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Sample records for buried information statistical

  1. Information theory and statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Kullback, Solomon

    1997-01-01

    Highly useful text studies logarithmic measures of information and their application to testing statistical hypotheses. Includes numerous worked examples and problems. References. Glossary. Appendix. 1968 2nd, revised edition.

  2. Dynamic statistical information theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING; Xiusan

    2006-01-01

    In recent years we extended Shannon static statistical information theory to dynamic processes and established a Shannon dynamic statistical information theory, whose core is the evolution law of dynamic entropy and dynamic information. We also proposed a corresponding Boltzmman dynamic statistical information theory. Based on the fact that the state variable evolution equation of respective dynamic systems, i.e. Fokker-Planck equation and Liouville diffusion equation can be regarded as their information symbol evolution equation, we derived the nonlinear evolution equations of Shannon dynamic entropy density and dynamic information density and the nonlinear evolution equations of Boltzmann dynamic entropy density and dynamic information density, that describe respectively the evolution law of dynamic entropy and dynamic information. The evolution equations of these two kinds of dynamic entropies and dynamic informations show in unison that the time rate of change of dynamic entropy densities is caused by their drift, diffusion and production in state variable space inside the systems and coordinate space in the transmission processes; and that the time rate of change of dynamic information densities originates from their drift, diffusion and dissipation in state variable space inside the systems and coordinate space in the transmission processes. Entropy and information have been combined with the state and its law of motion of the systems. Furthermore we presented the formulas of two kinds of entropy production rates and information dissipation rates, the expressions of two kinds of drift information flows and diffusion information flows. We proved that two kinds of information dissipation rates (or the decrease rates of the total information) were equal to their corresponding entropy production rates (or the increase rates of the total entropy) in the same dynamic system. We obtained the formulas of two kinds of dynamic mutual informations and dynamic channel

  3. Informal Statistics Help Desk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M.; Koslovsky, M.; Schaefer, Caroline M.; Feiveson, A. H.

    2017-01-01

    Back by popular demand, the JSC Biostatistics Laboratory and LSAH statisticians are offering an opportunity to discuss your statistical challenges and needs. Take the opportunity to meet the individuals offering expert statistical support to the JSC community. Join us for an informal conversation about any questions you may have encountered with issues of experimental design, analysis, or data visualization. Get answers to common questions about sample size, repeated measures, statistical assumptions, missing data, multiple testing, time-to-event data, and when to trust the results of your analyses.

  4. STUDY ON EXTRACTING METHODS OF BURIED GEOLOGICAL INFORMATION IN HUAIBEI COAL FIELD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王四龙; 赵学军; 凌贻棕; 刘玉荣; 宁书年; 侯德文

    1999-01-01

    It is discussed features and the producing mechanism of buried geological information in geological, geophysical and remote sensing data in Huaibei coal field, and studied the methods extracting buried tectonic and igneous rock information from various geological data using digital image processing techniques.

  5. Modelling a real-world buried valley system with vertical non-stationarity using multiple-point statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiulan; Sonnenborg, Torben O.; Jørgensen, Flemming; Jensen, Karsten H.

    2017-03-01

    Stationarity has traditionally been a requirement of geostatistical simulations. A common way to deal with non-stationarity is to divide the system into stationary sub-regions and subsequently merge the realizations for each region. Recently, the so-called partition approach that has the flexibility to model non-stationary systems directly was developed for multiple-point statistics simulation (MPS). The objective of this study is to apply the MPS partition method with conventional borehole logs and high-resolution airborne electromagnetic (AEM) data, for simulation of a real-world non-stationary geological system characterized by a network of connected buried valleys that incise deeply into layered Miocene sediments (case study in Denmark). The results show that, based on fragmented information of the formation boundaries, the MPS partition method is able to simulate a non-stationary system including valley structures embedded in a layered Miocene sequence in a single run. Besides, statistical information retrieved from the AEM data improved the simulation of the geology significantly, especially for the deep-seated buried valley sediments where borehole information is sparse.

  6. Statistical Computing in Information Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domański Czesław

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the presence of massive data coming with high heterogeneity we need to change our statistical thinking and statistical education in order to adapt both - classical statistics and software developments that address new challenges. Significant developments include open data, big data, data visualisation, and they are changing the nature of the evidence that is available, the ways in which it is presented and the skills needed for its interpretation. The amount of information is not the most important issue – the real challenge is the combination of the amount and the complexity of data. Moreover, a need arises to know how uncertain situations should be dealt with and what decisions should be taken when information is insufficient (which can also be observed for large datasets. In the paper we discuss the idea of computational statistics as a new approach to statistical teaching and we try to answer a question: how we can best prepare the next generation of statisticians.

  7. Predict! Teaching Statistics Using Informational Statistical Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makar, Katie

    2013-01-01

    Statistics is one of the most widely used topics for everyday life in the school mathematics curriculum. Unfortunately, the statistics taught in schools focuses on calculations and procedures before students have a chance to see it as a useful and powerful tool. Researchers have found that a dominant view of statistics is as an assortment of tools…

  8. Textual information access statistical models

    CERN Document Server

    Gaussier, Eric

    2013-01-01

    This book presents statistical models that have recently been developed within several research communities to access information contained in text collections. The problems considered are linked to applications aiming at facilitating information access:- information extraction and retrieval;- text classification and clustering;- opinion mining;- comprehension aids (automatic summarization, machine translation, visualization).In order to give the reader as complete a description as possible, the focus is placed on the probability models used in the applications

  9. Statistical Aspects of Information Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-17

    measurements at multiple measurement sites provide potentially valuable predictive information on functional disabilities in epilepsy patients...among the top ten sellers for Springer , the largest and one of the most prominent publishers in statistics. Publications Books Kolaczyk, li.O. (2009...Statistical Analysis of Network Data: Methods and Models. New York, Springer . Rcfcrced Journal Articles Nanai, N., Kolaczyk, E.D., and Kasif, S

  10. Disability: concepts and statistical information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordana Baldassarre

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The measurement and definition of disability is difficult due to its objective and subjective characteristics. In Italy, three different perspectives have been developed during the last 40 years. These various perspectives have had an effect, not only on how to measure disability, but also on policies to improve the social integration of people with disabilities.

    Methods: This paper examines the various conceptual models behind the definition of disability and the differences in the estimated number of persons with disabilities. In addition, it analyses in accordance with the International Classification of Functioning, disability and health, the European and international initiatives undertaken to harmonize the definitions of disability.

    Discussion: There are various bodies and central government agencies that either have management data or carry out statistical systematic surveys and disability surveys. Statistically speaking, the worst aspect of this scenario is that it creates confusion and uncertainty among the end users of this data, namely the policy makers. At international level the statistical data on disability is scarcely comparable among countries, despite huge efforts on behalf of international organisations to harmonize classifications and definitions of disability.

    Conclusions: Statistical and administrative surveys provide information flows using a different definition and label based on a conceptual model that reflects the time period in which they were implemented. The use of different prescriptive definitions of disability produces different counts of persons with disabilities in Italy. For this reason it is important to interpret the data correctly and choose the appropriate cross section that best represents the population on which to focus attention.

  11. The Reasoning behind Informal Statistical Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makar, Katie; Bakker, Arthur; Ben-Zvi, Dani

    2011-01-01

    Informal statistical inference (ISI) has been a frequent focus of recent research in statistics education. Considering the role that context plays in developing ISI calls into question the need to be more explicit about the reasoning that underpins ISI. This paper uses educational literature on informal statistical inference and philosophical…

  12. Reversible Watermarking Using Statistical Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurugollu Fatih

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In most reversible watermarking methods, a compressed location map is exploited in order to ensure reversibility. Besides, in some methods, a header containing critical information is appended to the payload for the extraction and recovery process. Such schemes have a highly fragile nature; that is, changing a single bit in watermarked data may prohibit recovery of the original host as well as the embedded watermark. In this paper, we propose a new scheme in which utilizing a compressed location map is completely removed. In addition, the amount of auxiliary data is decreased by employing the adjacent pixels information. Therefore, in addition to quality improvement, independent authentication of different regions of a watermarked image is possible.

  13. Earthquake forecasting: Statistics and Information

    CERN Document Server

    Gertsik, V; Krichevets, A

    2013-01-01

    We present an axiomatic approach to earthquake forecasting in terms of multi-component random fields on a lattice. This approach provides a method for constructing point estimates and confidence intervals for conditional probabilities of strong earthquakes under conditions on the levels of precursors. Also, it provides an approach for setting multilevel alarm system and hypothesis testing for binary alarms. We use a method of comparison for different earthquake forecasts in terms of the increase of Shannon information. 'Forecasting' and 'prediction' of earthquakes are equivalent in this approach.

  14. Earthquake forecasting: statistics and information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Gertsik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a decision rule forming a mathematical basis of earthquake forecasting problem. We develop an axiomatic approach to earthquake forecasting in terms of multicomponent random fields on a lattice. This approach provides a method for constructing point estimates and confidence intervals for conditional probabilities of strong earthquakes under conditions on the levels of precursors. Also, it provides an approach for setting a multilevel alarm system and hypothesis testing for binary alarms. We use a method of comparison for different algorithms of earthquake forecasts in terms of the increase of Shannon information. ‘Forecasting’ (the calculation of the probabilities and ‘prediction’ (the alarm declaring of earthquakes are equivalent in this approach.

  15. Timing of Information Presentation in Learning Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kester, Liesbeth; Kirschner, Paul A.; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2004-01-01

    This study in the domain of statistics compares four information presentation formats in a 2 x 2 factorial design: timing of supportive information (before or during task practice) ? timing of procedural information (before or during task practice). Seventy-two psychology and education students (7 male and 65 female; mean age 18.5 years, SD =…

  16. Timing of Information Presentation in Learning Statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kester, L.; Kirschner, P.A.; Merriënboer, J.J.G.

    2004-01-01

    This study in the domain of statistics compares four information presentation formats in a 2 × 2 factorial design: timing of supportive information (before or during task practice) × timing of procedural information (before or during task practice). Seventy-two psychology and education students (7 m

  17. Statistical Symbolic Execution with Informed Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filieri, Antonio; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Visser, Willem; Geldenhuys, Jaco

    2014-01-01

    Symbolic execution techniques have been proposed recently for the probabilistic analysis of programs. These techniques seek to quantify the likelihood of reaching program events of interest, e.g., assert violations. They have many promising applications but have scalability issues due to high computational demand. To address this challenge, we propose a statistical symbolic execution technique that performs Monte Carlo sampling of the symbolic program paths and uses the obtained information for Bayesian estimation and hypothesis testing with respect to the probability of reaching the target events. To speed up the convergence of the statistical analysis, we propose Informed Sampling, an iterative symbolic execution that first explores the paths that have high statistical significance, prunes them from the state space and guides the execution towards less likely paths. The technique combines Bayesian estimation with a partial exact analysis for the pruned paths leading to provably improved convergence of the statistical analysis. We have implemented statistical symbolic execution with in- formed sampling in the Symbolic PathFinder tool. We show experimentally that the informed sampling obtains more precise results and converges faster than a purely statistical analysis and may also be more efficient than an exact symbolic analysis. When the latter does not terminate symbolic execution with informed sampling can give meaningful results under the same time and memory limits.

  18. Information Theory and Statistical Physics - Lecture Notes

    CERN Document Server

    Merhav, Neri

    2010-01-01

    This document consists of lecture notes for a graduate course, which focuses on the relations between Information Theory and Statistical Physics. The course is aimed at EE graduate students in the area of Communications and Information Theory, as well as to graduate students in Physics who have basic background in Information Theory. Strong emphasis is given to the analogy and parallelism between Information Theory and Statistical Physics, as well as to the insights, the analysis tools and techniques that can be borrowed from Statistical Physics and `imported' to certain problem areas in Information Theory. This is a research trend that has been very active in the last few decades, and the hope is that by exposing the student to the meeting points between these two disciplines, we will enhance his/her background and perspective to carry out research in the field. A short outline of the course is as follows: Introduction; Elementary Statistical Physics and its Relation to Information Theory; Analysis Tools in ...

  19. Information and exponential families in statistical theory

    CERN Document Server

    Barndorff-Nielsen, O

    2014-01-01

    First published by Wiley in 1978, this book is being re-issued with a new Preface by the author. The roots of the book lie in the writings of RA Fisher both as concerns results and the general stance to statistical science, and this stance was the determining factor in the author's selection of topics. His treatise brings together results on aspects of statistical information, notably concerning likelihood functions, plausibility functions, ancillarity, and sufficiency, and on exponential families of probability distributions. 

  20. Quantum information theory and quantum statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petz, D. [Alfred Renyi Institute of Mathematics, Budapest (Hungary)

    2008-07-01

    Based on lectures given by the author, this book focuses on providing reliable introductory explanations of key concepts of quantum information theory and quantum statistics - rather than on results. The mathematically rigorous presentation is supported by numerous examples and exercises and by an appendix summarizing the relevant aspects of linear analysis. Assuming that the reader is familiar with the content of standard undergraduate courses in quantum mechanics, probability theory, linear algebra and functional analysis, the book addresses graduate students of mathematics and physics as well as theoretical and mathematical physicists. Conceived as a primer to bridge the gap between statistical physics and quantum information, a field to which the author has contributed significantly himself, it emphasizes concepts and thorough discussions of the fundamental notions to prepare the reader for deeper studies, not least through the selection of well chosen exercises. (orig.)

  1. Information transport in classical statistical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wetterich, C

    2016-01-01

    In many materials or equilibrium statistical systems the information of boundary conditions is lost inside the bulk of the material. In contrast, we describe here static classical statistical probability distributions for which bulk properties depend on boundary conditions. Such "static memory materials" can be realized if no unique equilibrium state exists. The propagation of information from the boundary to the bulk is described by a classical wave function or a density matrix, which obey generalized Schr\\"odinger or von Neumann equations. For static memory materials the evolution within a subsector is unitary, as characteristic for the time evolution in quantum mechanics. The space-dependence in static memory materials can be used as an analogue representation of the time evolution in quantum mechanics - such materials are "quantum simulators". For example, an asymmetric Ising model represents the time evolution of relativistic fermions in two-dimensional Minkowski space.

  2. Maxwell's Daemon: information versus particle statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesch, Martin; Dahlsten, Oscar; Goold, John; Vedral, Vlatko

    2014-11-11

    Maxwell's daemon is a popular personification of a principle connecting information gain and extractable work in thermodynamics. A Szilard Engine is a particular hypothetical realization of Maxwell's daemon, which is able to extract work from a single thermal reservoir by measuring the position of particle(s) within the system. Here we investigate the role of particle statistics in the whole process; namely, how the extractable work changes if instead of classical particles fermions or bosons are used as the working medium. We give a unifying argument for the optimal work in the different cases: the extractable work is determined solely by the information gain of the initial measurement, as measured by the mutual information, regardless of the number and type of particles which constitute the working substance.

  3. Intelligent Support for Solving Classification Differences in Statistical Information Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Verwaart, D.

    2003-01-01

    Integration of heterogeneous statistics is essential for political decision making on all levels. Like in intelligent information integration in general, the problem is to combine information from different autonomous sources, using different ontologies. However, in statistical information integrati

  4. Annual statistical information 1996; Informe estatistico anual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This annual statistical report aims to propagate the information about the generation, transmission and distribution systems evolution and about the electric power market from the Parana State, Brazil, in 1996. The electric power consumption in the distribution area of the Parana Power Company (COPEL) presented a growth about 6,7%. The electric power production in the the COPEL plants increased 42,2% higher than 1995, due to the outflows verified in the Iguacu river and to the long period of the affluence reduction that the Southern region tanks coursed during this year. This report presents statistical data about the following topics: a) electric power energy balance from the Parana State; b) electric power energy balance from the COPEL - own generation, certain interchange, electric power requirement, direct distribution and the electric system 6 graphs, 3 maps, 61 tabs.; e-mail: splcnmr at mail.copel.br

  5. Information Theory and Statistical Mechanics Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Jian

    2016-01-01

    We derive Bose-Einstein statistics and Fermi-Dirac statistics by Principle of Maximum Entropy applied to two families of entropy functions different from the Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy. These entropy functions are identified with special cases of modified Naudts' $\\phi$-entropy.

  6. Information Measures for Statistical Orbit Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashiku, Alinda K.

    2013-01-01

    The current Situational Space Awareness (SSA) is faced with a huge task of tracking the increasing number of space objects. The tracking of space objects requires frequent and accurate monitoring for orbit maintenance and collision avoidance using methods for statistical orbit determination. Statistical orbit determination enables us to obtain…

  7. Biomolecular Systems of Disease Buried Across Multiple GWAS Unveiled by Information Theory and Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Younghee; Li, Jianrong; Gamazon, Eric; Chen, James L.; Tikhomirov, Anna; Cox, Nancy J.; Lussier, Yves A.

    2010-01-01

    A key challenge for genome-wide association studies (GWAS) is to understand how single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) mechanistically underpin complex diseases. While this challenge has been addressed partially by Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment of large list of host genes of SNPs prioritized in GWAS, these enrichment have not been formally evaluated. Here, we develop a novel computational approach anchored in information theoretic similarity, by systematically mining lists of host genes of SNPs prioritized in three adult-onset diabetes mellitus GWAS. The “gold-standard” is based on GO associated with 20 published diabetes SNPs’ host genes and on our own evaluation. We computationally identify 69 similarity-predicted GO independently validated in all three GWAS (FDR<5%), enriched with those of the gold-standard (odds ratio=5.89, P=4.81e-05), and these terms can be organized by similarity criteria into 11 groupings termed “biomolecular systems”. Six biomolecular systems were corroborated by the gold-standard and the remaining five were previously uncharacterized. http://lussierlab.org/publications/ITS-GWAS PMID:21347143

  8. Statistical Sources of Information on Canadian Public Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokich, George J. V.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses difficulties involved in locating sources of statistical information on public libraries in Canada and describes a study conducted to identify and evaluate various sources of such information. An 18-item bibliography is provided. (CHC)

  9. Extensive Generalization of Statistical Mechanics Based on Incomplete Information Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuping A. Wang

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Statistical mechanics is generalized on the basis of an additive information theory for incomplete probability distributions. The incomplete normalization is used to obtain generalized entropy . The concomitant incomplete statistical mechanics is applied to some physical systems in order to show the effect of the incompleteness of information. It is shown that this extensive generalized statistics can be useful for the correlated electron systems in weak coupling regime.

  10. Comprehensive Information Interpretation in Oil and Gas Exploration—An Example of Buried-Hill Oil and Gas Field in the Jizhong area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiangShengzheng

    2003-01-01

    The petroleum geophysical and geological comprehensive interpretation with whole-information of gravitational, magnetic, electrical and seismic methods has played an important role in the exploration and development of the buried-hill oil and gas pools in the Jizhong area, including the oil pools in the weathering surface of the buried-hill with “oil generated in the Cenozoic and accumulated in thePaleozoic”, and the gas pools in the buried-hill with “oil generated in both the Cenozoic and the Paleozoic, accumulated in the Paleozoic and sealed by the Mesozoic”. In recent years,high-precision gravitational and magnetic surveying and continuous electromagnetic profile (CEMP) prospecting were carried out on the Yangcun Slope that had been preliminarily recognized as a monocline in the Paleozoic structural-stratigraphy. After the geophysical and geological comprehensive interpretation with whole-information of gravitational,magnetic, electric and seismic data, the gas-bearing buriedhill zone of Matou-Huanghuadian was discovered.

  11. Temporal and Statistical Information in Causal Structure Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Teresa; Frosch, Caren; Patrick, Fiona; Lagnado, David

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments examined children's and adults' abilities to use statistical and temporal information to distinguish between common cause and causal chain structures. In Experiment 1, participants were provided with conditional probability information and/or temporal information and asked to infer the causal structure of a 3-variable mechanical…

  12. Evaluation Statistics Computed for the Wave Information Studies (WIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    wave models , including those of WIS, are influenced by meteorological forcing parameters, representation of the geographic area (e.g., bathymetry...statistical metrics to wave model evaluation are found in Zambresky (1989) and Cardone et al. (1996). These statistics were calculated in the...describes the statistical metrics used by the Wave Information Studies (WIS) and produced as part of the model evaluation process. INTRODUCTION: The

  13. Bayesian Information Criterion as an Alternative way of Statistical Inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadejda Yu. Gubanova

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The article treats Bayesian information criterion as an alternative to traditional methods of statistical inference, based on NHST. The comparison of ANOVA and BIC results for psychological experiment is discussed.

  14. Bayesian Information Criterion as an Alternative way of Statistical Inference

    OpenAIRE

    Nadejda Yu. Gubanova; Simon Zh. Simavoryan

    2012-01-01

    The article treats Bayesian information criterion as an alternative to traditional methods of statistical inference, based on NHST. The comparison of ANOVA and BIC results for psychological experiment is discussed.

  15. Information Geometric Complexity of a Trivariate Gaussian Statistical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Felice

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate the information geometric complexity of entropic motion on low-dimensional Gaussian statistical manifolds in order to quantify how difficult it is to make macroscopic predictions about systems in the presence of limited information. Specifically, we observe that the complexity of such entropic inferences not only depends on the amount of available pieces of information but also on the manner in which such pieces are correlated. Finally, we uncover that, for certain correlational structures, the impossibility of reaching the most favorable configuration from an entropic inference viewpoint seems to lead to an information geometric analog of the well-known frustration effect that occurs in statistical physics.

  16. Fisher-Schroedinger models for statistical encryption of covert information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, R. C.

    2007-04-01

    The theoretical framework for a principled procedure to encrypt/decrypt covert information (code)into/from the null spaces of a hierarchy of statistical distributions possessing ill-conditioned eigenstructures, is suggested. The statistical distributions are inferred using incomplete constraints, employing the generalized nonextensive thermostatistics (NET) Fisher information as the measure of uncertainty. The hierarchy of inferred statistical distributions possess a quantum mechanical connotation for unit values of the nonextensivity parameter. A systematic strategy to encrypt/decrypt code via unitary projections into the null spaces of the ill-conditioned eigenstructures, is presented.

  17. INFORMATION SUPPORT OF REAL ESTATE MARKET STATISTICAL RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Shibirina, S.

    2010-01-01

    The article considers the significance and suggests the directions for using information in statistical researches of real estate market. A special attention is paid on interconnections of information support and participants of realty market's, and stages of market analysis which characterizing realty market.

  18. Prototyping a Distributed Information Retrieval System That Uses Statistical Ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Donna; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Built using a distributed architecture, this prototype distributed information retrieval system uses statistical ranking techniques to provide better service to the end user. Distributed architecture was shown to be a feasible alternative to centralized or CD-ROM information retrieval, and user testing of the ranking methodology showed both…

  19. A Framework for Thinking about Informal Statistical Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makar, Katie; Rubin, Andee

    2009-01-01

    Informal inferential reasoning has shown some promise in developing students' deeper understanding of statistical processes. This paper presents a framework to think about three key principles of informal inference--generalizations "beyond the data," probabilistic language, and data as evidence. The authors use primary school classroom…

  20. Information Geometry and Chaos on Negatively Curved Statistical Manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Cafaro, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    A novel information-geometric approach to chaotic dynamics on curved statistical manifolds based on Entropic Dynamics (ED) is suggested. Furthermore, an information-geometric analogue of the Zurek-Paz quantum chaos criterion is proposed. It is shown that the hyperbolicity of a non-maximally symmetric 6N-dimensional statistical manifold M_{s} underlying an ED Gaussian model describing an arbitrary system of 3N non-interacting degrees of freedom leads to linear information-geometric entropy growth and to exponential divergence of the Jacobi vector field intensity, quantum and classical features of chaos respectively.

  1. MERGING FUZZY STATISTICAL DATA WITH IMPRECISE PRIOR INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olgierd HRYNIEWICZ

    2006-01-01

    Solving complex decision problems requires the usage of information from different sources.Usually this information is uncertain and statistical or probabilistic methods are needed for its processing. However, in many cases a decision maker faces not only uncertainty of a random nature but also imprecision in the description of input data that is rather of linguistic nature. Therefore, there is a need to merge uncertainties of both types into one mathematical model. In the paper we present methodology of merging information from imprecisely reported statistical data and imprecisely formulated fuzzy prior information. Moreover, we also consider the case of imprecisely defined loss functions. The proposed methodology may be considered as the application of fuzzy statistical methods for the decision making in the systems analysis.

  2. Adjusting for population heterogeneity: a framework for characterizing statistical information and developing efficient test statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Daniel

    2003-05-01

    The focus of this work is the TDT-type and family-based test statistics used for adjusting for potential confounding due to population heterogeneity or misspecified allele frequencies. A variety of heuristics have been used to motivate and derive these statistics, and the statistics have been developed for a variety of analytic goals. There appears to be no general theoretical framework, however, that may be used to evaluate competing approaches. Furthermore, there is no framework to guide the development of efficient TDT-type and family-based methods for analytic goals for which methods have not yet been proposed. The purpose of this paper is to present a theoretical framework that serves both to identify the information which is available to methods that are immune to confounding due to population heterogeneity or misspecified allele frequencies, and to inform the construction of efficient unbiased tests in novel settings. The development relies on the existence of a characterization of the null hypothesis in terms of a completely specified conditional distribution of transmitted genotypes. An important observation is that, with such a characterization, when the conditioning event is unobserved or incomplete, there is statistical information that cannot be exploited by any exact conditional test. The main technical result of this work is an approach to computing test statistics for local alternatives that exploit all of the available statistical information. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Concepts and recent advances in generalized information measures and statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalski, Andres M

    2013-01-01

    Since the introduction of the information measure widely known as Shannon entropy, quantifiers based on information theory and concepts such as entropic forms and statistical complexities have proven to be useful in diverse scientific research fields. This book contains introductory tutorials suitable for the general reader, together with chapters dedicated to the basic concepts of the most frequently employed information measures or quantifiers and their recent applications to different areas, including physics, biology, medicine, economics, communication and social sciences. As these quantif

  4. Advances in statistical multisource-multitarget information fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Mahler, Ronald PS

    2014-01-01

    This is the sequel to the 2007 Artech House bestselling title, Statistical Multisource-Multitarget Information Fusion. That earlier book was a comprehensive resource for an in-depth understanding of finite-set statistics (FISST), a unified, systematic, and Bayesian approach to information fusion. The cardinalized probability hypothesis density (CPHD) filter, which was first systematically described in the earlier book, has since become a standard multitarget detection and tracking technique, especially in research and development.Since 2007, FISST has inspired a considerable amount of research

  5. Reasoning about Informal Statistical Inference: One Statistician's View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Allan J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper identifies key concepts and issues associated with the reasoning of informal statistical inference. I focus on key ideas of inference that I think all students should learn, including at secondary level as well as tertiary. I argue that a fundamental component of inference is to go beyond the data at hand, and I propose that statistical…

  6. Identifying statistical dependence in genomic sequences via mutual information estimates

    CERN Document Server

    Aktulga, H M; Lyznik, L A; Szpankowski, L; Grama, A Y; Szpankowski, W

    2007-01-01

    Questions of understanding and quantifying the representation and amount of information in organisms have become a central part of biological research, as they potentially hold the key to fundamental advances. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of information-theoretic tools for the task of identifying segments of biomolecules (DNA or RNA) that are statistically correlated. We develop a precise and reliable methodology, based on the notion of mutual information, for finding and extracting statistical as well as structural dependencies. A simple threshold function is defined, and its use in quantifying the level of significance of dependencies between biological segments is explored. These tools are used in two specific applications. First, for the identification of correlations between different parts of the maize zmSRp32 gene. There, we find significant dependencies between the 5' untranslated region in zmSRp32 and its alternatively spliced exons. This observation may indicate the presence of as-yet unkno...

  7. Loop calculus in statistical physics and information science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertkov, Michael; Chernyak, Vladimir Y

    2006-06-01

    Considering a discrete and finite statistical model of a general position we introduce an exact expression for the partition function in terms of a finite series. The leading term in the series is the Bethe-Peierls (belief propagation) (BP) contribution; the rest are expressed as loop contributions on the factor graph and calculated directly using the BP solution. The series unveils a small parameter that often makes the BP approximation so successful. Applications of the loop calculus in statistical physics and information science are discussed.

  8. Detection of single atoms and buried defects in three dimensions by aberration-corrected electron microscope with 0.5-A information limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisielowski, C; Freitag, B; Bischoff, M; van Lin, H; Lazar, S; Knippels, G; Tiemeijer, P; van der Stam, M; von Harrach, S; Stekelenburg, M; Haider, M; Uhlemann, S; Müller, H; Hartel, P; Kabius, B; Miller, D; Petrov, I; Olson, E A; Donchev, T; Kenik, E A; Lupini, A R; Bentley, J; Pennycook, S J; Anderson, I M; Minor, A M; Schmid, A K; Duden, T; Radmilovic, V; Ramasse, Q M; Watanabe, M; Erni, R; Stach, E A; Denes, P; Dahmen, U

    2008-10-01

    The ability of electron microscopes to analyze all the atoms in individual nanostructures is limited by lens aberrations. However, recent advances in aberration-correcting electron optics have led to greatly enhanced instrument performance and new techniques of electron microscopy. The development of an ultrastable electron microscope with aberration-correcting optics and a monochromated high-brightness source has significantly improved instrument resolution and contrast. In the present work, we report information transfer beyond 50 pm and show images of single gold atoms with a signal-to-noise ratio as large as 10. The instrument's new capabilities were exploited to detect a buried Sigma3 {112} grain boundary and observe the dynamic arrangements of single atoms and atom pairs with sub-angstrom resolution. These results mark an important step toward meeting the challenge of determining the three-dimensional atomic-scale structure of nanomaterials.

  9. SOLVING PROBLEMS OF STATISTICS WITH THE METHODS OF INFORMATION THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutsenko Y. V.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a theoretical substantiation, methods of numerical calculations and software implementation of the decision of problems of statistics, in particular the study of statistical distributions, methods of information theory. On the basis of empirical data by calculation we have determined the number of observations used for the analysis of statistical distributions. The proposed method of calculating the amount of information is not based on assumptions about the independence of observations and the normal distribution, i.e., is non-parametric and ensures the correct modeling of nonlinear systems, and also allows comparable to process heterogeneous (measured in scales of different types data numeric and non-numeric nature that are measured in different units. Thus, ASC-analysis and "Eidos" system is a modern innovation (ready for implementation technology solving problems of statistical methods of information theory. This article can be used as a description of the laboratory work in the disciplines of: intelligent systems; knowledge engineering and intelligent systems; intelligent technologies and knowledge representation; knowledge representation in intelligent systems; foundations of intelligent systems; introduction to neuromaturation and methods neural networks; fundamentals of artificial intelligence; intelligent technologies in science and education; knowledge management; automated system-cognitive analysis and "Eidos" intelligent system which the author is developing currently, but also in other disciplines associated with the transformation of data into information, and its transformation into knowledge and application of this knowledge to solve problems of identification, forecasting, decision making and research of the simulated subject area (which is virtually all subjects in all fields of science

  10. Wildfire Prediction to Inform Fire Management: Statistical Science Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, S. W.; Douglas G. Woolford; Dean, C. B.; Martell, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Wildfire is an important system process of the earth that occurs across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. A variety of methods have been used to predict wildfire phenomena during the past century to better our understanding of fire processes and to inform fire and land management decision-making. Statistical methods have an important role in wildfire prediction due to the inherent stochastic nature of fire phenomena at all scales. ¶ Predictive models have exploited several so...

  11. Computational Information Geometry in Statistics: Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Critchley

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A broad view of the nature and potential of computational information geometry in statistics is offered.   This new area suitably extends the manifold-based approach of classical information geometry to a simplicial setting, in order to obtain an operational universal model space.   Additional underlying theory and illustrative real examples are presented.  In the infinite-dimensional case, challenges inherent in this ambitious overall agenda are highlighted and promising new methodologies indicated.

  12. A statistical mechanical interpretation of algorithmic information theory: Total statistical mechanical interpretation based on physical argument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadaki, Kohtaro, E-mail: tadaki@kc.chuo-u.ac.j [Research and Development Initiative, Chuo University, 1-13-27 Kasuga, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan)

    2010-12-01

    The statistical mechanical interpretation of algorithmic information theory (AIT, for short) was introduced and developed by our former works [K. Tadaki, Local Proceedings of CiE 2008, pp. 425-434, 2008] and [K. Tadaki, Proceedings of LFCS'09, Springer's LNCS, vol. 5407, pp. 422-440, 2009], where we introduced the notion of thermodynamic quantities, such as partition function Z(T), free energy F(T), energy E(T), statistical mechanical entropy S(T), and specific heat C(T), into AIT. We then discovered that, in the interpretation, the temperature T equals to the partial randomness of the values of all these thermodynamic quantities, where the notion of partial randomness is a stronger representation of the compression rate by means of program-size complexity. Furthermore, we showed that this situation holds for the temperature T itself, which is one of the most typical thermodynamic quantities. Namely, we showed that, for each of the thermodynamic quantities Z(T), F(T), E(T), and S(T) above, the computability of its value at temperature T gives a sufficient condition for T is an element of (0,1) to satisfy the condition that the partial randomness of T equals to T. In this paper, based on a physical argument on the same level of mathematical strictness as normal statistical mechanics in physics, we develop a total statistical mechanical interpretation of AIT which actualizes a perfect correspondence to normal statistical mechanics. We do this by identifying a microcanonical ensemble in the framework of AIT. As a result, we clarify the statistical mechanical meaning of the thermodynamic quantities of AIT.

  13. Paradigms for adaptive statistical information designs: practical experiences and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sue-Jane; Hung, H M James; O'Neill, Robert

    2012-11-10

    In the last decade or so, interest in adaptive design clinical trials has gradually been directed towards their use in regulatory submissions by pharmaceutical drug sponsors to evaluate investigational new drugs. Methodological advances of adaptive designs are abundant in the statistical literature since the 1970s. The adaptive design paradigm has been enthusiastically perceived to increase the efficiency and to be more cost-effective than the fixed design paradigm for drug development. Much interest in adaptive designs is in those studies with two-stages, where stage 1 is exploratory and stage 2 depends upon stage 1 results, but where the data of both stages will be combined to yield statistical evidence for use as that of a pivotal registration trial. It was not until the recent release of the US Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Adaptive Design Clinical Trials for Drugs and Biologics (2010) that the boundaries of flexibility for adaptive designs were specifically considered for regulatory purposes, including what are exploratory goals, and what are the goals of adequate and well-controlled (A&WC) trials (2002). The guidance carefully described these distinctions in an attempt to minimize the confusion between the goals of preliminary learning phases of drug development, which are inherently substantially uncertain, and the definitive inference-based phases of drug development. In this paper, in addition to discussing some aspects of adaptive designs in a confirmatory study setting, we underscore the value of adaptive designs when used in exploratory trials to improve planning of subsequent A&WC trials. One type of adaptation that is receiving attention is the re-estimation of the sample size during the course of the trial. We refer to this type of adaptation as an adaptive statistical information design. Specifically, a case example is used to illustrate how challenging it is to plan a confirmatory adaptive statistical information

  14. Wildfire Prediction to Inform Fire Management: Statistical Science Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, S W; Dean, C B; Martell, David L

    2013-01-01

    Wildfire is an important system process of the earth that occurs across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. A variety of methods have been used to predict wildfire phenomena during the past century to better our understanding of fire processes and to inform fire and land management decision-making. Statistical methods have an important role in wildfire prediction due to the inherent stochastic nature of fire phenomena at all scales. Predictive models have exploited several sources of data describing fire phenomena. Experimental data are scarce; observational data are dominated by statistics compiled by government fire management agencies, primarily for administrative purposes and increasingly from remote sensing observations. Fires are rare events at many scales. The data describing fire phenomena can be zero-heavy and nonstationary over both space and time. Users of fire modeling methodologies are mainly fire management agencies often working under great time constraints, thus, complex models have t...

  15. Identifying Statistical Dependence in Genomic Sequences via Mutual Information Estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Szpankowski

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Questions of understanding and quantifying the representation and amount of information in organisms have become a central part of biological research, as they potentially hold the key to fundamental advances. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of information-theoretic tools for the task of identifying segments of biomolecules (DNA or RNA that are statistically correlated. We develop a precise and reliable methodology, based on the notion of mutual information, for finding and extracting statistical as well as structural dependencies. A simple threshold function is defined, and its use in quantifying the level of significance of dependencies between biological segments is explored. These tools are used in two specific applications. First, they are used for the identification of correlations between different parts of the maize zmSRp32 gene. There, we find significant dependencies between the 5′ untranslated region in zmSRp32 and its alternatively spliced exons. This observation may indicate the presence of as-yet unknown alternative splicing mechanisms or structural scaffolds. Second, using data from the FBI's combined DNA index system (CODIS, we demonstrate that our approach is particularly well suited for the problem of discovering short tandem repeats—an application of importance in genetic profiling.

  16. Identifying Statistical Dependence in Genomic Sequences via Mutual Information Estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kontoyiannis Ioannis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Questions of understanding and quantifying the representation and amount of information in organisms have become a central part of biological research, as they potentially hold the key to fundamental advances. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of information-theoretic tools for the task of identifying segments of biomolecules (DNA or RNA that are statistically correlated. We develop a precise and reliable methodology, based on the notion of mutual information, for finding and extracting statistical as well as structural dependencies. A simple threshold function is defined, and its use in quantifying the level of significance of dependencies between biological segments is explored. These tools are used in two specific applications. First, they are used for the identification of correlations between different parts of the maize zmSRp32 gene. There, we find significant dependencies between the untranslated region in zmSRp32 and its alternatively spliced exons. This observation may indicate the presence of as-yet unknown alternative splicing mechanisms or structural scaffolds. Second, using data from the FBI's combined DNA index system (CODIS, we demonstrate that our approach is particularly well suited for the problem of discovering short tandem repeats—an application of importance in genetic profiling.

  17. The system for statistical analysis of logistic information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khayrullin Rustam Zinnatullovich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The current problem for managers in logistic and trading companies is the task of improving the operational business performance and developing the logistics support of sales. The development of logistics sales supposes development and implementation of a set of works for the development of the existing warehouse facilities, including both a detailed description of the work performed, and the timing of their implementation. Logistics engineering of warehouse complex includes such tasks as: determining the number and the types of technological zones, calculation of the required number of loading-unloading places, development of storage structures, development and pre-sales preparation zones, development of specifications of storage types, selection of loading-unloading equipment, detailed planning of warehouse logistics system, creation of architectural-planning decisions, selection of information-processing equipment, etc. The currently used ERP and WMS systems did not allow us to solve the full list of logistics engineering problems. In this regard, the development of specialized software products, taking into account the specifics of warehouse logistics, and subsequent integration of these software with ERP and WMS systems seems to be a current task. In this paper we suggest a system of statistical analysis of logistics information, designed to meet the challenges of logistics engineering and planning. The system is based on the methods of statistical data processing.The proposed specialized software is designed to improve the efficiency of the operating business and the development of logistics support of sales. The system is based on the methods of statistical data processing, the methods of assessment and prediction of logistics performance, the methods for the determination and calculation of the data required for registration, storage and processing of metal products, as well as the methods for planning the reconstruction and development

  18. A statistical information-based clustering approach in distance space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE Shi-hong; LI Ping; GUO Ji-dong; ZHOU Shui-geng

    2005-01-01

    Clustering, as a powerful data mining technique for discovering interesting data distributions and patterns in the underlying database, is used in many fields, such as statistical data analysis, pattern recognition, image processing, and other business applications. Density-based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise (DBSCAN) (Ester et al., 1996) is a good performance clustering method for dealing with spatial data although it leaves many problems to be solved. For example,DBSCAN requires a necessary user-specified threshold while its computation is extremely time-consuming by current method such as OPTICS, etc. (Ankerst et al., 1999), and the performance of DBSCAN under different norms has yet to be examined. In this paper, we first developed a method based on statistical information of distance space in database to determine the necessary threshold. Then our examination of the DBSCAN performance under different norms showed that there was determinable relation between them. Finally, we used two artificial databases to verify the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed methods.

  19. Plasmonics in buried structures

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, I. T.; García de Abajo, Francisco Javier

    2009-01-01

    We describe plasmon propagation in silica-filled coupled nanovoids fully buried in gold. Propagation bands and band gaps are shown to be tunable through the degree of overlap and plasmon hybridization between contiguous voids. The effect of disorder and fabrication imperfections is thoroughly investigated. Our work explores a novel paradigm for plasmon photonics relying on plasmon modes in metal-buried structures, which can benefit from long propagation distances, cancelation of radiative los...

  20. From Quality to Information Quality in Official Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenett Ron S.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The term quality of statistical data, developed and used in official statistics and international organizations such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD, refers to the usefulness of summary statistics generated by producers of official statistics. Similarly, in the context of survey quality, official agencies such as Eurostat, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics (NCSES, and Statistics Canada have created dimensions for evaluating the quality of a survey and its ability to report ‘accurate survey data’.

  1. Buried Craters of Utopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-365, 19 May 2003Beneath the northern plains of Mars are numerous buried meteor impact craters. One of the most heavily-cratered areas, although buried, occurs in Utopia Planitia, as shown in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image. The history of Mars is complex; impact craters provide a tool by which to understand some of that history. In this case, a very ancient, cratered surface was thinly-buried by younger material that is not cratered at all. This area is near 48.1oN, 228.2oW; less than 180 km (112 mi) west of the Viking 2 lander site. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  2. Plasmonics in buried structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, I; García de Abajo, F J

    2009-10-12

    We describe plasmon propagation in silica-filled coupled nanovoids fully buried in gold. Propagation bands and band gaps are shown to be tunable through the degree of overlap and plasmon hybridization between contiguous voids. The effect of disorder and fabrication imperfections is thoroughly investigated. Our work explores a novel paradigm for plasmon photonics relying on plasmon modes in metal-buried structures, which can benefit from long propagation distances, cancelation of radiative losses, minimum crosstalk between neighboring waveguides, and maximum optical integration in three-dimensional arrangements.

  3. Contextual Information Retrieval based on Algorithmic Information Theory and Statistical Outlier Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez, Rafael; Rodriguez, Francisco de Borja; Camacho, David

    2007-01-01

    The main contribution of this paper is to design an Information Retrieval (IR) technique based on Algorithmic Information Theory (using the Normalized Compression Distance- NCD), statistical techniques (outliers), and novel organization of data base structure. The paper shows how they can be integrated to retrieve information from generic databases using long (text-based) queries. Two important problems are analyzed in the paper. On the one hand, how to detect "false positives" when the distance among the documents is very low and there is actual similarity. On the other hand, we propose a way to structure a document database which similarities distance estimation depends on the length of the selected text. Finally, the experimental evaluations that have been carried out to study previous problems are shown.

  4. Combining Spatial Statistical and Ensemble Information in Probabilistic Weather Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-22

    and Delfiner 1999). Covariance structures that are more complex can be accommodated, and we discuss some of the options in Section 5. Note that (3...and P. Delfiner , 1999: Geostatistics: Modeling Spatial Uncertainty. Wiley, 695 pp. Cressie, N. A. C., 1993: Statistics for Spatial Data. Wiley

  5. Fisher information and statistical inference for phase-type distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Esparza, Luz Judith R; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2011-01-01

    This paper is concerned with statistical inference for both continuous and discrete phase-type distributions. We consider maximum likelihood estimation, where traditionally the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm has been employed. Certain numerical aspects of this method are revised and we p...

  6. Fisher information and statistical inference for phase-type distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Esparza, Luz Judith R; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2011-01-01

    This paper is concerned with statistical inference for both continuous and discrete phase-type distributions. We consider maximum likelihood estimation, where traditionally the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm has been employed. Certain numerical aspects of this method are revised and we...

  7. Non-Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics Inspired by Modern Information Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar C. O. Dahlsten

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A collection of recent papers revisit how to quantify the relationship between information and work in the light of modern information theory, so-called single-shot information theory. This is an introduction to those papers, from the perspective of the author. Many of the results may be viewed as a quantification of how much work a generalized Maxwell’s daemon can extract as a function of its extra information. These expressions do not in general involve the Shannon/von Neumann entropy but rather quantities from single-shot information theory. In a limit of large systems composed of many identical and independent parts the Shannon/von Neumann entropy is recovered.

  8. Statistical physics of networks, information and complex systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecke, Robert E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    In this project we explore the mathematical methods and concepts of statistical physics that are fmding abundant applications across the scientific and technological spectrum from soft condensed matter systems and bio-infonnatics to economic and social systems. Our approach exploits the considerable similarity of concepts between statistical physics and computer science, allowing for a powerful multi-disciplinary approach that draws its strength from cross-fertilization and mUltiple interactions of researchers with different backgrounds. The work on this project takes advantage of the newly appreciated connection between computer science and statistics and addresses important problems in data storage, decoding, optimization, the infonnation processing properties of the brain, the interface between quantum and classical infonnation science, the verification of large software programs, modeling of complex systems including disease epidemiology, resource distribution issues, and the nature of highly fluctuating complex systems. Common themes that the project has been emphasizing are (i) neural computation, (ii) network theory and its applications, and (iii) a statistical physics approach to infonnation theory. The project's efforts focus on the general problem of optimization and variational techniques, algorithm development and infonnation theoretic approaches to quantum systems. These efforts are responsible for fruitful collaborations and the nucleation of science efforts that span multiple divisions such as EES, CCS, 0 , T, ISR and P. This project supports the DOE mission in Energy Security and Nuclear Non-Proliferation by developing novel infonnation science tools for communication, sensing, and interacting complex networks such as the internet or energy distribution system. The work also supports programs in Threat Reduction and Homeland Security.

  9. Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Hayslett, H T

    1991-01-01

    Statistics covers the basic principles of Statistics. The book starts by tackling the importance and the two kinds of statistics; the presentation of sample data; the definition, illustration and explanation of several measures of location; and the measures of variation. The text then discusses elementary probability, the normal distribution and the normal approximation to the binomial. Testing of statistical hypotheses and tests of hypotheses about the theoretical proportion of successes in a binomial population and about the theoretical mean of a normal population are explained. The text the

  10. Quantum field theory, statistical physics, and information theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyoda, Tadashi [Tokai Univ., Kanagawa (Japan)

    2001-05-01

    It is shown that the one-particle Matsubara temperature Green's function can be regarded as a Fisher information matrix on the basis of the quantum generalization of relative entropy due to Watanabe and Neumann.

  11. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration stakeholder involvement model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaupanger, R.M.; Kostelnik, K.M.; Milam, L.M.

    1994-04-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is a program funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development. BWID supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that together form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. Stakeholder participation in the DOE Environmental Management decision-making process is critical to remediation efforts. Appropriate mechanisms for communication with the public, private sector, regulators, elected officials, and others are being aggressively pursued by BWID to permit informed participation. This document summarizes public outreach efforts during FY-93 and presents a strategy for expanded stakeholder involvement during FY-94.

  12. INEL cold test pit demonstration of improvements in information derived from non-intrusive geophysical methods over buried waste sites. Phase 2, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-29

    Under Contract between US DOE Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and the Blackhawk Geosciences Division of Coleman Research Corporation (BGD-CRC), geophysical investigations were conducted to improve the detection of buried wastes. Site characterization is a costly and time consuming process with the most costly components being drilling, sampling, and chemical analysis of samples. There is a focused effort at US DOE and other agencies to investigate methodologies that reduce costs and shorten the time between characterization and clean-up. These methodologies take the form of employing non-invasive (geophysical) and minimal invasive (e.g., cone penetrometer driving) techniques of characterization, and implementing a near real-time, rational decision-making process (Expedited Site Characterization). Over the Cold Test Pit (CTP) at INEL, data were acquired with multiple sensors on a dense grid. Over the CTP the interpretations inferred from geophysical data are compared with the known placement of various waste forms in the pit. The geophysical sensors employed were magnetics, frequency and time domain electromagnetics, and ground penetrating radar. Also, because of the high data density acquired, filtering and other data processing and imaging techniques were tested. The conclusions derived from the geophysical surveys were that pit boundaries, berms between cells within the pit, and individual objects placed in the pit were best mapped by the new Geonics EM61 time domain EM metal detector. Part of the reason for the effectiveness of the time domain metal detector is that objects buried in the pit are dominantly metallic. Also, the utility of geophysical data is significantly enhanced by dimensional and 3-dimensional imaging formats. These images will particularly assist remediation engineers in visualizing buried wastes.

  13. Surface Electromyographic Onset Detection Based On Statistics and Information Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Natalia M.; Orosco, Eugenio; di Sciascio, Fernando

    2011-12-01

    The correct detection of the onset of muscular contraction is a diagnostic tool to neuromuscular diseases and an action trigger to control myoelectric devices. In this work, entropy and information content concepts were applied in algorithmic methods to automatic detection in surface electromyographic signals.

  14. Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links to sources of cancer-related statistics, including the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program, SEER-Medicare datasets, cancer survivor prevalence data, and the Cancer Trends Progress Report.

  15. Bayesian statistics and information fusion for GPS-denied navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copp, Brian Lee

    It is well known that satellite navigation systems are vulnerable to disruption due to jamming, spoofing, or obstruction of the signal. The desire for robust navigation of aircraft in GPS-denied environments has motivated the development of feature-aided navigation systems, in which measurements of environmental features are used to complement the dead reckoning solution produced by an inertial navigation system. Examples of environmental features which can be exploited for navigation include star positions, terrain elevation, terrestrial wireless signals, and features extracted from photographic data. Feature-aided navigation represents a particularly challenging estimation problem because the measurements are often strongly nonlinear, and the quality of the navigation solution is limited by the knowledge of nuisance parameters which may be difficult to model accurately. As a result, integration approaches based on the Kalman filter and its variants may fail to give adequate performance. This project develops a framework for the integration of feature-aided navigation techniques using Bayesian statistics. In this approach, the probability density function for aircraft horizontal position (latitude and longitude) is approximated by a two-dimensional point mass function defined on a rectangular grid. Nuisance parameters are estimated using a hypothesis based approach (Multiple Model Adaptive Estimation) which continuously maintains an accurate probability density even in the presence of strong nonlinearities. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is illustrated by the simulated use of terrain referenced navigation and wireless time-of-arrival positioning to estimate a reference aircraft trajectory. Monte Carlo simulations have shown that accurate position estimates can be obtained in terrain referenced navigation even with a strongly nonlinear altitude bias. The integration of terrain referenced and wireless time-of-arrival measurements is described along with

  16. Full counting statistics of information content and particle number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsumi, Yasuhiro

    2017-08-01

    We consider a bipartite quantum conductor and discuss the joint probability distribution of a particle number in a subsystem and the self-information associated with the reduced density matrix of the subsystem. By extending the multicontour Keldysh Green-function technique, we calculate the Rényi entropy of a positive integer order M subjected to the particle number constraint, from which we derive the joint probability distribution. For energy-independent transmission, we derive the time dependence of the accessible entanglement entropy, or the conditional entropy. We analyze the joint probability distribution for energy-dependent transmission probability at the steady state under the coherent resonant tunneling and the incoherent sequential tunneling conditions. We also discuss the probability distribution of the efficiency, which measures the information content transferred by a single electron.

  17. Interfaces between statistical analysis packages and the ESRI geographic information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuoka, E.

    1980-01-01

    Interfaces between ESRI's geographic information system (GIS) data files and real valued data files written to facilitate statistical analysis and display of spatially referenced multivariable data are described. An example of data analysis which utilized the GIS and the statistical analysis system is presented to illustrate the utility of combining the analytic capability of a statistical package with the data management and display features of the GIS.

  18. Social and Economic Statistics in the United Kingdom: A Review of Information Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanenbaum, Eric; Nunez, Alfonso

    1982-01-01

    A new system is needed to monitor socioeconomic statistical data for the United Kingdom (UK). The current state of UK socioeconomic statistics, an assessment of methods used to communicate available information, and the resource requirements of a successful monitoring service are discussed. (AM)

  19. Use of Statistical Information for Damage Assessment of Civil Engineering Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Andersen, P.

    This paper considers the problem of damage assessment of civil engineering structures using statistical information. The aim of the paper is to review how researchers recently have tried to solve the problem. It is pointed out that the problem consists of not only how to use the statistical...

  20. Statistical analysis of geographic information with ArcView GIS and ArcGIS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wong, David W. S; Lee, Jay

    2005-01-01

    ... of its capabilities for spatial-quantitative synthesis. Now, David Wong and Jay Lee update their comprehensive handbook with Statistical Analysis of Geographic Information with ArcView GIS and ArcGIS...

  1. Fisher information and quantum-classical field theory: classical statistics similarity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syska, J. [Department of Field Theory and Particle Physics, Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland)

    2007-07-15

    The classical statistics indication for the impossibility to derive quantum mechanics from classical mechanics is proved. The formalism of the statistical Fisher information is used. Next the Fisher information as a tool of the construction of a self-consistent field theory, which joins the quantum theory and classical field theory, is proposed. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. Optimal transmission strategy for spatially correlated MIMO systems with channel statistical information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Zhen-shan; XU Guo-zhi

    2007-01-01

    In real multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems, the perfect channel state information (CSI) may be costly or impossible to acquire. But the channel statistical information can be considered relatively stationary during long-term transmission.The statistical information can be obtained at the receiver and fed back to the transmitter and do not require frequent update. By exploiting channel mean and covariance information at the transmitter simultaneously, this paper investigates the optimal transmission strategy for spatially correlated MIMO channels. An upper bound of ergodic capacity is derived and taken as the performance criterion. Simulation results are also given to show the performance improvement of the optimal transmission strategy.

  3. Blepharoptosis correction with buried suture method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jang Woo; Kang, Moon Seok; Nam, Seung Min; Kim, Yong Bae

    2015-02-01

    Many surgical techniques have been developed to correct blepharoptosis, including the anterior levator resection or advancement, tarsoaponeurectomy, and Fasanella-Servat Müllerectomy. However, to minimize surgical scarring and reduce the postoperative recovery time, the procedure has been developed from a complete incision to a partial incision, which is appealing to patients. To aid the procedural development, this study describes a surgical technique in which the correction of blepharoptosis and a double eyelid fold operation are performed using a buried suture technique during the same operation. A retrospective review was conducted using the medical records and preoperative and postoperative photography of 121 patients who underwent simultaneous correction of blepharoptosis and had a double eyelid fold created between October 2010 and July 2011. All of the patients had mild (1-2 mm) or moderate (3-4 mm) bilateral blepharoptosis and excellent or good levator function (>8 mm). The average preoperative marginal reflex distance (MRD1) measured 1.174 (0.3) mm. No intraoperative complications occurred. The average postoperative MRD1 measured 3.968 (0.2) mm. There was statistical significance improvement between preoperative MRD1 and postoperative MRD1 (Pexposure keratopathy were noted. Blepharoptosis correction using the buried suture technique is an effective technique for young patients experiencing mild to moderate blepharoptosis who want to have the double eyelid fold operation using the buried suture technique.

  4. Changing Statistical Significance with the Amount of Information: The Adaptive α Significance Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, María-Eglée; Pericchi, Luis Raúl

    2014-02-01

    We put forward an adaptive alpha which changes with the amount of sample information. This calibration may be interpreted as a Bayes/non-Bayes compromise, and leads to statistical consistency. The calibration can also be used to produce confidence intervals whose size take in consideration the amount of observed information.

  5. Changing Statistical Significance with the Amount of Information: The Adaptive α Significance Level☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, María-Eglée; Pericchi, Luis Raúl

    2014-01-01

    We put forward an adaptive alpha which changes with the amount of sample information. This calibration may be interpreted as a Bayes/non-Bayes compromise, and leads to statistical consistency. The calibration can also be used to produce confidence intervals whose size take in consideration the amount of observed information. PMID:24511173

  6. Dissemination of statistical information for purposes of efficiency management of socio-economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerasimenko S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The questions connected with the facilitation of the access of the people to the information about the living standard are considered. In particular it is suggested to use the information of the System of National Accounts and statistic methods. It is stressed that the information about living standard should be amplified with the characteristics of the effectiveness of the management of the social-economic development.

  7. Statistical Inference on Memory Structure of Processes and Its Applications to Information Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-12

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Three areas were investigated. First, new memory models of discrete-time and finitely-valued information sources are...computational and storage complexities are proved. Second, a statistical method is developed to estimate the memory depth of discrete-time and continuously...Distribution Unlimited UU UU UU UU 12-05-2016 15-May-2014 14-Feb-2015 Final Report: Statistical Inference on Memory Structure of Processes and Its Applications

  8. Health information systems in Africa: descriptive analysis of data sources, information products and health statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbondji, Peter Ebongue; Kebede, Derege; Soumbey-Alley, Edoh William; Zielinski, Chris; Kouvividila, Wenceslas; Lusamba-Dikassa, Paul-Samson

    2014-05-01

    To identify key data sources of health information and describe their availability in countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) African Region. An analytical review on the availability and quality of health information data sources in countries; from experience, observations, literature and contributions from countries. Forty-six Member States of the WHO African Region. No participants. The state of data sources, including censuses, surveys, vital registration and health care facility-based sources. In almost all countries of the Region, there is a heavy reliance on household surveys for most indicators, with more than 121 household surveys having been conducted in the Region since 2000. Few countries have civil registration systems that permit adequate and regular tracking of mortality and causes of death. Demographic surveillance sites function in several countries, but the data generated are not integrated into the national health information system because of concerns about representativeness. Health management information systems generate considerable data, but the information is rarely used because of concerns about bias, quality and timeliness. To date, 43 countries in the Region have initiated Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response. A multitude of data sources are used to track progress towards health-related goals in the Region, with heavy reliance on household surveys for most indicators. Countries need to develop comprehensive national plans for health information that address the full range of data needs and data sources and that include provision for building national capacities for data generation, analysis, dissemination and use. © The Royal Society of Medicine.

  9. Geometrodynamics of Information on Curved Statistical Manifolds and its Applications to Chaos

    CERN Document Server

    Cafaro, C

    2008-01-01

    A novel information-geometrodynamical approach to chaotic dynamics (IGAC) on curved statistical manifolds based on Entropic Dynamics (ED) is presented and a new definition of information geometrodynamical entropy (IGE) as a measure of chaoticity is proposed. The general classical formalism is illustrated in a relatively simple example. It is shown that the hyperbolicity of a non-maximally symmetric 6N-dimensional statistical manifold M_{s} underlying an ED Gaussian model describing an arbitrary system of 3N degrees of freedom leads to linear information-geometric entropy growth and to exponential divergence of the Jacobi vector field intensity, quantum and classical features of chaos respectively. An information-geometric analogue of the Zurek-Paz quantum chaos criterion in the classical reversible limit is proposed. This analogy is illustrated applying the IGAC to a set of n-uncoupled three-dimensional anisotropic inverted harmonic oscillators characterized by a Ohmic distributed frequency spectrum.

  10. Incorporating Nonparametric Statistics into Delphi Studies in Library and Information Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Boryung; Jin, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The Delphi technique is widely used in library and information science research. However, many researchers in the field fail to employ standard statistical tests when using this technique. This makes the technique vulnerable to criticisms of its reliability and validity. The general goal of this article is to explore how…

  11. Knowledge-Sharing Intention among Information Professionals in Nigeria: A Statistical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tella, Adeyinka

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the researcher administered a survey and developed and tested a statistical model to examine the factors that determine the intention of information professionals in Nigeria to share knowledge with their colleagues. The result revealed correlations between the overall score for intending to share knowledge and other…

  12. Statistics information of rice EST mapping results - RGP estmap2001 | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us RGP estmap2001 Statistics information of rice EST mapping results Data detail Data name Statistics...of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Statistics information of rice EST mapping results - RGP estmap2001 | LSDB Archive ...

  13. Statistical Mechanics and Information-Theoretic Perspectives on Complexity in the Earth System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Eftaxias

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This review provides a summary of methods originated in (non-equilibrium statistical mechanics and information theory, which have recently found successful applications to quantitatively studying complexity in various components of the complex system Earth. Specifically, we discuss two classes of methods: (i entropies of different kinds (e.g., on the one hand classical Shannon and R´enyi entropies, as well as non-extensive Tsallis entropy based on symbolic dynamics techniques and, on the other hand, approximate entropy, sample entropy and fuzzy entropy; and (ii measures of statistical interdependence and causality (e.g., mutual information and generalizations thereof, transfer entropy, momentary information transfer. We review a number of applications and case studies utilizing the above-mentioned methodological approaches for studying contemporary problems in some exemplary fields of the Earth sciences, highlighting the potentials of different techniques.

  14. Information Theory - The Bridge Connecting Bounded Rational Game Theory and Statistical Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, David H.

    2005-01-01

    A long-running difficulty with conventional game theory has been how to modify it to accommodate the bounded rationality of all red-world players. A recurring issue in statistical physics is how best to approximate joint probability distributions with decoupled (and therefore far more tractable) distributions. This paper shows that the same information theoretic mathematical structure, known as Product Distribution (PD) theory, addresses both issues. In this, PD theory not only provides a principle formulation of bounded rationality and a set of new types of mean field theory in statistical physics; it also shows that those topics are fundamentally one and the same.

  15. An Exploration of Preference for Numerical Information in Relation to Math Self-Concept and Statistics Anxiety in a Graduate Statistics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current research was to investigate the relationship between preference for numerical information (PNI), math self-concept, and six types of statistics anxiety in an attempt to establish support for the nomological validity of the PNI. Correlations indicate that four types of statistics anxiety were strongly related to PNI, and…

  16. Analysis and evolution of air quality monitoring networks using combined statistical information indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Osses

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present combined statistical indexes for evaluating air quality monitoring networks based on concepts derived from the information theory and Kullback–Liebler divergence. More precisely, we introduce: (1 the standard measure of complementary mutual information or ‘specificity’ index; (2 a new measure of information gain or ‘representativity’ index; (3 the information gaps associated with the evolution of a network and (4 the normalised information distance used in clustering analysis. All these information concepts are illustrated by applying them to 14 yr of data collected by the air quality monitoring network in Santiago de Chile (33.5 S, 70.5 W, 500 m a.s.l.. We find that downtown stations, located in a relatively flat area of the Santiago basin, generally show high ‘representativity’ and low ‘specificity’, whereas the contrary is found for a station located in a canyon to the east of the basin, consistently with known emission and circulation patterns of Santiago. We also show interesting applications of information gain to the analysis of the evolution of a network, where the choice of background information is also discussed, and of mutual information distance to the classifications of stations. Our analyses show that information as those presented here should of course be used in a complementary way when addressing the analysis of an air quality network for planning and evaluation purposes.

  17. Elicitation by design in ecology: using expert opinion to inform priors for Bayesian statistical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Samantha Low; O'Leary, Rebecca; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2009-01-01

    Bayesian statistical modeling has several benefits within an ecological context. In particular, when observed data are limited in sample size or representativeness, then the Bayesian framework provides a mechanism to combine observed data with other "prior" information. Prior information may be obtained from earlier studies, or in their absence, from expert knowledge. This use of the Bayesian framework reflects the scientific "learning cycle," where prior or initial estimates are updated when new data become available. In this paper we outline a framework for statistical design of expert elicitation processes for quantifying such expert knowledge, in a form suitable for input as prior information into Bayesian models. We identify six key elements: determining the purpose and motivation for using prior information; specifying the relevant expert knowledge available; formulating the statistical model; designing effective and efficient numerical encoding; managing uncertainty; and designing a practical elicitation protocol. We demonstrate this framework applies to a variety of situations, with two examples from the ecological literature and three from our experience. Analysis of these examples reveals several recurring important issues affecting practical design of elicitation in ecological problems.

  18. Statistical models of interoccurrence times of Iranian earthquakes on the basis of information criteria

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nadia Tahernia; Morteza Khodabin; Noorbakhsh Mirzaei; Morteza Eskandari-Ghadi

    2012-04-01

    By analyzing the seismic catalogue of Iran, the probability distributions of interoccurrence times of earthquakes were investigated for different seismotectonic settings. Several probability distributions were applied to data from major seismotectonic provinces in different cut-off magnitudes and the distribution parameters were determined through the method of maximum likelihood. With the help of goodness-of-fit tests (AIC and BIC criteria based on information theory, Kolmogorov–Smirnov test) and the coefficient of determination, we have found that the gamma statistics and generalized normal statistics coexist in interoccurrence time statistics. Our results imply that a transition from a generalized normal regime to a gamma regime occurs if the threshold magnitude in certain seismotectonic regions (Alborz–Azarbayejan, Zagros, and Central-East Iran) is changed.

  19. Application of Monte Carlo Technique for Determining Maneuvering Loads from Statistical Information on Airplane Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Harold A.; Mayer, John P.; Huston, Wilber B.

    1961-01-01

    Results of a statistical analysis of horizontal-tail loads on a fighter airplane are presented. The data were obtained from a number of operational training missions with flight at altitudes up to about 50,000 feet and at Mach numbers up to 1.22. The analysis was performed to determine the feasibility of calculating horizontal-tail load from data on the flight conditions and airplane motions. In the analysis the calculated loads are compared with the measured loads for the different types of missions performed. The loads were calculated by two methods: a direct approach and a Monte Carlo technique. The procedures used and some of the problems associated with the data analysis are discussed. frequencies of occurrence of tail loads of given magnitudes are derived from statistical information on the flight quantities. In the direct method, a time history of tail load is calculated from time-history measurements of the flight quantities. The Monte Carlo method could be useful for extending loads information for design of prospective airplanes . For the Monte Carlo method, the The results indicate that the accuracy of loads, regardless of the method used for calculation, is largely dependent on the knowledge of the pertinent airplane aerodynamic characteristics and center-of-gravity location. In addition, reliable Monte Carlo results require an adequate sample of statistical data and a knowledge of the more important statistical dependencies between the various flight conditions and airplane motions.

  20. Examples of the Application of Nonparametric Information Geometry to Statistical Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Pistone

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We review a nonparametric version of Amari’s information geometry in which the set of positive probability densities on a given sample space is endowed with an atlas of charts to form a differentiable manifold modeled on Orlicz Banach spaces. This nonparametric setting is used to discuss the setting of typical problems in machine learning and statistical physics, such as black-box optimization, Kullback-Leibler divergence, Boltzmann-Gibbs entropy and the Boltzmann equation.

  1. RaptorX: exploiting structure information for protein alignment by statistical inference

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Jian; Xu, Jinbo

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents RaptorX, a statistical method for template-based protein modeling that improves alignment accuracy by exploiting structural information in a single or multiple templates. RaptorX consists of three major components: single-template threading, alignment quality prediction and multiple-template threading. This paper summarizes the methods employed by RaptorX and presents its CASP9 result analysis, aiming to identify major bottlenecks with RaptorX and template-based modeling a...

  2. 47 CFR 32.2423 - Buried cable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buried cable. 32.2423 Section 32.2423... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2423 Buried cable. (a) This account shall include the original cost of buried cable as well as the cost of other material...

  3. Statistics for library and information services a primer for using open source R software for accessibility and visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Alon

    2016-01-01

    Statistics for Library and Information Services, written for non-statisticians, provides logical, user-friendly, and step-by-step instructions to make statistics more accessible for students and professionals in the field of Information Science. It emphasizes concepts of statistical theory and data collection methodologies, but also extends to the topics of visualization creation and display, so that the reader will be able to better conduct statistical analysis and communicate his/her findings. The book is tailored for information science students and professionals. It has specific examples of dataset sets, scripts, design modules, data repositories, homework assignments, and a glossary lexicon that matches the field of Information Science. The textbook provides a visual road map that is customized specifically for Information Science instructors, students, and professionals regarding statistics and visualization. Each chapter in the book includes full-color illustrations on how to use R for the statistical ...

  4. Theory buried under heavy description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian B. Martin Ph.D.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In journalism when a reporter puts the main news or point of the story deep down in the text, we say she’s buried the lead, the lead being the main point of the story and usually the first paragraph. In Children in Genocide: extreme traumatization and affect regulation, psychoanalyst Suzanne Kaplan buries her theory. Her study of the after effects of trauma among Holocaust survivors who were children during their persecution and survivors of atrocities during the Rwandan atrocities of the 1990s, is filled with highly descriptive material from the many interviews that serve as data. An interesting grounded theory is peeking out from under all the disciplinary discourse and historical background one must read through to get to what grounded theory readers will consider the juicy parts: concepts on affect regulation in trauma survivors.

  5. The Barrier to Informed Choice in Cancer Screening: Statistical Illiteracy in Physicians and Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegwarth, Odette; Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2018-01-01

    other misleading statistics, motivated by conflicts of interest and defensive medicine that do not promote informed physicians and patients. What can be done? Every medical school should teach its students how to understand evidence in general and health statistics in particular. To cultivate informed patients, elementary and high schools should start teaching the mathematics of uncertainty-statistical thinking. Guidelines about complete and transparent reporting in journals, brochures, and the media need to be better enforced, and laws need to be changed in order to protect patients and doctors alike against the practice of defensive medicine instead of encouraging it. A critical mass of informed citizens will not resolve all healthcare problems, but it can constitute a major triggering factor for better care.

  6. Statistics Information Management System%智能统计分析系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹占峰; 刘海涛; 张启伟

    2015-01-01

    Statistics work is the fundamental to achieve the enterprise information. With the increase of the requirement to statistics work, technology reformation of statistics is faced with the big challenge. In this paper, it is in allusion to the problem which is not satisfied by client in electric power statistics process to transform, with uniform data platform as centre. The statistics information management system is established which is combined with business intelligence and data statistics. In this system, it can unify data storage and standardize index management. Through the user interface, it can accomplish operation, like forms report, data examination and application analysis. It is proved availability of this research result with this system coming into service to statistics work that work pressure is lightened, work efficiency and quality is enhanced.%统计工作是实现企业信息化的根本,随着对统计工作要求的提高,统计技术革新面临重大挑战。以统一数据平台为核心,针对统计过程中无法满足客户需求的问题进行变革。建立了将商业智能功能与数据统计功能整合为一的智能统计分析系统,该系统具有统一数据存储、规范指标管理的效果,可以通过本系统的用户界面对企业业务完成报表统计、数据查询、应用分析等操作。该系统已成功投入使用,服务于统计工作,减轻工作压力、提高工作效率和质量,验证了本研究成果的有效性。

  7. Can chaotic quantum energy levels statistics be characterized using information geometry and inference methods?

    CERN Document Server

    Cafaro, C

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we review our novel information geometrodynamical approach to chaos (IGAC) on curved statistical manifolds and we emphasize the usefulness of our information-geometrodynamical entropy (IGE) as an indicator of chaoticity in a simple application. Furthermore, knowing that integrable and chaotic quantum antiferromagnetic Ising chains are characterized by asymptotic logarithmic and linear growths of their operator space entanglement entropies, respectively, we apply our IGAC to present an alternative characterization of such systems. Remarkably, we show that in the former case the IGE exhibits asymptotic logarithmic growth while in the latter case the IGE exhibits asymptotic linear growth. At this stage of its development, IGAC remains an ambitious unifying information-geometric theoretical construct for the study of chaotic dynamics with several unsolved problems. However, based on our recent findings, we believe it could provide an interesting, innovative and potentially powerful way to study and...

  8. Can chaotic quantum energy levels statistics be characterized using information geometry and inference methods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafaro, C.; Ali, S. A.

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we review our novel information-geometrodynamical approach to chaos (IGAC) on curved statistical manifolds and we emphasize the usefulness of our information-geometrodynamical entropy (IGE) as an indicator of chaoticity in a simple application. Furthermore, knowing that integrable and chaotic quantum antiferromagnetic Ising chains are characterized by asymptotic logarithmic and linear growths of their operator space entanglement entropies, respectively, we apply our IGAC to present an alternative characterization of such systems. Remarkably, we show that in the former case the IGE exhibits asymptotic logarithmic growth while in the latter case the IGE exhibits asymptotic linear growth. At this stage of its development, IGAC remains an ambitious unifying information-geometric theoretical construct for the study of chaotic dynamics with several unsolved problems. However, based on our recent findings, we believe that it could provide an interesting, innovative and potentially powerful way to study and understand the very important and challenging problems of classical and quantum chaos.

  9. On the Estimation and Use of Statistical Modelling in Information Retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Casper

    Automatic text processing often relies on assumptions about the distribution of some property (such as term frequency) in the data being processed. In information retrieval (IR) such assumptions may be contributed to (i) the absence of principled approaches for determining the correct statistical...... distribution, and to the fact that (ii) making such assumptions does not seem to impact IR effectiveness. However, if such assumptions are not validated, any subsequent calculations, deductions or modelling becomes less accurate for the task at hand. To remove the need for such assumptions, this thesis first...... introduces a statistically principled method for selecting the best fitting distribution. The thesis then demonstrates that integrating knowledge about the best-fitting distribution into IR leads to superior results compared to existing strong baselines on multiple datasets. Overall, this thesis concludes...

  10. Information theory and statistical nuclear reactions. I. General theory and applications to few-channel problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, P.A.; Pereyra, P.; Seligman, T.H.

    1985-05-01

    Ensembles of scattering S-matrices have been used in the past to describe the statistical fluctuations exhibited by many nuclear-reaction cross sections as a function of energy. In recent years, there have been attempts to construct these ensembles explicitly in terms of S, by directly proposinng a statistical law for S. In the present paper, it is shown that, for an arbitrary number of channels, one can incorporate, in the ensemble of S-matrices, the conditions of flux conservation, time-reversal invariance, causality, ergodicity, and the requirement that the ensemble average coincide with the optical scattering matrix. Since these conditions do not specify the ensemble uniquely, the ensemble that has maximum information-entropy is dealt with among those that satisfy the above requirements. Some applications to few-channel problems and comparisons to Monte-Carlo calculations are presented.

  11. Buried waste integrated demonstration FY 94 deployment plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, R.A.; Walker, S.; Garcia, M.M.

    1994-05-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is a program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Technology Development. BWID supports the applied research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that together form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The fiscal year (FY) 1994 effort will fund thirty-eight technologies in five areas of buried waste site remediation: site characterization, waste characterization, retrieval, treatment, and containment/stabilization. This document is the basic operational planning document for deployment of all BWID projects. Discussed in this document are the BWID preparations for INEL field demonstrations, INEL laboratory demonstrations, non-INEL demonstrations, and paper studies. Each technology performing tests will prepare a test plan to detail the specific procedures, objectives, and tasks of each test. Therefore, information specific to testing each technology is intentionally omitted from this document.

  12. Data Flow Analysis and Visualization for Spatiotemporal Statistical Data without Trajectory Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seokyeon; Jeong, Seongmin; Woo, Insoo; Jang, Yun; Maciejewski, Ross; Ebert, David

    2017-02-08

    Geographic visualization research has focused on a variety of techniques to represent and explore spatiotemporal data. The goal of those techniques is to enable users to explore events and interactions over space and time in order to facilitate the discovery of patterns, anomalies and relationships within the data. However, it is difficult to extract and visualize data flow patterns over time for non-directional statistical data without trajectory information. In this work, we develop a novel flow analysis technique to extract, represent, and analyze flow maps of non-directional spatiotemporal data unaccompanied by trajectory information. We estimate a continuous distribution of these events over space and time, and extract flow fields for spatial and temporal changes utilizing a gravity model. Then, we visualize the spatiotemporal patterns in the data by employing flow visualization techniques. The user is presented with temporal trends of geo-referenced discrete events on a map. As such, overall spatiotemporal data flow patterns help users analyze geo-referenced temporal events, such as disease outbreaks, crime patterns, etc. To validate our model, we discard the trajectory information in an origin-destination dataset and apply our technique to the data and compare the derived trajectories and the original. Finally, we present spatiotemporal trend analysis for statistical datasets including twitter data, maritime search and rescue events, and syndromic surveillance.

  13. Statistical Information and Uncertainty: A Critique of Applications in Experimental Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Laming

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents, first, a formal exploration of the relationships between information (statistically defined, statistical hypothesis testing, the use of hypothesis testing in reverse as an investigative tool, channel capacity in a communication system, uncertainty, the concept of entropy in thermodynamics, and Bayes’ theorem. This exercise brings out the close mathematical interrelationships between different applications of these ideas in diverse areas of psychology. Subsequent illustrative examples are grouped under (a the human operator as an ideal communications channel, (b the human operator as a purely physical system, and (c Bayes’ theorem as an algorithm for combining information from different sources. Some tentative conclusions are drawn about the usefulness of information theory within these different categories. (a The idea of the human operator as an ideal communications channel has long been abandoned, though it provides some lessons that still need to be absorbed today. (b Treating the human operator as a purely physical system provides a platform for the quantitative exploration of many aspects of human performance by analogy with the analysis of other physical systems. (c The use of Bayes’ theorem to calculate the effects of prior probabilities and stimulus frequencies on human performance is probably misconceived, but it is difficult to obtain results precise enough to resolve this question.

  14. Informing the judgments of fingerprint analysts using quality metric and statistical assessment tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenburg, Glenn; Champod, Christophe; Genessay, Thibault

    2012-06-10

    The aim of this research was to evaluate how fingerprint analysts would incorporate information from newly developed tools into their decision making processes. Specifically, we assessed effects using the following: (1) a quality tool to aid in the assessment of the clarity of the friction ridge details, (2) a statistical tool to provide likelihood ratios representing the strength of the corresponding features between compared fingerprints, and (3) consensus information from a group of trained fingerprint experts. The measured variables for the effect on examiner performance were the accuracy and reproducibility of the conclusions against the ground truth (including the impact on error rates) and the analyst accuracy and variation for feature selection and comparison. The results showed that participants using the consensus information from other fingerprint experts demonstrated more consistency and accuracy in minutiae selection. They also demonstrated higher accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity in the decisions reported. The quality tool also affected minutiae selection (which, in turn, had limited influence on the reported decisions); the statistical tool did not appear to influence the reported decisions.

  15. Students' Expressions of Uncertainty in Making Informal Inference When Engaged in a Statistical Investigation Using TinkerPlots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Ana; Oliveira, Hélia

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of a study investigating the potential to embed Informal Statistical Inference in statistical investigations, using TinkerPlots, for assisting 8th grade students' informal inferential reasoning to emerge, particularly their articulations of uncertainty. Data collection included students' written work on a…

  16. Statistical-mechanical analysis of multiuser channel capacity with imperfect channel state information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hui-Song; Zeng Gui-Hua

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,the effect of imperfect channel state information at the receiver, which is caused by noise and other interference, on the multi-access channel capacity is analysed through a statistical-mechanical approach. Replica analyses focus on analytically studying how the minimum mean square error (MMSE) channel estimation error appears in a multiuser channel capacity formula. And the relevant mathematical expressions are derived. At the same time,numerical simulation results are demonstrated to validate the Replica analyses. The simulation results show how the system parameters, such as channel estimation error, system load and signal-to-noise ratio, affect the channel capacity.

  17. Cation Selectivity in Biological Cation Channels Using Experimental Structural Information and Statistical Mechanical Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnerty, Justin John; Peyser, Alexander; Carloni, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Cation selective channels constitute the gate for ion currents through the cell membrane. Here we present an improved statistical mechanical model based on atomistic structural information, cation hydration state and without tuned parameters that reproduces the selectivity of biological Na+ and Ca2+ ion channels. The importance of the inclusion of step-wise cation hydration in these results confirms the essential role partial dehydration plays in the bacterial Na+ channels. The model, proven reliable against experimental data, could be straightforwardly used for designing Na+ and Ca2+ selective nanopores.

  18. Improving Prediction Skill of Imperfect Turbulent Models Through Statistical Response and Information Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majda, Andrew J.; Qi, Di

    2016-02-01

    Turbulent dynamical systems with a large phase space and a high degree of instabilities are ubiquitous in climate science and engineering applications. Statistical uncertainty quantification (UQ) to the response to the change in forcing or uncertain initial data in such complex turbulent systems requires the use of imperfect models due to the lack of both physical understanding and the overwhelming computational demands of Monte Carlo simulation with a large-dimensional phase space. Thus, the systematic development of reduced low-order imperfect statistical models for UQ in turbulent dynamical systems is a grand challenge. This paper applies a recent mathematical strategy for calibrating imperfect models in a training phase and accurately predicting the response by combining information theory and linear statistical response theory in a systematic fashion. A systematic hierarchy of simple statistical imperfect closure schemes for UQ for these problems is designed and tested which are built through new local and global statistical energy conservation principles combined with statistical equilibrium fidelity. The forty mode Lorenz 96 (L-96) model which mimics forced baroclinic turbulence is utilized as a test bed for the calibration and predicting phases for the hierarchy of computationally cheap imperfect closure models both in the full phase space and in a reduced three-dimensional subspace containing the most energetic modes. In all of phase spaces, the nonlinear response of the true model is captured accurately for the mean and variance by the systematic closure model, while alternative methods based on the fluctuation-dissipation theorem alone are much less accurate. For reduced-order model for UQ in the three-dimensional subspace for L-96, the systematic low-order imperfect closure models coupled with the training strategy provide the highest predictive skill over other existing methods for general forced response yet have simple design principles based on a

  19. Solution of Multiple——Point Statistics to Extracting Information from Remotely Sensed Imagery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge Yong; Bai Hexiang; Cheng Qiuming

    2008-01-01

    Two phenomena of similar objects with different spectra and different objects with similar spectrum often result in the difficulty of separation and identification of all types of geographical objects only using spectral information.Therefore,there is a need to incorporate spatial structural and spatial association properties of the surfaces of objects into image processing to improve the accuracy of classification of remotely sensed imagery.In the current article,a new method is proposed on the basis of the principle of multiple-point statistics for combining spectral information and spatial information for image classification.The method was validated by applying to a case study on road extraction based on Landsat TM taken over the Chinese YeHow River delta on August 8,1999. The classification results have shown that this new method provides overall better results than the traditional methods such as maximum likelihood classifier (MLC)

  20. Introduction of statistical information in a syntactic analyzer for document image recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroneze, André O.; Coüasnon, Bertrand; Lemaitre, Aurélie

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an improvement to document layout analysis systems, offering a possible solution to Sayre's paradox (which states that an element "must be recognized before it can be segmented; and it must be segmented before it can be recognized"). This improvement, based on stochastic parsing, allows integration of statistical information, obtained from recognizers, during syntactic layout analysis. We present how this fusion of numeric and symbolic information in a feedback loop can be applied to syntactic methods to improve document description expressiveness. To limit combinatorial explosion during exploration of solutions, we devised an operator that allows optional activation of the stochastic parsing mechanism. Our evaluation on 1250 handwritten business letters shows this method allows the improvement of global recognition scores.

  1. SOME IMPORTANT STATISTICAL PROPERTIES, INFORMATION MEASURES AND ESTIMATIONS OF SIZE BIASED GENERALIZED GAMMA DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Reshi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new class of Size-biased Generalized Gamma (SBGG distribution is defined. A Size-biased Generalized Gamma (SBGG distribution, a particular case of weighted Generalized Gamma distribution, taking the weights as the variate values has been defined. The important statistical properties including hazard functions, reverse hazard functions, mode, moment generating function, characteristic function, Shannon’s entropy, generalized entropy and Fisher’s information matrix of the new model have been derived and studied. Here, we also study SBGG entropy estimation, Akaike and Bayesian information criterion. A likelihood ratio test for size-biasedness is conducted. The estimation of parameters is obtained by employing the classical methods of estimation especially method of moments and maximum likelihood estimator.

  2. Combining brains: a survey of methods for statistical pooling of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Nicole A; Luna, Beatriz; Sweeney, John A; Eddy, William F

    2002-06-01

    More than one subject is scanned in a typical functional brain imaging experiment. How can the scientist make best use of the acquired data to map the specific areas of the brain that become active during the performance of different tasks? It is clear that we can gain both scientific and statistical power by pooling the images from multiple subjects; furthermore, for the comparison of groups of subjects (clinical patients vs healthy controls, children of different ages, left-handed people vs right-handed people, as just some examples), it is essential to have a "group map" to represent each population and to form the basis of a statistical test. While the importance of combining images for these purposes has been recognized, there has not been an organized attempt on the part of neuroscientists to understand the different statistical approaches to this problem, which have various strengths and weaknesses. In this paper we review some popular methods for combining information, and demonstrate the surveyed techniques on a sample data set. Given a combination of brain images, the researcher needs to interpret the result and decide on areas of activation; the question of thresholding is critical here and is also explored.

  3. Principle of maximum Fisher information from Hardy's axioms applied to statistical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieden, B Roy; Gatenby, Robert A

    2013-10-01

    Consider a finite-sized, multidimensional system in parameter state a. The system is either at statistical equilibrium or general nonequilibrium, and may obey either classical or quantum physics. L. Hardy's mathematical axioms provide a basis for the physics obeyed by any such system. One axiom is that the number N of distinguishable states a in the system obeys N=max. This assumes that N is known as deterministic prior knowledge. However, most observed systems suffer statistical fluctuations, for which N is therefore only known approximately. Then what happens if the scope of the axiom N=max is extended to include such observed systems? It is found that the state a of the system must obey a principle of maximum Fisher information, I=I(max). This is important because many physical laws have been derived, assuming as a working hypothesis that I=I(max). These derivations include uses of the principle of extreme physical information (EPI). Examples of such derivations were of the De Broglie wave hypothesis, quantum wave equations, Maxwell's equations, new laws of biology (e.g., of Coulomb force-directed cell development and of in situ cancer growth), and new laws of economic fluctuation and investment. That the principle I=I(max) itself derives from suitably extended Hardy axioms thereby eliminates its need to be assumed in these derivations. Thus, uses of I=I(max) and EPI express physics at its most fundamental level, its axiomatic basis in math.

  4. The Duration of Uncertain Times: Audiovisual Information about Intervals Is Integrated in a Statistically Optimal Fashion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartcher-O'Brien, Jess; Di Luca, Massimiliano; Ernst, Marc O.

    2014-01-01

    Often multisensory information is integrated in a statistically optimal fashion where each sensory source is weighted according to its precision. This integration scheme is statistically optimal because it theoretically results in unbiased perceptual estimates with the highest precision possible. There is a current lack of consensus about how the nervous system processes multiple sensory cues to elapsed time. In order to shed light upon this, we adopt a computational approach to pinpoint the integration strategy underlying duration estimation of audio/visual stimuli. One of the assumptions of our computational approach is that the multisensory signals redundantly specify the same stimulus property. Our results clearly show that despite claims to the contrary, perceived duration is the result of an optimal weighting process, similar to that adopted for estimates of space. That is, participants weight the audio and visual information to arrive at the most precise, single duration estimate possible. The work also disentangles how different integration strategies – i.e. considering the time of onset/offset of signals - might alter the final estimate. As such we provide the first concrete evidence of an optimal integration strategy in human duration estimates. PMID:24594578

  5. Principle of Maximum Fisher Information from Hardy's Axioms Applied to Statistical Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Frieden, B R

    2014-01-01

    Consider a finite-sized, multidimensional system in parameter state a. The system is either at statistical equilibrium or general non-equilibrium, and may obey either classical or quantum physics. L. Hardy's mathematical axioms provide a basis for the physics obeyed by any such system. One axiom is that the number N of distinguishable states a in the system obeys N=max. This assumes that N is known as deterministic prior knowledge. However, most observed systems suffer statistical fluctuations, for which N is therefore only known approximately. Then what happens if the scope of the axiom N=max is extended to include such observed systems? It is found that the state a of the system must obey a principle of maximum Fisher information, I=I_{max}. This is important because many physical laws have been derived, assuming as a working hypothesis that I=I_{max}. These derivations include uses of the principle of Extreme physical information (EPI). Examples of such derivations were of the De Broglie wave hypothesis, q...

  6. Which Type of Risk Information to Use for Whom? Moderating Role of Outcome-Relevant Involvement in the Effects of Statistical and Exemplified Risk Information on Risk Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Jiyeon; Jeong, Se-Hoon; Hwang, Yoori

    2017-04-01

    The extant empirical research examining the effectiveness of statistical and exemplar-based health information is largely inconsistent. Under the premise that the inconsistency may be due to an unacknowledged moderator (O'Keefe, 2002), this study examined a moderating role of outcome-relevant involvement (Johnson & Eagly, 1989) in the effects of statistical and exemplified risk information on risk perception. Consistent with predictions based on elaboration likelihood model (Petty & Cacioppo, 1984), findings from an experiment (N = 237) concerning alcohol consumption risks showed that statistical risk information predicted risk perceptions of individuals with high, rather than low, involvement, while exemplified risk information predicted risk perceptions of those with low, rather than high, involvement. Moreover, statistical risk information contributed to negative attitude toward drinking via increased risk perception only for highly involved individuals, while exemplified risk information influenced the attitude through the same mechanism only for individuals with low involvement. Theoretical and practical implications for health risk communication are discussed.

  7. BATATA: a buried muon hodoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, F.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Paic, G.; Salazar, M. E. Patiño; D'Olivo, J. C.; Molina, R. Alfaro

    2009-04-01

    Muon hodoscopes have several applications, ranging from astrophysics to fundamental particle physics. In this work, we present a detector dedicated to the study, at ground level, of the main signals of cosmic-ray induced showers above 6 PeV. The whole detector is composed by a set of three parallel dual-layer scintillator planes buried at fix depths ranging from 120 g/cm2 to 600 g/cm2 and by a triangular array of water cerenkov detectors located nearby on ground.

  8. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostelnik, K.M.

    1991-12-01

    This document presents the plan of activities for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program which supports the environmental restoration (ER) objectives of the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. Discussed in this plan are the objectives, organization, roles and responsibilities, and the process for implementing and managing BWID. BWID is hosted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), but involves participants from throughout the DOE Complex, private industry, universities, and the international community. These participants will support, demonstrate, and evaluate a suite of advanced technologies representing a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The processes for identifying technological needs, screening candidate technologies for applicability and maturity, selecting appropriate technologies for demonstration, field demonstrating, evaluation of results and transferring technologies to environmental restoration programs are also presented. This document further describes the elements of project planning and control that apply to BWID. It addresses the management processes, operating procedures, programmatic and technical objectives, and schedules. Key functions in support of each demonstration such as regulatory coordination, safety analyses, risk evaluations, facility requirements, and data management are presented.

  9. A nonparametric statistical method for image segmentation using information theory and curve evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junmo; Fisher, John W; Yezzi, Anthony; Cetin, Müjdat; Willsky, Alan S

    2005-10-01

    In this paper, we present a new information-theoretic approach to image segmentation. We cast the segmentation problem as the maximization of the mutual information between the region labels and the image pixel intensities, subject to a constraint on the total length of the region boundaries. We assume that the probability densities associated with the image pixel intensities within each region are completely unknown a priori, and we formulate the problem based on nonparametric density estimates. Due to the nonparametric structure, our method does not require the image regions to have a particular type of probability distribution and does not require the extraction and use of a particular statistic. We solve the information-theoretic optimization problem by deriving the associated gradient flows and applying curve evolution techniques. We use level-set methods to implement the resulting evolution. The experimental results based on both synthetic and real images demonstrate that the proposed technique can solve a variety of challenging image segmentation problems. Futhermore, our method, which does not require any training, performs as good as methods based on training.

  10. Water Quality attainment Information from Clean Water Act Statewide Statistical Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Designated uses assessed by statewide statistical surveys and their state and national attainment categories. Statewide statistical surveys are water quality...

  11. Information processing in bacteria: memory, computation, and statistical physics: a key issues review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ganhui; Tu, Yuhai

    2016-05-01

    preserving information, it does not reveal the underlying mechanism that leads to the observed input-output relationship, nor does it tell us much about which information is important for the organism and how biological systems use information to carry out specific functions. To do that, we need to develop models of the biological machineries, e.g. biochemical networks and neural networks, to understand the dynamics of biological information processes. This is a much more difficult task. It requires deep knowledge of the underlying biological network-the main players (nodes) and their interactions (links)-in sufficient detail to build a model with predictive power, as well as quantitative input-output measurements of the system under different perturbations (both genetic variations and different external conditions) to test the model predictions to guide further development of the model. Due to the recent growth of biological knowledge thanks in part to high throughput methods (sequencing, gene expression microarray, etc) and development of quantitative in vivo techniques such as various florescence technology, these requirements are starting to be realized in different biological systems. The possible close interaction between quantitative experimentation and theoretical modeling has made systems biology an attractive field for physicists interested in quantitative biology. In this review, we describe some of the recent work in developing a quantitative predictive model of bacterial chemotaxis, which can be considered as the hydrogen atom of systems biology. Using statistical physics approaches, such as the Ising model and Langevin equation, we study how bacteria, such as E. coli, sense and amplify external signals, how they keep a working memory of the stimuli, and how they use these data to compute the chemical gradient. In particular, we will describe how E. coli cells avoid cross-talk in a heterogeneous receptor cluster to keep a ligand-specific memory. We will also

  12. Information processing in bacteria: memory, computation, and statistical physics: a key issues review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ganhui; Tu, Yuhai

    2016-05-01

    preserving information, it does not reveal the underlying mechanism that leads to the observed input-output relationship, nor does it tell us much about which information is important for the organism and how biological systems use information to carry out specific functions. To do that, we need to develop models of the biological machineries, e.g. biochemical networks and neural networks, to understand the dynamics of biological information processes. This is a much more difficult task. It requires deep knowledge of the underlying biological network—the main players (nodes) and their interactions (links)—in sufficient detail to build a model with predictive power, as well as quantitative input-output measurements of the system under different perturbations (both genetic variations and different external conditions) to test the model predictions to guide further development of the model. Due to the recent growth of biological knowledge thanks in part to high throughput methods (sequencing, gene expression microarray, etc) and development of quantitative in vivo techniques such as various florescence technology, these requirements are starting to be realized in different biological systems. The possible close interaction between quantitative experimentation and theoretical modeling has made systems biology an attractive field for physicists interested in quantitative biology. In this review, we describe some of the recent work in developing a quantitative predictive model of bacterial chemotaxis, which can be considered as the hydrogen atom of systems biology. Using statistical physics approaches, such as the Ising model and Langevin equation, we study how bacteria, such as E. coli, sense and amplify external signals, how they keep a working memory of the stimuli, and how they use these data to compute the chemical gradient. In particular, we will describe how E. coli cells avoid cross-talk in a heterogeneous receptor cluster to keep a ligand-specific memory. We will also

  13. A study on the application of statistics and information theory to problems of communication with special reference to radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Raghuram

    1963-07-01

    Full Text Available Information theory, which originated in Tele-communication studies, is a branch of Mathematical statistics with many applications of statistical inference. The three fundamental problems are: (i Development of statistical measures of information capacity in a Communication system, (ii the transmission problem of information in a system, and (iii analytical study of reception from a statistical decision point of view. This paper is an attempt to present a comprehensive study of all three aspects. In addition, application of sequential analysis, specially with reference to radar signal detection and range estimation has been briefly discussed. Finally from the point of view of signal reception in the case of a radar, the problem has been considered as a statistical decision study. In conclusion, the computational problems as well as certain comparative studies have been briefly touched upon. Illustrative examples are given and graphs are shown wherever necessary.

  14. Statistical inference for Hardy-Weinberg proportions in the presence of missing genotype information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffelman, Jan; Sánchez, Milagros; Cook, Samantha; Moreno, Victor

    2013-01-01

    In genetic association studies, tests for Hardy-Weinberg proportions are often employed as a quality control checking procedure. Missing genotypes are typically discarded prior to testing. In this paper we show that inference for Hardy-Weinberg proportions can be biased when missing values are discarded. We propose to use multiple imputation of missing values in order to improve inference for Hardy-Weinberg proportions. For imputation we employ a multinomial logit model that uses information from allele intensities and/or neighbouring markers. Analysis of an empirical data set of single nucleotide polymorphisms possibly related to colon cancer reveals that missing genotypes are not missing completely at random. Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg proportions is mostly due to a lack of heterozygotes. Inbreeding coefficients estimated by multiple imputation of the missings are typically lowered with respect to inbreeding coefficients estimated by discarding the missings. Accounting for missings by multiple imputation qualitatively changed the results of 10 to 17% of the statistical tests performed. Estimates of inbreeding coefficients obtained by multiple imputation showed high correlation with estimates obtained by single imputation using an external reference panel. Our conclusion is that imputation of missing data leads to improved statistical inference for Hardy-Weinberg proportions.

  15. Power analysis as a tool to identify statistically informative indicators for monitoring coral reef disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wynsberge, Simon; Gilbert, Antoine; Guillemot, Nicolas; Heintz, Tom; Tremblay-Boyer, Laura

    2017-07-01

    Extensive biological field surveys are costly and time consuming. To optimize sampling and ensure regular monitoring on the long term, identifying informative indicators of anthropogenic disturbances is a priority. In this study, we used 1800 candidate indicators by combining metrics measured from coral, fish, and macro-invertebrate assemblages surveyed from 2006 to 2012 in the vicinity of an ongoing mining project in the Voh-Koné-Pouembout lagoon, New Caledonia. We performed a power analysis to identify a subset of indicators which would best discriminate temporal changes due to a simulated chronic anthropogenic impact. Only 4% of tested indicators were likely to detect a 10% annual decrease of values with sufficient power (>0.80). Corals generally exerted higher statistical power than macro-invertebrates and fishes because of lower natural variability and higher occurrence. For the same reasons, higher taxonomic ranks provided higher power than lower taxonomic ranks. Nevertheless, a number of families of common sedentary or sessile macro-invertebrates and fishes also performed well in detecting changes: Echinometridae, Isognomidae, Muricidae, Tridacninae, Arcidae, and Turbinidae for macro-invertebrates and Pomacentridae, Labridae, and Chaetodontidae for fishes. Interestingly, these families did not provide high power in all geomorphological strata, suggesting that the ability of indicators in detecting anthropogenic impacts was closely linked to reef geomorphology. This study provides a first operational step toward identifying statistically relevant indicators of anthropogenic disturbances in New Caledonia's coral reefs, which can be useful in similar tropical reef ecosystems where little information is available regarding the responses of ecological indicators to anthropogenic disturbances.

  16. Contribution to classification of buried objects based on acoustic impedance matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanić, J; Wüstenberg, H; Krstelj, V; Mrasek, H

    2003-03-01

    Determination of material the buried objects are made of could contribute significantly to their recognition, or classification. This is important in detecting buried antipersonnel landmines within the context of humanitarian demining, as well as in a variety of other applications. In this article the concept has been formulated of the approach to buried object's material determination starting with ultrasonic impulse propagation analysis in a particular testing set configuration. The impulse propagates through a characterized transfer material in such a way that a part of it, a reflected wave, carries the information about the buried object's surface material acoustic impedance. The limit of resolution capability is theoretically analyzed and experimentally evaluated and the influencing factors described. Among these, the contact between clean surfaces of the transfer material and buried object is emphasized.

  17. When Statistical Literacy Really Matters: Understanding Published Information about the HIV/AIDS Epidemic in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobden, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Information on the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Southern Africa is often interpreted through a veil of secrecy and shame and, I argue, with flawed understanding of basic statistics. This research determined the levels of statistical literacy evident in 316 future Mathematical Literacy teachers' explanations of the median in the context of HIV/AIDS…

  18. Landslide Buries Valley of the Geysers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Geysers are a rare natural phenomena found only in a few places, such as New Zealand, Iceland, the United States (Yellowstone National Park), and on Russia's far eastern Kamchatka Peninsula. On June 3, 2007, one of these rare geyser fields was severely damaged when a landslide rolled through Russia's Valley of the Geysers. The landslide--a mix of mud, melting snow, trees, and boulders--tore a scar on the land and buried a number of geysers, thermal pools, and waterfalls in the valley. It also blocked the Geyser River, causing a new thermal lake to pool upstream. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this infrared-enhanced image on June 11, 2007, a week after the slide. The image shows the valley, the landslide, and the new thermal lake. Even in mid-June, just days from the start of summer, the landscape is generally covered in snow, though the geologically heated valley is relatively snow free. The tree-covered hills are red (the color of vegetation in this false-color treatment), providing a strong contrast to the aquamarine water and the gray-brown slide. According to the Russian News and Information Agency (RIA) [English language], the slide left a path roughly a kilometer and a half (one mile) long and 200 meters (600 feet) wide. Within hours of the landslide, the water in the new lake inundated a number of additional geysers. The geysers directly buried under the landslide now lie under as much as 60 meters (180 feet) of material, according to RIA reports. It is unlikely that the geysers will be able to force a new opening through this thick layer, adds RIA. Among those directly buried is Pervenets (Firstborn), the first geyser found in the valley, in 1941. Other geysers, such as the Bolshoi (Greater) and Maly (Lesser) Geysers, were silenced when buried by water building up behind the new natural dam. According to Vladimir and Andrei Leonov of the Russian Federation Institute of

  19. Statistical shape and texture model of quadrature phase information for prostate segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Soumya; Oliver, Arnau; Martí, Robert; Lladó, Xavier; Freixenet, Jordi; Mitra, Jhimli; Vilanova, Joan C; Comet-Batlle, Josep; Meriaudeau, Fabrice

    2012-01-01

    Prostate volume estimation from segmentation of transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images aids in diagnosis and treatment of prostate hypertrophy and cancer. Computer-aided accurate and computationally efficient prostate segmentation in TRUS images is a challenging task, owing to low signal-to-noise ratio, speckle noise, calcifications, and heterogeneous intensity distribution in the prostate region. A multi-resolution framework using texture features in a parametric deformable statistical model of shape and appearance was developed to segment the prostate. Local phase information of log-Gabor quadrature filter extracted texture of the prostate region in TRUS images. Large bandwidth of log-Gabor filter ensures easy estimation of local orientations, and zero response for a constant signal provides invariance to gray level shift. This aids in enhanced representation of the underlying texture information of the prostate unaffected by speckle noise and imaging artifacts. The parametric model of the propagating contour is derived from principal component analysis of prior shape and texture information of the prostate from the training data. The parameters were modified using prior knowledge of the optimization space to achieve segmentation. The proposed method achieves a mean Dice similarity coefficient value of 0.95 ± 0.02 and mean absolute distance of 1.26 ± 0.51 millimeter when validated with 24 TRUS images of 6 data sets in a leave-one-patient-out validation framework. The proposed method for prostate TRUS image segmentation is computationally efficient and provides accurate prostate segmentations in the presence of intensity heterogeneities and imaging artifacts.

  20. Spatial maping of statistical information by using the concept of equivalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadejda Yu. Gubanova

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the problems of the use of statistical tests for revealing equivalence. The combined application of equivalence and statistical difference tests in spatial maping is discussed.

  1. 78 FR 13072 - Seventh Annual Drug Information Association/Food and Drug Administration Statistics Forum-2013...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... Administration Statistics Forum--2013; Public Conference AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... Statistics Forum--2013.'' The purpose of the conference is to discuss relevant statistical issues associated... open forum for the timely discussion of topics of mutual theoretical and practical interest to...

  2. DHLAS: A web-based information system for statistical genetic analysis of HLA population data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thriskos, P; Zintzaras, E; Germenis, A

    2007-03-01

    DHLAS (database HLA system) is a user-friendly, web-based information system for the analysis of human leukocyte antigens (HLA) data from population studies. DHLAS has been developed using JAVA and the R system, it runs on a Java Virtual Machine and its user-interface is web-based powered by the servlet engine TOMCAT. It utilizes STRUTS, a Model-View-Controller framework and uses several GNU packages to perform several of its tasks. The database engine it relies upon for fast access is MySQL, but others can be used a well. The system estimates metrics, performs statistical testing and produces graphs required for HLA population studies: (i) Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (calculated using both asymptotic and exact tests), (ii) genetics distances (Euclidian or Nei), (iii) phylogenetic trees using the unweighted pair group method with averages and neigbor-joining method, (iv) linkage disequilibrium (pairwise and overall, including variance estimations), (v) haplotype frequencies (estimate using the expectation-maximization algorithm) and (vi) discriminant analysis. The main merit of DHLAS is the incorporation of a database, thus, the data can be stored and manipulated along with integrated genetic data analysis procedures. In addition, it has an open architecture allowing the inclusion of other functions and procedures.

  3. Cooperative Transmission for Relay Networks Based on Second-Order Statistics of Channel State Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiangyuan; Petropulu, Athina P.; Poor, H. Vincent

    2011-03-01

    Cooperative beamforming in relay networks is considered, in which a source transmits to its destination with the help of a set of cooperating nodes. The source first transmits locally. The cooperating nodes that receive the source signal retransmit a weighted version of it in an amplify-and-forward (AF) fashion. Assuming knowledge of the second-order statistics of the channel state information, beamforming weights are determined so that the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the destination is maximized subject to two different power constraints, i.e., a total (source and relay) power constraint, and individual relay power constraints. For the former constraint, the original problem is transformed into a problem of one variable, which can be solved via Newton's method. For the latter constraint, the original problem is transformed into a homogeneous quadratically constrained quadratic programming (QCQP) problem. In this case, it is shown that when the number of relays does not exceed three the global solution can always be constructed via semidefinite programming (SDP) relaxation and the matrix rank-one decomposition technique. For the cases in which the SDP relaxation does not generate a rank one solution, two methods are proposed to solve the problem: the first one is based on the coordinate descent method, and the second one transforms the QCQP problem into an infinity norm maximization problem in which a smooth finite norm approximation can lead to the solution using the augmented Lagrangian method.

  4. Nonparametric Bayesian Context Learning for Buried Threat Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    route clearance patrols, the vast majority of GPR data collected in the field will be free of buried threats. In current processing strategies , the large...mining competition spearheaded by Netflix , which sought to improve its movie recommen- dation algorithm [146]. As more customer data becomes available...no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control

  5. Locating a buried earth penetrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caffey, T.W.H.

    1977-11-01

    The purpose of this work was to assist the recovery of a buried earth penetrator by locating the vertical projection of the penetator upon the surface within a horizontal radius error of one meter. The penetrator will carry a small coil which is driven by an alternating current to form a magnetic dipole. Five measurements of the magnetic field vector upon the surface of the earth are shown to be sufficient for determining not only the xyz-coordinates of the dipole, but also the orientation of the dipole axis. The theory, computation process, and field tests are comprehensively described. Results of 26 field tests with the dipole at 9 different combinations of location and orientation are given. Average radial and vertical location errors are 0.27 m and -0.05 m, respectively, while the mean errors in the tilt and orientation angles of the dipole axis are 3 degrees and 8 degrees, respectively. The results are applied to the design of a locating system for a Pershing II penetrator which contains a recessed, rear-mounted coil.

  6. The obtaining of statistical characteristics of informative features of signals in the Autonomous information systems using neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Hohlov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article studies a neural network approach to obtain the statistical characteristics of the input vector implementations of signal and noise at ill-conditioned matrices of correlation moments to solve the problems to select and reduce the vector dimensions of informative features at detection and recognition of signals and noise based on regression methods.A scientific novelty is determined by applying neural network algorithms for the efficient solution of problems to select the informative features and determine the parameters of regression algorithms in terms of the degeneracy or ill-conditioned data with unknown expectation and covariance matrices.The article proposes to use a single-layer neural network with no zero weights and activation functions to calculate the initial regression characteristics and the mean-square value error of multiple initial regression representations, which are necessary to justify the selection of informative features, reduce a dimension of sign vectors and implement the regression algorithms. It is shown that when excluding direct links between the inputs and their corresponding neurons, in the training network the weight coefficients of neuron inputs are the coefficients of initial multiple regression, the error meansquare value of multiple initial regression representations is calculated at the outputs of neurons. The article considers conditionality of the problem to calculate the matrix that is inverse one for matrix of correlation moments. It defines a condition number, which characterizes the relative error of stated task.The problem concerning the matrix condition of the correlation moment of informative signal features and noise arises when solving the problem to find the multiple coefficients of initial regression (MCIR and the residual mean-square values of the multiple regression representations. For obtaining the MCIR and finding the residual mean-square values the matrix of correlation moments of

  7. A study of possible sea state information in the sample and hold gate statistics for the GEOS-3 satellite altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, W. T.; Borman, K. L.; Mitchell, R. D.; Dempsey, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    The statistical variations in the sample gate outputs of the GEOS-3 satellite altimeter were studied for possible sea state information. After examination of a large number of statistical characteristics of the altimeter waveforms, it was found that the best sea predictor for H-1/3 in the range of 0 to 3 meters was the 75th percentile of sample and hold gate number 11.

  8. Inclusion probability for DNA mixtures is a subjective one-sided match statistic unrelated to identification information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark William Perlin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: DNA mixtures of two or more people are a common type of forensic crime scene evidence. A match statistic that connects the evidence to a criminal defendant is usually needed for court. Jurors rely on this strength of match to help decide guilt or innocence. However, the reliability of unsophisticated match statistics for DNA mixtures has been questioned. Materials and Methods: The most prevalent match statistic for DNA mixtures is the combined probability of inclusion (CPI, used by crime labs for over 15 years. When testing 13 short tandem repeat (STR genetic loci, the CPI -1 value is typically around a million, regardless of DNA mixture composition. However, actual identification information, as measured by a likelihood ratio (LR, spans a much broader range. This study examined probability of inclusion (PI mixture statistics for 517 locus experiments drawn from 16 reported cases and compared them with LR locus information calculated independently on the same data. The log(PI -1 values were examined and compared with corresponding log(LR values. Results: The LR and CPI methods were compared in case examples of false inclusion, false exclusion, a homicide, and criminal justice outcomes. Statistical analysis of crime laboratory STR data shows that inclusion match statistics exhibit a truncated normal distribution having zero center, with little correlation to actual identification information. By the law of large numbers (LLN, CPI -1 increases with the number of tested genetic loci, regardless of DNA mixture composition or match information. These statistical findings explain why CPI is relatively constant, with implications for DNA policy, criminal justice, cost of crime, and crime prevention. Conclusions: Forensic crime laboratories have generated CPI statistics on hundreds of thousands of DNA mixture evidence items. However, this commonly used match statistic behaves like a random generator of inclusionary values, following the LLN

  9. American burying beetle site records : Valentine NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is specific site records of American burying beetle on Valentine Nationl Wildlife Refuge to date. It includes a map of site location. A discussion...

  10. FY-94 buried waste integrated demonstration program report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a multitude of advanced technologies. These technologies are being integrated to form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. These efforts are identified and coordinated in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER/WM) needs and objectives. This document summarizes previous demonstrations and describes the FY-94 BWID technology development and demonstration activities. Sponsored by the DOE Office of Technology Development (OTD), BWID works with universities and private industry to develop these technologies, which are being transferred to the private sector for use nationally and internationally. A public participation policy has been established to provide stakeholders with timely and accurate information and meaningful opportunities for involvement in the technology development and demonstration process.

  11. An Exercise in Exploring Big Data for Producing Reliable Statistical Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Del-Castillo, Pilar; Cardeñosa, Jesús

    2016-06-01

    The availability of copious data about many human, social, and economic phenomena is considered an opportunity for the production of official statistics. National statistical organizations and other institutions are more and more involved in new projects for developing what is sometimes seen as a possible change of paradigm in the way statistical figures are produced. Nevertheless, there are hardly any systems in production using Big Data sources. Arguments of confidentiality, data ownership, representativeness, and others make it a difficult task to get results in the short term. Using Call Detail Records from Ivory Coast as an illustration, this article shows some of the issues that must be dealt with when producing statistical indicators from Big Data sources. A proposal of a graphical method to evaluate one specific aspect of the quality of the computed figures is also presented, demonstrating that the visual insight provided improves the results obtained using other traditional procedures.

  12. Differentiating Mild Papilledema and Buried Optic Nerve Head Drusen Using Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Kaushal M.; Pasol, Joshua; Rosa, Potyra R.; Lam, Byron L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the clinical utility of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in differentiating mild papilledema from buried optic nerve head drusen (ONHD). Design Comparative case series. Participants 16 eyes of 9 patients with ultrasound-proven buried ONHD, 12 eyes of 6 patients with less than or equal to Frisén grade 2 papilledema due to idiopathic intracranial hypertension. 2 normal fellow eyes of patients with buried ONHD were included. Methods A raster scan on the optic nerve and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness analysis was performed on each eye using SD-OCT. Eight eyes underwent enhanced depth imaging SD-OCT. Images were assessed qualitatively and quantitatively to identify differentiating features between buried ONHD and papilledema. Five clinicians trained with a tutorial and masked to the underlying diagnosis reviewed the SD-OCT images of each eye independently to determine the diagnosis. Main outcome measures Differences in RNFL thickness in each quadrant between the two groups, and diagnostic accuracy of five independent clinicians based on the SD-OCT images alone. Results We found no statistically significant difference in RNFL thickness between buried ONHD and papilledema in any of the four quadrants. Diagnostic accuracy among the readers was low and ranged from 50–64%. The kappa coefficient of agreement among the readers was 0.35 (95% Confidence interval: 0.19, 0.54). Conclusions SD-OCT is not clinically reliable in differentiating buried ONHD and mild papilledema. PMID:24321144

  13. Statistical methods for processing seismic information and studying complicated media. Statisticheskiye metody obrabotki seysmicheskoy informatsii pri issledovanii slozhnykh sred

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troyan, V.N.

    1982-01-01

    For the first time materials are generalized concerning statistical methods of processing seismic information which are used more widely in prospecting minerals (oil, gas, ore) in regions of complex structure and great depths. The methods provide reliable identification of useful signals in the background of interferences. Fundamentals are examined of methods of constructing algorithms and programs used in interpretation, and their efficiency.

  14. Uses and Misuses of Student Evaluations of Teaching: The Interpretation of Differences in Teaching Evaluation Means Irrespective of Statistical Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boysen, Guy A.

    2015-01-01

    Student evaluations of teaching are among the most accepted and important indicators of college teachers' performance. However, faculty and administrators can overinterpret small variations in mean teaching evaluations. The current research examined the effect of including statistical information on the interpretation of teaching evaluations.…

  15. Knowing Where They Went: Six Years of Online Access Statistics via the Online Catalog for Federal Government Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher C.

    2011-01-01

    As federal government information is increasingly migrating to online formats, libraries are providing links to this content via URLs or persistent URLs (PURLs) in their online public access catalogs (OPACs). Clickthrough statistics that accumulated as users visited links to online content in the University of Denver's library OPAC were gathered…

  16. Uses and Misuses of Student Evaluations of Teaching: The Interpretation of Differences in Teaching Evaluation Means Irrespective of Statistical Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boysen, Guy A.

    2015-01-01

    Student evaluations of teaching are among the most accepted and important indicators of college teachers' performance. However, faculty and administrators can overinterpret small variations in mean teaching evaluations. The current research examined the effect of including statistical information on the interpretation of teaching evaluations.…

  17. 19 CFR 103.31 - Information on vessel manifests and summary statistical reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., they may request and obtain from Customs, information from vessel manifests, subject to the rules set... purchases. Refunds will not be provided. Information regarding the technical specifications of the CD-ROMS... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information on vessel manifests and summary...

  18. Components of spatial information management in wildlife ecology: Software for statistical and modeling analysis [Chapter 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne L. Beyer; Jeff Jenness; Samuel A. Cushman

    2010-01-01

    Spatial information systems (SIS) is a term that describes a wide diversity of concepts, techniques, and technologies related to the capture, management, display and analysis of spatial information. It encompasses technologies such as geographic information systems (GIS), global positioning systems (GPS), remote sensing, and relational database management systems (...

  19. My Opinions about Statistical Informization Application Construction%统计信息化应用系统建设之我见

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田艳

    2004-01-01

    The paper demonstrates the problems in the face of statistical informization application system, analyses the causes of the problems and the possible ways to standardize statistical informization system at the stage of being, puts forward the suggestion to follow the rule to develop a set of united general software and software tools of statistics.

  20. Beyond Transitional Probability Computations: Extracting Word-Like Units when Only Statistical Information Is Available

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perruchet, Pierre; Poulin-Charronnat, Benedicte

    2012-01-01

    Endress and Mehler (2009) reported that when adult subjects are exposed to an unsegmented artificial language composed from trisyllabic words such as ABX, YBC, and AZC, they are unable to distinguish between these words and what they coined as the "phantom-word" ABC in a subsequent test. This suggests that statistical learning generates knowledge…

  1. Using Information Technology in Teaching of Business Statistics in Nigeria Business School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadu, Dallah; Adeleke, Ismaila; Ehie, Ike

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of Microsoft Excel software in the teaching of statistics in the Faculty of Business Administration at the University of Lagos, Nigeria. Problems associated with existing traditional methods are identified and a novel pedagogy using Excel is proposed. The advantages of using this software over other specialized…

  2. Basic properties and information theory of Audic-Claverie statistic for analyzing cDNA arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiňo, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Background The Audic-Claverie method [1] has been and still continues to be a popular approach for detection of differentially expressed genes in the SAGE framework. The method is based on the assumption that under the null hypothesis tag counts of the same gene in two libraries come from the same but unknown Poisson distribution. The problem is that each SAGE library represents only a single measurement. We ask: Given that the tag count samples from SAGE libraries are extremely limited, how useful actually is the Audic-Claverie methodology? We rigorously analyze the A-C statistic that forms a backbone of the methodology and represents our knowledge of the underlying tag generating process based on one observation. Results We show that the A-C statistic and the underlying Poisson distribution of the tag counts share the same mode structure. Moreover, the K-L divergence from the true unknown Poisson distribution to the A-C statistic is minimized when the A-C statistic is conditioned on the mode of the Poisson distribution. Most importantly, the expectation of this K-L divergence never exceeds 1/2 bit. Conclusion A rigorous underpinning of the Audic-Claverie methodology has been missing. Our results constitute a rigorous argument supporting the use of Audic-Claverie method even though the SAGE libraries represent very sparse samples. PMID:19775462

  3. Brain Responses Reveal That Infants' Face Discrimination Is Guided by Statistical Learning from Distributional Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altvater-Mackensen, Nicole; Jessen, Sarah; Grossmann, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Infants' perception of faces becomes attuned to the environment during the first year of life. However, the mechanisms that underpin perceptual narrowing for faces are only poorly understood. Considering the developmental similarities seen in perceptual narrowing for faces and speech and the role that statistical learning has been shown to play…

  4. 76 FR 21780 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Bureau of Justice Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ... be asked to fill out an online survey gathering facility-level characteristics. Sampled youth in... burden hours associated with this collection (including gathering facility-level information,...

  5. Discovery of protein-protein interactions using a combination of linguistic, statistical and graphical information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kershenbaum Aaron

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapid publication of important research in the biomedical literature makes it increasingly difficult for researchers to keep current with significant work in their area of interest. Results This paper reports a scalable method for the discovery of protein-protein interactions in Medline abstracts, using a combination of text analytics, statistical and graphical analysis, and a set of easily implemented rules. Applying these techniques to 12,300 abstracts, a precision of 0.61 and a recall of 0.97 were obtained, (f = 0.74 and when allowing for two-hop and three-hop relations discovered by graphical analysis, the precision was 0.74 (f = 0.83. Conclusion This combination of linguistic and statistical approaches appears to provide the highest precision and recall thus far reported in detecting protein-protein relations using text analytic approaches.

  6. On the Estimation and Use of Statistical Modelling in Information Retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Casper

    introduces a statistically principled method for selecting the best fitting distribution. The thesis then demonstrates that integrating knowledge about the best-fitting distribution into IR leads to superior results compared to existing strong baselines on multiple datasets. Overall, this thesis concludes...... that assumptions regarding the distribution of dataset properties can be replaced with an effective, efficient and principled method for determining the best-fitting distribution and that using this distribution can lead to improved retrieval performance....

  7. Finite Element Surface Registration Incorporating Curvature, Volume Preservation, and Statistical Model Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Albrecht

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel method for nonrigid registration of 3D surfaces and images. The method can be used to register surfaces by means of their distance images, or to register medical images directly. It is formulated as a minimization problem of a sum of several terms representing the desired properties of a registration result: smoothness, volume preservation, matching of the surface, its curvature, and possible other feature images, as well as consistency with previous registration results of similar objects, represented by a statistical deformation model. While most of these concepts are already known, we present a coherent continuous formulation of these constraints, including the statistical deformation model. This continuous formulation renders the registration method independent of its discretization. The finite element discretization we present is, while independent of the registration functional, the second main contribution of this paper. The local discontinuous Galerkin method has not previously been used in image registration, and it provides an efficient and general framework to discretize each of the terms of our functional. Computational efficiency and modest memory consumption are achieved thanks to parallelization and locally adaptive mesh refinement. This allows for the first time the use of otherwise prohibitively large 3D statistical deformation models.

  8. Statistical approach to research of development of information society in the context of world tendencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Klochkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current world tendencies influence also the Russian economy which has fully entered an era of forming of information society. Development and broad application of information and communication technologies is determined by a global tendency of world development and has crucial importance for increase of competitiveness of economy, expansion of opportunities of its integration into world system of economy, increase of efficiency of public administration and local self-government. Now development of information society does not have alternatives. Expansion of use of information and communication technologies is a condition of transition to new economic way, a factor of growth of quality of life of citizens and a labor productivity of economy, the instrument of protection of national interests. In recent years information and communication technologies became the effective tool in the economic relations arising in a production process, distributions, an exchange and consumption of the benefits between economic actors. Widespread introduction of information technologies in economic activity of society stimulates profound infrastructure changes in scales of all global economic space. Today the majority of the countries aims at forming of information society, and the most priority directions of development are creation of the electronic government, implementation of information technologies in education, culture and health care. Indicators of development of information society dynamically change both in the Russian Federation, and in the majority of foreign countries, competitive struggle for presence of the companies in the international market becomes tougher. Important task of further social and economic development of Russia is improvement of quality of information exchange in various spheres of activity of society on the basis ofeffective development of the sphere of information and communication technologies. In

  9. Current practices in spatial analysis of cancer data: mapping health statistics to inform policymakers and the public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wartenberg Daniel

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To communicate population-based cancer statistics, cancer researchers have a long tradition of presenting data in a spatial representation, or map. Historically, health data were presented in printed atlases in which the map producer selected the content and format. The availability of geographic information systems (GIS with comprehensive mapping and spatial analysis capability for desktop and Internet mapping has greatly expanded the number of producers and consumers of health maps, including policymakers and the public. Because health maps, particularly ones that show elevated cancer rates, historically have raised public concerns, it is essential that these maps be designed to be accurate, clear, and interpretable for the broad range of users who may view them. This article focuses on designing maps to communicate effectively. It is based on years of research into the use of health maps for communicating among public health researchers. Results The basics for designing maps that communicate effectively are similar to the basics for any mode of communication. Tasks include deciding on the purpose, knowing the audience and its characteristics, choosing a media suitable for both the purpose and the audience, and finally testing the map design to ensure that it suits the purpose with the intended audience, and communicates accurately and effectively. Special considerations for health maps include ensuring confidentiality and reflecting the uncertainty of small area statistics. Statistical maps need to be based on sound practices and principles developed by the statistical and cartographic communities. Conclusion The biggest challenge is to ensure that maps of health statistics inform without misinforming. Advances in the sciences of cartography, statistics, and visualization of spatial data are constantly expanding the toolkit available to mapmakers to meet this challenge. Asking potential users to answer questions or to talk

  10. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1996-01-30

    A method is disclosed for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors. 10 figs.

  11. Fully Coupled FE Analyses of Buried Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James T. Baylot

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Current procedures for determining the response of buried structures to the effects of the detonation of buried high explosives recommend decoupling the free-field stress analysis from the structure response analysis. A fully coupled (explosive–soil structure finite element analysis procedure was developed so that the accuracies of current decoupling procedures could be evaluated. Comparisons of the results of analyses performed using this procedure with scale-model experiments indicate that this finite element procedure can be used to effectively evaluate the accuracies of the methods currently being used to decouple the free-field stress analysis from the structure response analysis.

  12. ANSI/NISO Z39.7 : Information services and use: metrics & statistics for libraries and information providers data dictionary

    OpenAIRE

    American National Standards Institute; National Information Standards Organization (Estados Unidos)

    2013-01-01

    Esta norma identifica las categorías de datos estadísticos básicos de bibliotecas mostrados a nivel nacional estadounidense, y proporciona definiciones asociadas de términos. Al hacerlo, se ocupa de las siguientes áreas: Unidad de informes y población objetivo, los recursos humanos, recursos de colección, infraestructura, economía y servicios. Además, la norma identifica nuevas medidas relacionadas con los servicios de red, bases de datos y rendimiento. La norma no pretende ser exhaustiva en ...

  13. A study of social and economic evolution of human societies using methods of Statistical Mechanics and Information Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Del Papa

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation explores some applications of statistical mechanics and information theory tools to topics of interest in anthropology, social sciences, and economics. We intended to develop mathematical and computational models with empirical and theoretical bases aiming to identify important features of two problems: the transitions between egalitarian and hierarchical societies and the emergence of money in human societies. Anthropological data suggest the existence of a correlation ...

  14. Use of the results of statistical processing of information on a computer and designing and constructing boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezch' ikov, V.B.; Bagautdinov, G.M.; Gerasimova, L.F.; Sayfullina, L.I.

    1978-01-01

    A program functional algorithm has been developed which is called ''analysis of statistical information on the operation of drill bits and bottomhole motors'', which was developed at IVTS institute TatNIPINEFT' as a problem of an automated system for designing the construction of boreholes. Possibility of introducing this program into operation before developing a system as a whole is indicated.

  15. Risk map for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ethiopia based on environmental factors as revealed by geographical information systems and statistics

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected tropical disease strongly associated with poverty. Treatment is problematic and no vaccine is available. Ethiopia has seen new outbreaks in areas previously not known to be endemic, often with co-infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) with rates reaching 5.6% of the cases. The present study concerns the development of a risk model based on environmental factors using geographical information systems (GIS), statistical analysis and model...

  16. Advancing Empirical Approaches to the Concept of Resilience: A Critical Examination of Panarchy, Ecological Information, and Statistical Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Kharrazi; Fath, Brian D.; Harald Katzmair

    2016-01-01

    Despite its ambiguities, the concept of resilience is of critical importance to researchers, practitioners, and policy-makers in dealing with dynamic socio-ecological systems. In this paper, we critically examine the three empirical approaches of (i) panarchy; (ii) ecological information-based network analysis; and (iii) statistical evidence of resilience to three criteria determined for achieving a comprehensive understanding and application of this concept. These criteria are the ability: (...

  17. Optimal Mass Transport for Statistical Estimation, Image Analysis, Information Geometry, and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-10

    691, 2016; DOI: 10.1007/s10957-015-0803-z 15. Ricci Curvature: An Economic Indicator for Market Fragility and Systemic Risk (with R. Sandhu, A...Gao, Kyoung-Sik Moon, Yagang Yao, C.P. Wong), Polymer 53:7 (2012), pp. 1571-1580. 3. “3D automatic segmentation of the hippocampus using wavelets with... segmentation tool using local robust statistics driven active contours” (with Y. Gao, S. Bouix, M. Shenton, and R. Kikinis), MedIA 16:6 (2012), pp. 1216

  18. Improvement of Information and Methodical Provision of Macro-economic Statistical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiurina Dina M.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article generalises and analyses main shortcomings of the modern system of macro-statistical analysis based on the use of the system of national accounts and balance of the national economy. The article proves on the basis of historic analysis of formation of indicators of the system of national accounts that problems with its practical use have both regional and global reasons. In order to eliminate impossibility of accounting life quality the article offers a system of quality indicators based on the general perception of wellbeing as assurance in own solvency of population and representative sampling of economic subjects.

  19. Buried valleys within the Standing Rock Indian Reservation, Sioux County, North Dakota, and Corson County, South Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains information about the buried valleys within the Standing Rock Indian Reservation, Sioux County, North Dakota, and Corson County, South...

  20. Validation of survey information on smoking and alcohol consumption against import statistics, Greenland 1993-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Becker, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    Questionnaires are widely used to obtain information on health-related behaviour, and they are more often than not the only method that can be used to assess the distribution of behaviour in subgroups of the population. No validation studies of reported consumption of tobacco or alcohol have been...

  1. Improving the analysis of designed studies by combining statistical modelling with study design information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thissen, U.; Wopereis, S.; van Berg, S.A.A.; Bobeldijk, I.; Kleemann, R.; Kooistra, T.; van Dijk, K.W.; van Ommen, B.; Smilde, A.K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: In the fields of life sciences, so-called designed studies are used for studying complex biological systems. The data derived from these studies comply with a study design aimed at generating relevant information while diminishing unwanted variation (noise). Knowledge about the study

  2. Embedding Web-Based Statistical Translation Models in Cross-Language Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, W.; Nie, J.Y.; Simard, M.

    2003-01-01

    Although more and more language pairs are covered by machine translation (MT) services, there are still many pairs that lack translation resources. Cross-language information retrieval (CUR) is an application that needs translation functionality of a relatively low level of sophistication, since

  3. Embedding Web-Based Statistical Translation Models in Cross-Language Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, W.; Nie, J.Y.; Simard, M.

    2003-01-01

    Although more and more language pairs are covered by machine translation (MT) services, there are still many pairs that lack translation resources. Cross-language information retrieval (CUR) is an application that needs translation functionality of a relatively low level of sophistication, since cur

  4. English Collocation Learning through Corpus Data: On-Line Concordance and Statistical Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtake, Hiroshi; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Kawamoto, Takeshi; Morren, Brian; Ugawa, Yoshihiro; Kaneko, Shuji

    2012-01-01

    We developed an English Collocations On Demand system offering on-line corpus and concordance information to help Japanese researchers acquire a better command of English collocation patterns. The Life Science Dictionary Corpus consists of approximately 90,000,000 words collected from life science related research papers published in academic…

  5. Performing meta-analysis with incomplete statistical information in clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunter Anthony

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Results from clinical trials are usually summarized in the form of sampling distributions. When full information (mean, SEM about these distributions is given, performing meta-analysis is straightforward. However, when some of the sampling distributions only have mean values, a challenging issue is to decide how to use such distributions in meta-analysis. Currently, the most common approaches are either ignoring such trials or for each trial with a missing SEM, finding a similar trial and taking its SEM value as the missing SEM. Both approaches have drawbacks. As an alternative, this paper develops and tests two new methods, the first being the prognostic method and the second being the interval method, to estimate any missing SEMs from a set of sampling distributions with full information. A merging method is also proposed to handle clinical trials with partial information to simulate meta-analysis. Methods Both of our methods use the assumption that the samples for which the sampling distributions will be merged are randomly selected from the same population. In the prognostic method, we predict the missing SEMs from the given SEMs. In the interval method, we define intervals that we believe will contain the missing SEMs and then we use these intervals in the merging process. Results Two sets of clinical trials are used to verify our methods. One family of trials is on comparing different drugs for reduction of low density lipprotein cholesterol (LDL for Type-2 diabetes, and the other is about the effectiveness of drugs for lowering intraocular pressure (IOP. Both methods are shown to be useful for approximating the conventional meta-analysis including trials with incomplete information. For example, the meta-analysis result of Latanoprost versus Timolol on IOP reduction for six months provided in 1 was 5.05 ± 1.15 (Mean ± SEM with full information. If the last trial in this study is assumed to be with partial information

  6. Detection of Buried Objects : The MUD Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quesson, B.A.J.; Vossen, R. van; Zampolli, M.; Beckers, A.L.D.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the Mine Underwater Detection (MUD) project at TNO is to experimentally investigate the acoustic and magnetic detection of explosives underwater, buried in a soft sediment layer. This problem is relevant for the protection of harbors and littoral assets against terrorist attacks and for

  7. Detection of Buried Objects : The MUD Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quesson, B.A.J.; Vossen, R. van; Zampolli, M.; Beckers, A.L.D.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the Mine Underwater Detection (MUD) project at TNO is to experimentally investigate the acoustic and magnetic detection of explosives underwater, buried in a soft sediment layer. This problem is relevant for the protection of harbors and littoral assets against terrorist attacks and for t

  8. Detection of buried mines with seismic sonar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Thomas G.; Baker, Steven R.; Gaghan, Frederick E.; Fitzpatrick, Sean M.; Hall, Patrick W.; Sheetz, Kraig E.; Guy, Jeremie

    2003-10-01

    Prior research on seismo-acoustic sonar for detection of buried targets [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103, 2333-2343 (1998)] has continued with examination of the target strengths of buried test targets as well as targets of interest, and has also examined detection and confirmatory classification of these, all using arrays of seismic sources and receivers as well as signal processing techniques to enhance target recognition. The target strengths of two test targets (one a steel gas bottle, the other an aluminum powder keg), buried in a sand beach, were examined as a function of internal mass load, to evaluate theory developed for seismic sonar target strength [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103, 2344-2353 (1998)]. The detection of buried naval and military targets of interest was achieved with an array of 7 shaker sources and 5, three-axis seismometers, at a range of 5 m. Vector polarization filtering was the main signal processing technique for detection. It capitalizes on the fact that the vertical and horizontal components in Rayleigh wave echoes are 90 deg out of phase, enabling complex variable processing to obtain the imaginary component of the signal power versus time, which is unique to Rayleigh waves. Gabor matrix processing of this signal component was the main technique used to determine whether the target was man-made or just a natural target in the environment. [Work sponsored by ONR.

  9. 7 CFR 1755.505 - Buried services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., RUS standard for splicing copper and fiber optic cables. (d) Buried service wire or cable shall be... shall be installed against a foundation wall or pillar to provide adequate support and mechanical... lightning rod grounding conductor or grounding electrode with at least a Number (No.) 6 AWG copper...

  10. A resilient and efficient CFD framework: Statistical learning tools for multi-fidelity and heterogeneous information fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungjoon; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G.; Karniadakis, George Em

    2017-09-01

    Exascale-level simulations require fault-resilient algorithms that are robust against repeated and expected software and/or hardware failures during computations, which may render the simulation results unsatisfactory. If each processor can share some global information about the simulation from a coarse, limited accuracy but relatively costless auxiliary simulator we can effectively fill-in the missing spatial data at the required times by a statistical learning technique - multi-level Gaussian process regression, on the fly; this has been demonstrated in previous work [1]. Based on the previous work, we also employ another (nonlinear) statistical learning technique, Diffusion Maps, that detects computational redundancy in time and hence accelerate the simulation by projective time integration, giving the overall computation a ;patch dynamics; flavor. Furthermore, we are now able to perform information fusion with multi-fidelity and heterogeneous data (including stochastic data). Finally, we set the foundations of a new framework in CFD, called patch simulation, that combines information fusion techniques from, in principle, multiple fidelity and resolution simulations (and even experiments) with a new adaptive timestep refinement technique. We present two benchmark problems (the heat equation and the Navier-Stokes equations) to demonstrate the new capability that statistical learning tools can bring to traditional scientific computing algorithms. For each problem, we rely on heterogeneous and multi-fidelity data, either from a coarse simulation of the same equation or from a stochastic, particle-based, more ;microscopic; simulation. We consider, as such ;auxiliary; models, a Monte Carlo random walk for the heat equation and a dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) model for the Navier-Stokes equations. More broadly, in this paper we demonstrate the symbiotic and synergistic combination of statistical learning, domain decomposition, and scientific computing in

  11. Statistical mechanics of consciousness: Maximization of information content of network is associated with conscious awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara Erra, R.; Mateos, D. M.; Wennberg, R.; Perez Velazquez, J. L.

    2016-11-01

    It is said that complexity lies between order and disorder. In the case of brain activity and physiology in general, complexity issues are being considered with increased emphasis. We sought to identify features of brain organization that are optimal for sensory processing, and that may guide the emergence of cognition and consciousness, by analyzing neurophysiological recordings in conscious and unconscious states. We find a surprisingly simple result: Normal wakeful states are characterized by the greatest number of possible configurations of interactions between brain networks, representing highest entropy values. Therefore, the information content is larger in the network associated to conscious states, suggesting that consciousness could be the result of an optimization of information processing. These findings help to guide in a more formal sense inquiry into how consciousness arises from the organization of matter.

  12. Bucketing Coding and Information Theory for the Statistical High Dimensional Nearest Neighbor Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Dubiner, Moshe

    2008-01-01

    Consider the problem of finding high dimensional approximate nearest neighbors, where the data is generated by some known probabilistic model. We will investigate a large natural class of algorithms which we call bucketing codes. We will define bucketing information, prove that it bounds the performance of all bucketing codes, and that the bucketing information bound can be asymptotically attained by randomly constructed bucketing codes. For example suppose we have n Bernoulli(1/2) very long (length d-->infinity) sequences of bits. Let n-2m sequences be completely independent, while the remaining 2m sequences are composed of m independent pairs. The interdependence within each pair is that their bits agree with probability 1/20. Moreover if one sequence out of each pair belongs to a a known set of n^{(2p-1)^{2}-\\epsilon} sequences, than pairing can be done using order n comparisons!

  13. Statistical mechanics of consciousness: Maximization of information content of network is associated with conscious awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara Erra, R; Mateos, D M; Wennberg, R; Perez Velazquez, J L

    2016-11-01

    It is said that complexity lies between order and disorder. In the case of brain activity and physiology in general, complexity issues are being considered with increased emphasis. We sought to identify features of brain organization that are optimal for sensory processing, and that may guide the emergence of cognition and consciousness, by analyzing neurophysiological recordings in conscious and unconscious states. We find a surprisingly simple result: Normal wakeful states are characterized by the greatest number of possible configurations of interactions between brain networks, representing highest entropy values. Therefore, the information content is larger in the network associated to conscious states, suggesting that consciousness could be the result of an optimization of information processing. These findings help to guide in a more formal sense inquiry into how consciousness arises from the organization of matter.

  14. Nonparametric Information Geometry: From Divergence Function to Referential-Representational Biduality on Statistical Manifolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Divergence functions are the non-symmetric “distance” on the manifold, Μθ, of parametric probability density functions over a measure space, (Χ,μ. Classical information geometry prescribes, on Μθ: (i a Riemannian metric given by the Fisher information; (ii a pair of dual connections (giving rise to the family of α-connections that preserve the metric under parallel transport by their joint actions; and (iii a family of divergence functions ( α-divergence defined on Μθ x Μθ, which induce the metric and the dual connections. Here, we construct an extension of this differential geometric structure from Μθ (that of parametric probability density functions to the manifold, Μ, of non-parametric functions on X, removing the positivity and normalization constraints. The generalized Fisher information and α-connections on M are induced by an α-parameterized family of divergence functions, reflecting the fundamental convex inequality associated with any smooth and strictly convex function. The infinite-dimensional manifold, M, has zero curvature for all these α-connections; hence, the generally non-zero curvature of M can be interpreted as arising from an embedding of Μθ into Μ. Furthermore, when a parametric model (after a monotonic scaling forms an affine submanifold, its natural and expectation parameters form biorthogonal coordinates, and such a submanifold is dually flat for α = ± 1, generalizing the results of Amari’s α-embedding. The present analysis illuminates two different types of duality in information geometry, one concerning the referential status of a point (measurable function expressed in the divergence function (“referential duality” and the other concerning its representation under an arbitrary monotone scaling (“representational duality”.

  15. Information-theory-based solution of the inverse problem in classical statistical mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Marco; Cilloco, Francesco

    2010-08-01

    We present a procedure for the determination of the interaction potential from the knowledge of the radial pair distribution function. The method, realized inside an inverse Monte Carlo simulation scheme, is based on the application of the maximum entropy principle of information theory and the interaction potential emerges as the asymptotic expression of the transition probability. Results obtained for high density monoatomic fluids are very satisfactory and provide an accurate extraction of the potential, despite a modest computational effort.

  16. Revisiting Information Technology tools serving authorship and editorship: a case-guided tutorial to statistical analysis and plagiarism detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamidis, P D; Lithari, C; Konstantinidis, S T

    2010-01-01

    With the number of scientific papers published in journals, conference proceedings, and international literature ever increasing, authors and reviewers are not only facilitated with an abundance of information, but unfortunately continuously confronted with risks associated with the erroneous copy of another's material. In parallel, Information Communication Technology (ICT) tools provide to researchers novel and continuously more effective ways to analyze and present their work. Software tools regarding statistical analysis offer scientists the chance to validate their work and enhance the quality of published papers. Moreover, from the reviewers and the editor's perspective, it is now possible to ensure the (text-content) originality of a scientific article with automated software tools for plagiarism detection. In this paper, we provide a step-bystep demonstration of two categories of tools, namely, statistical analysis and plagiarism detection. The aim is not to come up with a specific tool recommendation, but rather to provide useful guidelines on the proper use and efficiency of either category of tools. In the context of this special issue, this paper offers a useful tutorial to specific problems concerned with scientific writing and review discourse. A specific neuroscience experimental case example is utilized to illustrate the young researcher's statistical analysis burden, while a test scenario is purpose-built using open access journal articles to exemplify the use and comparative outputs of seven plagiarism detection software pieces. PMID:21487489

  17. Revisiting Information Technology tools serving authorship and editorship: a case-guided tutorial to statistical analysis and plagiarism detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamidis, P D; Lithari, C; Konstantinidis, S T

    2010-12-01

    With the number of scientific papers published in journals, conference proceedings, and international literature ever increasing, authors and reviewers are not only facilitated with an abundance of information, but unfortunately continuously confronted with risks associated with the erroneous copy of another's material. In parallel, Information Communication Technology (ICT) tools provide to researchers novel and continuously more effective ways to analyze and present their work. Software tools regarding statistical analysis offer scientists the chance to validate their work and enhance the quality of published papers. Moreover, from the reviewers and the editor's perspective, it is now possible to ensure the (text-content) originality of a scientific article with automated software tools for plagiarism detection. In this paper, we provide a step-bystep demonstration of two categories of tools, namely, statistical analysis and plagiarism detection. The aim is not to come up with a specific tool recommendation, but rather to provide useful guidelines on the proper use and efficiency of either category of tools. In the context of this special issue, this paper offers a useful tutorial to specific problems concerned with scientific writing and review discourse. A specific neuroscience experimental case example is utilized to illustrate the young researcher's statistical analysis burden, while a test scenario is purpose-built using open access journal articles to exemplify the use and comparative outputs of seven plagiarism detection software pieces.

  18. The imprint of f(R) gravity on weak gravitational lensing - II. Information content in cosmic shear statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasaki, Masato; Nishimichi, Takahiro; Li, Baojiu; Higuchi, Yuichi

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the information content of various cosmic shear statistics on the theory of gravity. Focusing on the Hu-Sawicki-type f(R) model, we perform a set of ray-tracing simulations and measure the convergence bispectrum, peak counts and Minkowski functionals. We first show that while the convergence power spectrum does have sensitivity to the current value of extra scalar degree of freedom |fR0|, it is largely compensated by a change in the present density amplitude parameter σ8 and the matter density parameter Ωm0. With accurate covariance matrices obtained from 1000 lensing simulations, we then examine the constraining power of the three additional statistics. We find that these probes are indeed helpful to break the parameter degeneracy, which cannot be resolved from the power spectrum alone. We show that especially the peak counts and Minkowski functionals have the potential to rigorously (marginally) detect the signature of modified gravity with the parameter |fR0| as small as 10-5 (10-6) if we can properly model them on small (∼1 arcmin) scale in a future survey with a sky coverage of 1500 deg2. We also show that the signal level is similar among the additional three statistics and all of them provide complementary information to the power spectrum. These findings indicate the importance of combining multiple probes beyond the standard power spectrum analysis to detect possible modifications to general relativity.

  19. The spread of scientific information: insights from the web usage statistics in PLoS article-level metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Koon-Kiu; Gerstein, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The presence of web-based communities is a distinctive signature of Web 2.0. The web-based feature means that information propagation within each community is highly facilitated, promoting complex collective dynamics in view of information exchange. In this work, we focus on a community of scientists and study, in particular, how the awareness of a scientific paper is spread. Our work is based on the web usage statistics obtained from the PLoS Article Level Metrics dataset compiled by PLoS. The cumulative number of HTML views was found to follow a long tail distribution which is reasonably well-fitted by a lognormal one. We modeled the diffusion of information by a random multiplicative process, and thus extracted the rates of information spread at different stages after the publication of a paper. We found that the spread of information displays two distinct decay regimes: a rapid downfall in the first month after publication, and a gradual power law decay afterwards. We identified these two regimes with two distinct driving processes: a short-term behavior driven by the fame of a paper, and a long-term behavior consistent with citation statistics. The patterns of information spread were found to be remarkably similar in data from different journals, but there are intrinsic differences for different types of web usage (HTML views and PDF downloads versus XML). These similarities and differences shed light on the theoretical understanding of different complex systems, as well as a better design of the corresponding web applications that is of high potential marketing impact.

  20. The spread of scientific information: insights from the web usage statistics in PLoS article-level metrics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koon-Kiu Yan

    Full Text Available The presence of web-based communities is a distinctive signature of Web 2.0. The web-based feature means that information propagation within each community is highly facilitated, promoting complex collective dynamics in view of information exchange. In this work, we focus on a community of scientists and study, in particular, how the awareness of a scientific paper is spread. Our work is based on the web usage statistics obtained from the PLoS Article Level Metrics dataset compiled by PLoS. The cumulative number of HTML views was found to follow a long tail distribution which is reasonably well-fitted by a lognormal one. We modeled the diffusion of information by a random multiplicative process, and thus extracted the rates of information spread at different stages after the publication of a paper. We found that the spread of information displays two distinct decay regimes: a rapid downfall in the first month after publication, and a gradual power law decay afterwards. We identified these two regimes with two distinct driving processes: a short-term behavior driven by the fame of a paper, and a long-term behavior consistent with citation statistics. The patterns of information spread were found to be remarkably similar in data from different journals, but there are intrinsic differences for different types of web usage (HTML views and PDF downloads versus XML. These similarities and differences shed light on the theoretical understanding of different complex systems, as well as a better design of the corresponding web applications that is of high potential marketing impact.

  1. Examination of the Spatial Correlation of Statistics Information in the Ultrasonic Echo from Diseased Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Tadashi; Hachiya, Hiroyuki; Kamiyama, Naohisa; Moriyasu, Fuminori

    2002-05-01

    To realize a quantitative diagnosis of liver cirrhosis, we have been analyzing the characteristics of echo amplitude in B-mode images. Realizing the distinction between liver diseases such as liver cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis is required in the field of medical ultrasonics. In this study, we examine the spatial correlation, with the coefficient of correlation between the frames and the amplitude characteristics of each frame, using the volumetric data of RF echo signals from normal and diseased liver. It is found that there is a relationship between the tissue structure of liver and the spatial correlation of echo information.

  2. Quantum statistical gravity: time dilation due to local information in many-body quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sels, Dries; Wouters, Michiel

    2017-08-01

    We propose a generic mechanism for the emergence of a gravitational potential that acts on all classical objects in a quantum system. Our conjecture is based on the analysis of mutual information in many-body quantum systems. Since measurements in quantum systems affect the surroundings through entanglement, a measurement at one position reduces the entropy in its neighbourhood. This reduction in entropy can be described by a local temperature, that is directly related to the gravitational potential. A crucial ingredient in our argument is that ideal classical mechanical motion occurs at constant probability. This definition is motivated by the analysis of entropic forces in classical systems.

  3. Sources identification of antibiotic pollution combining land use information and multivariate statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Zhang, Haibo; Chen, Yongshan; Luo, Yongming; Zhang, Hua

    2016-07-01

    To quantify the extent of antibiotic contamination and to identity the dominant pollutant sources in the Tiaoxi River Watershed, surface water samples were collected at eight locations and analyzed for four tetracyclines and three sulfonamides using ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The observed maximum concentrations of tetracycline (623 ng L(-1)), oxytetracycline (19,810 ng L(-1)), and sulfamethoxazole (112 ng L(-1)) exceeded their corresponding Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC) values. In particular, high concentrations of antibiotics were observed in wet summer with heavy rainfall. The maximum concentrations of antibiotics appeared in the vicinity of intensive aquaculture areas. High-resolution land use data were used for identifying diffuse source of antibiotic pollution in the watershed. Significant correlations between tetracycline and developed (r = 0.93), tetracycline and barren (r = 0.87), oxytetracycline and barren (r = 0.82), and sulfadiazine and agricultural facilities (r = 0.71) were observed. In addition, the density of aquaculture significantly correlated with doxycycline (r = 0.74) and oxytetracycline (r = 0.76), while the density of livestock significantly correlated with sulfadiazine (r = 0.71). Principle Component Analysis (PCA) indicated that doxycycline, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and sulfamethoxazole were from aquaculture and domestic sources, whereas sulfadiazine and sulfamethazine were from livestock wastewater. Flood or drainage from aquaculture ponds was identified as a major source of antibiotics in the Tiaoxi watershed. A hot-spot map was created based on results of land use analysis and multi-variable statistics, which provided an effective management tool of sources identification in watersheds with multiple diffuse sources of antibiotic pollution.

  4. 47 CFR 32.6423 - Buried cable expense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buried cable expense. 32.6423 Section 32.6423... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6423 Buried cable expense. (a) This account shall include expenses associated with buried cable. (b) Subsidiary record...

  5. 动态绩效统计信息与企业监控%The Statistical Information of Dynamic Efficiency and Monitoring Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萍

    2003-01-01

    The author discusses the contents should be concentrated on to establish the dynamic efficiency statistics and further the establishment of relevant statistical information, as well as the thinking way to establish the platform for the government to dynamically monitor the effects in state-owned and state-controlled enterprises through portal information technology.

  6. Buried caldera of mauna kea volcano, hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, S C

    1972-03-31

    An elliptical caldera (2.1 by 2.8 kilometers) at the summit of Mauna Kea volcano is inferred to lie buried beneath hawaiite lava flows and pyroclastic cones at an altitude of approximately 3850 meters. Stratigraphic relationships indicate that hawaiite eruptions began before a pre-Wisconsin period of ice-cap glaciation and that the crest of the mountain attained its present altitude and gross form during a glaciation of probable Early Wisconsin age.

  7. Multiple instance learning for buried hazard detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Joseph; Pinar, Anthony; Havens, Timothy C.; Webb, Adam; Schulz, Timothy J.

    2016-05-01

    Buried explosives hazards are one of the many deadly threats facing our Soldiers, thus the U.S. Army is interested in the detection and neutralization of these hazards. One method of buried target detection uses forward-looking ground-penetrating radar (FLGPR), and it has grown in popularity due to its ability to detect buried targets at a standoff distance. FLGPR approaches often use machine learning techniques to improve the accuracy of detection. We investigate an approach to explosive hazard detection that exploits multi-instance features to discriminate between hazardous and non-hazardous returns in FLGPR data. One challenge this problem presents is a high number of clutter and non-target objects relative to the number of targets present. Our approach learns a bag of words model of the multi-instance signatures of potential targets and confuser objects in order to classify alarms as either targets or false alarms. We demonstrate our method on test data collected at a U.S. Army test site.

  8. Advancing Empirical Approaches to the Concept of Resilience: A Critical Examination of Panarchy, Ecological Information, and Statistical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kharrazi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite its ambiguities, the concept of resilience is of critical importance to researchers, practitioners, and policy-makers in dealing with dynamic socio-ecological systems. In this paper, we critically examine the three empirical approaches of (i panarchy; (ii ecological information-based network analysis; and (iii statistical evidence of resilience to three criteria determined for achieving a comprehensive understanding and application of this concept. These criteria are the ability: (1 to reflect a system’s adaptability to shocks; (2 to integrate social and environmental dimensions; and (3 to evaluate system-level trade-offs. Our findings show that none of the three currently applied approaches are strong in handling all three criteria. Panarchy is strong in the first two criteria but has difficulty with normative trade-offs. The ecological information-based approach is strongest in evaluating trade-offs but relies on common dimensions that lead to over-simplifications in integrating the social and environmental dimensions. Statistical evidence provides suggestions that are simplest and easiest to act upon but are generally weak in all three criteria. This analysis confirms the value of these approaches in specific instances but also the need for further research in advancing empirical approaches to the concept of resilience.

  9. Conceptual Model of Clinical Governance Information System for Statistical Indicators by Using UML in Two Sample Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeddi, Fatemeh Rangraz; Farzandipoor, Mehrdad; Arabfard, Masoud; Hosseini, Azam Haj Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was investigating situation and presenting a conceptual model for clinical governance information system by using UML in two sample hospitals. Background: However, use of information is one of the fundamental components of clinical governance; but unfortunately, it does not pay much attention to information management. Material and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in October 2012- May 2013. Data were gathered through questionnaires and interviews in two sample hospitals. Face and content validity of the questionnaire has been confirmed by experts. Data were collected from a pilot hospital and reforms were carried out and Final questionnaire was prepared. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and SPSS 16 software. Results: With the scenario derived from questionnaires, UML diagrams are presented by using Rational Rose 7 software. The results showed that 32.14 percent Indicators of the hospitals were calculated. Database was not designed and 100 percent of the hospital’s clinical governance was required to create a database. Conclusion: Clinical governance unit of hospitals to perform its mission, do not have access to all the needed indicators. Defining of Processes and drawing of models and creating of database are essential for designing of information systems. PMID:27147804

  10. Conceptual Model of Clinical Governance Information System for Statistical Indicators by Using UML in Two Sample Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeddi, Fatemeh Rangraz; Farzandipoor, Mehrdad; Arabfard, Masoud; Hosseini, Azam Haj Mohammad

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was investigating situation and presenting a conceptual model for clinical governance information system by using UML in two sample hospitals. However, use of information is one of the fundamental components of clinical governance; but unfortunately, it does not pay much attention to information management. A cross sectional study was conducted in October 2012- May 2013. Data were gathered through questionnaires and interviews in two sample hospitals. Face and content validity of the questionnaire has been confirmed by experts. Data were collected from a pilot hospital and reforms were carried out and Final questionnaire was prepared. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and SPSS 16 software. With the scenario derived from questionnaires, UML diagrams are presented by using Rational Rose 7 software. The results showed that 32.14 percent Indicators of the hospitals were calculated. Database was not designed and 100 percent of the hospital's clinical governance was required to create a database. Clinical governance unit of hospitals to perform its mission, do not have access to all the needed indicators. Defining of Processes and drawing of models and creating of database are essential for designing of information systems.

  11. Buried Anode Device Development: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-11-451

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenent, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The possibility of a reflecting electrochromic device is very attractive, and the 'Buried Anode' architecture developed at NREL could yield such a device. The subject of this cooperative agreement will be the development and refinement of a Buried Anode device process. This development will require the active involvement of NREL and US e-Chromic personnel, and will require the use of NREL equipment as much as possible. When this effort is concluded, US e-Chromic will have enough information to construct a pilot production line, where further development can continue.

  12. Micro-buried spiral zone plate in a lithium niobate crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhen-Nan; Hua, Jian-Guan; Hao, Juan; Yu, Yan-Hao; Chen, Qi-Dai; Sun, Hong-Bo

    2017-01-01

    We present a micro-buried spiral zone plate (MBSZP) in the lithium niobate crystal fabricated with femtosecond laser direct writing technology. The microstructures of the MBSZP are buried under the surface of the crystal, which ensures the stability of the optical performance in various refractive index environments. The optical performances of imaging and focusing capabilities were demonstrated. In addition, the experiment showed good agreement with simulation results based on the optical wave propagation method. This novel optical element will have important applications in multistate information encoding, optical manipulation, quantum communication, and computation, especially in high integration, contact coupling, and variable refractive index environments.

  13. The use of process models to inform and improve statistical models of nitrate occurrence, Great Miami River Basin, southwestern Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Donald A.; Starn, J. Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Statistical models of nitrate occurrence in the glacial aquifer system of the northern United States, developed by the U.S. Geological Survey, use observed relations between nitrate concentrations and sets of explanatory variables—representing well-construction, environmental, and source characteristics— to predict the probability that nitrate, as nitrogen, will exceed a threshold concentration. However, the models do not explicitly account for the processes that control the transport of nitrogen from surface sources to a pumped well and use area-weighted mean spatial variables computed from within a circular buffer around the well as a simplified source-area conceptualization. The use of models that explicitly represent physical-transport processes can inform and, potentially, improve these statistical models. Specifically, groundwater-flow models simulate advective transport—predominant in many surficial aquifers— and can contribute to the refinement of the statistical models by (1) providing for improved, physically based representations of a source area to a well, and (2) allowing for more detailed estimates of environmental variables. A source area to a well, known as a contributing recharge area, represents the area at the water table that contributes recharge to a pumped well; a well pumped at a volumetric rate equal to the amount of recharge through a circular buffer will result in a contributing recharge area that is the same size as the buffer but has a shape that is a function of the hydrologic setting. These volume-equivalent contributing recharge areas will approximate circular buffers in areas of relatively flat hydraulic gradients, such as near groundwater divides, but in areas with steep hydraulic gradients will be elongated in the upgradient direction and agree less with the corresponding circular buffers. The degree to which process-model-estimated contributing recharge areas, which simulate advective transport and therefore account for

  14. Novel applications of optical techniques to the study of buried semiconductor interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Barbara A.

    1989-01-01

    Detailed electronic and structural information about buried semiconductor interfaces obtained through application of optical techniques is discussed. The measurements described include the determination of band discontinuities, strain, and disorder associated with semiconductor heterointerfaces. The contactless and nondestructive nature of these optical techniques is particularly important for the study of heterointerfaces which are inherently inaccessible to direct electrical or physical contact.

  15. Practical Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Lyons, L

    2016-01-01

    Accelerators and detectors are expensive, both in terms of money and human effort. It is thus important to invest effort in performing a good statistical anal- ysis of the data, in order to extract the best information from it. This series of five lectures deals with practical aspects of statistical issues that arise in typical High Energy Physics analyses.

  16. SEER Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program of the National Cancer Institute works to provide information on cancer statistics in an effort to reduce the burden of cancer among the U.S. population.

  17. CMS Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Center for Strategic Planning produces an annual CMS Statistics reference booklet that provides a quick reference for summary information about health...

  18. Image Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendelberger, Laura Jean [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-08

    In large datasets, it is time consuming or even impossible to pick out interesting images. Our proposed solution is to find statistics to quantify the information in each image and use those to identify and pick out images of interest.

  19. The imprint of $f(R)$ gravity on weak gravitational lensing II : Information content in cosmic shear statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Shirasaki, Masato; Li, Baojiu; Higuchi, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the information content of various cosmic shear statistics on the theory of gravity. Focusing on the Hu-Sawicki type $f(R)$ model, we perform a set of ray-tracing simulations and measure the convergence bispectrum, peak counts and Minkowski functionals, paying a special attention to their complementarity to the standard power spectrum analysis. We first show that while the convergence power spectrum does have sensitivity to the current value of extra scalar degree of freedom $|f_{\\rm R0}|$, it is largely compensated by a change in the present density amplitude parameter $\\sigma_{8}$ and the matter density parameter $\\Omega_{\\rm m0}$. With accurate covariance matrices obtained from 1000 lensing simulations, we then examine the constraining power of the three additional statistics. We find that these probes are indeed helpful to break the parameter degeneracy, which can not be resolved from the power spectrum alone. We show that especially the peak counts and Minkowski functionals have the potent...

  20. Shannon information capacity of time reversal wideband multiple-input multiple-output system based on correlated statistical channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Bing-Zhong, Wang; Shuai, Ding

    2016-05-01

    Utilizing channel reciprocity, time reversal (TR) technique increases the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the receiver with very low transmitter complexity in complex multipath environment. Present research works about TR multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication all focus on the system implementation and network building. The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of antenna coupling on the capacity of wideband TR MIMO system, which is a realistic question in designing a practical communication system. It turns out that antenna coupling stabilizes the capacity in a small variation range with statistical wideband channel response. Meanwhile, antenna coupling only causes a slight detriment to the channel capacity in a wideband TR MIMO system. Comparatively, uncorrelated stochastic channels without coupling exhibit a wider range of random capacity distribution which greatly depends on the statistical channel. The conclusions drawn from information difference entropy theory provide a guideline for designing better high-performance wideband TR MIMO communication systems. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61331007, 61361166008, and 61401065) and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120185130001).

  1. 3D mapping of buried underworld infrastructure using dynamic Bayesian network based multi-sensory image data fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Ritaban; Cohn, Anthony G.; Muggleton, Jen M.

    2013-05-01

    The successful operation of buried infrastructure within urban environments is fundamental to the conservation of modern living standards. In this paper a novel multi-sensor image fusion framework has been proposed and investigated using dynamic Bayesian network for automatic detection of buried underworld infrastructure. Experimental multi-sensors images were acquired for a known buried plastic water pipe using Vibro-acoustic sensor based location methods and Ground Penetrating Radar imaging system. Computationally intelligent conventional image processing techniques were used to process three types of sensory images. Independently extracted depth and location information from different images regarding the target pipe were fused together using dynamic Bayesian network to predict the maximum probable location and depth of the pipe. The outcome from this study was very encouraging as it was able to detect the target pipe with high accuracy compared with the currently existing pipe survey map. The approach was also applied successfully to produce a best probable 3D buried asset map.

  2. METHODS AND TOOLS TO DEVELOP INNOVATIVE STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT DECISIONS BASED ON THE APPLICATION OF ADVANCED INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE STATISTICAL BRANCH OF UZBEKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina E. Zhukovskya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the improvement of the statistical branch-based application of electronic document management and network information technology. As a software solutions proposed use of new software solutions of the State Committee on Statistics of the Republic of Uzbekistan «eStat 2.0», allowing not only to optimize the statistical sector employees, but also serves as a link between all the economic entities of the national economy.

  3. Statistical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Szulc, Stefan

    1965-01-01

    Statistical Methods provides a discussion of the principles of the organization and technique of research, with emphasis on its application to the problems in social statistics. This book discusses branch statistics, which aims to develop practical ways of collecting and processing numerical data and to adapt general statistical methods to the objectives in a given field.Organized into five parts encompassing 22 chapters, this book begins with an overview of how to organize the collection of such information on individual units, primarily as accomplished by government agencies. This text then

  4. FOREWORD: Special section on electromagnetic characterization of buried obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesselier, Dominique; Chew, Weng Cho

    2004-12-01

    inversion which involves carefully tuned regularization factors that are functions of the Fréchet sensitivity matrix. • G L Wang, W C Chew, T J Cui, A A Aydiner, D L Wright and D V Smith, in `3D near-to-surface conductivity reconstruction by inversion of VETEM data using the distorted Born iterative method', are preoccupied by the deciphering of data provided by the very early time electromagnetic (VETEM) system in the kHz to MHz range in order to reconstruct conductive structures in subsoils. A fast direct solver is introduced and used in the iterative reconstruction with a properly chosen regularization parameter. Yet this remains computationally expensive, as the authors illustrate. Through examples drawn from synthetic and real-world data, they retrieve the conductivity map of the search zone as a combination of sub-maps found separately, demonstrating its usefulness. • Y Yu, B Krishnapuram and L Carin, in `Inverse scattering with sparse Bayesian vector regression', develop on strong Bayesian foundations and statistical learning, a regression-based method in a vector framework (the sought parameters are in vector form), which preserves sparsity (only the most relevant examples from the training set are employed) and is appropriate for on-line decisions since here, in particular, all forward calculations are carried out beforehand. Once trained using synthetic and measured data, they apply the method to the retrieval of cubical targets buried in soil which are equivalent to the actual target. • M S Zhdanov and A Chernyavskiy, in `Rapid three-dimensional inversion of multi-transmitter electromagnetic data using the spectral Lanczos decomposition method', work out a spectral Lanczos decomposition method in order to apply it to vector three-dimensional inversion (with present-day applications to mining exploration from helicopter-borne data along prescribed flight lines) using the localized quasilinear inversion previously introduced in the literature. This

  5. Detection of Buried Objects by Means of a SAP Technique: Comparing MUSIC- and SVR-Based Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meschino, S.; Pajewski, L.; Pastorino, M.; Randazzo, A.; Schettini, G.

    2012-04-01

    This work is focused on the application of a Sub-Array Processing (SAP) technique to the detection of metallic cylindrical objects embedded in a dielectric half-space. The identification of buried cables, pipes, conduits, and other cylindrical utilities, is an important problem that has been extensively studied in the last years. Most commonly used approaches are based on the use of electromagnetic sensing: a set of antennas illuminates the ground and the collected echo is analyzed in order to extract information about the scenario and to localize the sought objects [1]. In a SAP approach, algorithms for the estimation of Directions of Arrival (DOAs) are employed [2]: they assume that the sources (in this paper, currents induced on buried targets) are in the far-field region of the receiving array, so that the received wavefront can be considered as planar, and the main angular direction of the field can be estimated. However, in electromagnetic sensing of buried objects, the scatterers are usually quite near to the antennas. Nevertheless, by dividing the whole receiving array in a suitable number of sub-arrays, and by finding a dominant DOA for each one, it is possible to localize objects that are in the far-field of the sub-array, although being in the near-field of the array. The DOAs found by the sub-arrays can be triangulated, obtaining a set of crossings with intersections condensed around object locations. In this work, the performances of two different DOA algorithms are compared. In particular, a MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC)-type method [3] and Support Vector Regression (SVR) based approach [4] are employed. The results of a Cylindrical-Wave Approach forward solver are used as input data of the detection procedure [5]. To process the crossing pattern, the region of interest is divided in small windows, and a Poisson model is adopted for the statistical distribution of intersections in the windows. Hypothesis testing procedures are used (imposing

  6. Conceptual Incongruence between Prion Disease and Genetic Diversity in Ovine Species within European Union defined by Informational Statistics Terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Hrinca

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity and the studies of spongiform encephalopathies in the farm animals are highly topical concerns of the contemporary scientific world. Both themes are very interesting for the life sciences and very important for the application field of animal breeding. The implementation of these two concepts creates an antithetical paradigm: the achievement of genetic prophylaxis joins with the decrease of genetic diversity. The paper examines the genetic diversity and its evolution in sheep livestock from the European space in the context in which the European Community has developed very laborious and costly programs targeted both for conservation and enhancement of biodiversity and to eradicate the scrapie in small ruminants. This paper utilises a precise method to quantify the genetic biodiversity in all sheep populations in Europe by a modern concept derived from informational statistics - informational energy. In addition, the paper proposes concrete and viable solutions to achieve these two desiderata at optimal levels in connection with a perfect perspicacity of sheep breeder which consists in accuracy of the reproduction process and correct application of the selection criteria.

  7. Virtual environmental applications for buried waste characterization technology evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The project, Virtual Environment Applications for Buried Waste Characterization, was initiated in the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program in fiscal year 1994. This project is a research and development effort that supports the remediation of buried waste by identifying and examining the issues, needs, and feasibility of creating virtual environments using available characterization and other data. This document describes the progress and results from this project during the past year.

  8. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Plan. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostelnik, K.M.

    1991-12-01

    This document presents the plan of activities for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program which supports the environmental restoration (ER) objectives of the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. Discussed in this plan are the objectives, organization, roles and responsibilities, and the process for implementing and managing BWID. BWID is hosted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), but involves participants from throughout the DOE Complex, private industry, universities, and the international community. These participants will support, demonstrate, and evaluate a suite of advanced technologies representing a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The processes for identifying technological needs, screening candidate technologies for applicability and maturity, selecting appropriate technologies for demonstration, field demonstrating, evaluation of results and transferring technologies to environmental restoration programs are also presented. This document further describes the elements of project planning and control that apply to BWID. It addresses the management processes, operating procedures, programmatic and technical objectives, and schedules. Key functions in support of each demonstration such as regulatory coordination, safety analyses, risk evaluations, facility requirements, and data management are presented.

  9. Retrieval of Shape Characteristics for Buried Objects with GPR Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldovieri, F.; Comite, D.; Galli, A.; Valerio, G.; Barone, P. M.; Lauro, S. E.; Mattei, E.; Pettinelli, E.

    2012-04-01

    Information retrieval on the location and the geometrical features (dimensions and shape) of buried objects is of fundamental importance in geosciences areas involving environmental protection, mine clearance, archaeological investigations, space and planetary exploration, and so forth. Among the different non-invasive sensing techniques usually employed to achieve this kind of information, those based on ground-penetrating-radar (GPR) instruments are well-established and suitable to the mentioned purposes [1]. In this context, our interest in the present work is specifically focused on testing the potential performance of typical GPR instruments by means of appropriate data processing. It will be shown in particular to what extent the use of a suitable "microwave tomographic approach" [2] is able to furnish a shape estimation of the targets, possibly recognizing different kinds of canonical geometries, even having reduced cross sections and in critical conditions, where the scatterer size is comparable with resolution limits imposed by the usual measurement configurations. Our study starts by obtaining the typical "direct" information from the GPR techniques that is the scattered field in subsurface environments under the form of radargrams. In order to get a wide variety of scenarios for the operating conditions, this goal is achieved by means of two different and independent approaches [3]. One approach is based on direct measurements through an experimental laboratory setup: commercial GPR instruments (typically bistatic configurations operating around 1 GHz frequency range) are used to collect radargram profiles by investigating an artificial basin filled of liquid and/or granular materials (sand, etc.), in which targets (having different constitutive parameters, shape, and dimensions) can be buried. The other approach is based on numerical GPR simulations by means of a commercial CAD electromagnetic tool (CST), whose suitable implementation and data

  10. 政府与统计信息产品的供给%On Government and the Supply of Economic Statistical Information Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱琴华

    2004-01-01

    Facing the age of economic globlization and knowledge economy, we found that economic statistical information products supplied only by the government cannot meet the multiple demands from different entities. Based on the theory of public products, economic information products can be judged to be quasipublic products and they can be supplied both by government and by market in a harmonious way. Therefore, in order to meet the increasing new demands, the government should improve its supply efficiency of statistical information and greatly promote the development of market supply as well.

  11. Statistical approaches to the analysis of point count data: A little extra information can go a long way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, G.L.; Nichols, J.D.; Sauer, J.R.; Fancy, S.G.; Pollock, K.H.; Shriner, S.A.; Simons, T.R.; Ralph, C. John; Rich, Terrell D.

    2005-01-01

    Point counts are a standard sampling procedure for many bird species, but lingering concerns still exist about the quality of information produced from the method. It is well known that variation in observer ability and environmental conditions can influence the detection probability of birds in point counts, but many biologists have been reluctant to abandon point counts in favor of more intensive approaches to counting. However, over the past few years a variety of statistical and methodological developments have begun to provide practical ways of overcoming some of the problems with point counts. We describe some of these approaches, and show how they can be integrated into standard point count protocols to greatly enhance the quality of the information. Several tools now exist for estimation of detection probability of birds during counts, including distance sampling, double observer methods, time-depletion (removal) methods, and hybrid methods that combine these approaches. Many counts are conducted in habitats that make auditory detection of birds much more likely than visual detection. As a framework for understanding detection probability during such counts, we propose separating two components of the probability a bird is detected during a count into (1) the probability a bird vocalizes during the count and (2) the probability this vocalization is detected by an observer. In addition, we propose that some measure of the area sampled during a count is necessary for valid inferences about bird populations. This can be done by employing fixed-radius counts or more sophisticated distance-sampling models. We recommend any studies employing point counts be designed to estimate detection probability and to include a measure of the area sampled.

  12. PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, REPORTS), (*PROBABILITY, REPORTS), INFORMATION THEORY, DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS, STATISTICAL PROCESSES, STOCHASTIC PROCESSES, MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS, DISTRIBUTION THEORY , DECISION THEORY, MEASURE THEORY, OPTIMIZATION

  13. Acoustic imaging of objects buried in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, C H; Cadalli, N; Munson, D C; O'Brien, W D

    2000-07-01

    In this study, we demonstrate an acoustic system for high-resolution imaging of objects buried in soil. Our goal is to image cultural artifacts in order to assess in a rapid manner the historical significance of a potential construction site. We describe the imaging system and present preliminary images produced from data collected from a soil phantom. A mathematical model and associated computer software are developed in order to simulate the signals acquired by the system. We have built the imaging system, which incorporates a single element source transducer and a receiver array. The source and receiver array are moved together along a linear path to collect data. Using this system, we have obtained B-mode images of several targets by using delay-and-sum beamforming, and we have also applied synthetic aperture theory to this problem.

  14. SEM based overlay measurement between resist and buried patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Osamu; Okagawa, Yutaka; Hasumi, Kazuhisa; Shao, Chuanyu; Leray, Philippe; Lorusso, Gian; Baudemprez, Bart

    2016-03-01

    With the continuous shrink in pattern size and increased density, overlay control has become one of the most critical issues in semiconductor manufacturing. Recently, SEM based overlay of AEI (After Etch Inspection) wafer has been used for reference and optimization of optical overlay (both Image Based Overlay (IBO) and Diffraction Based Overlay (DBO)). Overlay measurement at AEI stage contributes monitor and forecast the yield after formation by etch and calibrate optical measurement tools. however those overlay value seems difficult directly for feedback to a scanner. Therefore, there is a clear need to have SEM based overlay measurements of ADI (After Develop Inspection) wafers in order to serve as reference for optical overlay and make necessary corrections before wafers go to etch. Furthermore, to make the corrections as accurate as possible, actual device like feature dimensions need to be measured post ADI. This device size measurement is very unique feature of CDSEM , which can be measured with smaller area. This is currently possible only with the CD-SEM. This device size measurement is very unique feature of CD-SEM , which can be measured with smaller area. In this study, we assess SEM based overlay measurement of ADI and AEI wafer by using a sample from an N10 process flow. First, we demonstrate SEM based overlay performance at AEI by using dual damascene process for Via 0 (V0) and metal 1 (M1) layer. We also discuss the overlay measurements between litho-etch-litho stages of a triple patterned M1 layer and double pattern V0. Second, to illustrate the complexities in image acquisition and measurement we will measure overlay between M1B resist and buried M1A-Hard mask trench. Finally, we will show how high accelerating voltage can detect buried pattern information by BSE (Back Scattering Electron). In this paper we discuss the merits of this method versus standard optical metrology based corrections.

  15. Including Arbitrary Antenna Patterns in Microwave Imaging of Buried Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meincke, Peter; Kim, Oleksiy S.; Lenler-Eriksen, Hans-Rudolph

    2004-01-01

    A linear inversion scheme for microwave imaging of buried objects is presented in which arbitrary antennas are accounted for through their plane-wave transmitting and receiving spectra......A linear inversion scheme for microwave imaging of buried objects is presented in which arbitrary antennas are accounted for through their plane-wave transmitting and receiving spectra...

  16. A Buried Vertical Filter for Micro and Nanoparticle Filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, S.J.; Shen, C.; Sarro, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a silicon micromachined filter for micro- and nanoparticles. The filter is vertical and completely buried beneath the surface. The buried aspect allows additional features to be integrated above the filter, while the vertical aspect allows the creation of highly uniform pores and

  17. VIPMOS-A novel buried injector structure for EPROM applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijburg, Rutger C.; Wijburg, R.C.M.; Hemink, Gertjan J.; Hemink, Gertjan; Middelhoek, J.; Middelhoek, Jan; Wallinga, Hans; Mouthaan, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    A buried injector is proposed as a source of electrons for substrate hot electrons injection. To enhance the compatibility with VLSI processing, the buried injector is formed by the local overlap of the n-well and p-well of a retrograde twin-well CMOS process. The injector is activated by means of p

  18. Buried injector logic, a vertical IIL using deep ion implantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouthaan, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    A vertically integrated alternative for integrated injection logic has been realized, named buried injector logic (BIL). 1 MeV ion implantations are used to create buried layers. The vertical pnp and npn transistors have thin base regions and exhibit a limited charge accumulation if a gate is satura

  19. Including Arbitrary Antenna Patterns in Microwave Imaging of Buried Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meincke, Peter; Kim, Oleksiy S.; Lenler-Eriksen, Hans-Rudolph

    2004-01-01

    A linear inversion scheme for microwave imaging of buried objects is presented in which arbitrary antennas are accounted for through their plane-wave transmitting and receiving spectra......A linear inversion scheme for microwave imaging of buried objects is presented in which arbitrary antennas are accounted for through their plane-wave transmitting and receiving spectra...

  20. VIPMOS-A novel buried injector structure for EPROM applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijburg, Rutger C.; Hemink, Gertjan J.; Middelhoek, Jan; Wallinga, Hans; Mouthaan, Ton J.

    1991-01-01

    A buried injector is proposed as a source of electrons for substrate hot electrons injection. To enhance the compatibility with VLSI processing, the buried injector is formed by the local overlap of the n-well and p-well of a retrograde twin-well CMOS process. The injector is activated by means of p

  1. Identification of immunity-related genes in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, H; Badapanda, C; Vilcinskas, A

    2011-12-01

    Burying beetles reproduce on small vertebrate cadavers which they bury in the soil after localization through volatiles emitted from the carcass. They then chemically preserve the carcass and prepare it as a diet for the adults and their offspring. It is predicted that exposure to high loads of soil and/or carrion-associated microbes necessitates an effective immune system. In the present paper, we report experimental screening for immunity-related genes in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides using the suppression subtractive hybridization approach. A total of 1179 putative gene objects were identified in the Nicrophorus cDNA library, which was enriched for transcripts differentially expressed upon challenge with heat-inactivated bacteria. In addition to genes known to be involved in immunity-related recognition and signalling, we found transcripts encoding for antimicrobial peptides and for an array of enzymes that can be linked to immunity or to stress-induced pathways. We also determined proteins that may contribute to detoxification of toxins produced by microbial competitors. In addition, factors involved in mRNA stability determination and central components of the RNA interference machinery were identified, implying transcriptional reprogramming and potential stress-induced retrotransposon elimination. The identified candidate immune effector and stress-related genes may provide important information about the unusual ecology and evolution of the burying beetles.

  2. Evaluating In Situ Treatment Technologies for Buried Mixed Waste Remediation at the INEEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgensen, Douglas Kay; Nickelson, David Frank; Nickelson, Reva Anne; Farnsworth, Richard Kent; Jessmore, James Joseph

    1999-03-01

    Mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes were buried at the Department of Energy’s Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Subsurface Disposal Area from 1952 to 1969. To begin the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process for the Subsurface Disposal Area, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) added the INEEL to its National Priorities List in 1989. DOE’s Office of Environmental Restoration is planning several CERCLA treatability studies of remedial technologies that will be evaluated for potential remediation of the buried waste in the Subsurface Disposal Area. This paper discusses the in situ treatability studies that will be performed, including in situ vitrification, in situ grouting, and in situ thermal desorption. The in situ treatability studies will be conducted on simulated and actual buried wastes at the INEEL in 1999 and 2000. Results from the treatability studies will provide substantial information on the feasibility, implementability, and cost of applying these technologies to the INEEL Subsurface Disposal Area. In addition, much of the treatability study data will be applicable to buried waste site remediation efforts across the DOE complex.

  3. A novel genome-information content-based statistic for genome-wide association analysis designed for next-generation sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Li; Zhu, Yun; Xiong, Momiao

    2012-06-01

    The genome-wide association studies (GWAS) designed for next-generation sequencing data involve testing association of genomic variants, including common, low frequency, and rare variants. The current strategies for association studies are well developed for identifying association of common variants with the common diseases, but may be ill-suited when large amounts of allelic heterogeneity are present in sequence data. Recently, group tests that analyze their collective frequency differences between cases and controls shift the current variant-by-variant analysis paradigm for GWAS of common variants to the collective test of multiple variants in the association analysis of rare variants. However, group tests ignore differences in genetic effects among SNPs at different genomic locations. As an alternative to group tests, we developed a novel genome-information content-based statistics for testing association of the entire allele frequency spectrum of genomic variation with the diseases. To evaluate the performance of the proposed statistics, we use large-scale simulations based on whole genome low coverage pilot data in the 1000 Genomes Project to calculate the type 1 error rates and power of seven alternative statistics: a genome-information content-based statistic, the generalized T(2), collapsing method, multivariate and collapsing (CMC) method, individual χ(2) test, weighted-sum statistic, and variable threshold statistic. Finally, we apply the seven statistics to published resequencing dataset from ANGPTL3, ANGPTL4, ANGPTL5, and ANGPTL6 genes in the Dallas Heart Study. We report that the genome-information content-based statistic has significantly improved type 1 error rates and higher power than the other six statistics in both simulated and empirical datasets.

  4. Risk map for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ethiopia based on environmental factors as revealed by geographical information systems and statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seid, Ahmed; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Tsegaw, Teshome; Abera, Adugna; Teshome, Aklilu; Mulugeta, Abate; Herrero, Merce; Argaw, Daniel; Jorge, Alvar; Kebede, Asnakew; Aseffa, Abraham

    2014-05-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected tropical disease strongly associated with poverty. Treatment is problematic and no vaccine is available. Ethiopia has seen new outbreaks in areas previously not known to be endemic, often with co-infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) with rates reaching 5.6% of the cases. The present study concerns the development of a risk model based on environmental factors using geographical information systems (GIS), statistical analysis and modelling. Odds ratio (OR) of bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the relative importance of environmental factors, accepting P ≤ 0.056 as the inclusion level for the model's environmental variables. When estimating risk from the viewpoint of geographical surface, slope, elevation and annual rainfall were found to be good predictors of CL presence based on both probabilistic and weighted overlay approaches. However, when considering Ethiopia as whole, a minor difference was observed between the two methods with the probabilistic technique giving a 22.5% estimate, while that of weighted overlay approach was 19.5%. Calculating the population according to the land surface estimated by the latter method, the total Ethiopian population at risk for CL was estimated at 28,955,035, mainly including people in the highlands of the regional states of Amhara, Oromia, Tigray and the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples' Region, one of the nine ethnic divisions in Ethiopia. Our environmental risk model provided an overall prediction accuracy of 90.4%. The approach proposed here can be replicated for other diseases to facilitate implementation of evidence-based, integrated disease control activities.

  5. Risk map for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ethiopia based on environmental factors as revealed by geographical information systems and statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Seid

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is a neglected tropical disease strongly associated with poverty. Treatment is problematic and no vaccine is available. Ethiopia has seen new outbreaks in areas previously not known to be endemic, often with co-infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV with rates reaching 5.6% of the cases. The present study concerns the development of a risk model based on environmental factors using geographical information systems (GIS, statistical analysis and modelling. Odds ratio (OR of bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the relative importance of environmental factors, accepting P ≤0.056 as the inclusion level for the model’s environmental variables. When estimating risk from the viewpoint of geographical surface, slope, elevation and annual rainfall were found to be good predictors of CL presence based on both probabilistic and weighted overlay approaches. However, when considering Ethiopia as whole, a minor difference was observed between the two methods with the probabilistic technique giving a 22.5% estimate, while that of weighted overlay approach was 19.5%. Calculating the population according to the land surface estimated by the latter method, the total Ethiopian population at risk for CL was estimated at 28,955,035, mainly including people in the highlands of the regional states of Amhara, Oromia, Tigray and the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples’ Region, one of the nine ethnic divisions in Ethiopia. Our environmental risk model provided an overall prediction accuracy of 90.4%. The approach proposed here can be replicated for other diseases to facilitate implementation of evidence-based, integrated disease control activities.

  6. Determination of the electronic density of states near buried interfaces: Application to Co/Cu multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, A.; Sthör, J.; Wiell, T.

    1996-01-01

    High-resolution L(3) x-ray absorption and emission spectra of Co and Cu in Co/Cu multilayers are shown to provide unique information on the occupied and unoccupied density of d states near buried interfaces. The d bands of both Co and Cu interfacial layers are shown to be considerably narrowed re...... relative to the bulk metals, and for Cu interface layers the d density of states is found to be enhanced near the Fermi level. The experimental results are confirmed by self-consistent electronic structure calculations.......High-resolution L(3) x-ray absorption and emission spectra of Co and Cu in Co/Cu multilayers are shown to provide unique information on the occupied and unoccupied density of d states near buried interfaces. The d bands of both Co and Cu interfacial layers are shown to be considerably narrowed...

  7. A hybrid Land Cover Dataset for Russia: a new methodology for merging statistics, remote sensing and in-situ information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepaschenko, D.; McCallum, I.; Shvidenko, A.; Kraxner, F.; Fritz, S.

    2009-04-01

    There is a critical need for accurate land cover information for resource assessment, biophysical modeling, greenhouse gas studies, and for estimating possible terrestrial responses and feedbacks to climate change. However, practically all existing land cover datasets have quite a high level of uncertainty and suffer from a lack of important details that does not allow for relevant parameterization, e.g., data derived from different forest inventories. The objective of this study is to develop a methodology in order to create a hybrid land cover dataset at the level which would satisfy requirements of the verified terrestrial biota full greenhouse gas account (Shvidenko et al., 2008) for large regions i.e. Russia. Such requirements necessitate a detailed quantification of land classes (e.g., for forests - dominant species, age, growing stock, net primary production, etc.) with additional information on uncertainties of the major biometric and ecological parameters in the range of 10-20% and a confidence interval of around 0.9. The approach taken here allows the integration of different datasets to explore synergies and in particular the merging and harmonization of land and forest inventories, ecological monitoring, remote sensing data and in-situ information. The following datasets have been integrated: Remote sensing: Global Land Cover 2000 (Fritz et al., 2003), Vegetation Continuous Fields (Hansen et al., 2002), Vegetation Fire (Sukhinin, 2007), Regional land cover (Schmullius et al., 2005); GIS: Soil 1:2.5 Mio (Dokuchaev Soil Science Institute, 1996), Administrative Regions 1:2.5 Mio, Vegetation 1:4 Mio, Bioclimatic Zones 1:4 Mio (Stolbovoi & McCallum, 2002), Forest Enterprises 1:2.5 Mio, Rivers/Lakes and Roads/Railways 1:1 Mio (IIASA's data base); Inventories and statistics: State Land Account (FARSC RF, 2006), State Forest Account - SFA (FFS RF, 2003), Disturbances in forests (FFS RF, 2006). The resulting hybrid land cover dataset at 1-km resolution comprises

  8. Compact Buried Ducts in a Hot-Humid Climate House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, Dave [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2016-01-07

    "9A system of compact, buried ducts provides a high-performance and cost-effective solution for delivering conditioned air throughout the building. This report outlines research activities that are expected to facilitate adoption of compact buried duct systems by builders. The results of this research would be scalable to many new house designs in most climates and markets, leading to wider industry acceptance and building code and energy program approval. The primary research question with buried ducts is potential condensation at the outer jacket of the duct insulation in humid climates during the cooling season. Current best practices for buried ducts rely on encapsulating the insulated ducts with closed-cell spray polyurethane foam insulation to control condensation and improve air sealing. The encapsulated buried duct concept has been analyzed and shown to be effective in hot-humid climates. The purpose of this project is to develop an alternative buried duct system that performs effectively as ducts in conditioned space - durable, energy efficient, and cost-effective - in a hot-humid climate (IECC warm-humid climate zone 3A) with three goals that distinguish this project: 1) Evaluation of design criteria for buried ducts that use common materials and do not rely on encapsulation using spray foam or disrupt traditional work sequences; 2) Establishing design criteria for compact ducts and incorporate those with the buried duct criteria to further reduce energy losses and control installed costs; 3) Developing HVAC design guidance for performing accurate heating and cooling load calculations for compact buried ducts.

  9. Measure Guideline: Buried and/or Encapsulated Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, C.; Zoeller, W.; Mantha, P.

    2013-08-01

    Buried and/or encapsulated ducts (BEDs) are a class of advanced, energy-efficiency strategies intended to address the significant ductwork thermal losses associated with ducts installed in unconditioned attics. BEDs are ducts installed in unconditioned attics that are covered in loose-fill insulation and/or encapsulated in closed cell polyurethane spray foam insulation. This Measure Guideline covers the technical aspects of BEDs as well as the advantages, disadvantages, and risks of BEDs compared to other alternative strategies. This guideline also provides detailed guidance on installation of BEDs strategies in new and existing homes through step-by-step installation procedures. This Building America Measure Guideline synthesizes previously published research on BEDs and provides practical information to builders, contractors, homeowners, policy analysts, building professions, and building scientists. Some of the procedures presented here, however, require specialized equipment or expertise. In addition, some alterations to duct systems may require a specialized license. Persons implementing duct system improvements should not go beyond their expertise or qualifications. This guideline provides valuable information for a building industry that has struggled to address ductwork thermal losses in new and existing homes. As building codes strengthen requirements for duct air sealing and insulation, flexibility is needed to address energy efficiency goals. While ductwork in conditioned spaces has been promoted as the panacea for addressing ductwork thermal losses, BEDs installations approach - and sometimes exceed - the performance of ductwork in conditioned spaces.

  10. Buried waste containment system materials. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidner, J.R.; Shaw, P.G.

    1997-10-01

    This report describes the results of a test program to validate the application of a latex-modified cement formulation for use with the Buried Waste Containment System (BWCS) process during a proof of principle (POP) demonstration. The test program included three objectives. One objective was to validate the barrier material mix formulation to be used with the BWCS equipment. A basic mix formula for initial trials was supplied by the cement and latex vendors. The suitability of the material for BWCS application was verified by laboratory testing at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A second objective was to determine if the POP BWCS material emplacement process adversely affected the barrier material properties. This objective was met by measuring and comparing properties of material prepared in the INEEL Materials Testing Laboratory (MTL) with identical properties of material produced by the BWCS field tests. These measurements included hydraulic conductivity to determine if the material met the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements for barriers used for hazardous waste sites, petrographic analysis to allow an assessment of barrier material separation and segregation during emplacement, and a set of mechanical property tests typical of concrete characterization. The third objective was to measure the hydraulic properties of barrier material containing a stop-start joint to determine if such a feature would meet the EPA requirements for hazardous waste site barriers.

  11. A diphtheria outbreak in Buri Ram, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantukosit, Pantavee; Arpornsuwan, Manote; Sookananta, Kanokporn

    2008-07-01

    In May 1996 there was an outbreak of diphtheria in Buri Ram, Thailand which infected 31 patients, 8 males and 23 females. The mean age of the patients was 8 +/- 5 years. Seventy-four percent had a history of childhood vaccinations. Common signs and symptoms included fever (100%) which was low grade in 61%, sore throat (90%), upper airway obstruction (3%), and hoarseness (10%). Pseudomembranes (seen in 100%) were located on the tonsils (71%), pharynx (22%), larynx (9.6%), and uvula (6%). The mean duration of symptoms prior to admission was 2 days with a range of 1 to 5 days. Complications included upper airway obstruction (10%) and cardiac complications (10%). There were no neurological complication or deaths. There were negative associations between cardiac complications, severity of disease and previous diphtheria vaccination. The ages varied from children to adults. Early recognition and prompt treatment decreased complications and mortality in this group of patients when compared with Chiang Mai and Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health (QSNICH) studies.

  12. Buried nanoantenna arrays: versatile antireflection coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabiri, Ali; Girgis, Emad; Capasso, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Reflection is usually a detrimental phenomenon in many applications such as flat-panel-displays, solar cells, photodetectors, infrared sensors, and lenses. Thus far, to control and suppress the reflection from a substrate, numerous techniques including dielectric interference coatings, surface texturing, adiabatic index matching, and scattering from plasmonic nanoparticles have been investigated. A new technique is demonstrated to manage and suppress reflection from lossless and lossy substrates. It provides a wider flexibility in design versus previous methods. Reflection from a surface can be suppressed over a narrowband, wideband, or multiband frequency range. The antireflection can be dependent or independent of the incident wave polarization. Moreover, antireflection at a very wide incidence angle can be attained. The reflection from a substrate is controlled by a buried nanoantenna array, a structure composed of (1) a subwavelength metallic array and (2) a dielectric cover layer referred to as a superstrate. The material properties and thickness of the superstrate and nanoantennas' geometry and periodicity control the phase and intensity of the wave circulating inside the superstrate cavity. A minimum reflectance of 0.02% is achieved in various experiments in the mid-infrared from a silicon substrate. The design can be integrated in straightforward way in optical devices. The proposed structure is a versatile AR coating to optically impedance matches any substrate to free space in selected any narrow and broadband spectral response across the entire visible and infrared spectrum.

  13. Buried plastic scintillator muon telescope (BATATA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfaro, R. [Inst. de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F., C.P. 04510 (Mexico); De Donato, C.; D' Olivo, J.C.; Guzman, A.; Medina-Tanco, G. [Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F., C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Moreno Barbosa, E. [Fac. de Ciencias Fisico Matematicas, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Paic, G.; Patino Salazar, E. [Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F., C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Salazar Ibarguen, H. [Fac. de Ciencias Fisico Matematicas, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Sanchez, F.A., E-mail: federico.sanchez@nucleares.unam.m [Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F., C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Supanitsky, A.D. [Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F., C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Valdes-Galicia, J.F. [Inst. de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F., C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Vargas Trevino, A.D.; Vergara Limon, S. [Fac. de Ciencias de la Electronica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Villasenor, L.M. [Inst. de Fisica y Matematicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas Hidalgo Morelia (Mexico); Observatorio Pierre Auger, Av. San Martin Norte 304 (5613) Malarguee, Prov. Mendoza (Argentina)

    2010-05-21

    Muon telescopes have multiple applications in the area of cosmic ray research. We are currently building such a detector with the objective of comparing the ground penetration of muon vs. electron-gamma signals originated in cosmic ray showers. The detector is composed by a set of three parallel dual-layer scintillator planes, buried at fixed depths ranging from 120 to 600g/cm{sup 2}. Each layer is 4m{sup 2} and is composed by 49 rectangular strips of 4cmx2m, oriented at a 90{sup 0} angle with respect to its companion layer, which gives an xy-coincidence pixel of 4x4cm{sup 2}. The scintillators are MINOS extruded polystyrene strips, with an embedded Bicron BC92 wavelength shifting (WLS) fibers, of 1.5 mm in diameter. Light is collected by Hamamatsu H7546B multi-anode PMTs of 64 pixels. The front-end (FE) electronics works in counting mode and signals are transmitted to the surface DAQ stage using low-voltage differential signaling (LVDS). Any strip signal above threshold opens a GPS-tagged 2{mu}s data collection window. Data, including signal and background, are acquired by a system of FPGA (Spartan 2E) boards and a single-board computer (TS7800).

  14. Buried plastic scintillator muon telescope (BATATA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, R.; de Donato, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Guzmán, A.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Moreno Barbosa, E.; Paic, G.; Patiño Salazar, E.; Salazar Ibarguen, H.; Sánchez, F. A.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Valdés-Galicia, J. F.; Vargas Treviño, A. D.; Vergara Limón, S.; Villaseñor, L. M.; Auger Collaboration

    2010-05-01

    Muon telescopes have multiple applications in the area of cosmic ray research. We are currently building such a detector with the objective of comparing the ground penetration of muon vs. electron-gamma signals originated in cosmic ray showers. The detector is composed by a set of three parallel dual-layer scintillator planes, buried at fixed depths ranging from 120 to 600g/cm2. Each layer is 4m2 and is composed by 49 rectangular strips of 4cm×2m, oriented at a 90∘ angle with respect to its companion layer, which gives an xy-coincidence pixel of 4×4cm2. The scintillators are MINOS extruded polystyrene strips, with an embedded Bicron BC92 wavelength shifting (WLS) fibers, of 1.5 mm in diameter. Light is collected by Hamamatsu H7546B multi-anode PMTs of 64 pixels. The front-end (FE) electronics works in counting mode and signals are transmitted to the surface DAQ stage using low-voltage differential signaling (LVDS). Any strip signal above threshold opens a GPS-tagged 2μs data collection window. Data, including signal and background, are acquired by a system of FPGA (Spartan 2E) boards and a single-board computer (TS7800).

  15. Tennessee StreamStats: A Web-Enabled Geographic Information System Application for Automating the Retrieval and Calculation of Streamflow Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, David E.; Law, George S.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides streamflow and other stream-related information needed to protect people and property from floods, to plan and manage water resources, and to protect water quality in the streams. Streamflow statistics provided by the USGS, such as the 100-year flood and the 7-day 10-year low flow, frequently are used by engineers, land managers, biologists, and many others to help guide decisions in their everyday work. In addition to streamflow statistics, resource managers often need to know the physical and climatic characteristics (basin characteristics) of the drainage basins for locations of interest to help them understand the mechanisms that control water availability and water quality at these locations. StreamStats is a Web-enabled geographic information system (GIS) application that makes it easy for users to obtain streamflow statistics, basin characteristics, and other information for USGS data-collection stations and for ungaged sites of interest. If a user selects the location of a data-collection station, StreamStats will provide previously published information for the station from a database. If a user selects a location where no data are available (an ungaged site), StreamStats will run a GIS program to delineate a drainage basin boundary, measure basin characteristics, and estimate streamflow statistics based on USGS streamflow prediction methods. A user can download a GIS feature class of the drainage basin boundary with attributes including the measured basin characteristics and streamflow estimates.

  16. 49 CFR 195.248 - Cover over buried pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.248 Cover over buried pipeline. (a) Unless specifically... (457) Any other area 30 (762) 18 (457) 1 Rock excavation is any excavation that requires blasting or...

  17. A Review of Celestial Burying Ground in Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUQIAN

    2005-01-01

    Celestial burying ground ,also called “Mandala”,is where life leaves and comes.A huge piece of stone hidden in high mountains is surrounded by burning plants that give up smoke going up into the air.

  18. a Uav Based 3-D Positioning Framework for Detecting Locations of Buried Persons in Collapsed Disaster Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, H.; Kim, C.; Lee, W.

    2016-06-01

    Regarding spatial location positioning, indoor location positioning theories based on wireless communication techniques such as Wi-Fi, beacon, UWB and Bluetooth has widely been developing across the world. These techniques are mainly focusing on spatial location detection of customers using fixed wireless APs and unique Tags in the indoor environment. Besides, since existing detection equipment and techniques using ultrasound or sound etc. to detect buried persons and identify survival status for them cause 2nd damages on the collapsed debris for rescuers. In addition, it might take time to check the buried persons. However, the collapsed disaster sites should consider both outdoor and indoor environments because empty spaces under collapsed debris exists. In order to detect buried persons from the empty spaces, we should collect wireless signals with Wi-Fi from their mobile phone. Basically, the Wi-Fi signal measure 2-D location. However, since the buried persons have Z value with burial depth, we also should collect barometer sensor data from their mobile phones in order to measure Z values according to weather conditions. Specially, for quick accessibility to the disaster area, a drone (UAV; Unmanned Arial Vehicle) system, which is equipped with a wireless detection module, was introduced. Using these framework, this study aims to provide the rescuers with effective rescue information by calculating 3-D location for buried persons based on the wireless and barometer sensor fusion.

  19. Data fusion for the detection of buried land mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, G.A.; Sengupta, S.K.; Schaich, P.C.; Sherwood, R.J.; Buhl, M.R.; Hernandez, J.E.; Kane, R.J.; Barth, M.J.; Fields, D.J.; Carter, M.R.

    1993-10-01

    The authors conducted experiments to demonstrate the enhanced delectability of buried land mines using sensor fusion techniques. Multiple sensors, including imagery, infrared imagery, and ground penetrating radar, have been used to acquire data on a number of buried mines and mine surrogates. The authors present this data along with a discussion of the application of sensor fusion techniques for this particular detection problem. The authors describe the data fusion architecture and discuss some relevant results of these classification methods.

  20. Compact Buried Ducts in a Hot-Humid Climate House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, D. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A system of compact, buried ducts provides a high-performance and cost-effective solution for delivering conditioned air throughout the building. This report outlines research activities that are expected to facilitate adoption of compact buried duct systems by builders. The results of this research would be scalable to many new house designs in most climates and markets, leading to wider industry acceptance and building code and energy program approval.

  1. Classification of Target Buried in the Underground by Radar Polarimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Moriyama, Toshifumi; Nakamura, Masafumi; Yamaguchi, Yoshio; Yamada, Hiroyoshi; Boerner, Wolfgang-M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the classification of targets buried in the underground by radar polarimetry. The subsurface radar is used for the detection of objects buried beneath the ground surface, such as gas pipes, cables and cavities, or in archeological exploration operation. In addition to target echo, the subsurface radar receives various other echoes, because the underground is inhomogeneous medium. Therefore, the subsurface radar needs to distinguish these echoes. In order to enhance the di...

  2. Dynamic Pressure of Seabed around Buried Pipelines in Shallow Water

    OpenAIRE

    Changjing Fu; Guoying Li; Tianlong Zhao; Donghai Guan

    2015-01-01

    Due to the obvious nonlinear effect caused by the shallow waves, the nonlinear wave loads have a great influence on the buried pipelines in shallow water. In order to ensure their stability, the forces on the pipelines that resulted from nonlinear waves should be considered thoroughly. Based on the Biot consolidation theory and the first-order approximate cnoidal wave theory, analytical solutions of the pore water pressure around the buried pipelines in shallow water caused by waves are first...

  3. Buried waste integrated demonstration Fiscal Year 1993 close-out report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, K.J.; Hyde, R.A.

    1994-04-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a multitude of advanced technologies. These technologies are being integrated to form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. These efforts are identified and coordinated in support of the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Restoration and Waste Management needs and objectives. BWID works with universities and private industry to develop these technologies, which are being transferred to the private sector for use nationally and internationally. A public participation policy has been established to provide stakeholders with timely and accurate information and meaningful opportunities for involvement in the technology development and demonstration process. To accomplish this mission of identifying technological solutions for remediation deficiencies, the Office of Technology Development initiated BWID at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This report summarizes the activities of the BWID program during FY-93.

  4. Measurement of buried undercut structures in microfluidic devices by laser fluorescent confocal microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Shiguang; Liu Jing; Nguyen, Nam-Trung; Fang Zhongping; Yoon, Soon Fatt

    2009-11-20

    Measuring buried, undercut microstructures is a challenging task in metrology. These structures are usually characterized by measuring their cross sections after physically cutting the samples. This method is destructive and the obtained information is incomplete. The distortion due to cutting also affects the measurement accuracy. In this paper, we first apply the laser fluorescent confocal microscopy and intensity differentiation algorithm to obtain the complete three-dimensional profile of the buried, undercut structures in microfluidic devices, which are made by the soft lithography technique and bonded by the oxygen plasma method. The impact of material wettability and the refractive index (n) mismatch among the liquid, samples, cover layer, and objective on the measurement accuracy are experimentally investigated.

  5. A Very Large Population of Likely Buried Impact Basins in the Northern Lowlands of Mars Revealed by MOLA Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, H. V.; Shockey, K. M.; Frey, E. L.; Roark, J. H.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.

    2001-01-01

    High resolution Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data have revealed a large number of subdued quasi-circular depressions (QCDs) >50 km diameter in the northern lowlands of Mars which are generally not visible in Viking imagery and which may be buried ancient impact basins. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  6. 14 CFR 385.19 - Authority of the Director, Office of Aviation Information, Bureau of Transportation Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... continued financial fitness, or comply with special information requests by Congress, Department officials... for use of domestic and international service segment and market data in accordance with...

  7. Thermal processing system concepts and considerations for RWMC buried waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, T.L.; Kong, P.C.; Raivo, B.D.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents a preliminary determination of ex situ thermal processing system concepts and related processing considerations for application to remediation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated buried wastes (TRUW) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Beginning with top-level thermal treatment concepts and requirements identified in a previous Preliminary Systems Design Study (SDS), a more detailed consideration of the waste materials thermal processing problem is provided. Anticipated waste stream elements and problem characteristics are identified and considered. Final waste form performance criteria, requirements, and options are examined within the context of providing a high-integrity, low-leachability glass/ceramic, final waste form material. Thermal processing conditions required and capability of key systems components (equipment) to provide these material process conditions are considered. Information from closely related companion study reports on melter technology development needs assessment and INEL Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) research are considered. Five potentially practicable thermal process system design configuration concepts are defined and compared. A scenario for thermal processing of a mixed waste and soils stream with essentially no complex presorting and using a series process of incineration and high temperature melting is recommended. Recommendations for applied research and development necessary to further detail and demonstrate the final waste form, required thermal processes, and melter process equipment are provided.

  8. An EM Modeling for Rescue System Design of Buried People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. De Leo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a rescue system for buried persons is a subject of growing importance in case of occurrence of natural disasters such as earthquake, landslides, or avalanches. In this paper a fully analytical model has been developed to get some fundamental a priori design characteristics. The proposed system is based on the detection of the victim movements due to its respiratory activity: in particular, when an electromagnetic (EM wave impinges on a human body, the analysis of the reflected wave parameters such as amplitude, frequency, phase, or delay time allows for the detection of the breathing frequency. The model is simple on purpose because the great uncertainty concerning the characterization of many environmental parameters of a general situation makes a very detailed model useless. However, it is accurate enough to provide useful information about system design, filling the gap in the literature concerning the electromagnetic formulation of such kinds of problems. A system prototype was built using laboratory equipment to experimentally validate the model, and subsequently breathing frequency measurements were carried on, both in a lossless laboratory environment and in a lossy realistic scenario.

  9. Detecting buried explosive hazards with handheld GPR and deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besaw, Lance E.

    2016-05-01

    Buried explosive hazards (BEHs), including traditional landmines and homemade improvised explosives, have proven difficult to detect and defeat during and after conflicts around the world. Despite their various sizes, shapes and construction material, ground penetrating radar (GPR) is an excellent phenomenology for detecting BEHs due to its ability to sense localized differences in electromagnetic properties. Handheld GPR detectors are common equipment for detecting BEHs because of their flexibility (in part due to the human operator) and effectiveness in cluttered environments. With modern digital electronics and positioning systems, handheld GPR sensors can sense and map variation in electromagnetic properties while searching for BEHs. Additionally, large-scale computers have demonstrated an insatiable appetite for ingesting massive datasets and extracting meaningful relationships. This is no more evident than the maturation of deep learning artificial neural networks (ANNs) for image and speech recognition now commonplace in industry and academia. This confluence of sensing, computing and pattern recognition technologies offers great potential to develop automatic target recognition techniques to assist GPR operators searching for BEHs. In this work deep learning ANNs are used to detect BEHs and discriminate them from harmless clutter. We apply these techniques to a multi-antennae, handheld GPR with centimeter-accurate positioning system that was used to collect data over prepared lanes containing a wide range of BEHs. This work demonstrates that deep learning ANNs can automatically extract meaningful information from complex GPR signatures, complementing existing GPR anomaly detection and classification techniques.

  10. Experimental statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Natrella, Mary Gibbons

    2005-01-01

    Formulated to assist scientists and engineers engaged in army ordnance research and development programs, this well-known and highly regarded handbook is a ready reference for advanced undergraduate and graduate students as well as for professionals seeking engineering information and quantitative data for designing, developing, constructing, and testing equipment. Topics include characterizing and comparing the measured performance of a material, product, or process; general considerations in planning experiments; statistical techniques for analyzing extreme-value data; use of transformations

  11. PREFACE: Workshop on 'Buried' Interface Science with X-rays and Neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Kenji

    2007-06-01

    The 2007 workshop on `buried' interface science with X-rays and neutrons was held at the Institute of Materials Research, Tohoku University, in Sendai, Japan, on July 22-24, 2007. The workshop was the latest in a series held since 2001; Tsukuba (December 2001), Niigata (September 2002), Nagoya (July 2003), Tsukuba (July 2004), Saitama (March 2005), Yokohama (July 2006), Kusatsu (August 2006) and Tokyo (December 2006). The 2007 workshop had 64 participants and 34 presentations. There are increasing demands for sophisticated metrology in order to observe multilayered materials with nano-structures (dots, wires, etc), which are finding applications in electronic, magnetic, optical and other devices. Unlike many other surface-sensitive methods, X-ray and neutron analysis is known for its ability to see even `buried' function interfaces as well as the surface. It is highly reliable in practice, because the information, which ranges from the atomic to mesoscopic scale, is quantitative and reproducible. The non-destructive nature of this type of analytical method ensures that the same specimen can be measured by other techniques. However, we now realize that the method should be upgraded further to cope with more realistic problems in nano sciences and technologies. In the case of the reflectivity technique and other related methods, which have been the main topics in our workshops over the past 7 years, there are three important directions as illustrated in the Figure. Current X-ray methods can give atomic-scale information for quite a large area on a scale of mm2-cm2. These methods can deliver good statistics for an average, but sometimes we need to be able to see a specific part in nano-scale rather than an average structure. In addition, there is a need to see unstable changing structures and related phenomena in order to understand more about the mechanism of the functioning of nano materials. Quick measurements are therefore important. Furthermore, in order to apply

  12. Understanding Dynamics of Information Transmission in Drosophila melanogaster Using a Statistical Modeling Framework for Longitudinal Network Data (the RSiena Package)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquaretta, Cristian; Klenschi, Elizabeth; Pansanel, Jérôme; Battesti, Marine; Mery, Frederic; Sueur, Cédric

    2016-01-01

    Social learning – the transmission of behaviors through observation or interaction with conspecifics – can be viewed as a decision-making process driven by interactions among individuals. Animal group structures change over time and interactions among individuals occur in particular orders that may be repeated following specific patterns, change in their nature, or disappear completely. Here we used a stochastic actor-oriented model built using the RSiena package in R to estimate individual behaviors and their changes through time, by analyzing the dynamic of the interaction network of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster during social learning experiments. In particular, we re-analyzed an experimental dataset where uninformed flies, left free to interact with informed ones, acquired and later used information about oviposition site choice obtained by social interactions. We estimated the degree to which the uninformed flies had successfully acquired the information carried by informed individuals using the proportion of eggs laid by uninformed flies on the medium their conspecifics had been trained to favor. Regardless of the degree of information acquisition measured in uninformed individuals, they always received and started interactions more frequently than informed ones did. However, information was efficiently transmitted (i.e., uninformed flies predominantly laid eggs on the same medium informed ones had learn to prefer) only when the difference in contacts sent between the two fly types was small. Interestingly, we found that the degree of reciprocation, the tendency of individuals to form mutual connections between each other, strongly affected oviposition site choice in uninformed flies. This work highlights the great potential of RSiena and its utility in the studies of interaction networks among non-human animals. PMID:27148146

  13. Understanding dynamics of information transmission in Drosophila melanogaster using a statistical modeling framework for longitudinal network data (the RSiena package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian ePasquaretta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Social learning – the transmission of behaviors through observation or interaction with conspecifics – can be viewed as a decision-making process driven by interactions among individuals. Animal group structures change over time and interactions among individuals occur in particular orders that may be repeated following specific patterns, change in their nature, or disappear completely. Here we used a stochastic actor-oriented model built using the RSiena package in R to estimate individual behaviors and their changes through time, by analyzing the dynamic of the interaction network of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster during social learning experiments. In particular, we re-analyzed an experimental dataset where uninformed flies, left free to interact with informed ones, acquired and later used information about oviposition site choice obtained by social interactions. We estimated the degree to which the uninformed flies had successfully acquired the information carried by informed individuals using the proportion of eggs laid by uninformed flies on the medium their conspecifics had been trained to favor. Regardless of the degree of information acquisition measured in uninformed individuals, they always received and started interactions more frequently than informed ones did. However, information was efficiently transmitted (i.e. uninformed flies predominantly laid eggs on the same medium informed ones had learn to prefer only when the difference in contacts sent between the two fly types was small. Interestingly, we found that the degree of reciprocation, the tendency of individuals to form mutual connections between each other, strongly affected oviposition site choice in uninformed flies. This work highlights the great potential of RSiena and its utility in the studies of interaction networks among non-human animals.

  14. Buried Quaternary Valleys In NW Europe - Aquifers and Drilling Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huuse, M.; Lykke-Andersen, H.; Piotrowski, J.

    Buried Quaternary valleys are extremely widespread in the formerly glaciated, low- land areas of NW Europe (Huuse &Lykke-Andersen 2000, Fig. 4). The valleys may be several hundred metres deep, some kilometres across and few to several tens of kilometres long. Most of the deep valleys have irregular length profiles with sills and basins, unlike standard subaerial river systems. We interpret these as overdeepened valleys, formed mainly by subglacial meltwater erosion. Buried valleys located on- shore often provide sheltered reservoirs of clean groundwater, and much attention is presently focused on locating onshore valleys and quantifying their potential as groundwater aquifers. In nearshore areas, buried valleys may be a risk factor by pro- viding pathways of salt-water intrusion of onshore groundwater aquifers. Far offshore, buried valleys are located in the shallow subsurface above the prolific oil and gas fields of the central North Sea. Here, the valleys pose a risk for drilling operations by hosting shallow gas and potentially unstable sediments. The central North Sea is now largely covered by 3D seismic data, which often image the buried valleys in a level of de- tail much greater than that available onshore. Hence offshore valleys imaged by 3D seismic data may be used as analogues for groundwater reservoirs onshore NW Eu- rope. Here, we present examples of buried valleys from onshore, nearshore and far offshore locations, to illustrate how genetically and morphologically identical valleys may benefit or hamper the exploitation of subsurface accummulations of groundwater and hydrocarbons. Huuse, M. &Lykke-Andersen, H. 2000. Buried Quaternary valleys in the eastern Dan- ish North Sea: morphology and origin. Quaternary Science Reviews 19, 1233-1253.

  15. Site Assessment of Multiple-Sensor Approaches for Buried Utility Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander C. D. Royal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The successful operation of buried infrastructure within urban environments is fundamental to the conservation of modern living standards. Open-cut methods are predominantly used, in preference to trenchless technology, to effect a repair, replace or install a new section of the network. This is, in part, due to the inability to determine the position of all utilities below the carriageway, making open-cut methods desirable in terms of dealing with uncertainty since the buried infrastructure is progressively exposed during excavation. However, open-cut methods damage the carriageway and disrupt society's functions. This paper describes the progress of a research project that aims to develop a multi-sensor geophysical platform that can improve the probability of complete detection of the infrastructure buried beneath the carriageway. The multi-sensor platform is being developed in conjunction with a knowledge-based system that aims to provide information on how the properties of the ground might affect the sensing technologies being deployed. The fusion of data sources (sensor data and utilities record data is also being researched to maximize the probability of location. This paper describes the outcome of the initial phase of testing along with the development of the knowledge-based system and the fusing of data to produce utility maps.

  16. Rescue missions for totally buried avalanche victims: conclusions from 12 years of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohlrieder, Matthias; Thaler, Stephanie; Wuertl, Walter; Voelckel, Wolfgang; Ulmer, Hanno; Brugger, Hermann; Mair, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The planning and execution of avalanche rescue missions to search for totally buried avalanche victims are mostly based on personal experience and preference, as evidence-based information from literature is almost completely missing. Hence, the aim of this study was to identify major factors determining the survival probability of totally buried victims during avalanche rescue missions carried out by organized rescue teams (Austrian Mountain Rescue Service, Tyrol). During the 12-year period studied, 109 totally buried persons (56 off-piste, 53 backcountry), were rescued or recovered; 18.3% survived to hospital discharge. Median depth of burial was 1.25 m; median duration of burial was 85 min. The majority (61.6%) of the rescue missions were conducted under considerably dangerous avalanche conditions. The probability of survival was highest when located visually and lowest for those located by avalanche transceiver; survival did not significantly differ between those found by rescue dogs and those located with avalanche probes. Multivariate analysis revealed short duration of burial and off-piste terrain to be the two independent predictors of survival. Whenever companion rescue fails, snow burial in an avalanche is associated with extraordinarily high mortality. Searching the avalanche debris with probe lines seems to be equally effective as compared to searching with rescue dogs. The potential hazard for rescuers during avalanche rescue missions comes mainly from self-triggered avalanches, hence thorough mission planning and critical risk-benefit assessment are of utmost importance for risk reduction.

  17. POTDR Measurements on Buried Optical Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    A. M. Vengsarkar and L. G. Cohen , "Polarization optical time domain reflectometry for statistical evaluation of polarization mode dispersion...312-331 (1983). 14. C. D. Poole and J. Nagel , "Polarization effects in lightwave systems" in Optical Fiber Telecommunications MA, I. P. Kaminow and T

  18. Statistical Modeling of Caregiver Burden and Distress among Informal Caregivers of Individuals with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Alzheimer's Disease, and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, John McClure

    2011-01-01

    Caregiver burden and distress have been associated with informal caregivers. Research findings on the specific aspects of the caregiving role that influence burden are mixed. Factors such as amount of time per day giving care and specific characteristics about the disease progression have been linked to caregiver burden and distress. Other…

  19. Statistical Modeling of Caregiver Burden and Distress among Informal Caregivers of Individuals with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Alzheimer's Disease, and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, John McClure

    2011-01-01

    Caregiver burden and distress have been associated with informal caregivers. Research findings on the specific aspects of the caregiving role that influence burden are mixed. Factors such as amount of time per day giving care and specific characteristics about the disease progression have been linked to caregiver burden and distress. Other…

  20. Injury Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Certification Import Safety International Recall Guidance Civil and Criminal Penalties Federal Court Orders & Decisions Research & Statistics Research & Statistics Technical Reports Injury Statistics NEISS Injury ...

  1. Uterine Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research AMIGAS Fighting Cervical Cancer Worldwide Stay Informed Statistics for Other Kinds of Cancer Breast Cervical Colorectal ( ... Skin Vaginal and Vulvar Cancer Home Uterine Cancer Statistics Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  2. Cosmic Statistics of Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Szapudi, I.; Colombi, S.; Bernardeau, F.

    1999-01-01

    The errors on statistics measured in finite galaxy catalogs are exhaustively investigated. The theory of errors on factorial moments by Szapudi & Colombi (1996) is applied to cumulants via a series expansion method. All results are subsequently extended to the weakly non-linear regime. Together with previous investigations this yields an analytic theory of the errors for moments and connected moments of counts in cells from highly nonlinear to weakly nonlinear scales. The final analytic formu...

  3. Autonomous robotic platforms for locating radio sources buried under rubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasu, A. S.; Anchidin, L.; Tamas, R.; Paun, M.; Danisor, A.; Petrescu, T.

    2016-12-01

    This paper deals with the use of autonomous robotic platforms able to locate radio signal sources such as mobile phones, buried under collapsed buildings as a result of earthquakes, natural disasters, terrorism, war, etc. This technique relies on averaging position data resulting from a propagation model implemented on the platform and the data acquired by robotic platforms at the disaster site. That allows us to calculate the approximate position of radio sources buried under the rubble. Based on measurements, a radio map of the disaster site is made, very useful for locating victims and for guiding specific rubble lifting machinery, by assuming that there is a victim next to a mobile device detected by the robotic platform; by knowing the approximate position, the lifting machinery does not risk to further hurt the victims. Moreover, by knowing the positions of the victims, the reaction time is decreased, and the chances of survival for the victims buried under the rubble, are obviously increased.

  4. End effectors and attachments for buried waste excavation equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, R.H.

    1993-09-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. Their efforts are identified and coordinated in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER&WM) Department`s needs and objectives. The present focus of BWID is to support retrieval and ex-situ treatment configuration options. Future activities will explore and support containment, and stabilization efforts in addition to the retrieval/ex situ treatment options. This report presents a literature search on the state-of-the-art in end effectors and attachments in support of excavator of buried transuranic waste. Included in the report are excavator platforms and a discussion of the various attachments. Also included is it list of vendors and specifications.

  5. Heating and cooling potential of buried pipes in southern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abadie, Marc O.; Santos, Gerson H. dos; Freire, Roberto Z.; Mendes, Nathan [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Parana (PUC-PR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Lab. de Sistemas Termicos], e-mail: mabadie@univ-lr.fr, e-mail: gerson.santos@pucpr.br, e-mail: rozafre@terra.com.br; Mendes, Nathan [Pontifical Catholic University of Parana (PUCPR/CCET), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Thermal Systems Laboratory - LST], e-mail: nathan.mendes@pucpr.br

    2006-07-01

    The present numerical study aims to evaluate the heating and cooling potential of buried pipes in three cities of South Brazil i.e. Curitiba, Florianopolis and Porto-Alegre. In a first part, ground temperatures at the buried pipe location (between 1 and 3 m depth) are calculated by both a simplified model and a three-dimensional volume-finite code (SOLUM). Then, a prototypical house and its buried pipe are modeled with a building energy simulation tool (TRNSYS) to evaluate the positive and negative effects of such system on thermal comfort and heating and cooling energy. Results show that this passive system is particularly efficient in Curitiba, can reduce energy consumption in Porto Alegre and is not well-adapted to Florianopolis. (author)

  6. Damage Assessment for Buried Structures Against Internal Blast Load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Guowei; HUANG Xin; LI Jianchun

    2008-01-01

    The soil-structure interaction(SSI)decoupling is applied to simplify buried structure against internal blast lpad as spring effect.Shear failure.bending failure and Combined failure modes are considered based on five transverse velocity profiles for the rigid-plastic structural element.The critical equations for shear and bending failure are derived respectively.Pressure impulse diagrams are accordingly developed to assess damage of the buried structures against internal blast lpad.Cornparison is done to show influences of soil-structure interaction and shear to-bending strength ratio of a structural element.A case study is conducted to show the application of damage assessment to a reinforced concrete beam element of buried structure.

  7. A colorful origin for the genetic code: information theory, statistical mechanics and the emergence of molecular codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlusty, Tsvi

    2010-09-01

    The genetic code maps the sixty-four nucleotide triplets (codons) to twenty amino-acids. While the biochemical details of this code were unraveled long ago, its origin is still obscure. We review information-theoretic approaches to the problem of the code's origin and discuss the results of a recent work that treats the code in terms of an evolving, error-prone information channel. Our model - which utilizes the rate-distortion theory of noisy communication channels - suggests that the genetic code originated as a result of the interplay of the three conflicting evolutionary forces: the needs for diverse amino-acids, for error-tolerance and for minimal cost of resources. The description of the code as an information channel allows us to mathematically identify the fitness of the code and locate its emergence at a second-order phase transition when the mapping of codons to amino-acids becomes nonrandom. The noise in the channel brings about an error-graph, in which edges connect codons that are likely to be confused. The emergence of the code is governed by the topology of the error-graph, which determines the lowest modes of the graph-Laplacian and is related to the map coloring problem. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Buried wire gage for wall shear stress measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, V. S.; Rose, W. C.

    1978-01-01

    A buried wire gage for measuring wall shear stress in fluid flow was studied and further developed. Several methods of making this relatively new type of gage were examined to arrive at a successful technique that is well-suited for wind-tunnel testing. A series of measurements was made to demonstrate the adequacy of a two-point calibration procedure for these gages. The buried wire gage is also demonstrated to be ideally suited for quantitative measurement of wall shear stress in wind-tunnel testing.

  9. Gnathostoma infection in Nakhon Nayok and Prachin Buri, Central Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojekittikhun, Wichit; Chaiyasith, Tossapon; Nuamtanong, Supaporn; Pubampen, Somchit; Maipanich, Wanna; Tungtrongchitr, Rungsunn

    2002-09-01

    Gnathostoma infection in Nakhon Nayok and Prachin Buri Provinces, Central Thailand, was investigated. The prevalence and intensity of infection of swamp eels were determined; dog fecal samples and fresh-water copepods were examined for evidence of infection. The overall prevalence of eel infection was 38.1% (117/307) in Nakhon Nayok and 24.0% (74/308) in Prachin Buri--the former rate being significantly higher than the latter. Most of the positive Nalkhon Nayok eels (53.8%) harbored only 1-9 larvae; only one eel bore more than 50 larvae. In Prachin Buri, 67.6% of the positive eels harbored 1-9 larvae; again, only one eel bore more than 50 larvae. The mean number of 11.0 +/- 10.4 larvae/eel in Nakhon Nayok was not significantly different from that of Prachin Buri (9.3 +/- 11.4). A total of 1,292 gnathostome larvae were recovered from 307 eels in Nakhon Nayok. Of these, 52.3% had accumulated in the liver and 47.7% had spread throughout the muscles. In eels from Prachin Buri, 50.6% and 49.4% of the total of 688 larvae (from 308 eels) were found in the liver and muscles, respectively. The larvae preferred encysting in ventral of muscles rather than dorsal part; they preferred the middle portion to the anterior and posterior portions. The average length of gnathostome larvae recovered from Nakhon Nayok eels was 4.0 +/- 0.5 mm (range 2.5-5.1 mm) and the average body width was 0.40 +/- 0.05 mm (range 0.29-0.51 mm). Those from eels in Prachin Buri were 3.9 +/- 0.5 mm (range 2.2-5.1 mm) and 0.34 +/- 0.05 mm (range 0.20-0.48 mm), respectively. The mean body length and width of the larvae from eels in Nakhon Nayok were significantly greater than those of the larvae from eels in Prachin Buri. In Ban Phrao, Nakhon Nayok, none of the first 44 fecal specimens examined was positive. Of the second (68) and the third (70) specimens, one (1.5%) and two (2.9%) samples were positive. However, six months after the third fecal collection, no eggs were found. In Tha Ngam, Prachin Buri, no

  10. Statistical methods for meta-analyses including information from studies without any events-add nothing to nothing and succeed nevertheless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, O

    2015-03-30

    Meta-analyses with rare events, especially those that include studies with no event in one ('single-zero') or even both ('double-zero') treatment arms, are still a statistical challenge. In the case of double-zero studies, researchers in general delete these studies or use continuity corrections to avoid them. A number of arguments against both options has been given, and statistical methods that use the information from double-zero studies without using continuity corrections have been proposed. In this paper, we collect them and compare them by simulation. This simulation study tries to mirror real-life situations as completely as possible by deriving true underlying parameters from empirical data on actually performed meta-analyses. It is shown that for each of the commonly encountered effect estimators valid statistical methods are available that use the information from double-zero studies without using continuity corrections. Interestingly, all of them are truly random effects models, and so also the current standard method for very sparse data as recommended from the Cochrane collaboration, the Yusuf-Peto odds ratio, can be improved on. For actual analysis, we recommend to use beta-binomial regression methods to arrive at summary estimates for the odds ratio, the relative risk, or the risk difference. Methods that ignore information from double-zero studies or use continuity corrections should no longer be used. We illustrate the situation with an example where the original analysis ignores 35 double-zero studies, and a superior analysis discovers a clinically relevant advantage of off-pump surgery in coronary artery bypass grafting. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Survey mode matters: adults' self-reported statistical confidence, ability to obtain health information, and perceptions of patient-health-care provider communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Lorraine S; Chisolm, Deena J; Abdel-Rasoul, Mahmoud; DeVoe, Jennifer E

    2013-08-01

    This study examined adults' self-reported understanding and formatting preferences of medical statistics, confidence in self-care and ability to obtain health advice or information, and perceptions of patient-health-care provider communication measured through dual survey modes (random digital dial and mail). Even while controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, significant differences in regard to adults' responses to survey variables emerged as a function of survey mode. While the analyses do not allow us to pinpoint the underlying causes of the differences observed, they do suggest that mode of administration should be carefully adjusted for and considered.

  12. Effects of visualizing statistical information – An empirical study on tree diagrams and 2 x 2 tables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin eBinder

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In their research articles, scholars often use 2 x 2 tables or tree diagrams including natural frequencies in order to illustrate Bayesian reasoning situations to their peers. Interestingly, the effect of these visualizations on participants’ performance has not been tested empirically so far (apart from explicit training studies. In the present article, we report on an empirical study (3 x 2 x 2 design in which we systematically vary visualization (no visualization vs. 2 x 2 table vs. tree diagram and information format (probabilities vs. natural frequencies for two contexts (medical vs. economical context; not a factor of interest. Each of N = 259 participants (students of age 16-18 had to solve two typical Bayesian reasoning tasks (mammography problem and economics problem. The hypothesis is that 2 x 2 tables and tree diagrams – especially when natural frequencies are included – can foster insight into the notoriously difficult structure of Bayesian reasoning situations. In contrast to many other visualizations (e. g., icon arrays, Euler diagrams, 2 x 2 tables and tree diagrams have the advantage that they can be constructed easily. The implications of our findings for teaching Bayesian reasoning will be discussed.

  13. Influence of statistical estimators of mutual information and data heterogeneity on the inference of gene regulatory networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo de Matos Simoes

    Full Text Available The inference of gene regulatory networks from gene expression data is a difficult problem because the performance of the inference algorithms depends on a multitude of different factors. In this paper we study two of these. First, we investigate the influence of discrete mutual information (MI estimators on the global and local network inference performance of the C3NET algorithm. More precisely, we study 4 different MI estimators (Empirical, Miller-Madow, Shrink and Schürmann-Grassberger in combination with 3 discretization methods (equal frequency, equal width and global equal width discretization. We observe the best global and local inference performance of C3NET for the Miller-Madow estimator with an equal width discretization. Second, our numerical analysis can be considered as a systems approach because we simulate gene expression data from an underlying gene regulatory network, instead of making a distributional assumption to sample thereof. We demonstrate that despite the popularity of the latter approach, which is the traditional way of studying MI estimators, this is in fact not supported by simulated and biological expression data because of their heterogeneity. Hence, our study provides guidance for an efficient design of a simulation study in the context of network inference, supporting a systems approach.

  14. Influence of statistical estimators of mutual information and data heterogeneity on the inference of gene regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Matos Simoes, Ricardo; Emmert-Streib, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The inference of gene regulatory networks from gene expression data is a difficult problem because the performance of the inference algorithms depends on a multitude of different factors. In this paper we study two of these. First, we investigate the influence of discrete mutual information (MI) estimators on the global and local network inference performance of the C3NET algorithm. More precisely, we study 4 different MI estimators (Empirical, Miller-Madow, Shrink and Schürmann-Grassberger) in combination with 3 discretization methods (equal frequency, equal width and global equal width discretization). We observe the best global and local inference performance of C3NET for the Miller-Madow estimator with an equal width discretization. Second, our numerical analysis can be considered as a systems approach because we simulate gene expression data from an underlying gene regulatory network, instead of making a distributional assumption to sample thereof. We demonstrate that despite the popularity of the latter approach, which is the traditional way of studying MI estimators, this is in fact not supported by simulated and biological expression data because of their heterogeneity. Hence, our study provides guidance for an efficient design of a simulation study in the context of network inference, supporting a systems approach.

  15. Detection of Buried Mines and Unexploded Ordnance (UXO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-20

    Confederate forces used black powder and buried artillery shells to attack advancing Union units. Major General William Tecumseh Sherman countered these...AK-2-2539 6. AUTHOR(S) David Heberlein, Bohdan Balko, Isaac Chappell , John Biddle 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S

  16. Identification of buried victims in natural disaster with GPR method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, Rianty Kusuma; Kurniawan, Adityo; Taqwantara, Reyhan Fariz; Iskandar, Farras M.; Naufal, Taufiq Ziyan; Widodo

    2017-07-01

    Indonesian is one of the most seismically active regions in the world and has very complicated plate convergence because there is meeting point of several tectonic plates. The complexity of tectonic features causes a lot of natural disasters such as landslides, tsunamis, earth quakes, volcanoes eruption, etc. Sometimes, the disasters occurs in high populated area and causing thousands to millions of victim been buried under the rumble. Unfortunately, the evacuation still uses the conventional method such using rescue dogs whereas the sensitivity of smell is decrease when the victims buried under the level of the ground. The purpose of this study is to detect buried bodies using GPR method, so it can enhance the effectiveness and the efficiency in looking for the disaster victims. GPR method is used because it can investigate things under the ground. A detailed GPR research has been done in Cikutra Graveyard, Bandung, with corpse buried two week until two years before the research. The radar profiles from this research showed amplitude contras anomaly between the new corpse and the old ones. We obtained the amplitude contras at 1.2-1.4 meters under the surface. This method proved to be effective but still need more attention on undulated surface and non-soil areas.

  17. Modeling of the Uplift Response of Buried Pipelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choobbasti, Asskar Janalizadeh; Vahdatirad, Mohammadjavad; Firouzianbandpey, Sarah;

    2009-01-01

    Over the years, researchers have tried to understand the complex behavior of buried pipelines subjected to ground ruptures due to landslides, earthquakes, faults and uplift forces in shallow trenches. In an attempt to understand this complex behavior, an experimental investigation program has been...

  18. Buried nodules from the central Indian Ocean basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pattan, J.N.; Parthiban, G.

    Indian Ocean. Mar. Geol.92, p. 115- 125. Usui, A. and Ito, T. (1994). Fossil manganese deposits buried within DSDP /ODP cores, Legs 1-126. Mar. geol. 119, p. 111-136. Von Stackelberg, U. (1984). Significance of bentic organisms for the growth...

  19. Ground Penetrating Radar Imaging of Buried Metallic Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polat, A. Burak; Meincke, Peter

    2001-01-01

    During the past decade there has been considerable research on ground penetrating radar (GPR) tomography for detecting objects such as pipes, cables, mines and barrels buried under the surface of the Earth. While the earlier researches were all based on the assumption of a homogeneous background...

  20. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Technology Preparedness and Status Report Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blacker, P.B.; Bonnenberg, R.W.; Cannon, P.G.; Hyde, R.A.; Watson, L.R.

    1994-04-01

    A Technology Preparedness and Status Report is required for each Technical Task Plan funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration. This document provides guidance for the preparation of that report. Major sections of the report will include a subset of the need for the technology, objectives of the demonstration, technology description and readiness evaluation, demonstration requirements, and preparedness checklist and action plan.

  1. Bearing and Range Estimation Algorithm for Buried Object in Underwater Acoustics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Han

    2009-01-01

    (DOA of objects and objects-sensors distances, is used in MUSIC algorithm instead of classical model. The influence of the depth of buried objects is discussed. Finally, the numerical results are given in the case of buried cylindrical shells.

  2. A novel method for the remote condition assessment of buried pipelines using low-frequency axisymmetric waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggleton, J. M.; Rustighi, E.

    2016-09-01

    “Mapping the Underworld” is a large multi-disciplinary, multi-university research programme taking place in the UK, which aims to revolutionize the way we undertake streetworks. Within this programme, a number of vibration-based techniques for remotely detecting and locating buried pipes have been developed. Relying either on the direct excitation of a pipe as it comes up to the surface or excitation of the ground in the vicinity of a buried pipe, mapping the ground surface vibration response allows information to be gathered concerning the pipe's exact position. However, contained within this surface response is often information which could, if utilized appropriately, provide insights into the condition of the pipe as well as its location. Furthermore, critical information regarding the condition of the ground in which a pipe is buried could, in some circumstances, be gleaned. In this paper, how this additional information might be extracted, used and eventually exploited is explored. Providing the basis for work currently being undertaken in a new programme, “Assessing the Underworld”, example results are presented which demonstrate the immense potential of the proposed methods.

  3. Business statistics for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Score higher in your business statistics course? Easy. Business statistics is a common course for business majors and MBA candidates. It examines common data sets and the proper way to use such information when conducting research and producing informational reports such as profit and loss statements, customer satisfaction surveys, and peer comparisons. Business Statistics For Dummies tracks to a typical business statistics course offered at the undergraduate and graduate levels and provides clear, practical explanations of business statistical ideas, techniques, formulas, and calculations, w

  4. Avian influenza protection knowledge, awareness, and behaviors in a high-risk population in Suphan Buri Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maton, Tavorn; Butraporn, Piyarat; Kaewkangwal, Jaranit; Fungladda, Wijitr

    2007-05-01

    Avian influenza (Al) had outbreaks in Thailand from January 2004 to December 2005, which resulted in 22 human cases, and 14 deaths. Three confirmed cases were reported in Suphan Buri Province in 2004, one of whom died. A cross-sectional study aimed to investigate knowledge, attitudes, and practices about AI in Song Phi Nong District of Suphan Buri Province. Most of the respondents had moderate levels of knowledge. Most of their attitudes towards and practices of the prevention and control of AI were also appropriate. However, the peoples' knowledge about major signs and symptoms of AI was limited. The study suggested that those who had received information from media had better attitudes towards and practices of AI prevention and control, compared with those who had not received information from media. Therefore, the media played an important role in improving knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors; but for the better protection from AI, continuing health education will be necessary in Thailand.

  5. Effect of Backpacking and Internal Pressurization on Stresses Transmitted to Buried Cylinders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various aspects of the behavior of buried cylinders associated with backpacking , internal pressurization, and slippage at the interface are...considered. Parametric curves are presented for horizontally and vertically buried cylinders with and without backpacking . Four configurations of statically...loaded, horizontally buried cylinders were considered: no backpacking , rectangular backpacking placed above the cylinder, backpacking placed around

  6. Enhanced surface plasmon polariton propagation length using a buried metal grating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jose, J.; Segerink, Franciscus B.; Korterik, Jeroen P.; Gomez Casado, A.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Herek, Jennifer Lynn; Offerhaus, Herman L.

    2011-01-01

    We report an enhancement in the propagation length of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) on a metallic grating when the grating is buried in the substrate. A template-stripping technique has been used to fabricate the buried grating. Near-field measurements on the buried and an exposed grating show

  7. Contributions to statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Mahalanobis, P C

    1965-01-01

    Contributions to Statistics focuses on the processes, methodologies, and approaches involved in statistics. The book is presented to Professor P. C. Mahalanobis on the occasion of his 70th birthday. The selection first offers information on the recovery of ancillary information and combinatorial properties of partially balanced designs and association schemes. Discussions focus on combinatorial applications of the algebra of association matrices, sample size analogy, association matrices and the algebra of association schemes, and conceptual statistical experiments. The book then examines latt

  8. Inferring the location of buried UXO using a support vector machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Juan Pablo; Sun, Keli; Barrowes, Benjamin; O'Neill, Kevin; Shamatava, Irma; Shubitidze, Fridon; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2007-04-01

    The identification of unexploded ordnance (UXO) using electromagnetic-induction (EMI) sensors involves two essentially independent steps: Each anomaly detected by the sensor has to be located fairly accurately, and its orientation determined, before one can try to find size/shape/composition properties that identify the object uniquely. The dependence on the latter parameters is linear, and can be solved for efficiently using for example the Normalized Surface Magnetic Charge model. The location and orientation, on the other hand, have a nonlinear effect on the measurable scattered field, making their determination much more time-consuming and thus hampering the ability to carry out discrimination in real time. In particular, it is difficult to resolve for depth when one has measurements taken at only one instrument elevation. In view of the difficulties posed by direct inversion, we propose using a Support Vector Machine (SVM) to infer the location and orientation of buried UXO. SVMs are a method of supervised machine learning: the user can train a computer program by feeding it features of representative examples, and the machine, in turn, can generalize this information by finding underlying patterns and using them to classify or regress unseen instances. In this work we train an SVM using measured-field information, for both synthetic and experimental data, and evaluate its ability to predict the location of different buried objects to reasonable accuracy. We explore various combinations of input data and learning parameters in search of an optimal predictive configuration.

  9. Algebraic Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Norén, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    Algebraic statistics brings together ideas from algebraic geometry, commutative algebra, and combinatorics to address problems in statistics and its applications. Computer algebra provides powerful tools for the study of algorithms and software. However, these tools are rarely prepared to address statistical challenges and therefore new algebraic results need often be developed. This way of interplay between algebra and statistics fertilizes both disciplines. Algebraic statistics is a relativ...

  10. Mapping deeply-buried geothermal faults using microtremor array analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peifen; Ling, Suqun; Li, Chuanjin; Du, Jianguo; Zhang, Dengming; Xu, Xueqiu; Dai, Kangming; Zhang, Zuohong

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the spatial autocorrelation microtremor array analysis is utilized to map deeply-buried subtle faults that have primary controls on geothermal reservoirs. We identified a low-velocity anomaly which is approximately 50 m wide at about 550-1400 m deep. A well drilled based on this anomaly later successfully produced hot water and further proved that the low-velocity anomaly was caused by a highly fractured zone at depths from 700 to 1500 m. Our results clearly demonstrate that the microtremor survey method can be effectively utilized to map deeply-buried faults and structures for geothermal energy exploration. The most effective way to increase the drilling success rate and, hence reduce the geothermal exploration risk, seems to be the development of new exploration methods and the integration of various geophysical technologies.

  11. Prediction of the TNT signature from buried UXO/landmines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, S.W.; Phelan, J.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Finsterle, S.A.; Pruess, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1998-06-01

    The detection and removal of buried unexploded ordnance (UXO) and landmines is one of the most important problems facing the world today. Numerous detection strategies are being developed, including infrared, electrical conductivity, ground-penetrating radar, and chemical sensors. Chemical sensors rely on the detection of TNT molecules, which are transported from buried UXO/landmines by advection and diffusion in the soil. As part of this effort, numerical models are being developed to predict TNT transport in soils including the effect of precipitation and evaporation. Modifications will be made to TOUGH2 for application to the TNT chemical sensing problem. Understanding the fate and transport of TNT in the soil will affect the design, performance and operation of chemical sensors by indicating preferred sensing strategies.

  12. Radar glory from buried craters on icy moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshleman, Von R.

    1986-10-01

    Three ice-covered moons of Jupiter, in comparison with rocky planets and earth's moon, produce radar echoes of astounding strengths and bizarre polarizations. Scattering from buried craters can explain these and other anomalous properties of the echoes. The role of such craters is analogous to that of the water droplets that create the apparition known as 'the glory', the optically bright region surrounding an observer's shadow on a cloud. Both situations involve the electromagnetic phenomenon of total internal reflection at a dielectric interface, operating in a geometry that strongly favors exact backscattering. Dim surface craters are transformed into bright glory holes by being buried under somewhat denser material, thereby increasing the intensity of their echoes by factors of hundreds. The dielectric interface thus formed at the crater walls nicely accounts for the unusual polarizations of the echoes.

  13. Thin buried oxide in oxygen-implanted silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spaggiari, C.; Bertoni, S.; Cerofolini, G.F.; Fumagalli, P.; Meda, L. (Istituto Guido Donegani, Novara (Italy))

    1993-01-01

    SiO[sub 2] precipitation in oxygen-supersaturated silicon was studied. Oxygen was inserted by ion implantation into single-crystal silicon. Evidence is given for a special phenomenon of oxygen blocking due to hot clouds resulting from collisional cascades. In the region where blocking is active, precipitates are formed in as-implanted conditions. A model is formulated and specialized to predict the dependence on depth of precipitate density and size. The existence of a buried region of precipitates is useful for producing a thin buried oxide. The Low-Dose SIMOX (LODOX) structure obtained provides a solution for many problems that are typical of silicon substrates for complementary metal-oxide silicon (CMOS) applications. (Author).

  14. Imaging and controlling plasmonic interference fields at buried interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lummen, Tom T. A.; Lamb, Raymond J.; Berruto, Gabriele; Lagrange, Thomas; Dal Negro, Luca; García de Abajo, F. Javier; McGrouther, Damien; Barwick, B.; Carbone, F.

    2016-10-01

    Capturing and controlling plasmons at buried interfaces with nanometre and femtosecond resolution has yet to be achieved and is critical for next generation plasmonic devices. Here we use light to excite plasmonic interference patterns at a buried metal-dielectric interface in a nanostructured thin film. Plasmons are launched from a photoexcited array of nanocavities and their propagation is followed via photon-induced near-field electron microscopy (PINEM). The resulting movie directly captures the plasmon dynamics, allowing quantification of their group velocity at ~0.3 times the speed of light, consistent with our theoretical predictions. Furthermore, we show that the light polarization and nanocavity design can be tailored to shape transient plasmonic gratings at the nanoscale. This work, demonstrating dynamical imaging with PINEM, paves the way for the femtosecond and nanometre visualization and control of plasmonic fields in advanced heterostructures based on novel two-dimensional materials such as graphene, MoS2, and ultrathin metal films.

  15. Centrifuge modeling of PGD response of buried pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael O'Rourke; Vikram Gadicherla; Tarek Abdoun

    2005-01-01

    A new centrifuge based method for determining the response of continuous buried pipe to PGD is presented.The physical characteristics of the RPI's 100 g-ton geotechnical centrifuge and the current lifeline experiment split-box are described: The split-box contains the model pipeline and surrounding soil and is manufactured such that half can be offset, in flight, simulating PGD. In addition, governing similitude relations which allow one to determine the physical characteristics,(diameter, wall thickness and material modulus of elasticity) of the model pipeline are presented. Finally, recorded strains induced in two buried pipes with prototype diameters of 0.63 m and 0.95 m (24 and 36 inch) subject to 0.6 and 2.0 meters (2and 6 feet) of full scale fault offsets and presented and compared to corresponding FE results.

  16. 医院信息智能统计分析系统设计与实现%Design and Implementation of Hospital Information Intelligent Statistical Analysis System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝昱文; 卢沙林; 杨宇; 闫小萍

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop the hospital information intelligent statistical analysis system, and collect mass data of every information system in hospital, so as to provide decision support for hospital leaders. Methods Taking advantage of business intelligence technology to integrate hospital business data and build the data center. Combining with the modern statistical analysis method, we set up a comprehensive query and analysis platform, and on this basis, carry on the in-depth data analysis and decision support, in order to make management work more simple and efficient. Results By integrating kinds of resources dominated by HIS database, such as medical information, materials management information, personnel management information, we build uniform reports analysis center to realize the seamless integration of information systems. This system could not only provide data analysis reference for medical workers, but also construct a performance evaluation system on this basis, further, offer support for these leaders. Conclusion Developing an intelligent statistical analysis platform of rapid, efficient, easy-to-use could quickly improve the management level of hospital informatization.%目的 开发医院信息智能统计分析系统,用于医院各信息系统集成后产生的海量数据管理,为医院管理者提供决策支持.方法 利用商业智能技术整合医院业务数据,搭建数据中心;结合现代统计分析方法,建立综合查询分析平台,并在此基础上进行深度的数据分析和决策支持,使管理工作更加便捷和高效.结果 整合以医院信息系统(HIS)数据库为主的医疗信息、物资管理信息、人事管理信息等资源,建立统一的报表分析中心,实现了全院信息系统的无缝链接.该系统不仅能够为医护人员工作提供数据分析依据,而且能够在此基础上构建医院绩效考评体系,进而为领导决策提供支持.结论 开发一个快捷、高效、易用的智

  17. Planar ion-channeling measurements on buried nano-films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selen, LJM; Janssen, FJJ; van IJzendoorn, LJ; de Voigt, MJA; Smulders, PJM; Theunissen, MJJ

    2001-01-01

    Planar MeV ion-channeling measurements on 2.2 nm thick Si1-xGex nano-films buried in Si are presented. The presence of the nano-film leads to a step in the yield of the host crystal in a {0 1 1} planar channeled RBS spectrum. In previous work we showed that with the help of Monte Carlo (MC) simulati

  18. Investigation of guided waves propagation in pipe buried in sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leinov, Eli; Cawley, Peter; Lowe, Michael J.S. [NDE Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-18

    The inspection of pipelines by guided wave testing is a well-established method for the detection of corrosion defects in pipelines, and is currently used routinely in a variety of industries, e.g. petrochemical and energy. When the method is applied to pipes buried in soil, test ranges tend to be significantly compromised because of attenuation of the waves caused by energy radiating into the soil. Moreover, the variability of soil conditions dictates different attenuation characteristics, which in-turn results in different, unpredictable, test ranges. We investigate experimentally the propagation and attenuation characteristics of guided waves in pipes buried in fine sand using a well characterized full scale experimental apparatus. The apparatus consists of an 8 inch-diameter, 5.6-meters long steel pipe embedded over 3 meters of its length in a rectangular container filled with fine sand, and an air-bladder for the application of overburden pressure. Longitudinal and torsional guided waves are excited in the pipe and recorded using a transducer ring (Guided Ultrasonics Ltd). Acoustic properties of the sand are measured independently in-situ and used to make model predictions of wave behavior in the buried pipe. We present the methodology and the systematic measurements of the guided waves under a range of conditions, including loose and compacted sand. It is found that the application of overburden pressure modifies the compaction of the sand and increases the attenuation, and that the measurement of the acoustic properties of sand allows model prediction of the attenuation of guided waves in buried pipes with a high level of confidence.

  19. Global Earthing Systems: Characterization of Buried Metallic Parts

    OpenAIRE

    Tommasini, Riccardo; Colella, Pietro; Pons, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    International Standards IEC 61936-1 and EN 50522 define a Global Earthing System (GES) as the earthing network, created by the interconnection of local earthing systems, that should guarantee the absence of dangerous touch voltages. This is achieved through two effects: the division of the earth fault current between many earthing systems and the creation of a quasi equipotential surface. The second effect can be enhanced by the presence of buried metallic parts, such as light poles and water...

  20. Tabernaemontana divaricata leaves extract exacerbate burying behavior in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Chanchal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Tabernaemontana divaricata (TD from Apocynaceae family offers the traditional folklore medicinal benefits such as an anti-epileptic, anti-mania, brain tonic, and anti-oxidant. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of TD leaves on burying behavior in mice. Materials and Methods:Mice were treated with oral administration (p.o. of ethanolic extract of TD (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg. Fluoxetine (FLX, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor was used as a reference drug. Obsessive-compulsive behavior was evaluated using marble-burying apparatus. Results:TD at doses of 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg dose-dependently inhibited the obsessive and compulsive behavior. The similar results were obtained from 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg of FLX. TD and FLX did not affect motor activity. Conclusion: The results indicated that TD and FLX produced similar inhibitory effects on marble-burying behavior.

  1. Detection of buried objects using reflected GNSS signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarpietro, Riccardo; De Mattia, Salvatore; Campanella, Maurizio; Pei, Yuekun; Savi, Patrizia

    2014-12-01

    The use of reflected Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals for sensing the Earth has been growing rapidly in recent years. This technique is founded on the basic principle of detecting GNSS signals after they have been reflected off the Earth's surface and using them to determine the properties of the reflecting surface remotely. This is the so-called GNSS reflectometry (GNSS-R) technique. In this paper, a new application regarding the detection of metallic buried objects is analyzed and it is validated through several experimental campaigns. Although the penetration depth of GNSS signals into the ground is not optimal and depends on the soil moisture, GNSS signals can likely interact approximately with the first 10 cm of the ground and therefore can be reflected back by any metallic object buried on the first terrain layer. A very light and low-cost GNSS receiver prototype based on a software-defined radio approach was developed. This receiver can be used as a payload on board small drones or unmanned aerial systems to detect metallic objects (mines or other explosive devices). A signal processing tool based on an open-loop GNSS signal acquisition strategy was developed. The results of two experiments which show the possibility of using GNSS-R signals to detect buried metallic objects and to provide an estimate of their dimensions are discussed.

  2. A method for the detection of shallow buried objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. McGee

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous geophysical techniques have successfully contributed to geotechnical engineering and environmental problems of the shallow subsurface. Geophysical surveys are used to: delineate geologic features, measure in-situ engineering properties, and detect hidden cultural features. Most technologies for the detection of shallow buried objects are electromagnetic methods which measure the contrast in ferrous content, electrical conductivity, or dielectric constant between the object and surrounding soil. Seismic technologies measure the contrast in mechanical properties of the subsurface, however, scaled down versions of conventional seismic methods are not suitable for the detection shallow buried objects. In this paper, we discuss the development of a method based on acoustic to seismic coupling for the detection of shallow buried object. Surface vibrations induced by an impinging acoustic wave from a loudspeaker is referred to as acoustic to seismic coupling. These vibrations can be remotely detected using a laser-Doppler vibrometer (LDV. If an object is present below the surface of the insonified patch, the transmitted wave is back scattered by the target towards the surface. For targets very close to the surface, the scattered field produces anomalous ground vibrational velocities that are indicative of the shape and size of the target.

  3. Degradation of carbohydrates and lignins in buried woods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, John I.; Cowie, Gregory L.; Ertel, John R.; James Barbour, R.; Hatcher, Patrick G.

    1985-03-01

    Spruce, alder, and oak woods deposited in coastal sediments were characterized versus their modern counterparts by quantification of individual neutral sugars and lignin-derived phenols as well as by scanning electron microscopy, 13C NMR, and elemental analysis. The buried spruce wood from a 2500 yr old deposit was unaltered whereas an alder wood from the same horizon and an oak wood from an open ocean sediment were profoundly degraded. Individual sugar and lignin phenol analyses indicate that at least 90 and 98 wt% of the initial total polysaccharides in the buried alder and oak woods, respectively, have been degraded along with 15-25 wt% of the lignin. At least 75% of the degraded biopolymer has been physically lost from these samples. This evidence is supported by the SEM, 13C NMR and elemental analyses, all of which indicate selective loss of the carbohydrate moiety. The following order of stability was observed for the major biochemical constituents of both buried hardwoods: vanillyl and p- hydroxyl lignin structural units > syringyl lignin structural units > pectin > α-cellulose > hemicellulose. This sequence can be explained by selective preservation of the compound middle lamella regions of the wood cell walls. The magnitude and selectivity of the indicated diagenetic reactions are sufficient to cause major changes in the chemical compositions of wood-rich sedimentary organic mixtures and to provide a potentially large in situ nutrient source.

  4. Degradation of carbohydrates and lignins in buried woods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, J.I.; Cowie, G.L.; Ertel, J.R.; James, Barbour R.; Hatcher, P.G.

    1985-01-01

    Spruce, alder, and oak woods deposited in coastal sediments were characterized versus their modern counterparts by quantification of individual neutral sugars and lignin-derived phenols as well as by scanning electron microscopy, 13C NMR, and elemental analysis. The buried spruce wood from a 2500 yr old deposit was unaltered whereas an alder wood from the same horizon and an oak wood from an open ocean sediment were profoundly degraded. Individual sugar and lignin phenol analyses indicate that at least 90 and 98 wt% of the initial total polysaccharides in the buried alder and oak woods, respectively, have been degraded along with 15-25 wt% of the lignin. At least 75% of the degraded biopolymer has been physically lost from these samples. This evidence is supported by the SEM, 13C NMR and elemental analyses, all of which indicate selective loss of the carbohydrate moiety. The following order of stability was observed for the major biochemical constituents of both buried hardwoods: vanillyl and p-hydroxyl lignin structural units > syringyl lignin structural units > pectin > ??-cellulose > hemicellulose. This sequence can be explained by selective preservation of the compound middle lamella regions of the wood cell walls. The magnitude and selectivity of the indicated diagenetic reactions are sufficient to cause major changes in the chemical compositions of wood-rich sedimentary organic mixtures and to provide a potentially large in situ nutrient source. ?? 1985.

  5. FY-95 technology catalog. Technology development for buried waste remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program, which is now part of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area (LSFA), supports applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a multitude of advanced technologies dealing with underground radioactive and hazardous waste remediation. These innovative technologies are being developed as part of integrated comprehensive remediation systems for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste sites throughout the DOE complex. These efforts are identified and coordinated in support of Environmental Restoration (EM-40) and Waste Management (EM-30) needs and objectives. Sponsored by the DOE Office of Technology Development (EM-50), BWID and LSFA work with universities and private industry to develop technologies that are being transferred to the private sector for use nationally and internationally. This report contains the details of the purpose, logic, and methodology used to develop and demonstrate DOE buried waste remediation technologies. It also provides a catalog of technologies and capabilities with development status for potential users. Past FY-92 through FY-94 technology testing, field trials, and demonstrations are summarized. Continuing and new FY-95 technology demonstrations also are described.

  6. UNCOVERING BURIED VOLCANOES: NEW DATA FOR PROBABILISTIC VOLCANIC HAZARD ASSESSMENT AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F.V. Perry

    2005-10-13

    Basaltic volcanism poses a potential hazard to the proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository because multiple episodes of basaltic volcanism have occurred in the Yucca Mountain region (YMR) in the past 11 Ma. Intervals between eruptive episodes average about 1 Ma. Three episodes have occurred in the Quaternary at approximately 1.1 Ma (5 volcanoes), 350 ka (2 volcanoes), and 80 ka (1 volcano). Because Yucca Mountain lies within the Basin and Range Province, a significant portion of the pre-Quaternary volcanic history of the YMR may be buried in alluvial-filled basins. An exceptionally high-resolution aeromagnetic survey and subsequent drilling program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began in 2004 and is gathering data that will enhance understanding of the temporal and spatial patterns of Pliocene and Miocene volcanism in the region (Figure 1). DOE has convened a ten-member expert panel of earth scientists that will use the information gathered to update probabilistic volcanic hazard estimates originally obtained by expert elicitation in 1996. Yucca Mountain is a series of north-trending ridges of eastward-tilted fault blocks that are bounded by north to northeast-trending normal faults. Topographic basins filled with up to 500 m of alluvium surround it to the east, south and west. In the past several decades, nearly 50 holes have been drilled in these basins, mainly for Yucca Mountain Project Site Characterization and the Nye County Early Warning Drilling Program. Several of these drill holes have penetrated relatively deeply buried (300-400 m) Miocene basalt; a Pliocene basalt dated at 3.8 Ma was encountered at a relatively shallow depth (100 m) in the northern Amargosa Desert (Anomaly B in Figure 1). The current drilling program is the first to specifically target and characterize buried basalt. Based on the new aeromagnetic survey and previous air and ground magnetic surveys (Connor et al. 2000; O'Leary et al. 2002), at least eight

  7. The effect of soil texture on the degradation of textiles associated with buried bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, A C; Beresford, D V; Carter, D O; Gaspari, F; O'Brien, R C; Stuart, B H; Forbes, S L

    2013-09-10

    There are many factors which affect the rate of decomposition in a grave site including; the depth of burial, climatic conditions, physical conditions of the soil (e.g. texture, pH, moisture), and method of burial (e.g. clothing, wrappings). Clothing is often studied as a factor that can slow the rate of soft tissue decomposition. In contrast, the effect of soft tissue decomposition on the rate of textile degradation is usually reported as anecdotal evidence rather than being studied under controlled conditions. The majority of studies in this area have focused on the degradation of textiles buried directly in soil. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of soil texture on the degradation and/or preservation of textile materials associated with buried bodies. The study involved the burial of clothed domestic pig carcasses and control clothing in contrasting soil textures (silty clay loam, fine sand and fine sandy loam) at three field sites in southern Ontario, Canada. Graves were exhumed after 2, 12 and 14 months burial to observe the degree of degradation for both natural and synthetic textiles. Recovered textile samples were chemically analyzed using infrared (IR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to investigate the lipid decomposition by-products retained in the textiles. The findings of this study demonstrate that natural textile in contact with a buried decomposing body will be preserved for longer periods of time when compared to the same textile buried directly in soil and not in contact with a body. The soil texture did not visually impact the degree of degradation or preservation. Furthermore, the natural-synthetic textile blend was resistant to degradation, regardless of soil texture, contact with the body or time since deposition. Chemical analysis of the textiles using GC-MS correctly identified a lipid degradation profile consistent with the degree of soft tissue decomposition. Such information may be

  8. Predicting the long-term fate of buried organic carbon in colluvial soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengang; Van Oost, Kristof; Govers, Gerard

    2015-04-01

    A significant part of the soil organic carbon (SOC) that is eroded in uplands is deposited and buried in colluvial settings. Understanding the fate of this deposited soil organic carbon is of key importance for the understanding of the role of (accelerated) erosion in the global C cycle: the residence time of the deposited carbon will determine if, and for how long, accelerated erosion due to human disturbance will induce sequestration of SOC from the atmosphere to the soil. Experimental studies may provide useful information, but, given the time scale under consideration, the response of the colluvial SOC can only be simulated using numerical models which need careful calibration using field data. In this study, we present a depth explicit SOC model (ICBM-DE) including soil profile evolution due to sedimentation to simulate the long-term C dynamics in colluvial soils. The SOC profile predicted by our model is in good agreement with field observations. The C burial efficiency (the ratio of current C content of the buried sediments to the original C content at the time of sedimentation) of deposited sediments exponentially decreases with time and gradually reached an equilibrium value. This equilibrium C burial efficiency is positively correlated with the sedimentation rate. The sedimentation rate is crucial for the long-term dynamics of the deposited SOC as it controls the time that buried sediments spend at a given soil depth, thereby determining its temporal evolution of C input and decomposition rate during the burial process: C input and decomposition rate vary with depth due to the vertical variation of root distribution and soil environmental factors such as (but not limited to) humidity, temperature and aeration. The model demonstrates that, for the profiles studied, it takes ca. 300 yr for the buried SOC to lose half of its C load. It would also take centuries for the SOC accumulated in colluvial soils over the past decades due to soil redistribution under

  9. Characterization of rocks buried in the subsurface by the GPR WISDOM/ExoMars 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervé, Yann; Ciarletti, Valérie; Le Gall, Alice; Guiffaut, Christophe

    2016-10-01

    The search for evidence of past life on Mars is the main objective of the ESA-Roscosmos ExoMars Rover mission. Given the hostile environment at the surface, if such evidence is to be found anywhere, it will most likely be in the subsurface. This is why the ExoMars rover mission has been optimized to investigate the subsurface. Among the instruments accommodated onboard the Rover, the polarimetric ground penetrating radar WISDOM (Water Ice Subsurface Deposits Observation On Mars, Ciarletti et al., 2011) has been designed to investigate the shallow subsurface and search for the most favorable locations where to drill and collect samples for analysis. WISDOM is able to probe down to a depth of few meters with a vertical resolution of a few centimeters, and will provide key information on the geological context of the environment.In particular, insights into density, size and shape of the rocks buried beneath the rover would be clues for a better understanding of the geological and hydrological history of the Rover site. In addition, the density and size of the buried rocks will have to be taken into account for the safety of the drilling operations.In this paper, we will focus on the ability of WISDOM to detect, localize and characterize (in terms of size and shape), rocks in the shallow subsurface of Mars. More specifically, we use a 3D numerical code based on the Finite Difference in Time Domain method to model the antenna system of WISDOM and simulate the instrument operations on realistic environments with buried rocks. In this approach, size-frequency distribution of rocks in agreement with observations from orbit and by cameras operated from the Martian surface will be considered. We will present results of simulations for different density and shape of buried rocks, including critical configurations where the density of rocks is too high to allow individual detection of rocks. In addition, we will present experimental data for comparison with the simulated data

  10. Baseline Statistics of Linked Statistical Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scharnhorst, Andrea; Meroño-Peñuela, Albert; Guéret, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    We are surrounded by an ever increasing ocean of information, everybody will agree to that. We build sophisticated strategies to govern this information: design data models, develop infrastructures for data sharing, building tool for data analysis. Statistical datasets curated by National Statistica

  11. A hand-held bus charging and information statistics system%一种手持式公交车收费及信息统计装置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶鼎晟; 张凯

    2012-01-01

    A hand-held bus charging and information statistics system is presented, according to passengers ride the journey to collect fees, instead of the traditional sectional charge, it mainly used for counting recent number of Passengers and each station number of getting on and off. By the wireless data transmission module, the information can be sent to platform as reference for waiting passengers. This kind of device makes public travel conveniently because of the compatibility of existing public transit card. The device can store and Summarize passenger information in the bus. Based on the Analysis of traffic flow and passengers flow information, it is also convenient for Bus Company to dispatch and count.%提出了一种手持式公交车收费及信息统计装置,根据乘客所乘坐路程来进行收费,而不是传统的分段式收费,同时可以统计各站上车人数,每站的下车人数以及目前车内人数等;然后通过无线数据传输模块还可以把车上的信息发送到站台上供等车的乘客参考,并且这种装置对于现存的公交卡也能进行读写,为市民绿色出行提供便利。此种装置能将公交车上的客流信息进行储存、汇总,通过对车流、人流的信息进行分析,还能方便公交车公司进行调度和统计。

  12. [Cost-effectiveness analysis of mechanical and manual soil-buried methods for Oncomelania hupensis control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Neng-ming; Ye, Xiao-dong; Huang, Li-lan; Wang, Song-bo; Zheng, Shou-gui

    2014-06-01

    To explore a high molluscicidal efficient method in special Oncomelania hupensis snail environments. In 2005 and 2006, in large special environments (rubble creek beaches and seepage barren hills with snails), the mechanical soil-buried method (excavator digging to bury deep snails) and manual soil-buried method were used respectively, and the results were compared for the cost-effectiveness. With the mechanical soil-buried method in 2006, the investment was 0.78 yuan/m2, and the compression rate of snail areas was 100%; with the manual soil-buried method in 2005, the investment was 1.34 yuan/m2, and the compression rate of snail areas was 20.26%. The former was much better than the latter. In the large special environments with snails, the mechanical soil-buried method is superior to manual soil-buried method.

  13. 100 statistical tests

    CERN Document Server

    Kanji, Gopal K

    2006-01-01

    This expanded and updated Third Edition of Gopal K. Kanji's best-selling resource on statistical tests covers all the most commonly used tests with information on how to calculate and interpret results with simple datasets. Each entry begins with a short summary statement about the test's purpose, and contains details of the test objective, the limitations (or assumptions) involved, a brief outline of the method, a worked example, and the numerical calculation. 100 Statistical Tests, Third Edition is the one indispensable guide for users of statistical materials and consumers of statistical information at all levels and across all disciplines.

  14. Disturbances in the soil: finding buried bodies and other evidence using ground penetrating radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, P S

    1996-07-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is an efficient and effective means to search for buried evidence, whether it be a clandestine grave, formal burial, or certain missing articles from a crime scene. The procedures for GPR used by the U.S. Army Central Identification Laboratory, Hawaii (CILHI), are the result of several years of experimentation on a variety of ground surfaces in Hawaii, Southeast Asia and the mainland U.S. This remote sensing method does not usually provide direct information that there is a body or other specific object beneath the ground. Most of the time the GPR has been used to determine where a target object is not located. The key feature of GPR is that it can detect recent changes in shallow soil conditions caused by the disturbance of soil and the intrusion of different material. Using the methods described here, the investigator should be able to determine the precise metric grid coordinates for a subsurface disturbance, as well as the approximate size, the general shape, and the depth of the buried material. Success will vary with soil conditions. The conditions suitable or not practical for using GPR are summarized. This remote sensing technology can have wider use in crime scene investigations due to the recent introduction of more user-friendly software and more portable hardware.

  15. A Multi-Model Approach Using Statistical Index and Information Criteria to Evaluate the Adequacy of the Model Geometry in a Fissured Carbonate Aquifer (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Giacopetti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A conceptual model related to a mountain aquifer that is characterized by a lack of data of hydrogeological parameters and boundary conditions, which were based on a single available observational dataset used for calibration, was studied using numerical models. For the first time, a preliminary spatial-temporal analysis has been applied to the study area in order to evaluate the real extension of the aquifer studied. The analysis was based on four models that were characterized by an increasing degree of complexity using a minimum of two zones and a maximum of five zones, which consequently increased the number of adjustable parameters from a minimum of 10 to a maximum of 22, calibrated using the parameter estimation code PEST. Statistical index and information criteria were calculated for each model, which showed comparable results; the information criteria indicated that the model with the low number of adjustable parameters was the optimal model. A comparison of the simulated and observed spring hydrographs showed a good shape correspondence but a general overestimation of the discharge, which indicated a good fit with the rainfall time series and a probably incorrect extension of the aquifer structure: the recharge contributes more than half of the total outflow at the springs but is not able to completely feed the springs.

  16. Bayesian statistics

    OpenAIRE

    新家, 健精

    2013-01-01

    © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. All rights reserved. Article Outline: Glossary Definition of the Subject and Introduction The Bayesian Statistical Paradigm Three Examples Comparison with the Frequentist Statistical Paradigm Future Directions Bibliography

  17. Mathematical statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Pestman, Wiebe R

    2009-01-01

    This textbook provides a broad and solid introduction to mathematical statistics, including the classical subjects hypothesis testing, normal regression analysis, and normal analysis of variance. In addition, non-parametric statistics and vectorial statistics are considered, as well as applications of stochastic analysis in modern statistics, e.g., Kolmogorov-Smirnov testing, smoothing techniques, robustness and density estimation. For students with some elementary mathematical background. With many exercises. Prerequisites from measure theory and linear algebra are presented.

  18. Harmonic statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2017-05-01

    The exponential, the normal, and the Poisson statistical laws are of major importance due to their universality. Harmonic statistics are as universal as the three aforementioned laws, but yet they fall short in their 'public relations' for the following reason: the full scope of harmonic statistics cannot be described in terms of a statistical law. In this paper we describe harmonic statistics, in their full scope, via an object termed harmonic Poisson process: a Poisson process, over the positive half-line, with a harmonic intensity. The paper reviews the harmonic Poisson process, investigates its properties, and presents the connections of this object to an assortment of topics: uniform statistics, scale invariance, random multiplicative perturbations, Pareto and inverse-Pareto statistics, exponential growth and exponential decay, power-law renormalization, convergence and domains of attraction, the Langevin equation, diffusions, Benford's law, and 1/f noise.

  19. Game theory analysis of statistical information distortion in China%统计数据失真成因的博弈分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢冶飞

    2003-01-01

    Statistical bodies are in essence interest bodies. To analyse the fundamental reasons Why somestatistical data are untrue, we need to consider the inerests ofthe statistical bodies. Their choices are thetesults of interest gaming. Based on this awareness, this article analyses the game action of the Statisticalbodies when prouding statistical date according to game theory. Therefore we get to know the reasons of theuntrueness of some statistical date. Furthermore the measures and suggestions are given.

  20. Social differences in oral health: Dental status of individuals buried in and around Trakai Church in Lithuania (16th-17th c.c.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miliauskienė, Žydrūnė; Jankauskas, Rimantas

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation of social differences in dental health is based on the assumption that individuals belonging to a higher social class consumed a different diet than a common people. The aim of our study was to analyse and compare dental health of 16(th) - 17(th) c. individuals, buried inside and around the Roman Catholic Church in Trakai (Lithuania). All material (189 adult individuals) was divided in two samples of a presumably different social status: the Churchyard (ordinary townsmen) and the Presbytery (elite). Dental status analysis included that of tooth loss, tooth wear, caries, abscesses and calculus. Results revealed higher prevalence of dental disease in the Churchyard sample compared to the Presbytery. Individuals buried around the church had statistically higher prevalence of caries, antemortem tooth loss and abscesses compared to those who were buried inside the church. The Churchyard sample was also characterised by a higher increase in severity of caries with age, and a more rapid tooth wear. Differences in dental health between the samples the most probably reflect different dietary habits of people from different social groups: poor quality carbohydrate based diet of laymen buried in the churchyard and more varied diet with proteins and of a better quality of local elite, buried inside the church. Substantial sex differences in dental health were found only in the Churchyard sample: males had statistically higher prevalence of abscesses and calculus, while females had higher prevalence of caries and AMTL (antemortem tooth loss). Females were also characterised by a higher increase in the number of dental decay and tooth loss with age and had higher prevalence of gross caries, which indicates a more rapid progression of the disease. Worse dental health of females could be a result of culturally based dietary differences between females (more carbohydrates) and males (more proteins) and different physiological demands (hormonal fluctuations and

  1. Structural coupling between FKBP12 and buried water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szep, Szilvia; Park, Sheldon; Boder, Eric T; Van Duyne, Gregory D; Saven, Jeffery G

    2009-02-15

    Globular proteins often contain structurally well-resolved internal water molecules. Previously, we reported results from a molecular dynamics study that suggested that buried water (Wat3) may play a role in modulating the structure of the FK506 binding protein-12 (FKBP12) (Park and Saven, Proteins 2005; 60:450-463). In particular, simulations suggested that disrupting a hydrogen bond to Wat3 by mutating E60 to either A or Q would cause a structural perturbation involving the distant W59 side chain, which rotates to a new conformation in response to the mutation. This effectively remodels the ligand-binding pocket, as the side chain in the new conformation is likely to clash with bound FK506. To test whether the protein structure is in effect modulated by the binding of a buried water in the distance, we determined high-resolution (0.92-1.29 A) structures of wild-type FKBP12 and its two mutants (E60A, E60Q) by X-ray crystallography. The structures of mutant FKBP12 show that the ligand-binding pocket is indeed remodeled as predicted by the substitution at position 60, even though the water molecule does not directly interact with any of the amino acids of the binding pocket. Thus, these structures support the view that buried water molecules constitute an integral, noncovalent component of the protein structure. Additionally, this study provides an example in which predictions from molecular dynamics simulations are experimentally validated with atomic precision, thus showing that the structural features of protein-water interactions can be reliably modeled at a molecular level.

  2. The thermal regime around buried submarine high-voltage cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emeana, C. J.; Hughes, T. J.; Dix, J. K.; Gernon, T. M.; Henstock, T. J.; Thompson, C. E. L.; Pilgrim, J. A.

    2016-08-01

    The expansion of offshore renewable energy infrastructure and the need for trans-continental shelf power transmission require the use of submarine high-voltage (HV) cables. These cables have maximum operating surface temperatures of up to 70 °C and are typically buried 1-2 m beneath the seabed, within the wide range of substrates found on the continental shelf. However, the heat flow pattern and potential effects on the sedimentary environments around such anomalously high heat sources in the near-surface sediments are poorly understood. We present temperature measurements from a 2-D laboratory experiment representing a buried submarine HV cable, and identify the thermal regimes generated within typical unconsolidated shelf sediments—coarse silt, fine sand and very coarse sand. We used a large (2 × 2.5 m2) tank filled with water-saturated spherical glass beads (ballotini) and instrumented with a buried heat source and 120 thermocouples to measure the time-dependent 2-D temperature distributions. The observed and corresponding Finite Element Method simulations of the steady state heat flow regimes and normalized radial temperature distributions were assessed. Our results show that the heat transfer and thus temperature fields generated from submarine HV cables buried within a range of sediments are highly variable. Coarse silts are shown to be purely conductive, producing temperature increases of >10 °C up to 40 cm from the source of 60 °C above ambient; fine sands demonstrate a transition from conductive to convective heat transfer between cf. 20 and 36 °C above ambient, with >10 °C heat increases occurring over a metre from the source of 55 °C above ambient; and very coarse sands exhibit dominantly convective heat transfer even at very low (cf. 7 °C) operating temperatures and reaching temperatures of up to 18 °C above ambient at a metre from the source at surface temperatures of only 18 °C. These findings are important for the surrounding near

  3. The study of traumatic intracerebral hematoma at Buri Ram Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagabhand, A; Sangcham, K

    1993-07-01

    This report describes the study of traumatic intracerebral hematoma at Buri Ram Hospital. The total number was 71 cases. There were 26 cases with no investigation and were treated by exploratory burr hole with the mortality rate of 57.5 per cent, and 45 cases which were sent for CT scan before operation with the mortality rate of 37.5 per cent. CT scanning is a useful investigative tool for correct diagnosis and rapid treatment of head injury and the operation which helps to reduce the mortality rate.

  4. Remote Excavation System technology evaluation report: Buried Waste Robotics Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This document describes the results from the Remote Excavation System demonstration and testing conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory during June and July 1993. The purpose of the demonstration was to ascertain the feasibility of the system for skimming soil and removing various types of buried waste in a safe manner and within all regulatory requirements, and to compare the performances of manual and remote operation of a backhoe. The procedures and goals of the demonstration were previously defined in The Remote Excavation System Test Plan, which served as a guideline for evaluating the various components of the system and discussed the procedures used to conduct the tests.

  5. Statistical mechanics of pluripotency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacArthur, Ben D; Lemischka, Ihor R

    2013-08-01

    Recent reports using single-cell profiling have indicated a remarkably dynamic view of pluripotent stem cell identity. Here, we argue that the pluripotent state is not well defined at the single-cell level but rather is a statistical property of stem cell populations, amenable to analysis using the tools of statistical mechanics and information theory.

  6. CMS Statistics Reference Booklet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The annual CMS Statistics reference booklet provides a quick reference for summary information about health expenditures and the Medicare and Medicaid health...

  7. Transport statistics 1996

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shepperson, L

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available This publication contains transport and related statistics on roads, vehicles, infrastructure, passengers, freight, rail, air, maritime and road traffic, and international comparisons. The information compiled in this publication has been gathered...

  8. Bureau of Labor Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov Disability.gov Freedom of Information Act | Privacy & Security Statement | Disclaimers | Customer Survey | Important Web Site Notices U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics | Postal Square Building, 2 Massachusetts Avenue, NE Washington, ...

  9. EDI Performance Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This section contains statistical information and reports related to the percentage of electronic transactions being sent to Medicare contractors in the formats...

  10. The SAPS crime statistics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Every year, the South African Minister of Police releases the crime statistics in ... prove an invaluable source of information for those who seek to better understand and respond to crime ... of Social Development in the JCPS may suggest a.

  11. PREFACE: Buried Interface Sciences with X-rays and Neutrons 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Kenji

    2011-09-01

    generation synchrotron radiation is highly reliable in practice, as well as being quantitative and reproducible. The use of neutron analysis complements x-ray experiments, and helps to enhance information such as contrasts in soft materials and magnetic structures, which are not always given clearly by x-rays. The techniques ensure non-contact, non-destructive measurement, and one can also use the same specimen for further analysis by other methods. On the other hand, we are now aware that it not always straightforward to solve many realistic problems related to buried interfaces. Although advanced synchrotron x-rays and neutrons are highly useful, we still note many limitations. Collaboration with theoreticians is one of the most important directions in which to improve analysis. Over the past couple of years, scientists have argued over the existence of a depletion layer between oil and water. The argument is far from settled, even though highly sophisticated x-ray reflectometry seems to have given quite strong experimental evidence. In most cases, analysis of x-ray reflectivity depends on the model. This is good provided that one can be sure of the validity of the model, as in the case of multilayered thin films in industrial devices. However, sometimes our main interest lies in the model itself. Therefore, we should insist on introducing something new to justify the model scientifically, instead of just claiming that x-ray data can be explained by a certain model. Probably collaboration with theoretical research could be helpful. Another important direction would be to develop a method of model-free analysis. During this workshop, participants talked about the present status of their own work. The workshop was open to those who are not particular specialists in x-ray and neutron experiments, but discussions were detailed and thorough. We discussed how buried interface research by x-ray and neutron experiments can be strengthened in the future. One of the most important

  12. Statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sadovskii, Michael V

    2012-01-01

    This volume provides a compact presentation of modern statistical physics at an advanced level. Beginning with questions on the foundations of statistical mechanics all important aspects of statistical physics are included, such as applications to ideal gases, the theory of quantum liquids and superconductivity and the modern theory of critical phenomena. Beyond that attention is given to new approaches, such as quantum field theory methods and non-equilibrium problems.

  13. Geographic information systems and applied spatial statistics are efficient tools to study Hansen's disease (leprosy) and to determine areas of greater risk of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, José Wilton; Dias, Gutemberg H; Nobre, Maurício Lisboa; De Sousa Dias, Márcia C; Araújo, Sérgio F; Barbosa, James D; Bezerra da Trindade-Neto, Pedro; Blackwell, Jenefer M; Jeronimo, Selma M B

    2010-02-01

    Applied Spatial Statistics used in conjunction with geographic information systems (GIS) provide an efficient tool for the surveillance of diseases. Here, using these tools we analyzed the spatial distribution of Hansen's disease in an endemic area in Brazil. A sample of 808 selected from a universe of 1,293 cases was geocoded in Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Hansen's disease cases were not distributed randomly within the neighborhoods, with higher detection rates found in more populated districts. Cluster analysis identified two areas of high risk, one with a relative risk of 5.9 (P = 0.001) and the other 6.5 (P = 0.001). A significant relationship between the geographic distribution of disease and the social economic variables indicative of poverty was observed. Our study shows that the combination of GIS and spatial analysis can identify clustering of transmissible disease, such as Hansen's disease, pointing to areas where intervention efforts can be targeted to control disease.

  14. Statistical Information of the Increased Demand for Watch the VOD with the Increased Sophistication in the Mobile Devices,Communications and Internet Penetration in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Ali Alomari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available As the rapid progress of the media streaming applications such as video streaming can be classified intotwo types of streaming, Live video streaming, Video on Demand (VoD. Live video streaming is a servicewhich allows the clients to watch many TV channels over the internet and the clients able to use oneoperation to perform is to switch the channels. Video on Demand (VoD is one of the most importantapplications for the internet of the future and has become an interactive multimedia service which allowsthe users to start watching the video of their choice at anytime and anywhere, especially after the rapiddeployment of the wireless networks and mobile devices. In this paper provide statistical information aboutthe Internet, communications and mobile devices etc. This has led to an increased demand for thedevelopment, communication and computational powers of many of the mobile wireless subscribers/mobiledevices such as laptops, PDAs, smart phones and notebook. These techniques are utilized to obtain a videoon demand service with higher resolution and quality. Another objective in this paper is to see Malaysiaranked as a fully developed country by the year 2020.

  15. Prediction Based on Statistical Fundamental Information of Turing Award%图灵奖的基础信息统计与预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵芳; 吴琼; 刘彦君

    2016-01-01

    借鉴以往的研究成果,以图灵奖获奖者为中心,从图灵奖官网、维基百科、百度百科、万方数据库等采集信息,对基础数据统计后,从历年获奖人数、获奖人年龄\\工作机构\\年龄\\研究领域、图灵奖分布的领域等角度对概况进行描述,在此基础上,对数据作进一步分析,对图灵奖未来若干年的获奖趋势作出预测。%After collecting data from Turing Award official website, Wikipedia, Baidu encyclopedia, Wanfang Database, this pa-per carries out statistics on fundamental information of Turing Award winners by drawing on the academic results of previous stud-ies. Then it describes the general situation of the total number of prize winners, organizations, research fields and so on. It also fur-ther analyzes the data and makes prediction for the future Turing Award winners.

  16. Statistical Information of the Increased Demand for Watch the VOD with the Increased Sophistication in the Mobile Devices,Communications and Internet Penetration in Asia

    CERN Document Server

    Alomari, Saleh Ali

    2011-01-01

    As the rapid progress of the media streaming applications such as video streaming can be classified into two types of streaming, Live video streaming, Video on Demand (VoD). Live video streaming is a service which allows the clients to watch many TV channels over the internet and the clients able to use one operation to perform is to switch the channels. Video on Demand (VoD) is one of the most important applications for the internet of the future and has become an interactive multimedia service which allows the users to start watching the video of their choice at anytime and anywhere, especially after the rapid deployment of the wireless networks and mobile devices. In this paper provide statistical information about the Internet, communications and mobile devices etc. This has led to an increased demand for the development, communication and computational powers of many of the mobile wireless subscribers/mobile devices such as laptops, PDAs, smart phones and notebook. These techniques are utilized to obtain...

  17. 3D Buried Utility Location Using A Marching-Cross-Section Algorithm for Multi-Sensor Data Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingxu Dou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We address the problem of accurately locating buried utility segments by fusing data from multiple sensors using a novel Marching-Cross-Section (MCS algorithm. Five types of sensors are used in this work: Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR, Passive Magnetic Fields (PMF, Magnetic Gradiometer (MG, Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields (LFEM and Vibro-Acoustics (VA. As part of the MCS algorithm, a novel formulation of the extended Kalman Filter (EKF is proposed for marching existing utility tracks from a scan cross-section (scs to the next one; novel rules for initializing utilities based on hypothesized detections on the first scs and for associating predicted utility tracks with hypothesized detections in the following scss are introduced. Algorithms are proposed for generating virtual scan lines based on given hypothesized detections when different sensors do not share common scan lines, or when only the coordinates of the hypothesized detections are provided without any information of the actual survey scan lines. The performance of the proposed system is evaluated with both synthetic data and real data. The experimental results in this work demonstrate that the proposed MCS algorithm can locate multiple buried utility segments simultaneously, including both straight and curved utilities, and can separate intersecting segments. By using the probabilities of a hypothesized detection being a pipe or a cable together with its 3D coordinates, the MCS algorithm is able to discriminate a pipe and a cable close to each other. The MCS algorithm can be used for both post- and on-site processing. When it is used on site, the detected tracks on the current scs can help to determine the location and direction of the next scan line. The proposed “multi-utility multi-sensor” system has no limit to the number of buried utilities or the number of sensors, and the more sensor data used, the more buried utility segments can be detected with more accurate location

  18. Statistical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Joseph W

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses statistical methods that are useful for treating problems in modern optics, and the application of these methods to solving a variety of such problems This book covers a variety of statistical problems in optics, including both theory and applications.  The text covers the necessary background in statistics, statistical properties of light waves of various types, the theory of partial coherence and its applications, imaging with partially coherent light, atmospheric degradations of images, and noise limitations in the detection of light. New topics have been introduced i

  19. Histoplasmosis Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Histoplasmosis Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir How common is histoplasmosis? In the United States, an estimated 60% to ...

  20. Statistical distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Forbes, Catherine; Hastings, Nicholas; Peacock, Brian J.

    2010-01-01

    A new edition of the trusted guide on commonly used statistical distributions Fully updated to reflect the latest developments on the topic, Statistical Distributions, Fourth Edition continues to serve as an authoritative guide on the application of statistical methods to research across various disciplines. The book provides a concise presentation of popular statistical distributions along with the necessary knowledge for their successful use in data modeling and analysis. Following a basic introduction, forty popular distributions are outlined in individual chapters that are complete with re

  1. Harmonic statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliazar, Iddo, E-mail: eliazar@post.tau.ac.il

    2017-05-15

    The exponential, the normal, and the Poisson statistical laws are of major importance due to their universality. Harmonic statistics are as universal as the three aforementioned laws, but yet they fall short in their ‘public relations’ for the following reason: the full scope of harmonic statistics cannot be described in terms of a statistical law. In this paper we describe harmonic statistics, in their full scope, via an object termed harmonic Poisson process: a Poisson process, over the positive half-line, with a harmonic intensity. The paper reviews the harmonic Poisson process, investigates its properties, and presents the connections of this object to an assortment of topics: uniform statistics, scale invariance, random multiplicative perturbations, Pareto and inverse-Pareto statistics, exponential growth and exponential decay, power-law renormalization, convergence and domains of attraction, the Langevin equation, diffusions, Benford’s law, and 1/f noise. - Highlights: • Harmonic statistics are described and reviewed in detail. • Connections to various statistical laws are established. • Connections to perturbation, renormalization and dynamics are established.

  2. Quantitative Chemically-Specific Coherent Diffractive Imaging of Buried Interfaces using a Tabletop EUV Nanoscope

    CERN Document Server

    Shanblatt, Elisabeth R; Gardner, Dennis F; Mancini, Giulia F; Karl, Robert M; Tanksalvala, Michael D; Bevis, Charles S; Vartanian, Victor H; Kapteyn, Henry C; Adams, Daniel E; Murnane, Margaret M

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing buried layers and interfaces is critical for a host of applications in nanoscience and nano-manufacturing. Here we demonstrate non-invasive, non-destructive imaging of buried interfaces using a tabletop, extreme ultraviolet (EUV), coherent diffractive imaging (CDI) nanoscope. Copper nanostructures inlaid in SiO2 are coated with 100 nm of aluminum, which is opaque to visible light and thick enough that neither optical microscopy nor atomic force microscopy can image the buried interfaces. Short wavelength (29 nm) high harmonic light can penetrate the aluminum layer, yielding high-contrast images of the buried structures. Moreover, differences in the absolute reflectivity of the interfaces before and after coating reveal the formation of interstitial diffusion and oxidation layers at the Al-Cu and Al-SiO2 boundaries. Finally, we show that EUV CDI provides a unique capability for quantitative, chemically-specific imaging of buried structures, and the material evolution that occurs at these buried ...

  3. Buried iceberg scours reveal reduced North Atlantic Current during the stage 12 deglacial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Andrew M. W.; Huuse, Mads; Brocklehurst, Simon H.

    2016-03-01

    Reconstructing past ocean-climate environments and heat transport requires proxies from which these conditions can be quantified. This is particularly important for the evaluation of numerical palaeoclimate models. Here we present new evidence for a reduced North Atlantic Current (NAC) at the termination of the third last glacial, for which palaeocurrent information was previously unavailable. This is based on an exquisitely preserved set of buried iceberg scours seen in three-dimensional seismic reflection images from the mid-Norwegian slope. The scours were formed ~430 ka during the transition from glacial to interglacial conditions. The spiral geometry of the scours suggests that they were carved by grounded icebergs influenced by tidal and geostrophic ocean currents. Using the ratio between the estimated tidal and geostrophic current velocities and comparing them with velocities from the Last Glacial Maximum and the present, we show that the stage 12 NAC velocities may have been ~50% slower than the present.

  4. Pristine Early Eocene wood buried deeply in kimberlite from northern Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander P Wolfe

    Full Text Available We report exceptional preservation of fossil wood buried deeply in a kimberlite pipe that intruded northwestern Canada's Slave Province 53.3±0.6 million years ago (Ma, revealed during excavation of diamond source rock. The wood originated from forest surrounding the eruption zone and collapsed into the diatreme before resettling in volcaniclastic kimberlite to depths >300 m, where it was mummified in a sterile environment. Anatomy of the unpermineralized wood permits conclusive identification to the genus Metasequoia (Cupressaceae. The wood yields genuine cellulose and occluded amber, both of which have been characterized spectroscopically and isotopically. From cellulose δ(18O and δ(2H measurements, we infer that Early Eocene paleoclimates in the western Canadian subarctic were 12-17°C warmer and four times wetter than present. Canadian kimberlites offer Lagerstätte-quality preservation of wood from a region with limited alternate sources of paleobotanical information.

  5. Pristine Early Eocene wood buried deeply in kimberlite from northern Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Alexander P; Csank, Adam Z; Reyes, Alberto V; McKellar, Ryan C; Tappert, Ralf; Muehlenbachs, Karlis

    2012-01-01

    We report exceptional preservation of fossil wood buried deeply in a kimberlite pipe that intruded northwestern Canada's Slave Province 53.3±0.6 million years ago (Ma), revealed during excavation of diamond source rock. The wood originated from forest surrounding the eruption zone and collapsed into the diatreme before resettling in volcaniclastic kimberlite to depths >300 m, where it was mummified in a sterile environment. Anatomy of the unpermineralized wood permits conclusive identification to the genus Metasequoia (Cupressaceae). The wood yields genuine cellulose and occluded amber, both of which have been characterized spectroscopically and isotopically. From cellulose δ(18)O and δ(2)H measurements, we infer that Early Eocene paleoclimates in the western Canadian subarctic were 12-17°C warmer and four times wetter than present. Canadian kimberlites offer Lagerstätte-quality preservation of wood from a region with limited alternate sources of paleobotanical information.

  6. Full-scale retrieval of simulated buried transuranic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentich, D.J. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the results of a field test conducted to determine the effectiveness of using conventional type construction equipment for the retrieval of buried transuranic (TRU) waste. A cold (nonhazardous and nonradioactive) test pit (1,100 yd{sup 3} volume) was constructed with boxes and drums filled with simulated waste materials, such as metal, plastic, wood, concrete, and sludge. Large objects, including truck beds, tanks, vaults, pipes, and beams, were also placed in the pit. These materials were intended to simulate the type of wastes found in TRU buried waste pits and trenches. A series of commercially available equipment items, such as excavators and tracked loaders outfitted with different end effectors, were used to remove the simulated waste. Work was performed from both the abovegrade and belowgrade positions. During the demonstration, a number of observations, measurements, and analyses were performed to determine which equipment was the most effective in removing the waste. The retrieval rates for the various excavation techniques were recorded. The inherent dust control capabilities of the excavation methods used were observed. The feasibility of teleoperating reading equipment was also addressed.

  7. Preliminary observations of arthropods associated with buried carrion on Oahu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rysavy, Noel M; Goff, M Lee

    2015-03-01

    Several studies in Hawaii have focused on arthropod succession and decomposition patterns of surface remains, but the current research presents the first study to focus on shallow burials in this context. Three domestic pig carcasses (Sus scrofa L.) were buried at the depths of 20-40 cm in silty clay loam soil on an exposed ridge on the leeward side of the volcanically formed Koolau Mountain Range. One carcass was exhumed after 3 weeks, another after 6 weeks, and the last carcass was exhumed after 9 weeks. An inventory of arthropod taxa present on the carrion and in the surrounding soil and observations pertaining to decomposition were recorded at each exhumation. The longer the carrion was buried, the greater the diversity of arthropod species that were recovered from the remains. Biomass loss was calculated to be 49% at the 3-week interval, 56% at the 6-week interval, and 59% at the 9-week interval.

  8. Probing Molecular Organization and Electronic Dynamics at Buried Organic Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sean

    2015-03-01

    Organic semiconductors are a promising class of materials due to their ability to meld the charge transport capabilities of semiconductors with many of the processing advantages of plastics. In thin film organic devices, interfacial charge transfer often comprises a crucial step in device operation. As molecular materials, the density of states within organic semiconductors often reflect their intermolecular organization. Truncation of the bulk structure of an organic semiconductor at an interface with another material can lead to substantial changes in the density of states near the interface that can significantly impact rates for interfacial charge and energy transfer. Here, we will present the results of experiments that utilize electronic sum frequency generation (ESFG) to probe buried interfaces in these materials. Within the electric dipole approximation, ESFG is only sensitive to regions of a sample that experience a breakage of symmetry, which occurs naturally at material interfaces. Through modeling of signals measured for thin organic films using a transfer matrix-based formalism, signals from buried interfaces between two materials can be isolated and used to uncover the interfacial density of states.

  9. Scan Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Glaz, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Suitable for graduate students and researchers in applied probability and statistics, as well as for scientists in biology, computer science, pharmaceutical science and medicine, this title brings together a collection of chapters illustrating the depth and diversity of theory, methods and applications in the area of scan statistics.

  10. Statistical Diversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petocz, Peter; Sowey, Eric

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors focus on hypothesis testing--that peculiarly statistical way of deciding things. Statistical methods for testing hypotheses were developed in the 1920s and 1930s by some of the most famous statisticians, in particular Ronald Fisher, Jerzy Neyman and Egon Pearson, who laid the foundations of almost all modern methods of…

  11. Estimation of low-flow statistics at ungaged sites on streams in the Lower Hudson River Basin, New York, from data in geographic information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Allan D.; Freehafer, Douglas A.

    2017-08-02

    A variety of watershed properties available in 2015 from geographic information systems were tested in regression equations to estimate two commonly used statistical indices of the low flow of streams, namely the lowest flows averaged over 7 consecutive days that have a 1 in 10 and a 1 in 2 chance of not being exceeded in any given year (7-day, 10-year and 7-day, 2-year low flows). The equations were based on streamflow measurements in 51 watersheds in the Lower Hudson River Basin of New York during the years 1958–1978, when the number of streamflow measurement sites on unregulated streams was substantially greater than in subsequent years. These low-flow indices are chiefly a function of the area of surficial sand and gravel in the watershed; more precisely, 7-day, 10-year and 7-day, 2-year low flows both increase in proportion to the area of sand and gravel deposited by glacial meltwater, whereas 7-day, 2-year low flows also increase in proportion to the area of postglacial alluvium. Both low-flow statistics are also functions of mean annual runoff (a measure of net water input to the watershed from precipitation) and area of swamps and poorly drained soils in or adjacent to surficial sand and gravel (where groundwater recharge is unlikely and riparian water loss to evapotranspiration is substantial). Small but significant refinements in estimation accuracy resulted from the inclusion of two indices of stream geometry, channel slope and length, in the regression equations. Most of the regression analysis was undertaken with the ordinary least squares method, but four equations were replicated by using weighted least squares to provide a more realistic appraisal of the precision of low-flow estimates. The most accurate estimation equations tested in this study explain nearly 84 and 87 percent of the variation in 7-day, 10-year and 7-day, 2-year low flows, respectively, with standard errors of 0.032 and 0.050 cubic feet per second per square mile. The equations

  12. Information

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, L David

    1991-01-01

    This volume thoroughly covers the sub-field of information, and is one of the first in a series which synthesizes the research literature on major concepts in the field of communication. Each concise volume includes a research definition (concept explication) and presents a state-of-the-art analysis of theory and empirical findings related to the concept. After defining the word `information', the author contrasts non-linear and reflexive ideas about human communication with linear perspectives. Information is equated with uncertainty. The result presents a pattern for the process of conceptua

  13. A spatio-temporal statistical model of maximum daily river temperatures to inform the management of Scotland's Atlantic salmon rivers under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Faye L; Fryer, Robert J; Hannah, David M; Millar, Colin P; Malcolm, Iain A

    2017-09-14

    The thermal suitability of riverine habitats for cold water adapted species may be reduced under climate change. Riparian tree planting is a practical climate change mitigation measure, but it is often unclear where to focus effort for maximum benefit. Recent developments in data collection, monitoring and statistical methods have facilitated the development of increasingly sophisticated river temperature models capable of predicting spatial variability at large scales appropriate to management. In parallel, improvements in temporal river temperature models have increased the accuracy of temperature predictions at individual sites. This study developed a novel large scale spatio-temporal model of maximum daily river temperature (Twmax) for Scotland that predicts variability in both river temperature and climate sensitivity. Twmax was modelled as a linear function of maximum daily air temperature (Tamax), with the slope and intercept allowed to vary as a smooth function of day of the year (DoY) and further modified by landscape covariates including elevation, channel orientation and riparian woodland. Spatial correlation in Twmax was modelled at two scales; (1) river network (2) regional. Temporal correlation was addressed through an autoregressive (AR1) error structure for observations within sites. Additional site level variability was modelled with random effects. The resulting model was used to map (1) spatial variability in predicted Twmax under current (but extreme) climate conditions (2) the sensitivity of rivers to climate variability and (3) the effects of riparian tree planting. These visualisations provide innovative tools for informing fisheries and land-use management under current and future climate. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. New Korean reference for birth weight by gestational age and sex: data from the Korean Statistical Information Service (2008-2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jung Sub; Lim, Se Won; Ahn, Ju Hyun; Song, Bong Sub; Shim, Kye Shik

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To construct new Korean reference curves for birth weight by sex and gestational age using contemporary Korean birth weight data and to compare them with the Lubchenco and the 2010 United States (US) intrauterine growth curves. Methods Data of 2,336,727 newborns by the Korean Statistical Information Service (2008-2012) were used. Smoothed percentile curves were created by the Lambda Mu Sigma method using subsample of singleton. The new Korean reference curves were compared with the Lubchenco and the 2010 US intrauterine growth curves. Results Reference of the 3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 97th percentiles birth weight by gestational age were made using 2,249,804 (male, 1,159,070) singleton newborns with gestational age 23-43 weeks. Separate birth weight curves were constructed for male and female. The Korean reference curves are similar to the 2010 US intrauterine growth curves. However, the cutoff values for small for gestational age (<10th percentile) of the new Korean curves differed from those of the Lubchenco curves for each gestational age. The Lubchenco curves underestimated the percentage of infants who were born small for gestational age. Conclusion The new Korean reference curves for birth weight show a different pattern from the Lubchenco curves, which were made from white neonates more than 60 years ago. Further research on short-term and long-term health outcomes of small for gestational age babies based on the new Korean reference data is needed. PMID:25346919

  15. Introductory statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Sheldon M

    2005-01-01

    In this revised text, master expositor Sheldon Ross has produced a unique work in introductory statistics. The text's main merits are the clarity of presentation, contemporary examples and applications from diverse areas, and an explanation of intuition and ideas behind the statistical methods. To quote from the preface, ""It is only when a student develops a feel or intuition for statistics that she or he is really on the path toward making sense of data."" Ross achieves this goal through a coherent mix of mathematical analysis, intuitive discussions and examples.* Ross's clear writin

  16. Introductory statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Sheldon M

    2010-01-01

    In this 3rd edition revised text, master expositor Sheldon Ross has produced a unique work in introductory statistics. The text's main merits are the clarity of presentation, contemporary examples and applications from diverse areas, and an explanation of intuition and ideas behind the statistical methods. Concepts are motivated, illustrated and explained in a way that attempts to increase one's intuition. To quote from the preface, ""It is only when a student develops a feel or intuition for statistics that she or he is really on the path toward making sense of data."" Ross achieves this

  17. Statistics Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiveson, Alan H.; Foy, Millennia; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Fiedler, James

    2014-01-01

    Do you have elevated p-values? Is the data analysis process getting you down? Do you experience anxiety when you need to respond to criticism of statistical methods in your manuscript? You may be suffering from Insufficient Statistical Support Syndrome (ISSS). For symptomatic relief of ISSS, come for a free consultation with JSC biostatisticians at our help desk during the poster sessions at the HRP Investigators Workshop. Get answers to common questions about sample size, missing data, multiple testing, when to trust the results of your analyses and more. Side effects may include sudden loss of statistics anxiety, improved interpretation of your data, and increased confidence in your results.

  18. Statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Wannier, Gregory H

    2010-01-01

    Until recently, the field of statistical physics was traditionally taught as three separate subjects: thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, and kinetic theory. This text, a forerunner in its field and now a classic, was the first to recognize the outdated reasons for their separation and to combine the essentials of the three subjects into one unified presentation of thermal physics. It has been widely adopted in graduate and advanced undergraduate courses, and is recommended throughout the field as an indispensable aid to the independent study and research of statistical physics.Designed for

  19. Semiconductor statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Blakemore, J S

    1962-01-01

    Semiconductor Statistics presents statistics aimed at complementing existing books on the relationships between carrier densities and transport effects. The book is divided into two parts. Part I provides introductory material on the electron theory of solids, and then discusses carrier statistics for semiconductors in thermal equilibrium. Of course a solid cannot be in true thermodynamic equilibrium if any electrical current is passed; but when currents are reasonably small the distribution function is but little perturbed, and the carrier distribution for such a """"quasi-equilibrium"""" co

  20. Burned and buried by the Siberian traps: tree trunks in volcaniclastics and lavas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polozov, Alexander G.; Planke, Sverre; Svensen, Henrik H.; Jerram, Dougal A.; Looy, Cindy

    2017-04-01

    Major Phanerozoic mass extinctions could be explained by intense volcanic activity related to the formation of Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs). The Siberian Traps LIP possibly caused the most severe mass extinction on the Earth, the end-Permian extinction. This event is documented by global data showing the extinction of floral and faunal species and by stable isotope excursions. Information about the direct impact of the Siberian Traps on the local flora and fauna is scarce. By our knowledge, no detailed description has been done on the faith of trees in Siberia. However, the story of Late Permian giant trees like Cordaites and wood ferns, could shed light on the impact of the onset of the LIP magmatism and the related mass extinction. For the first time we describe that Late Permian tree trunks were buried in volcaniclastic deposits and at the footwall contact of the oldest lava flows of the Siberian Traps, and despite that this phenomenon is known by local geologists it is not well described in the literature. Tree trunks in volcaniclastic deposits were compressed during consolidation of the volcaniclastic material originated from pyroclastic density currents from nearby volcanic centers. Tree petrification is presented by quartz with minor sulphides, zeolite, calcite and sulphates. Tree trunks at the footwall contact of the lava flows have a better preserved year rings structure and late permineralization presented by calcite with minor quartz and sulphides. Our results demonstrate that intensive magmatic activity related with LIP formation affects land vegetation at various grades. Lavas have had a local violent impact, but burned and buried tree trunks have a better preserved structure reflecting single dominated permineralization processes than the tree trunks buried by pyroclastics that have covered extensive areas and followed by trees compression and later multistage permineralization. In a global context, such type of volcanic activity has a variable

  1. Entanglement and nonextensive statistics

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    It is presented a generalization of the von Neumann mutual information in the context of Tsallis' nonextensive statistics. As an example, entanglement between two (two-level) quantum subsystems is discussed. Important changes occur in the generalized mutual information, which measures the degree of entanglement, depending on the entropic index q.

  2. Statistical air quality mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassteele, van de J.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis handles statistical mapping of air quality data. Policy makers require more and more detailed air quality information to take measures to improve air quality. Besides, researchers need detailed air quality information to assess health effects. Accurate and spatially highly resolved maps

  3. Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Conducting Clinical Trials Statistical Tools and Data Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role ... Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training ...

  4. Reversible Statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell

    2004-01-01

    The study aims is to describe how the inclusion and exclusion of materials and calculative devices construct the boundaries and distinctions between statistical facts and artifacts in economics. My methodological approach is inspired by John Graunt's (1667) Political arithmetic and more recent work...... within constructivism and the field of Science and Technology Studies (STS). The result of this approach is here termed reversible statistics, reconstructing the findings of a statistical study within economics in three different ways. It is argued that all three accounts are quite normal, albeit...... in different ways. The presence and absence of diverse materials, both natural and political, is what distinguishes them from each other. Arguments are presented for a more symmetric relation between the scientific statistical text and the reader. I will argue that a more symmetric relation can be achieved...

  5. Accident Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  6. Multiparametric statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Serdobolskii, Vadim Ivanovich

    2007-01-01

    This monograph presents mathematical theory of statistical models described by the essentially large number of unknown parameters, comparable with sample size but can also be much larger. In this meaning, the proposed theory can be called "essentially multiparametric". It is developed on the basis of the Kolmogorov asymptotic approach in which sample size increases along with the number of unknown parameters.This theory opens a way for solution of central problems of multivariate statistics, which up until now have not been solved. Traditional statistical methods based on the idea of an infinite sampling often break down in the solution of real problems, and, dependent on data, can be inefficient, unstable and even not applicable. In this situation, practical statisticians are forced to use various heuristic methods in the hope the will find a satisfactory solution.Mathematical theory developed in this book presents a regular technique for implementing new, more efficient versions of statistical procedures. ...

  7. A Natural Seismic Isolating System: The Buried Mangrove Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Gueguen, Philippe; Foray, Pierre; Rousseau, Christophe; Maury, Julie; 10.1785/0120100129

    2011-01-01

    The Belleplaine test site, located in the island of Guadeloupe (French Lesser Antilles) includes a three-accelerometer vertical array, designed for liquefac- tion studies. The seismic response of the soil column at the test site is computed using three methods: the spectral ratio method using the vertical array data, a numerical method using the geotechnical properties of the soil column, and an operative fre- quency domain decomposition (FDD) modal analysis method. The Belleplaine test site is characterized by a mangrove layer overlaid by a stiff sandy deposit. This con- figuration is widely found at the border coast of the Caribbean region, which is exposed to high seismic hazard. We show that the buried mangrove layer plays the role of an isolation system equivalent to those usually employed in earthquake engineering aimed at reducing the seismic shear forces by reducing the internal stress within the structure. In our case, the flexibility of the mangrove layer reduces the distortion and the stress in the...

  8. Bryophytes of beach forests in Chon Buri Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phiangphak Sukkharak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of bryophyte diversity of three beach forests including Had Tung Prong, Had Tein Talay, and the beach forest in Thai Island and Sea Natural History Museum in Chon Buri Province, Thailand, was carried out. From 137 enumerated specimens, 16 species (6 mosses, 10 liverworts in 12 genera (5 mosses, 7 liverworts and eight families (5 mosses, 3 liverworts were found. Among those the most common families of mosses are Fissidentaceae (2 species and the most common families of liverwort are Lejeuneaceae (8 species. A comparison of species richness among the three areas revealed that the highest species richness of bryophytes was found in Had Tung Prong. Moreover, of all bryophyte species found, Weissia edentula Mitt. was the most common one.

  9. Measure Guideline: Buried and/or Encapsulated Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, C. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Zoeller, W. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Mantha, P. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Buried and/or encapsulated ducts (BEDs) are a class of advanced, energy-efficiency strategies intended to address the significant ductwork thermal losses associated with ducts installed in unconditioned attics. BEDs are ducts installed in unconditioned attics that are covered in loose-fill insulation and/or encapsulated in closed cell polyurethane spray foam insulation. This Measure Guideline covers the technical aspects of BEDs as well as the advantages, disadvantages, and risks of BEDs compared to other alternative strategies. This guideline also provides detailed guidance on installation of BEDs strategies in new and existing homes through step-by-step installation procedures. Some of the procedures presented here, however, require specialized equipment or expertise. In addition, some alterations to duct systems may require a specialized license.

  10. Buried paleosols of the Upper Paleolithic multilayered site Kostenki-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparin, B. F.; Platonova, N. I.; Sukhacheva, E. Yu.; Dudin, A. E.

    2016-12-01

    The morphology and chemical and physicochemical properties of paleosols buried at the Upper Paleolithic multilayered site Kostenki-1 in Kostenki-Borshchevo district of Voronezh oblast were studied. Four in situ paleosols formed 20-40(45) ka ago were separated in the archaeological excavation. Together with the surface soils, they characterized two different epochs of pedogenesis—the interstadial and interglacial (Holocene) epochs—and three shorter cycles of pedogenesis. The traces of human occupation in the studied hollow in the Late Paleolithic were found in the layers corresponding to the interstadial epoch. The buried paleosols had a simple horizonation: A(W)-C. A shallow thickness of the soil profiles could be due to relatively short periods of pedogenesis and to the shallow embedding by the carbonate geochemical barrier. The degree of the organic matter humification in the paleosols varied from 0.6 to 1.5, which corresponded to the mean duration of the period of biological activity of 60 to 150 days per year characterizing the climatic conditions of the tundra, taiga, forest-steppe, and steppe natural zones. In the excavation Kostenki-1 (2004-2005), soil-sediment sequences composed of five series of lithological layers with soil layers on top of them were found. Their deposition proceeded in two phases—the water phase and the aerial phase—that predetermined the morphology and composition of the soil-sediment sequences. The history of sediment accumulation in the studied hollow consisted of five stages. Similar morphologies and compositions of the soil-sediment sequences corresponding to these stages attest to the cyclic pattern of their development. The stages of sedimentation and soil formation corresponded to cyclic climate fluctuations with changes in the temperature and moisture conditions. A comparative analysis of the morphology and properties of the paleosols and soil-sediment sequences made it possible to characterize the environmental

  11. Contemporary Typologic Alternatives of Burying and the Principles of Burying Architecture Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Augustinaitė

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The context of the concept of modern burial traditions is an inseparable from religion, which is a base to convey natural customs of the unique culture using numinous values. In the sense of allegory, burial character conveys immortality vision. Therefore there are many variations of interpretation in different cultures at a different time. A fundamental change of burial typology and architecture happens due to the changes of the life style. Scientific advance is the most fateful thing, which changes the attitude towards the functionality as well as to creativity in the burial sector. Due to the postmodernism, an exceptional, relatively separate form of the burial – virtual information bases of the dead, also actual as an alternative direction of the applied art to visual expression, have been formed on the basis of digital technologies. Essential objects of today‘s burial space topic are identified as a holistic optimisation of the consumerism, full-fledged integration of burial spaces in modern urbanistic structures and formation of multicultures. The solutions of this topic usually come through the multifunction of burial territories, burial nature and multifunction of architecture, as well as universal application, the priority of stable creation of the environment, including the search of the new typological alternatives of the burial. The components of burial space formation, significant to Lithuania, more or less match the global situation. Therefore, it is favourable for the state to take more objective account of the viable long-term juridical base and policy of burial space planning, the strategy of which would not lack of national features of heritage protection, however, using architecture as a means, would convey memorial persistent value and significance of the commemoration of the dead in a modern and creative way.

  12. Direct Measurement of the Band Structure of a Buried Two-Dimensional Electron Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miwa, Jill; Hofmann, Philip; Simmons, Michelle Y.;

    2013-01-01

    We directly measure the band structure of a buried two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) using angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy. The buried 2DEG forms 2 nm beneath the surface of p-type silicon, because of a dense delta-type layer of phosphorus n-type dopants which have been placed there. ...

  13. Efficient calculation of broadband acoustic scattering from a partially, obliquely buried cylinder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhof, M.J.J.; Espana, A.; Williams, K.

    2013-01-01

    An efficient model for the Target In Environment Response (TIER) of buried/half buried, mine-like objects and UXOs is essential for the development and training of automatic target detection and classification methods and for use in sonar performance prediction models. For instance, to investigate t

  14. Diagenetic Variations between Upper Cretaceous Outcrop and Deeply Buried Reservoir Chalks of the North Sea Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjuler, Morten Leth; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2007-01-01

    when simulating reservoir conditions using outcrop chalks as models. In general deeply buried reservoir chalks show significant overgrowth as witnessed by reshaping of particles together with strengthening of particle contacts. Most outcrop chalks are moderately affected with looser inter...... has been replaced by kaolinite. These diagenetic variations are explained by higher temperatures and pressures in the deeply buried reservoir chalks....

  15. A breakdown voltage model for implanted resurf p-LDMOS device on n+ buried layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Ming-Jiang; Van Calster, A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical expression of the breakdown voltage of a high voltage implanted RESURF p-LDMOS device which uses the n+ buried layer as an effective device substrate. In this model, the doping profile of the buried layer is considered and discussed. The implant dose for the drift r

  16. Numerical Simulation of Rock Mass Damage Evolution During Deep-Buried Tunnel Excavation by Drill and Blast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianhua; Lu, Wenbo; Hu, Yingguo; Chen, Ming; Yan, Peng

    2015-09-01

    Presence of an excavation damage zone (EDZ) around a tunnel perimeter is of significant concern with regard to safety, stability, costs and overall performance of the tunnel. For deep-buried tunnel excavation by drill and blast, it is generally accepted that a combination of effects of stress redistribution and blasting is mainly responsible for development of the EDZ. However, few open literatures can be found to use numerical methods to investigate the behavior of rock damage induced by the combined effects, and it is still far from full understanding how, when and to what degree the blasting affects the behavior of the EDZ during excavation. By implementing a statistical damage evolution law based on stress criterion into the commercial software LS-DYNA through its user-subroutines, this paper presents a 3D numerical simulation of the rock damage evolution of a deep-buried tunnel excavation, with a special emphasis on the combined effects of the stress redistribution of surrounding rock masses and the blasting-induced damage. Influence of repeated blast loadings on the damage extension for practical millisecond delay blasting is investigated in the present analysis. Accompanying explosive detonation and secession of rock fragments from their initial locations, in situ stress in the immediate vicinity of the excavation face is suddenly released. The transient characteristics of the in situ stress release and induced dynamic responses in the surrounding rock masses are also highlighted. From the simulation results, some instructive conclusions are drawn with respect to the rock damage mechanism and evolution during deep-buried tunnel excavation by drill and blast.

  17. Competitive Analysis of Online Reverse Auctions with Statistic Information%统计信息下在线反向拍卖的竞争分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐金红; 马银戌; 蒋微青

    2014-01-01

    For online reverse auctions with probability distribution bids from sellers , using online algorithm and average-case competitive analysis , we discuss the average-case optimal single pricing and the competitive per-formance of single price strategy , and then propose average-case competitive analysis strategy of online reverse auctions for unlimited divisible goods .We build a model of online reverse auctions on the base of the strategy , and obtain the competitive demand curve of the buyer through solving the model .Moreover, by comparing the average-case analysis strategies with the conventional worst-case competitive analysis which ignore statistic information of bids, we conclude that the competitive performance of the strategies is improved .%对于投标具有统计特征的在线反向拍卖问题,利用在线算法与平均情形竞争分析相结合的方法,讨论了单一定价策略的平均情形最优单一定价及其竞争性能,提出了无限可分商品在线反向拍卖的平均情形竞争分析策略,基于此策略建立了具有均匀分布特征的在线反向拍卖模型,通过对模型求解得到了采购商的竞争需要曲线。与不考虑投标的统计信息、只是利用常规的最坏情形竞争分析得到的在线反向拍卖的竞争策略进行对比分析,发现统计信息的利用提高了在线反向拍卖策略的竞争性能。

  18. Full-Time Faculty View Information Literacy as Important but Are Unlikely to Incorporate it Into Their Teaching. A Review of: Bury, S. (2011. Faculty attitudes, perceptions and experiences of information literacy: A study across multiple disciplines at York University, Canada. Journal of Information Literacy, 5(1. Retrieved from http://ojs.lboro.ac.uk/ojs/index.php/JIL/article/view/PRA-V5-I1-2011-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eamon C. Tewell

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To explore faculty attitudes towards information literacy (IL; in particular,faculty perception of student IL competencies, importance of IL skills and instruction, and ideal means of planning and delivering IL instruction.Design – Online survey questionnaire.Setting – Large public research university located in Toronto, Canada.Subjects – 221 full-time faculty.Methods – The author designed and distributed an online survey to all full-time York University faculty (n=1,451 in March 2007 using Zoomerang software. The survey consisted of between 26 and 36 questions depending on responses selected by respondents, and included both open- and closed-ended questions. The author handcoded the qualitative data and used SPSS to analyze the quantitative data. The survey had 221 usable responses giving a response rate of 15.2%.Main Results – The study revealed a high degree of concern among survey respondents regarding undergraduate students’ information literacy skills, accompanied by a perceived gradual increase in IL abilities corresponding to student year. Faculty ranked each of the Association of College and Research Libraries’ (ACRL Information Literacy Standards for Higher Education as being extremely important. No ACRL standard ranked below 6 on a scale of 1 to 7, suggesting full agreement with the value of IL proficiency. Of the faculty 78.7% felt that IL education should be a joint collaboration between faculty and librarians. A considerable majority of respondents (81.7% answered that IL instruction should be required for all students. Far fewer faculty incorporated IL teaching in practice, with 52.9% engaging in IL instruction and 47.1% not incorporating IL instruction at all. Of the faculty who incorporated librarian-led IL sessions into their courses, 85% of faculty perceived a “substantial impact” or “some impact” on their students’ IL competencies.Conclusions – The author concludes that this study adds

  19. Statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Jana, Madhusudan

    2015-01-01

    Statistical mechanics is self sufficient, written in a lucid manner, keeping in mind the exam system of the universities. Need of study this subject and its relation to Thermodynamics is discussed in detail. Starting from Liouville theorem gradually, the Statistical Mechanics is developed thoroughly. All three types of Statistical distribution functions are derived separately with their periphery of applications and limitations. Non-interacting ideal Bose gas and Fermi gas are discussed thoroughly. Properties of Liquid He-II and the corresponding models have been depicted. White dwarfs and condensed matter physics, transport phenomenon - thermal and electrical conductivity, Hall effect, Magneto resistance, viscosity, diffusion, etc. are discussed. Basic understanding of Ising model is given to explain the phase transition. The book ends with a detailed coverage to the method of ensembles (namely Microcanonical, canonical and grand canonical) and their applications. Various numerical and conceptual problems ar...

  20. Statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Schwabl, Franz

    2006-01-01

    The completely revised new edition of the classical book on Statistical Mechanics covers the basic concepts of equilibrium and non-equilibrium statistical physics. In addition to a deductive approach to equilibrium statistics and thermodynamics based on a single hypothesis - the form of the microcanonical density matrix - this book treats the most important elements of non-equilibrium phenomena. Intermediate calculations are presented in complete detail. Problems at the end of each chapter help students to consolidate their understanding of the material. Beyond the fundamentals, this text demonstrates the breadth of the field and its great variety of applications. Modern areas such as renormalization group theory, percolation, stochastic equations of motion and their applications to critical dynamics, kinetic theories, as well as fundamental considerations of irreversibility, are discussed. The text will be useful for advanced students of physics and other natural sciences; a basic knowledge of quantum mechan...

  1. Statistical inference

    CERN Document Server

    Rohatgi, Vijay K

    2003-01-01

    Unified treatment of probability and statistics examines and analyzes the relationship between the two fields, exploring inferential issues. Numerous problems, examples, and diagrams--some with solutions--plus clear-cut, highlighted summaries of results. Advanced undergraduate to graduate level. Contents: 1. Introduction. 2. Probability Model. 3. Probability Distributions. 4. Introduction to Statistical Inference. 5. More on Mathematical Expectation. 6. Some Discrete Models. 7. Some Continuous Models. 8. Functions of Random Variables and Random Vectors. 9. Large-Sample Theory. 10. General Meth

  2. Statistical Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mandl, Franz

    1988-01-01

    The Manchester Physics Series General Editors: D. J. Sandiford; F. Mandl; A. C. Phillips Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester Properties of Matter B. H. Flowers and E. Mendoza Optics Second Edition F. G. Smith and J. H. Thomson Statistical Physics Second Edition E. Mandl Electromagnetism Second Edition I. S. Grant and W. R. Phillips Statistics R. J. Barlow Solid State Physics Second Edition J. R. Hook and H. E. Hall Quantum Mechanics F. Mandl Particle Physics Second Edition B. R. Martin and G. Shaw The Physics of Stars Second Edition A. C. Phillips Computing for Scient

  3. AP statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Levine-Wissing, Robin

    2012-01-01

    All Access for the AP® Statistics Exam Book + Web + Mobile Everything you need to prepare for the Advanced Placement® exam, in a study system built around you! There are many different ways to prepare for an Advanced Placement® exam. What's best for you depends on how much time you have to study and how comfortable you are with the subject matter. To score your highest, you need a system that can be customized to fit you: your schedule, your learning style, and your current level of knowledge. This book, and the online tools that come with it, will help you personalize your AP® Statistics prep

  4. Statistical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Freund, Rudolf J; Wilson, William J

    2010-01-01

    Statistical Methods, 3e provides students with a working introduction to statistical methods offering a wide range of applications that emphasize the quantitative skills useful across many academic disciplines. This text takes a classic approach emphasizing concepts and techniques for working out problems and intepreting results. The book includes research projects, real-world case studies, numerous examples and data exercises organized by level of difficulty. This text requires that a student be familiar with algebra. New to this edition: NEW expansion of exercises a

  5. Statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Davidson, Norman

    2003-01-01

    Clear and readable, this fine text assists students in achieving a grasp of the techniques and limitations of statistical mechanics. The treatment follows a logical progression from elementary to advanced theories, with careful attention to detail and mathematical development, and is sufficiently rigorous for introductory or intermediate graduate courses.Beginning with a study of the statistical mechanics of ideal gases and other systems of non-interacting particles, the text develops the theory in detail and applies it to the study of chemical equilibrium and the calculation of the thermody

  6. 《情报理论与实践》载文被引情况的统计分析与评价%Statistical Analysis of Cited Papers of Information Studies: Theory & Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程刚; 邹志仁

    2001-01-01

    Based on the CD-ROM database of Chinese Social Sciences Citation Index(CSSCI) (1998), developed by Chinese Social Science Research and Assessment Center of Nanjing University, this paper makes a statistical analysis of the papers of Information Studies: Theory & Application that are cited by the journals included in CSSCI (1998).

  7. Business statistics I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Louise

    2014-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Business Statistics I includes descriptive statistics, introduction to probability, probability distributions, sampling and sampling distributions, interval estimation, and hypothesis t

  8. Statistics; Tilastot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    For the year 1997 and 1998, part of the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are preliminary or estimated. The annual statistics of the Energy Review appear in more detail from the publication Energiatilastot - Energy Statistics issued annually includes also historical time series over a longer period (see e.g. Energiatilastot 1997, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 1998, ISSN 0784-3165). The inside of the Review`s back cover shows the energy units and the conversion coefficients used for them. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in the volume of GNP and energy consumption, Changes in the volume of GNP and electricity, Coal consumption, Natural gas consumption, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices for heat production, Fuel prices for electricity production, Carbon dioxide emissions, Total energy consumption by source and CO{sub 2}-emissions, Electricity supply, Energy imports by country of origin in January-September 1998, Energy exports by recipient country in January-September 1998, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, Natural gas and indigenous fuels, Average electricity price by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, Value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources, Energy taxes and precautionary stock fees, pollution fees on oil products

  9. Statistics; Tilastot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    For the year 1997 and 1998, part of the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are preliminary or estimated. The annual statistics of the Energy Review appear in more detail from the publication Energiatilastot - Energy Statistics issued annually includes also historical time series over a longer period (see e.g. Energiatilastot 1996, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 1997, ISSN 0784-3165). The inside of the Review`s back cover shows the energy units and the conversion coefficients used for them. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in the volume of GNP and energy consumption, Changes in the volume of GNP and electricity, Coal consumption, Natural gas consumption, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices for heat production, Fuel prices for electricity production, Carbon dioxide emissions, Total energy consumption by source and CO{sub 2}-emissions, Electricity supply, Energy imports by country of origin in January-June 1998, Energy exports by recipient country in January-June 1998, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, Natural gas and indigenous fuels, Average electricity price by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, Value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources, Energy taxes and precautionary stock fees, pollution fees on oil products

  10. Statistical Mechancis

    CERN Document Server

    Gallavotti, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    C. Cercignani: A sketch of the theory of the Boltzmann equation.- O.E. Lanford: Qualitative and statistical theory of dissipative systems.- E.H. Lieb: many particle Coulomb systems.- B. Tirozzi: Report on renormalization group.- A. Wehrl: Basic properties of entropy in quantum mechanics.

  11. Statistics of football dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Mendes, R S; Anteneodo, C

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of football matches. Our goal is to characterize statistically the temporal sequence of ball movements in this collective sport game, searching for traits of complex behavior. Data were collected over a variety of matches in South American, European and World championships throughout 2005 and 2006. We show that the statistics of ball touches presents power-law tails and can be described by $q$-gamma distributions. To explain such behavior we propose a model that provides information on the characteristics of football dynamics. Furthermore, we discuss the statistics of duration of out-of-play intervals, not directly related to the previous scenario.

  12. Statistical Pattern Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Andrew R

    2011-01-01

    Statistical pattern recognition relates to the use of statistical techniques for analysing data measurements in order to extract information and make justified decisions.  It is a very active area of study and research, which has seen many advances in recent years. Applications such as data mining, web searching, multimedia data retrieval, face recognition, and cursive handwriting recognition, all require robust and efficient pattern recognition techniques. This third edition provides an introduction to statistical pattern theory and techniques, with material drawn from a wide range of fields,

  13. AP statistics crash course

    CERN Document Server

    D'Alessio, Michael

    2012-01-01

    AP Statistics Crash Course - Gets You a Higher Advanced Placement Score in Less Time Crash Course is perfect for the time-crunched student, the last-minute studier, or anyone who wants a refresher on the subject. AP Statistics Crash Course gives you: Targeted, Focused Review - Study Only What You Need to Know Crash Course is based on an in-depth analysis of the AP Statistics course description outline and actual Advanced Placement test questions. It covers only the information tested on the exam, so you can make the most of your valuable study time. Our easy-to-read format covers: exploring da

  14. CMS Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This reference provides significant summary information about health expenditures and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' (CMS) programs. The...

  15. Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    There are unstructured abstracts (no more than 256 words) and structured abstracts (no more than 480). The specific requirements for structured abstracts are as follows:An informative, structured abstracts of no more than 4-80 words should accompany each manuscript. Abstracts for original contributions should be structured into the following sections. AIM (no more than 20 words): Only the purpose should be included. Please write the aim as the form of "To investigate/ study/..."; MATERIALS AND METHODS (no more than 140 words); RESULTS (no more than 294 words): You should present P values where appropnate and must provide relevant data to illustrate how they were obtained, e.g. 6.92 ± 3.86 vs 3.61 ± 1.67, P< 0.001; CONCLUSION (no more than 26 words).

  16. Statistics: It's in the Numbers!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Mary M.; Deal, Walter F., III

    2007-01-01

    Mathematics and statistics play important roles in peoples' lives today. A day hardly passes that they are not bombarded with many different kinds of statistics. As consumers they see statistical information as they surf the web, watch television, listen to their satellite radios, or even read the nutrition facts panel on a cereal box in the…

  17. EFFECT OF CORTICOTROPIN-RELEASING FACTOR ANTAGONIST ON BEHAVIORAL AND NEUROENDOCRINE RESPONSES DURING EXPOSURE TO DEFENSIVE BURYING PARADIGM IN RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KORTE, SM; KORTEBOUWS, GAH; BOHUS, B; KOOB, GF

    1994-01-01

    Defensive burying behavior is a coping strategy in rodents in response to an aversive stimulus where fear will facilitate burying and treatment with anxiolytics will result in less burying. To test the hypothesis that endogenous corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is involved in the defensive buryi

  18. Buried-object detection using time-reversed acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, David Michael

    The work presented here is a comprehensive study of using time reversal to detect objects located in an inhomogeneous environment using backscattered signals with an emphasis on littoral environments. Time reversal of acoustic signals in the ocean has been studied for more than two decades with the emphasis on the use of the forward scattered field. All studies share similar geometries where both the acoustical source and an adjacent array of transducers are placed in the water column. This configuration, known as a time-reversal mirror (TRM), is not practical when detecting an object that is located in a different environment than the TRM, such as beneath the ocean floor. Little work has been done to study the efficacy of a single transceiver performing the time-reversal operation on the backscattered signals from targets buried beneath the ocean floor. Here, I start by presenting the theory for such a system in both time and frequency domains for scattering by a sphere. Then by using simulations I show that time reversal of backscattered signals provides a robust method to detect targets buried in an acoustically inhomogeneous sediment using a point transceiver in the water column several meters above the sea floor. Effects of the time-reversal window (TRW) on the iterative time-reversal operation are also presented. I define a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) that treats the return with the sphere as the signal and the return without the sphere as noise to quantify improvements to the sphere returns. I consider two different sediment models and angle of incidence to show that the TRO operates independently of the sediment type and transceiver orientation. Theoretical analysis reveals that the time-reversal of backscattered signals converges to a subset of waveforms defined by the target and time-reversal window, not the initial pulse. Analysis further reveals that the time-reversal operator detects the sphere after only two iterations of the TRO, with more iterations

  19. A 10-year review of maternal mortality in Chon Buri Hospital, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinchun, P; Chullapram, T

    1993-06-01

    1. The overall maternal mortality rate (MMR) in Chon Buri Hospital in the 10-yr period from 1982-1991 was 51.1/100,000 livebirths. 2. The top causes of death were abortion related complications, pregnancy induced hypertension, puerperal infection and postpartum hemorrhage. 3. What we have done is to improve the quantity and quality of obstetric and medical care, solve the problem of vital statistics reports in our hospital, contact doctor in nearby hospitals in referral and interhospital OB-GYN conferences to meet and discuss both knowledge and management problems. 4. What we still faced in the last 4-yr were deaths from abortion related complications, puerperal sepsis and postpartum hemorrhage. Most of the deaths were preventable. 5. So what we have to target to lessen the MMR is to improve the obstetric and medical care, improve the quality of medical personnel in our area in KAP aspect (knowledge, attitude, practice) especially in the field of family planning to prevent unwanted pregnancies, proper prevention and management of postpartum hemorrhage, and prevention and treatment of puerperal and postabortal infection.

  20. Official Statistics and Statistics Education: Bridging the Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gal Iddo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to challenge official statistics providers and statistics educators to ponder on how to help non-specialist adult users of statistics develop those aspects of statistical literacy that pertain to official statistics. We first document the gap in the literature in terms of the conceptual basis and educational materials needed for such an undertaking. We then review skills and competencies that may help adults to make sense of statistical information in areas of importance to society. Based on this review, we identify six elements related to official statistics about which non-specialist adult users should possess knowledge in order to be considered literate in official statistics: (1 the system of official statistics and its work principles; (2 the nature of statistics about society; (3 indicators; (4 statistical techniques and big ideas; (5 research methods and data sources; and (6 awareness and skills for citizens’ access to statistical reports. Based on this ad hoc typology, we discuss directions that official statistics providers, in cooperation with statistics educators, could take in order to (1 advance the conceptualization of skills needed to understand official statistics, and (2 expand educational activities and services, specifically by developing a collaborative digital textbook and a modular online course, to improve public capacity for understanding of official statistics.

  1. Arc Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Meneghetti, M; Dahle, H; Limousin, M

    2013-01-01

    The existence of an arc statistics problem was at the center of a strong debate in the last fifteen years. With the aim to clarify if the optical depth for giant gravitational arcs by galaxy clusters in the so called concordance model is compatible with observations, several studies were carried out which helped to significantly improve our knowledge of strong lensing clusters, unveiling their extremely complex internal structure. In particular, the abundance and the frequency of strong lensing events like gravitational arcs turned out to be a potentially very powerful tool to trace the structure formation. However, given the limited size of observational and theoretical data-sets, the power of arc statistics as a cosmological tool has been only minimally exploited so far. On the other hand, the last years were characterized by significant advancements in the field, and several cluster surveys that are ongoing or planned for the near future seem to have the potential to make arc statistics a competitive cosmo...

  2. Non-fatal injuries sustained in road traffic accidents: a pilot study in provincial hospitals in Chon Buri, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirojwong, Sansnee; Rudtanasudjatum, Koolarb; Watcharavitoon, Pornpun; Sathitsathien, Wilai; Sangjun, Sunisa

    2002-03-01

    The characteristics of patients with non-fatal road traffic injuries who received care from non-referral hospitals are described; an assessment of the difference between the characteristics of patients who received care at a referral hospital and those of patients who were treated at non-referral hospitals is made. A retrospective study, conducted in Chon Buri Province, Thailand, reviewed information from two sources: 324 records from eight non-referral hospitals and the 1999 Injury Surveillance Report of Chon Buri Hospital, a referral hospital. A data collection tool was designed to retrieve information from the non-referral hospitals. Data were analysed descriptively and analytically. The majority of the patients of the non-referral hospitals were male (71.1%) motorcyclists (84.2%), and received ambulatory care (83.9%). Young patients had a higher risk of being admitted to these hospitals. Non-motorcyclists, pedestrians, and nonlocal persons were more likely to receive care from the referral hospital. The results were similar to those of previous studies. The different characteristics of patients who receive care at referral--and non-referral hospitals need to be taken into account when designing traffic accident reduction programs.

  3. The use of HVSR measurements for investigating buried tectonic structures: the Mirandola anticline, Northern Italy, as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabusi, G.; Caputo, R.

    2017-01-01

    The Mirandola anticline represents a buried fault-propagation fold which has been growing during Quaternary due to the seismogenic activity of a blind segment belonging to the broader Ferrara Arc. The last reactivation occurred during the May 2012 Emilia sequence. In correspondence with this structure, the thickness of the marine and continental deposits of the Po Plain foredeep is particularly reduced. In order to better define the shallow geometry of this tectonic structure, and hence its recent activity, we investigated in a depth range which is intermediate between the surficial morphological observations and seismic profiles information. In particular, we carried out numerous passive seismic measurements (single-station microtremor) for obtaining the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio. The results of a combined analysis of the peak frequency and its amplitude nicely fit the available geological information, suggesting that this low-cost geophysical technique could be successfully applied in other sectors of wide morphologically flat alluvial plains to investigate blind and completely buried potential seismogenic structures.

  4. Bedrock mapping of buried valley networks using seismic reflection and airborne electromagnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenborger, G. A.; Logan, C. E.; Hinton, M. J.; Pugin, A. J.-M.; Sapia, V.; Sharpe, D. R.; Russell, H. A. J.

    2016-05-01

    In glaciated terrain, buried valleys often host aquifers that are significant groundwater resources. However, given the range of scales, spatial complexity and depth of burial, buried valleys often remain undetected or insufficiently mapped. Accurate and thorough mapping of bedrock topography is a crucial step in detecting and delineating buried valleys and understanding formative valley processes. We develop a bedrock mapping procedure supported by the combination of seismic reflection data and helicopter time-domain electromagnetic data with water well records for the Spiritwood buried valley aquifer system in Manitoba, Canada. The limited spatial density of water well bedrock observations precludes complete depiction of the buried valley bedrock topography and renders the water well records alone inadequate for accurate hydrogeological model building. Instead, we leverage the complementary strengths of seismic reflection and airborne electromagnetic data for accurate local detection of the sediment-bedrock interface and for spatially extensive coverage, respectively. Seismic reflection data are used to define buried valley morphology in cross-section beneath survey lines distributed over a regional area. A 3D model of electrical conductivity is derived from inversion of the airborne electromagnetic data and used to extrapolate buried valley morphology over the entire survey area. A spatially variable assignment of the electrical conductivity at the bedrock surface is applied to different features of the buried valley morphology identified in the seismic cross-sections. Electrical conductivity is then used to guide construction of buried valley shapes between seismic sections. The 3D locus of points defining each morphological valley feature is constructed using a path optimization routine that utilizes deviation from the assigned electrical conductivities as the cost function. Our resulting map represents a bedrock surface of unprecedented detail with more

  5. Ozone and its potential control strategy for Chon Buri city, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabamroong, Thayukorn; Manomaiphiboon, Kasemsan; Limpaseni, Wongpun; Sukhapan, Jariya; Bonnet, Sebastien

    2012-12-01

    This work studies O3 pollution for Chon Buri city in the eastern region of Thailand, where O3 has become an increased and serious concern in the last decade. It includes emission estimation and photochemical box modeling in support of investigating the underlying nature of O3 formation over the city and the roles of precursors emitted from sources. The year 2006 was considered and two single-day episodes (January 29 and February 14) were chosen for simulations. It was found that, in the city, the industrial sector is the largest emissions contributor for every O3 precursor (i.e., NO(x), non-methane volatile organic compounds or NMVOC, and CO), followed by on-road mobile group. Fugitive NMVOC is relatively large, emitted mainly from oil refineries and tank farms. Simulated results acceptably agree with observations for daily maximum O3 level in both episodes and evidently indicate the VOC-sensitive regime for O3 formation. This regime is also substantiated by morning NMVOC/NO(x) ratios observed in the city. The corresponding O3 isopleth diagrams suggest NMVOC control alone to lower elevated O3. In seeking a potential O3 control strategy for the city, a combination of brute-force sensitivity tests, an experimental design, statistical modeling, and cost optimization was employed. A number of emission subgroups were found to significantly contribute to O3 formation, based on the February 14 episode, for example, oil refinery (fugitive), tank farm (fugitive), passenger car (gasoline), and motorcycle (gasoline). But the cost-effective strategy suggests control only on the first two subgroups to meet the standard. The cost of implementing the strategy was estimated and found to be small (only 0.2%) compared to the gross provincial product generated by the entire province where the city is located within. These findings could be useful as a needed guideline to support O3 management for the city. Elevated O3 in the urban and industrial city of Chon Buri needs better

  6. Reports on internet traffic statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogesteger, Martijn; Oliveira Schmidt, de Ricardo; Sperotto, Anna; Pras, Aiko

    2013-01-01

    Internet traffic statistics can provide valuable information to network analysts and researchers about the way nowadays networks are used. In the past, such information was provided by Internet2 in a public website called Internet2 NetFlow: Weekly Reports. The website reported traffic statistics fro

  7. Reports on internet traffic statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogesteger, Martijn; de Oliveira Schmidt, R.; Sperotto, Anna; Pras, Aiko

    2013-01-01

    Internet traffic statistics can provide valuable information to network analysts and researchers about the way nowadays networks are used. In the past, such information was provided by Internet2 in a public website called Internet2 NetFlow: Weekly Reports. The website reported traffic statistics

  8. The Challenging Buried Bumper Syndrome after Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Afifi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Buried bumper syndrome (BBS is a rare complication developed after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG. We report a case of a 38-year-old male patient who sustained severe traumatic brain injury that was complicated with early BBS after PEG tube insertion. On admission, bedside PEG was performed, and 7 days later the patient developed signs of sepsis with rapid progression to septic shock and acute kidney injury. Abdominal CT scan revealed no collection or leakage of the contrast, but showed malpositioning of the tube bumper at the edge of the stomach and not inside of it. Diagnostic endoscopy revealed that the bumper was hidden in the posterolateral part of the stomach wall forming a tract inside of it, which confirmed the diagnosis of BBS. The patient underwent laparotomy with a repair of the stomach wall perforation, and the early postoperative course was uneventful. Acute BBS is a rare complication of PEG tube insertion which could be manifested with severe complications such as pressure necrosis, peritonitis and septic shock. Early identification is the mainstay to prevent such complications. Treatment selection is primarily guided by the presenting complications, ranging from simple endoscopic replacement to surgical laparotomy.

  9. The Challenging Buried Bumper Syndrome after Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Ibrahim; Zarour, Ahmad; Al-Hassani, Ammar; Peralta, Ruben; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Buried bumper syndrome (BBS) is a rare complication developed after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). We report a case of a 38-year-old male patient who sustained severe traumatic brain injury that was complicated with early BBS after PEG tube insertion. On admission, bedside PEG was performed, and 7 days later the patient developed signs of sepsis with rapid progression to septic shock and acute kidney injury. Abdominal CT scan revealed no collection or leakage of the contrast, but showed malpositioning of the tube bumper at the edge of the stomach and not inside of it. Diagnostic endoscopy revealed that the bumper was hidden in the posterolateral part of the stomach wall forming a tract inside of it, which confirmed the diagnosis of BBS. The patient underwent laparotomy with a repair of the stomach wall perforation, and the early postoperative course was uneventful. Acute BBS is a rare complication of PEG tube insertion which could be manifested with severe complications such as pressure necrosis, peritonitis and septic shock. Early identification is the mainstay to prevent such complications. Treatment selection is primarily guided by the presenting complications, ranging from simple endoscopic replacement to surgical laparotomy.

  10. Detection of Buried Human Remains Using Bioreporter Fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vass, A. Dr.; Singleton, G. B.

    2001-10-01

    The search for buried human remains is a difficult, laborious and time-consuming task for law enforcement agencies. This study was conducted as a proof of principle demonstration to test the concept of using bioreporter microorganisms as a means to cover large areas in such a search. These bioreporter microorganisms are affected by a particular component of decaying organic matter that is distinct from decaying vegetation. The diamino compounds cadaverine and putrescine were selected as target compounds for the proof-of-principle investigation, and a search for microorganisms and genes that are responsive to either of these compounds was conducted. One recombinant clone was singled out for characterization based on its response to putrescine. The study results show that small concentrations of putrescine increased expression from this bioreporter construct. Although the level of increase was small (making it difficult to distinguish the signal from background), the results demonstrate the principle that bioreporters can be used to detect compounds resulting from decaying human remains and suggest that a wider search for target compounds should be conducted.

  11. An Effective Method for Borehole Imaging of Buried Tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreto Di Donato

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Detection and imaging of buried tunnels is a challenging problem which is relevant to both geophysical surveys and security monitoring. To comply with the need of exploring large portions of the underground, electromagnetic measurements carried out under a borehole configuration are usually exploited. Since this requires to drill holes in the soil wherein the transmitting and receiving antennas have to be positioned, low complexity of the involved apparatus is important. On the other hand, to effectively image the surveyed area, there is the need for adopting efficient and reliable imaging methods. To address these issues, in this paper we investigate the feasibility of the linear sampling method (LSM, as this inverse scattering method is capable to provide almost real-time results even when 3D images of very large domains are built, while not requiring approximations of the underlying physics. In particular, the results of the reported numerical analysis show that the LSM is capable of performing the required imaging task while using a quite simple measurement configuration consisting of two boreholes and a few number of multiview-multistatic acquisitions.

  12. Through-focal HAADF-STEM of buried nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero-Lebrero, M P; Pizarro, J; Guerrero, E; Galindo, P L; Yanez, A [Department Lenguajes y Sist. Informaticos, Universidad de Cadiz (Spain); Molina, S I, E-mail: maria.guerrero@uca.e [Department Ciencia de los Materiales e I.M. y Q.I. Universidad de Cadiz (Spain)

    2010-02-01

    High-Angle Annular Dark-Field Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (HAADF-STEM) in combination with strain mapping techniques provides a powerful tool for quantitative analysis of crystalline semiconductor materials. Due to the complex interaction of a focused probe and a sample in HAADF, the calculation of each pixel in a simulation process requires a complete multislice iteration, making the overall computing process a rather demanding task in time and memory. SICSTEM is a parallel software code recently developed for running on the University of Cadiz Supercomputer (3.75 Tflops) that allows the simulation of images from large nanostructures containing more than one million atoms. The software has been designed to be able to generate not only one dimensional line scans or two dimensional images, but also to perform optical sectioning in the STEM simulation process, providing an easy way to simulate 3D HAADF-STEM images. In this work we consider GaAs capped GaSb nanostructures epitaxially oriented on a GaAs substrate. A methodology has been developed by combining the through-focal series STEM imaging and image analysis to estimate shape and position of buried GaSb nanostructures.

  13. Surface wave propagation effects on buried segmented pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peixin Shi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with surface wave propagation (WP effects on buried segmented pipelines. Both simplified analytical model and finite element (FE model are developed for estimating the axial joint pullout movement of jointed concrete cylinder pipelines (JCCPs of which the joints have a brittle tensile failure mode under the surface WP effects. The models account for the effects of peak ground velocity (PGV, WP velocity, predominant period of seismic excitation, shear transfer between soil and pipelines, axial stiffness of pipelines, joint characteristics, and cracking strain of concrete mortar. FE simulation of the JCCP interaction with surface waves recorded during the 1985 Michoacan earthquake results in joint pullout movement, which is consistent with the field observations. The models are expanded to estimate the joint axial pullout movement of cast iron (CI pipelines of which the joints have a ductile tensile failure mode. Simplified analytical equation and FE model are developed for estimating the joint pullout movement of CI pipelines. The joint pullout movement of the CI pipelines is mainly affected by the variability of the joint tensile capacity and accumulates at local weak joints in the pipeline.

  14. Pannus Is the New Prepuce? Penile Cancer in a Buried Phallus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Manwaring

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two males presented to our urology department with complaints of bleeding and malodor from buried phallus within a suprapubic fat pad. Although both men had neonatal circumcisions, advanced penile carcinoma was found in both men. Formal penectomies showed high grade, poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma invading the corporal bodies and urethra. Buried penis represents a difficulty in early detection of suspicious lesions but may also provide an environment susceptible to poor hygiene and subsequent chronic inflammation. Patients with buried penis may be at a higher risk for development of invasive penile cancer and may benefit from regular and thorough genital exams.

  15. The Concise Encyclopedia of Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Dodge, Yadolah

    2008-01-01

    The Concise Encyclopedia of Statistics presents the essential information about statistical tests, concepts, and analytical methods in language that is accessible to practitioners and students of the vast community using statistics in medicine, engineering, physical science, life science, social science, and business/economics. The reference is alphabetically arranged to provide quick access to the fundamental tools of statistical methodology and biographies of famous statisticians. The more than 500 entries include definitions, history, mathematical details, limitations, examples, references,

  16. Depth statistics

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In 1975 John Tukey proposed a multivariate median which is the 'deepest' point in a given data cloud in R^d. Later, in measuring the depth of an arbitrary point z with respect to the data, David Donoho and Miriam Gasko considered hyperplanes through z and determined its 'depth' by the smallest portion of data that are separated by such a hyperplane. Since then, these ideas has proved extremely fruitful. A rich statistical methodology has developed that is based on data depth and, more general...

  17. Statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Sheffield, Scott

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, statistical mechanics has been increasingly recognized as a central domain of mathematics. Major developments include the Schramm-Loewner evolution, which describes two-dimensional phase transitions, random matrix theory, renormalization group theory and the fluctuations of random surfaces described by dimers. The lectures contained in this volume present an introduction to recent mathematical progress in these fields. They are designed for graduate students in mathematics with a strong background in analysis and probability. This book will be of particular interest to graduate students and researchers interested in modern aspects of probability, conformal field theory, percolation, random matrices and stochastic differential equations.

  18. Tensor rank problem in statistical high-dimensional data and quantum information theory:their comparisons on the methods and the results

    CERN Document Server

    Sakata, Toshio; Sumi, Toshio; Miyazaki, Mitsuhiro

    2009-01-01

    Quantum communication is concerned with the complexity of entanglement of a state and statistical data analysis is concerned with the complexity of a model. A common key word for both is "rank". In this paper we will show that both community is tracing the same target and that the methods used are slightly different. Two different methods, the range criterion method from quantum communication and the determinant polynomial method, are shown as an examples.

  19. The Activity of Liaocheng-Lankao Buried Fault During the Quaternary——An Important Buried Active Fault in the Eastern China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Hongfa; Wang Xuechao; Hao Shujian; Zhang Hui; Guo Shunmin; Li Jinzhao; Li Hongwu; Lin Yuanwu; Zhang Wanxia

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of locating by the geochemical prospecting, shallow seismic sounding, drilling,geological profiling, and neogeochronological dating, we first found out the dislocation amount along the Liaocheng-Lankao buried fault since the Quaternary and the age of its latest activity phase and determined that the upper break point by the fault dislocation reaches 20 m below the surface. The latest activity phase was in the early Holocene and the fault is a shallow-buried active fault. An average dislocation rate along the fault is 0.12 mm/a since the Quaternary.Thus, it is a buried active fault with intermediate to strong movement strength in the eastern China.

  20. Potential of bioremediation for buried oil removal in beaches after an oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Joana; Mucha, Ana P; Santos, Hugo; Reis, Izabela; Bordalo, Adriano; Basto, M Clara; Bernabeu, Ana; Almeida, C Marisa R

    2013-11-15

    Bioremediation potential for buried oil removal, an application still lacking thorough research, was assessed in a specifically designed system in which an artificially contaminated oil layer of sand was buried in a sand column subjected to tidal simulation. The efficiency of biostimulation (BS, fertilizer addition) and bioaugmentation (BA, inoculation of pre-stimulated indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms plus fertilizer) compared to natural attenuation was tested during a 180-day experimental period. The effect of BA was evident after 60 days (degradation of hydrocarbons reached 80%). BS efficacy was revealed only after 120 days. Microorganisms and nutrients added at the top of the sand column were able to reach the buried oil layer and contributed to faster oil elimination, an important feature for effective bioremediation treatments. Therefore, autochthonous BA with suitable nutritive conditions results in faster oil-biodegradation, appears to be a cost-effective methodology for buried oil remediation and contributes to the recovery of oil-impacted areas.

  1. Status Report for South Dakota Refuges: American Burying Beetle Searches, 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This memo describes the efforts made throughout South Dakota attempting to locate American Burying Beetles. No beetles were found, but plans for a 1996 involve a...

  2. Buried late Pleistocene fluvial channels on the inner continental shelf off Vengurla, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SubbaRaju, L.V.; Krishna, K.S.; Chaubey, A.K.

    Analysis of echosounding, side-scan sonar and shallow seismic data collected west of Burnt islands off Vengurla, west coast of India, revealed a featureless seabed, thicknesses of subsurface layers, and presence of buried channels filled...

  3. Cobreeding in the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides : Tolerance rather than cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, Jan; Schrama, Maarten J. J.; Meijer, Kim; Moore, Allen J.; Beukeboom, Leo W.

    2013-01-01

    Under intra- and interspecific competition, cooperative behaviour can provide direct fitness benefits if individuals work together to expel intruders. In the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides, a relatively small species, multiple unrelated pairs can breed together, and individuals are weak com

  4. 2004 American Burying Beetle Annual Report - Pond Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Survey efforts for the endangered American Burying Beetle at Pond Creek NWR in 2004 are reported from 14 sampling locations on the refuge. American buring beetle was...

  5. Implementation of Statistical Information System Project in CNOOC Refinery Sector%统计信息系统项目在中海油炼化板块上的实施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李黛芳

    2012-01-01

    To expound the significance of statistical information system in the CNOOC refinery sector, the function that is able to achieve, together with the implementation process.%结合工作实际,阐述了在中海油炼化板块实施综合统计信息系统的意义、能够实现的功能以及项目实施的具体过程。

  6. Statistical Neurodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Gregory Harold

    1982-03-01

    The primary objective of the thesis is to explore the dynamical properties of small nerve networks by means of the methods of statistical mechanics. To this end, a general formalism is developed and applied to elementary groupings of model neurons which are driven by either constant (steady state) or nonconstant (nonsteady state) forces. Neuronal models described by a system of coupled, nonlinear, first-order, ordinary differential equations are considered. A linearized form of the neuronal equations is studied in detail. A Lagrange function corresponding to the linear neural network is constructed which, through a Legendre transformation, provides a constant of motion. By invoking the Maximum-Entropy Principle with the single integral of motion as a constraint, a probability distribution function for the network in a steady state can be obtained. The formalism is implemented for some simple networks driven by a constant force; accordingly, the analysis focuses on a study of fluctuations about the steady state. In particular, a network composed of N noninteracting neurons, termed Free Thinkers, is considered in detail, with a view to interpretation and numerical estimation of the Lagrange multiplier corresponding to the constant of motion. As an archetypical example of a net of interacting neurons, the classical neural oscillator, consisting of two mutually inhibitory neurons, is investigated. It is further shown that in the case of a network driven by a nonconstant force, the Maximum-Entropy Principle can be applied to determine a probability distribution functional describing the network in a nonsteady state. The above examples are reconsidered with nonconstant driving forces which produce small deviations from the steady state. Numerical studies are performed on simplified models of two physical systems: the starfish central nervous system and the mammalian olfactory bulb. Discussions are given as to how statistical neurodynamics can be used to gain a better

  7. Molecular phylogeny of the burying beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae: Nicrophorinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikes, Derek S; Venables, Chandra

    2013-12-01

    Burying beetles (Silphidae: Nicrophorus) are well-known for their monopolization of small vertebrate carcasses in subterranean crypts and complex biparental care behaviors. They have been the focus of intense behavioral, ecological, and conservation research since the 1980s yet no thorough phylogenetic estimate for the group exists. Herein, we infer relationships, test past hypotheses of relationships, and test biogeographic scenarios among 55 of the subfamily Nicrophorinae's currently valid and extant 72 species. Two mitochondrial genes, COI and COII, and two nuclear genes, the D2 region of 28S, and the protein coding gene CAD, provided 3,971 nucleotides for 58 nicrophorine and 5 outgroup specimens. Ten partitions, with each modeled by GTR+I+G, were used for a 100 M generation MrBayes analysis and maximum likelihood bootstrapping with Garli. The inferred Bayesian phylogeny was mostly well-resolved with only three weak branches of biogeographic relevance. The common ancestor of the subfamily and of the genus Nicrophorus was reconstructed as Old World with four separate transitions to the New World and four reverse colonizations of the Old World from the New. Divergence dating from analysis with BEAST indicate the genus Nicrophorus originated in the Cretaceous, 127-99 Ma. Most prior, pre-cladistic hypotheses of relationships were strongly rejected while most modern hypotheses were largely congruent with monophyletic groups in our estimated phylogeny. Our results reject a recent hypothesis that Nicrophorus morio Gebler, 1817 (NEW STATUS as valid species) is a subspecies of N. germanicus (L., 1758). Two subgenera of Nicrophorus are recognized: NecroxenusSemenov-Tian-Shanskij, 1933, and NicrophorusFabricius, 1775.

  8. Review of Concrete Biodeterioration in Relation to Buried Nuclear Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turick, C; Berry, C.

    2012-10-15

    Long-term storage of low level radioactive material in below ground concrete disposal units (DUs) (Saltstone Disposal Facility) is a means of depositing wastes generated from nuclear operations of the U.S. Department of Energy. Based on the currently modeled degradation mechanisms, possible microbial induced effects on the structural integrity of buried low level wastes must be addressed. Previous international efforts related to microbial impacts on concrete structures that house low level radioactive waste showed that microbial activity can play a significant role in the process of concrete degradation and ultimately structural deterioration. This literature review examines the recent research in this field and is focused on specific parameters that are applicable to modeling and prediction of the fate of concrete vaults housing stored wastes and the wastes themselves. Rates of concrete biodegradation vary with the environmental conditions, illustrating a need to understand the bioavailability of key compounds involved in microbial activity. Specific parameters require pH and osmotic pressure to be within a certain range to allow for microbial growth as well as the availability and abundance of energy sources like components involved in sulfur, iron and nitrogen oxidation. Carbon flow and availability are also factors to consider in predicting concrete biodegradation. The results of this review suggest that microbial activity in Saltstone, (grouted low level radioactive waste) is unlikely due to very high pH and osmotic pressure. Biodegradation of the concrete vaults housing the radioactive waste however, is a possibility. The rate and degree of concrete biodegradation is dependent on numerous physical, chemical and biological parameters. Results from this review point to parameters to focus on for modeling activities and also, possible options for mitigation that would minimize concrete biodegradation. In addition, key chemical components that drive microbial

  9. Buried bumper syndrome: A complication of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyrany, Jiri; Rejchrt, Stanislav; Kopacova, Marcela; Bures, Jan

    2016-01-14

    Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is a widely used method of nutrition delivery for patients with long-term insufficiency of oral intake. The PEG complication rate varies from 0.4% to 22.5% of cases, with minor complications being three times more frequent. Buried bumper syndrome (BBS) is a severe complication of this method, in which the internal fixation device migrates alongside the tract of the stoma outside the stomach. Excessive compression of tissue between the external and internal fixation device of the gastrostomy tube is considered the main etiological factor leading to BBS. Incidence of BBS is estimated at around 1% (0.3%-2.4%). Inability to insert, loss of patency and leakage around the PEG tube are considered to be a typical symptomatic triad. Gastroscopy is indicated in all cases in which BBS is suspected. The depth of disc migration in relation to the lamina muscularis propria of the stomach is critical for further therapy and can be estimated by endoscopic or transabdominal ultrasound. BBS can be complicated by gastrointestinal bleeding, perforation, peritonitis, intra-abdominal and abdominal wall abscesses, or phlegmon, and these complications can lead to fatal outcomes. The most important preventive measure is adequate positioning of the external bolster. A conservative approach should be applied only in patients with high operative risk and dismal prognosis. Choice of the method of release is based on the type of the PEG set and depth of disc migration. A disc retained inside the stomach and completely covered by the overgrowing tissue can be released using some type of endoscopic dissection technique (needle knife, argon plasma coagulation, or papillotome through the cannula). Proper patient selection and dissection of the overgrowing tissue are the major determinants for successful endoscopic therapy. A disc localized out of the stomach (lamina muscularis propria) should be treated by a surgeon.

  10. Diagenesis of shallowly buried cratonic sandstones, southwest Sinai, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Alaa M. K.; Abdel-Wahab, Antar; McBride, Earle F.

    1998-08-01

    In spite of their age, quartzose and feldspathic Lower Carboniferous sandstones deposited on the Arabian shield in western Sinai remain friable and porous (average of 19%, maximum of 25%) except for strongly cemented ferricretes and silcretes. These fluvial and shallow-marine sandstones were not buried more than 1.5 km until Late Cretaceous and younger time, when the deepest rocks reached 2.5 km. Owing to shallow burial depths and episodic exposure, meteoric water dominated the pore system for most of geologic time: iron oxides had multiple diagenetic stages and yield Carboniferous and Late Cretaceous paleomagnetic signatures, and oxygen isotopic data for authigenic quartz, sparry calcite, and kaolinite yield meteoric signatures. The most significant diagenetic changes were: (1) cementation by iron oxide that locally reaches 40% in groundwater ferricretes; (2) reduction in porosity to 19% from an assumed original porosity 45% (19% porosity was lost by compaction and 7% by cementation); (3) generation of diagenetic quartzarenites by the loss of 7% detrital feldspar by kaolinization and dissolution; and (4) development of three thin mature silcretes apparently by thermal groundwaters. Some outcrop samples have halite and gypsum cements of young but uncertain origin: recycled from topographically higher younger rocks or from aerosols? Mature silcretes are strongly cemented by microcrystalline quartz, multiply zoned syntaxial quartz, and, originally, minor opal. Quartz overgrowths in most sandstones average only 2.2%, but display a variety of textures and in places overprint isopachous opal (now dissolved) grain coats. These features have more in common with incipient silcrete cement than normal burial quartz cement. Most silica was imported in groundwater.

  11. Study of Controll over Karstification of Buried Carbonate Hill Reservoir in Renqiu Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于俊吉; 韩宝平; 罗承建

    2004-01-01

    Based on boreholes and dynamic development data, the control over karstification of buried carbonate hill reservoir in Renqiu oil field was studied. The result shows that 1) Karstific caves, fissures, and pores in dolomite of Wumishan Formation are the most important reservoir voids, 2) the barrier of argillaceous dolomite can result in the existence of residual oil areas under oil-water interface, and 3) the mosores located on the surface of buried hill are also potential areas of residual oil.

  12. Thin films and buried interfaces characterization with X-ray standing waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagomarsino, S. [CNR, Rome (Italy). Istituto Elettronica Stato Solido

    1996-09-01

    The X-ray standing wave techniques is a powerful, non destructive method to study interfaces at the atomic level. Its basic features are described here together with the peculiarities of its applications to epitaxial films and buried interfaces. As examples of applications, experiments carried out on Si/silicide interfaces, on GaAs/InAs/GaAs buried interfaces and on Si/Ge superlattices are shown.

  13. Effect of Biostimulation and Bioaugmentation on Degradation of Polyurethane Buried in Soil▿

    OpenAIRE

    Cosgrove, L.; McGeechan, P. L.; Handley, P. S.; Robson, G. D.

    2009-01-01

    This work investigated biostimulation and bioaugmentation as strategies for removing polyurethane (PU) waste in soil. Soil microcosms were biostimulated with the PU dispersion agent “Impranil” and/or yeast extract or were bioaugmented with PU-degrading fungi, and the degradation of subsequently buried PU was determined. Fungal communities in the soil and colonizing buried PU were enumerated on solid media and were analyzed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Biostimulation w...

  14. Seismic fragility analysis of buried steel piping at P, L, and K reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wingo, H.E.

    1989-10-01

    Analysis of seismic strength of buried cooling water piping in reactor areas is necessary to evaluate the risk of reactor operation because seismic events could damage these buried pipes and cause loss of coolant accidents. This report documents analysis of the ability of this piping to withstand the combined effects of the propagation of seismic waves, the possibility that the piping may not behave in a completely ductile fashion, and the distortions caused by relative displacements of structures connected to the piping.

  15. Effects of buried penis on the structure and function of corpus cavernosum in a rat model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Fan; YU Wei-min; XIA Yue; ZHANG Xiao-bin; YANG Si-xing; GE Ming-huan

    2010-01-01

    Background While the abnormal appearance of the concealed penis has been well recognized, the effect of buried penis on the structure and function of corpus cavernosum has not been well studied. To explore this issue, we established a rat model and evaluated the effect of buried penis on cavernosum weight, contents and ultrastructure of tissue, and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity.Methods Two hundred and ten rats were randomly divided into 3 equal cohorts for 2, 4 and 6 months study (groups A, B and C). Each group was randomly divided into buried group (n=40), control group (n=15), and normal group (n=15), respectively. Intra-purse-string suture of the root of the penis was used to establish the model. Macroscopic development was judged by measuring the weight of the corpus cavernosum. Masson's trichrome staining was performed for observing microstructure while a transmission electron microscope was used for observing ultrastructure. The NOS activity was detected by a NOS activity assay kit.Results Buried penis had no significant influence on the appearance and weight of the corpus cavemosum. Buried penis resulted in decreased smooth muscle content (P>0.05 in group A, and P0.05 in groups A and B, and P <0.05 in group C) compared with the normal and control groups. Ultrastructural abnormalities of corpus cavernosum were observed in the 6-month buried group. Moreover, there was decrease of NOS activity in groups B and C (P<0.05 in group B and P<0.01 in group C) when compared with the normal and control groups.Conclusion Buried penis affects the structure and function of corpus cavemosum in rats and the effect is positively correlated with the buried time, but there is no significant effect on the macroscopic development.

  16. Review of Application of Artificial Neural Network in Medical Statistics and Information Processing%人工神经网络在医学统计与信息处理方中的应用综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫以聪

    2016-01-01

    Neural network as a new kind of statistical computing and information processing method has its unique superiority,here a few cases of medical statistics and information processed by nerve network in recent years by Chinese and abroad medical workers were listed .It illustrates that neural network has a promising prospect in statistics and information processing.%神经网络作为一种新型的统计计算和信息处理方法有其独特的优越性,这里举出近年来我国和国际医学工作者在使用神经网络进行医学统计和信息处理的几个案例。由此说明神经网络将是很有前途的统计和信息处理方法,并对其未来做展望。

  17. Using SOTEM Method to Detect BIF Bodies Buried Under Very Thick and Conductive Quaternary Sediments, Huoqiu Deposit, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiying; Xue, Guoqiang; Khan, Muhammad Younis; Li, Hai

    2016-09-01

    Huoqiu iron deposit is a typical Precambrian banded iron-formation (BIF) field which is located in the North China Craton (NCC). To detect the deep ore bodies around Dawangzhuang Village in Yingshang County, north of the Huoqiu deposit field, electromagnetic methods were tested. As the ore bodies are buried under very thick conductive Quaternary sediments, the use of EM methods is a great challenge. Short-offset transient electromagnetic method (SOTEM) was applied in the area as we wanted to test due to its detection depth and resolution. A 2D model was first built according to the geology information and magnetic measurement results. Then, 2D forward and 1D inversion were carried out using FDTD and Occam's algorithm, respectively. The synthetic modeling results helped us with the survey design and interpretation. Two 1400-m-long survey lines with offset of 500 and 1000 m were laid perpendicular to the BIF's strike, and the transmitting parameters were selected by a test measurement at the vicinity of a local village. Finally, the structure of survey area and BIF bodies were determined based on the 1D inversion results of real data, and showed a consistency with the subsequent drill results. Our application of SOTEM in detecting hidden BIF buried under very thick conductive layer has shown that the method is capable of penetrating great depth more than 1000 m even in a very conductive environment and will be an effective tool for deep resources investigation.

  18. A high-resolution aeromagnetic field test in Friuli: towards developing remote location of buried ferro-metallic bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Armadillo

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available High Resolution AeroMagnetic surveys (HRAM are a novel tool experimented in several countries for volcano and earthquake hazard re-assessment, ground water exploration and mitigation, hazardous waste site characterization and accurate location of buried ferrous objects (drums, UXO, pipelines. The improvements achieved by HRAM stem from lower terrain clearance coupled with accurately positioned, real-time differential navigation on closely spaced flight grids. In field cultural noise filtering, advanced data processing, imaging and improved interpretation techniques enhance data information content. Development of HRAM approaches might also contribute to mitigate environmental hazards present throughout the Italian territory. Hence an HRAM field test was performed in July 2000 in Friuli, North-Eastern Italy to assess the capabilities and limitations of HRAM over a buried pipeline and a domestic waste site. A Cesium magnetometer in towed bird configuration was used on two separate grids. Profile line spacing was 50-100 m and bird nominal ground clearance was set to 50 m. Microlevelled total field magnetic anomaly data forms the basis for subsequent advanced processing products including 3D analytic signal, maximum horizontal gradient of pseudo-gravity and 3D Euler Deconvolution. The magnetic signatures we detected and enhanced over the environmental test site area in Friuli are also compared with similar but more extensive HRAM signatures recently observed in other countries.

  19. Effects of hydrated lime and quicklime on the decay of buried human remains using pig cadavers as human body analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotsmans, Eline M J; Denton, John; Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Ivaneanu, Tatiana; Leentjes, Sarah; Janaway, Rob C; Wilson, Andrew S

    2012-04-10

    Recent casework in Belgium involving the search for human remains buried with lime, demonstrated the need for more detailed understanding of the effect of different types of lime on cadaver decomposition and its micro-environment. Six pigs (Sus scrofa) were used as body analogues in field experiments. They were buried without lime, with hydrated lime (Ca(OH)(2)) and with quicklime (CaO) in shallow graves in sandy loam soil in Belgium and recovered after 6 months of burial. Observations from these field recoveries informed additional laboratory experiments that were undertaken at the University of Bradford, UK. The combined results of these studies demonstrate that despite conflicting evidence in the literature, hydrated lime and quicklime both delay the decay of the carcass during the first 6 months. This study has implications for the investigation of clandestine burials and for a better understanding of archaeological plaster burials. Knowledge of the effects of lime on decomposition processes also has bearing on practices involving burial of animal carcasses and potentially the management of mass graves and mass disasters by humanitarian organisations and DVI teams.

  20. Using SOTEM Method to Detect BIF Bodies Buried Under Very Thick and Conductive Quaternary Sediments, Huoqiu Deposit, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiying; Xue, Guoqiang; Khan, Muhammad Younis; Li, Hai

    2017-03-01

    Huoqiu iron deposit is a typical Precambrian banded iron-formation (BIF) field which is located in the North China Craton (NCC). To detect the deep ore bodies around Dawangzhuang Village in Yingshang County, north of the Huoqiu deposit field, electromagnetic methods were tested. As the ore bodies are buried under very thick conductive Quaternary sediments, the use of EM methods is a great challenge. Short-offset transient electromagnetic method (SOTEM) was applied in the area as we wanted to test due to its detection depth and resolution. A 2D model was first built according to the geology information and magnetic measurement results. Then, 2D forward and 1D inversion were carried out using FDTD and Occam's algorithm, respectively. The synthetic modeling results helped us with the survey design and interpretation. Two 1400-m-long survey lines with offset of 500 and 1000 m were laid perpendicular to the BIF's strike, and the transmitting parameters were selected by a test measurement at the vicinity of a local village. Finally, the structure of survey area and BIF bodies were determined based on the 1D inversion results of real data, and showed a consistency with the subsequent drill results. Our application of SOTEM in detecting hidden BIF buried under very thick conductive layer has shown that the method is capable of penetrating great depth more than 1000 m even in a very conductive environment and will be an effective tool for deep resources investigation.

  1. A process for ensuring regulatory compliance at the INEL`s buried waste integrated demonstrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, P.G.; Watson, L.R.; Blacker, P.B. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab.

    1993-03-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program is funded by the Department of Energy Office of Technology Development. The mission of this Integrated Demonstration is to identify, evaluate, and demonstrate a suite of innovative technologies for the remediation of radioactive and hazardous waste buried throughout the DOE complex between 1950 and 1970. The program approach to development of a long-range strategy for improving buried waste remediation capabilities is to combine systems analysis with already identified remediation needs for DOE complex buried waste. The systems analysis effort has produced several configuration options (a top-level block diagram of a cradle-to-grave remediation system) capable of remediating the transuranic-contaminated waste pits and trenches at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Technologies for demonstration are selected using three criteria: (a) the ability to satisfy a specific buried waste need, (b) the ability to satisfy functional and operational requirements defined for functional sub-elements in a configuration option, and (c) performance against Comprehensive Environmental Restoration and Compensation Liability Act selection criteria, such as effectiveness, implementability, and cost. Early demonstrations experienced problems with missed requirements, prompting the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program Office to organize a Corrective Action Team to identify the cause and recommend corrective actions. The result of this team effort is the focus of this paper.

  2. Cannabidiol reverses the mCPP-induced increase in marble-burying behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardo, Mirella; Casarotto, Plinio C; Gomes, Felipe V; Guimarães, Francisco S

    2014-10-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD), one of the main components of Cannabis sp., presents clinical and preclinical anxiolytic properties. Recent results using the marble-burying test (MBT) suggest that CBD can also induce anticompulsive-like effects. Meta-chloro-phenyl-piperazine (mCPP) is a nonspecific serotonergic agonist (acting mainly at 5HT1A, 5HT2C and 5HT1D receptors) reported to increase symptoms in OCD patients and block the anticompulsive-like effect of serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) in animal models. The aim of this study was to investigate the interference of CBD on mCPP effects in repetitive burying. Administration of mCPP showed dual effects in the MBT, increasing the number of buried marbles at lower (0.1 mg/kg) while decreasing it at higher doses (1 mg/kg), an effect not related to a general increase in anxiety-like behavior. As found previously, CBD (30 mg/kg) and the positive control fluoxetine (FLX; 10 mg/kg) decreased burying behavior without changing general exploratory activity. A similar effect was found when subeffective doses of CBD (15 mg/kg) and FLX (3 mg/kg) were administered together. These subeffective doses alone were also able to block mCPP-induced repetitive burying. The results, in addition to reinforcing a possible anticompulsive effect of CBD, also suggest that mCPP-induced repetitive burying could be a useful test for the screening of compounds with presumed anticompulsive properties.

  3. Enforced water drinking induces changes in burying behavior and social interaction test in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldívar-González, J A; Hernández-León, M J; Mondragón-Ceballos, R

    1996-09-01

    The effect of water deprivation and water intake on experimental anxiety in rats was tested using burying behavior (BB) and social interaction (SI) anxiety paradigms. Two groups of animals were studied: a control group with free access to water, and a 72-h water-deprived experimental group. Anxiety was studied in a water-deprived group or following a 10-min period of ad lib water drinking. An increase in the mean time of defensive burying in animals deprived for 72 h was observed, whereas an important reduction occurred in the levels of burying behavior immediately after the animals were allowed to drink ad lib for 10 min. These results suggest that the observed increase in defensive burying in the water-deprived animals represents an anxiogenic effect, whereas the decrease in this behavior in water-satiated animals is considered an anxiolytic action. The temporal course of reduction in burying behavior, observed after water drinking, revealed that the anxiolytic action lasts 5 min, whereas 15-30 min after drinking, burying behavior levels were similar to those in the control group. In the social interaction experiment a partial anxiogenic/anxiolytic effect of water deprivation and water intake was observed. The adaptive meaning of anxiogenic and anxiolytic changes linked to consummatory behaviors in rats is discussed on the basis of behavioral and biochemical data.

  4. Wintertime storage of water in buried supraglacial lakes across the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Koenig

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Surface melt over the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS is increasing and estimated to account for half or more of the total mass loss. Little, however, is known about the hydrologic pathways that route surface melt within the ice sheet. In this study, we present over-winter storage of water in buried supraglacial lakes as one hydrologic pathway for surface melt, referred to as buried lakes. Airborne radar echograms are used to detect the buried lakes that are distributed extensively around the margin of the GrIS. The subsurface water can persist through multiple winters and is, on average, ~4.2 + 0.4 m below the surface. The few buried lakes that are visible at the surface of the GrIS have a~unique visible signature associated with a darker blue color where subsurface water is located. The volume of retained water in the buried lakes is likely insignificant compared to the total mass loss from the GrIS but the water will have important implications locally for the development of the englacial hydrologic network, ice temperature profiles and glacial dynamics. The buried lakes represent a small but year-round source of meltwater in the GrIS hydrologic system.

  5. Use of The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF as a conceptual framework and common language for disability statistics and health information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostanjsek Nenad

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A common framework for describing functional status information is needed in order to make this information comparable and of value. The World Health Organization’s International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF, which has been approved by all its member states, provides this common language and framework. The article provides an overview of ICF taxonomy, introduces the conceptual model which underpins ICF and elaborates on how ICF is used at population and clinical level. Furthermore, the article presents key features of the ICF tooling environment and outlines current and future developments of the classification.

  6. Geochemistry of a buried paleosol of Eemian age at Asklev, Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, S. M.; Dalsgaard, K.; Kronborg, C.

    2009-04-01

    Buried soil surfaces are rich sources of information about past fauna, vegetation development, glacier dynamics, and climate variations However, in Denmark such former surfaces are very rare, as they rarely have escaped the intensive erosion below and in front of the Scandinavian ice sheets during the previous cold stages. Here we present a well-drained paleosol found extensively in a large gravel pit in the central part of Jutland, Denmark. The paleosol is suggested denoted the "Asklev paleosol". The Asklev paleosol is a well developed Podzol in sandy till of late Saalian age - the Asklev Till. The Asklev podsol is covered by fluvial sand in which another weaker podsol is present. Thermo-luminescense dating of the sand layer revealed an age of c. 100 ka BP, i.e. that the soil surface was buried in the early Weichelian. The surface was thus stable during the entire Eemain interglacial and subject to pedogenesis for >15.000 years. Discordantly resting on the fluvial sand is about 1.5 m of sandy till with an undisturbed grey lower part and a brown cryoturbated upper part. Fabric analyses from the lower grey part of the till reveal an ice movement from the SSE. This till is deposited during MIS 4 in middle Weichselian Thin sections from the Podzol' show that the buried A-horizons micromorphology is not fully comparable to present-day Podzols in the region as it has a well developed argillic horizon below despite the parent material low in clay (< 3%). In contrast to modern Danish Podzols it also retain ample evidence of burning (charcoal) and frost features (capping). The Asklev paleosol classify as a Placic Podzol, but is a typical bi-sequum with a Bt-horizon at depth. Its content of organic C is up to 38 mg C/g soil in the A-horizon, 8.4 mg C/g soil in the Bhs-horizon, which decreases to <1 mg C/g soil in the C-horizon. Carbon-to-nitrogen ratios range from 80 in the E-horizon to 25 in the C-horizon. Concentrations of heavy metals is low with maximums of 3.7 mg Ni

  7. Soil organic matter stabilization in buried paleosols of the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaopricha, N. T.; Marin-Spiotta, E.; Mason, J. A.; Mueller, C. W.

    2010-12-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that control soil organic matter (SOM) stabilization is important for understanding how soil carbon is sequestered over millennia, and for predicting how future disturbances may affect soil carbon stocks. We are studying the mechanisms controlling SOM stabilization in the Brady Soil, a buried paleosol in Holocene loess deposits spanning much of the central Great Plains of the United States. The Brady Soil developed 9,000-13,500 years ago during a time of warming and drying that resulted in a shift from C3 to C4 dominated plants. The Brady soil is unusual in that it has very dark coloring, although it contains less than pyrolysis GC/MS to determine likely sources for the SOM: microbial vs plant. Combining information on the physical location of SOM in the soil, its chemical composition, decomposability, and radiocarbon based mean residence time estimates will allow us to determine (a) the source of the dark coloration in the Brady soil, (b) the mechanisms that have contributed to its preservation for the last 10,000 years, and (c) the likelihood this large soil C stock will be lost to the atmosphere if exposed during disturbance.

  8. Soft-x-ray fluorescence study of buried silicides in antiferromagnetically coupled Fe/Si multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlisle, J.A.; Chaiken, A.; Michel, R.P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Multilayer films made by alternate deposition of two materials play an important role in electronic and optical devices such as quantum-well lasers and x-ray mirrors. In addition, novel phenomena like giant magnetoresistance and dimensional crossover in superconductors have emerged from studies of multilayers. While sophisticated x-ray techniques are widely used to study the morphology of multilayer films, progress in studying the electronic structure has been slower. The short mean-free path of low-energy electrons severely limits the usefulness of photoemission and related electron free path of low-energy electrons severely limit spectroscopies for multilayer studies. Soft x-ray fluorescence (SXF) is a bulk-sensitive photon-in, photon-out method to study valence band electronic states. Near-edge x-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) measured with partial photon yield can give complementary bulk-sensitive information about unoccupied states. Both these methods are element-specific since the incident x-ray photons excite electrons from core levels. By combining NEXAFS and SXF measurements on buried layers in multilayers and comparing these spectra to data on appropriate reference compounds, it is possible to obtain a detailed picture of the electronic structure. Results are presented for a study of a Fe/Si multilayer system.

  9. Awareness of chronic diseases in the rapidly developing community of Chon Buri, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanvatanakul, Vasuton; Saowakontha, Sastri; Amado, João; Vicente, Corália

    2007-05-01

    This study investigated the contributing behaviors to chronic diseases in rapidly developing communities. An exploratory cross-sectional design and focus group discussions were employed for data collection from March, 2003 - April, 2005. Five representative communities located in the rapidly growing industrial region of Chon Buri, Thailand were included. Four hundred twenty-two respondents stratified into various community groups were interviewed. The interview data were analyzed and followed-up by focus group discussions in each community with representative community members. The findings indicate diabetes and hypertension were frequent complaints. Older age groups more often reported chronic disease. Most people, especially those who had no chronic diseases (66.2%), were unconcerned about eating healthy food. These people were little concerned about annual routine health checkups and self-care. Most people had hurried lifestyles with limited time, were stressed, were unconcerned about health or quality of life, and had little information regarding chronic diseases. Dietary habits, age groups, and annual routine health checkups were significantly related to self-reported chronic diseases (p=0.005, 0.002, and 0.002, respectively). Based on our findings, we recommend the government provide education regarding a healthy life style to prevent chronic diseases. Diet trends should be monitored and appropriate strategies should be developed at the community level.

  10. Buried explosive hazard detection using forward-looking long-wave infrared imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, K.; Keller, J. M.; Popescu, M.; Spain, C. J.

    2011-06-01

    Trainable size-contrast filters, similar to local dual-window RX anomaly detectors, utilizing the Bhattacharyya distance are used to detect buried explosive hazards in forward-looking long-wave infrared imagery. The imagery, captured from a moving vehicle, is geo-referenced, allowing projection of pixel coordinates into (UTM) Universal Transverse Mercator coordinates. Size-contrast filter detections for a particular frame are projected into UTM coordinates, and peaks are detected in the resulting density using the mean-shift algorithm. All peaks without a minimum number of detections in their local neighborhood are discarded. Peaks from individual frames are then combined into a single set of tentative hit locations, and the same mean-shift procedure is run on the resulting density. Peaks without a minimum number of hit locations in their local neighborhood are removed. The remaining peaks are declared as target locations. The mean-shift steps utilize both the spatial and temporal information in the imagery. Scoring is performed using ground truth locations in UTM coordinates. The size-contrast filter and mean-shift parameters are learned using a genetic algorithm which minimizes a multiobjective fitness function involving detection rate and false alarm rate. Performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated on multiple lanes from a recent collection at a US Army test site.

  11. Sibling competition does not exacerbate inbreeding depression in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilakouta, N; Sieber, D J; Smiseth, P T

    2016-04-01

    Inbreeding results from matings between relatives and can cause a reduction in offspring fitness, known as inbreeding depression. Previous work has shown that a wide range of environmental stresses, such as extreme temperatures, starvation and parasitism, can exacerbate inbreeding depression. It has recently been argued that stresses due to intraspecific competition should have a stronger effect on the severity of inbreeding depression than stresses due to harsh physical conditions. Here, we tested whether an increase in the intensity of sibling competition can exacerbate inbreeding depression in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides. We used a 2 × 3 factorial design with offspring inbreeding status (outbred or inbred) and brood size (5, 20, or 40 larvae) as the two factors. We found a main effect of inbreeding status, as inbred larvae had lower survival than outbred larvae, and a main effect of brood size, as larvae in large broods had lower survival and mass than larvae in medium-sized broods. However, there was no effect of the interaction between inbreeding status and brood size, suggesting that sibling competition did not influence the severity of inbreeding depression. Since we focused on sibling competition within homogeneous broods of either inbred or outbred larvae, we cannot rule out possible effects of sibling competition on inbreeding depression in mixed paternity broods comprising of both inbred and outbred offspring. More information on whether and when sibling competition might influence inbreeding depression can help advance our understanding of the causes underlying variation in the severity of inbreeding depression.

  12. Identification of a Buried Late Cenozoic Maar-Diatreme Structure (North Moravia, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šešulka Vojtěch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The maar-diatreme volcanic structure in the vicinity of the village of Lomnice near the town of Bruntál (North Moravia, Czech Republic has been investigated using a set of geophysical methods including ground magnetometry, gravimetry and electrical resistivity tomography. The structure was detected by an aerial magnetic survey in the second half of the 20th century. Since its discovery only limited information about this buried structure has been available. The coherence of the magnetic anomaly of 190 nT and Bouguer anomaly of -4.7 mGal indicates a volcanic origin of the structure. The funnel-shaped maar-diatreme structure is filled with lacustrine clay and colluvium of Car-boniferous greywacke, which forms the country rock. The surface diameter of the structure is about 600 m, the depth is more than 400 m. The spatial association with other volcanic centers in the surroundings of the town of Bruntál infers the relative dating of the Lomnice maar. The phreatic eruption and maar-diatreme formation could be an indirect conse-quence of effusive activity of the nearby Velký Roudný volcano. The Lomnice structure is the first Plio-Pleistocene maar-diatreme ever described in North Moravia and Silesia.

  13. Stepped-Frequency Ground-Penetrating Radar for Detection of Small Non-metallic Buried Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing; Nymann, Ole

    1997-01-01

    to an HP8753C Network Analyzer through a 5 m long Sucoflex coaxial cable. The data are collected automatically using an HPIB interface. The collected data contains both the amplitude and phase information of the reflection coefficient. Data are measured at up to a maximum of 401 different frequencies...... at each measurement point using a mesh-grid with a resolution down to 1 mm by 1 mm. The size of the scan area is 1410 mm by 210 mm. Measurements have been performed on loamy soil containing a buried M-56, a non-metallic AP-mine, and various other mine-like objects made of solid plastic, brass, aluminum......, steel, and wood. The presented results are based on probe-data measured at 100 different frequencies at each measurement point and a coarser mesh-grid of 10 mm by 10 mm, since it is found that less probe-data is needed. Our experiments show that even less amount of probe-data may be necessary....

  14. Breakthroughs in statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Norman

    This is author-approved bcc: This is the third volume of a collection of seminal papers in the statistical sciences written during the past 110 years. These papers have each had an outstanding influence on the development of statistical theory and practice over the last century. Each paper is preceded by an introduction written by an authority in the field providing background information and assessing its influence. Volume III concerntrates on articles from the 1980's while including some earlier articles not included in Volume I and II. Samuel Kotz is Professor of Statistics in the College of Business and Management at the University of Maryland. Norman L. Johnson is Professor Emeritus of Statistics at the University of North Carolina. Also available: Breakthroughs in Statistics Volume I: Foundations and Basic Theory Samuel Kotz and Norman L. Johnson, Editors 1993. 631 pp. Softcover. ISBN 0-387-94037-5 Breakthroughs in Statistics Volume II: Methodology and Distribution Samuel Kotz and Norman L. Johnson, Edi...

  15. Statistics II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Milewski, Emil G

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Statistics II discusses sampling theory, statistical inference, independent and dependent variables, correlation theory, experimental design, count data, chi-square test, and time se

  16. Introductory statistical thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Dalarsson, Nils; Golubovic, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    Introductory Statistical Thermodynamics is a text for an introductory one-semester course in statistical thermodynamics for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students in physics and engineering. The book offers a high level of detail in derivations of all equations and results. This information is necessary for students to grasp difficult concepts in physics that are needed to move on to higher level courses. The text is elementary, self contained, and mathematically well-founded, containing a number of problems with detailed solutions to help students to grasp the more difficult

  17. Statistics for business

    CERN Document Server

    Waller, Derek L

    2008-01-01

    Statistical analysis is essential to business decision-making and management, but the underlying theory of data collection, organization and analysis is one of the most challenging topics for business students and practitioners. This user-friendly text and CD-ROM package will help you to develop strong skills in presenting and interpreting statistical information in a business or management environment. Based entirely on using Microsoft Excel rather than more complicated applications, it includes a clear guide to using Excel with the key functions employed in the book, a glossary of terms and

  18. USING STATISTICAL SURVEY IN ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia TESELIOS

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Statistical survey is an effective method of statistical investigation that involves gathering quantitative data, which is often preferred in statistical reports due to the information which can be obtained regarding the entire population studied by observing a part of it. Therefore, because of the information provided, polls are used in many research areas. In economics, statistics are used in the decision making process in choosing competitive strategies in the analysis of certain economic phenomena, the formulation of forecasts. Economic study presented in this paper is to illustrate how a simple random sampling is used to analyze the existing parking spaces situation in a given locality.

  19. Impossible expectations: fMRI adaptation in the lateral occipital complex (LOC) is modulated by the statistical regularities of 3D structural information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freud, Erez; Ganel, Tzvi; Avidan, Galia

    2015-11-15

    fMRI adaptation (fMRIa), the attenuation of fMRI signal which follows repeated presentation of a stimulus, is a well-documented phenomenon. Yet, the underlying neural mechanisms supporting this effect are not fully understood. Recently, short-term perceptual expectations, induced by specific experimental settings, were shown to play an important modulating role in fMRIa. Here we examined the role of long-term expectations, based on 3D structural statistical regularities, in the modulation of fMRIa. To this end, human participants underwent fMRI scanning while performing a same-different task on pairs of possible (regular, expected) objects and spatially impossible (irregular, unexpected) objects. We hypothesized that given the spatial irregularity of impossible objects in relation to real-world visual experience, the visual system would always generate a prediction which is biased to the possible version of the objects. Consistently, fMRIa effects in the lateral occipital cortex (LOC) were found for possible, but not for impossible objects. Additionally, in alternating trials the order of stimulus presentation modulated LOC activity. That is, reduced activation was observed in trials in which the impossible version of the object served as the prime object (i.e. first object) and was followed by the possible version compared to the reverse order. These results were also supported by the behavioral advantage observed for trials that were primed by possible objects. Together, these findings strongly emphasize the importance of perceptual expectations in object representation and provide novel evidence for the role of real-world statistical regularities in eliciting fMRIa.

  20. Applied medical statistics using SAS

    CERN Document Server

    Der, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    ""Each chapter in the book is well laid out, contains examples with SAS code, and ends with a concise summary. The chapters in the book contain the right level of information to use SAS to apply different statistical methods. … a good overview of how to apply in SAS 9.3 the many possible statistical analysis methods.""-Caroline Kennedy, Takeda Development Centre Europe Ltd., Statistical Methods for Medical Research, 2015""… a well-organized and thorough exploration of broad coverage in medical statistics. The book is an excellent reference of statistical methods

  1. Mathematical statistics and stochastic processes

    CERN Document Server

    Bosq, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Generally, books on mathematical statistics are restricted to the case of independent identically distributed random variables. In this book however, both this case AND the case of dependent variables, i.e. statistics for discrete and continuous time processes, are studied. This second case is very important for today's practitioners.Mathematical Statistics and Stochastic Processes is based on decision theory and asymptotic statistics and contains up-to-date information on the relevant topics of theory of probability, estimation, confidence intervals, non-parametric statistics and rob

  2. Statistical methods in nonlinear dynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K P N Murthy; R Harish; S V M Satyanarayana

    2005-03-01

    Sensitivity to initial conditions in nonlinear dynamical systems leads to exponential divergence of trajectories that are initially arbitrarily close, and hence to unpredictability. Statistical methods have been found to be helpful in extracting useful information about such systems. In this paper, we review briefly some statistical methods employed in the study of deterministic and stochastic dynamical systems. These include power spectral analysis and aliasing, extreme value statistics and order statistics, recurrence time statistics, the characterization of intermittency in the Sinai disorder problem, random walk analysis of diffusion in the chaotic pendulum, and long-range correlations in stochastic sequences of symbols.

  3. Concurrent Phenomena at the Reaction Path of the SN2 Reaction CH3Cl + F−. Information Planes and Statistical Complexity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moyocoyani Molina-Espíritu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available An information-theoretical complexity analysis of the SN2 exchange reaction for CH3Cl + F− is performed in both position and momentum spaces by means of the following composite functionals of the one-particle density: D-L and I-J planes and Fisher-Shannon’s (FS and López-Ruiz-Mancini-Calbet (LMC shape complexities. It was found that all the chemical concepts traditionally assigned to elementary reactions such as the breaking/forming regions (B-B/F, the charge transfer/reorganization and the charge repulsion can be unraveled from the phenomenological analysis performed in this study through aspects of localizability, uniformity and disorder associated with the information-theoretical functionals. In contrast, no energy-based functionals can reveal the above mentioned chemical concepts. In addition, it is found that the TS critical point for this reaction does not show any chemical meaning (other than the barrier height as compared with the concurrent processes revealed by the information-theoretical analysis. Instead, it is apparent from this study that a maximum delocalized state could be identified in the transition region which is associated to the charge transfer process as a new concurrent phenomenon associated with the charge transfer region (CT for the ion-complex is identified. Finally it is discussed why most of the chemical features of interest (e.g., CT, B-B/F are only revealed when some information-theoretic properties are taken into account, such as localizability, uniformity and disorder.

  4. A web-based laboratory information system to improve quality of care of tuberculosis patients in Peru: functional requirements, implementation and usage statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Yale Gloria; Yagui Martin JA; Shin Sonya S; Blaya Joaquin A; Suarez Carmen Z; Asencios Luis L; Cegielski J Peter; Fraser Hamish SF

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis patients in resource-poor settings experience large delays in starting appropriate treatment and may not be monitored appropriately due to an overburdened laboratory system, delays in communication of results, and missing or error-prone laboratory data. The objective of this paper is to describe an electronic laboratory information system implemented to alleviate these problems and its expanding use by the Peruvian public sector, as well a...

  5. Energy statistics manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Detailed, complete, timely and reliable statistics are essential to monitor the energy situation at a country level as well as at an international level. Energy statistics on supply, trade, stocks, transformation and demand are indeed the basis for any sound energy policy decision. For instance, the market of oil -- which is the largest traded commodity worldwide -- needs to be closely monitored in order for all market players to know at any time what is produced, traded, stocked and consumed and by whom. In view of the role and importance of energy in world development, one would expect that basic energy information to be readily available and reliable. This is not always the case and one can even observe a decline in the quality, coverage and timeliness of energy statistics over the last few years.

  6. A feature learning approach for classifying buried threats in forward looking ground penetrating radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilo, Joseph A.; Malof, Jordan M.; Collins, Leslie M.

    2016-05-01

    The forward-looking ground penetrating radar (FLGPR) is a remote sensing modality that has recently been investigated for buried threat detection. The FLGPR considered in this work uses stepped frequency sensing followed by filtered backprojection to create images of the ground, where each image pixel corresponds to the radar energy reflected from the subsurface at that location. Typical target detection processing begins with a prescreening operation where a small subset of spatial locations are chosen to consider for further processing. Image statistics, or features, are then extracted around each selected location and used for training a machine learning classification algorithm. A variety of features have been proposed in the literature for use in classification. Thus far, however, predominantly hand-crafted or manually designed features from the computer vision literature have been employed (e.g., HOG, Gabor filtering, etc.). Recently, it has been shown that image features learned directly from data can obtain state-of-the-art performance on a variety of problems. In this work we employ a feature learning scheme using k-means and a bag-of-visual-words model to learn effective features for target and non-target discrimination in FLGPR data. Experiments are conducted using several lanes of FLGPR data and learned features are compared with several previously proposed static features. The results suggest that learned features perform comparably, or better, than existing static features. Similar to other feature learning results, the features consist of edges or texture primitives, revealing which structures in the data are most useful for discrimination.

  7. PREFACE: Exploring surfaces and buried interfaces of functional materials by advanced x-ray and neutron techniques Exploring surfaces and buried interfaces of functional materials by advanced x-ray and neutron techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Kenji

    2010-12-01

    This special issue is devoted to describing recent applications of x-ray and neutron scattering techniques to the exploration of surfaces and buried interfaces of various functional materials. Unlike many other surface-sensitive methods, these techniques do not require ultra high vacuum, and therefore, a variety of real and complicated surfaces fall within the scope of analysis. It must be particularly emphasized that the techniques are capable of seeing even buried function interfaces as well as the surface. Furthermore, the information, which ranges from the atomic to mesoscopic scale, is highly quantitative and reproducible. The non-destructive nature of the techniques is another important advantage of using x-rays and neutrons, when compared with other atomic-scale analyses. This ensures that the same specimen can be measured by other techniques. Such features are fairly attractive when exploring multilayered materials with nanostructures (dots, tubes, wires, etc), which are finding applications in electronic, magnetic, optical and other devices. The Japan Applied Physics Society has established a group to develop the research field of studying buried function interfaces with x-rays and neutrons. As the methods can be applied to almost all types of materials, from semiconductor and electronic devices to soft materials, participants have fairly different backgrounds but share a common interest in state-of-the-art x-ray and neutron techniques and sophisticated applications. A series of workshops has been organized almost every year since 2001. Some international interactions have been continued intensively, although the community is part of a Japanese society. This special issue does not report the proceedings of the recent workshop, although all the authors are in some way involved in the activities of the above society. Initially, we intended to collect quite long overview papers, including the authors' latest and most important original results, as well as

  8. Modelling the buried human body environment in upland climes using three contrasting field sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew S; Janaway, Robert C; Holland, Andrew D; Dodson, Hilary I; Baran, Eve; Pollard, A Mark; Tobin, Desmond J

    2007-06-14

    Despite an increasing literature on the decomposition of human remains, whether buried or exposed, it is important to recognise the role of specific microenvironments which can either trigger or delay the rate of decomposition. Recent casework in Northern England involving buried and partially buried human remains has demonstrated a need for a more detailed understanding of the effect of contrasting site conditions on cadaver decomposition and on the microenvironment created within the grave itself. Pigs (Sus scrofa) were used as body analogues in three inter-related taphonomy experiments to examine differential decomposition of buried human remains. They were buried at three contrasting field sites (pasture, moorland, and deciduous woodland) within a 15 km radius of the University of Bradford, West Yorkshire, UK. Changes to the buried body and the effect of these changes on hair and associated death-scene textile materials were monitored as was the microenvironment of the grave. At recovery, 6, 12 and 24 months post-burial, the extent of soft tissue decomposition was recorded and samples of fat and soil were collected for gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) analysis. The results of these studies demonstrated that (1) soil conditions at these three burial sites has a marked effect on the condition of the buried body but even within a single site variation can occur; (2) the process of soft tissue decomposition modifies the localised burial microenvironment in terms of microbiological load, pH, moisture and changes in redox status. These observations have widespread application for the investigation of clandestine burial and time since deposition, and in understanding changes within the burial microenvironment that may impact on biomaterials such as hair and other associated death scene materials.

  9. Pain: A Statistical Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Michael A.; Moseley, G. Lorimer

    2017-01-01

    Perception is seen as a process that utilises partial and noisy information to construct a coherent understanding of the world. Here we argue that the experience of pain is no different; it is based on incomplete, multimodal information, which is used to estimate potential bodily threat. We outline a Bayesian inference model, incorporating the key components of cue combination, causal inference, and temporal integration, which highlights the statistical problems in everyday perception. It is from this platform that we are able to review the pain literature, providing evidence from experimental, acute, and persistent phenomena to demonstrate the advantages of adopting a statistical account in pain. Our probabilistic conceptualisation suggests a principles-based view of pain, explaining a broad range of experimental and clinical findings and making testable predictions. PMID:28081134

  10. Statistics I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Milewski, Emil G

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Statistics I covers include frequency distributions, numerical methods of describing data, measures of variability, parameters of distributions, probability theory, and distributions.

  11. Non-Markovian properties and multiscale hidden Markovian network buried in single molecule time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Tahmina; Takagi, Hiroaki; Morimatsu, Miki; Teramoto, Hiroshi; Li, Chun-Biu; Sako, Yasushi; Komatsuzaki, Tamiki

    2013-12-01

    We present a novel scheme to extract a multiscale state space network (SSN) from single-molecule time series. The multiscale SSN is a type of hidden Markov model that takes into account both multiple states buried in the measurement and memory effects in the process of the observable whenever they exist. Most biological systems function in a nonstationary manner across multiple timescales. Combined with a recently established nonlinear time series analysis based on information theory, a simple scheme is proposed to deal with the properties of multiscale and nonstationarity for a discrete time series. We derived an explicit analytical expression of the autocorrelation function in terms of the SSN. To demonstrate the potential of our scheme, we investigated single-molecule time series of dissociation and association kinetics between epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on the plasma membrane and its adaptor protein Ash/Grb2 (Grb2) in an in vitro reconstituted system. We found that our formula successfully reproduces their autocorrelation function for a wide range of timescales (up to 3 s), and the underlying SSNs change their topographical structure as a function of the timescale; while the corresponding SSN is simple at the short timescale (0.033-0.1 s), the SSN at the longer timescales (0.1 s to ˜3 s) becomes rather complex in order to capture multiscale nonstationary kinetics emerging at longer timescales. It is also found that visiting the unbound form of the EGFR-Grb2 system approximately resets all information of history or memory of the process.

  12. On quantum statistical inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Gill, Richard D.; Jupp, Peter E.

    Recent developments in the mathematical foundations of quantum mechanics have brought the theory closer to that of classical probability and statistics. On the other hand, the unique character of quantum physics sets many of the questions addressed apart from those met classically in stochastics....... Furthermore, concurrent advances in experimental techniques and in the theory of quantum computation have led to a strong interest in questions of quantum information, in particular in the sense of the amount of information about unknown parameters in given observational data or accessible through various...

  13. On quantum statistical inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Gill, Richard D.; Jupp, Peter E.

    Recent developments in the mathematical foundations of quantum mechanics have brought the theory closer to that of classical probability and statistics. On the other hand, the unique character of quantum physics sets many of the questions addressed apart from those met classically in stochastics....... Furthermore, concurrent advances in experimental techniques and in the theory of quantum computation have led to a strong interest in questions of quantum information, in particular in the sense of the amount of information about unknown parameters in given observational data or accessible through various...

  14. A statistical approach based on substitution of macronutrients provides additional information to models analyzing single dietary factors in relation to type 2 diabetes in danish adults: the Inter99 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faerch, Kristine; Lau, Cathrine; Tetens, Inge; Pedersen, Oluf Borbye; Jørgensen, Torben; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Glümer, Charlotte

    2005-05-01

    Most studies analyzing diet-disease relations focus on single dietary factors rather than combining different nutrients into the same statistical model. The objective of this study was to identify dietary factors associated with the probability of having diabetes identified by screening (SDM) in Danish men and women aged 30-60 y. A specific objective was to examine whether an alternative statistical approach could provide additional information to already existing statistical approaches used in nutritional epidemiology. Baseline data from the Danish population-based Inter99 study were used. The dietary intake of 262 individuals with SDM was compared with that of 4627 individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) using 2 different types of multiple logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders. The first model included single dietary factors, whereas the second model was based on substitution of macronutrients. In the models with single dietary factors, high intakes of carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and coffee were inversely associated with SDM (P < 0.01), whereas high intakes of total fat and saturated fat were positively associated with SDM (P < 0.05). A modest U-shaped association was found between alcohol consumption and SDM (P = 0.10) [corrected] Results from the substitution model showed that when 3% of energy (En%) as carbohydrate replaced 3 En% fat or alcohol, the probability of having SDM decreased by 9 and 10%, respectively (P < 0.01) [corrected] No other macronutrient substitutions resulted in significant associations. Hence, the statistical approach based on substitution of macronutrients provided additional information to the model analyzing single dietary factors.

  15. A web-based laboratory information system to improve quality of care of tuberculosis patients in Peru: functional requirements, implementation and usage statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yale Gloria

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis patients in resource-poor settings experience large delays in starting appropriate treatment and may not be monitored appropriately due to an overburdened laboratory system, delays in communication of results, and missing or error-prone laboratory data. The objective of this paper is to describe an electronic laboratory information system implemented to alleviate these problems and its expanding use by the Peruvian public sector, as well as examine the broader issues of implementing such systems in resource-poor settings. Methods A web-based laboratory information system "e-Chasqui" has been designed and implemented in Peru to improve the timeliness and quality of laboratory data. It was deployed in the national TB laboratory, two regional laboratories and twelve pilot health centres. Using needs assessment and workflow analysis tools, e-Chasqui was designed to provide for improved patient care, increased quality control, and more efficient laboratory monitoring and reporting. Results Since its full implementation in March 2006, 29,944 smear microscopy, 31,797 culture and 7,675 drug susceptibility test results have been entered. Over 99% of these results have been viewed online by the health centres. High user satisfaction and heavy use have led to the expansion of e-Chasqui to additional institutions. In total, e-Chasqui will serve a network of institutions providing medical care for over 3.1 million people. The cost to maintain this system is approximately US$0.53 per sample or 1% of the National Peruvian TB program's 2006 budget. Conclusion Electronic laboratory information systems have a large potential to improve patient care and public health monitoring in resource-poor settings. Some of the challenges faced in these settings, such as lack of trained personnel, limited transportation, and large coverage areas, are obstacles that a well-designed system can overcome. e-Chasqui has the

  16. Application of information statistical theory to the description of the effect of heat conduction on the chemical reaction rate in gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fort, J. [Seccio de Fisica, Escola Politecnica Superior, Universitat de Girona, Girona (Spain); Cukrowski, A.S. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland)]|[Faculty of Mathematical and Natural Sciences, Institute of Chemisty, Pedagogical University, Kielce (Poland)

    1998-06-01

    The effect of the heat flux on the rate of chemical reaction in dilute gases is shown to be important for reactions characterized by high activation energies and in the presence of very large temperature gradients. This effect, obtained from the second-order terms in the distribution function (similar to those obtained in the Burnett approximation to the solution of the Boltzmann equation), is derived on the basis of information theory. It is shown that the analytical results describing the effect are simpler if the kinetic definition for the nonequilibrium temperature is introduced than if the thermodynamic definition is introduced. The numerical results are nearly the same for both definitions. (author) 35 refs, 2 figs

  17. Underground riparian wood: Reconstructing the processes influencing buried stem and coarse root structures of Black Poplar (Populus nigra L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, James V.; Rillig, Matthias C.; Gurnell, Angela M.

    2017-02-01

    Following analysis of morphological (including dendrochronological and sedimentological) aspects of buried stem and coarse root structures of eight mature P. nigra individuals located within two sites along the middle to lower Tagliamento River, Italy (Holloway et al., 2017), this paper introduces information on the historical processes of vegetation development and river flow and links this to the form of these eight trees. Aerial images and flow time series are assembled to reconstruct the flood history, potential recruitment periods, and vegetation cover development in the vicinity of the studied trees. This information is combined with previous morphological evidence to reconstruct the development history of each tree via three-element summary diagrams showing (i) a time series of floods, aerial imagery dates, and potential recruitment periods, with colour-coded bars indicating likely key stages in the development of the tree; (ii) colour-coded overlays on an SfM photogrammetric model of each tree; and (iii) colour-coded text boxes providing explanatory annotations. The combined morphology-process analysis reveals complex three-dimensional underground structures, incorporating buried stems, shoots, and adventitious roots that are sometimes joined by grafting, linking the standing tree with the buried gravel surface on which it was recruited. Analysis of process data provides a firm basis for identifying and dating influential flow disturbance events and recruitment windows and shows that a relatively small number of flood events have significantly impacted the studied trees, which are mainly but not exclusively the largest floods in the record. Nevertheless, we stress that all suggested dates are best estimates in the light of the combined evidence. There is undoubted potential for building different interpretations of belowground woody structure development in light of such evidence, but we feel that the form and timing of the developmental trajectories we

  18. Q Fever: Statistics and Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Statistics Reporting and In-Depth Information Other Ricketssial Zoonosis Diseases Anaplasmosis Ehrlichiosis Other Spotted Fever Rocky Mountain ... 60–64 years. Top of Page Other Ricketssial Zoonosis Diseases Anaplasmosis Ehrlichiosis Other Spotted Fever Rocky Mountain ...

  19. CLIA Statistical Tables and Graphs

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The information in the Downloads section below for the Overview of CLIA Statistics since 1993 and the CLIA Top Ten Deficiencies in the Nation was obtained from the...

  20. Analytical model of LDMOS with a single step buried oxide layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Song; Duan, Baoxing; Cao, Zhen; Guo, Haijun; Yang, Yintang

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a two-dimensional analytical model is established for the Single-Step Buried Oxide SOI structure proposed by the authors. Based on the two-dimensional Poisson equation, the analytic expression of the surface electric field and potential distributions for the device is achieved. In the SBOSOI (Single-Step Buried Oxide Silicon On Insulator) structure, the buried oxide layer thickness changes stepwise along the drift region, and the electric field in the oxide layer also varies with the different buried oxide layer thickness. These variations will modulate the surface electric field distribution through the electric field modulation effects, which makes the surface electric field distribution more uniform. As a result, the breakdown voltage of the device is improved by 60% compared with the conventional SOI structure. To verify the accuracy of the analytical model, the device simulation software ISE TCAD is utilized, the analytical values are in good agreement with the simulation results by the simulation software. The results verified the established two-dimensional analytical model for SBOSOI structure is valid, and it also illustrates the breakdown voltage enhancement by the electric field modulation effect sufficiently. The established analytical models will provide the physical and mathematical basis for further analysis of the new power devices with the patterned buried oxide layer.