diagenetic) bottom-near seawater and/or pore water (Wegorzewski and Kuhn, 2014, Mar. Geol. 357, 123-138). Preliminary results show that there are significant differences between the geochemical composition

  5. Electrophoretic Extraction and Proteomic Characterization of Proteins Buried in Marine Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli K. Moore


    Full Text Available Proteins are the largest defined molecular component of marine organic nitrogen, and hydrolysable amino acids, the building blocks of proteins, are important components of particulate nitrogen in marine sediments. In oceanic systems, the largest contributors are phytoplankton proteins, which have been tracked from newly produced bloom material through the water column to surface sediments in the Bering Sea, but it is not known if proteins buried deeper in sediment systems can be identified with confidence. Electrophoretic gel protein extraction methods followed by proteomic mass spectrometry and database searching were used as the methodology to identify buried phytoplankton proteins in sediments from the 8–10 cm section of a Bering Sea sediment core. More peptides and proteins were identified using an SDS-PAGE tube gel than a standard 1D flat gel or digesting the sediment directly with trypsin. The majority of proteins identified correlated to the marine diatom, Thalassiosira pseudonana, rather than bacterial protein sequences, indicating an algal source not only dominates the input, but also the preserved protein fraction. Abundant RuBisCO and fucoxanthin chlorophyll a/c binding proteins were identified, supporting algal sources of these proteins and reinforcing the proposed mechanisms that might protect proteins for long time periods. Some preserved peptides were identified in unexpected gel molecular weight ranges, indicating that some structural changes or charge alteration influenced the mobility of these products during electrophoresis isolation. Identifying buried photosystem proteins suggests that algal particulate matter is a significant fraction of the preserved organic carbon and nitrogen pools in marine sediments.

  6. Parametric Study of the Scattered Electromagnetic Field by Differently-Shaped Buried Objects in Various Scenarios (United States)

    Stoja, Endri; Hoxha, Julian; Domnori, Elton; Pajewski, Lara; Frezza, Fabrizio


    In this study the electromagnetic field scattered by a buried object is obtained by use of a commercial full-wave frequency-domain solver which implements the Finite Element Method (FEM). The buried object is supposed to have different simple shapes and material composition such as a cylinder or cylindrical shell modelling for example a void in concrete or a poly-vinyl chloride (PVC) pipeline, respectively. Material properties available in literature are correctly modelled by data interpolation. The model is excited by a linearly-polarized plane wave impinging normally on the interface between air and soil/cement half-space. Comparison with simulation data provided by another simulator implementing the finite-difference time domain (FDTD) technique in the case of a simple buried perfect electric cylinder allows for FEM data validation. We further study the properties and the spatial variation of the scattered fields in different contexts by varying the geometrical and material properties of the model relative to the impinging wave characteristics. The aim is to clearly determine the conditions under which detection is possible. Moreover, by application of signal processing techniques to scattered field data, the position, shape, and object orientation recognition problems are considered. Results from different DSP algorithms are compared with the goal to find the best performing one relative to the context. Performance is evaluated in terms of detection success and resolving ability. The use of ground penetrating radar (GPR) techniques in the field of Civil Engineering offers inspection capabilities in the structure with no destructive intervention. Acknowledgement This abstract is a contribution to COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar",,

  7. Effect of Biostimulation and Bioaugmentation on Degradation of Polyurethane Buried in Soil▿ (United States)

    Cosgrove, L.; McGeechan, P. L.; Handley, P. S.; Robson, G. D.


    This work investigated biostimulation and bioaugmentation as strategies for removing polyurethane (PU) waste in soil. Soil microcosms were biostimulated with the PU dispersion agent “Impranil” and/or yeast extract or were bioaugmented with PU-degrading fungi, and the degradation of subsequently buried PU was determined. Fungal communities in the soil and colonizing buried PU were enumerated on solid media and were analyzed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Biostimulation with yeast extract alone or in conjunction with Impranil increased PU degradation 62% compared to the degradation in untreated control soil and was associated with a 45% increase in putative PU degraders colonizing PU. Specific fungi were enriched in soil following biostimulation; however, few of these fungi colonized the surface of buried PU. Fungi used for soil bioaugmentation were cultivated on the surface of sterile wheat to form a mycelium-rich inoculum. Wheat, when added alone to soil, increased PU degradation by 28%, suggesting that wheat biomass had a biostimulating effect. Addition of wheat colonized with Nectria haematococca, Penicillium viridicatum, Penicillium ochrochloron, or an unidentified Mucormycotina sp. increased PU degradation a further 30 to 70%, suggesting that biostimulation and bioaugmentation were operating in concert to enhance PU degradation. Interestingly, few of the inoculated fungi could be detected by DGGE in the soil or on the surface of the PU 4 weeks after inoculation. Bioaugmentation did, however, increase the numbers of indigenous PU-degrading fungi and caused an inoculum-dependent change in the composition of the native fungal populations, which may explain the increased degradation observed. These results demonstrate that both biostimulation and bioaugmentation may be viable tools for the remediation of environments contaminated with polyurethane waste. PMID:19948849

  8. Sliding enhances fluid and solute transport into buried articular cartilage contacts. (United States)

    Graham, B T; Moore, A C; Burris, D L; Price, C


    Solutes and interstitial water are naturally transported from cartilage by load-induced interstitial fluid pressures. Fluid and solute recovery during joint articulation have been primarily attributed to passive diffusion and mechanical 'pumping' from dynamic loading. This paper tests if the sliding action of articulation is a significant and independent driver of fluid and solute transport in cartilage. The large osteochondral samples utilized in the present study preserve the convergent wedges necessary for physiological hydrodynamics. Following static load-induced fluid exudation and prior to sliding, a fluorescent solute (AlexaFluor 633) was added to the lubricant bath. In situ confocal microscopy was used to quantify the transport of solute from the bath into the buried stationary contact area (SCA) during sliding. Following static exudation, significant reductions in friction and strain during sliding at 60 mm/s were accompanied by significant solute transport into the inaccessible center of the buried contact; no such transport was detected for the 0- or 1 mm/s sliding conditions. The results suggest that external hydrodynamic pressures from sliding induced advective flows that carried solutes from the bath toward the center of contact. These results provide the first direct evidence that the action of sliding is a significant contributor to fluid and solute recovery by cartilage. Furthermore, they indicate that the sliding-induced transport of solutes into the buried interface was orders of magnitude greater than that attributable to diffusion alone, a result with critical implications for disease prevention and tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An Integration of Geophysical Methods to Explore Buried Structures on the Bench and in the Field (United States)

    Booterbaugh, A. P.; Lachhab, A.


    In the following study, an integration of geophysical methods and devices were implemented on the bench and in the field to accurately identify buried structures. Electrical resistivity and ground penetrating radar methods, including both a fabricated electrical resistivity apparatus and an electrical resistivity device were all used in this study. The primary goal of the study was to test the accuracy and reliability of the apparatus which costs a fraction of the price of a commercially sold resistivity instrument. The apparatus consists of four electrodes, two multimeters, a 12-volt battery, a DC to AC inverter and wires. Using this apparatus, an electrical current, is injected into earth material through the outer electrodes and the potential voltage is measured across the inner electrodes using a multimeter. The recorded potential and the intensity of the current can then be used to calculate the apparent resistivity of a given material. In this study the Wenner array, which consists of four equally spaced electrodes, was used due to its higher accuracy and greater resolution when investigating lateral variations of resistivity in shallow depths. In addition, the apparatus was used with an electrical resistivity device and a ground penetrating radar unit to explore the buried building foundation of Gustavus Adolphus Hall located on Susquehanna University Campus, Selinsgrove, PA. The apparatus successfully produced consistent results on the bench level revealing the location of small bricks buried under a soil material. In the summer of 2010, seventeen electrical resistivity transects were conducted on the Gustavus Adolphus site where and revealed remnants of the foundation. In the summer of 2011, a ground penetrating radar survey and an electrical resistivity tomography survey were conducted to further explore the site. Together these methods identified the location of the foundation and proved that the apparatus was a reliable tool for regular use on the bench

  10. Comparison of removal techniques in the management of buried bumper syndrome: a retrospective cohort study of 82 patients. (United States)

    Mueller-Gerbes, Daniela; Hartmann, Bettina; Lima, Julio Pereira; de Lemos Bonotto, Michele; Merbach, Christoph; Dormann, Arno; Jakobs, Ralf


    Buried bumper syndrome is an infrequent complication of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) that can result in tube dysfunction, gastric perforation, bleeding, peritonitis or death. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of different PEG tube removal methods in the management of buried bumper syndrome in a large retrospective cohort. From 2002 to 2013, 82 cases of buried bumper syndrome were identified from the databases of two endoscopy referral centers. We evaluated the interval between gastrostomy tube placement and diagnosis of buried bumper syndrome, type of treatment, success rate and complications. Four methods were analyzed: bougie, grasp, needle-knife and minimally invasive push method using a papillotome, which were selected based on the depth of the buried bumper.  The buried bumper was cut free with a wire-guided papillotome in 35 patients (42.7 %) and with a needle-knife in 22 patients (26.8 %). It could be pushed into the stomach with a dilator without cutting in 10 patients (12.2 %), and was pulled into the stomach with a grasper in 12 patients (14.6 %). No adverse events (AEs) were registered in 70 cases (85.4 %). Bleeding occurred in 7 patients (31.8 %) after cutting with a needle-knife papillotome and in 1 patient (8.3 %) after grasping. No bleeding was recorded after using a standard papillotome or a bougie ( P  bumpers be removed with a bougie. In cases of complete buried bumper syndrome, the bumper should be cut with a wire-guided papillotome and pushed into the stomach.

  11. Direct measurement of graphene contact resistivity to pre-deposited metal in buried contact test structure

    KAUST Repository

    Qaisi, Ramy M.


    We demonstrate a buried contact based novel test structure for direct contact resistivity measurement of graphene-metal interfaces. We also observe excellent contact resistivity 1 μO-cm2 without any additional surface modification suggesting that the intrinsic Au-graphene contact is sufficient for achieving devices with low contact resistance. The chemical mechanical polishing less test structure and data described herein highlights an ideal methodology for systematic screening and engineering of graphene-metal contact resistivity to enable low power high speed carbon electronics. © 2013 IEEE.

  12. Not always buried deep a second course in elementary number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Pollack, Paul


    Number theory is one of the few areas of mathematics where problems of substantial interest can be fully described to someone with minimal mathematical background. Solving such problems sometimes requires difficult and deep methods. But this is not a universal phenomenon; many engaging problems can be successfully attacked with little more than one's mathematical bare hands. In this case one says that the problem can be solved in an elementary way. Such elementary methods and the problems to which they apply are the subject of this book. Not Always Buried Deep is designed to be read and enjoye

  13. Electromagnetic scattering by a circular cylinder buried below a slightly rough Gaussian surface. (United States)

    Fiaz, Muhammad Arshad; Frezza, Fabrizio; Ponti, Cristina; Schettini, Giuseppe


    A two-dimensional beam is scattered by a cylinder buried below a slightly rough surface. The cylindrical wave approach is applied, i.e., cylindrical waves are employed as basis functions of the fields scattered by the cylinder. Moreover, a spectral representation of both the incident field and the cylindrical waves is used. Rough surface deviation is coped with by the first-order small perturbation method. Therefore, to a zeroth-order solution relevant to scattering in the case of a flat surface, a first-order approximation is superimposed. The theoretical approach has been implemented for a periodic surface with Gaussian roughness spectrum.

  14. Determination of the electronic density of states near buried interfaces: Application to Co/Cu multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, A.; Sthör, J.; Wiell, T.


    High-resolution L(3) x-ray absorption and emission spectra of Co and Cu in Co/Cu multilayers are shown to provide unique information on the occupied and unoccupied density of d states near buried interfaces. The d bands of both Co and Cu interfacial layers are shown to be considerably narrowed re...... relative to the bulk metals, and for Cu interface layers the d density of states is found to be enhanced near the Fermi level. The experimental results are confirmed by self-consistent electronic structure calculations....

  15. Electrochemical deposition of buried contacts in high-efficiency crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Arne Dahl; Møller, Per; Bruton, Tim


    This article reports on a newly developed method for electrochemical deposition of buried Cu contacts in Si-based photovoltaic ~PV! cells. Contact grooves, 20 mm wide by 40 mm deep, were laser-cut into Si PV cells, hereafter applied with a thin electroless NiP base and subsequently filled with Cu...... by electrochemical deposition at a rate of up to 10 mm per min. With the newly developed process, void-free, superconformal Cu-filling of the laser-cut grooves was observed by scanning electron microscopy and focused ion beam techniques. The Cu microstructure in grooves showed both bottom and sidewall texture...

  16. Commemorating and burying dead comrades: Revolutionary martyrs’ cemeteries in China and North Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwendolyn Leick


    Full Text Available The paper examines the state sponsored, often vast cemeteries built to bury or commemorate the fallen ‘martyrs’ during revolutionary or civil wars in two Communist countries, China and North Korea. The legitimization of governments has always been an important issue with such burial sites and recent renovations of existing, as well as new constructions, in both countries show the continuing relevance of the policy. Of interest is also the way in which architectural, sculptural and landscape symbolization were employed to construct imagery that sometimes defies intended ideological messages.

  17. Scattering from a Buried Circular Cylinder Illuminated by a Three-Dimensional Source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, T.B.; Meincke, Peter


    We employ plane and cylindrical wave expansions with the fast Fourier transform to solve scattering problems involving a circular cylinder buried in soil. The illumination is provided by a three-dimensional source located in air above ground. Plane wave expansions describe transmitted and reflected...... fields at the air-soil interface, and cylindrical wave expansions describe the fields scattered by the cylinder. The two types of expansions are joined by employing explicit expressions that relate cylindrical and plane waves. We neglect multiple interactions between the cylinder and the interface...

  18. Structure of the Buried Metal-Molecule Interface in Organic Thin Film Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Rein; Sørensen, Thomas Just; Glyvradal, Magni


    By use of specular X-ray reflectivity (XR) the structure of a metal-covered organic thin film device is measured with angstrom resolution. The model system is a Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film, sandwiched between a silicon substrate and a top electrode consisting of 25 Å titanium and 100 Å aluminum....... By comparison of XR data for the five-layer Pb2+ arachidate LB film before and after vapor deposition of the Ti/Al top electrode, a detailed account of the structural damage to the organic film at the buried metal-molecule interface is obtained. We find that the organized structure of the two topmost LB layers...

  19. Buried paleoindian-age landscapes in stream valleys of the central plains, USA (United States)

    Mandel, R.D.


    A systematic study of late-Quaternary landscape evolution in the Central Plains documented widespread, deeply buried paleosols that represent Paleoindian-age landscapes in terrace fills of large streams (> 5th order), in alluvial fans, and in draws in areas of western Kansas with a thick loess mantle. Alluvial stratigraphic sections were investigated along a steep bio-climatic gradient extending from the moist-subhumid forest-prairie border of the east-central Plains to the dry-subhumid and semi-arid shortgrass prairie of the west-central Plains. Radiocarbon ages indicate that most large streams were characterized by slow aggradation accompanied by cumulic soil development from ca. 11,500 to 10,000??14C yr B.P. In the valleys of some large streams, such as the Ninnescah and Saline rivers, these processes continued into the early Holocene. The soil-stratigraphic record in the draws of western Kansas indicates slow aggradation punctuated by episodes of landscape stability and pedogenesis beginning as early as ca. 13,300??14C yr B.P. and spanning the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary. The development record of alluvial fans in western Kansas is similar to the record in the draws; slow aggradation was punctuated by multiple episodes of soil development between ca. 13,000 and 9000??14C yr B.P. In eastern Kansas and Nebraska, development of alluvial fans was common during the early and middle Holocene, but evidence shows fan development as early as ca. 11,300??14C yr B.P. Buried soils dating between ca. 12,600 and 9000??14C yr B.P. were documented in fans throughout the region. In stream valleys across the Central Plains, rapid alluviation after ca. 9000??14C yr B.P. resulted in deeply buried soils that may harbor Paleoindian cultural deposits. Hence, the paucity of recorded stratified Paleoindian sites in the Central Plains is probably related to poor visibility (i.e., deep burial in alluvial deposits) instead of limited human occupation in the region during the terminal

  20. Stepped-Frequency Ground-Penetrating Radar for Detection of Small Non-metallic Buried Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing; Nymann, Ole


    A monostatic amplitude and phase stepped-frequency radar approach have been proposed to detect small non-metallic buried anti-personnel (AP) mines. An M-56 AP-mine with a diameter of 54 mm and height of 40 mm, only, has been successfully detected and located in addition to small metallic mine......-shaped objects. Two-dimensional probe-correction and addition signal processing are applied to the raw probe-data. The probe used in this experiment was an open-ended waveguide operating at S-band. The movements of the probe are controlled by two stepmotors via an RS-232 interface. The probe is connected...

  1. Best period for high spatial resolution satellite images for the detection of marks of buried structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Kaimaris


    Full Text Available Improvements in sensor technology in recent decades led to the creation of ground, air and space imaging systems, whose data can be used in archaeological studies. Greece is one of the lucky areas that are rich in archaeological heritage. The detection of prehistoric/historic undiscovered constructions on satellite images or aerial photos is a complex and complicated matter. These marks are not visible from the ground, they can, however, be traced on satellite or aerial images, because of the differences in tone and texture. These differences appear as crop, soil and shadow marks. Undoubtedly, the detection of buried structures requires a suitable spatial resolution image, taken under appropriate meteorological conditions and during the best period of the vegetation growing cycle. According to the pertinent literature, detecting covered memorials may be achieved either accidentally or, usually, after a systematic investigation based on historical narratives. The purpose of this study is to determine the factors that facilitate or hinder the detection of buried structures through high spatial resolution satellite imagery. In this study, pan sharpened images from the QuickBird-2 satellite were used, of a spatial resolution of 0.60-0.70 m. This study concerns the detection of marks of the ancient Via Egnatia, from the ancient Amphipolis to Philippi (Eastern Macedonia, Greece. We studied different types of vegetation in the region and their phenological cycle. Taking into account the vegetation phenological cycle of the study area as well as the meteorological data, four pan sharpened QuickBird-2 images of a spatial resolution of 0.60–0.70 m. were used, during four different seasons. By processing the four images, we can determine the one acquired during the most appropriate conditions for the detection of buried structures. The application of this methodology in the study area had positive results, and not only was the main purpose of this

  2. Paraffin Granuloma Associated with Buried Glans Penis-Induced Sexual and Voiding Dysfunction. (United States)

    Chon, Wonhee; Koo, Ja Yun; Park, Min Jung; Choi, Kyung Un; Park, Hyun Jun; Park, Nam Cheol


    A paraffinoma is a type of inflammatory lipogranuloma that develops after the injection of an artificial mineral oil, such as paraffin or silicon, into the foreskin or the subcutaneous tissue of the penis for the purpose of penis enlargement, cosmetics, or prosthesis. The authors experienced a case of macro-paraffinoma associated with sexual dysfunction, voiding dysfunction, and pain caused by a buried glans penis after a paraffin injection for penis enlargement that had been performed 35 years previously. Herein, this case is presented with a literature review. Copyright © 2017 Korean Society for Sexual Medicine and Andrology.

  3. The effect of soil texture on the degradation of textiles associated with buried bodies. (United States)

    Lowe, A C; Beresford, D V; Carter, D O; Gaspari, F; O'Brien, R C; Stuart, B H; Forbes, S L


    There are many factors which affect the rate of decomposition in a grave site including; the depth of burial, climatic conditions, physical conditions of the soil (e.g. texture, pH, moisture), and method of burial (e.g. clothing, wrappings). Clothing is often studied as a factor that can slow the rate of soft tissue decomposition. In contrast, the effect of soft tissue decomposition on the rate of textile degradation is usually reported as anecdotal evidence rather than being studied under controlled conditions. The majority of studies in this area have focused on the degradation of textiles buried directly in soil. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of soil texture on the degradation and/or preservation of textile materials associated with buried bodies. The study involved the burial of clothed domestic pig carcasses and control clothing in contrasting soil textures (silty clay loam, fine sand and fine sandy loam) at three field sites in southern Ontario, Canada. Graves were exhumed after 2, 12 and 14 months burial to observe the degree of degradation for both natural and synthetic textiles. Recovered textile samples were chemically analyzed using infrared (IR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to investigate the lipid decomposition by-products retained in the textiles. The findings of this study demonstrate that natural textile in contact with a buried decomposing body will be preserved for longer periods of time when compared to the same textile buried directly in soil and not in contact with a body. The soil texture did not visually impact the degree of degradation or preservation. Furthermore, the natural-synthetic textile blend was resistant to degradation, regardless of soil texture, contact with the body or time since deposition. Chemical analysis of the textiles using GC-MS correctly identified a lipid degradation profile consistent with the degree of soft tissue decomposition. Such information may be


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Moon


    Full Text Available Regarding spatial location positioning, indoor location positioning theories based on wireless communication techniques such as Wi-Fi, beacon, UWB and Bluetooth has widely been developing across the world. These techniques are mainly focusing on spatial location detection of customers using fixed wireless APs and unique Tags in the indoor environment. Besides, since existing detection equipment and techniques using ultrasound or sound etc. to detect buried persons and identify survival status for them cause 2nd damages on the collapsed debris for rescuers. In addition, it might take time to check the buried persons. However, the collapsed disaster sites should consider both outdoor and indoor environments because empty spaces under collapsed debris exists. In order to detect buried persons from the empty spaces, we should collect wireless signals with Wi-Fi from their mobile phone. Basically, the Wi-Fi signal measure 2-D location. However, since the buried persons have Z value with burial depth, we also should collect barometer sensor data from their mobile phones in order to measure Z values according to weather conditions. Specially, for quick accessibility to the disaster area, a drone (UAV; Unmanned Arial Vehicle system, which is equipped with a wireless detection module, was introduced. Using these framework, this study aims to provide the rescuers with effective rescue information by calculating 3-D location for buried persons based on the wireless and barometer sensor fusion.

  5. An investigation into the persistence of textile fibres on buried carcasses. (United States)

    DeBattista, Roslyn; Tidy, Helen; Thompson, Tim J U; Robertson, Peter


    A significant amount of research has been carried out on fibres to aid the forensic scientist in determining the significance of these when found on a victim or suspect. This work has focused on open-air environments, and as such no research has been undertaken to examine the persistence of fibres on bodies in the burial environment. Wool and cotton fibres, known to fluoresce under ultraviolet (UV) light, were transferred onto the skin of four porcine (Sus scrofa) carcasses (two carcasses per fibre type). The number of fibres transferred was recorded from images taken under UV light. The remains were subsequently placed in four burial sites and left interred for 14 days. After this period the carcasses were excavated and lightly brushed down to remove the soil layer that had adhered to the skin. Once again photography under UV light was used to record the number of fibres which persisted on the skin. Results showed that after 14 days, wool and cotton fibres remain on the surface of the buried carcasses. In no circumstance was there a total loss of fibres suggesting that in such scenarios, the likelihood of finding fibres is high but the initial number of fibres transferred would be strongly diminished. This has important implications for both the excavation protocol for buried remains and the subsequent analysis for physical evidence. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Spectral domain method for the electromagnetic scattering by a buried sphere. (United States)

    Frezza, Fabrizio; Mangini, Fabio; Pajewski, Lara; Schettini, Giuseppe; Tedeschi, Nicola


    A rigorous method to analyze the electromagnetic scattering of an elliptically polarized plane wave by a sphere buried in a dielectric half-space, is presented. The electric field components of the incident and the scattered monochromatic plane waves are expanded in series of vectorial spherical harmonics, with unknown expansion coefficients. The scattered-reflected and scattered-transmitted fields are computed by exploiting the plane-wave spectrum of the scattered field, considering the reflection and transmission of each elementary plane wave by the interface. The boundary-condition imposition leads to a linear system that returns the unknown coefficients of the scattered field. To achieve a numerical solution, a code has been implemented, and a truncation criterion for the involved series has been proposed. Comparisons with the literature and simulations performed with a commercial software are presented. A generalization of the method to the case of a short pulse scattered by a buried sphere is presented, taking into account the dispersive properties of the involved media.

  7. Three-dimensional imaging of buried objects in very lossy earth by inversion of VETEM data (United States)

    Cui, T.J.; Aydiner, A.A.; Chew, W.C.; Wright, D.L.; Smith, D.V.


    The very early time electromagnetic system (VETEM) is an efficient tool for the detection of buried objects in very lossy earth, which allows a deeper penetration depth compared to the ground-penetrating radar. In this paper, the inversion of VETEM data is investigated using three-dimensional (3-D) inverse scattering techniques, where multiple frequencies are applied in the frequency range from 0-5 MHz. For small and moderately sized problems, the Born approximation and/or the Born iterative method have been used with the aid of the singular value decomposition and/or the conjugate gradient method in solving the linearized integral equations. For large-scale problems, a localized 3-D inversion method based on the Born approximation has been proposed for the inversion of VETEM data over a large measurement domain. Ways to process and to calibrate the experimental VETEM data are discussed to capture the real physics of buried objects. Reconstruction examples using synthesized VETEM data and real-world VETEM data are given to test the validity and efficiency of the proposed approach.

  8. Seismic fragility formulations for segmented buried pipeline systems including the impact of differential ground subsidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda Porras, Omar Andrey [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ordaz, Mario [UNAM, MEXICO CITY


    Though Differential Ground Subsidence (DGS) impacts the seismic response of segmented buried pipelines augmenting their vulnerability, fragility formulations to estimate repair rates under such condition are not available in the literature. Physical models to estimate pipeline seismic damage considering other cases of permanent ground subsidence (e.g. faulting, tectonic uplift, liquefaction, and landslides) have been extensively reported, not being the case of DGS. The refinement of the study of two important phenomena in Mexico City - the 1985 Michoacan earthquake scenario and the sinking of the city due to ground subsidence - has contributed to the analysis of the interrelation of pipeline damage, ground motion intensity, and DGS; from the analysis of the 48-inch pipeline network of the Mexico City's Water System, fragility formulations for segmented buried pipeline systems for two DGS levels are proposed. The novel parameter PGV{sup 2}/PGA, being PGV peak ground velocity and PGA peak ground acceleration, has been used as seismic parameter in these formulations, since it has shown better correlation to pipeline damage than PGV alone according to previous studies. By comparing the proposed fragilities, it is concluded that a change in the DGS level (from Low-Medium to High) could increase the pipeline repair rates (number of repairs per kilometer) by factors ranging from 1.3 to 2.0; being the higher the seismic intensity the lower the factor.

  9. Remote detection of buried explosives by fluorescent and bioluminescent microbial sensors (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Belkin, Shimshon; Yagur-Kroll, Sharon; Zohar, Cheinat; Rabinovitz, Zahi; Nussinovitch, Amos; Kabessa, Yossi; Agranat, Aharon J.


    Current landmine detection methodologies are not much different in principle from those employed 75 years ago, in that they require actual presence in the minefield, with obvious risks to personnel and equipment. Other limitations include an extremely large ratio of false positives, as well as a very limited ability to detect non-metallic landmines. In this lecture a microbial-based solution for the remote detection of buried landmines described. The small size requirements, rapid responses and sensing versatility of bacterial bioreporters allow their integration into diverse types of devices, for laboratory as well as field applications. The relative ease by which molecular sensing and reporting elements can be fused together to generate dose-dependent quantifiable physical (luminescent, fluorescent, colorimetric, electrochemical) responses to pre-determined conditions allows the construction of diverse classes of sensors. Over the last two decades we and others have employed this principle to design and construct microbial bioreporter strains for the sensitive detection of (a) specific chemicals of environmental concern (heavy metals, halogenated organics etc.) or (b) their deleterious biological effects on living systems (such as toxicity or genotoxicity). In many of these cases, additional molecular manipulations beyond the initial sensor-reporter fusion may be highly beneficial for enhancing the performance of the engineered sensor systems. This presentation highlights several of the approaches we have adopted over the years to achieve this aim, while focusing on the application of live cell microbeads for the remote detection of buried landmines and other explosive devices.

  10. Buried explosive hazard characterization using advanced magnetic and electromagnetic induction sensors (United States)

    Miller, Jonathan S.; Schultz, Gregory; Shah, Vishal


    Advanced electromagnetic induction arrays that feature high sensitivity wideband magnetic field and electromagnetic induction receivers provide significant capability enhancement to landmine, unexploded ordnance, and buried explosives detection applications. Specifically, arrays that are easily and quickly configured for integration with a variety of ground vehicles and mobile platforms offer improved safety and efficiency to personnel conducting detection operations including route clearance, explosive ordnance disposal, and humanitarian demining missions. We present experimental results for explosives detection sensor concepts that incorporate both magnetic and electromagnetic modalities. Key technology components include a multi-frequency continuous wave EMI transmitter, multi-axis induction coil receivers, and a high sensitivity chip scale atomic magnetometer. The use of multi-frequency transmitters provides excitation of metal encased threats as well as low conductivity non-metallic explosive constituents. The integration of a radio frequency tunable atomic magnetometer receiver adds increased sensitivity to lower frequency components of the electromagnetic response. This added sensitivity provides greater capability for detecting deeply buried targets. We evaluate the requirements for incorporating these sensor modalities in forward mounted ground vehicle operations. Specifically, the ability to detect target features in near real-time is critical to non-overpass modes. We consider the requirements for incorporating these sensor technologies in a system that enables detection of a broad range of explosive threats that include both metallic and non-metallic components.

  11. [Buried Penis: A Comprehensive Review on Aetiology, Classification and Plastic-Surgical Reconstruction]. (United States)

    Mirastschijski, Ursula; Schwenke, Carla; Melchior, Sebastian; Cedidi, Can


    The buried penis, also called hidden or concealed penis, is associated with morbid obesity or seen after massive weight loss in adults. In highly obese, bariatric patients, the penile shaft invaginates into the pre-pubic fat masses, resulting in voiding problems and urine wetting of the surrounding tissue. This leads to infection, skin maceration, lichen sclerosus and eczema. Sole circumcision without mons pubis plasty or penile fixation does not suffice to alleviate the discomfort and leads to recurrence. In post-bariatric patients, penile retraction is only partially present or absent, but abundant pre-pubic skin tissue forms an apron covering the genitals with problems in hygiene and sexual intercourse. In these cases, plastic-reconstructive interventions include mons pubis plasty with or without penile fixation. This article provides a comprehensive overview on aetiology, a novel classification of the buried penis and plastic-surgical reconstructive interventions matched to the stages of the condition. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration fiscal Year 1994 close-out report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, K.J.


    The Buried Waste integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a multitude of advanced technologies. These technologies are being integrated to form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. These efforts are identified and coordinated in support of the US Department of Energy Environmental Restoration and Waste Management needs and objectives. BWID works with universities and private industry to develop these technologies, which are being transferred to the private sector for use nationally and internationally. A public participation policy has been established to provide stakeholders with timely and accurate information and meaningful opportunities for involvement in the technology development and demonstration process. To accomplish this mission of identifying technological solutions for remediation deficiencies, the Department of Energy Office of Technology Development initiated BMD at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This report summarizes the activities of the BWID program during Fiscal Year 1994. In Fiscal Year 1995, these activities are transitioning into the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area.

  13. Phenotype-limited distributions: short-billed birds move away during times that prey bury deeply. (United States)

    Duijns, Sjoerd; van Gils, Jan A; Smart, Jennifer; Piersma, Theunis


    In our seasonal world, animals face a variety of environmental conditions in the course of the year. To cope with such seasonality, animals may be phenotypically flexible, but some phenotypic traits are fixed. If fixed phenotypic traits are functionally linked to resource use, then animals should redistribute in response to seasonally changing resources, leading to a 'phenotype-limited' distribution. Here, we examine this possibility for a shorebird, the bar-tailed godwit (Limosa lapponica; a long-billed and sexually dimorphic shorebird), that has to reach buried prey with a probing bill of fixed length. The main prey of female bar-tailed godwits is buried deeper in winter than in summer. Using sightings of individually marked females, we found that in winter only longer-billed individuals remained in the Dutch Wadden Sea, while the shorter-billed individuals moved away to an estuary with a more benign climate such as the Wash. Although longer-billed individuals have the widest range of options in winter and could therefore be selected for, counterselection may occur during the breeding season on the tundra, where surface-living prey may be captured more easily with shorter bills. Phenotype-limited distributions could be a widespread phenomenon and, when associated with assortative migration and mating, it may act as a precursor of phenotypic evolution.

  14. Determining the resolution of scanning microwave impedance microscopy using atomic-precision buried donor structures (United States)

    Scrymgeour, D. A.; Baca, A.; Fishgrab, K.; Simonson, R. J.; Marshall, M.; Bussmann, E.; Nakakura, C. Y.; Anderson, M.; Misra, S.


    To quantify the resolution limits of scanning microwave impedance microscopy (sMIM), we created scanning tunneling microscope (STM)-patterned donor nanostructures in silicon composed of 10 nm lines of highly conductive silicon buried under a protective top cap of silicon, and imaged them with sMIM. This dopant pattern is an ideal test of the resolution and sensitivity of the sMIM technique, as it is made with nm-resolution and offers minimal complications from topography convolution. It has been determined that typical sMIM tips can resolve lines down to ∼80 nm spacing, while resolution is independent of tip geometry as extreme tip wear does not change the resolving power, contrary to traditional scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM). Going forward, sMIM is an ideal technique for qualifying buried patterned devices, potentially allowing for quantitative post-fabrication characterization of donor structures, which may be an important tool for the study of atomic-scale transistors and state of the art quantum computation schemes.

  15. Probabilistic Modeling of Landfill Subsidence Introduced by Buried Structure Collapse - 13229

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foye, Kevin; Soong, Te-Yang [CTI and Associates, Inc., 51331 W. Pontiac Trail, Wixom, MI 48393 (United States)


    The long-term reliability of land disposal facility final cover systems - and therefore the overall waste containment - depends on the distortions imposed on these systems by differential settlement/subsidence. The evaluation of differential settlement is challenging because of the heterogeneity of the waste mass and buried structure placement. Deterministic approaches to long-term final cover settlement prediction are not able to capture the spatial variability in the waste mass and sub-grade properties, especially discontinuous inclusions, which control differential settlement. An alternative is to use a probabilistic model to capture the non-uniform collapse of cover soils and buried structures and the subsequent effect of that collapse on the final cover system. Both techniques are applied to the problem of two side-by-side waste trenches with collapsible voids. The results show how this analytical technique can be used to connect a metric of final cover performance (inundation area) to the susceptibility of the sub-grade to collapse and the effective thickness of the cover soils. This approach allows designers to specify cover thickness, reinforcement, and slope to meet the demands imposed by the settlement of the underlying waste trenches. (authors)

  16. Fluorescence quenching of buried Trp residues by acrylamide does not require penetration of the protein fold. (United States)

    Strambini, Giovanni B; Gonnelli, Margherita


    The accessibility of acrylamide to buried Trp residues in proteins, as attested by dynamic quenching of their fluorescence emission, is often interpreted in terms of migration of the quencher (Q) through the globular fold. The quencher penetration mechanism, however, has long been debated because, on one hand, solutes the size of acrylamide are not expected to diffuse within the protein matrix on the nanosecond time scale of fluorescence and, on the other hand, alternative reactions pathways where Q remains in the solvent cannot be ruled out. To test the Q penetration hypothesis, we compared the quenching rates of acrylamide analogs of increasing molecular size (acrylonitrile, acrylamide, and bis-acrylamide) on the buried Trp residues of RNaseT1 and parvalbumin. The results show that the largest molecule, bis-acrylamide, is also the most efficient quencher and that in general the quenching rate is not correlated to quencher size, as expected for a penetration mechanism. Whereas these results rule out significant internal Q migration in the times of fluorescence, it is also demonstrated that up to a depth of burial of 3 A, through-space interactions with acrylamide in the solvent satisfactorily account for the small rate constants reported for these proteins. More generally, this analysis emphasizes that reduced dynamic quenching of protein fluorescence by acrylamide rather than reporting on the structural rigidity of the globular fold reflects the distance of closest approach between the internal chromophore and Q in the aqueous phase.

  17. An Analytical Threshold Voltage Model of Fully Depleted (FD) Recessed-Source/Drain (Re-S/D) SOI MOSFETs with Back-Gate Control (United States)

    Saramekala, Gopi Krishna; Tiwari, Pramod Kumar


    This paper presents an analytical threshold voltage model for back-gated fully depleted (FD), recessed-source drain silicon-on-insulator metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). Analytical surface potential models have been developed at front and back surfaces of the channel by solving the two-dimensional (2-D) Poisson's equation in the channel region with appropriate boundary conditions assuming a parabolic potential profile in the transverse direction of the channel. The strong inversion criterion is applied to the front surface potential as well as on the back one in order to find two separate threshold voltages for front and back channels of the device, respectively. The device threshold voltage has been assumed to be associated with the surface that offers a lower threshold voltage. The developed model was analyzed extensively for a variety of device geometry parameters like the oxide and silicon channel thicknesses, the thickness of the source/drain extension in the buried oxide, and the applied bias voltages with back-gate control. The proposed model has been validated by comparing the analytical results with numerical simulation data obtained from ATLAS™, a 2-D device simulator from SILVACO.

  18. PREFACE: Buried Interface Sciences with X-rays and Neutrons 2010 (United States)

    Sakurai, Kenji


    The 2010 summer workshop on buried interface science with x-rays and neutrons was held at Nagoya University, Japan, on 25-27 July 2010. The workshop was organized by the Japan Applied Physics Society, which established a group to develop the research field of studying buried function interfaces with x-rays and neutrons. The workshop was the latest in a series held since 2001; Tsukuba (December 2001), Niigata (September 2002), Nagoya (July 2003), Tsukuba (July 2004), Saitama (March 2005), Yokohama (July 2006), Kusatsu (August 2006), Tokyo (December 2006), Sendai (July 2007), Sapporo (September 2007), Tokyo (December 2007), Tokyo-Akihabara (July 2009) and Hiratsuka (March 2010). The 2010 summer workshop had 64 participants and 34 presentations. Interfaces mark the boundaries of different material systems at which many interesting phenomena take place, thus making it extremely important to design, fabricate and analyse the structures of interfaces at both the atomic and macroscopic scale. For many applications, devices are prepared in the form of multi-layered thin films, with the result that interfaces are not exposed but buried under multiple layers. Because of such buried conditions, it is generally not easy to analyse such interfaces. In certain cases, for example, when the thin surface layer is not a solid but a liquid such as water, scientists can observe the atomic arrangement of the liquid-solid interface directly by using a scanning probe microscope, of which the tip is soaked in water. However, it has become clear that the use of a stylus tip positioned extremely close to the interface might change the structure of the water molecules. Therefore it is absolutely crucial to develop non-contact, non-destructive probes for buried interfaces. It is known that analysis using x-rays and neutrons is one of the most powerful tools for exploring near-surface structures including interfaces buried under several layers. In particular, x-ray analysis using 3rd

  19. Instability of buried hydration sites increases protein subdomains fluctuations in the human prion protein by the pathogenic mutation T188R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsufumi Tomobe


    Full Text Available The conformational change from the cellular prion protein (PrPc to scrapie prion protein (PrPsc is a key process in prion diseases. The prion protein has buried water molecules which significantly contribute to the stability of the protein; however, there has been no report investigating the influence on the buried hydration sites by a pathogenic mutation not adjacent to the buried hydration sites. Here, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of wild type (WT PrPc and pathogenic point mutant T188R to investigate conformational changes and the buried hydration sites. In WT-PrPc, four buried hydration sites are identified by residence time and rotational relaxation analysis. However, there are no stable buried hydration sites in one of T188R simulations, which indicates that T188R sometimes makes the buried hydration sites fragile. We also find that fluctuations of subdomains S1-H1-S2 and H1-H2 increase in T188R when the buried hydration sites become unstable. Since the side chain of arginine which is replaced from threonine in T188R is larger than of threonine, the side chain cannot be embedded in the protein, which is one of the causes of the instability of subdomains. These results show correlations between the buried hydration sites and the mutation which is far from them, and provide a possible explanation for the instability by mutation.

  20. Instability of buried hydration sites increases protein subdomains fluctuations in the human prion protein by the pathogenic mutation T188R (United States)

    Tomobe, Katsufumi; Yamamoto, Eiji; Akimoto, Takuma; Yasui, Masato; Yasuoka, Kenji


    The conformational change from the cellular prion protein (PrPc) to scrapie prion protein (PrPsc) is a key process in prion diseases. The prion protein has buried water molecules which significantly contribute to the stability of the protein; however, there has been no report investigating the influence on the buried hydration sites by a pathogenic mutation not adjacent to the buried hydration sites. Here, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of wild type (WT) PrPc and pathogenic point mutant T188R to investigate conformational changes and the buried hydration sites. In WT-PrPc, four buried hydration sites are identified by residence time and rotational relaxation analysis. However, there are no stable buried hydration sites in one of T188R simulations, which indicates that T188R sometimes makes the buried hydration sites fragile. We also find that fluctuations of subdomains S1-H1-S2 and H1-H2 increase in T188R when the buried hydration sites become unstable. Since the side chain of arginine which is replaced from threonine in T188R is larger than of threonine, the side chain cannot be embedded in the protein, which is one of the causes of the instability of subdomains. These results show correlations between the buried hydration sites and the mutation which is far from them, and provide a possible explanation for the instability by mutation.

  1. Buried absorbable polyglactin 910 sutures do not result in stronger wounds in porcine full thickness skin incisions. (United States)

    Townsend, Katy L; Lear, William; Robertson, Bria L; Kruzic, Jamie J


    To test the hypothesis that the mechanical strength of wounds closed with a combination of buried dermal absorbable sutures and superficial nonabsorbable nylon sutures will be higher than wounds closed with only superficial nonabsorbable nylon sutures. Four Yucatan pigs were anesthetized and each received four 4.5cm full thickness incisions on their dorsal surfaces, placed 8cm apart. Half of all incisions were randomly allocated and repaired with 3-0 polyglactin 910 (Vicryl(™)) buried dermal absorbable sutures and superficial 3-0 nylon sutures, using a simple interrupted pattern. The other half received only 3-0 nylon sutures. Two pigs were humanely euthanized at day 10, with specimen harvest for mechanical testing; the other two pigs had superficial nylon sutures removed at day 10, as per current clinical practice, and were humanely euthanized at day 42, with specimen harvest for mechanical testing. Tensile loads were applied perpendicularly to the wounds with a displacement rate of 40mm per minute. Wounds at day 42 were >9 times stronger than wounds at day 10 (p<0.0001). There was no difference in average wound strength at either day 10 or day 42 between wounds with and without buried dermal absorbable sutures. Buried dermal absorbable sutures failed to provide additional wound support at either 10 or 42 days. This result may have immediate implications for clinicians who perform cutaneous surgery and keep superficial sutures in for at least 10 days. Future research will be directed to shorter time studies, other buried dermal absorbable suture materials, and alternatives to buried dermal absorbable sutures. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. A Stochastic Analysis of the Transient Current Induced along the Thin Wire Scatterer Buried in a Lossy Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvestar Šesnić


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the stochastic collocation analysis of a time domain response of a straight thin wire scatterer buried in a lossy half-space. The wire is excited either by a plane wave transmitted through the air-ground interface or by an equivalent current source representing direct lightning strike pulse. Transient current induced at the center of the wire, governed by corresponding Pocklington integrodifferential equation, is determined analytically. This antenna configuration suffers from uncertainties in various parameters, such as ground properties, wire dimensions, and position. The statistical processing of the results yields additional information, thus enabling more accurate and efficient analysis of buried wire configurations.

  3. Congenital completely buried penis in boys: anatomical basis and surgical technique. (United States)

    Liu, Xing; He, Da-wei; Hua, Yi; Zhang, De-ying; Wei, Guang-hui


    WHAT'S KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT? AND WHAT DOES THE STUDY ADD?: Surgical correction of the congenital completely buried penis (CCBP) is a difficult challenge and there is no unanimous consensus about the surgical 'gold standard' and patient eligibility for surgery. In the present study, dysgenetic fundiform ligaments were found to be attached to the distal or middle shaft of the penis. This abnormality can be successfully corrected by releasing the fundiform ligament and mobilising the scrotal skin to cover the length of the penile shaft. The study shows that the paucity and traction of the penile skin and an abnormal fundiform ligament are important anatomical defects in CCBP. Dorsal curve and severe shortage of penile skin in erectile conditions are the main indications for surgical correction. To present our experience of anatomical findings for congenital completely buried penis (CCBP), which has no unanimous consensus regarding the 'gold standard' for surgical correction and patient eligibility, by providing our surgical technique and illustrations. Between February 2006 and February 2011, 22 children with a median (range) age of 4.2 (2.5-5.8) years, with CCBP underwent surgical correction by one surgeon. Toilet training and photographs of morning erections by parents were advised before surgery. The abnormal anatomical structure of buried penis during the operation was observed. The technique consisted of the release of the fundiform ligament, fixation of the subcutaneous penile skin at the base of the degloved penis, penoscrotal Z-plasty and mobilisation of the penile and scrotal skin to cover the penile shaft. In reflex erectile conditions, CCBP presents varying degrees of dorsal curve and shortage of penile skin. Dysgenetic fundiform ligaments were found to be attached to the distal or middle shaft of the penis in all patients. All wounds healed well and the cosmetic outcome was good at 6-month follow-up after the repair. The appearance of the dorsal curve in

  4. 3D mapping of buried rocks by the GPR WISDOM/ExoMars 2020 (United States)

    Herve, Yann; Ciarletti, Valerie; Le Gall, Alice; Quantin, Cathy; Guiffaut, Christophe; Plettemeier, Dirk


    The main objective of ExoMars 2020 is to search for signs of past and/or present life on Mars. Because these signs may be beneath the inhospitable surface of Mars, the ExoMars Rover has on board a suite of instruments aiming at characterizing the subsurface. In particular, the Rover payload includes WISDOM (Water Ice Subsurface Deposits Observation on Mars), a polarimetric ground penetrating radar designed to investigate the shallow subsurface. WISDOM is able to probe down to a depth of few meters with a resolution of few centimeters; its main objective is to provide insights into the geological context of the investigated Martian sites and to determine the most promising location to collect samples for the ExoMars drill. In this paper, we demonstrate the ability of WISDOM to locate buried rocks and to estimate their size distribution. Indeed, the rock distribution is related to the geological processes at play in the past or currently and thus provides clues to understand the geological context of the investigated site. Rocks also represent a hazard for drilling operations that WISDOM is to guide. We use a 3D FDTD code called TEMSI-FD (which takes into account the radiation pattern of the antenna system) to simulate WISDOM operations on a realistic (both in terms of dielectric properties and structure) ground. More specifically, our geoelectrical models of the Martian subsurface take into account realistic values of the complex permittivity relying on published measurements performed in laboratory on Martian analogues. Further, different distributions of buried rocks are considered based on the size-frequency distribution observed at the Mars Pathfinder landing site and on Oxia Planum, the landing site currently selected for ExoMars 2020. We will describe the algorithm we developed to automatically detect the signature of the buried rocks on radargrams. The radargrams are obtained simulating WISDOM operations along parallel and perpendicular profiles as planned

  5. Integrated geophysical measurements on a test site for detection of buried steel drums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Settimi


    Full Text Available Geophysical methods are increasingly used to detect and locate illegal waste disposal and buried toxic steel drums. This study describes the results of a test carried out in clayey-sandy ground where 12 empty steel drums had previously been buried at 4-5 m below ground level. This test was carried out with three geophysical methods for steel-drum detection: a magnetometric survey, electrical resistivity tomography with different arrays, and a multifrequency frequency-domain electromagnetic induction survey. The data show that as partially expected, the magnetometric and electromagnetic induction surveys detected the actual steel drums buried in the subsurface, while the electrical resistivity tomography mainly detected the changes in some of the physical properties of the terrain connected with the digging operations, rather than the actual presence of the steel drums.

  1. Exploiting sparsity and field conditioning in subsurface microwave imaging of nonweak buried targets (United States)

    Bevacqua, Martina; Crocco, Lorenzo; Donato, Loreto Di; Isernia, Tommaso; Palmeri, Roberta


    An efficient inverse scattering strategy is proposed to achieve dielectric characterization of buried objects in lossy soils. The approach takes advantage of Virtual Experiments and Compressive Sensing to obtain quantitative reconstructions of nonweak targets which are nonsparse in the pixel representation basis, commonly adopted in microwave imaging. In addition, an original strategy is adopted to overcome the relevant information lack arising when data are gathered under aspect-limited configurations, such as in ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys. The proposed strategy significantly outperforms the results achievable with the "state of the art" standard approaches since it allows to achieve nearly optimal reconstructions within a linear framework and without increasing the overall computational burden. Numerical examples with simulated data are given to show the feasibility of the proposed strategy.

  2. Interedge backscattering in buried split-gate-defined graphene quantum point contacts (United States)

    Xiang, Shaohua; Mreńca-Kolasińska, Alina; Miseikis, Vaidotas; Guiducci, Stefano; Kolasiński, Krzysztof; Coletti, Camilla; Szafran, Bartłomiej; Beltram, Fabio; Roddaro, Stefano; Heun, Stefan


    Quantum Hall effects offer a formidable playground for the investigation of quantum transport phenomena. Edge modes can be deflected, branched, and mixed by designing a suitable potential landscape in a two-dimensional conducting system subject to a strong magnetic field. In the present work, we demonstrate a buried split-gate architecture and use it to control electron conduction in large-scale single-crystal monolayer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition. The control of the edge trajectories is demonstrated by the observation of various fractional quantum resistances, as a result of a controllable interedge scattering. Experimental data are successfully modeled both numerically and analytically within the Landauer-Büttiker formalism. Our architecture is particularly promising and unique in view of the investigation of quantum transport via scanning probe microscopy, since graphene constitutes the topmost layer of the device. For this reason, it can be approached and perturbed by a scanning probe down to the limit of mechanical contact.

  3. Female burying beetles benefit from male desertion: sexual conflict and counter-adaptation over parental investment. (United States)

    Boncoraglio, Giuseppe; Kilner, Rebecca M


    Sexual conflict drives the coevolution of sexually antagonistic traits, such that an adaptation in one sex selects an opposing coevolutionary response from the other. Although many adaptations and counteradaptations have been identified in sexual conflict over mating interactions, few are known for sexual conflict over parental investment. Here we investigate a possible coevolutionary sequence triggered by mate desertion in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides, where males commonly leave before their offspring reach independence. Rather than suffer fitness costs as a consequence, our data suggest that females rely on the male's absence to recoup some of the costs of larval care, presumably because they are then free to feed themselves on the carcass employed for breeding. Consequently, forcing males to stay until the larvae disperse reduces components of female fitness to a greater extent than caring for young singlehandedly. Therefore we suggest that females may have co-evolved to anticipate desertion by their partners so that they now benefit from the male's absence.

  4. L -edge resonant magneto-optical Kerr effect of a buried Fe nanofilm (United States)

    Kubota, Y.; Taguchi, M.; Akai, H.; Yamamoto, Sh.; Someya, T.; Hirata, Y.; Takubo, K.; Araki, M.; Fujisawa, M.; Yamamoto, K.; Yokoyama, Y.; Yamamoto, S.; Tsunoda, M.; Wadati, H.; Shin, S.; Matsuda, I.


    The Fe L -edge resonant magneto-optical Kerr effect of a buried Fe nanofilm was investigated by rotating-analyzer ellipsometry and the results were compared with those from three theoretical simulations. The reversal of the Kerr rotation angle θK between the L3 and L2 edges, observed in the experiment, was consistent with classical electromagnetic simulation using empirical optical constants. The spectral θK feature was reproduced by the first-principles calculation of the KKR-Green's function method on the itinerant electronic system. The demonstration indicates that spectra of the L -edge resonant MOKE can be understood in terms of both the macroscopic and microscopic pictures.

  5. Measuring Soil Moisture using the Signal Strength of Buried Bluetooth Devices. (United States)

    Hut, R.; Campbell, C. S.


    A low power bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) device is burried 20cm into the soil and a smartphone is placed on top of the soil to test if bluetooth signal strength can be related to soil moisture. The smartphone continuesly records and stores bluetooth signal strength of the device. The soil is artifcially wetted and drained. Results show a relation between BLE signal strength and soil moisture that could be used to measure soil moisture using these off-the-shelf consumer electronics. This opens the possibily to develop sensors that can be buried into the soil, possibly below the plow-line. These sensors can measure local parameters such as electric conductivity, ph, pressure, etc. Readings would be uploaded to a device on the surface using BLE. The signal strength of this BLE would be an (additional) measurement of soil moisture.

  6. Towards quantitative three-dimensional characterisation of buried InAs quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadkhodazadeh, Shima; Semenova, Elizaveta; Schubert, Martin


    and compositional measurements of quantum dots using transmission electron microscopy can be ambiguous because the recorded signal is usually a projection through the thickness of the specimen. Here, we discuss the application of scanning transmission electron microscopy tomography to the morphological and chemical...... characterisation of surface and buried quantum dots. We highlight some of the challenges involved and introduce a new specimen preparation method for creating needle-shaped specimens that each contain multiple dots and are suitable for both scanning transmission electron microscopy tomography and atom probe......InAs quantum dots grown on InP or InGaAsP are used for optical communication applications operating in the 1.3 – 1.55 μm wavelength range. It is generally understood that the optical properties of such dots are highly dependent on their structural and chemical profiles. However, morphological...

  7. Low threshold buried-heterostructure quantum well lasers by excimer laser assisted disordering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epler, J.E.; Thornton, R.L.; Mosby, W.J.; Paoli, T.L.


    Laser assisted disordering based upon a direct-write Ar/sup +/ laser beam has been established as a fabrication technique for high quality optoelectronic devices. In this letter, we report a new form of laser assisted disordering in which an excimer laser beam, photolithographically patterned, is used to define the incorporation of Si impurity into GaAs-AlGaAs heterostructure crystals. During a subsequent thermal anneal the diffusing Si induces layer disordering to a depth of approx.1 The excimer laser assisted disordering process is characterized as a function of the energy density of the laser beam. Also, this technique is used to fabricate high quality buried-heterostructure lasers. With a reflective rear facet, the typical cw threshold current is 4 mA and the maximum power output is 27 mW. The devices exhibit single fundamental mode operation with subsidiary longitudinal side modes suppressed by 34 dB.

  8. Ground magnetometric surveys end integrated geophysical methods for solid buried waste detection: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zirizzotti


    Full Text Available The detection of illegal buried waste by means of geophysical techniques has recently become a major effort in shallow geophysical investigations. In particular, detection and location of underground metallic storage tanks can be accomplished using different instruments and techniques. In this paper we describe the results of an investigation carried out in a tuff quarry in Riano Flaminio (north Rome, Italy. A preliminary magnetometric survey revealed the existence of anomalous zones in the analysed region. Excavation in some of the selected areas confirmed that the anomalies were generated by underground magnetic material: over 160 steel drums were found. After their removal, a new magnetometric survey was performed. On the basis of the new map, a multifrequency induction survey, a geoelectrical profile and GPR measurements were taken to extend the characterization of the subsoil.

  9. Initiation of breakout of half-buried submarine pipe from sea bed due to wave action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, A.W.K. [Nanyang Technological Univ. (Singapore). School of Civil and Structural Engineering; Foda, M.A. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering


    A formulation is presented for the analysis of the breakout of a half-buried submarine pipe due to wave action. The formulation accounts for the contact between the pipe and the soil due to the oscillating horizontal hydrodynamic force. Results demonstrate the existence of an initial gap in the breakout experiments. With this initial gap the gap flux dominated the influx of water into the gap throughout the breakout process. The linear pipe rise persisted although the second-order expansion of the gap should have grown to the same order of magnitude as the initial gap with the poro-rigid soil assumption. It is postulated that the persistence of the linear rise was due to the localized passive failure around the ends of the soil trench which inhibited the growth of the opening due to the pipe`s rise. (Author)

  10. A low on-resistance triple RESURF SOI LDMOS with planar and trench gate integration (United States)

    Luo, Xiao-Rong; Yao, Guo-Liang; Zhang, Zheng-Yuan; Jiang, Yong-Heng; Zhou, Kun; Wang, Pei; Wang, Yuan-Gang; Lei, Tian-Fei; Zhang, Yun-Xuan; Wei, Jie


    A low on-resistance (Ron,sp) integrable silicon-on-insulator (SOI) n-channel lateral double-diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor (LDMOS) is proposed and its mechanism is investigated by simulation. The LDMOS has two features: the integration of a planar gate and an extended trench gate (double gates (DGs)); and a buried P-layer in the N-drift region, which forms a triple reduced surface field (RESURF) (TR) structure. The triple RESURF not only modulates the electric field distribution, but also increases N-drift doping, resulting in a reduced specific on-resistance (Ron,sp) and an improved breakdown voltage (BV) in the off-state. The DGs form dual conduction channels and, moreover, the extended trench gate widens the vertical conduction area, both of which further reduce the Ron,sp. The BV and Ron,sp are 328 V and 8.8 mΩ·cm2, respectively, for a DG TR metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) by simulation. Compared with a conventional SOI LDMOS, a DG TR MOSFET with the same dimensional device parameters as those of the DG TR MOSFET reduces Ron,Sp by 59% and increases BV by 6%. The extended trench gate synchronously acts as an isolation trench between the high-voltage device and low-voltage circuitry in a high-voltage integrated circuit, thereby saving the chip area and simplifying the fabrication processes.

  11. Effective inelastic scattering cross-sections for background analysis in HAXPES of deeply buried layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risterucci, P., E-mail: [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Université de Lyon, Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon, 36 avenue Guy de Collongue, 69134 Ecully (France); Department of Physics, Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Renault, O., E-mail: [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Zborowski, C. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 7614, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, F-75005, Paris (France); Université de Lyon, Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon, 36 avenue Guy de Collongue, 69134 Ecully (France); Department of Physics, Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Bertrand, D.; Torres, A. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Rueff, J.-P. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers Saint-Aubin, BP 48 91192, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 7614, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, F-75005, Paris (France); Ceolin, D. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers Saint-Aubin, BP 48 91192, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Grenet, G. [Université de Lyon, Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon, 36 avenue Guy de Collongue, 69134 Ecully (France); Tougaard, S. [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark)


    Highlights: • An effective approach for quantitative background analysis in HAXPES spectra of buried layer underneath complex overlayer structures is proposed. • The approach relies on using a weighted sum of inelastic scattering cross section of the pure layers. • The method is validated by the study of an advanced power transistor stack after successive annealing steps. • The depth distribution of crucial elements (Ti, Ga) is determined reliably at depths up to nearly 50 nm. - Abstract: Inelastic background analysis of HAXPES spectra was recently introduced as a powerful method to get access to the elemental distribution in deeply buried layers or interfaces, at depth up to 60 nm below the surface. However the accuracy of the analysis highly relies on suitable scattering cross-sections able to describe effectively the transport of photoelectrons through overlayer structures consisting of individual layers with potentially very different scattering properties. Here, we show that within Tougaard’s practical framework as implemented in the Quases-Analyze software, the photoelectron transport through thick (25–40 nm) multi-layer structures with widely different cross-sections can be reliably described with an effective cross-section in the form of a weighted sum of the individual cross-section of each layer. The high-resolution core-level analysis partly provides a guide for determining the nature of the individual cross-sections to be used. We illustrate this novel approach with the practical case of a top Al/Ti bilayer structure in an AlGaN/GaN power transistor device stack before and after sucessive annealing treatments. The analysis provides reliable insights on the Ti and Ga depth distributions up to nearly 50 nm below the surface.

  12. Ventral Slit Scrotal Flap: A New Outpatient Surgical Option for Reconstruction of Adult Buried Penis Syndrome. (United States)

    Westerman, Mary E; Tausch, Timothy J; Zhao, Lee C; Siegel, Jordan A; Starke, Nathan; Klein, Alexandra K; Morey, Allen F


    We present a novel technique using ventral slit with scrotal skin flaps (VSSF) for the reconstruction of adult buried penis without skin grafting. An initial ventral slit is made in the phimotic ring, and the penis is exposed. To cover the defect in the ventral shaft skin, local flaps are created by making a ventral midline scrotal incision with horizontal relaxing incisions. The scrotal flaps are rotated to resurface the ventral shaft. Clinical data analyzed included preoperative diagnoses, length of stay, blood loss, and operative outcomes. Complications were also recorded. Fifteen consecutive patients with a penis trapped due to lichen sclerosus (LS) or phimosis underwent repair with VSSF. Each was treated in the outpatient setting with no perioperative complications. Mean age was 51 years (range, 26-75 years), and mean body mass index was 42.6 kg/m(2) (range, 29.8-53.9 kg/m(2)). The majority of patients (13 of 15, 87%) had a pathologic diagnosis of LS. Mean estimated blood loss was 57 cc (range, 25-200 cc), mean operative time was 83 minutes (range, 35-145 minutes), and all patients were discharged on the day of surgery. The majority of patients (11 of 15, 73.3%) remain satisfied with their results and have required no further intervention. Recurrences in 3 of 15 (20.0%) were due to LS, panniculus migration, and concealment by edematous groin tissue; 2 of these patients underwent subsequent successful skin grafting. VSSF is a versatile, safe, and effective reconstructive option in appropriately selected patients with buried penis, which enables reconstruction of penile shaft skin defects without requiring complex skin grafting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Flambage vertical des conduites en souillées Vertical Buckling of Buried Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bournazel C.


    Full Text Available Si l'apparition d'un flambage vertical des conduites rigides enfouies dans une tranchée est un phénomène assez rare, il peut ne pas en être de même pour des conduites flexibles dont les propriétés mécaniques sont de nature différente. Une étude théorique et expérimentale, ayant pour but de proposer une méthode analytique de calcul de l'apparition du flambage et de son évolution sous l'effet de la pression interne, a été réalisée. II apparaît que les conduites flexibles actuelles sont très sensibles à ce phénomène et qu'il serait nécessaire, pour l'éliminer à coup sûr, de réexaminer la structure des flexibles ou d'imaginer des artifices dans la procédure d'ensouillage Whereas the appearance of vertical buckling in rigid pipes buried in a trench is a relatively rare phenomenon, the same cannot be said for flexible pipes which have mechanical properties of a different nature. A theoretical and experimental study has been made with the aim of proposing an analytical method for computing the appearance of buckling and its evolution under the effect of outside pressure. Current flexible pipes appear to be very sensitive to this phenomenon, and to be certain of eliminating it the structure of flexible pipes should be reexamined or stratagems in the burying procedure should be devised.

  14. Electroluminescence from a diamond device with ion-beam-micromachined buried graphitic electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forneris, J., E-mail: [Physics Department and NIS Interdepartmental Centre, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sez. Torino, Torino (Italy); Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Scienze Fisiche della Materia (CNISM), Sez. Torino, Torino (Italy); Battiato, A.; Gatto Monticone, D. [Physics Department and NIS Interdepartmental Centre, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sez. Torino, Torino (Italy); Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Scienze Fisiche della Materia (CNISM), Sez. Torino, Torino (Italy); Picollo, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sez. Torino, Torino (Italy); Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Scienze Fisiche della Materia (CNISM), Sez. Torino, Torino (Italy); Physics Department and NIS Interdepartmental Centre, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Amato, G.; Boarino, L.; Brida, G.; Degiovanni, I.P.; Enrico, E.; Genovese, M.; Moreva, E.; Traina, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRiM), Torino (Italy); Verona, C.; Verona Rinati, G. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Roma “Tor Vergata”, Roma (Italy); Olivero, P. [Physics Department and NIS Interdepartmental Centre, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sez. Torino, Torino (Italy); Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Scienze Fisiche della Materia (CNISM), Sez. Torino, Torino (Italy)


    Focused MeV ion microbeams are suitable tools for the direct writing of conductive graphitic channels buried in an insulating diamond bulk, as demonstrated in previous works with the fabrication of multi-electrode ionizing radiation detectors and cellular biosensors. In this work we investigate the suitability of the fabrication method for the electrical excitation of color centers in diamond. Differently from photoluminescence, electroluminescence requires an electrical current flowing through the diamond sub-gap states for the excitation of the color centers. With this purpose, buried graphitic electrodes with a spacing of 10 μm were fabricated in the bulk of a detector-grade CVD single-crystal diamond sample using a scanning 1.8 MeV He{sup +} micro-beam. The current flowing in the gap region between the electrodes upon the application of a 450 V bias voltage was exploited as the excitation pump for the electroluminescence of different types of color centers localized in the above-mentioned gap. The bright light emission was spatially mapped using a confocal optical microscopy setup. The spectral analysis of electroluminescence revealed the emission from neutrally-charged nitrogen-vacancy centers (NV{sup 0}, λ{sub ZPL} = 575 nm), as well as from cluster crystal dislocations (A-band, λ = 400–500 nm). Moreover, an electroluminescence signal with appealing spectral features (sharp emission at room temperature, low phonon sidebands) from He-related defects was detected (λ{sub ZPL} = 536.3 nm, λ{sub ZPL} = 560.5 nm); a low and broad peak around λ = 740 nm was also observed and tentatively ascribed to Si-V or GR1 centers. These results pose interesting future perspectives for the fabrication of electrically-stimulated single-photon emitters in diamond for applications in quantum optics and quantum cryptography.

  15. Buried Treasure: Using Distributed Ground Temperature Sensors to Test Remote Sensing of Fractional Snow Cover (United States)

    Raleigh, M. S.; Rittger, K. E.; Lundquist, J. D.


    Despite being the dominant source of streamflow in many mountainous regions around the world, seasonal snow cover is poorly sampled by most ground-based observational networks. Satellite remote sensing supplements spatiotemporal knowledge of snow conditions in these rugged locations where ground observations are sparse or absent. However, the low density of ground-based observations also detracts from the value of remote sensing, as few ground-based datasets exist with sufficient spatial density to test remotely sensed snow cover across heterogeneous mountain terrain. Datasets with high spatial density are needed to test remote sensing because snow processes exhibit considerable spatial variability due to topographic and vegetation effects. Where ground-based observation stations exist, they are typically located in flat clearings, which are not likely to represent conditions in neighboring sloped and forested terrain. Forests cover as much as 40% to 50% of the seasonal snow zone in North America, and thus the accuracy of remote sensing in a major portion of the snow zone has been ill-quantified. Continued testing with ground-based observations adds value and confidence to remotely sensed snow cover, but dense ground observations are needed. Here we demonstrate that daily fractional snow covered area (fSCA) data can be derived in a study area with a network of buried temperature sensors. 37 to 90 self-logging temperature sensors were buried shallowly (MODSCAG) algorithm and find that the selected vegetation correction approach impacts MODSCAG accuracy. We also show the limitations of using single snow pillows for validation of remote sensing, as these point measurement typically did not represent the areal timing of snow disappearance observed by the ground temperature sensors at the study sites. Future satellite validation studies may benefit from this dataset or from application of this measurement technique.

  16. Ferguson rock slide buries California State Highway near Yosemite National Park (United States)

    Harp, Edwin L.; Reid, Mark E.; Godt, Jonathan W.; DeGraff, Jerome V.; Gallegos, Alan J.


    During spring 2006, talus from the toe area of a rock-block slide of about 800,000 m3 buried California State Highway 140, one of the main routes into heavily-visited Yosemite National Park, USA. Closure of the highway for 92 days caused business losses of about 4.8 million USD. The rock slide, composed of slate and phyllite, moved slowly downslope from April to June 2006, creating a fresh head scarp with 9-12 m of displacement. Movement of the main rock slide, a re-activation of an older slide, was triggered by an exceptionally wet spring 2006, following a very wet spring 2005. As of autumn 2006, most of the main slide appeared to be at rest, although rocks occasionally continued to fall from steep, fractured rock masses at the toe area of the slide. Future behavior of the slide is difficult to predict, but possible scenarios range from continued scattered rock fall to complete rapid failure of the entire mass. Although unlikely except under very destabilizing circumstances, a worst-case, rapid failure of the entire rock slide could extend across the Merced River, damming the river and creating a reservoir. As a temporary measure, traffic has been rerouted to the opposite side of the Merced River at about the same elevation as the buried section of Highway 140. A state-of-the-art monitoring system has been installed to detect movement in the steep talus slope, movement of the main slide mass, local strong ground motion from regional earthquakes, and sudden changes in stream levels, possibly indicating damming of the river by slide material.

  17. 77 FR 14446 - Changes to the Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL) Report Revision 2 AMP XI.M41, “Buried and... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Changes to the Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL) Report Revision 2 AMP XI.M41, ``Buried and... on Draft License Renewal Interim Staff Guidance (LR-ISG), LR- ISG-2011-03, ``Changes to GALL Report Revision 2 Aging Management Program (AMP) XI.M41, `Buried and Underground Piping and Tanks'.'' This LR-ISG...

  18. 77 FR 21813 - Changes to the Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL) Report Revision 2 AMP XI.M41, “Buried and... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Changes to the Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL) Report Revision 2 AMP XI.M41, ``Buried and..., ``Changes to GALL Report Revision 2 Aging Management Program (AMP) XI.M41, `Buried and Underground Piping and Tanks.' '' The draft LR-ISG pertains to the changes to the NUREG-1801, Revision 2, ``Generic Aging...

  19. Detection of surface laid and buried mines with IR and CCD cameras, an evaluation based on measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Y.H.L.; Jong, A.N. de; Winkel, J.; Putten, F.J.M. van


    We analyzed a time series of high resolution 8 - 13.4 μm scanner images of a sandbox with buried (3 - 10 cm depth) and unburied, metal and plastic AP and AT mines, surrogates and other targets. With a high resolution DUDA scanner operating in 8 - 13.4 μm all the surface laid targets were visible

  20. Soil gas geochemical behaviour across buried and exposed faults during the 24 august 2016 central Italy earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Ciotoli


    Full Text Available Following the earthquake (ML=6.0 of 24 August 2016 that affected large part of the central Apennine between the municipalities of Norcia (PG and Amatrice (RI (central Italy, two soil gas profiles (i.e., 222Rn, 220Rn, CO2 and CO2 flux were carried out across buried and exposed coseismic fault rupture of the Mt. Vettore fault during the seismic sequence. The objective of the survey was to explore the mechanisms of migration and the spatial behaviour of different gas species near still-degassing active fault. Results provide higher gas and CO2 flux values (about twice for 222Rn and CO2 flux in correspondence of the buried sector of the fault than those measured across the exposed coseismic rupture. Anomalous peaks due to advective migration are clearly visible on both side of the buried fault (profile 1, whereas the lower soil gas concentrations measured across the exposed coseimic rupture (profile 2 are mainly caused by shallow and still acting diffusive degassing associated to faulting during the seismic sequence. These results confirm the usefulness of the soil gas survey to spatially recognise the shallow geometry of hidden faults, and to discriminate the geochemical migration mechanisms occurring at buried and exposed faults related to seismic activity.

  1. Volatiles Emitted by Calling Males of Burying Beetles and Ptomascopus morio (Coleoptera: Silphidae: Nicrophorinae) Are Biogenetically Related. (United States)

    Haberer, Wolf; Schmitt, Thomas; Schreier, Peter; Eggert, Anne-Katrin; Müller, Josef K


    In burying beetles, Nicrophorus spp. (Coleoptera: Silphidae: Nicrophorinae) mate finding is mediated by male produced volatile compounds. To date, pheromone components of only two species have been identified. In an attempt to better understand the evolution of male pheromone signaling in burying beetles, we investigated the male released volatiles of ten Nicrophorus species and one closely related nicrophorine species, Ptomascopus mori. Volatiles emitted by calling males were collected in the laboratory by means of solid phase micro extraction and analyzed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Identified volatiles included short chain esters of 4-methylcarboxylic acids, terpenoids, and some other aliphatic compounds. The long-range volatile signals of the burying beetle species included in this study are blends of two to seven components. We found that methyl or ethyl esters of 4-methylheptanoic acid and 4-methyloctanoic acid are produced by eight of the ten investigated Nicrophorus species. These esters may play a key role in chemical communication. Their widespread occurrence suggests that these compounds did not evolve recently, but appeared relatively early in the phylogeny of the genus. Although Ptomascopus is considered the sister genus of Nicrophorus, P. morio males do not produce any of the Nicrophorus compounds, but release 3-methylalkan-2-ones, which are absent in Nicrophorus. A better understanding of the evolution of burying beetle pheromones, however, will only be possible once more species have been studied.

  2. Buried particulate organic carbon stimulates denitrification and nitrate retention in stream sediments at the groundwater-surface water interface (United States)

    Stelzer, Robert S.; Scott, J. Thad; Bartsch, Lynn


    The interface between ground water and surface water in streams is a hotspot for N processing. However, the role of buried organic C in N transformation at this interface is not well understood, and inferences have been based largely on descriptive studies. Our main objective was to determine how buried particulate organic C (POC) affected denitrification and NO3− retention in the sediments of an upwelling reach in a sand-plains stream in Wisconsin. We manipulated POC in mesocosms inserted in the sediments. Treatments included low and high quantities of conditioned red maple leaves (buried beneath combusted sand), ambient sediment (sand containing background levels of POC), and a control (combusted sand). We measured denitrification rates in sediments by acetylene-block assays in the laboratory and by changes in N2 concentrations in the field using membrane inlet mass spectrometry. We measured NO3−, NH4+, and dissolved organic N (DON) retention as changes in concentrations and fluxes along groundwater flow paths in the mesocosms. POC addition drove oxic ground water to severe hypoxia, led to large increases in dissolved organic C (DOC), and strongly increased denitrification rates and N (NO3− and total dissolved N) retention relative to the control. In situ denitrification accounted for 30 to 60% of NO3− retention. Our results suggest that buried POC stimulated denitrification and NO3− retention by producing DOC and by creating favorable redox conditions for denitrification.

  3. Data quality of a low fold seismic survey employing a buried multi-component array at Ketzin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meekes, J.A.C.; Vandeweijer, V.P.; Arts, R.J.


    To monitor the migration of the injected CO2 in the Ketzin project (Germany) a permanently buried multi-component seismic array has been installed in August 2009. Besides passive seismic recordings, this monitoring system was used to record data for an active survey carried out in 2009, resulting in

  4. The velocity of the expanding by-products and soil layer on top of a buried landmine

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Snyman, I.M


    Full Text Available This paper uses high-speed video images of the PHOTRON APX-RS high-speed camera to determine the velocity of the expanding volume of by-products of a buried landmine. The study analyses three experiments done with the Scientifically Instrumented...

  5. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Compact Buried Ducts in a Hot-Humid Climate House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    With U.S. Department of Energy Building America Program support, Home Innovation Research Labs partnered with K. Hovnanian Homes to demonstrate a new buried-duct design that is durable, energy efficient, and cost-effective in a hot-humid climate.

  6. Exposed versus buried wires for fixation of lateral humeral condyle fractures in children: a comparison of safety and efficacy. (United States)

    Chan, Lester Wai Mon; Siow, Hua Ming


    Displaced fractures of the lateral condyle of the humerus are usually treated with open reduction and fixation with smooth Kirschner wires. These may be passed through the skin and left exposed or buried subcutaneously. Exposed wires may be removed in the outpatient clinic, whereas buried wires require a formal procedure under anaesthesia. This advantage may be offset if there is a higher rate of complications with exposed wires. The aim of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of exposed and buried wires. Retrospective cohort. Children with lateral condyle fractures of the humerus who had undergone surgery were identified from our departmental database. Case records and X-rays of 75 patients were reviewed. Forty-two patients had buried wires and 33 had exposed wires. There were no serious complications in either group. In the exposed wires group, 1 patient had a superficial wound infection that was treated effectively with 1 week of oral antibiotics, while 2 patients had hypergranulation of pin tracts treated with topical silver nitrate. None of the patients showed loss of reduction, deep infection, or any other complications requiring additional procedures. There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of complications between the buried and exposed groups. We conclude that open reduction and exposed wiring is a safe and effective option for lateral condyle fractures, and recommend a period of 4 weeks of K-wire fixation followed by 2 weeks of backslab immobilisation as adequate for union with minimal risk of infection.

  7. Surgical and Functional Outcomes Following Buried Penis Repair With Limited Panniculectomy and Split-thickness Skin Graft. (United States)

    Hampson, Lindsay A; Muncey, Wade; Chung, Paul H; Ma, C C; Friedrich, Jeffrey; Wessells, Hunter; Voelzke, Bryan B


    To report surgical and functional outcomes of buried penis surgery. Outcomes following buried penis surgery at the University of Washington were assessed from June 1, 2005 to June 1, 2016. Patient demographic and surgical data were abstracted from a retrospective chart review. All patients were attempted to be contacted by phone for long-term follow-up. Uni- and multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate for association with any complication. A total of 42 men underwent buried penis repair surgery (mean short-term follow-up 8.1 months). There was an overall 33% 90-day complication rate (21 events). In univariate analysis, body mass index (BMI; P = .02) and no history of gastric bypass (P = .03) were significant predictors of any complication. In multivariate analysis, only BMI remained significant (odds ratio 1.1 for each increase in unit of BMI, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.27). Twenty-seven patients were reached for long-term follow-up (mean 39 months). Patients reported improvements in every functional domain that was assessed. Of the patients, 85% reported they would undergo buried penis surgery again, 74% that surgery led to a positive change in their lives, and 85% that the surgery had remained a long-term success. Surgical correction of buried penis with penile split-thickness skin graft and limited panniculectomy is well tolerated and results in functional, long-term improvements. BMI is associated with an increased likelihood of a complication following surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Three-dimensional Geometry of Buried Fold Scarps Associated With Ancient Earthquakes on the Puente Hills Blind Thrust Fault (United States)

    Leon, L. A.; Dolan, J. F.; Hoeft, J. S.; Shaw, J. H.; Hartleb, R. D.


    The Puente Hills thrust fault (PHT) is a large blind thrust fault that extends east-west beneath the heart of the metropolitan Los Angeles region (Shaw and Shearer, 1999; Shaw et al., 2003). Christofferson (2002; in prep.) and Dolan et al. (2003) identified four buried fold scarps associated with large (Mw greater than or equal to 7), ancient earthquakes on the PHT beneath the City of Bellflower, in northern Orange County. One of the major outstanding questions regarding this research concerns the subsurface, three-dimensional geometry of these buried scarps. Specifically, we want to determine the extent to which the subsurface geometry of these scarps is controlled by tectonic versus fluvial processes. In order to begin addressing these questions, we drilled a north-south transect of hollow-stem, continuously cored boreholes across the buried fold scarps. This new borehole transect, which comprises six, 20-m-deep boreholes, was drilled parallel to, and ˜ 100 m west of, the original Carfax Avenue transect of Christofferson (2002) and Dolan et al. (2003). The overall pattern of progressive southward thickening of sedimentary units observed in the Carfax borehole transect extends westward to the new transect. Moreover, several key sedimentary contacts that are traceable laterally between the two transects occur at approximately the same depths at all locations along both transects. This three-dimensional data set thus defines several buried fold scarps that extend east-west beneath the study site. These observations confirm that the buried scarps are primarily tectonic, rather than fluvial features.

  9. Mapping of the North-Eastern Part of Kozłowicka Buried Valley Based on Geoelectrical Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topolewska Sylwia


    Full Text Available The paper is aiming to determinate the extent of the north eastern arm of Kozłowicka buried valley on the grounds of own re search by means of electrical resistivity tomography- ERT and avail able archival researches. On the Hydro-geological map of Poland, Żyrardów sheet (Felter and Nowicki, 1998a, b Kozłowicka buried valley was differentiated as an individual hydro-geological unit. The results of the anal y sis show that the ex tent of the structure, defined by its up per boundary, differs significantly from the one suggested on the sheet of Hydrogeological map of Poland. Since there was no data avail able in the north eastern part of the dis cussed arm of Kozłowicka buried valley, the northern boundary was defined only based on avail able geoelectrical sounding profiles (Czerwiñska, 1988; Topolewska, 2015. In order to confirm suggested solution, geoelectrical re search by means of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT was con ducted. The measurements were per formed along 3 pro files located in the area of interest. The authors would like to point out the need of the us age of ERT in map ping and studying buried structures that might be ground water reservoirs. As a result, one obtains quasi-continuous image of electrical resistivity of the subsurface. Due to the contrast of electrical properties of sediments, it is possible to determine upper and bottom surfaces of buried structures, formed within glacial deposits.

  10. Review on analog/radio frequency performance of advanced silicon MOSFETs (United States)

    Passi, Vikram; Raskin, Jean-Pierre


    Aggressive gate-length downscaling of the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) has been the main stimulus for the growth of the integrated circuit industry. This downscaling, which has proved beneficial to digital circuits, is primarily the result of the need for improved circuit performance and cost reduction and has resulted in tremendous reduction of the carrier transit time across the channel, thereby resulting in very high cut-off frequencies. It is only in recent decades that complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) field-effect transistor (FET) has been considered as the radio frequency (RF) technology of choice. In this review, the status of the digital, analog and RF figures of merit (FoM) of silicon-based FETs is presented. State-of-the-art devices with very good performance showing low values of drain-induced barrier lowering, sub-threshold swing, high values of gate transconductance, Early voltage, cut-off frequencies, and low minimum noise figure, and good low-frequency noise characteristic values are reported. The dependence of these FoM on the device gate length is also shown, helping the readers to understand the trends and challenges faced by shorter CMOS nodes. Device performance boosters including silicon-on-insulator substrates, multiple-gate architectures, strain engineering, ultra-thin body and buried-oxide and also III-V and 2D materials are discussed, highlighting the transistor characteristics that are influenced by these boosters. A brief comparison of the two main contenders in continuing Moore’s law, ultra-thin body buried-oxide and fin field-effect transistors are also presented. The authors would like to mention that despite extensive research carried out in the semiconductor industry, silicon-based MOSFET will continue to be the driving force in the foreseeable future.

  11. Mapping a buried Quaternary valley and pre-Quaternary faults through seismic methods in Copenhagen, Denmark. (United States)

    Martinez, Kerim; Alfredo Mendoza, Jose; Henrik, Olsen


    Limited knowledge of the subsurface geology motivates the use of geophysical techniques before large engineering projects are conducted. These applications are normally restricted to satisfy the project aims, like mapping the near surface sediments, unconsolidated rocks and/or geological structures that may affect the construction locally. However, the applications can also contribute to the general knowledge of the regional geology around the location of interest. This report highlights the mapping of a buried Quaternary valley and identification of regional faults by a reflection and refraction seismic survey performed in Copenhagen. A 13.9 Km seismic survey was carried out at Copenhagen city along six crooked lines in order to determine the velocity fields in the near subsurface segment of a planned metro line and reflection patterns in deeper levels. The aim of the survey was to collect information needed for designing the underground metro. In particular it was sought to map the interface between Quaternary sedimentary layers of clay, till and sand, and the underlying layers of Palaeogene limestone found between 7 and 40 m below the ground surface. The data acquisition was carried out using a 192 channels array, receiver groups with 5 m spacing and a Vibroseis as a source at 5 m spacing following a roll along technique to complete the survey spreads. The urban environment demanded extensive survey planning including traffic control, notifications to residents and a fluent coordination with municipal authorities in order to minimize disturbances and ensure data acquisition. The reflection data was processed under a conventional scheme and the refraction data was interpreted using a non-linear traveltime tomography algorithm. The reflection results indicate the presence of faults oriented NW-SE to NNW-SSE affecting the limestone sequences. The faults may be associated to the Sorgenfrei-Tornquist Zone at the transition between the Danish Basin and the Baltic

  12. Ozone and its potential control strategy for Chon Buri city, Thailand. (United States)

    Prabamroong, Thayukorn; Manomaiphiboon, Kasemsan; Limpaseni, Wongpun; Sukhapan, Jariya; Bonnet, Sebastien


    This work studies O3 pollution for Chon Buri city in the eastern region of Thailand, where O3 has become an increased and serious concern in the last decade. It includes emission estimation and photochemical box modeling in support of investigating the underlying nature of O3 formation over the city and the roles of precursors emitted from sources. The year 2006 was considered and two single-day episodes (January 29 and February 14) were chosen for simulations. It was found that, in the city, the industrial sector is the largest emissions contributor for every O3 precursor (i.e., NO(x), non-methane volatile organic compounds or NMVOC, and CO), followed by on-road mobile group. Fugitive NMVOC is relatively large, emitted mainly from oil refineries and tank farms. Simulated results acceptably agree with observations for daily maximum O3 level in both episodes and evidently indicate the VOC-sensitive regime for O3 formation. This regime is also substantiated by morning NMVOC/NO(x) ratios observed in the city. The corresponding O3 isopleth diagrams suggest NMVOC control alone to lower elevated O3. In seeking a potential O3 control strategy for the city, a combination of brute-force sensitivity tests, an experimental design, statistical modeling, and cost optimization was employed. A number of emission subgroups were found to significantly contribute to O3 formation, based on the February 14 episode, for example, oil refinery (fugitive), tank farm (fugitive), passenger car (gasoline), and motorcycle (gasoline). But the cost-effective strategy suggests control only on the first two subgroups to meet the standard. The cost of implementing the strategy was estimated and found to be small (only 0.2%) compared to the gross provincial product generated by the entire province where the city is located within. These findings could be useful as a needed guideline to support O3 management for the city. Elevated O3 in the urban and industrial city of Chon Buri needs better

  13. Characteristics of non-irradiated and irradiated double SOI integration type pixel sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asano, M.; Sekigawa, D. [Institute of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8751 (Japan); Hara, K., E-mail: [Institute of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8751 (Japan); Center for Integrated Research in Fundamental Science and Engineering, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Aoyagi, W.; Honda, S.; Tobita, N. [Institute of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8751 (Japan); Arai, Y.; Miyoshi, T.; Kurachi, I.; Tsuboyama, T.; Yamada, M. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Study, KEK, Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)


    We are developing monolithic pixel sensors based on a 0.2 μm fully depleted silicon-on-insulator (FD-SOI) technology for high-energy physics experiment applications. With this SOI technology, the wafer resistivities for the electronics and sensor parts can be chosen separately. Therefore, a device with full depletion and fast charge collection is realized. The total ionizing dose (TID) effect is the major challenge for application in hard radiation environments. To compensate for TID damage, we introduced a double SOI structure that implements an additional middle silicon layer (SOI2 layer). Applying a negative voltage to the SOI2 layer should compensate for the effects induced by holes trapped in the buried oxide layers. We studied the recovery from TID damage induced by {sup 60}Co γ and other characteristics of the integration-type double SOI sensor INTPIXh2. When the double SOI sensor was irradiated to 100 kGy, it showed a response to the infrared laser similar to that of a non-irradiated sensor when we applied a negative voltage to the SOI2 layer. Thus, we concluded that the double SOI sensor is very effective at sufficiently enhancing the radiation hardness for application in experiments with harsh radiation environments, such as at Belle II or ILC.

  14. Direct Wafer Bonding and Its Application to Waveguide Optical Isolators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryohei Takei


    Full Text Available This paper reviews the direct bonding technique focusing on the waveguide optical isolator application. A surface activated direct bonding technique is a powerful tool to realize a tight contact between dissimilar materials. This technique has the potential advantage that dissimilar materials are bonded at low temperature, which enables one to avoid the issue associated with the difference in thermal expansion. Using this technique, a magneto-optic garnet is successfully bonded on silicon, III-V compound semiconductors and LiNbO3. As an application of this technique, waveguide optical isolators are investigated including an interferometric waveguide optical isolator and a semileaky waveguide optical isolator. The interferometric waveguide optical isolator that uses nonreciprocal phase shift is applicable to a variety of waveguide platforms. The low refractive index of buried oxide layer in a silicon-on-insulator (SOI waveguide enhances the magneto-optic phase shift, which contributes to the size reduction of the isolator. A semileaky waveguide optical isolator has the advantage of large fabrication-tolerance as well as a wide operation wavelength range.

  15. Magneto-optical non-reciprocal devices in silicon photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuya Shoji


    Full Text Available Silicon waveguide optical non-reciprocal devices based on the magneto-optical effect are reviewed. The non-reciprocal phase shift caused by the first-order magneto-optical effect is effective in realizing optical non-reciprocal devices in silicon waveguide platforms. In a silicon-on-insulator waveguide, the low refractive index of the buried oxide layer enhances the magneto-optical phase shift, which reduces the device footprints. A surface activated direct bonding technique was developed to integrate a magneto-optical garnet crystal on the silicon waveguides. A silicon waveguide optical isolator based on the magneto-optical phase shift was demonstrated with an optical isolation of 30 dB and insertion loss of 13 dB at a wavelength of 1548 nm. Furthermore, a four port optical circulator was demonstrated with maximum isolations of 15.3 and 9.3 dB in cross and bar ports, respectively, at a wavelength of 1531 nm.

  16. Features of SOI substrates heating in MBE growth process obtained by low-coherence tandem interferometry (United States)

    Volkov, P. V.; Goryunov, A.. V.; Lobanov, D. N.; Luk'yanov, A. Yu.; Novikov, A. V.; Tertyshnik, A. D.; Shaleev, M. V.; Yurasov, D. V.


    Differences in heating of silicon and silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrates in molecular beam epitaxy were revealed by low-coherence tandem interferometry. Using this technique the interference effects which impede the correct evaluation of SOI substrate temperature by infrared pyrometers can be eliminated and so the reliable temperature readout can be achieved. It was shown that at the same thermocouple and heater power settings the real temperature of SOI substrates is higher than of silicon ones and the difference may be as high as 40-50 °C at temperatures close to 600 °C. It is supposed that such effect is caused by the additional absorption of heater radiation by the buried oxide layer in the mid-infrared range. Independent proof of this effect was obtained by growing on both types of substrates a series of structures with self-assembled Ge nanoislands whose parameters are known to be very temperature sensitive. The proposed low-coherence interferometry technique provides precise real-time control of the growth temperature and so allows formation of SiGe nanostructures with desired parameters.

  17. New MOEMS based systems appropriate for spectroscopic investigations on agricultural growth and perishable food conditions (United States)

    Grueger, Heinrich; Schenk, Harald; Heberer, Andreas; Zimmer, Fabian; Scherff, Werner; Kenda, Andreas; Frank, Albert


    Further optimization of the agricultural growth process and quality control of perishable food which can be fruits and vegetables as well as every kind of meat or milk product requires new approaches for the sensitive front end. One possibility is reflectance or fluorescence spectroscopy in a wide wavelength range. By now broad usage is hindered by costs, size and performance of existing systems. MOEMS scanning gratings for spectrometers and translational mirrors for Fourier Transform spectroscopy enable small robust systems working in a range from 200nm to 5μm. Both types use digital signal processors (DSPs) capable to compute the spectra and execute complex evaluation and decision algorithms. The MOEMS chips are realized by anisotropic etching of a silicon on insulator (SOI) substrate. First the backside silicon and buried oxide is removed by a wet process then the front side structure is realized by dry etching. Depending on the bearing springs a silicon plate up to 3 x 3 mm2 wide and typically 30μm thick can be driven resonantly to rotational or translational movement. Combined with additional optical components and appropriate detectors handheld Czerny-Turner or Fourier Transform spectrometers have been realized and tested. Results of first measurements of reflection spectroscopy on model substances have been performed with both system types in the NIR range. Measurements on real objects like tomatoes or apples are intended for a wider wavelength range. Future systems may contain displays and light sources as well as data storage cards or additional interfaces.

  18. Compact hybrid Si microring lasers (United States)

    Liang, Di; Bowers, John E.; Fiorentino, Marco; Beausoleil, Raymond G.


    In this paper we review the recent progress in developing compact microring lasers on the hybrid silicon platform. A simplified self-aligned process is used to fabricate devices as small as 15 μm in diameter. The optically-pumped, continuous wave (cw) devices show low threshold carrier density, comparable to the carrier density to reach material transparency. In the electrically-pumped lasers, the short cavity length leads to the minimum laser threshold less than 5 mA in cw operation. The maximum cw lasing temperature is up to 65 °C. Detailed studies in threshold as a function of coupling coefficient and bus waveguide width are presented. Surface recombination at the dry-etched exposed interface is investigated qualitatively by studying the current-voltage characteristics. Ring resonator-based figures of merits including good spectral purity and large side-mode suppression ratio are demonstrated. Thermal impedance data is extracted from temperature-dependent spectral measurement, and buried oxide layer in silicon-on-insulator wafer is identified as the major thermal barrier to cause high thermal impedance for small-size devices. The demonstrated compact hybrid ring lasers have low power consumption, small footprint and dynamic performance. They are promising for Si-based optical interconnects and flip-flop applications.

  19. Circular grating resonators as nano-photonic modulators (United States)

    Moll, Nikolaj; Schönenberger, Sophie; Stöferle, Thilo; Wahlbrink, Thorsten; Bolten, Jens; Mollenhauer, Thomas; Moormann, Christian; Mahrt, Rainer F.; Offrein, Bert J.


    Circular grating resonators could lead to the development of very advanced silicon-on-insulator (SOI) based nano-photonic devices clearly beyond state of the art in terms of functionality, size, speed, cost, and integration density. The photonic devices based on the circular grating resonators are computationally designed and studied in their functionality using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. A wide variety of critical quantities such as transmission and field patterns are calculated. Due to their computational size some of these calculations have to be performed on a supercomputer like a massive parallel Blue Gene machine. Using the computational design parameters the devices are fabricated on SOI substrates consisting of a buried oxide layer and a 340-nm-thick device layer. The devices are defined by electron-beam lithography and the pattern transfer is achieved in a inductively coupled reactive-ion etch process. Then the devices are characterized by coupling light in from a tunable laser with a lensed fiber. As predicted the measured transmission spectra exhibit a wide range of different type of resonances with Q-factors over 1000 which compares very well with the computations.

  20. FinFET and UTBB for RF SOI communication systems (United States)

    Raskin, Jean-Pierre


    Performance of RF integrated circuit (IC) is directly linked to the analog and high frequency characteristics of the transistors, the quality of the back-end of line process as well as the electromagnetic properties of the substrate. Thanks to the introduction of the trap-rich high-resistivity Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) substrate on the market, the ICs requirements in term of linearity are fulfilled. Today partially depleted SOI MOSFET is the mainstream technology for RF SOI systems. Future generations of mobile communication systems will require transistors with better high frequency performance at lower power consumption. The advanced MOS transistors in competition are FinFET and Ultra Thin Body and Buried oxide (UTBB) SOI MOSFETs. Both devices have been intensively studied these last years. Most of the reported data concern their digital performance. In this paper, their analog/RF behavior is described and compared. Both show similar characteristics in terms of transconductance, Early voltage, voltage gain, self-heating issue but UTBB outperforms FinFET in terms of cutoff frequencies thanks to their relatively lower fringing parasitic capacitances.

  1. MOVPE growth of GaN on 6-inch SOI-substrates: effect of substrate parameters on layer quality and strain (United States)

    Lemettinen, J.; Kauppinen, C.; Rudzinski, M.; Haapalinna, A.; Tuomi, T. O.; Suihkonen, S.


    We demonstrate that higher crystalline quality, lower strain and improved electrical characteristics can be achieved in gallium nitride (GaN) epitaxy by using a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate compared to a bulk silicon (Si) substrate. GaN layers were grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy on 6-inch bulk Si and SOI wafers using the standard step graded AlGaN and AlN approach. The GaN layers grown on SOI exhibited lower strain according to x-ray diffraction analysis. Defect selective etching measurements suggested that the use of SOI substrate for GaN epitaxy reduces the dislocation density approximately by a factor of two. Furthermore, growth on SOI substrate allows one to use a significantly thinner AlGaN buffer compared to bulk Si. Synchrotron radiation x-ray topography analysis confirmed that the stress relief mechanism in GaN on SOI epitaxy is the formation of a dislocation network to the SOI device Si layer. In addition, the buried oxide layer significantly improves the vertical leakage characteristics as the onset of the breakdown is delayed by approximately 400 V. These results show that the GaN on the SOI platform is promising for power electronics applications.

  2. Building America Case Study: Compact Buried Ducts in a Hot-Humid Climate House, Lady's Island, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    A system of compact, buried ducts provides a high-performance and cost-effective solution for delivering conditioned air throughout the building. This report outlines research activities that are expected to facilitate adoption of compact buried duct systems by builders. The results of this research would be scalable to many new house designs in most climates and markets, leading to wider industry acceptance and building code and energy program approval. The primary research question with buried ducts is potential condensation at the outer jacket of the duct insulation in humid climates during the cooling season. Current best practices for buried ducts rely on encapsulating the insulated ducts with closed-cell spray polyurethane foam insulation to control condensation and improve air sealing. The encapsulated buried duct concept has been analyzed and shown to be effective in hot-humid climates. The purpose of this project is to develop an alternative buried duct system that performs effectively as ducts in conditioned space - durable, energy efficient, and cost-effective - in a hot-humid climate (IECC warm-humid climate zone 3A) with three goals that distinguish this project: 1) Evaluation of design criteria for buried ducts that use common materials and do not rely on encapsulation using spray foam or disrupt traditional work sequences, 2) Establishing design criteria for compact ducts and incorporate those with the buried duct criteria to further reduce energy losses and control installed costs, and 3) Developing HVAC design guidance for performing accurate heating and cooling load calculations for compact buried ducts.

  3. Inverse problem for tripotential measures in the study of buried cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Luzio


    Full Text Available This paper presents a solution to the inverse electrical problem for the interpretation of apparent resistivity anomalies due to empty buried cavities of quasi-spherical shape when tripotential measures are carried out. The anomalies of the apparent resistivities ra,rb andrg,and the composed resistivitiesrmand rt were previously calculated for a sufficient class of spherical models of resistivity anomalies. Then, for the whole class of models, some functionals of spatial distribution of the apparent and composed resistivity were identified and analyzed. They represent the average characteristics of the anomalies and, depending in a simple way on the fundamental parameters of the sources of the anomalies (average diameter and depth, they allow reliable estimates to be determined. Among the studied functionals, those allowing the most stable and less biased estimates of the anomaly source parameters are identified by numerical simulations with random noise perturbed data. Finally the trend of standard deviation and bias of the estimates of the unknown parameters were analyzed by varying the source models and the set of functionals used for the inversion.

  4. A causal model of depression among older adults in Chon Buri Province, Thailand. (United States)

    Piboon, Kanchana; Subgranon, Rarcharneeporn; Hengudomsub, Pornpat; Wongnam, Pairatana; Louise Callen, Bonnie


    The purposes of this study are to develop and empirically test a theoretical model that examines the relationships between a set of predictors and depression among older adults. A biopsychosocial model was tested with 317 community dwelling older adults residing in Chon Buri Province, Thailand. A face-to-face interview was used in a cross-sectional community-based survey. A hypothesized model of depression was tested by using path analysis. It was found that the modified model fitted the data and the predictors accounted for 60% of the variance in depression. Female gender, activities of daily living, loneliness, stressful life events, and emotional-focused coping had a positive direct effect on depression. Social support and problem-focused coping had a negative direct effect on depression. Additionally, perceived stress, stressful life events, loneliness, and income had a negative indirect effect on depression through social support. Female gender, activities of daily living, and perceived stress also had a positive indirect effect on depression through emotional-focused coping. Stressful life events, perceived stress, and income had a negative indirect effect on depression through problem-focused coping. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the variables that predict depression in older adults. Thus, health care providers should consider the effects of these contributing factors on depression in the older adult person and can devise a program to prevent and promote health in older adults alleviating depression.

  5. Irresistible bouquet of death—how are burying beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae: Nicrophorus) attracted by carcasses (United States)

    Kalinová, B.; Podskalská, H.; Růžička, J.; Hoskovec, M.


    Chemical composition of volatiles emitted from fresh mouse carcasses (laboratory mice, Mus musculus) was studied using solid sample injection technique (solid-phase micro-extraction), two-dimensional gas chromatography with time of flight mass spectrometric detection and gas chromatography with electroantennographic detection. Electroantennography (EAG) and laboratory olfactometric behavioural observations were used to study the antennal sensitivity to identified infochemicals and their attractiveness for burying beetles Nicrophorus vespillo and Nicrophorus vespilloides (Silphidae: Nicrophorinae). Chemical analysis showed that immediately after death, emitted volatiles did not differ from those emitted by a living organism. However, in the course of time, sulphur-containing chemicals, specifically methanethiol, methyl thiolacetate, dimethyl sulphide, dimethyl disulphide and dimethyl trisulphide appear. EAG measurements revealed antennal sensitivity to these compounds. Behavioural tests in laboratory olfactometer showed that dimethyl sulphide, dimethyl disulphide and dimethyl trisulphide are highly attractive to both studied species. The data suggest that sulphur-containing chemicals are involved in mediating the fresh carcass attractiveness for N. vespillo and N. vespilloides.

  6. Electromagnetic scattering by two concentric spheres buried in a stratified material. (United States)

    Frezza, F; Mangini, F; Tedeschi, N


    In this paper, a rigorous method to analyze the electromagnetic scattering of an elliptically polarized plane wave by two concentric spheres buried in a dielectric stratified medium is presented. The interaction of the electromagnetic radiation with the stratified material is taken into account by means of the transfer matrix approach, in this way we can consider the stratified medium as an effective single interface. All the electromagnetic fields are expanded in series of spherical vector harmonics. The transmitted field through the stratified medium is obtained by means of the effective transmission coefficient. This field is scattered by the two concentric spheres, and the scattered field interacts again with the stratified material. The scattered-reflected and scattered-transmitted fields by the layered medium are computed by exploiting the plane-wave spectrum of the scattered field, considering the reflection and transmission of each elementary plane wave by the effective interface. The boundary conditions imposition on the spheres' surfaces leads to a linear system that returns the unknown coefficients of the problem. A numerical code has been implemented to compute the field over all the space. In order to compute the scattered fields, a truncation criterion has been proposed for the numerical evaluation of the series. Finally, to validate the presented method, comparisons between the results of the proposed code and the results of simulations with a software based on the finite element method have been implemented, showing very good agreement.

  7. PREFACE: Workshop on 'Buried' Interface Science with X-rays and Neutrons (United States)

    Sakurai, Kenji


    The 2007 workshop on `buried' interface science with X-rays and neutrons was held at the Institute of Materials Research, Tohoku University, in Sendai, Japan, on July 22-24, 2007. The workshop was the latest in a series held since 2001; Tsukuba (December 2001), Niigata (September 2002), Nagoya (July 2003), Tsukuba (July 2004), Saitama (March 2005), Yokohama (July 2006), Kusatsu (August 2006) and Tokyo (December 2006). The 2007 workshop had 64 participants and 34 presentations. There are increasing demands for sophisticated metrology in order to observe multilayered materials with nano-structures (dots, wires, etc), which are finding applications in electronic, magnetic, optical and other devices. Unlike many other surface-sensitive methods, X-ray and neutron analysis is known for its ability to see even `buried' function interfaces as well as the surface. It is highly reliable in practice, because the information, which ranges from the atomic to mesoscopic scale, is quantitative and reproducible. The non-destructive nature of this type of analytical method ensures that the same specimen can be measured by other techniques. However, we now realize that the method should be upgraded further to cope with more realistic problems in nano sciences and technologies. In the case of the reflectivity technique and other related methods, which have been the main topics in our workshops over the past 7 years, there are three important directions as illustrated in the Figure. Current X-ray methods can give atomic-scale information for quite a large area on a scale of mm2-cm2. These methods can deliver good statistics for an average, but sometimes we need to be able to see a specific part in nano-scale rather than an average structure. In addition, there is a need to see unstable changing structures and related phenomena in order to understand more about the mechanism of the functioning of nano materials. Quick measurements are therefore important. Furthermore, in order to apply

  8. Incipient mantle plume evolution: Constraints from ancient landscapes buried beneath the North Sea (United States)

    Stucky de Quay, G.; Roberts, G. G.; Watson, J. S.; Jackson, C. A.-L.


    Geological observations that constrain the history of mantle convection are sparse despite its importance in determining vertical and horizontal plate motions, plate rheology, and magmatism. We use a suite of geological and geophysical observations from the northern North Sea to constrain evolution of the incipient Paleocene-Eocene Icelandic plume. Well data and a three-dimensional seismic survey are used to reconstruct a 58-55 Ma landscape now buried ˜1.5 km beneath the seabed in the Bressay region. Geochemical analyses of cuttings from wells that intersect the landscape indicate the presence of angiosperm debris. These observations, combined with presence of coarse clastic material, interpreted beach ridges, and a large dendritic drainage network, indicate that this landscape formed subaerially. Longitudinal profiles of paleo-rivers were extracted and inverted for an uplift rate history, indicating three distinct phases of uplift and total cumulative uplift of ˜350 m. Dinoflagellate cysts in the surrounding marine stratigraphy indicate that this terrestrial landscape formed in ˜150 km/Ma.

  9. Laboratory Investigation of Buried Pipes Using Geogrid and EPS Geofoam Block (United States)

    Khalaj, O.; Azizian, M.; Moghaddas Tafreshi, S. N.; Mašek, B.


    This paper describes the results of laboratory tests conducted on flexible PVC pipes with diameter of 160 mm, buried in unreinforced and reinforced trench with geogrid layer and expanded polystyrene (EPS) geofoam block. The repeated load with amplitude of 450 kPa and frequency of 0.33 Hz was applied on the trench surface, using plate loading at a diameter of 150 mm to simulate the vehicle loads. Vertical diameter strain (VDS), strain at pipe’s crown and transferred pressure on the pipe’s crown were recorded throughout the test for up to 500 cycles of loading. The variables examined in the testing program include thickness of EPS block (30, 60 and 100 mm) and its density (10, 20 and 30 kg/cm3). The pipes were embedded at depths 1.5 times their diameter and the width of EPS block was kept constant at 2.0 times the pipe diameter in all tests. The results show that the values of VDS and pipe strain increased rapidly during the initial loading cycles, thereafter the rate of deformation and strain reduced significantly as the number of load cycles increased. According to the results, the minimum VDS and pipe’s crown strain were provided by 100 mm thickness and 30 kg/cm3 of EPS block placed over the pipe with a geogrid layer giving values of, respectively, 0.15 and 0.10 times those obtained in the reinforced trench with a geogrid layer.

  10. GPR Imaging for Deeply Buried Objects: A Comparative Study Based on FDTD Models and Field Experiments (United States)

    Tilley, roger; Dowla, Farid; Nekoogar, Faranak; Sadjadpour, Hamid


    Conventional use of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is hampered by variations in background environmental conditions, such as water content in soil, resulting in poor repeatability of results over long periods of time when the radar pulse characteristics are kept the same. Target objects types might include voids, tunnels, unexploded ordinance, etc. The long-term objective of this work is to develop methods that would extend the use of GPR under various environmental and soil conditions provided an optimal set of radar parameters (such as frequency, bandwidth, and sensor configuration) are adaptively employed based on the ground conditions. Towards that objective, developing Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) GPR models, verified by experimental results, would allow us to develop analytical and experimental techniques to control radar parameters to obtain consistent GPR images with changing ground conditions. Reported here is an attempt at developing 20 and 3D FDTD models of buried targets verified by two different radar systems capable of operating over different soil conditions. Experimental radar data employed were from a custom designed high-frequency (200 MHz) multi-static sensor platform capable of producing 3-D images, and longer wavelength (25 MHz) COTS radar (Pulse EKKO 100) capable of producing 2-D images. Our results indicate different types of radar can produce consistent images.

  11. [Management of the buried bumper syndrome: a new minimally invasive technique--the push method]. (United States)

    Müller-Gerbes, D; Aymaz, S; Dormann, A J


    The so-called buried bumper syndrome is characterised by a pathological alteration of the percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) in the form of a tissue overgrowth of the internal bumper of the tube. A lack of mobilisation of the tube and/or continuous traction on the PEG causes the bumper to be impacted by stomach mucosa. The consequence is a local chronic inflammatory process that may result in the occlusion of the feeding tube. As of now, different therapeutic methods exist: the surgical technique based on common laparotomy, the local invasive removal by cutting along the tube and inner flange from the outside and pulling it out (pull method) and the endoscopic recovery from inside the stomach. The authors have developed and evaluated a new endoscopic, minimally invasive technique (push method). In eight of nine patients the inner bumper could be freed by cutting with a papillotome which is brought into the stomach through the shortened PEG from the outside while maintaining endoscopic control. Afterwards the bumper is pushed to the inside with a dilatator and the patients are provided with a balloon system using the persisting stoma. The subsequent healing process proved to yield no further complications.

  12. Implantable Doppler monitoring of buried free flaps during vascularized lymph node transfer. (United States)

    Teven, Chad M; Ooi, Adrian S H; Inbal, Amir; Chang, David W


    Reliable flap monitoring is crucial to the success of free tissue transfer, including vascularized lymph node transfer (VLNT). However, no large-scale study has examined implantable Doppler monitoring in VLNT. We aimed to determine whether an implantable Doppler system can reliably monitor flap perfusion during VLNT and also to calculate the sensitivity and specificity of this system for detecting compromise in the monitored vessel. An analysis of prospectively collected data of patients who underwent buried VLNT with implantable Doppler monitoring between 2014 and 2015 was performed. A consecutive series of 100 patients underwent VLNT with implantable Doppler monitoring. Five cases required return to the operating room for flap exploration due to a change in Doppler signal quality. All compromised flaps were salvaged. The sensitivity of the implantable Doppler system for flap monitoring was 100%, the specificity was 97.9%, the positive predictive value was 60%, and the negative predictive value was 100%. The false-positive rate was 2%. This is the largest reported series of implantable Doppler monitoring of free flap perfusion during VLNT. Our experience suggests that this is a safe and effective technique for postoperative monitoring of VLNT. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Imaging of karsts on buried carbonate platform in Central Luconia Province, Malaysia (United States)

    Nur Fathiyah Jamaludin, Siti; Mubin, Mukhriz; Latiff, Abdul Halim Abdul


    Imaging of carbonate rocks in the subsurface through seismic method is always challenging due to its heterogeneity and fast velocity compared to the other rock types. Existence of karsts features on the carbonate rocks make it more complicated to interpret the reflectors. Utilization of modern interpretation software such as PETREL and GeoTeric® to image the karsts morphology make it possible to model the karst network within the buried carbonate platform used in this study. Using combination of different seismic attributes such as Variance, Conformance, Continuity, Amplitude, Frequency and Edge attributes, we are able to image the karsts features that are available in the proven gas-field in Central Luconia Province, Malaysia. The mentioned attributes are excellent in visualize and image the stratigraphic features based on the difference in their acoustic impedance as well as structural features, which include karst. 2D & 3D Karst Models were developed to give a better understanding on the characteristics of the identified karsts. From the models, it is found that the karsts are concentrated in the top part of the carbonate reservoir (epikarst) and the middle layer with some of them becomes extensive and create karst networks, either laterally or vertically. Most of the vertical network karst are related to the existence of faults that displaced all the horizons in the carbonate platform.

  14. Chemical reactivity at buried-interfaces. II. Iron on nonstoichiometric and/or defected molybdenite (United States)

    Zabinski, J. S.; George, T.; Tatarchuk, B. J.


    The role of defects and nonstoichioinetries in molybdenite substrates, and their influence on the chemical reactivity at buried MoS 2Fe interfaces, were investigated using conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Defects in the molybdenite crystal structure intentionally introduced by Ar + bombardment, or from the inherent structure of small MoS 2 crystallites, provide pathways for the diffusion and reaction of surface iron into the bulk of MoS 2 to form FeMo 2S 4. In comparison, iron overlayers do not react appreciably with undamaged molybdenite single crystals. Excess sulfur within molybdenite, when present, migrates towards deposited iron overlayers where it forms Fe 1- xs (pyrrhotite) and FeS (troilite). Annealing temperature determines the relative fraction of pyrrhotite to troilite and the orientational relationship between the ĉ-axis of the iron sulfide and the ĉ-axis of the molybdenite substrate. The stoichiometry of the molybdenite substrate, the presence of defects, and the annealing temperature provide a number of means to adjust the properties of the MoS 2Fe interface. Therefore, it may be possible to optimize/control processing conditions so as to impact either the tribochemical or catalytic properties of this important materials.

  15. Radiation Detection Measurements with a New 'Buried Junction' Silicon Avalanche Photodiode

    CERN Document Server

    Lecomte, R; Rouleau, D; Dautet, H; McIntyre, R J; McSween, D; Webb, P


    An improved version of a recently developed 'Buried Junction' avalanche photodiode (APD), designed for use with scintillators, is described and characterized. This device, also called the 'Reverse APD', is designed to have a wide depletion layer and thus low capacitance, but to have high gain only for e-h pairs generated within the first few microns of the depletion layer. Thus it has high gain for light from scintillators emitting in the 400-600 nm range, with relatively low dark current noise and it is relatively insensitive to minimum ionizing particles (MIPs). An additional feature is that the metallurgical junction is at the back of the wafer, leaving the front surface free to be coupled to a scintillator without fear of junction contamination. The modifications made in this device, as compared with the earlier diode, have resulted in a lower excess noise factor, lower dark current, and much-reduced trapping. The electrical and optical characteristics of this device are described and measurements of ener...

  16. Congenital megaprepuce: a 12-year experience (52 cases) of this specific form of buried penis. (United States)

    Rod, Julien; Desmonts, Alexis; Petit, Thierry; Ravasse, Philippe


    Congenital megaprepuce is a specific form of buried penis. Children affected by this malformation usually suffer from a subjective difficulty in voiding which is the main indication for early surgical correction. The aim of this study was to report a single center's 12-year experience in the treatment of megaprepuce in children, describing the surgical procedure we used to treat it and the results. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of all children who underwent congenital megaprepuce repair between January 1999 and August 2011 in our institution. Fifty-two children were operated during the study period. Our single surgical technique, not an original one, consists of fixing the penile shaft at the base of the penis, and widely reducing the inner prepuce. Four children (8%) underwent revision surgery but according to our criteria a very good result was observed in only 23 patients, and a less good but still acceptable result in 25 patients. Our 12-year experience in the surgical treatment of congenital megaprepuce demonstrated satisfying results from a safe and simple surgical technique, but to achieve the optimum result remains difficult. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Motivated by many design considerations, several conceptual designs for advanced reactors have proposed that the entire reactor building and a significant portion of the steam generator building will be either partially or completely embedded below grade. For the analysis of seismic events, the soil-structure interaction (SSI) effect and passive earth pressure for these types of deeply embedded structures will have a significant influence on the predicted seismic response. Sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is carrying out a research program to assess the significance of these proposed design features for advanced reactors, and to evaluate the existing analytical methods to determine their applicability and adequacy in capturing the seismic behavior of the proposed designs. This paper summarizes a literature review performed by BNL to determine the state of knowledge and practice for seismic analyses of deeply embedded and/or buried (DEB) nuclear containment type structures. Included in the paper is BNL's review of the open literature of existing standards, tests, and practices that have been used in the design and analysis of DEB structures. The paper also provides BNL's evaluation of available codes and guidelines with respect to seismic design practice of DEB structures. Based on BNL's review, a discussion is provided to highlight the applicability of the existing technologies for seismic analyses of DEB structures and to identify gaps that may exist in knowledge and potential issues that may require better understanding and further research.

  18. The Buried in Treasures Workshop: waitlist control trial of facilitated support groups for hoarding. (United States)

    Frost, Randy O; Ruby, Dylan; Shuer, Lee J


    Hoarding is a serious form of psychopathology that has been associated with significant health and safety concerns, as well as the source of social and economic burden (Tolin, Frost, Steketee, & Fitch, 2008; Tolin, Frost, Steketee, Gray, & Fitch, 2008). Recent developments in the treatment of hoarding have met with some success for both individual and group treatments. Nevertheless, the cost and limited accessibility of these treatments leave many hoarding sufferers without options for help. One alternative is support groups that require relatively few resources. Frost, Pekareva-Kochergina, and Maxner (2011) reported significant declines in hoarding symptoms following a non-professionally run 13-week support group (The Buried in Treasures [BIT] Workshop). The BIT Workshop is a highly structured and short term support group. The present study extended these findings by reporting on the results of a waitlist control trial of the BIT Workshop. Significant declines in all hoarding symptom measures were observed compared to a waitlist control. The treatment response rate for the BIT Workshop was similar to that obtained by previous individual and group treatment studies, despite its shorter length and lack of a trained therapist. The BIT Workshop may be an effective adjunct to cognitive behavior therapy for hoarding disorder, or an alternative when cognitive behavior therapy is inaccessible. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. In-situ containment and stabilization of buried waste. Annual report FY 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, M.L.; Kukacka, L.E.


    In FY 1993 research continued on development and testing of grout materials for in-situ containment and stabilization of buried waste. Specifically, the work was aimed at remediation of the Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, New Mexico as part of the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID). The work on grouting materials was initiated in FY 1992 and the accomplishments for that year are documented in the previous annual report (Allan, Kukacka and Heiser, 1992). The remediation plan involves stabilization of the chromium plume, placement of impermeable vertical and horizontal barriers to isolate the landfill and installation of a surface cap. The required depth of subsurface barriers is approximately 33 m (100 ft). The work concentrated on optimization of grout formulations for use as grout and soil cement barriers and caps. The durability of such materials was investigated, in addition to shrinkage cracking resistance, compressive and flexural strength and permeability. The potential for using fibers in grouts to control cracking was studied. Small scale field trials were conducted to test the practicality of using the identified formulations and to measure the long term performance. Large scale trials were conducted at Sandia as part of the Subsurface Barrier Emplacement Technology Program. Since it was already determined in FY 1992 that cementitious grouts could effectively stabilize the chromium plume at the CWL after pre-treatment is performed, the majority of the work was devoted to the containment aspect.

  20. Dormancy cycles in buried seeds of three perennial Xyris (Xyridaceae) species from the Brazilian campo rupestre. (United States)

    Oliveira, T G S; Diamantino, I P; Garcia, Q S


    Dormancy cycles are an important mechanism for avoiding seed germination under unfavourable periods for seedling establishment. This mechanism has been scarcely studied in tropical species. Here, we studied three tropical and perennial species of Xyris, X. asperula, X. subsetigera and X. trachyphylla, to investigate in situ longevity and the existence of seasonal seed dormancy cycles. Seeds of three species of Xyris were buried in their natural habitat, with samples exhumed bimonthly for 18 months. Germination of exhumed seeds was assessed under a 12-h photoperiod over a broad range of temperatures. Seeds of X. trachyphylla were also subjected to treatments to overcome secondary dormancy. Seeds of all species are able to form a persistent seed bank and exhibit seasonal changes in germinability. Secondary dormancy was acquired during the rainy summer and was overcome during the subsequent dry season (autumn/winter). Desiccation partially overcomes secondary dormancy in X. trachyphylla seeds. Soil seed bank persistence and synchronisation of seed germination under favourable conditions for seedling establishment contribute to the persistence and regeneration of X. asperula, X. subsetigera and X. trachyphylla in their natural environment. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  1. Long wavelength electrically pumped GaSb-based buried tunnel junction VCSELs (United States)

    Bachmann, Alexander; Arafin, Shamsul; Kashani-Shirazi, Kaveh; Amann, Markus-Christian


    Long wavelength lasers are attractive light sources for free-space communications, military countermeasures, medical applications and trace-gas sensing systems by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). As technically important gases, such as CO, CO2 or CH4, show strong absorption lines in a wavelength range from 2 to 3.5 μm, one is interested in the development of lasers emitting in that region. The (AlGaIn)(AsSb) material-system based on GaSb is the material of choice for devices in the near- to mid-infrared spectral region. In this paper, we present the device structure, design and results of an electrically-pumped GaSb-based VCSEL. The devices consist of an epitaxial GaSb/AlAsSb distributed Bragg reflector (DBR), a GaInAsSb quantum well gain section, a dielectric top DBR and a buried tunnel junction (BTJ) for electrical as well as optical confinement. Continuous-wave (cw) single-mode emission has been achieved up to a record high ambient temperature of 90 ∘C. The wavelength is (electro-) thermally tunable from 2345 nm to 2365 nm. A maximum output power of 800 μW has been measured at 0 ∘C.

  2. Using evolutionary computation to optimize an SVM used in detecting buried objects in FLIR imagery (United States)

    Paino, Alex; Popescu, Mihail; Keller, James M.; Stone, Kevin


    In this paper we describe an approach for optimizing the parameters of a Support Vector Machine (SVM) as part of an algorithm used to detect buried objects in forward looking infrared (FLIR) imagery captured by a camera installed on a moving vehicle. The overall algorithm consists of a spot-finding procedure (to look for potential targets) followed by the extraction of several features from the neighborhood of each spot. The features include local binary pattern (LBP) and histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) as these are good at detecting texture classes. Finally, we project and sum each hit into UTM space along with its confidence value (obtained from the SVM), producing a confidence map for ROC analysis. In this work, we use an Evolutionary Computation Algorithm (ECA) to optimize various parameters involved in the system, such as the combination of features used, parameters on the Canny edge detector, the SVM kernel, and various HOG and LBP parameters. To validate our approach, we compare results obtained from an SVM using parameters obtained through our ECA technique with those previously selected by hand through several iterations of "guess and check".

  3. Mapping buried parts of a megalithic tomb with multichannel analysis of Rayleigh-waves and GPR (United States)

    Wilken, D.; Erkul, E.; Glomb, V.; Rabbel, W.


    The objective of the presented study was to image buried parts of a megalithic tomb in northern Germany with GPR and multichannel analysis of surface-waves (MASW). The latter method was applied with the aim of testing its feasibility when used on intermediate scale archaeological targets. As we do not expect MASW of being able to resolve archaeological objects in terms of inverted velocity structure, we look for spectral effects due to subsurface heterogeneity. Identifying and mapping these effects would give a distribution of possibly archaeological objects. The presented seismic dataset shows an amplitude shift between normal and a guided Rayleigh-wave mode. When mapped along parallel profiles the spatial distribution of this effect matches the geometry of the grave. The observed anomalies show good correlation to GPR results that included strong reflectors inside the grave border. Elastic finite difference modelling of the surface-wave propagation showed that the spectral effect can be reproduced by a compacted or bulked column above the GPR anomaly depth indicating that the observed anomalies may be caused by construction activities or load effects during multiple construction phases of the tomb. Observed GPR reflectors thus indicate the bottom of the disturbed zones and MASW effects map the distribution of disturbed subsoil columns.

  4. Female burying beetles benefit from male desertion: sexual conflict and counter-adaptation over parental investment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Boncoraglio

    Full Text Available Sexual conflict drives the coevolution of sexually antagonistic traits, such that an adaptation in one sex selects an opposing coevolutionary response from the other. Although many adaptations and counteradaptations have been identified in sexual conflict over mating interactions, few are known for sexual conflict over parental investment. Here we investigate a possible coevolutionary sequence triggered by mate desertion in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides, where males commonly leave before their offspring reach independence. Rather than suffer fitness costs as a consequence, our data suggest that females rely on the male's absence to recoup some of the costs of larval care, presumably because they are then free to feed themselves on the carcass employed for breeding. Consequently, forcing males to stay until the larvae disperse reduces components of female fitness to a greater extent than caring for young singlehandedly. Therefore we suggest that females may have co-evolved to anticipate desertion by their partners so that they now benefit from the male's absence.

  5. Adherent diamond film deposited on Cu substrate by carbon transport from nanodiamond buried under Pt interlayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xuezhang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Wei Qiuping, E-mail: [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Yu Zhiming, E-mail: [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Yang Taiming; Zhai Hao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adherent polycrystalline diamond films were grown on copper substrate by carbon transport. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nucleation density was increased to 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diamond films were a composite structure of nano-crystalline diamond layer and micro-crystalline diamond layer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diamond nucleation was based by carbon dissolving from UDDs to Pt interlayer and formation of sp{sup 3}-bonded diamond clusters at the Pt surface. - Abstract: Diamond film deposited on Cu suffered from poor adhesion mainly due to the large mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients and the lack of affinity between carbon and Cu. Enhancing diamond nucleation by carbon transport from buried nanodiamond through a Pt ultrathin interlayer, adherent diamond film was then deposited on Cu substrate without distinctly metallic interlayer. This novel nucleation mechanism increased diamond nucleation density to 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}, and developed diamond film with a composite structure of nano-crystalline diamond (NCD) layer and micro-crystalline diamond layer. Diamond film was characterized by the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Raman spectroscope, respectively. The composition of diamond film/Cu substrate interface was examined by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The adhesion of diamond film was evaluated by indentation test. Those results show that a Pt ultrathin interlayer provides stronger chemically bonded interfaces and improve film adhesion.

  6. Finite element simulation of shallow-buried and mining tunnelling in adjacent frame structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-lai Chen


    Full Text Available By using three dimensional software MIDAS/GTS, the interactions among structures-soil-tunnel system is considered in this paper, and the working condition of shallow-buried underground excavation is simulated in the foundation of frame structures with the short-pile. The loadings and deformations of structures are studied before and after the tunnelling, and the influences of the following factors, including the horizontal position of tunnel and building, the height of building and the soil property, are analyzed. It is indicated that when the horizontal distance L equals zero (the distance between building axis to the tunnel axis, the building settlement increases gradually and shows a normal distribution during and after the tunnelling. Due to the small stiffness of frame structures with short-pile foundations, the building has large nonuniform settlement. When the distance of excavation is no less than 1.8 times of the thickness of overburden soil, the building settlement becomes stable, and the first principal stress P1 and maximum deformation rate E1 generally show a trend of decrease. With the increasing L, P1 and E1 will decrease accordingly, and the buildings tend to be inclined toward the tunnel. For a relatively larger distance, the building is nearly not affected.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C; Daniel Kaplan, D; Ned Bibler, N; David Peeler, D; John Plodinec, J


    A radioactive high level waste glass was made in 1980 with Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 15 waste. This glass was buried in the SRS burial ground for 24 years but lysimeter data was only available for the first 8 years. The glass was exhumed and analyzed in 2004. The glass was predicted to be very durable and laboratory tests confirmed the durability response. The laboratory results indicated that the glass was very durable as did analysis of the lysimeter data. Scanning electron microscopy of the glass burial surface showed no significant glass alteration consistent with the results of the laboratory and field tests. No detectable Pu, Am, Cm, Np, or Ru leached from the glass into the surrounding sediment. Leaching of {beta}/{delta} from {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs in the glass was diffusion controlled. Less than 0.5% of the Cs and Sr in the glass leached into the surrounding sediment, with >99% of the leached radionuclides remaining within 8 centimeters of the glass pellet.

  8. Trenchless rehabilitation of buried pipelines via cured-in-place pipe -- an environmentally friendly solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, R.L. [Insituform Technologies, Inc., Kingwood, TX (United States); Sorrell, P. [Insituform Technologies, Inc., Memphis, TN (United States)


    Refiners and petrochemical producers are faced with a number of issues related to aging infrastructure in their processing facilities. Many of these facilities were initially constructed in the 1960s or earlier and have a large number of plant-wide utilities, general facilities and underground piping systems that are at least 30 years old. Many underground piping systems are approaching the end of their useful life which can be extended only by substantial reconstruction or rehabilitation. This paper will focus on the rehabilitation of underground effluent piping systems such as process sewers, contaminated storm sewers, low-pressure effluent force mains and sanitary sewers. While the technology that will be discussed is also used to rehabilitate water lines in raw, treated and cooling water service, the environmental issues involved with these effluent piping systems justify this focus. A number of options for reconstruction or rehabilitation of process effluent piping will be reviewed briefly. The rehabilitation method that will be discussed in detail is the trenchless or so-called no dig technique using a Cured-In-Place Pipe (CIPP). This technology was originally developed in the early 1970s for rehabilitating municipal sewer lines and has been adapted or further developed for industrial use. Since then, the technology has been used to rehabilitate more than 22 million feet of buried pipelines, including more than 200,000 feet of industrial effluent lines in the past three years.

  9. Steady infiltration from buried point source into heterogeneous cross-anisotropic unsaturated soil (United States)

    Chen, G. J.; Gallipoli, D.


    The paper presents the analytical solution for the steady-state infiltration from a buried point source into two types of heterogeneous cross-anisotropic unsaturated half-spaces. In the first case, the heterogeneity of the soil is modelled by an exponential relationship between the hydraulic conductivity and the soil depth. In the second case, the heterogeneous soil is represented by a multilayered half-space where each layer is homogeneous. The hydraulic conductivity varies exponentially with moisture potential and this leads to the linearization of the Richards equation governing unsaturated flow. The analytical solution is obtained by using the Hankel integral transform. For the multilayered case, the combination of a special forward and backward transfer matrix techniques makes the numerical evaluation of the solution very accurate and efficient. The correctness of both formulations is validated by comparison with alternative solutions for two different cases. The results from typical cases are presented to illustrate the influence on the flow field of the cross-anisotropic hydraulic conductivity, the soil heterogeneity and the depth of the source. Copyright

  10. Male burying beetles extend, not reduce, parental care duration when reproductive competition is high. (United States)

    Hopwood, P E; Moore, A J; Tregenza, T; Royle, N J


    Male parents spend less time caring than females in many species with biparental care. The traditional explanation for this pattern is that males have lower confidence of parentage, so they desert earlier in favour of pursuing other mating opportunities. However, one recent alternative hypothesis is that prolonged male parental care might also evolve if staying to care actively improves paternity. If this is the case, an increase in reproductive competition should be associated with increased paternal care. To test this prediction, we manipulated the level of reproductive competition experienced by burying beetles, Nicrophorus vespilloides (Herbst, 1783). We found that caregiving males stayed for longer and mated more frequently with their partner when reproductive competition was greater. Reproductive productivity did not increase when males extended care. Our findings provide support for the increased paternity hypothesis. Extended duration of parental care may be a male tactic both protecting investment (in the current brood) and maximizing paternity (in subsequent brood(s) via female stored sperm) even if this fails to maximize current reproductive productivity and creates conflict of interest with their mate via costs associated with increased mating frequency. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Society for Evolutionary Biology.

  11. Regulatory issues and assumptions associated with barriers in the vadose zone surrounding buried waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siskind, B.; Heiser, J.


    One of the options for control of contaminant migration from buried waste sites is the construction of a subsurface barrier that consists of a wall of low permeability material. The barrier material should be compatible with soil and waste conditions specific to the site and have as low an effective diffusivity as is reasonably achievable to minimize or inhibit transport of moisture and contaminants. This report addresses the regulatory issues associated with the use of non-traditional organic polymer barriers as well as the use of soil-bentonite or cement-bentonite mixtures for such barriers, considering barriers constructed from these latter materials to be a regulatory baseline. The regulatory issues fall into two categories. The first category consists of issues associated with the acceptability of such barriers to the EPA as a method for achieving site or performanceimprovement. The second category encompasses those regulatory issues concerning health, safety and the environment which must be addressed regarding barrier installation and performance, especially if non-traditional materials are to be used.


    Molchanov, O I; Soroka, Y N; Podrezov, A A; Soroka, M N


    The article presents results of investigation on search and mapping of the old buried tailings with radioactive wastes on the territory of Kamianske City. For solving the problem used complex of methods. These methods are as follows: soil-gas 222Rn measurement and measurement of 222Rn flux density from the ground surface, gamma-radiation survey, prospecting drilling, gamma-ray logging and laboratory analysis of radionuclides. The leading method in this complex was the method of soil-gas 222Rn measurement. Using this method location of the tailings has been precisely defined. The tailings boundaries have been contoured in the plan. Other methods permitted to define such parameters as thickness of the wastes, their volume (~330 000 m3), radionuclide and chemical composition. It was found that radioactive residues occur at a depth from 2 to 11 m and contain in its composition 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po in the range from 8370 to 37 270 Bq kg-1. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  13. Soft-x-ray fluorescence study of buried silicides in antiferromagnetically coupled Fe/Si multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlisle, J.A.; Chaiken, A.; Michel, R.P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others


    Multilayer films made by alternate deposition of two materials play an important role in electronic and optical devices such as quantum-well lasers and x-ray mirrors. In addition, novel phenomena like giant magnetoresistance and dimensional crossover in superconductors have emerged from studies of multilayers. While sophisticated x-ray techniques are widely used to study the morphology of multilayer films, progress in studying the electronic structure has been slower. The short mean-free path of low-energy electrons severely limits the usefulness of photoemission and related electron free path of low-energy electrons severely limit spectroscopies for multilayer studies. Soft x-ray fluorescence (SXF) is a bulk-sensitive photon-in, photon-out method to study valence band electronic states. Near-edge x-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) measured with partial photon yield can give complementary bulk-sensitive information about unoccupied states. Both these methods are element-specific since the incident x-ray photons excite electrons from core levels. By combining NEXAFS and SXF measurements on buried layers in multilayers and comparing these spectra to data on appropriate reference compounds, it is possible to obtain a detailed picture of the electronic structure. Results are presented for a study of a Fe/Si multilayer system.

  14. Prion degradation in soil: possible role of microbial enzymes stimulated by the decomposition of buried carcasses. (United States)

    Rapp, Delphine; Potier, Patrick; Jocteur-Monrozier, Lucile; Richaume, Agnès


    This study is part of a European project focused on understanding the biotic and abiotic mechanisms involved in the retention and dissemination of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) infectivity in soil in order to propose practical recommendations to limit environmental contamination. A 1-year field experiment was conducted with lamb carcasses buried in a pasture soil at three depths (25, 45, and 105 cm). Microbial community response to carcasses was monitored through the potential proteolytic activity and substrate induced respiration (SIR). Soil above carcasses and control soil exhibited low proteolytic capacity, whatever the depth of burial. Contrastingly, in soil beneath the carcasses, proteolysis was stimulated. Decomposing carcasses also stimulated SIR, i.e., microbial biomass, suggesting that proteolytic populations specifically developed on lixiviates from animal tissues. Decomposition of soft tissues occurred within 2 months at subsurface while it lasted at least 1 year at deeper depth where proteolytic activities were season-dependent. The ability of soil proteases to degrade the beta form of prion protein was shown in vitro and conditions of burial relevant to minimize the risk of prion protein dissemination are discussed.

  15. Ion bombardment induced buried lateral growth: the key mechanism for the synthesis of single crystal diamond wafers (United States)

    Schreck, Matthias; Gsell, Stefan; Brescia, Rosaria; Fischer, Martin


    A detailed mechanism for heteroepitaxial diamond nucleation under ion bombardment in a microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition setup on the single crystal surface of iridium is presented. The novel mechanism of Ion Bombardment Induced Buried Lateral Growth (IBI-BLG) is based on the ion bombardment induced formation and lateral spread of epitaxial diamond within a ~1 nm thick carbon layer. Starting from one single primary nucleation event the buried epitaxial island can expand laterally over distances of several microns. During this epitaxial lateral growth typically thousands of isolated secondary nuclei are generated continuously. The unique process is so far only observed on iridium surfaces. It is shown that a diamond single crystal with a diameter of ~90 mm and a weight of 155 carat can be grown from such a carbon film which initially consisted of 2 · 1013 individual grains.

  16. Buried Volume Analysis for Propene Polymerization Catalysis Promoted by Group 4 Metals: a Tool for Molecular Mass Prediction

    KAUST Repository

    Falivene, Laura


    A comparison of the steric properties of homogeneous single site catalysts for propene polymerization using the percentage of buried volume (%VBur) as molecular descriptor is reported. The %VBur calculated on the neutral precursors of the active species seems to be a reliable tool to explain several experimental data related to the propene insertion and to the monomer chain transfer. Interestingly, a linear correlation between the buried volume calculated for a large set of neutral precursors and the energetic difference between propagation and termination steps calculated by DFT methods is found for Group 4 metal catalysts. The “master curves” derived for Ti, Zr and Hf confirm not only that the %VBur is an appropriate molecular descriptor for the systems considered but also that it could be used as tool for a large computational screening of new ligands.

  17. Characterization of iron doped indium phosphide as a current blocking layer in buried heterostructure quantum cascade lasers (United States)

    Nida, S.; Hinkov, B.; Gini, E.; Faist, J.


    This work analyzes transport through metal organic chemical vapour deposition grown Iron doped Indium Phosphide (InP:Fe) for use as a current blocking layer in buried heterostructure Quantum Cascade Lasers. The nature of Iron incorporation in InP and electrical transport properties of InP:Fe is investigated via simulation and compared with measurement. Through simulations, we are able to predict the threshold for the onset of current rise in test structures due to avalanche injection of carriers. In addition, the benefit of InAlAs barriers inserted in InP:Fe layers is investigated and found to reduce the leakage current at lower biases while delaying the onset of avalanche. In buried heterostructure configuration, we have determined that non ideal regrowth profiles make the structure more susceptible to high field effects such as avalanche injection and trap filling that induce leakage currents.

  18. 3D Buried Utility Location Using A Marching-Cross-Section Algorithm for Multi-Sensor Data Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingxu Dou


    Full Text Available We address the problem of accurately locating buried utility segments by fusing data from multiple sensors using a novel Marching-Cross-Section (MCS algorithm. Five types of sensors are used in this work: Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR, Passive Magnetic Fields (PMF, Magnetic Gradiometer (MG, Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields (LFEM and Vibro-Acoustics (VA. As part of the MCS algorithm, a novel formulation of the extended Kalman Filter (EKF is proposed for marching existing utility tracks from a scan cross-section (scs to the next one; novel rules for initializing utilities based on hypothesized detections on the first scs and for associating predicted utility tracks with hypothesized detections in the following scss are introduced. Algorithms are proposed for generating virtual scan lines based on given hypothesized detections when different sensors do not share common scan lines, or when only the coordinates of the hypothesized detections are provided without any information of the actual survey scan lines. The performance of the proposed system is evaluated with both synthetic data and real data. The experimental results in this work demonstrate that the proposed MCS algorithm can locate multiple buried utility segments simultaneously, including both straight and curved utilities, and can separate intersecting segments. By using the probabilities of a hypothesized detection being a pipe or a cable together with its 3D coordinates, the MCS algorithm is able to discriminate a pipe and a cable close to each other. The MCS algorithm can be used for both post- and on-site processing. When it is used on site, the detected tracks on the current scs can help to determine the location and direction of the next scan line. The proposed “multi-utility multi-sensor” system has no limit to the number of buried utilities or the number of sensors, and the more sensor data used, the more buried utility segments can be detected with more accurate location

  19. GEOMORPHOLOGY. Comment on "Tectonic control of Yarlung Tsangpo Gorge revealed by a buried canyon in Southern Tibet". (United States)

    Zeitler, Peter K; Koons, Peter O; Hallet, Bernard; Meltzer, Anne S


    Wang et al. (Reports, 21 November, 2014, p. 978) describe a buried canyon upstream of the Yarlung Tsangpo Gorge and argue that rapid erosion of the gorge was merely a passive response to rapid uplift at ~2.5 million years ago (Ma). We view these data as an expected consequence emerging from feedbacks between erosion and crustal rheology active well before 2.5 Ma. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. Mesostigmatic Mites (Acari) Associated with Ground, Burying, Roving Carrion and Dung Beetles (Coleoptera) in Sapporo and Tomakomai, Hokkaido, Northern Japan


    Gen, Takaku; Haruo, Katakura; Nobuyo, Yoshida; Division of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University; Tohoku Agricultural Experiment Station


    A total of 19 species belonging to 5 families of mesostigmatic mites were collected in Sapporo and Tomakomai, northern Japan, on four groups of beetles, i. e. , ground beetles (Carabinae, Carabidae), burying beetles (Nicrophorini, Silphinae, Silphidae), roving carrion beetles (Silphini, Silphinae, Silphidae) and dung beetles (Scarabaeidae and Geotrupidae), all of which mainly forage on the ground surface. No mite species was found on more than one group of beetles except for Poecilochirus car...

  1. Mesostigmatic Mites (Acari) Associated with Ground, Burying, Roving Carrion and Dung Beetles (Coleoptera) in Sapporo and Tomakomai, Hokkaido, Northern Japan


    Takaku, Gen; Katakura, Haruo; Yoshida, Nobuyo


    A total of 19 species belonging to 5 families of mesostigmatic mites were collected in Sapporo and Tomakomai, northern Japan, on four groups of beetles, i.e., ground beetles (Carabinae, Carabidae), burying beetles (Nicrophorini, Silphinae, Silphidae), roving carrion beetles (Silphini, Silphinae, Silphidae) and dung beetles (Scarabaeidae and Geotrupidae), all of which mainly forage on the ground surface. No mite species was found on more than one group of beetles except for Poecilochirus carab...

  2. Modeling Magnetic Fields from a DC Power Cable Buried Beneath San Francisco Bay Based on Empirical Measurements


    Kavet, Robert; Wyman, Megan T.; Klimley, A. Peter


    The Trans Bay Cable (TBC) is a ±200-kilovolt (kV), 400 MW 85-km long High Voltage Direct Current (DC) buried transmission line linking Pittsburg, CA with San Francisco, CA (SF) beneath the San Francisco Estuary. The TBC runs parallel to the migratory route of various marine species, including green sturgeon, Chinook salmon, and steelhead trout. In July and August 2014, an extensive series of magnetic field measurements were taken using a pair of submerged Geometrics magnetometers towed behind...

  3. A forward model for ground penetrating radar imaging of buried perfect electric conductors within the physical optics approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polat, Burak; Meincke, Peter


    A forward model for ground penetrating radar imaging of buried 3-D perfect electric conductors is addressed within the framework of diffraction tomography. The similarity of the present forward model derived within the physical optics approximation with that derived within the first Born...... approximation in an earlier investigation highlights analytically the reasons lying under the success of the Born models in identifying perfect electric conductors....

  4. Unified planar process for fabricating heterojunction bipolar transistors and buried-heterostructure lasers utilizing impurity-induced disordering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, R.L.; Mosby, W.J.; Chung, H.F.


    We describe results on a novel geometry of heterojunction bipolar transistor that has been realized by impurity-induced disordering. This structure is fabricated by a method that is compatible with techniques for the fabrication of low threshold current buried-heterostructure lasers. We have demonstrated this compatibility by fabricating a hybrid laser/transistor structure that operates as a laser with a threshold current of 6 mA at room temperature, and as a transistor with a current gain of 5.

  5. Anxiolytic effect of BPC-157, a gastric pentadecapeptide: shock probe/burying test and light/dark test. (United States)

    Sikiric, P; Jelovac, N; Jelovac-Gjeldum, A; Dodig, G; Staresinic, M; Anic, T; Zoricic, I; Ferovic, D; Aralica, G; Buljat, G; Prkacin, I; Lovric-Bencic, M; Separovic, J; Seiwerth, S; Rucman, R; Petek, M; Turkovic, B; Ziger, T


    To study anxiolytic effect of a gastric pentadecapeptide, BPC-157. In shock probe/burying test, pentadecapeptide BPC-157 (10 microg/kg, 10 ng/kg, ip), diazepam (0.075, 0.0375 mg/kg, ip), and an equivolume of saline (5 mL/kg, ip) were given at 30 min prior test. In light/dark test, the same dosage of diazepam, BPC-157, and saline were given at 45 min prior procedure. Shock probe/burying test: rats treated with either diazepam or pentadecapeptide BPC-157 were much less afraid after the shock: almost not burying and the total time spent in burying was clearly less than in controls. However, while in the diazepam treated rats the number of shocks received increased over control values, in pentadecapeptide BPC-157 treated groups the number of shocks remained not modified compared with the control values. Light/dark test: after exposure to the intense light, diazepam treated mice had longer latencies of crossing to the dark compartment, a greater number of crossing and a greater number of exploratory rearing, and spent longer time in the light compartment, as compared to the control mice, while BPC-157 mice had a similar behavior to that of the control mice. In contrast with the effect in light area, in dark zone diazepam produced no change with respect to controls, while BPC-157 (10 microg/kg) mice had a greater number of crossing and a greater number of exploratory rearing. Both diazepam and BPC-157 displayed a bidirectional effect, but the activity of pentadecapeptide BPC-157 was particular, and different from diazepam.

  6. Surface and buried interfacial structures of epoxy resins used as underfills studied by sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy. (United States)

    Vázquez, Anne V; Holden, Brad; Kristalyn, Cornelius; Fuller, Mike; Wilkerson, Brett; Chen, Zhan


    Flip chip technology has greatly improved the performance of semiconductor devices, but relies heavily on the performance of epoxy underfill adhesives. Because epoxy underfills are cured in situ in flip chip semiconductor devices, understanding their surface and interfacial structures is critical for understanding their adhesion to various substrates. Here, sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy was used to study surface and buried interfacial structures of two model epoxy resins used as underfills in flip chip devices, bisphenol A digylcidyl ether (BADGE) and 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDGE). The surface structures of these epoxies were compared before and after cure, and the orientations of their surface functional groups were deduced to understand how surface structural changes during cure may affect adhesion properties. Further, the effect of moisture exposure, a known cause of adhesion failure, on surface structures was studied. It was found that the BADGE surface significantly restructured upon moisture exposure while the BDDGE surface did not, showing that BADGE adhesives may be more prone to moisture-induced delamination. Lastly, although surface structure can give some insight into adhesion, buried interfacial structures more directly correspond to adhesion properties of polymers. SFG was used to study buried interfaces between deuterated polystyrene (d-PS) and the epoxies before and after moisture exposure. It was shown that moisture exposure acted to disorder the buried interfaces, most likely due to swelling. These results correlated with lap shear adhesion testing showing a decrease in adhesion strength after moisture exposure. The presented work showed that surface and interfacial structures can be correlated to adhesive strength and may be helpful in understanding and designing optimized epoxy underfill adhesives.

  7. The applicability of the Lamendin method to skeletal remains buried for a 16-year period: a cautionary note. (United States)

    De Angelis, Danilo; Mele, Elia; Gibelli, Daniele; Merelli, Vera; Spagnoli, Laura; Cattaneo, Cristina


    The Lamendin method is widely reported as one of the most reliable means of age estimation of skeletal remains, but very little is known concerning the influence of burial in soil. This study aimed at verifying the reliability of the Lamendin method on corpses buried for 16 years in a cemetery. The Lamendin and the Prince and Ubelaker methods were applied. In all age groups except the 40- to 49-year-olds, the error was higher in the buried sample. The age-at-death error ranged between 10.7 and 36.8 years for the Lamendin method (vs. the reported 7.3-18.9 years) and 9.5 and 35.7 for the Prince and Ubelaker one (vs. the original 5.2-32.6 years); in all age groups, the error is closer to that found on archeological populations. These results suggest caution in applying the Lamendin method to forensic cases of human remains buried even for a brief period under soil. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  8. Dynamics of nival and glacial slope processes in the Baksan and Teberda river basins from radiocarbon dating of buried soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Solomina


    Full Text Available Radiocarbon and tree-ring dating of the soil horizons, buried in the slope and fluvioglacial deposits in Baksan and Teberda valleys, bring evidence of the reduction of the avalanche activity, stabilization of the slopes and soil formation on their surfaces. In the Baksan section three such horizons are identified, while in the Teberda section only one. The radiocarbon dates of the two thickest soil horizons in the Baksan section are 170±50 BP (1650–1890 CE and 380±60 BP (1430–1650 CE. The dendrochronological date of the wood (after 1677 in the upper layer of the buried soil horizon in the in the Dombai section probably indicate the increase of the river runoff and debris flow activity in relation with the glacier advance in the upperstream of Ammanauz river. However it is also close to the Terskoye earth quake occurred in 1688. The radiocarbon dates of the buried soils cluster in three groups (270–290, 340–440, 1280–1440 yrs BP. It is possible that their burial is connected to the climatic (increase in precipitation, especially extreme ones or seismic causes.

  9. On the Analysis Methods for the Time Domain and Frequency Domain Response of a Buried Objects* (United States)

    Poljak, Dragan; Šesnić, Silvestar; Cvetković, Mario


    There has been a continuous interest in the analysis of ground-penetrating radar systems and related applications in civil engineering [1]. Consequently, a deeper insight of scattering phenomena occurring in a lossy half-space, as well as the development of sophisticated numerical methods based on Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method, Finite Element Method (FEM), Boundary Element Method (BEM), Method of Moments (MoM) and various hybrid methods, is required, e.g. [2], [3]. The present paper deals with certain techniques for time and frequency domain analysis, respectively, of buried conducting and dielectric objects. Time domain analysis is related to the assessment of a transient response of a horizontal straight thin wire buried in a lossy half-space using a rigorous antenna theory (AT) approach. The AT approach is based on the space-time integral equation of the Pocklington type (time domain electric field integral equation for thin wires). The influence of the earth-air interface is taken into account via the simplified reflection coefficient arising from the Modified Image Theory (MIT). The obtained results for the transient current induced along the electrode due to the transmitted plane wave excitation are compared to the numerical results calculated via an approximate transmission line (TL) approach and the AT approach based on the space-frequency variant of the Pocklington integro-differential approach, respectively. It is worth noting that the space-frequency Pocklington equation is numerically solved via the Galerkin-Bubnov variant of the Indirect Boundary Element Method (GB-IBEM) and the corresponding transient response is obtained by the aid of inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT). The results calculated by means of different approaches agree satisfactorily. Frequency domain analysis is related to the assessment of frequency domain response of dielectric sphere using the full wave model based on the set of coupled electric field integral

  10. Microbial Transport, Survival, and Succession in a Sequence of Buried Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kieft, T.L.; Murphy, E.M.; Haldeman, D.L.; Amy, P.S.; Bjornstad, B.N.; McDonald, E.V.; Ringelberg, D.B.; White, D.C.; Stair, J.; Griffiths, R.P.; Gsell, T.C.; Holben, W.E.; Boone, D.R.


    Two chronosequence of unsaturated buried loess sediments ranging in age from <10,000 years to >1 million years were investigated to reconstruct patterns of microbial ecological succession that have occurred since sediment burial. The relative importance of microbial transport and survival to succession were inferred from sediment ages, porewater ages, patterns of abundance (measured by direct counts, counts of culturable cells, and total phospholipid fatty acids), activities (measured by radiotracer and enzyme assays), and community composition (measured by phospholipid fatty acid patterns and Biolog substrate usage). Samples were collected by coring at two sites 40 km apart in the Palouse region of eastern Washington State near the towns of Washtucna and Winona. The Washtucna site was flooded multiple times during the Pleistocene by glacial outburst floods; the elevation of the Winona site is above flood stage. Sediments at the Washtucna site were collected from near surface to 14.9 m depth, where the sediment age was {approx}250 ka and the porewater age was 3700 years; sample intervals at the Winona site ranged from near surface to 38 m (sediment age: {approx}1 Ma; porewater age: 1200 years). Microbial abundance and activities declined with depth at both sites; however, even the deepest, oldest sediments showed evidence of viable microorganisms. Sediments of equivalent age had equal quantities of microorganisms, but differing community types. Differences in community make-up between the two sites can be attributed to differences in groundwater recharge and paleoflooding. Estimates of the ages of the microbial communities can be constrained by porewater and sediment ages. In the shallower sediments (<9 m at Washtucna, <12 m at Winona), the microbial communities are likely similar in age to the groundwater; thus, microbial succession has been influenced by recent transport of microorganisms from the surface. In the deeper sediments, the populations may be

  11. Monte Carlo Simulations for the Detection of Buried Objects Using Single Sided Backscattered Radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Yip

    Full Text Available Detection of buried improvised explosive devices (IEDs is a delicate task, leading to a need to develop sensitive stand-off detection technology. The shape, composition and size of the IEDs can be expected to be revised over time in an effort to overcome increasingly sophisticated detection methods. As an example, for the most part, landmines are found through metal detection which has led to increasing use of non-ferrous materials such as wood or plastic containers for chemical based explosives being developed.Monte Carlo simulations have been undertaken considering three different commercially available detector materials (hyperpure-Ge (HPGe, lanthanum(III bromide (LaBr and thallium activated sodium iodide (NaI(Tl, applied at a stand-off distance of 50 cm from the surface and burial depths of 0, 5 and 10 cm, with sand as the obfuscating medium. Target materials representing medium density wood and mild steel have been considered. Each detector has been modelled as a 10 cm thick cylinder with a 20 cm diameter.It appears that HPGe represents the most promising detector for this application. Although it was not the highest density material studied, its excellent energy resolving capability leads to the highest quality spectra from which detection decisions can be inferred.The simulation work undertaken here suggests that a vehicle-born threat detection system could be envisaged using a single betatron and a series of detectors operating in parallel observing the space directly in front of the vehicle path. Furthermore, results show that non-ferrous materials such as wood can be effectively discerned in such remote-operated detection system, with the potential to apply a signature analysis template matching technique for real-time analysis of such data.

  12. Giant buried sediment mounds on the Western Saharan margin (NW Africa): Origin, evolution and paleoceanographic implications (United States)

    Li, Wei; Krastel, Sebastian; Alves, Tiago M.; Rebesco, Michele; Georgiopoulou, Aggeliki; Gross, Felix


    Newly acquired 2D multi-channel seismic profiles along the Western Sahara margin, offshore NW Africa, reveal three giant, buried sediment mounds separated by broad troughs. These sediment mounds are at least 24 to 37 km-long, 12 to 17 km-wide and up to 1 km in height, showing an elongated geometry with a SE-NW orientation perpendicular to the continental margin. The evolution of the sediment mounds can be divided into three different stages: a) initial growth stage during Middle Eocene, b) main growth stage during Early Miocene and, c) maintenance stage during Middle Miocene. The sediment mounds were initiated on a Middle Eocene regional unconformity documenting a widespread canyon incision. After the Oligocene erosional events, the formation of the sediment mounds was intensified in the Early Miocene under the interaction of turbidity and contour currents. They halted at the Middle/Late Miocene boundary, at a widespread erosional event. Slope failures occurred frequently on the flanks of the sediments mounds and the upper slope, and resulting mass-transport deposits (MTDs) filled the troughs and deposited further downslope. Our analysis is important because the termination of the sediment mounds at the Middle-Late Miocene boundary marked a time interval when major palaeoceanographic changes occurred, and new depositional patterns were established along NW Africa. The identification of the sediment mounds are also ideal recorders for the initiation, intensification and evolution of bottom currents along the Western Saharan margin and further suggest that bottom currents have been capable of affecting slope deposition since the Middle Eocene.

  13. Buried shallow fault slip from the South Napa earthquake revealed by near-field geodesy. (United States)

    Brooks, Benjamin A; Minson, Sarah E; Glennie, Craig L; Nevitt, Johanna M; Dawson, Tim; Rubin, Ron; Ericksen, Todd L; Lockner, David; Hudnut, Kenneth; Langenheim, Victoria; Lutz, Andrew; Mareschal, Maxime; Murray, Jessica; Schwartz, David; Zaccone, Dana


    Earthquake-related fault slip in the upper hundreds of meters of Earth's surface has remained largely unstudied because of challenges measuring deformation in the near field of a fault rupture. We analyze centimeter-scale accuracy mobile laser scanning (MLS) data of deformed vine rows within ±300 m of the principal surface expression of the M (magnitude) 6.0 2014 South Napa earthquake. Rather than assuming surface displacement equivalence to fault slip, we invert the near-field data with a model that allows for, but does not require, the fault to be buried below the surface. The inversion maps the position on a preexisting fault plane of a slip front that terminates ~3 to 25 m below the surface coseismically and within a few hours postseismically. The lack of surface-breaching fault slip is verified by two trenches. We estimate near-surface slip ranging from ~0.5 to 1.25 m. Surface displacement can underestimate fault slip by as much as 30%. This implies that similar biases could be present in short-term geologic slip rates used in seismic hazard analyses. Along strike and downdip, we find deficits in slip: The along-strike deficit is erased after ~1 month by afterslip. We find no evidence of off-fault deformation and conclude that the downdip shallow slip deficit for this event is likely an artifact. As near-field geodetic data rapidly proliferate and will become commonplace, we suggest that analyses of near-surface fault rupture should also use more sophisticated mechanical models and subsurface geomechanical tests.

  14. MCCE analysis of the pKas of introduced buried acids and bases in staphylococcal nuclease. (United States)

    Gunner, M R; Zhu, Xuyu; Klein, Max C


    The pK(a)s of 96 acids and bases introduced into buried sites in the staphylococcal nuclease protein (SNase) were calculated using the multiconformation continuum electrostatics (MCCE) program and the results compared with experimental values. The pK(a)s are obtained by Monte Carlo sampling of coupled side chain protonation and position as a function of pH. The dependence of the results on the protein dielectric constant (ε(prot)) in the continuum electrostatics analysis and on the Lennard-Jones non-electrostatics parameters was evaluated. The pK(a)s of the introduced residues have a clear dependence on ε(prot,) whereas native ionizable residues do not. The native residues have electrostatic interactions with other residues in the protein favoring ionization, which are larger than the desolvation penalty favoring the neutral state. Increasing ε(prot) scales both terms, which for these residues leads to small changes in pK(a). The introduced residues have a larger desolvation penalty and negligible interactions with residues in the protein. For these residues, changing ε(prot) has a large influence on the calculated pK(a). An ε(prot) of 8-10 and a Lennard-Jones scaling of 0.25 is best here. The X-ray crystal structures of the mutated proteins are found to provide somewhat better results than calculations carried out on mutations made in silico. Initial relaxation of the in silico mutations by Gromacs and extensive side chain rotamer sampling within MCCE can significantly improve the match with experiment. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Mapping Sargassum beds off, ChonBuri Province, Thailand, using ALOS AVNI2 image (United States)

    Noiraksar, Thidarat; Komatsu, Teruhisa; Sawayama, Shuhei; Phauk, Sophany; Hayashizaki, Ken-ichi


    Sargassum species grow on rocks and dead corals and form dense seaweed beds. Sargassum beds play ecological roles such as CO2 uptake and O2 production through photosynthesis, spawning and nursery grounds of fish, feeding ground for sea urchins and abalones, and substrates for attached animals and plants on leaves and holdfasts. However, increasing human impacts and climate change decrease or degrade Sargassum beds in ASEAN countries. It is necessary to grasp present spatial distributions of this habitat. Thailand, especially its coastal zone along the Gulf of Thailand, is facing degradation of Sargassum beds due to increase in industries and population. JAXA launched non-commercial satellite, ALOS, providing multiband images with ultra-high spatial resolution optical sensors (10 m), AVNIR2. Unfortunately, ALOS has terminated its mission in April 2011. However, JAXA has archived ALOS AVNIR2 images over the world. They are still useful for mapping coastal ecosystems. We examined capability of remote sensing with ALOS AVNIR2 to map Sargassum beds in waters off Sattahip protected area as a natural park in Chon Buri Province, Thailand, threatened by degradation of water quality due to above-mentioned impacts. Ground truth data were obtained in February 2012 by using continual pictures taken by manta tow. Supervised classification could detect Sargassum beds off Sattahip at about 70% user accuracy. It is estimated that error is caused by mixel effect of bottom substrates in a pixel with 10 x 10 m. Our results indicate that ALOS AVNIR2 images are useful for mapping Sargassum beds in Southeast Asia.

  16. A feature learning approach for classifying buried threats in forward looking ground penetrating radar data (United States)

    Camilo, Joseph A.; Malof, Jordan M.; Collins, Leslie M.


    The forward-looking ground penetrating radar (FLGPR) is a remote sensing modality that has recently been investigated for buried threat detection. The FLGPR considered in this work uses stepped frequency sensing followed by filtered backprojection to create images of the ground, where each image pixel corresponds to the radar energy reflected from the subsurface at that location. Typical target detection processing begins with a prescreening operation where a small subset of spatial locations are chosen to consider for further processing. Image statistics, or features, are then extracted around each selected location and used for training a machine learning classification algorithm. A variety of features have been proposed in the literature for use in classification. Thus far, however, predominantly hand-crafted or manually designed features from the computer vision literature have been employed (e.g., HOG, Gabor filtering, etc.). Recently, it has been shown that image features learned directly from data can obtain state-of-the-art performance on a variety of problems. In this work we employ a feature learning scheme using k-means and a bag-of-visual-words model to learn effective features for target and non-target discrimination in FLGPR data. Experiments are conducted using several lanes of FLGPR data and learned features are compared with several previously proposed static features. The results suggest that learned features perform comparably, or better, than existing static features. Similar to other feature learning results, the features consist of edges or texture primitives, revealing which structures in the data are most useful for discrimination.

  17. Surgical Management of Adult Acquired Buried Penis: Escutcheonectomy, Scrotectomy, and Penile Split-thickness Skin Graft. (United States)

    Fuller, Thomas W; Theisen, Katherine; Rusilko, Paul


    To demonstrate the surgical management of adult acquired buried penis (AABP). Affected patients have poor sexual function, urinary dribbling with subsequent skin breakdown, mood disturbance, lichen sclerosus with subsequent urethral stricture, and poor quality of life. Previous efforts have described limited repairs including an isolated resection of the escutcheon, which unfortunately often leads to reburying. We present a more extensive surgical repair including escutcheonectomy, scrotoplasty, and penile split-thickness skin graft (STSG) to provide a durable definitive repair. A retrospective review was conducted of patients managed in 2015-2016. Twelve patients who underwent escutcheonectomy, scrotoplasty, and penile STSG were identified. All patients had morbid obesity as a sole etiology or a significant contributing factor. Outcomes evaluated were surgical complications, reburying of the penis, and graft take rates. Twelve patients underwent repair of AABP. All patients had durable unburying at the intermediate-term follow-up (mean of 8 months). The mean patient body mass index was 45.4 ± 13.8. The operative times, the length of stay, and the estimated blood loss were 312 ± 59 minutes, 5.3 ± 1.1 days, and 304 ± 133 cc, respectively. The STSG take rate was 80%-100% (mean of 91.7%). AABP is a challenging condition to treat. Limited surgical repairs can lead to a reburying of the penis and a progression of urethral disease. Escutcheonectomy, scrotoplasty, and STSG have encouraging intermediate-term outcomes with durable unburying of the penis and good STSG take rates. Further follow-up in larger series is needed, but results are thus far encouraging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Buried AGNs in Advanced Mergers: Mid-infrared Color Selection as a Dual AGN Candidate Finder (United States)

    Satyapal, Shobita; Secrest, Nathan J.; Ricci, Claudio; Ellison, Sara L.; Rothberg, Barry; Blecha, Laura; Constantin, Anca; Gliozzi, Mario; McNulty, Paul; Ferguson, Jason


    A direct consequence of hierarchical galaxy formation is the existence of dual supermassive black holes, which may be preferentially triggered as active galactic nuclei (AGNs) during galaxy mergers. Despite decades of searching, however, dual AGNs are extremely rare, and most have been discovered serendipitously. Using the all-sky WISE survey, we identified a population of over 100 morphologically identified interacting galaxies or mergers that display red mid-infrared colors often associated in extragalactic sources with powerful AGNs. The vast majority of these advanced mergers are optically classified as star-forming galaxies, which suggests that they may represent an obscured population of AGNs that cannot be found through optical studies. In this work, we present Chandra/ACIS observations and near-infrared spectra with the Large Binocular Telescope of six advanced mergers with projected pair separations less than ˜10 kpc. The combined X-ray, near-infrared, and mid-infrared properties of these mergers provide confirmation that four out of the six mergers host at least one AGN, with four of the mergers possibly hosting dual AGNs with projected separations less than ˜10 kpc, despite showing no firm evidence for AGNs based on optical spectroscopic studies. Our results demonstrate that (1) optical studies miss a significant fraction of single and dual AGNs in advanced mergers, and (2) mid-infrared pre-selection is extremely effective in identifying dual AGN candidates in late-stage mergers. Our multi-wavelength observations suggest that the buried AGNs in these mergers are highly absorbed, with intrinsic column densities in excess of ˜ {N}{{H}}> {10}24 cm-2, consistent with hydrodynamic simulations.

  19. Geophysical Investigation of Buried Slag at the Parrot Tailings Site, Butte, Montana (United States)

    Ha, C. D. M.; Shepherd, K.; Mack, A.; Rutherford, B. S.; Speece, M. A.


    Butte, Montana, has served as an important mining district for more than 120 years. This area contains historic mine waste from decades of unregulated mining practices. In July 1881, the Parrot smelter in Butte started operations and was soon processing ore and producing copper. The Parrot smelter also had a concentrating plant that treated the ore prior to smelting. The Parrot smelter wastes (slag and tailings) were later covered with Berkeley Pit crushed quartz monzonite overburden. The slag is bricked because it was deposited hot and, as a consequence forms a laterally extensive, cohesive, hard body that is difficult to remove without blasting. With the mine waste being covered by unknown quantities of overburden and soil throughout the area, and core data being limited and expensive to retrieve, the only economical method of discovery is geophysics. Several geophysical techniques were used to determine the lateral boundaries and depth of the buried slag body. The geophysical methods used were seismic, gravity, electromagnetic induction, and magnetics. Not all of these geophysical surveys produced useful results due to the nature of the slag. For instance, electromagnetic induction could not distinguish between the slag and adjacent tailings; and, the microgravity profiles showed only a small gravitational field variation caused by the density contrast between slag and the surrounding tailings, sediment and granitic cover. On the other hand, the seismic surveys resulted in unexpected first arrival times that distinctly showed velocity variations due to the slag. In addition, the slag body produced a large magnetic response. Unpublished, proprietary well data allowed us to model the slag body from our magnetic data. This model was confirmed by projecting velocity tomograms, that we created using seismic diving waves, onto our magnetic models. Model results were combined to form a three-dimensional image of the slag body. These results will be used to help

  20. Analytic Theory of Titans Schumann Resonance: Constraints on Ionospheric Conductivity and Buried Water Ocean (United States)

    Beghin, Christian; Randriamboarison, Orelien; Hamelin, Michel; Karkoschka, Erich; Sotin, Christophe; Whitten, Robert C.; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques; Grard, Rejean; Simoes, Fernando


    This study presents an approximate model for the atypical Schumann resonance in Titan's atmosphere that accounts for the observations of electromagnetic waves and the measurements of atmospheric conductivity performed with the Huygens Atmospheric Structure and Permittivity, Wave and Altimetry (HASI-PWA) instrumentation during the descent of the Huygens Probe through Titan's atmosphere in January 2005. After many years of thorough analyses of the collected data, several arguments enable us to claim that the Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) wave observed at around 36 Hz displays all the characteristics of the second harmonic of a Schumann resonance. On Earth, this phenomenon is well known to be triggered by lightning activity. Given the lack of evidence of any thunderstorm activity on Titan, we proposed in early works a model based on an alternative powering mechanism involving the electric current sheets induced in Titan's ionosphere by the Saturn's magnetospheric plasma flow. The present study is a further step in improving the initial model and corroborating our preliminary assessments. We first develop an analytic theory of the guided modes that appear to be the most suitable for sustaining Schumann resonances in Titan's atmosphere. We then introduce the characteristics of the Huygens electric field measurements in the equations, in order to constrain the physical parameters of the resonating cavity. The latter is assumed to be made of different structures distributed between an upper boundary, presumably made of a succession of thin ionized layers of stratospheric aerosols spread up to 150 km and a lower quasi-perfect conductive surface hidden beneath the non-conductive ground. The inner reflecting boundary is proposed to be a buried water-ammonia ocean lying at a likely depth of 55-80 km below a dielectric icy crust. Such estimate is found to comply with models suggesting that the internal heat could be transferred upwards by thermal conduction of the crust, while