WorldWideScience

Sample records for burial

  1. 78 FR 76574 - Burial Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... World War II veterans, Congress' clear motivation was to make burial benefits ``easier to administer, i... definition of ``burial.'' Under the proposed rule, the definition would be placed at the beginning of the... Deceased Veterans for Whom VA May Provide Burial Benefits Under the definition in 38 U.S.C. 101(2), a...

  2. Burial Ground Expansion Hydrogeologic Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaughan , T.F.

    1999-02-26

    Sirrine Environmental Consultants provided technical oversight of the installation of eighteen groundwater monitoring wells and six exploratory borings around the location of the Burial Ground Expansion.

  3. Overpressure by burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podladchikov, Yury; Dabrowski, Marcin

    2017-04-01

    Preservation of peak metamorphic assemblages cannot be explain by sluggish kinetics only due to high temperatures. Moreover, frequently reported near isothermal decompression from peak conditions testify continuing capacity of lower pressure metamorphic reactions to overcome kinetic barriers. Often these observations come from the same rock sample, or even or from a single host crystal. Natural conclusion on preservation of peak pressures in a 'pressure vessel' in order to preserve the peak mineral assemblages was firmly made already in the first years after convincing identifying of ultra-high pressure minerals in continental rocks. The 'pressure vessels' model is thus the current view on mechanical state during retrogression assuming up to several GPa excess pressure in inclusion maintained by host mineral all the way through retrogression. Same arguments apply to preservation of outcrop scale eclogite boudins in lower pressure amphibolite gneisses. If strength of rocks and minerals is sufficient to keep the pressure difference during retrogression, the same applies to the prograde stage of the metamorphic history of the rock. We investigate and quantify the overpressure development during burial of continental rocks. We show that eclogite lenses are expected to develop over mafic lithology embedded in average crustal rock at lower crustal condition, thus eliminating the need for 'deep continental subduction' as the only mechanism to form it.

  4. 38 CFR 3.954 - Burial allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Burial allowance. 3.954..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Protection § 3.954 Burial allowance. When any person... benefits dies, the burial allowance will be paid, if otherwise in order, even though such status does not...

  5. Carbon sequestration via wood burial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Ning

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It is estimated that a sustainable long-term carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 ± 5 GtC y-1, and currently about 65 GtC is on the world's forest floors in the form of coarse woody debris suitable for burial. The potential is largest in tropical forests (4.2 GtC y-1, followed by temperate (3.7 GtC y-1 and boreal forests (2.1 GtC y-1. Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger. There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized. Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be $14/tCO2($50/tC, lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage. The cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is low because CO2 is removed from the atmosphere by the natural process of photosynthesis at little cost. The technique is low tech, distributed, easy to monitor, safe, and reversible, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market.

  6. The Bahrain Burial Mound Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Steffen; Johansen, Kasper Lambert

    2007-01-01

    the majority of burial mounds have been removed to make way for roads and housing, and in this process about 8000 mounds have been excavated; of these only c. 265 have been published. In 2006 the Bahrain Directorate for Culture & National Heritage and Moesgaard Museum decided on a collaborative project...... process of linking relevant information to the mounds have been initiated in the course of which excavation data of individual monument is being fed into a relational database. Our preliminary study of the digital maps of the mound cemeteries has revealed an abundance of interesting patterns...... that immediately gave rise to puzzling new questions that will direct the future explorations of the project. Of particular interest is a distinctive new type of elite monuments situated to the south of the so-called Royal Mounds in the centre of the island. The newly discovered type of mounds apparently reflect...

  7. Carbon Sequestration via Wood Burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, N.

    2007-12-01

    To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which forest dead wood or old trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It was estimated that the carbon sequestration potential of forest wood harvest and burial is 10GtC y-1 with an uncertainty range of 5-15 GtC y-1. Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost was crudely estimated at $50/tC, significantly lower than the cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage, a carbon sequestration technique currently under most serious consideration. The low cost is largely because the CO2 capture is achieved at little cost by the natural process of photosynthesis. The technique is low tech, distributed, safe and can be stopped or reversed at any time. The relatively low cost may soon be competitive enough for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon trading market. In tropical regions with ongoing deforestation, wood burial instead of burning will immediately reduce that portion of the anthropogenic CO2 emission.

  8. Sediment Burial Intolerance of Marine Macroinvertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki J Hendrick

    Full Text Available The marine environment contains suspended particulate matter which originates from natural and anthropogenic sources. Settlement of this material can leave benthic organisms susceptible to smothering, especially if burial is sudden i.e. following storms or activities such as dredging. Their survival will depend on their tolerance to, and their ability to escape from burial. Here we present data from a multi-factorial experiment measuring burial responses incorporating duration, sediment fraction and depth. Six macroinvertebrates commonly found in sediment rich environments were selected for their commercial and/or conservation importance. Assessments revealed that the brittle star (Ophiura ophiura, the queen scallop (Aequipecten opercularis and the sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis were all highly intolerant to burial whilst the green urchin (Psammichinus miliaris and the anemone (Sagartiogeton laceratus, showed intermediate and low intolerance respectively, to burial. The least intolerant, with very high survival was the Ross worm (Sabellaria spinulosa. With the exception of C. intestinalis, increasing duration and depth of burial with finer sediment fractions resulted in increased mortality for all species assessed. For C. intestinalis depth of burial and sediment fraction were found to be inconsequential since there was complete mortality of all specimens buried for more than one day. When burial emergence was assessed O. ophiura emerged most frequently, followed by P. miliaris. The former emerged most frequently from the medium and fine sediments whereas P. miliaris emerged more frequently from coarse sediment. Both A. opercularis and S. laceratus showed similar emergence responses over time, with A. opercularis emerging more frequently under coarse sediments. The frequency of emergence of S. laceratus increased with progressively finer sediment and C. intestinalis did not emerge from burial irrespective of sediment fraction or depth. Finally

  9. Sediment Burial Intolerance of Marine Macroinvertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrick, Vicki J; Hutchison, Zoë L; Last, Kim S

    2016-01-01

    The marine environment contains suspended particulate matter which originates from natural and anthropogenic sources. Settlement of this material can leave benthic organisms susceptible to smothering, especially if burial is sudden i.e. following storms or activities such as dredging. Their survival will depend on their tolerance to, and their ability to escape from burial. Here we present data from a multi-factorial experiment measuring burial responses incorporating duration, sediment fraction and depth. Six macroinvertebrates commonly found in sediment rich environments were selected for their commercial and/or conservation importance. Assessments revealed that the brittle star (Ophiura ophiura), the queen scallop (Aequipecten opercularis) and the sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis) were all highly intolerant to burial whilst the green urchin (Psammichinus miliaris) and the anemone (Sagartiogeton laceratus), showed intermediate and low intolerance respectively, to burial. The least intolerant, with very high survival was the Ross worm (Sabellaria spinulosa). With the exception of C. intestinalis, increasing duration and depth of burial with finer sediment fractions resulted in increased mortality for all species assessed. For C. intestinalis depth of burial and sediment fraction were found to be inconsequential since there was complete mortality of all specimens buried for more than one day. When burial emergence was assessed O. ophiura emerged most frequently, followed by P. miliaris. The former emerged most frequently from the medium and fine sediments whereas P. miliaris emerged more frequently from coarse sediment. Both A. opercularis and S. laceratus showed similar emergence responses over time, with A. opercularis emerging more frequently under coarse sediments. The frequency of emergence of S. laceratus increased with progressively finer sediment and C. intestinalis did not emerge from burial irrespective of sediment fraction or depth. Finally, and perhaps

  10. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, G.H.

    1994-10-01

    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

  11. Cleanup Verification Package for the 618-2 Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. S. Thompson

    2006-12-28

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 618-2 Burial Ground, also referred to as Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 2; Burial Ground No. 2; 318-2; and Dry Waste Burial Site No. 2. This waste site was used primarily for the disposal of contaminated equipment, materials and laboratory waste from the 300 Area Facilities.

  12. Veterans Benefits: Burial Benefits and National Cemeteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    hospital, nursing home, or domiciliary care facility; and (2) a plot allowance for a veteran eligible for burial in a national cemetery who is not... domiciliary care . The VA was permitted to enter into contracts to provide the burial and funeral services for veterans who died in VA facilities...Veterans Affairs (VA) provides a range of benefits and services to veterans who meet certain eligibility rules; benefits include hospital and medical care

  13. Burial effects on bedload tracer transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zi; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi; Parker, Gary; Singh, Arvind; Fu, Xudong; Wang, Guangqian

    2017-04-01

    The gradual burial of tracer particles during bedload transport is a recently identified physical source of super-diffusion. It remains unclear, however how exactly this burial effect is related to the possible regimes of anomalous diffusion. In this paper we incorporate the mechanism of tracer burial into the active layer formulation for bedload transport, enabling an analytical treatment of the problem. The deduced equation governing the active layer is shown to be an advection-diffusion equation (ADE) with a sink term, and the increase of tracer concentration in the substrate layer underneath is driven by a corresponding source term which corresponds precisely to the sink term of the active layer. The solution for the variance of the tracer plume is analytically determined by calculating the relevant concentration moments based on the solved concentration distribution. It is shown that when substrate burial is accounted for, there will generally be a normal diffusion regime at very short time scales and a sub-diffusion regime at very large time scales. The appearance and characteristics of a super-diffusion regime during intermediate time scales will depend on relations among particle diffusion coefficient, burial frequency, and the virtual streamwise velocity for the tracer plume. This is in contrast to the single normal diffusion regime obtained for bedload transport when the burial process is not considered.

  14. 38 CFR 3.1610 - Burial in national cemeteries; burial of unclaimed bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Burial in national cemeteries; burial of unclaimed bodies. 3.1610 Section 3.1610 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... deceased veteran is unclaimed by relatives or friends (see § 3.1603), the Director of the regional office...

  15. The Management of Risk by Burial Societies in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It considers members\\' perceptions of the risks faced by the burial societies themselves. It explores the ways in which burial societies develop community and establish trust. It investigates the procedures that have been developed by burial societies, on the basis of the trust so established, for the management of their risks.

  16. 38 CFR 38.629 - Outer Burial Receptacle Allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Allowance. 38.629 Section 38.629 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Allowance. (a) Definitions—Outer burial receptacle. For purposes of this section, an outer burial receptacle... section provides for payment of a monetary allowance for an outer burial receptacle for any interment in a...

  17. The disappearance of European smiths' burials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ježek, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2015), s. 121-143 ISSN 0959-7743 Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M300021203 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : elite * burial * forging tools * symbolic * ritual * prehistory * Early Middle Ages * Marxism-Leninism Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  18. Cleanup Verification Package for the 618-3 Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. J. Appel

    2006-09-12

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 618-3 Solid Waste Burial Ground, also referred to as Burial Ground Number 3 and the Dry Waste Burial Ground Number 3. During its period of operation, the 618-3 site was used to dispose of uranium-contaminated construction debris from the 311 Building and construction/demolition debris from remodeling of the 313, 303-J and 303-K Buildings.

  19. Cleanup Verification Package for the 618-8 Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. J. Appel

    2006-08-10

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 618-8 Burial Ground, also referred to as the Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 8, 318-8, and the Early Solid Waste Burial Ground. During its period of operation, the 618-8 site is speculated to have been used to bury uranium-contaminated waste derived from fuel manufacturing, and construction debris from the remodeling of the 313 Building.

  20. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-1 Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. J. Farris and H. M. Sulloway

    2008-01-10

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-1 Burial Ground on the Hanford Site. This burial ground is a combination of two locations formerly called Minor Construction Burial Ground No. 2 and Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 2. This waste site received radioactive equipment and other miscellaneous waste from 105-F Reactor operations, including dummy elements and irradiated process tubing; gun barrel tips, steel sleeves, and metal chips removed from the reactor; filter boxes containing reactor graphite chips; and miscellaneous construction solid waste.

  1. Radioactive Waste Burial Grounds. Environmental Information Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaegge, W.J.; Kolb, N.L.; Looney, B.B.; Marine, I.W.; Towler, O.A.; Cook, J.R.

    1987-03-01

    This document provides environmental information on postulated closure options for the Radioactive Waste Burial Grounds at the Savannah River Plant and was developed as background technical documentation for the Department of Energy`s proposed Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on waste management activities for groundwater protection at the plant. The results of groundwater and atmospheric pathway analyses, accident analysis, and other environmental assessments discussed in this document are based upon a conservative analysis of all foreseeable scenarios as defined by the National Environmental Policy Act (CFR, 1986). The scenarios do not necessarily represent actual environmental conditions. This document is not meant to be used as a closure plan or other regulatory document to comply with required federal or state environmental regulations. The closure options considered for the Radioactive Waste Burial Grounds are waste removal and closure, no waste removal and closure, and no action. The predominant pathways for human exposure to chemical and/or radioactive constituents are through surface, subsurface, and atmospheric transport. Modeling calculations were made to determine the risks to human population via these general pathways for the three postulated closure options. An ecological assessment was conducted to predict the environmental impacts on aquatic and terrestrial biota. The relative costs for each of the closure options were estimated.

  2. Customary right to befitting burial: a jurisprudential appraisal of four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These symbols reveal unique rights for the people's entitlement. Among the rights to which an African is entitled is the right to befitting burial/funerals. This right comes with it, certain duties and/or obligations. The aim of this paper is to deconstruct the elements of applicable burial customs with a view to demonstrating their ...

  3. Urban Stream Burial Increases Watershed-Scale Nitrate Export.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake J Beaulieu

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N uptake in streams is an important ecosystem service that reduces nutrient loading to downstream ecosystems. Here we synthesize studies that investigated the effects of urban stream burial on N-uptake in two metropolitan areas and use simulation modeling to scale our measurements to the broader watershed scale. We report that nitrate travels on average 18 times farther downstream in buried than in open streams before being removed from the water column, indicating that burial substantially reduces N uptake in streams. Simulation modeling suggests that as burial expands throughout a river network, N uptake rates increase in the remaining open reaches which somewhat offsets reduced N uptake in buried reaches. This is particularly true at low levels of stream burial. At higher levels of stream burial, however, open reaches become rare and cumulative N uptake across all open reaches in the watershed rapidly declines. As a result, watershed-scale N export increases slowly at low levels of stream burial, after which increases in export become more pronounced. Stream burial in the lower, more urbanized portions of the watershed had a greater effect on N export than an equivalent amount of stream burial in the upper watershed. We suggest that stream daylighting (i.e., uncovering buried streams can increase watershed-scale N retention.

  4. Redefining kin and family social relations: burial societies and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the provision of financial relief to members' households by women-centred local institutions known as burial societies (diswaeti) in the event of death. In burial societies, mortality occupies the centre stage, not as a final defeat of human effort but as an inspiration for individual and collective ...

  5. Dialectics of Burial and Teritoriality in Barclays Ayakoroma's A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRREV LALIGENS: An International Journal of Language, Literature and Gender Studies ... Thus appropriating the literary investigative approach, which is essentially predicated on critical content analysis, the paper examines the dialectic of death, burial ... Keywords: Death, burial nationalism, territoriality, representation ...

  6. Identification and Tracing Groundwater Contamination by Livestock Burial Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, K.; Ha, K.; Park, S.; Kim, Y.; Lee, K.

    2011-12-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) or hoof-and-mouth disease is a severe plague for animal farming that affects cloven-hoofed animals such as cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. Since it is highly infectious and can be easily proliferated by infected animals, contaminated equipments, vehicles, clothing, people, and predators. It is widely known that the virus responsible for FMD is a picornavirus, the prototypic member of the genus Aphthovirus. A serious outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease, leading to the stamping out of 3.53 millions of pigs and cattle and the construction of 4,538 burial sites until 15th March, 2011. The build-up of carcass burial should inevitably produce leachate by the decomposition of buried livestock affecting the surround environment such as air, soil, groundwater, and surface water. The most important issues which are currently raised by scientists are groundwater contamination by leachate from the livestock burial sites. This study examined the current status of FMD outbreak occurred in 2010-2011 and the issues of groundwater contamination by leachate from livestock burial sites. The hydrogeochemical, geophysical, and hydrogeological studies were executed to identify and trace groundwater contamination by leachate from livestock burial sites. Generally livestock mortality leachate contains high concentrations of NH3-N, HCO3-, Cl-, SO42-, K+, Na+, P along with relative lesser amounts of iron, calcium, and magnesium. The groundwater chemical data around four burial sites showed high NH3-N, HCO3-, and K+ suggesting the leachate leakage from burial sites. This is also proved by resistivity monitoring survey and tracer tests. The simulation results of leachate dispersion showed the persistent detrimental impacts for groundwater environment for a long time (~50 years). It is need to remove the leachate of burial sites to prevent the dispersion of leachate from livestock burial to groundwater and to monitor the groundwater quality. The most important

  7. Effects of urban stream burial on nitrogen uptake and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanization has resulted in extensive burial and channelization of headwater streams, yet little is known about impacts on stream ecosystem functions critical for reducing downstream nitrogen pollution. To characterize the biogeochemical impact of stream burial, we measured NO3- uptake, using 15N-NO3- isotope tracer releases, and whole stream metabolism, during four seasons in three paired buried and open streams reaches within the Baltimore Ecosystem Study Long-term Ecological Research Network. Stream burial increased NO3- uptake lengths, by a factor of 7.5 (p metabolism were primarily explained by decreased transient storage and light availability in buried streams. We estimate that stream burial increases daily watershed nitrate export by as much as 500% due to decreased in-stream retention and may considerably decrease carbon export via decreased primary production. These results

  8. Scour and Burial Mechanics of Objects in the Nearshore

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    in local sand level may increase burial depth or expose the object. Scour and burial predictions of mines and mine-like objects were tested in... Rockport , TX), collision coast (Torrey Pines and Scripps Beach, CA), and trailing-edge coast (Duck, NC). Mines residing within the envelope of...2003. During that time, four traveling cold fronts crossed over the test site producing short period storm waves of up to 3-m local rms waveheight [60

  9. Scour and Burial of Bottom Mines: a Primer for Fleet Use

    OpenAIRE

    Inman, Douglas L.; Jenkins, Scott A.

    2002-01-01

    This primer is for fleet use as a means of rapid access to information on scour, burial, and re-exposure of bottom mines placed in nearshore waters. The format is easily adapted to a computer slide show where sequential illustrations such as progressive mine scour and burial could be in animated form. The illustrations detail mechanisms and burial rates characteristic of coastal and sediment type. The primer also addresses the ranges of uncertainty in mine burial estimates by showing burial d...

  10. Sulfate burial constraints on the Phanerozoic sulfur cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevy, Itay; Peters, Shanan E; Fischer, Woodward W

    2012-07-20

    The sulfur cycle influences the respiration of sedimentary organic matter, the oxidation state of the atmosphere and oceans, and the composition of seawater. However, the factors governing the major sulfur fluxes between seawater and sedimentary reservoirs remain incompletely understood. Using macrostratigraphic data, we quantified sulfate evaporite burial fluxes through Phanerozoic time. Approximately half of the modern riverine sulfate flux comes from weathering of recently deposited evaporites. Rates of sulfate burial are unsteady and linked to changes in the area of marine environments suitable for evaporite formation and preservation. By contrast, rates of pyrite burial and weathering are higher, less variable, and largely balanced, highlighting a greater role of the sulfur cycle in regulating atmospheric oxygen.

  11. The Semiotics of Pemature Burial: Feminism in a Postfeminist Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Hawkesworth

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I will explore how the death of feminism is represented in order to plumb the larger meanings embedded in proclamations of feminism’s symbolic death. I will begin by investigating two mechanisms by which feminism’s death has been produced to unearth the tacit values of feminism’s morticians. I will then consider competing accounts of the “signs of death” in order to explore how particular assumptions about the ontology of feminism are tied to specific forms of metaphorical death. Given the particular kind of distortion involved in the premature burial of a thriving global feminism, the final section of the article situates contemporary feminism’s death knell in the context of a gendered history of live burial practices. By excavating and interpreting such archaic practices, I will link the rhetorical burial of contemporary feminism to an ongoing effort to undermine feminist struggles for social justice.

  12. Mine impact burial prediction from one to three dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    Applied Mechanics Reviews, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 62, 010802 The article of record as published may be located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/1.3013823 The Navy’s mine impact burial prediction model creates a time history of a cylindrical or a noncylindrical mine as it falls through air, water, and sediment. The output of the model is the predicted mine trajectory in air and water columns, burial depth/orientation in sediment, as well as height, area, and volum...

  13. Large increases in carbon burial in northern lakes during the Anthropocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathcote, Adam J; Anderson, N John; Prairie, Yves T; Engstrom, Daniel R; del Giorgio, Paul A

    2015-11-26

    Northern forests are important ecosystems for carbon (C) cycling and lakes within them process and bury large amounts of organic-C. Current burial estimates are poorly constrained and may discount other shifts in organic-C burial driven by global change. Here we analyse a suite of northern lakes to determine trends in organic-C burial throughout the Anthropocene. We found burial rates increased significantly over the last century and are up to five times greater than previous estimates. Despite a correlation with temperature, warming alone did not explain the increase in burial, suggesting the importance of other drivers including atmospherically deposited reactive nitrogen. Upscaling mean lake burial rates for each time period to global northern forests yields up to 4.5 Pg C accumulated in the last 100 years--20% of the total burial over the Holocene. Our results indicate that lakes will become increasingly important for C burial under future global change scenarios.

  14. burial customs and the pollution of death in ancient rome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acta Theologica Supplementum 7. 2005 we cannot be absolutely sure, it seems as if this type of behaviour was not seen as incurring the pollution of death (Bodel 2000:134, 148). Then there were those who were denied burial, and whose corpses were left on the sessorium to the mercy of the wild animals and the weather.

  15. The materiality of Funnelbeaker burial practice : Evidence from the microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijn, van, A.L.; Marreiros J, Bicho N, Gibaja, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    Flint and amber artefacts from Dutch Funnelbeaker (3400-2900 cal BC) megaliths were examined from a biographical perspective, also involving microwear analysis. It is shown that both flint and amber contributed to the materiality of Funnelbeaker burial practices, which above all stressed the

  16. Scour around spherical bodies and self-burial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truelsen, Christoffer; Sumer, B. Mutlu; fredsøe, jørgen

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an experimental study on scour around spherical bodies and self-burial in steady current and in waves. The equilibrium scour depth below a fixed sphere in steady current for live-bed conditions was found to be S/D = O(O.3) D being the sphere diameter. The effe...

  17. Scale and distribution of marine carbonate burial dissolution pores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjiang Shen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It is gradually accepted that porosity can be created in burial settings via dissolution by organic acid; TSR derived or hydrothermal fluids. The role of deep-buried carbonate reservoirs is becoming more and more important since the degree and difficulty in petroleum exploration of shallow strata are increasing. A profound understanding of the development scale and prediction of the deep-buried carbonate reservoirs is economically crucial. In addition to the formation mechanism, scale and distribution of burial dissolution pores in burial settings are focused on in recent studies. This paper is based on case studies of deep-buried (>4500 m carbonate reservoirs from the Tarim Basin and Sichuan Basin. Case studies mentioned includes dissolution simulation experiments proposes that an open system is of crucial importance in the development of large-scale burial dissolution pores, the distribution pattern of which is controlled by lithology, pre-existing porosity, and pore throat structures. These findings provided the basis for evaluation and prediction of deep-buried carbonate reservoirs.

  18. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-6 Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. M. Sulloway

    2008-10-02

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-6 Burial Ground located in the 100-FR-2 Operable Unit of the 100-F Area on the Hanford Site. The trenches received waste from the 100-F Experimental Animal Farm, including animal manure, animal carcasses, laboratory waste, plastic, cardboard, metal, and concrete debris as well as a railroad tank car.

  19. Extending recognition of indigenous burial practices in Selomo v ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Burying deceased family members in familial gravesites close to the homestead of the living has been a well-established practice in Southern Africa for many centuries. In terms of indigenous cultural and religious norms proximate burials are essential for enabling ancestors to commune amongst themselves and with their ...

  20. Chemical and Mechanical processes during burial diagenesis of chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borre, Mai Kirstine; Lind, Ida

    1998-01-01

    Burial diagenesis of chalk is a combination of mechanical compaction and chemical recrystallization as well as cementation. We have predicted the characteristic trends in specific surface resulting from these processes. The specific surface is normally measured by nitrogen adsorption but is here...

  1. Sarmatian Burials Near the Astanino Village in the Eastern Crimea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kropotov Viktor Valeryevich

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article contains the materials of two Sarmatian burials that had been studied in 1966-1967 years by the Kerch expedition of Institute of Archeology of Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (the chief of expedition – A.M. Leskov in the Astanino village in the Eastern Crimea. These burials had been made on small depth in embankments of barrows of the bronze epoch, therefore it is not possible to track contours of funeral constructions. The dead were laid on their backs, heads turned to the North and the North-West. The utensils buried in the same tombs included two ceramic gray-clay pelikes, two gray-clay bowls, a red-gloss vessel, a red-clay pottery, a set of glass and cornelian beads, and the Egyptian faience beads. These things allow to exactly date the investigated complexes within the second half of the 1st century BC – the beginnings of the 1st century AD. The main distinctive characteristics of Early-Sarmatian burials of Northern Pontic region consist in the use of already existing barrows for burial places, orientations of the dead in the Northern sector, the insignificant depth of burials. Therefore published monuments should be also referred to them. A small number of such complexes with their distribution on the quite big territory between the Don and Dnepr rivers testify to the low density of the nomadic population at that time. The antique sources of the end of the 2nd – 1st centuries BC mention the presence of Roxolani in the given region. The described complexes supplement our poor knowledge of Sarmatian antiquities of the Eastern Crimea and specify the direct contacts of nomads of Northern Pontic region to the antique centers, in immediate proximity from which they had been located.

  2. 77 FR 35114 - Agency Information Collection (NCA PreNeed Burial Planning) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (NCA PreNeed Burial Planning) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY... INFORMATION: Title: NCA PreNeed Burial Planning, VA Form 40-10007. OMB Control Number: 2900--New. Type of..., service members, and their eligible family members with planning for burial in a VA national cemetery...

  3. Funeral dress and textiles in 17th and 19th century burials in Ostrobothnia, Finland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lipkin, S.; Vajanto, K.; Kallio-Seppä, T.; Kuokkanen, T.; Niinimäki, S.; Väre, T.; van Bommel, M.; Grömer, K.; Pritchard, F.

    2015-01-01

    The 17th-19th-century burial materials from northern Ostrobothnia are studied in order to consider the value, origin and meaning of textiles especially in child burials. The focus is on the preservation, quality and dyes of burial textiles unearthed at the yard of Oulu Cathedral as well as the

  4. Late Sarmatian Elite Military Burial From the Southern Urals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krivosheev Mikhail Vasilyevich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the burial of a warrior of Late Sarmatian time from the Southern Urals. The complex from mound no. 4 of the burial mound Taksai I is distinguished by large size of barrow and grave. The reconstructed height of the mound was less than 2 meters. The depth of the burial pit was more than 3 meters. For Late Sarmatian culture such dimensions of sepulchral structures are unique. Under the mound the ritual platform from mainland soil was discovered. The found inventory of a warrior-rider included: horse bridle, a set of bladed weapons consisting of a long sword, dagger and knife, as well as a small bronze cauldron. Analysis of inventory allows us to date this burial to the second half of the 3rd century A.D. This burial belongs to an elite funerary complexes of Late Sarmatian culture and is a burial of professional warriors. This social stratum was formed in Late Sarmatian society at the end of the 2nd - first half of the 3rd century A.D. Most of these graves are dating back to the first half of the 3rd century A.D and were found in the Low Don and in the Volga region. The situation in these regions changed in that period due to the invasion of the tribes of the North-Caucasian origin. Their occurrence is associated with the destruction of the Tanais in the Lower Don region and the spread of graves in the T-shaped catacombs in the steppe monuments. The tradition of burying warriors-horsemen of high social status almost disappears in the Volga-Don steppes after the middle of 3rd century A.D. In the Southern Urals where these processes had an indirect influence, the existence of traditional hierarchies of Late Sarmatian society could continue until the end of the 3rd century A.D. Among the parts of a horse bridle the researchers discovered bronze B-shape buckle. These buckles are widely distributed in the 4th-5th centuries A.D. in the basin of the Kama river and the Danube river. The found buckle is the earliest currently known

  5. Revisiting Field Burial by Accretion onto Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Dipanjan

    2017-09-01

    The surface magnetic field strength of millisecond pulsars (MSPs) is found to be about 4 orders of magnitude lower than that of garden variety radio pulsars (with a spin of {˜ }0.5-5 s and B{˜ }10^{12} G). The exact mechanism of the apparent reduction of field strength in MSPs is still a subject of debate. One of the proposed mechanisms is burial of the surface magnetic field under matter accreted from a companion. In this article we review the recent work on magnetic confinement of accreted matter on neutron stars poles. We present the solutions of the magneto-static equations with a more accurate equation of state of the magnetically confined plasma and discuss its implications for the field burial mechanism.

  6. The impact of sediment burial and erosion on seagrasses: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabaço, Susana; Santos, Rui; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2008-09-01

    The available information from experimental and descriptive studies on the effects of sediment burial and erosion on seagrasses was compiled to synthesize the information regarding the species-specific impacts and to relate them to plant characteristics. Burial thresholds (i.e. the burial levels causing 50% and 100% shoot mortality) and mortality-burial curves were estimated for the 15 seagrass species where the effects of experimental burial have been tested. All the species investigated reached 50% shoot mortality at burial levels ranging from 2 cm ( Halophila ovalis) to 19.5 cm ( Posidonia australis). P. australis was the most tolerant seagrass species to burial, while Thalassia testudinum was the most tolerant species to erosion. The relationships among plant size, growth, biomass and density with burial thresholds were examined. There were significant relationships between the burial thresholds and the shoot mass, the rhizome diameter, the aboveground biomass, the horizontal rhizome elongation and the leaf length of seagrass species. The leaf size and the rhizome diameter are the best predictors of the capacity of seagrasses to withstand burial. The burial thresholds estimated for seagrass species were in many cases in agreement with the burial impacts described by field observations (bioturbation), while in some cases was related to the species long-term colonization capacity (dune migration). Most human-induced impacts result in important changes of the sedimentary environment, with permanent negative effects on seagrass meadows (regression and complete destruction), whereas natural events, whether extreme (hurricane) or regular (dune migration), allow the recovery and/or adaptation of seagrasses to the burial/erosion sediment dynamics. The extent of the effects of burial and erosion on seagrasses is species-specific and strongly size-dependent.

  7. Implications of burial alterations on luminescence dating of archaeological ceramics

    OpenAIRE

    Zacharias, N.; Buxeda i Garrigós, Jaume; ;H. Mommsen; Schwedt, A.; Kilikoglou, V.

    2005-01-01

    Recent mineralogical studies on archaeological pottery samples report significant variations in alkali metal concentrations due to environmental alterations during burial. Here we examine the effects of potassium (K) leaching on luminescence dating. The effect on the estimation of the dose rate is studied by considering four models of leaching (exponential, linear, early and late) and their impact on fine- and coarse-grain dating are calculated. The modeling approaches are applied to two case...

  8. Interrelationship of age and diet in Romania's oldest human burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsall, Clive; Boroneanţ, Adina; Soficaru, Andrei; McSweeney, Kathleen; Higham, Tom; Miriţoiu, Nicolae; Pickard, Catriona; Cook, Gordon

    2012-04-01

    In 1968, excavations in the Climente II cave in the Iron Gates gorge of the River Danube in southwest Romania unearthed the skeleton of an adult male. The burial was assumed to be of Late Pleistocene age because of the presence of Late Upper Palaeolithic (LUP) artefacts in the cave. However, there was no strong supporting stratigraphic evidence, and the body position is reminiscent of Early Neolithic burial practice in the region. Here, we report the results of radiocarbon and stable isotope analyses of the Climente II skeleton, which show that the skeleton dates to the Bølling-Allerød Interstadial ~14,500 cal BP. This is several millennia older than any previously dated human remains from the Iron Gates region and confirms its status as the oldest known burial from Romania. The stable isotope results indicate a diet with an emphasis on aquatic resources, contrary to the commonly held view that the LUP inhabitants of the Iron Gates subsisted mainly by hunting large land mammals.

  9. Ground resistance influences lizard burial in dry and wet sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Sarah; Kuckuk, Robyn; Goldman, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    Many terrestrial animals move within soil in which water content can vary, and little is known about how water content affects locomotor performance. To investigate the effect of water content on burial, we created controlled dry and wet substrates. We used 0.3 mm glass particles and varied water content W, the mass of water to mass of dry loosely packed sand. Drag force on a submerged 1.6 cm diameter rod increased by a factor of 4 as W increased from 0 to 0.03, after which force increases were small. Drag force in wet media periodically fluctuated with time and corresponded with surface fracturing. We characterized how W affected burial performance and strategy of a generalist burrower, the ocellated skink lizard (Chalcides ocellatus). High speed x-ray imaging was used to measure head, body and limb kinematics in substrates with W= 0 and W= 0.03. In both states during burial the body was maintained in a curved posture and the animal moved using a start-stop motion. During movement, the head oscillated and the forelimb on the convex side of the body was used to push the animal forward. Both speed and angular excursion of the head oscillation decreased in the W= 0.03 state. The differences in locomotion were attributed to the changing resistance force within the media.

  10. Burial Duration and Frequency Influences Resilience of Differing Propagule Types in a Subtidal Seagrass, Posidonia australis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marnie L Campbell

    Full Text Available Sedimentation that leads to periodic, and often prolonged, burial events is becoming more common on the world's coastlines as human populations expand and create urbanised marine environments. Different seagrass species react differently to sediment burial but many species in the southern hemisphere are yet to be examined. How seagrasses react to burial has restoration implications. There is a need to critically assess seagrass transplant propagule responses to periodic (pulse and prolonged (press burial events before selecting the most appropriate species, transplant propagule, and transplant site. In my study, mesocosm experiments, coupled with field measurements were used to assess how sexual (seedlings and vegetative (sprigs propagules of Posidonia australis responded to pulse and press burial events. Seedlings were highly susceptible to burial (both pulse and press, with no survival at the end of the experimental period. In contrast, rhizome growth in vegetative propagules was stimulated by pulse burial, although press burial events resulted in mortality. The implication for Posidonia australis restoration efforts in areas where burial is periodic, was that vegetative propagules are optimal transplant units, in comparison to seedlings. Press burial however, renders a transplant site sub-optimal for both seedling and sprig transplants.

  11. Burial Duration and Frequency Influences Resilience of Differing Propagule Types in a Subtidal Seagrass, Posidonia australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Marnie L

    2016-01-01

    Sedimentation that leads to periodic, and often prolonged, burial events is becoming more common on the world's coastlines as human populations expand and create urbanised marine environments. Different seagrass species react differently to sediment burial but many species in the southern hemisphere are yet to be examined. How seagrasses react to burial has restoration implications. There is a need to critically assess seagrass transplant propagule responses to periodic (pulse) and prolonged (press) burial events before selecting the most appropriate species, transplant propagule, and transplant site. In my study, mesocosm experiments, coupled with field measurements were used to assess how sexual (seedlings) and vegetative (sprigs) propagules of Posidonia australis responded to pulse and press burial events. Seedlings were highly susceptible to burial (both pulse and press), with no survival at the end of the experimental period. In contrast, rhizome growth in vegetative propagules was stimulated by pulse burial, although press burial events resulted in mortality. The implication for Posidonia australis restoration efforts in areas where burial is periodic, was that vegetative propagules are optimal transplant units, in comparison to seedlings. Press burial however, renders a transplant site sub-optimal for both seedling and sprig transplants.

  12. GPR and bulk ground resistivity surveys in graveyards: locating unmarked burials in contrasting soil types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James D; Pringle, Jamie K; Goodwin, Jon

    2014-04-01

    With graveyards and cemeteries globally being increasingly designated as full, there is a growing need to identify unmarked burial positions to find burial space or exhume and re-inter if necessary. In some countries, for example the U.S. and U.K., burial sites are not usually re-used; however, most graveyard and cemetery records do not have maps of positions. One non-invasive detection method is near-surface geophysics, but there has been a lack of research to-date on optimal methods and/or equipment configuration. This paper presents three case studies in contrasting burial environments, soil types, burial styles and ages in the U.K. Geophysical survey results reveal unmarked burials could be effectively identified from these case studies that were not uniform or predicted using 225 MHz frequency antennae GPR 2D 0.5 m spaced profiles. Bulk ground electrical surveys, rarely used for unmarked burials, revealed 1 m probe spacings were optimal compared to 0.5 m, with datasets needing 3D detrending to reveal burial positions. Results were variable depending upon soil type; in very coarse soils GPR was optimal; whereas resistivity was optimal in clay-rich soils and both were optimal in sandy and black earth soils. Archaeological excavations revealed unmarked burials, extra/missing individuals from parish records and a variety of burial styles from isolated, brick-lined, to vertically stacked individuals. Study results, evidence unmarked burial targets were significantly different from clandestine burials of murder victims which are used as analogues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Closure Plan for Active Low Level Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    2000-11-16

    This plan has been prepared in response to direction from the U.S. Department of Energy. The purpose of the plan is to define approaches that will be implemented to ensure protection of the public and the environment when active Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBGs) at the Hanford Site are closed. Performance assessments for active burial grounds in the 200 East and West 200 Areas provide current estimates of potential environmental contamination and doses to the ''maximum exposed individual'' from burial ground operation and closure and compare dose estimates to performance objective dose limits for the facilities. This is an Operational Closure Plan. The intent of the guidance in DOE Order 435.1 is that this plan will be a living document, like the facility performance assessments, and will be revised periodically through the operational life of the LLBGs to reflect updated information on waste inventory. management practices, facility transition planning, schedule dates, assessments of post-closure performance, and environmental consequences. Out year dates identified in this plan are tentative. A Final Closure Plan will be prepared in the future when the timing and extent of closure-related activities for LLBGs can be established with greater certainty. After current operations at the LLBGs are concluded, this plan proposes transitioning of these facilities to the Environmental Restoration Program. This action will enable the Environmental Restoration Program to design and implement consistent and coordinated final remedial actions for active and inactive LLBGs. Active and inactive burial grounds in the 200 West and 200 East Areas are commingled. This plan describes approaches that will be implemented during Interim Closure, Final Closure, and Institutional Control Periods to prepare LLBGs for surface barriers, and the construction of barriers, as well as the scope of inspection, monitoring and maintenance practices that will be performed during

  14. Exploring sustainable burial practices in South Africa: Potential challenges and opportunities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Leuta, T

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available be borne in mind that these figures were calculated based on the number of reported burials, but that the significant shortfall between this and assumed deaths implies that there may be as many unaccounted for burials as there are burials being reported... spaces in the metropolitan areas of eThekwini and the City of Cape Town (CSIR, 2010) it was highlighted that if the death rate is higher or fewer people are cremated, demand for land required for burial will increase. Current trends are that e...

  15. Preliminary soilwater conductivity analysis to date clandestine burials of homicide victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Jamie K; Cassella, John P; Jervis, John R

    2010-05-20

    This study reports on a new geoscientific method to estimate the post-burial interval (PBI) and potential post-mortem interval (PMI) date of homicide victims in clandestine graves by measuring decomposition fluid conductivities. Establishing PBI/PMI dates may be critical for forensic investigators to establish time-lines to link or indeed rule out suspects to a crime. Regular in situ soilwater analysis from a simulated clandestine grave (which contained a domestic buried pig carcass) in a semi-rural environment had significantly elevated conductivity measurements when compared to background values. A temporal rapid increase of the conductivity of burial fluids was observed until one-year post-burial, after this values slowly increased until two years (end of the current study period). Conversion of x-axis from post-burial days to 'accumulated degree days' (ADDs) corrected for both local temperature variations and associated depth of burial and resulted in an improved fit for multiple linear regression analyses. ADD correction also allowed comparison with a previous conductivity grave study on a different site with a different soil type and environment; this showed comparable results with a similar trend observed. A separate simulated discovered burial had a conductivity estimated PBI date that showed 12% error from its actual burial date. Research is also applicable in examining illegal animal burials; time of burial and waste deposition. Further research is required to extend the monitoring period, to use human cadavers and to repeat this with other soil types and depositional environments.

  16. The Application of GPR in Florida for Detecting Forensic Burials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. K. Koppenjan; J. J. Schultz; S. Ono; H. Lee

    2003-01-01

    A study was performed at the University of Florida to measure ground penetrating radar(GPR) performance for detecting forensic burials. In controlled scenarios, 24 burials were constructed with pig cadavers. Two soils were utilized to represent two of the most common soil orders in Florida: an Entisol and an Ultisol. Graves were monitored on a monthly basis for time periods up to 21 months with grid data acquired with pulsed and swept-frequency GPR systems incorporating several different frequency antennas. A small subset of the graves was excavated to assess decomposition and relate to the GPR images during the test. The grave anomalies in the GPR depth profiles became less distinctive over time due to body decomposition and settling of the disturbed soil (backfill) as it compacted. Soil type was a major factor. Grave anomalies became more difficult to recognize over time for deep targets that were within clay. Forensic targets that were in sandy soil were recognized for the duration of this study. Time elapsed imagery will be presented to elucidate the changes, or lack thereof, of grave anomalies over the duration of this study. Further analysis was performed using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) reconstruction of images in 2-D and 3-D.

  17. Ancient Item Spoilage Ritual Used in Nomadic Burial Rite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beisenov Arman Z.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the findings of items in ancient burials which were intentionally spoiled prior to deposition in graves. This tradition was widely spread both in terms of chronology and geography, and therefore cannot be attributed to any individual cultures or regions. The authors present new information on the ritual obtained during an investigation of Borsyk burial mound of the Middle Sarmatian period located in West Kazakhstan. The central grave of barrow 6 contained a heavily damaged bronze cauldron. The grave was looted in antiquity. Individual scattered bones of a human skeleton and minor gold foil adornments from the ceremonial dress of a nobleman were discovered in the grave. The authors suggest that the cauldron was intentionally deformed by the participants of an ancient mortuary and memorial ritual. According to the principal hypothesis concerning the essence of this ritual, spoilage of the items was related to the idea of assign the items with “different” and “transcendent” properties, which resulted from the necessity of burying the owner. Cauldrons played an important role in the life of steppe leaders. The authors assume a sacral nature of the use of cauldrons in the culture of steppe peoples associated with feasts, battles, and sacred hunting. Perhaps, there was a tradition of burying cauldrons together with their owners after spoiling the items in view of the concept of the other world and the role of a heroic leader therein.

  18. Burial increases seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae) subspecies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayratne, Upekala C.; Pyke, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Premise of the study: Seed longevity and persistence in soil seed banks may be especially important for population persistence in ecosystems where opportunities for seedling establishment and disturbance are unpredictable. The fire regime, an important driver of population dynamics in sagebrush steppe ecosystems, has been altered by exotic annual grass invasion. Soil seed banks may play an active role in postfire recovery of the foundation shrub Artemisia tridentata, yet conditions under which seeds persist are largely unknown. Methods: We investigated seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata subspecies in situ by retrieving seed bags that were placed at varying depths over a 2 yr period. We also sampled naturally dispersed seeds in litter and soil immediately after seed dispersal and before flowering in subsequent seasons to estimate seed persistence. Key results: After 24 mo, seeds buried at least 3 cm below the soil surface retained 30–40% viability whereas viability of seeds on the surface and under litter declined to 0 and Artemisia tridentata has the potential to form a short-term soil seed bank that persists longer than has been commonly assumed, and that burial is necessary for seed longevity. Use of seeding techniques that promote burial of some seeds to aid in formation of a soil seed bank may increase restoration potential.

  19. Ecology and evolution of the diaspore "burial syndrome".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Aelys M; Antonelli, Alexandre; Pirie, Michael D; Linder, H Peter

    2011-04-01

    Hygroscopically active awns or "bristles" have long intrigued scientists. Experimental evidence shows that they are important for diaspore burial in the correct orientation, thereby increasing successful seed germination and seedling survival. Despite these ecological advantages, 38 of the 280 species of grasses in Danthonioideae lack awns. We provide the first study of awns in a phylogenetic context and show that although the awnless state has arisen ca. 25 times independently, the ecological disadvantage of not having an awn also applies in an evolutionary context. Only in Tribolium and Schismus have awnless ancestors diversified to form a clade of primarily awnless descendents. Several of the awnless species in these genera are annual and we find a significant correlation between the evolution of awns and the evolution of life history. A suite of other diaspore traits accompany the awned or awnless states. We interpret the awn as being the visible constituent of a compound "burial syndrome," the two ecological extremes of which may explain the correlation between awns and life history and provide an explanation why awnless species in Tribolium and Schismus persist. © 2010 The Author(s). Evolution© 2010 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. Effects of sediment burial on tropical ruderal seagrasses are moderated by clonal integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Jillian Lean Sim; Kendrick, Gary A.; Van Niel, Kimberly P.

    2011-12-01

    Seagrasses are clonal plants that grow submerged in dynamic sedimentary environments where burial is a common occurrence. Clonal organisms may respond to burial in very different ways depending on how strongly integrated they are through horizontal rhizomes, but the effect of clonal integration under conditions of stress such as burial is poorly studied for seagrasses. We test the effect of burial on tropical seagrasses that occur in multispecific meadows by subjecting plants in mixed stands to burial of 0, 2, 4, 8 and 16 cm for 27 days. Treatments were divided into those where rhizomes were severed and those where rhizomes were left intact. We hypothesize that species withstand burial better if clonal integration is maintained (intact rhizomes). Results showed that all species tolerated burial of up to 4 cm without adverse effects but significant reductions in shoot density and biomass become evident at 8 cm of burial. Furthermore, Cymodocea serrulata and Syringodium isoetifolium were strong integrators, i.e. they provide support for buried shoots, whereas Halophila ovalis and Halodule uninervis were weak integrators that did not show evidence of subsidizing buried shoots. Vertical elongation was observed for C. serrulata and H. uninervis as a response to burial only when rhizomes were severed, leading us to speculate on whether species rely on vertical elongation as an escape strategy only in the absence of resource translocation. Our distinction between the responses of treatments with intact rhizomes from those with severed rhizomes may be extended to an interpretation of burial scale (intact rhizomes=broad spatial-scale burial; severed rhizomes=fine spatial-scale burial). We concluded that broad spatial-scale burial exceeding 4 cm leads to rapid loss or reduction of all species. However, fine spatial-scale burial exceeding 4 cm, such as those caused by shrimp mounds (bioturbation), is expected to favor C. serrulata and S. isoetifolium, while H. ovalis and H

  1. 32 CFR 553.17 - Persons ineligible for burial in an Army national cemetery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... separation from one of the Armed Forces was under other-than-honorable conditions is not eligible for burial... died in such a hospital. (c) A person who has volunteered for service with the Armed Forces but has not... for burial in Arlington National Cemetery unless the Service-connected family member has been or will...

  2. About One of Burials of Novotitorovka Culture From the Territory of Kuban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya A. Balabanova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the burial complex and the skull of the Novotitorovka culture from burial no. 35 of the Ovalny burial mound, Kalininsky district of the Krasnodar region. The burial itself was non-inventory, but it was synchronous with burial no. 26. Both burials were excavated from the level of the ancient surface and covered by the same barrow. The bones from the studied burial belonged to a young man, who died at the age of 20-25. His craniological type is characterized by meso-dolichocrania, ellipsoidal vertical norm, the average width of forehead, wide and low face, orthognathy-like in a vertical plane and slightly profiled at the level of low eye sockets. The face is also characterized by narrow and sharply protruding nasal bones. The article also deals with the possible relationship between the tribes of the Novotitorovka culture and the Azov-Black Sea sites of Catacomb culture. This conclusion is based on the results of intergroup comparison by the method of canonical analysis. The studied skull of the Novotitorovka culture has a morphological complex that characterizes the groups of burials of the Catacomb culture localized on the terraces of the Ingul river and on the terraces of the Don river left bank. This conclusion calls into question the archaeologists’ hypothesis on the connection of the the Novotitorovka culture with the tribes of the Novosvobodnenskaya culture and the Maykop culture.

  3. Introduction: Life Space and Burial Space in the Post-Apartheid City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Landscapes of the dead are always, simultaneously, landscapes of the living. It is this coterminousness of life and death that gives the burial site its salience and emotional power. Different societies, at different times, renegotiate the relationship between what anthropologists call 'life space\\' and 'burial space\\', depending on ...

  4. Determination of burial dose in incompletely bleached fluvial samples using single grains of quartz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov; Murray, A.S.; Bøtter-Jensen, Lars

    2007-01-01

    We determine the burial dose in three known-age incompletely bleached fluvial samples using single grains of quartz. Estimation of burial dose in incompletely bleached samples requires that the characteristics of the well-bleached part of the distribution are known in order to distinguish between...

  5. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-C-1, 105-C Solid Waste Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. J. Appel and J. M. Capron

    2007-07-25

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-C-1, 105-C Solid Waste Burial Ground. This waste site was the primary burial ground for general wastes from the operation of the 105-C Reactor and received process tubes, aluminum fuel spacers, control rods, reactor hardware, spent nuclear fuel and soft wastes.

  6. Intraspecific variation of a desert shrub species in phenotypic plasticity in response to sand burial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, L.; Huber, H.; During, H.J.; Dong, M.; Anten, N.P.R.

    2013-01-01

    Shoot elongation is one of the main plastic responses of plants to burial, a ubiquitous stress factor in dry ecosystems. Yet, intraspecific variation in this response to burial and the extent to which this variation is functionally coordinated with variation in other trait responses are largely

  7. Necropolis on Bor lake: New reports on Bronze age burial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapuran Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the social and anthropological aspects of burial rituals during the Middle Bronze Age in Timočka Krajina. Decades of systematic research of necropolises and reconnaissance in the basin of the Crni Timok proved an increase in number of sites around ore - rich areas of the east Kučaj mountains as well as around Romuliana site and the fertile valleys of Džanovo polje (Map. 1. The quantitative increase in settlements was reflected by the emergence of large necropolises, only three of which have been systematically explored; those in Trnjani, Magura and Bor Lake (Fig. 1; Plan 1. Analysis of geographical features of many settlements and their position in relation to natural resources helped define two communities, one of which carried out mining and metallurgical activities, while the other group engaged in the production of food. Both groups lived in the immediate vicinity and mutual dependence, functioning within a developed market for copper production. During the exploration of the necropolis near Bor Lake in 1997, the remains of burnt skeletons were collected from burial structures 2/97 and 13/97 (Fig. 2; Plans 2 and 3. Anthropological analysis of the cremated remains of the deceased showed that high temperatures were used during the cremation process, which we assume could have only been achieved in metallurgical furnaces. This is confirmed by the fact that the skeletal fragments contain traces of melted metal, as well as finds of bronze slag inside urns and grave structures in the necropolis in Trnjani (Figs. 3 and 4; Tables 1-4. Burial ritual of this kind was not proved by systematic archaeological research of necropolises in the basin of Crni Timok, although anthropological data collected from necropolises linked to metallurgical settlements may indicate some guidelines in the ritual cremation of prominent members of these communities. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177020: Arheologija Srbije

  8. Evidence supporting an intentional Neandertal burial at La Chapelle-aux-Saints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendu, William; Beauval, Cédric; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Bayle, Priscilla; Balzeau, Antoine; Bismuth, Thierry; Bourguignon, Laurence; Delfour, Géraldine; Faivre, Jean-Philippe; Lacrampe-Cuyaubère, François; Tavormina, Carlotta; Todisco, Dominique; Turq, Alain; Maureille, Bruno

    2014-01-07

    The bouffia Bonneval at La Chapelle-aux-Saints is well known for the discovery of the first secure Neandertal burial in the early 20th century. However, the intentionality of the burial remains an issue of some debate. Here, we present the results of a 12-y fieldwork project, along with a taphonomic analysis of the human remains, designed to assess the funerary context of the La Chapelle-aux-Saints Neandertal. We have established the anthropogenic nature of the burial pit and underlined the taphonomic evidence of a rapid burial of the body. These multiple lines of evidence support the hypothesis of an intentional burial. Finally, the discovery of skeletal elements belonging to the original La Chapelle aux Saints 1 individual, two additional young individuals, and a second adult in the bouffia Bonneval highlights a more complex site-formation history than previously proposed.

  9. Effects of urban stream burial on nitrogen uptake and ecosystem metabolism: implications for watershed nitrogen and carbon fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanization has resulted in extensive burial and channelization of headwater streams, yet little is known about impacts on stream ecosystem functions critical for reducing downstream nitrogen pollution. To characterize the biogeochemical impact of stream burial, we measured NO3...

  10. Investigation and simulation on fate and transport of leachate from a livestock mortality burial site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, J.-W.; Lee, S.; Kaown, D.; Lee, K.-K.

    2012-04-01

    Leachate released from livestock mortality burial during decomposition of carcasses can be a threat to groundwater quality. Monitoring study of groundwater quality in the vicinity of livestock burial reported that a caution is needed to prevent contamination of both groundwater and soil, especially in case of mortality burial (Glanville, 2000; Ritter and Chirnside, 1995). The average concentration of ammonium-N and chloride is reported to be 12,600 mg/l and 2,600 mg/l respectively, which is 2-4 times higher than leachate from earthen manure storages and landfills (Pratt, 2009). To assess the potential threat of burial leachate to groundwater quality, simulation of leachate transport is performed based on a hydrogeologic model of an actual mortality burial site. At the burial site of this study located at a hill slope, two mortality pits have been constructed along the slope to bury swine during the outbreak of nationwide foot and mouth disease(FMD) in 2011. Though the pits were partially lined with impermeable material, potential threat of leachate leakage is still in concern. Electrical resistivity survey has been performed several times at the burial site and abnormal resistivity zones have been detected which are supposed as leachate leakage from the burial. Subsurface model including unsaturated zone is built since the leakage is supposed to occur mainly in lateral of the burial pits which is in unsaturated zone. When examining leachate transport, main focus is given to a nitrogenous compound and colloidal character of FMD virus. Nitrifying of denitrifying characters of nitrogenous compound and transport of colloidal particles are affected mainly by soil water content in unsaturated zone. Thus, the fate and transport of burial leachate affected by seasonal variation in recharge pattern is investigated.

  11. Determination of post-burial interval using entomology: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajinder; Sharma, Sahil; Sharma, Arun

    2016-08-01

    Insects and other arthropods are used in different matters pertinent to the criminal justice system as they play very important role in the decomposition of cadavers. They are used as evidence in a criminal investigation to determine post mortem interval (PMI). Various researches and review articles are available on forensic entomology to determine PMI in the terrestrial environment but very less work has been reported in context to buried bodies. Burring the carcass, is one of the methods used by criminals to conceal the crime. So, to drive the attention of researchers toward this growing field and to help various investigating agencies, the present paper reviews the studies done on determination of post-burial interval (PBI), its importance and future prospective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  12. Burial stress and elastic strain of carbonate rocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2014-01-01

    strain multiplied by the rock frame modulus. We cannot measure the strain directly in the subsurface, but from the data on bulk density and P‐wave velocity, we can estimate the rock frame modulus and Biot's coefficient and then calculate the “effective vertical stress” as the total vertical stress minus......Burial stress on a sediment or sedimentary rock is relevant for predicting compaction or failure caused by changes in, e.g., pore pressure in the subsurface. For this purpose, the stress is conventionally expressed in terms of its effect: “the effective stress” defined as the consequent elastic...... the product of pore pressure and Biot's coefficient. We can now calculate the elastic strain by dividing “effective stress” with the rock frame modulus. By this procedure, the degree of elastic deformation at a given time and depth can be directly expressed. This facilitates the discussion of the deformation...

  13. Aboveground burial for managing catastrophic losses of livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Alan Flory

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Environmental impacts from carcass management are a significant concern globally. Despite a history of costly, ineffective, and environmentally damaging carcass disposal efforts, large animal carcass disposal methods have advanced little in the past decade. An outbreak today will likely be managed with the same carcass disposal techniques used in the previous decades and will likely result in the same economic, health, and environmental impacts. This article overviews the results of one field test that was completed in Virginia (United States using the aboveground burial (AGB technique and the disposal of 111 foot-and-mouth disease (FMD infected sheep in Tunisia using a similar methodology. Materials and Methods: Researchers in the United States conducted a field test to assess the environmental impact and effectiveness of AGB in decomposing livestock carcasses. The system design included a shallow trench excavated into native soil and a carbonaceous base placed on the bottom of the trenches followed by a single layer of animal carcasses. Excavated soils were subsequently placed on top of the animals, and a vegetative layer was established. A similar methodology was used in Tunisia to manage sheep infected with FMDs, Peste des Petits Ruminants virus, and Bluetongue Virus. Results: The results of the field test in the United States demonstrated a significant carcass degradation during the 1-year period of the project, and the migration of nutrients below the carcasses appears to be limited thereby minimizing the threat of groundwater contamination. The methodology proved practical for the disposal of infected sheep carcasses in Tunisia. Conclusions: Based on the analysis conducted to date, AGB appears to offer many benefits over traditional burial for catastrophic mortality management. Ongoing research will help to identify limitations of the method and determine where its application during large disease outbreaks or natural

  14. 77 FR 58591 - Report on Waste Burial Charges: Changes in Decommissioning Waste Disposal Costs at Low-Level...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... COMMISSION Report on Waste Burial Charges: Changes in Decommissioning Waste Disposal Costs at Low-Level Waste... document entitled: NUREG-1307 Revision 15, ``Report on Waste Burial Charges: Changes in Decommissioning Waste Disposal Costs at Low-Level Waste Burial Facilities.'' DATES: Please submit comments by October 22...

  15. Resurrection imageries: A study of the motives for extravagant burial rituals in ancient Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jock M. Agai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Unlike in the New Testament whereby faith in Christ can resurrect the dead, the ancient Egyptians believed that the bereaved created the resurrection of their deceased through burial rituals and by encouraging the living to serve their kings. They thought that faith alone in god or the gods was not enough to resurrect the dead, thus they seemingly superimposed resurrection alongside burials. Using the various forms of Egyptian burial rituals and evaluated from the perspective of the Christian concept of resurrection, this researcher attempts to search for the motives behind specific Egyptian burial rituals. The researcher proposes that the activities of the bereaved or of the living over the dead were paramount in resurrecting the dead in ancient Egypt. The purpose of this research is, firstly, to explain how the Egyptian burial rituals influenced their thoughts on resurrection and, secondly, to show that the Egyptian god(s might have depended on the living to raise the dead.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: The ancient Egyptians lived their lives mainly to satisfy the interests of the dead, hence their extensive burial rituals. Whilst they believed in the power of the gods to raise the dead, there seemed to be another motive behind their burial practices which suggested that the living may have had more power to raise the dead. The power was realised in the activities of the living in the form of burials, tomb designs, mummification, food offering, and in remembering the dead. This research explains that these burial activities were relevant in resurrecting the dead without which the gods alone were not able to do that.

  16. Isochron-burial dating of glacially-driven sediments: first results from the Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akçar, Naki; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Alfimov, Vasily; Claude, Anne; Reber, Regina; Christl, Marcus; Vockenhuber, Christof; Schlunegger, Fritz; Dehnert, Andreas; Rahn, Meinert; Schlüchter, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The recently introduced method of isochron-burial dating, employs the fact that the samples from a well-defined single bed in a deposit would have the same post-burial but different pre-burial histories. The analysis of cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al in such samples enables the modeling of the post-burial component and the determination of the 26Al/10Be at the time of burial. The isochron-burial age can then be calculated from the initial and the measured ratios. In this study, we focus on the isochron-burial dating of the oldest Quaternary deposits of the Alpine Foreland. These are called Swiss Deckenschotter (cover gravels) as they build mesa-type hill tops on the Mesozoic or Cenozoic bedrock of the Swiss Alpine forelands. Deckenschotter consists of glaciofluvial gravel layers intercalated with glacial and/or overbank deposits. Although previously morphostratigraphically correlated with Günz and Mindel glaciations of Penck and Brückner, the Swiss Deckenschotter is likely much older, and their chronostratigraphy is not well constrained. In order to reconstruct the chronology of these deposits, we collected more than 30 clasts of different lithology, shape and size from a single stratigraphic horizon in an abandoned gravel pit in Siglistorf (canton Zurich). We processed 19 clasts for cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al. Four samples did not yield successful 26Al measurements and two were unsuccessful for 10Be. Most of the samples have low nuclide concentrations, i.e. <20000 10Be at/g and <150000 26Al at/g. Finally, using the 26Al/10Be ratio of the samples we calculated an isochron-burial age of around 1.5 Ma. Our results from this study indicate that glaciofluvial sediments can well be time-calibrated with isochron-burial dating despite the low cosmogenic nuclide concentrations.

  17. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 2 (Appendices) contains the detailed analyses and data needed to support the results given in Volume 1.

  18. Storm influence on the burial of objects in a shallow sandy shelf environment

    OpenAIRE

    Papili, S.; T. Wever; Dupont, Y.; Van Lancker, V.

    2014-01-01

    For rapid assessments of occurrences of sea mines or objects, and probability modelling of object burial mechanisms, knowledge is needed on sediment processes under a variety of hydro meteorological conditions. One approach is to use test mines that record burial mechanisms over longer time periods.A Burial Recording Mine (BRM) was deployed in the Belgian part of the North Sea, in water depths of 7 to 12 m. The area is predominantly sandy, with a continuous spectrum of small- to medium and la...

  19. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Main Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, E. S.; Holter, G. M.

    1980-06-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains background information and study results in summary form.

  20. Effect of soil erosion on the long-term stability of FUSRAP near-surface waste-burial sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, M.J.

    1983-04-01

    Decontamination of FUSRAP sites could result in the generation of large volumes (in excess of 400,000 m/sup 3/) of low-activity radioactive wastes (primarily contaminated soil and building materials) requiring subsequent disposal. It is likely that near-surface burial will be seriously considered as an option for disposal of these materials. A number of factors - including soil erosion - could adversely affect the long-term stability of a near-surface waste-burial site. The majority of FUSRAP sites are located in the humid eastern United States, where the principal cause of erosion is the action of water. This report examines the effect of soil erosion by water on burial-site stability based on analysis of four hypothetical near-surface burial sites. The Universal Soil Loss Equation was employed to estimate average annual soil loss from burial sites and the 1000-year effects of soil loss on the soil barrier (burial trench cap) placed over low-activity wastes. Results suggest that the land use of the burial site and the slope gradient of the burial trench cap significantly affect the rate of soil erosion. The development of measures limiting the potential land use of a burial site (e.g., mixing large rocks into the burial trench cap) may be required to preserve the integrity of a burial trench for long periods of time.

  1. Effects of sand burial on the survival and growth of two shrubs dominant in different habitats of northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Hao; Zhao, Ha-Lin; Zhao, Xue-Yong; Zuo, Xiao-An; Wang, Shao-Kun; Chen, Min

    2017-04-01

    Plants that grow in dune ecosystems always suffer from sand burial. Shrubs play implications on the healthy functioning of dune ecosystems due to control blowing sand. However, the survival and growth responses of shrubs to sand burial remain poorly understood. The survival rate and seedling height of two shrubs (Artemisia halodendron and Lespedeza davurica) along with the soil properties under different burial depths were examined in order to reveal the causing ecophysiological attributes of sand burial on shrubs in the desertified region. It was found that A. halodendron can survive a burial depth of 6 cm greater than its seedling height, which is a dominant shrub in mobile dunes with intense burial, whereas a burial depth equivalent to three fourths of its seedling height is detrimental to L. davurica, which is dominant in fixed dunes with less burial. The reasons for the shrub death under sand burial were associated with the physical barrier to vertical growth and the reduction in photosynthetic area. In conclusion, A. halodendron can facilitate the stabilization of mobile dunes because of their high tolerance to the frequent and intensive sand burial, while L. davurica can be beneficial for the recovery process because of their higher survival rates under shallow burial following restoration of mobile dunes.

  2. Thermal identification of clandestine burials: A signature analysis and image classification approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servello, John A.

    Clandestine burials, the interred human remains of forensic interest, are generally small features located in isolated environments. Typical ground searches can be both time-consuming and dangerous. Thermal remote sensing has been recognized for some time as a possible search strategy for such burials that are in relatively open areas; however, there is a paucity of published research with respect to this application. This project involved image manipulation, the analyses of signatures for "graves" of various depths when compared to an undisturbed background, and the use of image classification techniques to tease out these features. This research demonstrates a relationship between the depth of burial disturbance and the resultant signature. Further, image classification techniques, especially object-oriented algorithms, can be successfully applied to single band thermal imagery. These findings may ultimately decrease burial search times for law enforcement and increase the likelihood of locating clandestine graves.

  3. Trend in groundwater quality near FMD burials in agricultural region, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jeong-Won; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2015-04-01

    After the nation-wide outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) in winter of 2010-2011, thousands of mass burial site had been built all over the country in Korea. Though the burial pits were partially lined with impermeable material, potential threat of leachate leakage was still in concern. In worry of leachate release from those livestock burials during decomposition of carcasses, groundwater samples from wells near the burials were collected and analyzed in between 2011 and 2013. Among the sample locations, 250 wells with monitoring priorities were chosen and had been watched continuously through the years. For trend analysis of groundwater quality, relations between land use types, distances to burial and nitrate concentrations are studied. Types of land use within 300 m radius of each well were investigated. Nitrate concentrations show proportional relations to the area of agricultural activity and inversely proportional to the area of forest. The proportionality decreased with both agricultural and forest area since 2011. When seasonal variation is concerned, slightly stronger proportionality is shown in dry season for both agricultural and forested area. For a qualitative analysis of the trend, non-parametric Kendall test is applied. Especially, regional Kendall test is implemented to find out spatial feature of nitrate concentration. Nitrate concentrations show slow but statistically significant deceasing trend for every well. When the wells are group according to their distances from the nearest burial pit, decreasing trend of nitrate concentration is shown in all groups. However, there was no consistency in significant factor among the groups. Considering the above mentioned results, the groundwater wells near the burials seem to be influence more from agricultural activities near the wells than from the burial leachate. The slow but significant decreasing trend in nitrate concentration is supposed as the result of an increasing governmental interest in

  4. Electrical Resistivity Monitoring for Leachate Distribution at Two Foot-and-Mouth- Disease (FMD) Burial Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Kaown, D.; Lee, K.; Leem, K.; Ko, K.

    2011-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to provide the basic information on leachate distribution with time changes through the electrical resistivity monitoring for a certain period of time in the Foot-and-Mouth-Disease (FMD) burial facilities which is needed to prevent further soil and groundwater contamination and to build an effective plan for stabilization of the burial site. In this study, dipole-dipoles surveys were carried out around two FMD burial sites in Iceon-si, Gyeonggi-do. The FMD burial facility installed at Daewall-myeon is consists of one block but, at Yul-myeon, it is divided into 2 blocks named A and B blocks. Dipole-Dipole surveys with 8 lines at Yul-myeon and 3 lines at Daewall-myeon were carried out. The observed leachate distribution along survey lines was not clearly evident as time passes at Daewall-myeon site, but, at Yul-myeon site, the leachate distribution around the survey lines showed a decrease of resistivity around the burial facility. At and around A and B blocks of Yul-myeon site, interpretations of the survey data show low resistivity zones below 10 Ωm from a depth 3 m to 10 m and such low resistivity zones of the A block are thicker than the B block by about 5~10 m. From the geochemical data and resistivity survey at two FMD burial sites, it is inferred that the groundwater within a 50-meter radius around burial facilities of the Yul-myeon site are contaminated by leachate. The general resistivity distribution around the burial site is seemed affected by the leachate with high electrical conductivity. The detail distribution patterns can be explained by local distributions of soil and weathered rocks and associated leachate flow. This subject is supported by Brain Korea 21 and Korea Ministry of Environment as 'The GAIA Project (173-092-009)'.

  5. Extent of Stream Burial and Relationships to Watershed Area, Topography, and Impervious Surface Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy E. Weitzell

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stream burial—the routing of streams through culverts, pipes, and concrete lined channels, or simply paving them over—is common during urbanization, and disproportionately affects small, headwater streams. Burial undermines the physical and chemical processes governing life in streams, with consequences for water quality and quantity that may amplify from headwaters to downstream receiving waters. Knowledge of the extent of stream burial is critical for understanding cumulative impacts to stream networks, and for future decision-making allowing for urban development while protecting ecosystem function. We predicted stream burial across the urbanizing Potomac River Basin (USA for each 10-m stream segment in the basin from medium-resolution impervious cover data and training observations obtained from high-resolution aerial photography in a GIS. Results were analyzed across a range in spatial aggregation, including counties and independent cities, small watersheds, and regular spatial grids. Stream burial was generally correlated with total impervious surface area (ISA, with areas exhibiting ISA above 30% often subject to elevated ratios of stream burial. Recurring patterns in burial predictions related to catchment area and topographic slope were also detected. We discuss these results in the context of physiographic constraints on stream location and urban development, including implications for environmental management of aquatic resources.

  6. Roman Bronze Vessels From the Late Sarmatian Burial of the Lebedevka Burial-Ground in Western Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treister Mikhail Yuryevich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to studying cultural monuments – bronze vessels, a jug and a basin from the barrow no. 1/1967 of the Lebedevka Late Sarmatian burial mound (Western Kazakhstan, dating back to the middle of the 3rd century AD at the latest. These items do not find exact parallels among the bronze vessels of provincial Rome. Although the shape of the jug handle with a curved leaf turned upright between two horizontally arranged swan heads has parallels on the so-called “composite jug with handles” (“gegliederten Henkelkrügen”, the cylindrical form of the jug’s neck peculiar of the glass jugs of allegedly Syrian manufacture of the second half of the 3rd-4th centuries AD is very unusual. Even more unusual is a basin with horizontally bent rim and elaborate handles with pearls on a high narrow stand-ring. The XRF analyses of the Lebedevka jug’s metal revealed that its body and handle were made of a copper-based alloy with very high admixtures of zinc (24-27 % and inconsiderable additions of lead (up to 3 %. A similar alloy was used for manufacturing a vessel in the form of a crouching young negro from Niederbieber. Most objects of provincial Roman import reached Western Kazakhstan via the Bosporan kingdom along the Northern branch of the Silk Road. The above discussed bronze vessels from Lebedevka let suggest, that the nomads could receive some import articles that were brought along the caravan routes leading from Egypt and Syria to the East.

  7. Evaluation of Elevated Tritium Levels in Groundwater Downgradient from the 618-11 Burial Ground Phase I Investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.; Smith, R.M.; Williams, B.A.; Thompson, C.J.; Evans, J.C.; Hulstrom, L.C.

    2000-05-01

    This report describes the results of the preliminary investigation of elevated tritium in groundwater discovered near the 618-11 burial ground, located in the eastern part of the Hanford Site. Tritium in one well downgradient of the burial ground was detected at levels up to 8,140,000 pCi/L. The 618-11 burial ground received a variety of radioactive waste from the 300 Area between 1962 and 1967. The burial ground covers 3.5 hectare (8.6 acre) and contains trenches, large diameter caissons, and vertical pipe storage units. The burial ground was stabilized with a native sediment covering. The Energy Northwest reactor complex was constructed immediately east of the burial ground.

  8. Buried Alive: The Behavioural Response of the Mussels, Modiolus modiolus and Mytilus edulis to Sudden Burial by Sediment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoë L Hutchison

    Full Text Available Sedimentation in the sea occurs through natural processes, such as wave and tidal action, which can be exacerbated during storms and floods. Changes in terrestrial land use, marine aggregate extraction, dredging, drilling and mining are known to result in substantial sediment deposition. Research suggests that deposition will also occur due to the modern development of marine renewable energy. The response to individual burial under three depths of sediment, three sediment fractions and five burial durations was investigated in two mussel species, Modiolus modiolus and Mytilus edulis in specialist mesocosms. Both mussel species showed substantial mortality, which increased with duration of burial and burial by finer sediment fractions. M. modiolus was better able to survive short periods of burial than M. edulis, but at longer durations mortality was more pronounced. No mortality was observed in M. modiolus in burial durations of eight days or less but by 16 days of burial, over 50% cumulative mortality occurred. Under variable temperature regimes, M. edulis mortality increased from 20% at 8°C to over 60% at 14.5 and 20°C. Only M. edulis was able to emerge from burial, facilitated by increased byssus production, laid mostly on vertical surfaces but also on sediment particles. Emergence was higher from coarse sediment and shallow burials. Byssus production in M. edulis was not related to the condition index of the mussels. Results suggest that even marginal burial would result in mortality and be more pronounced in warm summer periods. Our results suggest that in the event of burial, adult M. modiolus would not be able to emerge from burial unless local hydrodynamics assist, whereas a small proportion of M. edulis may regain contact with the sediment water interface. The physiological stress resulting in mortality, contribution of local hydrodynamics to survival and other ecological pressures such as mussels existing in aggregations, are

  9. Recovery of macrobenthic assemblages following experimental sand burial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José J. Barrón

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was supported by a fund provided by the Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología (UNAM and a fund provided to Celia Olabarria in 2004 and 2005 by the University of Vigo for overseas short stays.AbstractPeriodic inundation by sand is a very common feature of rocky coasts throughout the world. Even so, there have been few direct observations or experiments to investigate the role of sediments on intertidal rocky shores. We designed a field experiment in Mazatlán Bay, Mexico, to test the initial impact and subsequent recovery of intertidal macrobenthic assemblages exposed to sand burial at two sites of varying wave exposure. Both sites supported different natural assemblages. Treatment plots for the addition of sediment and control plots (50 × 50 cm, separated by at least 1.5 m, were randomly placed across the mid-water tidal level. The initial response of the resident macrobenthos and the subsequent recolonization was monitored over a period of 95 days. The main effect of sediment deposition at both sites was mortality and removal of biota due to smothering. The recovery process was rapid and may in part have been the result of the mechanism by which the small, disturbed patches were recolonized. Most of the invertebrates colonized the patches as adults; several seaweeds exhibited vegetative growth as the major mechanism of colonization (e.g., Ulva lactuca Linnaeus, 1753, Amphiroa valonioides Yendo, 1902 and Chaetomorpha antennina (Borgensen Kutzing, 1849. The rate of recovery varied between the sites, however. Recovery of species numbers proceeded quickly at the sheltered site (day 7, but took 95 days at the exposed site. In contrast, biomass reached control levels by day 45 at the sheltered site, but already by day 15 at the exposed site. By day 95, the assemblages recovered to 83.5% and 81% similarity with the controls at the sheltered and exposed sites respectively. Although differences in wave exposure could be very

  10. Awn length variation and its effect on dispersal unit burial of Trachypogon spicatus (Poaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Erica E; Baruch, Zdravko

    2014-03-01

    Trachypogon spicatus, formerly known as Trachypogon plumosus, is a dominant grass in some savannas of Northern South America. Its dispersal unit, like many other species of the Andropogoneae tribe, bears a hygroscopic awn which facilitates its establishment in favorable microsites. Some authors have previously proposed that there is a positive correlation between awn length and dispersal unit burial, and that this relationship increases the probability of seed survival in the event of a fire, since soil acts as insulator. In this study we experimentally tested this relationship for T. spicatus. A total of 192 diaspores were placed in randomized blocks, in aluminum trays filled with soil under greenhouse conditions. Diaspores were sprayed with water daily for a month to guarantee awn movement; on the last day of the experiment, they were sprayed with red aerosol paint to determine burial depth. The effects of awn length, presence of caryopses, and presence of a pivot for the passive segment of the awn on diaspore burial were evaluated. Germination viability was tested using a tetrazolium salt test for 35 caryopses. No significant differences in diaspore burial were observed between diaspores with and without caryopses (F(2,126) = 0.034, p=0.853). A positive correlation between awn length and diaspore burial was observed only if the passive awn lacked a pivot (r(66)=0.394, p<0.05). Diaspores whose awns had a pivot point achieved significantly deeper burial distances than their counterparts (F(2,126)=7.063, p=0.005). Viability test found that 0% of caryopses tested were able to germinate; this is possibly due to the time difference between sampling and testing. We considered the presence or absence of caryopsis as an important factor, since previous studies have not yet considered it and the high production of sterile diaspores in grasses. These results suggest that the physical mechanism behind T. spicatus diaspore burial is awn torque. This would explain why our

  11. Retrodiction of secular variations in deep-sea CaCO3 burial during the Cenozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, Bernard P.; Luo, Yiming

    2017-09-01

    Deep-sea sediments record changes in oceanic carbonate chemistry and CaCO3 sedimentation rate through temporal variations in the total burial of CaCO3 and the position of the carbonate snowline, i.e., the ocean depth at which CaCO3-free sediments are first recorded. This paper links mathematically secular changes in snowline to those in the burial rate through a set of relatively simple equations. When the available Cenozoic deep-sea burial records are employed to predict secular variations in snowline, the process fails at some time in the past, indicating that these records are not consistent with each other. The burial records are more likely the source of this problem, as they involve far more uncertainties than the snowline records. As a consequence, we introduce a method for estimating carbonate burial through the use of a canonical CaCO3-depth profile, which can respond dynamically to secular changes in carbonate sedimentation and the positions of both the snowline and the carbonate saturation horizon. The resulting synthetic CaCO3 burial record is consistent with snowline records and indicates that the burial rates offered by Davies and Worsley (1981) are generally too high, with highly questionable maxima at 25 and 47 Ma BP. Our estimates of burial are more consistent with the range advanced by Mackenzie and Morse (1992); nevertheless, our results differ from the latter with respect to timing and magnitude of the variations. Our approach allows simultaneous calculation of the mean carbonate ion concentration of the deep sea. We find that carbonate-ion levels fell through the Cenozoic and are similar to those calculated by Tyrrell and Zeebe (2004), using a different model. Secular variations in CaCO3 burial are found to be primarily driven by changes in the Ca2+-CO3 2 - ion product within the bottom-waters, with an increase in the sedimentation rate of CaCO3 of secondary importance over the Cenozoic.

  12. [Effect of shifting sand burial on evaporation reduction and salt restraint under saline water irrigation in extremely arid region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Guo; Zhao, Ying; Xu, Xin-Wen; Lei, Jia-Qiang; Li, Sheng-Yu; Wang, Yong-Dong

    2014-05-01

    The Taklimakan Desert Highway Shelterbelt is drip-irrigated with high saline groundwater (2.58-29.70 g x L(-1)), and shifting sand burial and water-salt stress are most common and serious problems in this region. So it is of great importance to study the effect of shifting sand burial on soil moisture evaporation, salt accumulation and their distribution for water saving, salinity restraint, and suitable utilization of local land and water resources. In this study, Micro-Lysimeters (MLS) were used to investigate dynamics of soil moisture and salt under different thicknesses of sand burial (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 cm), and field control experiments of drip-irrigation were also carried out to investigate soil moisture and salt distribution under different thicknesses of shifting sand burial (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 cm). The soil daily and cumulative evaporation decreased with the increase of sand burial thickness in MLS, cumulative evaporation decreased by 2.5%-13.7% compared with control. And evaporative inhibiting efficiency increased with sand burial thickness, evaporative inhibiting efficiency of 1-5 cm sand burial was 16.7%-79.0%. Final soil moisture content beneath the interface of sand burial increased with sand burial thickness, and it increased by 2.5%-13.7% than control. The topsoil EC of shifting sand in MLS decreased by 1.19-6.00 mS x cm(-1) with the increasing sand burial thickness, whereas soil salt content beneath the interface in MLS increased and amplitude of the topsoil salt content was higher than that of the subsoil. Under drip-irrigation with saline groundwater, average soil moisture beneath the interface of shifting sand burial increased by 0.4% -2.0% compare with control, and the highest value of EC was 7.77 mS x cm(-1) when the sand burial thickness was 10 cm. The trend of salt accumulation content at shifting sand surface increased firstly, and then decreased with the increasing sand burial thickness. Soil salt contents beneath the

  13. A simple model of pressure build-up caused by porosity reduction during burial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wangen, M.

    1997-05-01

    The report relates to a study done on fluid pressure build-up owing to porosity reduction in sedimentary basins during burial. The model assumes that the void ratio decreases exponentially with depth, and that the permeability is proportional to the void ratio to an arbitrary exponent. Simple analytical solutions are obtained for the Darcy velocity and the fluid excess pressure The pressure build-up during burial is studied with these solutions, and it is found to be inversely proportional to the gravity number. The importance of the permeability exponents on the fluid pressure is studied as well. Gravity numbers much less than 1 are shown to yield high access pressures during burial, A reasonable approximation for the maximum Darcy velocity is found to be the product of the surface void ratio and the burial rate. Hydro-fracturing is discussed in relation to the pressure build-up, and cases characterised by gravity numbers much less than 1 are found to yield hydro-fracturing over large depth ranges. It is suggested that the average permeability of hydro-fractured sediments during burial corresponds to the gravity number equal to 1. 28 refs., 8 figs.

  14. Effects of burial depth on seed germination and seedling emergence of Mexican oaks: A glasshouse experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores-Cano J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the interest in restoring oak forests in Mexico, very little is known about their regeneration ecology. We assessed the influence of acorn burial depth on seed germination and seedling emergence for eight Mexican oak species (Q. affinis, Q. castanea, Q. coccolobifolia, Q. laeta, Q. mexicana, Q. polymorpha, Q. tinkhamii and Q. viminea. We performed a glasshouse experiment in which acorns were buried at five soil depths (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 cm. After four months, acorn germination and seedling emergence were recorded. Buried acorns showed higher germination and seedling emergence than unburied ones, but burial depth also influenced these responses. The optimum burial depth for seedling emergence of each species was 2, 4, 6 and 8 cm depth for four species (Q. castanea, Q. mexicana, Q. tinkhamii, and Q. viminea; 2 and 4 cm for Q. laeta; as well as 2, 4 and 8 cm for Q. coccolobifolia.

  15. New hydroxyproline radiocarbon dates from Sungir, Russia, confirm early Mid Upper Palaeolithic burials in Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalawade-Chavan, Shweta; McCullagh, James; Hedges, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Sungir (Russia) is a key Mid-Upper Palaeolithic site in Eurasia, containing several spectacular burials that disclose early evidence for complex burial rites in the form of a range of grave goods deposited along with the dead. Dating has been particularly challenging, with multiple radiocarbon dates ranging from 19,160±270 to 28,800±240 BP for burials that are believed to be closely similar in age. There are disparities in the radiocarbon dates of human bones, faunal remains and charcoal found on the floor of burials. Our approach has been to develop compound-specific methods using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to separate single amino acids, such as hydroxyproline, and thereby avoid the known human contamination on the bones themselves. Previously, we applied this technique to obtain radiocarbon dates of ∼30,000 BP for Sungir 2, Sungir 3 and a mammoth bone from the occupation levels of the site. The single amino acid radiocarbon dates were in good agreement with each other compared to all the dates previously reported, supporting their reliability. Here we report new hydroxyproline dates for two more human burials from the same site, Sungir 1 and Sungir 4. All five hydroxyproline dates reported are statistically indistinguishable and support an identical age for the group. The results suggest that compound-specific radiocarbon analysis should be considered seriously as the method of choice when precious archaeological remains are to be dated because they give a demonstrably contaminant-free radiocarbon age. The new ages are, together with the previously dated 'Red Lady of Paviland' human in the British Isles, the earliest for Mid Upper Palaeolithic burial behaviour in Eurasia, and point to the precocious appearance of this form of rite in Europe Russia.

  16. New hydroxyproline radiocarbon dates from Sungir, Russia, confirm early Mid Upper Palaeolithic burials in Eurasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Nalawade-Chavan

    Full Text Available Sungir (Russia is a key Mid-Upper Palaeolithic site in Eurasia, containing several spectacular burials that disclose early evidence for complex burial rites in the form of a range of grave goods deposited along with the dead. Dating has been particularly challenging, with multiple radiocarbon dates ranging from 19,160±270 to 28,800±240 BP for burials that are believed to be closely similar in age. There are disparities in the radiocarbon dates of human bones, faunal remains and charcoal found on the floor of burials. Our approach has been to develop compound-specific methods using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC to separate single amino acids, such as hydroxyproline, and thereby avoid the known human contamination on the bones themselves. Previously, we applied this technique to obtain radiocarbon dates of ∼30,000 BP for Sungir 2, Sungir 3 and a mammoth bone from the occupation levels of the site. The single amino acid radiocarbon dates were in good agreement with each other compared to all the dates previously reported, supporting their reliability. Here we report new hydroxyproline dates for two more human burials from the same site, Sungir 1 and Sungir 4. All five hydroxyproline dates reported are statistically indistinguishable and support an identical age for the group. The results suggest that compound-specific radiocarbon analysis should be considered seriously as the method of choice when precious archaeological remains are to be dated because they give a demonstrably contaminant-free radiocarbon age. The new ages are, together with the previously dated 'Red Lady of Paviland' human in the British Isles, the earliest for Mid Upper Palaeolithic burial behaviour in Eurasia, and point to the precocious appearance of this form of rite in Europe Russia.

  17. Phosphorus burial in the ocean over glacial-interglacial time scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Tamburini

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of nutrients, such as phosphorus (P, and their impact on primary productivity and the fluctuations in atmospheric CO2 over glacial-interglacial periods are intensely debated. Suggestions as to the importance of P evolved from an earlier proposal that P actively participated in changing productivity rates and therefore climate change, to most recent ones that changes in the glacial ocean inventory of phosphorus were important but not influential if compared to other macronutrients, such as nitrate. Using new data coming from a selection of ODP sites, we analyzed the distribution of oceanic P sedimentary phases and calculate reactive P burial fluxes, and we show how P burial fluxes changed over the last glacial-interglacial period at these sites. Concentrations of reactive P are generally lower during glacial times, while mass accumulation rates (MAR of reactive P show higher variability. If we extrapolate for the analyzed sites, we may assume that in general glacial burial fluxes of reactive P are lower than those during interglacial periods by about 8%, because the lack of burial of reactive P on the glacial shelf reduced in size, was apparently not compensated by burial in other regions of the ocean. Using the calculated changes in P burial, we evaluate their possible impact on the phosphate inventory in the world oceans. Using a simple mathematical approach, we find that these changes alone could have increased the phosphate inventory of glacial ocean waters by 17–40% compared to interglacial stages. Variations in the distribution of sedimentary P phases at the investigated sites seem to indicate that at the onset of interglacial stages, shallower sites experienced an increase in reactive P concentrations, which seems to point to P-richer waters at glacial terminations. All these findings would support the Shelf-Nutrient Hypothesis, which assumes that during glacial low stands nutrients are transferred from shallow sites

  18. Burial diagenesis of deep sea chalk as reflected in Biot's coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Alam, Mohammad Monzurul

    2013-01-01

    to limestone as burial increases and porosity decreases. The porosity decrease is accompanied by an increasing velocity to elastic waves, and consequently a decreasing Biot's coefficient, as estimated from velocity and density of core samples. When the effective burial stress is normalized to total horizontal....... In the ooze, we find that the natural compaction causes an increasing stress on grain contact area, indicating that the ooze particles become strongly strained. In the chalk section, contact cement is probably the reason why particles become less strained as porosity declines. In the limestone, stress...

  19. Burial diagenesis of deep sea chalk as reflected in Biot’s coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Alam, Mohammad Monzurul

    to limestone as burial increases and porosity decreases. The porosity decrease is accompanied by an increasing velocity to elastic waves, and consequently a decreasing Biot’s coefficient, as estimated from velocity and density of core samples. When the effective burial stress is normalized to total horizontal....... In the ooze, we find that the natural compaction causes an increasing stress on grain contact area, indicating that the ooze particles become strongly strained. In the chalk section, contact cement is probably the reason why particles become less strained as porosity declines. In the limestone, stress...

  20. Sampling and Analysis Instruction for Borehole Sampling at 118-B-1 Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. S. Thompson

    2007-04-02

    The Washington Closure Hanford (WCH) Field Remediation Project has removed all of the disposed materials and contaminated soil from the 118-B-1 Burial Ground with the exception of tritium-contaminated soil that is believed to extend from the bottom of the present excavation to groundwater and is believed to contribute to tritium contamination observed at down-gradient monitoring Well 199-B8-6. This sampling and analysis instruction (SAI) provides the requirements for sample collection and laboratory analysis for characterization of the vertical distribution of tritium contamination in the vadose zone soil below the 118-B-1 Burial Ground remedial action excavation.

  1. Limits for the burial of the Department of Energy transuranic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healy, J.W.; Rodgers, J.C.

    1979-01-15

    Potential limits for the shallow earth burial of transuranic elements were examined by simplified models of the individual pathways to man. Pathways examined included transport to surface steams, transport to ground water, intrusion, and people living on the burial ground area after the wastes have surfaced. Limits are derived for each pathway and operational limits are suggested based upon a dose to the organ receiving the maximum dose rate of 0.5 rem/y after 70 years of exposure for the maximum exposed individual.

  2. Tillage energy savings from zone burial of shredded and whole cotton stalks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, L.; Chesson, J.; Thacker, G.; Penner, V.

    1996-04-01

    Two prototypes of a stalk burial implement were tested for energy requirements at the University of California, Shafter Research Station. Both versions of the implement are designed to bury the cotton stalks in a concentrated Zone and reform the bed in the same location. To plow under shredded stalks, both versions of the implement required less energy than a conventional tillage systems typical of the San Joaquin Valley of California. Both stalk burial implements were also used to plow under whole cotton stalks. This offers additional energy savings by eliminating the stalk shredding operation.

  3. The Gravettian burial known as the Prince (‘Il Principe’) : new evidence for his age and diet.

    OpenAIRE

    Pettitt, P B; Richards, M. P.; Maggi, R.; Formicola, V.

    2003-01-01

    The famous upper Palaeolithic (Gravettian) burial with shell ornaments known as "Il Principe" was discovered in Italy sixty years ago. Here the authors present recent scientific research on his skeleton, leading to new assessments of the date of the burial and indications of diet.

  4. 77 FR 64361 - Report on Waste Burial Charges: Changes in Decommissioning Waste Disposal Costs at Low-Level...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ... COMMISSION Report on Waste Burial Charges: Changes in Decommissioning Waste Disposal Costs at Low-Level Waste...: Changes in Decommissioning Waste Disposal Costs at Low-Level Waste Burial Facilities,'' in the Federal... published in November 2010. NUREG-1307, Revision 15, also incorporates changes resulting from a reassessment...

  5. Effects of fragment traits, burial orientation and nutrient supply on survival and growth in Populus deltoides × P. simonii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Su, Zhi-Qin; Xu, Lie; Shi, Xue-Ping; Du, Ke-Bing; Zheng, Bo; Wang, Yong-Jian

    2016-02-15

    Clonal propagations of shoot or root fragments play pivotal roles in adaptation of clonal trees to environmental heterogeneity, i.e. soil nutrient heterogeneity and burials after disturbance. However, little is known about whether burial orientation and nutrient supply can alter the effects of fragment traits in Populus. Shoot and root fragments of Populus deltoides × P. simonii were subjected to burials in two different fragment diameters (0.5 and 2.0 cm), two fragment lengths (5 and 15 cm) and three burial orientations (horizontal, upward and downward). For the shoot fragments, survival and growth were significantly higher in the larger pieces (either in length or diameter) and the horizontal/upward burial position. On the contrary, the effect of burial position was reversed for the root fragments. Shoot/root fragments of 15 cm in length in horizontal burial position were then subjected to two different fragment diameters (0.5 and 2.0 cm) and four types of nutrient supplies (without nutrient, low frequency, high frequency and patchy). Growth of shoot fragments of 2.0 cm in diameter significantly increased in high frequency and patchy nutrient supplies than that of without nutrient treatment. These results suggest that burial orientation and nutrient supply could be employed in clonal propagations of cuttings, afforestation or regeneration in Populus.

  6. Phosphorus burial in sediments of the sulfidic deep Black Sea : Key roles for adsorption by calcium carbonate and apatite authigenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraal, Peter; Dijkstra, Nikki; Behrends, Thilo; Slomp, Caroline P.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Sedimentary burial of the essential nutrient phosphorus (P) under anoxic and sulfidic conditions is incompletely understood. Here, we use chemical and micro-scale spectroscopic methods to characterize sedimentary P burial along a water column redox transect (six stations, 78–2107 m water

  7. 78 FR 76712 - Allowance for Private Purchase of an Outer Burial Receptacle in Lieu of a Government-Furnished...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... AFFAIRS Allowance for Private Purchase of an Outer Burial Receptacle in Lieu of a Government-Furnished... (VA) to provide a monetary allowance towards the private purchase of an outer burial receptacle for use in a VA national cemetery. Under VA regulation (38 CFR 38.629), the allowance is equal to the...

  8. 75 FR 67454 - Allowance for Private Purchase of an Outer Burial Receptacle in Lieu of a Government-Furnished...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... AFFAIRS Allowance for Private Purchase of an Outer Burial Receptacle in Lieu of a Government-Furnished... (VA) to provide a monetary allowance towards the private purchase of an outer burial receptacle for use in a VA national cemetery. Under VA regulation (38 CFR 38.629), the allowance is equal to the...

  9. 77 FR 74743 - Allowance for Private Purchase of an Outer Burial Receptacle in Lieu of a Government-Furnished...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... AFFAIRS Allowance for Private Purchase of an Outer Burial Receptacle in Lieu of a Government-Furnished... (VA) to provide a monetary allowance towards the private purchase of an outer burial receptacle for use in a VA national cemetery. Under VA regulation (38 CFR 38.629), the allowance is equal to the...

  10. 76 FR 77327 - Allowance for Private Purchase of an Outer Burial Receptacle in Lieu of a Government-Furnished...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... AFFAIRS Allowance for Private Purchase of an Outer Burial Receptacle in Lieu of a Government-Furnished... (VA) to provide a monetary allowance towards the private purchase of an outer burial receptacle for use in a VA national cemetery. Under VA regulation (38 CFR 38.629), the allowance is equal to the...

  11. 75 FR 1454 - Allowance for Private Purchase of an Outer Burial Receptacle in Lieu of a Government-Furnished...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... AFFAIRS Allowance for Private Purchase of an Outer Burial Receptacle in Lieu of a Government-Furnished... (VA) to provide a monetary allowance towards the private purchase of an outer burial receptacle for use in a VA national cemetery. Under VA regulation (38 CFR 38.629), the allowance is equal to the...

  12. Mesopotamian ceramics from the burial mounds of Bahrain, c.2250–1750 BC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    Among the ceramic vessels recovered from the burial mounds of Bahrain, a small percentage represents Mesopotamian imports or local emulations of such. In this paper two overall horizons are distinguished in these Mesopotamian ceramics. These are significant because both coincide with major stages...

  13. Ferroan dolomite cement in Cambrian sandstones: burial history and hydrocarbon generation of the Baltic sedimentary basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sliaupa, S.; Cyziene, J.; Molenaar, Nicolaas

    2008-01-01

    . The burial history modelling points to development of most of the dolomite cement during rapid Silurian-Devonian subsidence and Carboniferous-early Permian uplift. A wide range of precipitation temperatures indicate that temperature was not a major factor in triggering the carbonate cementation. Dolomite...

  14. Unique burial practice by ancient cavemen of the Hoa Binh civilization in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuong, Nguyen Lan

    2007-06-01

    The discovery of a female skeleton is reported, which can be ascribed to the Hoa Binh civilization, existing about 10,000 years before now. The most remarkable fact concerning this finding is the existence of seashells (Cyprea arabica), which were found in the eye sockets. The reasons for this in Southeast Asia so far unique burial practice are discussed.

  15. Lithic Residue Survival and Characterisation at Star Carr: a burial experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Croft

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A modern burial experiment was devised to test microscopic residue survival in acidic peat and slightly acidic clay soils at the Early Mesolithic site of Star Carr (North Yorkshire, UK, and at nearby control location. The experiment addresses concerns regarding the applicability of residue analysis in varied burial environments, and particularly in highly acidic archaeological conditions. Flint flakes (n= 78, including blank controls were used on twelve plant, animal, and mineral materials to create residues and then buried. The residues were examined 1 month and 11 months after burial. An unburied reference collection containing the same twelve residue types in a fresh state was compared to the buried residues to assess diagenesis. The residue types that survived across all burial conditions and time intervals were: softwood tissue, tree resin, bird feathers, squirrel hair, and red ochre. During microscopic analysis, it became clear that many residues lack diagnostic traits, and thus an assessment of the extent to which each residue can be identified was conducted. The degree to which residues were able to be identified was further investigated with a variable pressure scanning electron microscope (SEM. SEM images of the reference residues were compared to the reflected VLM micrographs of the same residues, which improved characterisation in some cases. Residues were grouped into three categories (diagnostic, distinctive, and non-distinctive within a visual characterisation guide. Our in situ microscopic analyses indicated that few residue types have diagnostic traits that allow them to be identified unambiguously, and thus further characterisation techniques are often required.

  16. A unique human-fox burial from a pre-Natufian cemetery in the Levant (Jordan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A Maher

    Full Text Available New human burials from northern Jordan provide important insights into the appearance of cemeteries and the nature of human-animal relationships within mortuary contexts during the Epipalaeolithic period (c. 23,000-11,600 cal BP in the Levant, reinforcing a socio-ideological relationship that goes beyond predator-prey. Previous work suggests that archaeological features indicative of social complexity occur suddenly during the latest Epipalaeolithic phase, the Natufian (c. 14,500-11,600 cal BP. These features include sedentism, cemeteries, architecture, food production, including animal domestication, and burials with elaborate mortuary treatments. Our findings from the pre-Natufian (Middle Epipalaeolithic cemetery of 'Uyun al-Hammam demonstrate that joint human-animal mortuary practices appear earlier in the Epipalaeolithic. We describe the earliest human-fox burial in the Near East, where the remains of dogs have been found associated with human burials at a number of Natufian sites. This is the first time that a fox has been documented in association with human interments pre-dating the Natufian and with a particular suite of grave goods. Analysis of the human and animal bones and their associated artefacts provides critical data on the nature and timing of these newly-developing relationships between people and animals prior to the appearance of domesticated dogs in the Natufian.

  17. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-B-6, 108-B Solid Waste Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. L. Proctor

    2006-06-13

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-B-6, 108-B Solid Waste Burial Ground. The 118-B-6 site consisted of 2 concrete pipes buried vertically in the ground and capped by a concrete pad with steel lids. The site was used for the disposal of wastes from the "metal line" of the P-10 Tritium Separation Project.

  18. Compositional variation in Roman colourless glass objects from the bocholtz burial (the Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, D.J.; Groot, T. de; Pols, S.; Os, B.J.H. van; Degryse, P.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the major and trace element composition and Pb and Sr isotope characteristics of a series of about 20 colourless glass objects from a single high-status Roman burial from the Netherlands (Bocholtz). The major elements show a relatively homogeneous group, with one outlier. This is

  19. Preliminary fire hazard analysis for the PUTDR and TRU trenches in the Solid Waste Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaschott, L.J.

    1995-06-16

    This document represents the Preliminary Fire Hazards Analysis for the Pilot Unvented TRU Drum Retrieval effort and for the Transuranic drum trenches in the low level burial grounds. The FHA was developed in accordance with DOE Order 5480.7A to address major hazards inherent in the facility.

  20. 38 CFR 3.1603 - Authority for burial of certain unclaimed bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authority for burial of... the body of a deceased veteran is unclaimed, there being no relatives or friends to claim the body... accompanied by a statement showing what efforts were made to locate relatives or friends. The question of...

  1. Geologic Descriptions for the Solid-Waste Low Level Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.

    2007-09-23

    This document provides the stratigraphic framework and six hydrogeologic cross sections and interpretations for the solid-waste Low Level Burial Grounds on the Hanford Site. Four of the new cross sections are located in the 200 West Area while the other two are located within the 200 East Area. The cross sections display sediments of the vadose zone and uppermost unconfined aquifer.

  2. Passive Neutron Non-Destructive Assay for Remediation of Radiological Waste at Hanford Burial Grounds- 13189

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, A.; Pitts, M. [Pajarito Scientific Corporation, 2976 Rodeo Park Drive East, Santa Fe, NM 87505 (United States); Ludowise, J.D.; Valentinelli, P. [Washington Closure Hanford, 2620 Fermi Ave., Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Grando, C.J. [ELR Consulting, Inc., 15247 Wilbur Rd., La Conner, WA 98257 (United States); Haggard, D.L. [WorleyParsons Polestar, 601 Williams Blvd., Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Hanford burial grounds contains a broad spectrum of low activity radioactive wastes, transuranic (TRU) wastes, and hazardous wastes including fission products, byproduct material (thorium and uranium), plutonium and laboratory chemicals. A passive neutron non-destructive assay technique has been developed for characterization of shielded concreted drums exhumed from the burial grounds. This method facilitates the separation of low activity radiological waste containers from TRU waste containers exhumed from the burial grounds. Two identical total neutron counting systems have been deployed, each consisting of He-3 detectors surrounded by a polyethylene moderator. The counts are processed through a statistical filter that removes outliers in order to suppress cosmic spallation events and electronic noise. Upon completion of processing, a 'GO / NO GO' signal is provided to the operator based on a threshold level equivalent to 0.5 grams of weapons grade plutonium in the container being evaluated. This approach allows instantaneous decisions to be made on how to proceed with the waste. The counting systems have been set up using initial on-site measurements (neutron emitting standards loaded into surrogate waste containers) combined with Monte Carlo modeling techniques. The benefit of this approach is to allow the systems to extend their measurement ranges, in terms of applicable matrix types and container sizes, with minimal interruption to the operations at the burial grounds. (authors)

  3. Metal-touching tools from ancient graves: The case of a Roman period royal burial

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ježek, Martin; Holub, Milan; Zavřel, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 18, April (2018), s. 333-342 ISSN 2352-409X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-22207S Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Roman period * elite * burial * touchstone * cinnabar * nickel * speiss Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  4. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) Old Burial Ground (OBG) source control technology and inventory study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G.P.; Rehder, T.E.; Kanzleiter, J.P.

    1996-10-02

    This report has been developed to support information needs for wastes buried in the Burial Ground Complex. Information discussed is presented in a total of four individual attachments. The general focus of this report is to collect information on estimated source inventories, leaching studies, source control technologies, and to provide information on modeling parameters and associated data deficiencies.

  5. The Sociological Essence of Music in Burial: An Analysis of Akwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Music in traditional African setting is the soul which is ultimately concerned with various customs and religious practices. The African is born, fortified, initiated and buried with music. Music is a powerful part in African burials; it goes a long way to expose the deeds of deceased when he/she was alive. In some cultures, death ...

  6. Estimates of chemical compaction and maximum burial depth from bedding parallel stylolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparrini, Marta; Beaudoin, Nicolas; Lacombe, Olivier; David, Marie-Eleonore; Youssef, Souhail; Koehn, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Chemical compaction is a diagenetic process affecting sedimentary series during burial that develops rough dissolution surfaces named Bedding Parallel Stylolites (BPS). BPS are related to the dissolution of important rock volumes and can lead to porosity reduction around them due to post-dissolution cementation. Our understanding of the effect of chemical compaction on rock volume and porosity evolution during basin burial is however too tight yet to be fully taken into account in basin models and thermal or fluid-flow simulations. This contribution presents a novel and multidisciplinary approach to quantify chemical compaction and to estimate maximum paleodepth of burial, applied to the Dogger carbonate reservoirs from the Paris Basin sub-surface. This succession experienced a relatively simple burial history (nearly continuous burial from Upper Jurassic to Upper Cretaceous, followed by a main uplift phase), and mainly underwent normal overburden (inducing development of BPS), escaping major tectonic stress episodes. We considered one core from the depocentre and one from the eastern margin of the basin in the same stratigraphic interval (Bathonian Sup. - Callovian Inf.; restricted lagoonal setting), and analysed the macro- and micro-facies to distinguish five main depositional environments. Type and abundance of BPS were continuously recorded along the logs and treated statistically to obtain preliminary rules relying the occurrence of the BPS as a function of the contrasting facies and burial histories. The treatment of high resolution 2D images allowed the identification and separation of the BPS to evaluate total stylolitization density and insoluble thickness as an indirect measure of the dissolved volume, with respect to the morphology of the BPS considered. Based on the morphology of the BPS roughness, we used roughness signal analysis method to reconstruct the vertical paleo-stress (paleo-depth) recorded by the BPS during chemical compaction. The

  7. Two Catacombs of Late Sarmatian Time From Pashkovsky Burial Mound no. 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limberis Natalya Yuryevna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with two burials from the Kuban basin region excavated in Pashkovsky burial mound no. 2 belonging to Maeotian Pashkovskoe ancient settlement. The burials were made in catacombs of similar construction and orientation. The narrow grave entrances and grave chambers are situated in-line. The grave chambers of the catacombs adjoin one other that probably was the reason for plunder of a little earlier burial no. 2. There were the complete horse skeleton, the cow skull and the sheep chap in the grave entrance ofthe catacomb no. 2. A skeleton of a man (about 50 years old was in extended supine position diagonally across the grave chamber, his scull had SSW orientation. Grave goods found near the buried man include the gray-clay bowl and the mug-jar, the iron spearhead, the long sword and the dagger, the bit with wheel-shaped cheek-pieces, the sickle, the knives and the shoe buckles, the glass bead, the chalk rock bead, the bronze buckle and fibula. The catacomb no. 2 plundered in ancient times situated north-ward of the first one, the southern border of the grave chamber is partially cutted by catacomb no. 1. In the grave entrance of the catacomb no. 1 there were the remains of the horse skeleton and the sheep skull. Grave goods scattered in grave chamber included the gray-clay bowl, pieces of chalk, the bronze ring, fragments of the iron buckle, rod, hasp, silver temple ring, bronze escutcheon for the box lock, the iron snap-up loop and fragments of silver flacon with a cover. Late Sarmatian burial rites and grave goods give evidence of the belonging these burials to spokesmen of the equestrian order. The chronological range of the burials stays within terms from the second half of 2nd to the middle of 3rd century A.D. The lower date of the catacomb no. 1 turns toward the end of the 2nd century A.D., the upper date is limited by the first half of the 3rd century A.D. The catacomb no. 2 is stratigraphically older. The eques status of

  8. Nationwide Surveillance for Pathogenic Microorganisms in Groundwater near Carcass Burials Constructed in South Korea in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha Kyung Joung

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Widespread outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease and avian influenza occurred in South Korea during 2010. In response to the culling of many animals to attenuate the spread of disease, South Korea used mass burial sites to dispose of the large number of carcasses; consequently, concerns about groundwater contamination by leachate from these burial sites are increasing. Groundwater is one of the main sources of drinking water, and its cleanliness is directly related to public health. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the safety of groundwater around the burial sites (total of 600 sites. A total of 1,200 groundwater samples were collected though the country, and microbial analysis was conducted during two time periods: during the spring (n = 600; April to June 2012 and after rainfall (n = 600; August to October, 2012; fall. Fecal coliform and Escherichia coli were detected in 173 (14.4% and 85 (7.1% of the 1,200 samples, respectively. Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. each were detected only once (0.083%. Clostridium perfringens was detected from 7 groundwater samples (0.583%, and E. coli O157:H7 was not detected. With respect to norovirus, only the GII type was detected from six groundwater samples (0.5%, and enterovirus was detected in 15 groundwater samples (1.25%. The frequency of E. coli that we detected was lower than that found in previous studies conducted in South Korea, but we detected higher frequency of fecal coliform than that observed in a previous report. The contamination frequencies of Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. were very low, but C. perfringens, which could be an indicator of fecal pollution, was detected in seven regions. Overall, the results of the present study indicate a low possibility of contamination from burial sites. However, consistent monitoring is required to prevent microbial contamination of groundwater near the burial sites.

  9. The oxygen content of ocean bottom waters, the burial efficiency of organic carbon, and the regulation of atmospheric oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, J. N.; Holland, H. D.

    1991-01-01

    Data for the burial efficiency of organic carbon with marine sediments have been compiled for 69 locations. The burial efficiency as here defined is the ratio of the quantity of organic carbon which is ultimately buried to that which reaches the sediment-water interface. As noted previously, the sedimentation rate exerts a dominant influence on the burial efficiency. The logarithm of the burial efficiency is linearly related to the logarithm of the sedimentation rate at low sedimentation rates. At high sedimentation rates the burial efficiency can exceed 50% and becomes nearly independent of the sedimentation rate. The residual of the burial efficiency after the effect of the sedimentation rate has been subtracted is a weak function of the O2 concentration in bottom waters. The scatter is sufficiently large, so that the effect of the O2 concentration in bottom waters on the burial efficiency of organic matter could be either negligible or a minor but significant part of the mechanism that controls the level of O2 in the atmosphere.

  10. Atmospheric carbon burial in modern lake basins and its significance for the global carbon budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einsele, Gerhard; Yan, Jianping; Hinderer, Matthias

    2001-10-01

    Lake basins (˜2.7×10 6 km 2, about 0.8% of the ocean surface or 2% of the land surface) bury a surprisingly high amount of atmospheric carbon (˜70×10 6 t/a) which reaches more than one fourth of the annual atmospheric carbon burial in the modern oceans. This is mainly accomplished by the rapid accumulation of lacustrine sediments and a very high preservation factor (on average 50 times higher than that in the oceans). Lakes with relatively large drainage areas commonly display the highest carbon accumulation rates. In most cases, burial of organic matter is more important than that of carbonate carbon produced by silicate weathering, in contrast to the oceans where the burial of atmospheric carbonate carbon almost reaches the same amount as that of organic carbon. Exceptions to this rule are closed lake basins in arid to semiarid climate which precipitate a major part of their atmosphere-derived dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) as carbonate. These results are demonstrated in some detail for L. Qinghai, China, (low contribution of atmospheric carbonate carbon) and L. Turkana, East Africa, (high contribution from silicate rocks). Further data are gained by estimates for a number of closed and open lakes. The drainage areas of the lakes withdraw atmospheric carbon at rates of mostly 1-4 g/m 2/a, calculated from the lacustrine carbon burial. Carbon burial rates in lakes commonly increase with change to wetter and warmer climate (partially larger lake surfaces, higher rates of seasonal carbonate precipitation, trend to stratified lake waters with oxygen-deficient bottom water). Anthropogenic influence mostly enhances the production and preservation of organic carbon in lake basins (often by a factor of 3-4). After the last glacial maximum, the joint action of the globally spreading vegetation, peat growth, and carbon burial in lakes would have been able to reduce the atmospheric carbon pool to one third to one half of its present amount within a time period of 1 ka

  11. China action of "Cleanup Plan for Polychlorinated Biphenyls Burial Sites": emissions during excavation and thermal desorption of a capacitor-burial site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bing; Zhou, Lingli; Xue, Nandong; Li, Fasheng; Wu, Guanglong; Ding, Qiong; Yan, Yunzhong; Liu, Bo

    2013-10-01

    Scarce data are available so far on emissions in a given scenario for excavation and thermal desorption, a common practice, of soils contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). As part of China action of "Cleanup Plan for PCBs Burial Sites", this study roughly estimated PCBs emissions in the scenario for a capacitor-burial site. The concentrations of total PCBs (22 congeners) in soils were in the range of 2.1-16,000μg/g with a mean of 2300μg/g, among the same order of magnitude as the highest values obtained in various PCBs-contaminated sites. Only six congeners belonging to Di-, Tri-, and Tetra-CBs were observed above limits of detection in air samples in the scenario, partially which can be estimated by the USEPA air emission model. Comparing concentrations and composition profiles of PCBs in the soil and air samples further indicated a leaked source of commercial PCBs formulations of trichlorobiphenyl (China PCB no. 1). The measures taken if any to mitigate the volatilization and movement of PCBs and to minimize worker exposure were discussed for improvements of the excavation practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Changes in CaCO3 Burial Trump the Biological Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toggweiler, J.; Dunne, J. P.

    2008-12-01

    The dramatic increases in atmospheric CO2 at the ends of ice ages are usually attributed to a one-two punch coming from the ocean. First, a weakened biological pump vents organically cycled CO2 from the deep ocean via changes in the ventilation of the deep ocean around Antarctica. The initial CO2 increase is then augmented by an enhancement of CaCO3 burial due to a process called CaCO3 compensation (after Broecker, W. S and T.-H. Peng, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 1, 15-29, 1987). Here, we argue that the importance of the biological pump has been exaggerated. The main effect comes from circulation-induced changes in the burial of CaCO3. As shown in a recent paper by Andreas Schmittner and co-authors (Schmittner, A., E. Brook and J. Ahn, Impact of the ocean's overturning circulation on atmospheric CO2, in Ocean Circulation: Mechanisms and Impacts, Geophys. Monogr. 173, A. Schmittner, J. Chiang, and S. Hemming, eds., pp. 209-246, AGU, 2007) changes in the ventilation of the deep ocean around Antarctica gave rise to 20-30 ppm increases in atmospheric CO2 every 5,000-7,000 years during isotope stages 3 and 4 (30,000 to 70,000 years ago). None of these venting events gave rise to a compensation response. Meanwhile, Jaccard et al. (Science, 308, 1003-1006, 2005) show that all the big CO2 increases during terminations through stage 11 were accompanied by huge increases in CaCO3 burial. This suggests that the enhanced burial of CaCO3 is obligatory rather than compensatory with respect to the dramatic CO2 increases. Broecker and Peng's compensation idea is based on an assumption that the rain of CaCO3 to the sea floor is the same everywhere. More specifically, it assumes that there is no spatial correlation between the production of CaCO3 at the surface and the burial on the sea floor. We find instead that the production and burial of CaCO3 tend to be co-located in regional "hot spots" and that burial in the hot spots balances the input of Ca++ and HCO3- ions in rivers. The

  13. Large difference in carbon emission : burial balances between boreal and arctic lakes

    OpenAIRE

    Lundin, E. J.; J. Klaminder; Bastviken, D; Olid, C.; S. V. Hansson; Karlsson, J

    2015-01-01

    Lakes play an important role in the global carbon (C) cycle by burying C in sediments and emitting CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere. The strengths and control of these fundamentally different pathways are therefore of interest when assessing the continental C balance and its response to environmental change. In this study, based on new high-resolution estimates in combination with literature data, we show that annual emission: burial ratios are generally ten times higher in boreal compared to su...

  14. [Deposition and burial of organic carbon in coastal salt marsh: research progress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lei; Song, Jin-Ming; Li, Xue-Gang; Yuan, Hua-Mao; Li, Ning; Duan, Li-Qin

    2013-07-01

    Coastal salt marsh has higher potential of carbon sequestration, playing an important role in mitigating global warming, while coastal saline soil is the largest organic carbon pool in the coastal salt marsh carbon budget. To study the carbon deposition and burial in this soil is of significance for clearly understanding the carbon budget of coastal salt marsh. This paper summarized the research progress on the deposition and burial of organic carbon in coastal salt marsh from the aspects of the sources of coastal salt marsh soil organic carbon, soil organic carbon storage and deposition rate, burial mechanisms of soil organic carbon, and the relationships between the carbon sequestration in coastal salt marsh and the global climate change. Some suggestions for the future related researches were put forward: 1) to further study the underlying factors that control the variability of carbon storage in coastal salt marsh, 2) to standardize the methods for measuring the carbon storage and the deposition and burial rates of organic carbon in coastal salt marsh, 3) to quantify the lateral exchange of carbon flux between coastal salt marsh and adjacent ecosystems under the effects of tide, and 4) to approach whether the effects of global warming and the increased productivity could compensate for the increase of the organic carbon decomposition rate resulted from sediment respiration. To make clear the driving factors determining the variability of carbon sequestration rate and how the organic carbon storage is affected by climate change and anthropogenic activities would be helpful to improve the carbon sequestration capacity of coastal salt marshes in China.

  15. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, low-level burial grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann, R.H.

    1997-08-12

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Plaste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, `operating` treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the Low-Level Burial Grounds (this document, DOE/RL-88-20).

  16. Informal Workshop on Burial and Mobility Modeling of Munitions in the Underwater Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Engineers (USACE) funding (e.g., HEC - RAS – http://www.hec.usace.army.mil/software/ hec - ras /). 4.3. Near Field Versus Far Field Near field...Naval Research PI – Principal Investigator PMRF – Pacific Missile Range Facility RAS – Risk Assessment System RI – Remedial Investigation SERDP...concept for the prototype Risk Assessment System ( RAS ) links output from a probabilistic SERDP REPORT – INFORMAL WORKSHOP ON BURIAL AND MOBILITY

  17. Burial customs of Clazomenae in the iron age (1100-500 BC)

    OpenAIRE

    Ulusoy, Polat

    2010-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Archaeology and History of Art, Bilkent University, 2010. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2010. Includes bibliographical references leaves 109-118. The present work is a study on the burial customs of Clazomenae in the Iron Age and Archaic period. Special attention is given to Clazomenae, since it yielded significant information from the Protogeometric to the end of the Archaic period. The major aim here is to collect the specific grave an...

  18. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-3, Minor Construction Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. J. Appel

    2007-01-04

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-3, Minor Construction Burial Ground waste site. This site was an open field covered with cobbles, with no vegetation growing on the surface. The site received irradiated reactor parts that were removed during conversion of the 105-F Reactor from the Liquid 3X to the Ball 3X Project safety systems and received mostly vertical safety rod thimbles and step plugs.

  19. Hanford environment as related to radioactive waste burial grounds and transuranium waste storage facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.J.; Isaacson, R.E.

    1977-06-01

    A detailed characterization of the existing environment at Hanford was provided by the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) in the Final Environmental Statement, Waste Management Operations, Hanford Reservation, Richland, Washington, December 1975. Abbreviated discussions from that document are presented together with current data, as they pertain to radioactive waste burial grounds and interim transuranic (TRU) waste storage facilities. The discussions and data are presented in sections on geology, hydrology, ecology, and natural phenomena. (JRD)

  20. Short-Term Sediment Burial Effects on the Seagrass Phyllospadix scouleri

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    iwatensis provides structure to trap and retain allochthonous subsidies such as algal drifts and subtidal sea urchins (Hori 2006). While human...in some cases, food for marine mammals, sea turtles, waterfowl and invertebrates (Hemminga and Duarte 2000; Kenworthy et al. 2006). Worldwide they...nutrients (Smith et al. 1988). Shoot density and morphology . Prior to burial, there was no significant difference between the average number of shoots

  1. A comparison of burial, maturity and temperature histories of selected wells from sedimentary basins in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelskamp, S.; David, P.; Littke, R.

    2008-01-01

    Sedimentary basins in The Netherlands contain significant amounts of hydrocarbon resources, which developed in response to temperature and pressure history during Mesozoic and Cenozoic times. Quantification and modelling of burial, maturity and temperature histories are the major goals of this

  2. The Sequence of Appearance of Bead Sets at the Filippovka I Burial in the Southern Urals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anikeeva Olga Viktorovna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The differences in the composition of bead sets from the Filippovka I burial were analyzed by the author in order to determine regularities in their co-occurrence. The mineralogical analysis has revealed the glass beads made of olivine and fluorite. The mineralogical and technological study allowed to classify all beads according to manufacturing techniques. On the basis of the comparison with beads of the same age from India, Persia, Middle Asia, Northern Black Sea coast, the Caucasus, and the Pamir, possible production centers have been hypothesized. The results were compared with earlier published data on bead sets from the Southern Urals burials of the late 6th - early 3rd centuries B.C. The literature data on the timing of appearance and the origin of beads analogous to those from Filippovka barrows were also analyzed. The results suggest that the observed differences in the composition of bead sets reflect the appearance or disappearance of particular bead types in the region. The analysis of mutual occurrence of certain bead types allowed to allocate two groups of the sets which are smoothly replacing each other in time. This allowed the author to reconstruct the sequence of appearance of bead sets in the Filippovka I burial.

  3. Soil burial biodegradation studies of palm oil-based UV-curable films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajau, Rida; Salleh, Mek Zah; Salleh, Nik Ghazali Nik; Abdurahman, Mohamad Norahiman; Salih, Ashraf Mohammed; Fathy, Siti Farhana; Azman, Anis Asmi; Hamidi, Nur Amira

    2016-01-01

    The palm oil-based ultraviolet (uv)-curable films were subjected to an outdoor soil burial test to investigate the biodegradation under natural environment. The films were burial in the soil experiment plot at the Nuclear Malaysia's Dengkil complex. The uv-curable films were synthesized from the epoxidized palm oil acrylated (EPOLA) resin and the polyurethane palm oil (POBUA) resin, respectively. Biodegradation tests are more specific to burial film in soil experiments for 12 months under natural conditions. The biodegradability of palm oil resin based uv-curable films were investigated and compared with the petrochemical resin based film. The films properties were compared with respect to properties of the thermal characteristic, the crystallinity, the morphology and the weight loss which are analyzed using the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the scanning electron microscope (SEM), an optical microscope and the weight loss of film calculation. These findings suggested that the palm oil-based uv-curable films show quite satisfactory biodegradation levels.

  4. Soil burial biodegradation studies of palm oil-based UV-curable films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajau, Rida, E-mail: rida@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Salleh, Mek Zah, E-mail: mekzah@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Salleh, Nik Ghazali Nik, E-mail: nik-ghazali@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Abdurahman, Mohamad Norahiman, E-mail: iman5031@yahoo.com [Division of Radiation Processing Technology, Malaysia Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Salih, Ashraf Mohammed, E-mail: ashraf.msalih@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Processing, Sudan Atomic Energy Commission, Khartoum, 1111 Sudan (Sudan); Fathy, Siti Farhana, E-mail: farhana811@hotmail.com [Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience (IBS), Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Azman, Anis Asmi, E-mail: anisasmi18@gmail.com; Hamidi, Nur Amira, E-mail: amirahamidi93@yahoo.com [School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), 11800 USM, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    The palm oil-based ultraviolet (uv)-curable films were subjected to an outdoor soil burial test to investigate the biodegradation under natural environment. The films were burial in the soil experiment plot at the Nuclear Malaysia’s Dengkil complex. The uv-curable films were synthesized from the epoxidized palm oil acrylated (EPOLA) resin and the polyurethane palm oil (POBUA) resin, respectively. Biodegradation tests are more specific to burial film in soil experiments for 12 months under natural conditions. The biodegradability of palm oil resin based uv-curable films were investigated and compared with the petrochemical resin based film. The films properties were compared with respect to properties of the thermal characteristic, the crystallinity, the morphology and the weight loss which are analyzed using the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the scanning electron microscope (SEM), an optical microscope and the weight loss of film calculation. These findings suggested that the palm oil-based uv-curable films show quite satisfactory biodegradation levels.

  5. Sediment accumulation and carbon burial rates in subpolar fjords of Svalbard, European Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczucinski, W.; Dominiczak, A.; Forwick, M.; Apolinarska, K.; Moskalik, M.; Woszczyk, M.

    2016-02-01

    The Svalbard region is particularly sensitive to global climate changes as proved by modern monitoring data and the past records. One of the most evident results is rapid retreat of glaciers during the post-Little Ice Age period (after 1900) observed in many subpolar fjords in Svalbard. The goal of this study is to assess impact of these changes on sediment accumulation rates and carbon burial rate. The study reviews the existing data and provide new high resolution results on 210Pb and 137Cs-based sediment accumulation as well as organic carbon burial rates from a dozen of cores collected in Hornsund fjord, western Spitsbergen. The results prove the sediment accumulation rate to be in order of several mm to several cm/year and large increase in the area of high accumulation rate due to rapid glaciers retreat and formation of new inner fjord bays. In consequence, the total amount of sediment stored in the fjord increases, as well as increase the carbon burial rates. The available data suggest that this kind of fjords may serve as significant sediment and carbon sinks, largely exceeding other polar marine environments. The study was funded by Polish National Science Centre grant No. 2013/10/E/ST10/00166.

  6. Diversity of burial rates in convergent settings decreased as Earth aged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoli, Gautier; Moyen, Jean-François; Stevens, Gary

    2016-05-24

    The evolution and the growth of the continental crust is inextricably linked to the evolution of Earth's geodynamic processes. The detrital zircon record within the continental crust, as well as the isotopic composition of this crust, indicates that the amount of juvenile felsic material decreased with time and that in geologically recent times, the generation of new crust is balanced by recycling of the crust back into the mantle within subduction zones. However it cannot always have been so; yet the nature of the crust and the processes of crustal reworking in the Precambrian Earth are not well constrained. Here we use both detrital zircon ages and metamorphic pressure-temperature-time (P-T-t) information from metasedimentary units deposited in proposed convergent settings from Archaean, Proterozoic and Phanerozoic terrains to characterize the evolution of minimum estimates of burial rate (km.Ma(-1)) as a function of the age of the rocks. The demonstrated decrease in burial rate correlates positively with a progressive decrease in the production of juvenile felsic crust in the Archaean and Proterozoic. Burial rates are also more diverse in the Archaean than in modern times. We interpret these features to reflect a progressive decrease in the diversity of tectonic processes from Archaean to present, coupled with the emergence of the uniquely Phanerozoic modern-style collision.

  7. Deconstructing The Stereotypes Of Women Throough A Female Voice In Burial Rites (2013 By Hannah Kent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramita Ayuningtyas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Patriarchal society regulates how women should behave and act. If a woman obeys the social rules, she will be labeled as a good woman. On the other hand, if a woman does not follow the social values, she will be immediately categorized as an evil woman and given negative stereotypes. This binary opposition between a good woman and a bad woman is often criticized by the feminists because they think this categorization burdens women. This issue is also highlighted by Hannah Kent in her novel Burial Rites (2013. This novel is set in a rural society in Iceland in the 19th century with its patriarchal values, focusing on a woman named Agnes that will soon be executed. This theme interested the researcher to study Burial Rites more deeply using feminist perspective. Characters, setting and point of view are the intrinsic elements discussed in this research. The result of the analysis shows that through these three elements, Burial Rites describes society’s stereotypes about ‘evil women’ and there is an effort from the author to deconstruct the stereotype through a female voice.

  8. On the Origin of the Dragon Image on the Plate from Shilovka Burial Mound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liphanov Nicolay А.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The author of the article analyzes an unique image of two opposed dragons engraved on a bone plate discovered in 1992 at barrow No.1 of Shilovka burial mound located on the right bank of the Volga river in Ulyanovsk Oblast (the excavations were conducted by R.S. Bagautdinov. The burial mound is related to the cattle breeding population of late 7th century. The article considers different hypotheses concerning the origin of these dragon images in the artistic traditions of various regions: China (A.V. Komar, D.G. Savinov, B. Totev, Pelevina, Central Asia (V.G. Kotov, V.E. Flyorova, India (N.A. Fonyakova. According to the author, this image has no apparent iconographic parallels in the traditions of these regions. Such analogues are found in the art of the Mediterranean where the ancient images of various mythological creatures exist alongside the image of the sea dragon “ketos” which later became part of the Christian tradition. The appearance of this monster in the images of the first half – middle of the 1st millennium A.D. is practically identical to the dragons from Shilovka burial mound. According to the author, certain impact on the formation of the considered dragon image was made by Iranian art.

  9. A new perspective on studying burial environment before archaeological excavation: analyzing bacterial community distribution by high-throughput sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Jinjin Xu; Yanfei Wei; Hanqing Jia; Lin Xiao; Decai Gong

    2017-01-01

    Burial conditions play a crucial role in archaeological heritage preservation. Especially, the microorganisms were considered as the leading causes which incurred degradation and vanishment of historic materials. In this article, we analyzed bacterial diversity and community structure from M1 of Wangshanqiao using 16?S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. The results indicated that microbial communities in burial conditions were diverse among four different samples. The samples from the robber hole...

  10. Patterns and drivers of change in organic carbon burial across a diverse landscape: Insights from 116 Minnesota lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Robert D.; Engstrom, Daniel R.; Anderson, N. John

    2015-05-01

    Lakes may store globally significant quantities of organic carbon (OC) in their sediments, but the extent to which burial rates vary across space and time is not well described. Using 210Pb-dated sediment cores, we explored patterns of OC burial in 116 lakes spanning several ecoregions and land use regimes in Minnesota, USA during the past 150-200 years. Rates for individual lakes (across all time periods) range from 3 to 204 g C m-2 yr-1 (median 33 g C m-2 yr-1) and show strong geographic separation in accordance with the degree of catchment disturbance and nutrient enrichment. Climate and basin morphometry exercise subordinate control over OC burial patterns, and diagenetic gradients introduce little bias to estimated temporal trends. Median burial rates in agricultural lakes exceed urban lakes and have increased fourfold since Euro-American settlement. The greatest increase in OC burial occurred prior to the widespread adoption of industrial fertilizers, during an era of land clearance and farmland expansion. Northern boreal lakes, impacted by historical logging and limited cottage development yet comparatively undisturbed by human activity, bury OC at rates 3X lower than agricultural lakes and exhibit much smaller increases in OC burial. Scaling up modern OC burial estimates to the entire state, we find that Minnesota lakes annually store 0.40 Tg C in their sediments, equal to 1.5% of annual statewide CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion. During the period of Euro-American settlement (circa 1860-2000), cumulative OC burial amounted to 36 Tg C, 40% of which can be attributed to anthropogenic enhancement.

  11. Thallium Isotopes Tracking Mn-Oxide Burial - A Proxy for Deoxygenation During Oceanic Anoxic Event 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrander, C.; Owens, J. D.; Nielsen, S.

    2015-12-01

    Thallium (Tl) is proving to be a useful paleoredox proxy given that the Tl isotope composition of seawater is highly dependent on the magnitude of manganese (Mn) oxide burial in the ocean. In turn, Mn oxides require oxygen at the sediment-water interface to precipitate, linking the Tl isotope cycle to ocean oxygenation. Currently, the marine residence time of Tl is ~20kyrs and the Tl isotope composition of seawater is invariant, which suggests Tl isotopes could be a global tracer of marine Mn-oxide burial. Importantly, recent research suggests sediments deposited under a euxinic water column faithfully record the Tl isotope value of the overlying oxic water column (e.g. Black Sea and Cariaco Basin). Therefore, analysis of organic-rich black shales may prove useful in evaluating the seawater Tl isotope composition of past oceans and, hence, large-scale burial of Mn-oxides and the extent of bottom water ocean oxygenation. A logical test for this proxy is during the well-studied Cenomanian-Turonian boundary event termed Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE-2) at ~94 Ma. It is known that the global extent of anoxia and euxinia increased during this event, however, to what extent global bottom water deoxygenation occured is unconstrained. If deep water deoxygenation occurred, it would be hypothesized that Mn-oxide precipitation would decrease, resulting in a positive Tl isotope excursion during OAE-2. We have analyzed the Tl isotope composition of organic-rich black shales from Site 1258 of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) spanning the period before, during, and after OAE-2. Based on Fe redox proxies, the entire section is euxinic and thus no Mn-oxides are present (i.e. no local redox changes). Before the event, Tl isotope compositions are similar or slightly heavier than modern seawater values. Just prior to the onset of OAE-2, a positive shift occurs and is maintained until recovery, slightly before the termination of the event. The shift to heavier values and subsequent

  12. [Effects of sand burial on growth and physiological process of Agriophyllum squarrosum seedlings in Horqin Sand Land of Inner Mongolia, North China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ha-Lin; Qu, Hao; Zhou, Rui-Lian; Wang, Jin; Li, Jin; Yun, Jian-Ying

    2013-12-01

    In 2010-2011, a sand burial experiment was conducted on the Horqin Sand Land of Inner Mongolia to study the growth characteristics and physiological properties of Agriophyllum squarrosum seedlings under different depths of sand burial. The A. squarrosum seedlings had stronger tolerance against sand burial. The seedling growth could be severely inhibited when the burial depth exceeded seedling height, but some seedlings could still be survived when the burial depth exceeded 1.66 times of seedling height. When the burial depth did not exceed the seedling height, the seedling MDA content and membrane permeability had no significant change, but the lipid peroxidation was aggravated and the cell membrane was damaged with increasing burial depth. Under sand burial stress, the seedling SOD and POD activities and proline content increased significantly, while the seedling CAT activity and soluble sugar content deceased. Sand burial decreased the leaf photosynthetic area and damaged cell membrane, inducing the increase of seedling mortality and the inhibition of seedling growth. The increase of SOD and POD activities and proline content played a definite role in reducing the sand burial damage to A. squarrosum seedlings.

  13. Two items: Transcription of a presentation by Dr. E. L. Albenesius, ``SRS burial ground operation from an historical perspective``; video tape entitled ``Burial ground operation``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, H.P.

    1992-02-14

    On February 6, 1992, approximately 35 SRS personnel from DOE, WSRC, and Dames and Moore attended a very informative talk given by Dr. E.L. Albenesius who discussed the operation of the SRS Burial Ground from an historical perspective. Dr. Albenesius, a Du Point retiree, formerly served as research manager of SRL`s Environmental Effects and Solid Waste Management Technology Divisions among other assignments. One notable point Dr. Albenesius made was in answer to a question concerning what was the most important thing that could be done to reduce the hazard to man from buried waste. His response was to remove as much plutonium as practical prior to closure. In order to preserve this valuable information for the record, the program was audiotaped from which a point-by-point chronological transcription, with minor editing, was prepared.

  14. Characterization of the Hanford 300 area burial grounds. Final report: decontamination and decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, S.J.; Ames, L.L.; Fitzner, R.E.; Gee, G.W.; Sandness, G.A.; Simmons, C.S.

    1980-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a series of investigations at the Hanford Site to develop technologies for characterizing and monitoring radioactive waste burial facilities that could be used in determining appropriate decommissioning alternatives. Specific objectives were to develop unique functional geophysics, geochemical, soil physics, numerical modeling, and biological methodologies needed to better characterize and monitor buried radioactive waste disposal sites. To meet these objectives the project was divided into four tasks: Task I, Geophysical Evaluation - Geophysical surveys were taken to locate and define the gross composition of waste materials. Task II, Geochemical Analysis - The interaction of disposed radionuclides with geologic media was analyzed through an integrated radiochemical procedure. Task III, Fluid Transport and Modeling - Computer modeling of water migration in partially saturated groundwater systems was verified with actual data collected at a field test facility used to monitor micrometeorological and geohydrological energy and mass transfer factors. Task IV, Biological Transport - Several biological organisms were evaluated for potential radionuclide uptake and transport. Along with the four tasks, the project included a review of pertinent literature and regulatory issues that might affect the alternatives selected. Surveys were taken of the surrounding area and specific sites and operations. The overall results indicated that the 300 Area Burial Grounds have been adequate in containing radioactive waste. Based on the results of the project, the alternatives identified for decommissioning these sites are exhumation and translocation, entombment, perpetual care, and abandonment. Perpetual care (currently used) appears to be the best decommissioning alternative for these burial grounds at this time. However, another alternative may be selected depending on future waste management policies, plans, or activities.

  15. Zostera marina seed burial can be enhanced by Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum: A microcosm study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chang-Jun; Li, Wen-Tao; Liu, Jianying; Zhang, Xiumei; Zhang, Peidong

    2017-06-01

    Seagrass seed bank plays a key role in the regeneration of new vegetation when seagrasses are removed by the natural or man-made disaster. Various factors may affect the development of sediment seed bank. We conducted a microcosm experiment to test the effects of burrowing and feeding activities of Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum on the burial of Zostera marina seeds in sediments. The effects of lasting time (3-hour, 1-day, 3-day, 7-day, 14-day and 28-day), clam density (0, 2, 4 and 8 clams with shell length of 3 cm in each microcosm) and clam size (shell length of 2, 3 and 4 cm at 4-clam density) on seed burial were examined in plastic microcosm cores (30 cm high × 10 in inner diameter) in a 28-day period. Results showed that the seed burial depth significantly increased with time, the density and the size of clams. No seeds were buried in the sediment in the cores without clams during the whole experiment period. For the 3-cm clams, about 91.61% of the seeds were buried in the sediment at the end of the experiment in the high-density treatment (8 clams at each core); while in the medium and low-density treatments (4 and 2 clams in each core, respectively), about 76.93% and 60.61% of the seeds were buried in the sediment, respectively. For the size treatments, large (4 cm) clams buried 89.56% of the seeds at the end of the experiment, much more than those of medium (3 cm, 76.93%) and small (2 cm, 61.50%) size clams. During the whole experiment period, nearly all of the buried seeds were at a depth of from 0 cm to 5 cm. These results suggested that Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum may play an important positive role in seagrass seed bank dynamics in the field.

  16. Measurement of water potential in low-level waste management. [Shallow Land Burial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, T. L.; Gee, G. W.; Kirkham, R. R.; Gibson, D. D.

    1982-08-01

    The measurement of soil water is important to the shallow land burial of low-level waste. Soil water flow is the principle mechanism of radionuclide transport, allows the establishment of stabilizing vegetation and also governs the dissolution and release rates of the waste. This report focuses on the measurement of soil water potential and provides an evaluation of several field instruments that are available for use to monitor waste burial sites located in arid region soils. The theoretical concept of water potential is introduced and its relationship to water content and soil water flow is discussed. Next, four major areas of soils research are presented in terms of their dependence on the water potential concept. There are four basic types of sensors used to measure soil water potential. These are: (1) tensiometers; (2) soil psychrometers; (3) electrical resistance blocks; and (4) heat dissipation probes. Tensiometers are designed to measure the soil water potential directly by measuring the soil water pressure. Monitoring efforts at burial sites require measurements of soil water over long time periods. They also require measurements at key locations such as waste-soil interfaces and within any barrier system installed. Electrical resistance blocks are well suited for these types of measurements. The measurement of soil water potential can be a difficult task. There are several sensors commercially available; however, each has its own limitations. It is important to carefully select the appropriate sensor for the job. The accuracy, range, calibration, and stability of the sensor must be carefully considered. This study suggests that for waste management activities, the choice of sensor will be the tensiometer for precise soil characterization studies and the electrical resistance block for long term monitoring programs. (DMC)

  17. Post-breakup burial and exhumation of passive continental margins: nine propositions to inform geodynamic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Paul F.; Duddy, Ian; Japsen, Peter; Chalmers, James; Bonow, Johan

    2017-04-01

    Despite many years of study, the processes involved in the post-breakup development of passive margins remain poorly understood. Integration of apatite fission track analysis (AFTA) and stratigraphic landscape analysis (SLA) at a number of margins has provided new insights into the development of elevated passive continental margins (EPCMs). In particular, these studies have highlighted the importance of integrating evidence from the preserved rock record with information on the deposition and erosional removal of rock units which are no longer present ("missing section"). From these studies we have formulated nine propositions regarding the formation of EPCMs and the nature of the controlling processes, viz: 1: EPCMs are not the inevitable consequence of rifting and breakup 2: Elevated topography at present-day EPCMs developed long after breakup 3: Similar EPCM landscapes at different margins suggest similar controlling processes 4: EPCMs undergo episodic burial and exhumation rather than slow monotonic denudation, both before rifting and after breakup 5: Post-breakup exhumation at continental margins is not restricted to elevated onshore regions 6: Post-breakup burial and exhumation have affected low lying margins as well as EPCMs 7: Episodic km-scale exhumation and re-burial also affects cratonic regions 8: Exhumation events show a broad level of synchroneity across continents and oceans and correlate with plate boundary events and changes in plate motions. 9: EPCMs are located where there is an abrupt, lateral change in crustal or lithospheric thickness These propositions imply that positive and negative vertical motions at passive margins are controlled by plate-scale processes. Many of these key aspects are absent from current geodynamic models of passive margin development. Understanding the processes that control vertical movements at passive continental margins requires development of realistic geodynamic models that honour these propositions.

  18. Species sensitivity distributions for suspended clays, sediment burial, and grain size change in the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Mathijs G D; Holthaus, Karlijn I E; Trannum, Hilde C; Neff, Jerry M; Kjeilen-Eilertsen, Grete; Jak, Robbert G; Singsaas, Ivar; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Hendriks, A Jan

    2008-04-01

    Assessment of the environmental risk of discharges, containing both chemicals and suspended solids (e.g., drilling discharges to the marine environment), requires an evaluation of the effects of both toxic and nontoxic pollutants. To date, a structured evaluation scheme that can be used for prognostic risk assessments for nontoxic stress is lacking. In the present study we challenge this lack of information by the development of marine species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) for three nontoxic stressors: suspended clays, burial by sediment, and change in sediment grain size. Through a literature study, effect levels were obtained for suspended clays, as well as for burial of biota. Information on the species preference range for median grain size was used to assess the sensitivity of marine species to changes in grain size. The 50% hazardous concentrations (HC50) for suspended barite and bentonite based on 50% effect concentrations (EC50s) were 3,010 and 1,830 mg/L, respectively. For burial the 50% hazardous level (HL50) was 5.4 cm. For change in median grain size, two SSDs were constructed; one for reducing and one for increasing the median grain size. The HL50 for reducing the median grain size was 17.8 mum. For increasing the median grain size this value was 305 mum. The SSDs have been constructed by using information related to offshore oil- and gas-related activities. Nevertheless, the results of the present study may have broader implications. The hypothesis of the present study is that the SSD methodology developed for the evaluation of toxic stress can also be applied to evaluate nontoxic stressors, facilitating the incorporation of nontoxic stressors in prognostic risk assessment tools.

  19. Design and evaluation of a bioreactor with application to forensic burial environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunphy, Melissa A; Weisensee, Katherine E; Mikhailova, Elena A; Harman, Melinda K

    2015-12-01

    Existing forensic taphonomic methods lack specificity in estimating the postmortem interval (PMI) in the period following active decomposition. New methods, such as the use of citrate concentration in bone, are currently being considered; however, determining the applicability of these methods in differing environmental contexts is challenging. This research aims to design a forensic bioreactor that can account for environmental factors known to impact decomposition, specifically temperature, moisture, physical damage from animals, burial depth, soil pH, and organic matter content. These forensically relevant environmental variables were characterized in a soil science context. The resulting metrics were soil temperature regime, soil moisture regime, slope, texture, soil horizon, cation exchange capacity, soil pH, and organic matter content. Bioreactor chambers were constructed using sterilized thin-walled polystyrene boxes housed in calibrated temperature units. Gravesoil was represented using mineral soil (Ultisols), and organic soil proxy for Histosols, horticulture mix. Gravesoil depth was determined using mineral soil horizons A and Bt2 to simulate surface scatter and shallow grave burial respectively. A total of fourteen different environmental conditions were created and controlled successfully over a 90-day experiment. These results demonstrate successful implementation and control of forensic bioreactor simulating precise environments in a single research location, rather than site-specific testing occurring in different geographic regions. Bone sections were grossly assessed for weathering characteristics, which revealed notable differences related to exposure to different temperature regimes and soil types. Over the short 90-day duration of this experiment, changes in weathering characteristics were more evident across the different temperature regimes rather than the soil types. Using this methodology, bioreactor systems can be created to replicate many

  20. Quasi-100 ky glacial-interglacial cycles triggered by subglacial burial carbon release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Zeng

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A mechanism is proposed in which climate, carbon cycle and icesheets interact with each other to produce a feedback that can lead to quasi-100 ky glacial-interglacial cycles. A central process is the burial and preservation of organic carbon by icesheets which contributes to the observed glacial-interglacial CO2 change (the glacial burial hypothesis, Zeng, 2003. Allowing carbon cycle to interact with physical climate, here I further hypothesize that deglaciation can be triggered by the ejection of glacial burial carbon when a major icesheet grows to sufficiently large size after a prolonged glaciation so that subglacial transport becomes significant. Glacial inception may be initiated by CO2 drawdown due to a relaxation from a high but transient interglacial CO2 value as the land-originated CO2 invades into deep ocean via thermohaline circulation and CaCO3 compensation. Also important for glacial inception may be the CO2 uptake by vegetation and soil regrowth in the previously ice-covered regions. When tested in a fully coupled Earth system model with comprehensive carbon cycle components and semi-empirical physical climate components, it produced under certain parameter regimes self-sustaining glacial-interglacial cycles with durations of 93 ky, CO2 changes of 90 ppmv, temperature changes of 6°C. Since the 100 ky cycles can not be easily explained by the Milankovitch astronomical forcing alone, this carbon-climate-icesheet mechanism provides a strong feedback that could interact with external forcings to produce the major observed Quaternary climatic variations. It is speculated that some glacial terminations may be triggered by this internal feedback while others by orbital forcing. Some observable consequences are highlighted that may support or falsify the theory.

  1. Relationship between karstification and burial dolomitization in Permian platform carbonates (Lower Khuff - Oman)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckert, Julia; Vandeginste, Veerle; John, Cédric M.

    2016-08-01

    Large breccia fabrics associated with karst constitute an important structure in massive limestone successions. The dimensions and shapes of breccia structures are controlled by the initial fracture pattern of the limestone and preferential pathways of the karstifying fluids, but subsequently breccia fabrics can also govern the migration of later fluids. Therefore, breccias are highly relevant features to capture for reservoir characterisation. Outcrop analogues for Lower Khuff units in the Middle East present in the Central Oman Mountains reveal brecciated fabrics up to 10s of metres in diameter. These brecciated units are closely associated with dolomite bodies of late diagenetic origin. Based on an integrated set of data, the breccias are interpreted as collapsed karst cavities either formed by meteoric or hypogenic fluids. The exact origin of the fluids could not be constrained due to an overprint by later dolomitizing fluids. Based on the composition of the clasts and matrix in the breccias, two dolomitization events are interpreted to have affected the succession, one prior to (early diagenetic [ED] dolomite) and one after brecciation (late diagenetic [DT2] dolomite). Dolomite of shallow burial origin (ED dolomite) was only observed as clasts within breccia and is much more frequent than late diagenetic (medium to deep burial) dolomite clasts. Thus, the timing of the brecciation and collapse is assumed to postdate shallow burial early diagenetic dolomitization. Late diagenetic replacive dolomite (DT2 dolomite) forms 90% of the matrix in the breccia fabrics with the exception of a small area that was not affected by dolomitization, but is rarely present as clasts. Stable isotope measurements [δ18O: - 2.5‰ to - 6‰ VPDB and δ13C: 2.9‰ to 4.8‰ VPDB] suggest a burial origin for the late diagenetic dolomite potentially with the participation of hydrothermal fluids. The dolomitized matrix indicates a migration of late dolomitizing fluids subsequent to or

  2. The Living Dead: the Uncanny and Nineteenth-Century Moral Panic over Premature Burial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Wójcicka

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The fear of premature burial during the nineteenth century escalated to a phenomenon of moral panic. Fueled by the imperfections of the cardiorespiratory standard of death, which allowed for mistakes in pronouncing a person dead, and by the feeling of the uncanny connected to doubts whether an object – a corpse – is animate or inanimate, the moral panic surfaced in a number of forms, including literature, journalism, but also science and legislation. The present study shows how these forms were both an effect of the panic and, simultaneously, a factor which served to uphold and shape it further.

  3. Phosphorus recycling and burial in Baltic Sea sediments with contrasting redox conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slomp, Caroline P.; Mort, Haydon P.; Reed, Dan C.; Jilbert, Tom; Gustafsson, Bo G.

    2010-05-01

    The Baltic Sea is a classical example of a coastal system that is subject to an increased intensity and spatial extent of hypoxia due to human activities. The expansion of hypoxia since the 1960s is the result of increased inputs of nutrients from land (both from fertilizer and wastewater) and is negatively affecting living conditions for benthic organisms. In addition, the biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nutrients has been significantly altered. Water column studies have shown that the availability of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) is positively correlated with hypoxia due to release of phosphorus from sediment Fe-oxides and from organic matter upon the transition from oxic to hypoxic conditions. Thus, a large internal source of phosphorus exists in the sediment that largely controls short-term variability in water column DIP concentrations. In this presentation, we focus on results of recent field and modeling work for various parts of the Baltic Sea that confirm the role of Fe-bound P from seasonally hypoxic sediments at intermediate water depths as a major source of DIP. We also show that extended hypoxia and anoxia leads to depletion of sediment Fe-bound P and, ultimately, lower rates of sediment-water exchange of P. Authigenic Ca-P minerals appear to be only a relatively minor burial sink for P. The lack of major inorganic P burial makes the Baltic Sea sensitive to the feedback loop between increased hypoxia, enhanced regeneration of P and increased primary productivity. Historical records of bottom water oxygen at two sites (Bornholm, Northern Gotland) show a decline over the past century which is accompanied by a rise in values of typical sediment proxies for anoxia (total sulfur, molybdenum and organic C/P ratios). While sediment reactive P concentrations in anoxic basins are equal to or higher than at oxic sites, burial rates of P at hypoxic and anoxic sites are up to 20 times lower because of lower sedimentation rates. Nevertheless, burial of

  4. Assessing the potential risks of burial practices on groundwater quality in rural north-central Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zume, Joseph T

    2011-09-01

    Several cultures of north-central Nigeria do not use community cemeteries. Instead, human remains are buried in and around family compounds, often in shallow and sometimes unmarked graves. At several locations, graves and drinking water wells end up too close to be presumed environmentally safe. This paper reports findings of a pilot study that explored the potential for groundwater contamination from gravesites in some rural settlements of north-central Nigeria. Preliminary results suggest that the long-standing burial practices among some cultures of rural north-central Nigeria may potentially compromise groundwater quality, which is, by far, their most important source of drinking water.

  5. Hydrogeology of the 200 Areas low-level burial grounds: An interim report: Volume 2, Appendixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, G.V.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Bergeron, M.P.; Wallace, D.W.; Newcomer, D.R.; Schramke, J.A.; Chamness, M.A.; Cline, C.S.; Airhart, S.P.; Wilbur, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents information derived form the installation of 35 ground-water monitoring wells around six low-level radioactive/hazardous waste burial grounds located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. This information was collected between May 20, 1987 and August 1, 1988. The contents of this report have been divided into two volumes. Volume 1 contains the main text. This Volume contains the appendixes, including data and supporting information that verify content and results found in the main text.

  6. The Roc de Marsal Neandertal child: a reassessment of its status as a deliberate burial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandgathe, Dennis M; Dibble, Harold L; Goldberg, Paul; McPherron, Shannon P

    2011-09-01

    Whether Neandertals buried their dead has considerable bearing on the debate concerning the nature of their cultural behavior. Among the claims for intentional Neandertal burial in Europe, the child from Roc de Marsal has long been one of the less contentious examples because its articulated skeleton was found in what has become widely accepted as an intentionally excavated pit. However, what is known about the context of the Roc de Marsal remains from the original descriptions, coupled with new stratigraphic, sedimentological, and archaeological data on the site from recent excavations, cast serious doubt on this interpretation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of 618-11 solid waste burial ground, disposed waste, and description of the waste generating facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hladek, K.L.

    1997-10-07

    The 618-11 (Wye or 318-11) burial ground received transuranic (TRTJ) and mixed fission solid waste from March 9, 1962, through October 2, 1962. It was then closed for 11 months so additional burial facilities could be added. The burial ground was reopened on September 16, 1963, and continued operating until it was closed permanently on December 31, 1967. The burial ground received wastes from all of the 300 Area radioactive material handling facilities. The purpose of this document is to characterize the 618-11 solid waste burial ground by describing the site, burial practices, the disposed wastes, and the waste generating facilities. This document provides information showing that kilogram quantities of plutonium were disposed to the drum storage units and caissons, making them transuranic (TRU). Also, kilogram quantities of plutonium and other TRU wastes were disposed to the three trenches, which were previously thought to contain non-TRU wastes. The site burial facilities (trenches, caissons, and drum storage units) should be classified as TRU and the site plutonium inventory maintained at five kilograms. Other fissile wastes were also disposed to the site. Additionally, thousands of curies of mixed fission products were also disposed to the trenches, caissons, and drum storage units. Most of the fission products have decayed over several half-lives, and are at more tolerable levels. Of greater concern, because of their release potential, are TRU radionuclides, Pu-238, Pu-240, and Np-237. TRU radionuclides also included slightly enriched 0.95 and 1.25% U-231 from N-Reactor fuel, which add to the fissile content. The 618-11 burial ground is located approximately 100 meters due west of Washington Nuclear Plant No. 2. The burial ground consists of three trenches, approximately 900 feet long, 25 feet deep, and 50 feet wide, running east-west. The trenches constitute 75% of the site area. There are 50 drum storage units (five 55-gallon steel drums welded together

  8. Characterization of Bacterial Community Dynamics during the Decomposition of Pig Carcasses in Simulated Soil Burial and Composting Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ki, Bo-Min; Kim, Yu Mi; Jeon, Jun Min; Ryu, Hee Wook; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2017-10-14

    Soil burial is the most widely used disposal method for infected pig carcasses, but composting has gained attention as an alternative disposal method because pig carcasses can be decomposed rapidly and safely by composting. To understand the pig carcass decomposition process in soil burial and by composting, pilot-scale test systems that simulated soil burial and composting were designed and constructed in field. The envelope material samples were collected using special sampling devices without disturbance, and bacterial community dynamics were analyzed by high-throughput pyrosequencing for 340 days. Based on the odor gas intensity profiles, it was estimated that the active and advanced decay stages were reached earlier by composting than by soil burial. The dominant bacterial communities in the soil were aerobic and/or facultatively anaerobic gram negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas, Gelidibacter, Mucilaginibacter, and Brevundimonas. However, the dominant bacteria in the composting system were anaerobic, thermophilic, endospore-forming, and/or halophilic gram positive bacteria such as Pelotomaculum, Lentibacillus, Clostridium, and Caldicoprobacter. Different dominant bacteria played important roles in the decomposition of pig carcasses in the soil and compost. This study provides useful comparative date for the degradation of pig carcasses in the soil burial and composting systems.

  9. A new perspective on studying burial environment before archaeological excavation: analyzing bacterial community distribution by high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinjin; Wei, Yanfei; Jia, Hanqing; Xiao, Lin; Gong, Decai

    2017-02-07

    Burial conditions play a crucial role in archaeological heritage preservation. Especially, the microorganisms were considered as the leading causes which incurred degradation and vanishment of historic materials. In this article, we analyzed bacterial diversity and community structure from M1 of Wangshanqiao using 16 S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. The results indicated that microbial communities in burial conditions were diverse among four different samples. The samples from the robber hole varied most obviously in community structure both in Alpha and Beta diversity. In addition, the dominant phylum in different samples were Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes, respectively. Moreover, the study implied that historical materials preservation conditions had connections with bacterial community distribution. At the genus level, Acinetobacter might possess high ability in degrading organic culture heritage in burial conditions, while Bacteroides were associated closely with favorable preservation conditions. This method contributes to fetch information which would never recover after excavation, and it will help to explore microbial degradation on precious organic culture heritage and further our understanding of archaeological burial environment. The study also indicates that robbery has a serious negative impact on burial remains.

  10. Geophysical monitoring of simulated clandestine graves using electrical and ground-penetrating radar methods: 0-3 years after burial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Jamie K; Jervis, John R; Hansen, James D; Jones, Glenda M; Cassidy, Nigel J; Cassella, John P

    2012-11-01

    This study provides forensic search teams with systematic geophysical monitoring data over simulated clandestine graves for comparison to active cases. Simulated "wrapped" and "naked" burials were created. Multigeophysical surveys were collected over a 3-year monitoring period. Bulk ground resistivity, electrical resistivity imaging, multifrequency ground-penetrating radar (GPR), and grave and background "soil-water" conductivity data were collected. Resistivity surveys revealed the naked burial had consistently low-resistivity anomalies, whereas the wrapped burial had small, varying high-resistivity anomalies. GPR 110- to 900-MHz frequency surveys showed the wrapped burial could be detected throughout, with the "naked" burial mostly resolved. Two hundred and twenty-five megahertz frequency GPR data were optimal. "Soil-water" analyses showed rapidly increasing (year 1), slowly increasing (year 2), and decreasing (year 3) conductivity values. Results suggest resistivity and GPR surveys should be collected if target "wrapping" is unknown, with winter to spring surveys optimal. Resistivity surveys should be collected in clay-rich soils. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  11. Evidence for hydraulic fracturing at Gale crater, Mars: Implications for burial depth of the Yellowknife Bay formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell, Tess E.; Milliken, Ralph E.

    2017-06-01

    NASA's Curiosity rover identified a formerly habitable environment within strata informally known as the Yellowknife Bay formation. The stratigraphic relationship, and thus depositional age, of these rocks relative to other geologic units in Gale crater is not clear from orbital data alone. If part of lower Aeolis Mons (informally known as Mount Sharp), the Yellowknife Bay rocks have been deeply buried and exhumed prior to 3.2-3.3 Ga. If part of younger alluvial fan deposits, however, they likely have never experienced more than ∼100 m of burial. Knowledge of burial history can thus constrain the stratigraphic placement of Yellowknife Bay and the habitable environment preserved therein. The mechanics of natural hydraulic fractures observed in mudstone at YKB allow us to evaluate its burial history and imply a minimum burial depth of 1.2 km. This is consistent with burial by the entirety of lower Mount Sharp and a depositional age of ∼ 3.6- 3.8 Ga, providing observation-based evidence that Mount Sharp was once much more laterally extensive than its present form. Rocks of the Yellowknife Bay formation thus represent the oldest strata that Curiosity will encounter during its journey in Gale crater, and any additional habitable environments discovered along Curiosity's future path represent conditions at younger times.

  12. Beach morphodynamics forcements in oiled shorelines: Coupled physical and chemical processes during and after fuel burial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernabeu, A.M.; Nuez de la Fuente, M.; Rey, D.; Rubio, B.; Vilas, F. [Universidad de Vigo, Vigo (Spain). Dpto. de Geociencias Marinas y O.T., Marine and Environmental Geology Group

    2006-10-15

    In November 2002, the sinking of the Prestige oil tanker off the Galician coast (N.W. Spain) caused the largest ecological catastrophe in the history of Spain, affecting the coast called the 'Costa da Morte' (Galicia, N.W. Spain). This work is focused on the study of the oil contamination of the intertidal area of two beaches located on this stretch of coast. The study of twenty cores extracted from both beaches has identified fuel embedded in the sedimentary column up to a depth of 2.38 m (this being the maximum depth of extraction). This, along with the presence of oil below the groundwater indicates the existence of a new factor which determines the burial of oil: the morphodynamic behaviour of the beach. Furthermore, this morphodynamic variation conditions the physical appearance of the buried oil. Four different types have been identified: tar-balls (cm), particles (mm), oil coatings on sediment grains and on emulsion, with distribution patterns conditioned by the degree of wave exposure. The analysis of the information obtained have permitted the development of a conceptual model of the burial and oil evolution in the sedimentary column in relation to wave exposure, and thus to the morphodynamic variability of the beach. (author)

  13. Impact of Cultivation and Subsequent Burial on Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Conotrachelus nenuphar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughman, William B.; Nelson, Peter N.; Grieshop, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the efficacy of cultivation as a potential management strategy for codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in apple orchards. Cocooned codling moth pupae and thinning apples infested with plum curculio larvae were cultivated over in the field. Emergence, percent burial, damage to buried fruit, and depth of burial was recorded. In the laboratory, both insects were buried at variable depths in sand and potting soil and emergence was measured. A greater proportion of plum curculio larvae buried in infested fruit under laboratory conditions survived to adulthood compared with unburied infested fruit, down to 15 cm. No codling moth adults emerged from under 1 cm or more of sand. Buried codling moth larvae experienced drastically reduced survival to adulthood compared with unburied larvae. These results indicate that strip cultivation may negatively impact codling moth diapausing larvae and pupae on the ground, but not likely to negatively impact plum curculio in infested dropped apples. PMID:26470248

  14. Legacy of human-induced C erosion and burial on soil–atmosphere C exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oost, Kristof; Verstraeten, Gert; Doetterl, Sebastian; Notebaert, Bastiaan; Wiaux, François; Broothaerts, Nils; Six, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Carbon exchange associated with accelerated erosion following land cover change is an important component of the global C cycle. In current assessments, however, this component is not accounted for. Here, we integrate the effects of accelerated C erosion across point, hillslope, and catchment scale for the 780-km2 Dijle River catchment over the period 4000 B.C. to A.D. 2000 to demonstrate that accelerated erosion results in a net C sink. We found this long-term C sink to be equivalent to 43% of the eroded C and to have offset 39% (17–66%) of the C emissions due to anthropogenic land cover change since the advent of agriculture. Nevertheless, the erosion-induced C sink strength is limited by a significant loss of buried C in terrestrial depositional stores, which lagged the burial. The time lag between burial and subsequent loss at this study site implies that the C buried in eroded terrestrial deposits during the agricultural expansion of the last 150 y cannot be assumed to be inert to further destabilization, and indeed might become a significant C source. Our analysis exemplifies that accounting for the non–steady-state C dynamics in geomorphic active systems is pertinent to understanding both past and future anthropogenic global change. PMID:23134723

  15. Chronology of the Third – Fifth Centuries Male Graves from the Tarasovo Burial Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldina Rimma D.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the chronological attribution of male graves from the late Mazunino stage of the Tarasovo burial ground and is a sequel to an earlier article about dating of the early Nyrgynda stage (1st – 2nd centuries of the same site. The three main methods employed in this research include those of formal typology, cultural stratigraphy and the nearest neighbor method. Eighty-six male graves of the third-fifth centuries were analyzed, with 12 identified as a result: first half of the 3rd c. AD (group 1, second half of the 3rd c. AD (2; 3rd c. (3; first half of the 4th c. (group 4; second half of the 3rd – 4th c. (5; third quarter of the 4th c. (6; fourth quarter of the 4th c. (group 7; second half of the 4th c. (8; second half of the 4th – 5th c. (9; 4th – 5th cc. (10; second half of the 3rd – 5th cc. (11 and 3rd – 5th cc. (12. This article minutes investigates the first six groups, while the rest will be covered in the next publication. Artifacts form the third – fifth century female graves of the Tarasovo burial ground will be studied separately.

  16. Identification of technical problems encountered in the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, D.G.; Epler, J.S.; Rose, R.R.

    1980-03-01

    A review of problems encountered in the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes has been made in support of the technical aspects of the National Low-Level Waste (LLW) Management Research and Development Program being administered by the Low-Level Waste Management Program Office, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The operating histories of burial sites at six major DOE and five commercial facilities in the US have been examined and several major problems identified. The problems experienced st the sites have been grouped into general categories dealing with site development, waste characterization, operation, and performance evaluation. Based on this grouping of the problem, a number of major technical issues have been identified which should be incorporated into program plans for further research and development. For each technical issue a discussion is presented relating the issue to a particular problem, identifying some recent or current related research, and suggesting further work necessary for resolving the issue. Major technical issues which have been identified include the need for improved water management, further understanding of the effect of chemical and physical parameters on radionuclide migration, more comprehensive waste records, improved programs for performance monitoring and evaluation, development of better predictive capabilities, evaluation of space utilization, and improved management control.

  17. Pyrosequencing-based assessment of microbial community shifts in leachate from animal carcass burial lysimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Young; Seo, Jiyoung; Kim, Tae-Hun; Shim, Bomi; Cha, Seok Mun; Yu, Seungho

    2017-06-01

    This study examined the use of microbial community structure as a bio-indicator of decomposition levels. High-throughput pyrosequencing technology was used to assess the shift in microbial community of leachate from animal carcass lysimeter. The leachate samples were collected monthly for one year and a total of 164,639 pyrosequencing reads were obtained and used in the taxonomic classification and operational taxonomy units (OTUs) distribution analysis based on sequence similarity. Our results show considerable changes in the phylum-level bacterial composition, suggesting that the microbial community is a sensitive parameter affected by the burial environment. The phylum classification results showed that Proteobacteria (Pseudomonas) were the most influential taxa in earlier decomposition stage whereas Firmicutes (Clostridium, Sporanaerobacter, and Peptostreptococcus) were dominant in later stage under anaerobic conditions. The result of this study can provide useful information on a time series of leachate profiles of microbial community structures and suggest patterns of microbial diversity in livestock burial sites. In addition, this result can be applicable to predict the decomposition stages under clay loam based soil conditions of animal livestock. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Re-evaluating luminescence burial doses and bleaching of fluvial deposits using Bayesian computational statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, A. C.; Wallinga, J.; Hobo, N.; Versendaal, A. J.; Makaske, B.; Middelkoop, H.

    2015-01-01

    The optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) signal from fluvial sediment often contains a remnant from the previous deposition cycle, leading to a partially bleached equivalent-dose distribution. Although identification of the burial dose is of primary concern, the degree of bleaching could potentially provide insights into sediment transport processes. However, comparison of bleaching between samples is complicated by sample-to-sample variation in aliquot size and luminescence sensitivity. Here we begin development of an age model to account for these effects. With measurement data from multi-grain aliquots, we use Bayesian computational statistics to estimate the burial dose and bleaching parameters of the single-grain dose distribution. We apply the model to 46 samples taken from fluvial sediment of Rhine branches in the Netherlands, and compare the results with environmental predictor variables (depositional environment, texture, sample depth, depth relative to mean water level, dose rate). Although obvious correlations with predictor variables are absent, there is some suggestion that the best-bleached samples are found close to the modern mean water level, and that the extent of bleaching has changed over the recent past. We hypothesise that sediment deposited near the transition of channel to overbank deposits receives the most sunlight exposure, due to local reworking after deposition. However, nearly all samples are inferred to have at least some well-bleached grains, suggesting that bleaching also occurs during fluvial transport.

  19. Research Program at Maxey Flats and Consideration of Other Shallow Land Burial Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ,

    1981-03-01

    The Maxey Flats research program is a multidisciplinary, multilaboratory program with the objectives to define the radiochemical and chemical composition of leachates in the burial trenches, define the areal distribution of radionuclides on the site and the factors responsible for this distribution, define the concentrations of radionuclides in vegetation both on and offsite and the uptake of radionuclides by representative agricultural crops, define the atmospheric pathways for radionuclide transport and the mechanisms involved, determine the subsurface migration rates of radionuclides and the chemical, physical, biological, and hydrogeological factors which affect this migration. and evaluate the engineering practices which influence the seepage of surface waters into the burial trenches. The program was initiated in 1979 and a research meeting was held at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Headquarters on July 16, 1980, to report the research findings of each of the participating laboratories and universities. Important observations from the research are included in the Summary and the results reported for each of the research efforts are summarized in the individual reports that are combined to form this document.

  20. How burial diagenesis of chalk sediments controls sonic velocity and porosity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2003-01-01

    Based on P-wave velocity and density data, a new elastic model for chalk sediments is established. The model allows the construction of a series of isoframe (IF) curves, each representing a constant part of the mineral phase contributing to the solid frame. The IF curves can be related to the pro......Based on P-wave velocity and density data, a new elastic model for chalk sediments is established. The model allows the construction of a series of isoframe (IF) curves, each representing a constant part of the mineral phase contributing to the solid frame. The IF curves can be related...... to the progress of burial diagenesis of chalk, which is revised as follows: Newly deposited carbonate ooze and mixed sediments range in porosity from 60 to 80%, depending on the prevalence of hollow microfossils. Despite the high porosity, these sediments are not in suspension, as reflected in IFs of 0.......1 or higher. Upon burial, the sediments lose porosity by mechanical compaction, and concurrently, the calcite particles recrystallize into progressively more equant shapes. High compaction rates may keep the particles in relative motion, whereas low compaction rates allow the formation of contact cement...

  1. Chronology of the 1st–2nd Century Graves from the Tarasovo Burial Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldina Rimma D.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the chronology of graves dating back to the early (1st – 2nd centuries AD – Nyrgynda stage of the 1st – 5th century Tarasovo burial ground, a classical monument attributed to the Cheganda culture of the Pyany Bor cultural-historical community. Cultural stratigraphy is applied as a research method. Artifacts from the early stage were correlated for 37 male and 102 female complexes, separately. The analysis of grave goods from male burials showed the following three chronological groups, that can be distinguished at the Nyrgynda stage: 1st century (group 1, 2nd century (group 2 and 1st – 2nd centuries AD (group 3. The goods from female graves are more representative and various, so three more groups with shorter chronological lives can be singled out: the fi rst half of the 2nd century (group 2а, the second half of the 2nd century (group 2б and the 1st – fi rst half of the 2nd century (group 4. Certainly, the suggested chronology leaves room for any eventual corrections subject to new findings.

  2. Impact of Cultivation and Subsequent Burial on Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Conotrachelus nenuphar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughman, William B; Nelson, Peter N; Grieshop, Matthew J

    2015-06-01

    We assessed the efficacy of cultivation as a potential management strategy for codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in apple orchards. Cocooned codling moth pupae and thinning apples infested with plum curculio larvae were cultivated over in the field. Emergence, percent burial, damage to buried fruit, and depth of burial was recorded. In the laboratory, both insects were buried at variable depths in sand and potting soil and emergence was measured. A greater proportion of plum curculio larvae buried in infested fruit under laboratory conditions survived to adulthood compared with unburied infested fruit, down to 15 cm. No codling moth adults emerged from under 1 cm or more of sand. Buried codling moth larvae experienced drastically reduced survival to adulthood compared with unburied larvae. These results indicate that strip cultivation may negatively impact codling moth diapausing larvae and pupae on the ground, but not likely to negatively impact plum curculio in infested dropped apples. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  3. Analyzing and Interpreting Lime Burials from the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939): A Case Study from La Carcavilla Cemetery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotsmans, Eline M J; García-Rubio, Almudena; Edwards, Howell G M; Munshi, Tasnim; Wilson, Andrew S; Ríos, Luis

    2017-03-01

    Over 500 victims of the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) were buried in the cemetery of La Carcavilla (Palencia, Spain). White material, observed in several burials, was analyzed with Raman spectroscopy and powder XRD, and confirmed to be lime. Archaeological findings at La Carcavilla's cemetery show that the application of lime was used in an organized way, mostly associated with coffinless interments of victims of Francoist repression. In burials with a lime cast, observations made it possible to draw conclusions regarding the presence of soft tissue at the moment of deposition, the sequence of events, and the presence of clothing and other evidence. This study illustrates the importance of analyzing a burial within the depositional environment and taphonomic context. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. Final Hazard Categorization for the Remediation of Six 300-FF-2 Operable Unit Solid Waste Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. D. Ludowise

    2006-12-12

    This report provides the final hazard categorization (FHC) for the remediation of six solid waste disposal sites (referred to as burial grounds) located in the 300-FF-2 Operable Unit (OU) on the Hanford Site. These six sites (618-1, 618-2, 618-3, 618-7, 618-8, and 618-13 Burial Grounds) were determined to have a total radionuclide inventory (WCH 2005a, WCH 2005d, WCH 2005e and WCH 2006b) that exceeds the DOE-STD-1027 Category 3 threshold quantity (DOE 1997) and are the subject of this analysis. This FHC document examines the hazards, identifies appropriate controls to manage the hazards, and documents the FHC and commitments for the 300-FF-2 Burial Grounds Remediation Project.

  5. Hysterical paralysis and premature burial: a medieval Persian case, fear and fascination in the West, and modern practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agutter, Paul S; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane; Rashidi, Mohammad Reza; Khalili, Majid; Hosseini, Seyed Fazel; Ghabili, Kamyar; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A; Loukas, Marios

    2013-04-01

    Premature burial (taphophobia) is an ancient fear, but it became especially common in 18th and 19th century Europe and may have a modern-day counterpart. Examination of a well-documented case from medieval Persia reveals the importance of funeral practices in the risk of actual premature burial and sheds light on the question of why taphophobia became so prevalent in Europe during the early industrial revolution period. The medieval Persian case was attributed to hysterical paralysis (conversion). We discuss the relationship between hysterical paralysis and premature burial more generally and show that although understanding of conversion syndrome remains incomplete, modern knowledge and practices have limited the risk of any similar tragedy today. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  6. Thallium-isotopic compositions of euxinic sediments as a proxy for global manganese-oxide burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Jeremy D.; Nielsen, Sune G.; Horner, Tristan J.; Ostrander, Chadlin M.; Peterson, Larry C.

    2017-09-01

    Thallium (Tl) isotopes are a new and potentially powerful paleoredox proxy that may track bottom water oxygen conditions based on the global burial flux of manganese oxides. Thallium has a residence time of ∼20 thousand years, which is longer than the ocean mixing time, and it has been inferred that modern oxic seawater is conservative with respect to both concentration and isotopes. Marine sources of Tl have nearly identical isotopic values. Therefore, the Tl sinks, adsorption onto manganese oxides and low temperature oceanic crust alteration (the dominant seawater output), are the primary controls of the seawater isotopic composition. For relatively short-term, ∼million years, redox events it is reasonable to assume that the dominant mechanism that alters the Tl isotopic composition of seawater is associated with manganese oxide burial because large variability in low temperature ocean crust alteration is controlled by long-term, multi-million years, average ocean crust production rates. This study presents new Tl isotope data for an open ocean transect in the South Atlantic, and depth transects for two euxinic basins (anoxic and free sulfide in the water column), the Cariaco Basin and Black Sea. The Tl isotopic signature of open ocean seawater in the South Atlantic was found to be homogeneous with ε205Tl = -6.0 ± 0.3 (±2 SD, n = 41) while oxic waters from Cariaco and the Black Sea are -5.6 and -2.2, respectively. Combined with existing data from the Pacific and Arctic Oceans, our Atlantic data establish the conservatism of Tl isotopes in the global ocean. In contrast, partially- and predominantly-restricted basins reveal Tl isotope differences that vary between open-ocean (-6) and continental material (-2) ε205Tl, scaling with the degree of restriction. Regardless of the differences between basins, Tl is quantitatively removed from their euxinic waters below the chemocline. The burial of Tl in euxinic sediments is estimated to be an order of magnitude

  7. A model for microbial phosphorus cycling in bioturbated marine sediments: Significance for phosphorus burial in the early Paleozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Andrew W.; Boyle, Richard A.; Lenton, Timothy M.; Ingall, Ellery D.; Wallmann, Klaus

    2016-09-01

    A diagenetic model is used to simulate the diagenesis and burial of particulate organic carbon (Corg) and phosphorus (P) in marine sediments underlying anoxic versus oxic bottom waters. The latter are physically mixed by animals moving through the surface sediment (bioturbation) and ventilated by burrowing, tube-dwelling organisms (bioirrigation). The model is constrained using an empirical database including burial ratios of Corg with respect to organic P (Corg:Porg) and total reactive P (Corg:Preac), burial efficiencies of Corg and Porg, and inorganic carbon-to-phosphorus regeneration ratios. If Porg is preferentially mineralized relative to Corg during aerobic respiration, as many previous studies suggest, then the simulated Porg pool is found to be completely depleted. A modified model that incorporates the redox-dependent microbial synthesis of polyphosphates and Porg (termed the microbial P pump) allows preferential mineralization of the bulk Porg pool relative to Corg during both aerobic and anaerobic respiration and is consistent with the database. Results with this model show that P burial is strongly enhanced in sediments hosting fauna. Animals mix highly labile Porg away from the aerobic sediment layers where mineralization rates are highest, thereby mitigating diffusive PO43- fluxes to the bottom water. They also expand the redox niche where microbial P uptake occurs. The model was applied to a hypothetical shelf setting in the early Paleozoic; a time of the first radiation of benthic fauna. Results show that even shallow bioturbation at that time may have had a significant impact on P burial. Our model provides support for a recent study that proposed that faunal radiation in ocean sediments led to enhanced P burial and, possibly, a stabilization of atmospheric O2 levels. The results also help to explain Corg:Porg ratios in the geological record and the persistence of Porg in ancient marine sediments.

  8. Micromorphological Aspects of Forensic Geopedology II: Ultramicroscopic vs Microscopic Characterization of Phosphatic Impregnations on Soil Particles in Experimental Burials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ern, S. I. E.; Trombino, L.; Cattaneo, C.

    2012-04-01

    Grows up the importance of the role played by soil scientists in the modern forensic sciences, in particular when buried human remains strongly decomposed or skeletonized are found in different environment situations. Among the different techniques normally used in geopedology, it is usefull to apply in such forensic cases, soil micromorphology (including optical microscopy and ultramicroscopy) that has been underused up today, for various kind of reasons. An interdisciplinary Italian-team, formed by earth scientists and legal medicine, is working on several sets of experimental burial of pigs and piglets in different soil types and for different times of burial, in order to get new evidences on environmental behaviour related to the burial, focalising on geopedological and micropedological aspects. The present work is focused on: - ultramicroscopic (SEM-EDS) characterization of the phosphatic impregnation (by body fluids) on soils sampled under the dead bodies of five couples of pigs, buried respectively for one month, six month, one year, two years and two years and half in two different areas; - microscopic (petrographic microscope) and ultramicroscopic (SEM-EDS) cross characterization of the phosphatic impregnation (by body fluids) on soils sampled under the dead bodies of several piglets, buried for twenty months. The first results show trends of persistency of such phosphatic features, mainly related to the grain size of the impregnated soil particles and weather conditions (or seasons) of exhumation, while apparently time since burial is only marginally effective for the investigated burial period. Further experiments are in progress in order to clarify the pathways of phosphorus precipitation and leaching for longer times of burial and different seasons of exhumation, both from the microscopic and the pedological/chemical point of view.

  9. "Interred with their bones" - linking soil micromorphology and chemistry to unlock the hidden archive of archaeological human burials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothwell, Don; Usai, Maria-Raimonda; Keely, Brendan; Pickering, Matt; Wilson, Clare

    2010-05-01

    "Interred with their bones" Acronym: InterArChive - an ERC-funded project *** " Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears; " I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him. " The evil that men do lives after them; " The good is oft 'interred with their bones'; " So let it be with Caesar. William Shakespeare, Julius Caesar, Act III, Scene 2. *** Background The state of decay within soils in archaeological graves is often such that degradable objects are not preserved in a condition that can be visually recognised. However, microscopic soil features, inorganic element distributions and organic residues can be measured. Thus, archaeological burial soils have the potential to reveal signatures of decay; pre-burial treatment; presence and nature of associated clothing and perishable artefacts; diet of the individual; cause of death; evidence of morbidity and drug-use. Aims • To develop and test a multidisciplinary approach linking soil micromorphology and chemistry to recover environmental and cultural information; • Revealing the hidden archaeological archive within the burial soil • Developing soil sampling and analysis recommendations for archaeological human burials Methods 1: Sampling and soil field description from archaeological sites contrasting in soil, geology, age, and culture and from experimental piglet burials 2: Microscopic/micromorphological analysis (micro-scale observations) of remains and features in burial soils. We will establish the order of occurrence, spatial patterns, displacement, mode of formation and decay of micromorphological features including exotic components, parasites, hair and remnants of footwear and clothing [cf. pilot study of soils from Yemen]; microfabrics and textural pedofeatures, also to facilitate resolution of body decay products from other accumulations. 3: Microprobe analysis (nano-scale) will generate elemental maps of soil thin sections, allowing identification of features with distinct chemical signatures

  10. Effects of fragment traits, burial orientation and nutrient supply on survival and growth in Populus deltoides × P. simonii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Su, Zhi-Qin; Xu, Lie; Shi, Xue-Ping; Du, Ke-Bing; Zheng, Bo; Wang, Yong-Jian

    2016-01-01

    Clonal propagations of shoot or root fragments play pivotal roles in adaptation of clonal trees to environmental heterogeneity, i.e. soil nutrient heterogeneity and burials after disturbance. However, little is known about whether burial orientation and nutrient supply can alter the effects of fragment traits in Populus. Shoot and root fragments of Populus deltoides × P. simonii were subjected to burials in two different fragment diameters (0.5 and 2.0 cm), two fragment lengths (5 and 15 cm) and three burial orientations (horizontal, upward and downward). For the shoot fragments, survival and growth were significantly higher in the larger pieces (either in length or diameter) and the horizontal/upward burial position. On the contrary, the effect of burial position was reversed for the root fragments. Shoot/root fragments of 15 cm in length in horizontal burial position were then subjected to two different fragment diameters (0.5 and 2.0 cm) and four types of nutrient supplies (without nutrient, low frequency, high frequency and patchy). Growth of shoot fragments of 2.0 cm in diameter significantly increased in high frequency and patchy nutrient supplies than that of without nutrient treatment. These results suggest that burial orientation and nutrient supply could be employed in clonal propagations of cuttings, afforestation or regeneration in Populus. PMID:26875529

  11. Phanerozoic burial, uplift and denudation of the Equatorial Atlantic margin of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japsen, Peter; Bonow, Johan M.; Green, Paul F.; dall'Asta, Massimo; Roig, Jean-Yves; Theveniaut, Hervé

    2017-04-01

    We have initiated a study aimed at understanding the history of burial, uplift and denudation of the South American Equatorial Atlantic Margin (SAEAM Uplift) including the Guiana Shield to provide a framework for investigating the hydrocarbon prospectivity of the offshore region. We report first results including observations from fieldwork at the northern and southern flank of the Guiana Shield. The study combines apatite fission-track analysis (AFTA) and vitrinite reflectance data from samples of outcrops and drillcores, sonic velocity data from drill holes and stratigraphic landscape analysis (mapping of peneplains) - all constrained by geological evidence, following the methods of Green et al. (2013). The study will thus combine the thermal history from AFTA data with the denudation history from stratigraphic landscape analysis to provide magnitudes and timing of vertical movements (Japsen et al. 2012, 2016). Along the Atlantic margin of Suriname and French Guiana, tilted and truncated Lower Cretaceous strata rest on Precambrian basement (Sapin et al. 2016). Our AFTA data show that the basement underwent Mesozoic exhumation prior to deposition of the Lower Cretaceous cover. Sub-horizontal peneplains define the landscape of the Guiana Shield at elevations up to 500 m a.s.l. As these sub-horizontal peneplains truncate the tilted, sub-Cretaceous surface along the Atlantic margin, these peneplains were therefore formed and uplifted in post-Cretaceous time. This interpretation is in good agreement with our AFTA data that define Paleogene exhumation along the margin and with the results of Theveniaut and Freyssinet (2002) who used palaeomagnetic data to conclude that bauxitic surfaces across basement at up to 400 m a.s.l. on the Guiana Shield formed during the Palaeogene. Integration of the results from AFTA with stratigraphic landscape analysis (currently in progress) and geological evidence will provide a robust reconstruction of the tectonic development of the

  12. Evolution of Microbial Carbonates During Early Burial: A Multi-Proxy Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, Chelsea; Klaus, James; Swart, Peter; McNeill, Donald

    2017-04-01

    This study provides a geochemical and textural characterization of modern, Holocene, and Pleistocene palustrine microbial muds and associated organic matter along the low-energy shoreline of the Florida Everglades, USA. Dense organic-rich, light brown carbonate muds are deposited above karstified Pleistocene limestone. Deposited in shallow freshwater, the palustrine mud is a result of precipitation induced by cyanobacterial photosynthesis, and reflects local water chemistry and hydrologic conditions. The microbial community forms a dense mat, and excretes exopolymeric substances (EPS) and other labile organic constituents, in which texturally complex, fine-grained low-Mg calcite (LMC) crystals precipitate. Geochemically, this deposit is characterized by high amounts of TOC (up to 12%), a depleted organic δ13C signal indicative of microbial activity, and a low range of inorganic δ18O and δ13C values reflecting freshwater deposition. Within the Holocene microbial mud sequence, depositional and burial environments (freshwater, brackish, and full marine) can be inferred through variation in geochemical signatures, which arise from differences in depositional fluids, vegetation type, and metabolic processes of organic degradation. Stable isotope values indicate that an increased marine influence causes more positive δ18O values, whereas a freshwater source is characterized by more negative values. Inorganic δ13C of the Holocene sequence likely represents biological influence, and shows a fairly large range of up to 5‰ whereas sediments within the marine burial environment have a much lower range (˜1.5). Depending on the method of organic decomposition (aerobic, anaerobic, etc.), different δ13C signatures are recorded in both the organic and inorganic fraction. Holocene cores indicate that the freshwater environment degrades organic material via denitrification during early burial, whereas the mangrove transition zone (greater marine influence) likely breaks

  13. A Study on Generic Representation of Skeletal Remains Replication of Prehistoric Burial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-W. Shao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Generic representation of skeletal remains from burials consists of three dimensions which include physical anthropologists, replication technicians, and promotional educators. For the reason that archaeological excavation is irreversible and disruptive, detail documentation and replication technologies are surely needed for many purposes. Unearthed bones during the process of 3D digital scanning need to go through reverse procedure, 3D scanning, digital model superimposition, rapid prototyping, mould making, and the integrated errors generated from the presentation of colours and textures are important issues for the presentation of replicate skeleton remains among professional decisions conducted by physical anthropologists, subjective determination of makers, and the expectations of viewers. This study presents several cases and examines current issues on display and replication technologies for human skeletal remains of prehistoric burials. This study documented detail colour changes of human skeleton over time for the reference of reproduction. The tolerance errors of quantification and required technical qualification is acquired according to the precision of 3D scanning, the specification requirement of rapid prototyping machine, and the mould making process should following the professional requirement for physical anthropological study. Additionally, the colorimeter is adopted to record and analyse the “colour change” of the human skeletal remains from wet to dry condition. Then, the “colure change” is used to evaluate the “real” surface texture and colour presentation of human skeletal remains, and to limit the artistic presentation among the human skeletal remains reproduction. The“Lingdao man No.1”, is a well preserved burial of early Neolithic period (8300 B.P. excavated from Liangdao-Daowei site, Matsu, Taiwan , as the replicating object for this study. In this study, we examined the reproduction procedures step by

  14. [Historical and biological approaches to the study of Modern Age French plague mass burials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianuccii, Raffaella; Tzortzis, Stéfan; Fornaciari, Gino; Signoli, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The "Black Death" and subsequent epidemics from 1346 to the early 18th century spread from the Caspian Sea all over Europe six hundred years after the outbreak of the Justinian plague (541-767 AD). Plague has been one of the most devastating infectious diseases that affected the humankind and has caused approximately 200 million human deaths historically. Here we describe the different approaches adopted in the study of several French putative plague mass burials dating to the Modern Age (16th-18th centuries). Through complementation of historical, archaeological and paleobiological data, ample knowledge of both the causes that favoured the spread of the Medieval plague in cities, towns and small villages and of the modification of the customary funerary practices in urban and rural areas due to plague are gained.

  15. Shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes. A selected, annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fore, C.S.; Vaughan, N.D.; Tappen, J. (comps.)

    1978-06-01

    The data file was built to provide information support to DOE researchers in the field of low-level radioactive waste disposal and management. The scope of the data base emphasizes studies which deal with the ''old'' Manhattan sites, commercial disposal sites, and the specific parameters which affect the soil and geologic migration of radionuclides. Specialized data fields have been incorporated into the data base to improve the ease and accuracy of locating pertinent references. Specific radionuclides for which data are presented are listed in the ''Measured Radionuclides'' field, and specific parameters which affect the migration of these radionuclides are presented in the ''Measured Parameters'' field. The 504 references are rated indicating applicability to shallow land burial technology and whether interpretation is required. Indexes are provided for author, geographic location, title, measured parameters, measured radionuclides, keywords, subject categories, and publication description. (DLC)

  16. A summary of ecological investigations at the burial ground complex, Savannah River Site - 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friday, G.P.; Hartman, G.D.; Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.; Roach, J.L.; Specht, W.L.; Westbury, H.M.; Wike, L.D.

    1994-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of three ecological investigations that were conducted in 1994 at the Burial Ground Complex (BGC) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The three topics of study included remote sensing, aquatic toxicity testing, and qualitative surveys of herpetofauna and small mammals. Interim reports from each investigation are included in the appendices (A, B, and C). The objectives of the remote sensing effort were to compile historical aerial photography of the BGC and to develop a land use/cover map of the complex using recent aerial imagery. The goal of the aquatic toxicity testing was to determine if surface waters were toxic to aquatic biota whereas the objectives of the vertebrate surveys were to identify the species diversity and relative abundances of amphibians, reptiles, and small mammals inhabiting the study area.

  17. Groundwater monitoring in the Savannah River Plant Low Level Waste Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlton, W.H.

    1983-12-31

    This document describes chemical mechanisms that may affect trace-level radionuclide migration through acidic sandy clay soils in a humid environment, and summarizes the extensive chemical and radiochemical analyses of the groundwater directly below the SRP Low-Level Waste (LLW) Burial Ground (643-G). Anomalies were identified in the chemistry of individual wells which appear to be related to small amounts of fission product activity that have reached the water table. The chemical properties which were statistically related to trace level transport of Cs-137 and Sr-90 were iron, potassium, sodium and calcium. Concentrations on the order of 100 ppM appear sufficient to affect nuclide migration. Several complexation mechanisms for plutonium migration were investigated.

  18. “Sacrificial complexes” of the Pyany Bor culture burial grounds in the Vyatka river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leshchinskaya Nadezhda A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A clearly defined element inherent in funeral traditions of the Finno-Ugric cultures in the period of the Early Iron Age to the Middle Ages, which was specified by V.F. Gening as a “sacrififcial complex”, is considered in the study. The main features of the “sacrificial complexes” fixed in the Pyanoborye burial grounds in the Vyatka River basin and dated by the 1st to 5th centuries AD are characterized. A comparative analysis with synchronous monuments of the Kama-Vyatka-Volga interfluve area is conducted. The “sacrificial complex” word combination is used in the article as a descriptive term. The diversity of the concept’ semantics as applied to the materials from the Vyatka River region is pointed out by the author.

  19. 75 FR 72845 - Notice of Availability; NUREG-1307, Revision 14, “Report on Waste Burial Charges Changes in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... Decommissioning Waste Disposal Costs at Low-Level Waste Burial Facilities'' AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... decommissioning fund requirements for nuclear power plants. The sources of information used in the formula are... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY...

  20. Interactive effects of mechanical stress, sand burial and defoliation on growth and mechanical properties in Cynanchum komarovii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, L.; Yu, F.H.; Werger, M.; Dong, M.; Anten, N.P.R.

    2013-01-01

    In drylands, wind, sand burial and grazing are three important factors affecting growth and mechanical properties of plants, but their interactive effects have not yet been investigated. Plants of the semi-shrub Cynanchum komarovii, common in semi-arid parts of NE Asia, were subjected to brushing,

  1. 38 CFR 1.10 - Eligibility for and disposition of the United States flag for burial purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... burial flags—(1) Persons eligible. (i) A veteran of any war, of Mexican border service, or of service.... (For the purpose of this section, the term Mexican border service means active military, naval, or air..., Southwest Pacific Area, or other competent authority in the Army of the United States, and who dies after...

  2. Addendum to the performance assessment analysis for low-level waste disposal in the 200 west area active burial grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, M.I., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-20

    An addendum was completed to the performance assessment (PA) analysis for the active 200 West Area low-level solid waste burial grounds. The addendum includes supplemental information developed during the review of the PA analysis, an ALARA analysis, a comparison of PA results with the Hanford Groundwater Protection Strategy, and a justification for the assumption of 500 year deterrence to the inadvertent intruder.

  3. The Funeral Rite of the Tyosha River Group of 3rd–7th—Century Mordovian Burials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavitsky Vladimir V.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The burial rite typical of the northern group of the Mordovian sites located in the Tyosha river basin is characterized in the article. The changes in burial traditions are analyzed in the framework of three periods: the 3rd-4th, the 5th, and the 6th-7th centuries. For this population group, single inhumations in ground graves, with the orientation primarily to the North with deviations were traditional. In the second half of the 4th century, an influx of people from the Middle or Upper Oka river region to the Tyosha river basin resulted in the spread of cremations and various ritual acts connected with fire. In the second half of the 5th century, these traditions gradually disappeared. By the 6th century, the linear layout of the burials on the Abramovo burial ground had been replaced by the group one, which attests to the social changes in the life of the Mordovians characteristic of the period.

  4. Mesolithic burial place in La Martina Cave (Dinant, Belgium); La grotte de La Martina (Dinant, Belgique) et sa sepulture mesolithique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewez, M.; Gilot, E.; Groessens-Van-Dyck, M.C. [Universite Catholique de Louvain (UCL), Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Cordy, J.M. [Liege Univ. (Belgium)

    1995-10-01

    The ``La Martina`` cave is located near Dinant (Belgium). Although the sediments had been shoveled out in the mid XIXth century, a calcic breccia has provided prehistoric bones. We can distinguish a Pleistocene fauna with cave bear, one Mesolithic burial place with two cromagnoid skeletons, from the 6th millennium BC, and some Holocene faunal remains. (authors). 7 refs.

  5. Blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) survive burial: Evidence of ascending vertical dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balme, G R; Denning, S S; Cammack, J A; Watson, D W

    2012-03-10

    This study was undertaken to determine if immature blow flies could complete development following burial and emerge from the soil as adults. Two species of blow flies, Cochliomyia macellaria and Protophormia terraenovae, were placed at three depths and at three different life stages, in a simulated burial to evaluate the impact of soil on ascending vertical dispersal and fly survival. In soil columns, immature stages of each species were covered with 5, 25 and 50cm of soil. Emerging adult flies of both species reached the surface from all depths at all three immature stages (2nd instar, 3rd instar and pupae). At the 50-cm depth, flies were least successful in reaching the surface when buried as pupae and most successful as late 3rd instar larvae (prepupae). Collectively, more adult flies emerged from the soil if buried as 3rd instars (79.6%) than either 2nd instars or pupae (59.6% and 59.3%, respectively (F(2,159)=14.76, Pmacellaria 2nd instars buried in 25cm of soil pupated nearer to the surface. Similarly, 45.4% of the P. terraenovae 2nd instars pupated nearer to the surface. When buried at 50cm, approximately 25% of 2nd instars of both species pupated nearer to the surface. When 3rd instars of C. macellaria and P. terraenovae were buried at 120cm, 40% and 4.3% of the adults, respectively, successfully reached the soil surface. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Carbon and nitrogen burial in a plateau lake during eutrophication and phytoplankton blooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Changchun; Zhang, Linlin; Li, Yunmei; Lin, Chen; Huang, Tao; Zhang, Mingli; Zhu, A-Xing; Yang, Hao; Wang, Xiaolei

    2017-11-06

    Organic carbon (OC) buried in lake sediment is an important component of the global carbon cycle. The impact of eutrophication on OC burial in lakes should be addressed due to worldwide lake eutrophication. Fourteen (210)Pb- and (137)Cs-dated sediment cores taken in Dianchi Lake (China) in August 2006 (seven cores) and July 2014 (seven cores) were analyzed to evaluate the response of the organic carbon accumulation rate (OCAR) to eutrophication and algal blooms over the past hundred years. The mean value of OCAR before eutrophication occurred in 1979, 16.62±7.53 (mean value±standard deviation), increased to 54.33±27.29gm(-2)yr(-1) after eutrophication. It further increased to 61.98±28.94gm(-2)yr(-1) after algal blooms occurred (1989). The accumulation rate of organic nitrogen (ONAR) is coupled with OCAR. The high loss rate of OC and organic nitrogen (ON) leads to a long-term burial efficiency of only 10% and 5% of OC and ON. However, this efficiency can still lead to an increase in OCAR by a factor of 4.55 during algal blooms in Dianchi Lake. Dianchi Lake stored 1.26±0.32 Tg carbon and 0.071±0.018 Tg nitrogen, including 0.94±0.23 Tg OC and 0.32±0.14 Tg inorganic carbon, 0.066±0.018 Tg ON, 0.002±0.001 Tg nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) and 0.003±0.001 Tg ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N) between 1900 and 2012. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Historic carbon burial spike in an Amazon floodplain lake linked to riparian deforestation near Santarém, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Luciana M.; Taffs, Kathryn; Stokes, Debra; Sanders, Christian J.; Enrich-Prast, Alex; Amora-Nogueira, Leonardo; Marotta, Humberto

    2018-01-01

    Forests along the Amazon Basin produce significant quantities of organic material, a portion of which is deposited in floodplain lakes. Deforestation in the watershed may then have potentially important effects on the carbon fluxes. In this study, a sediment core was extracted from an Amazon floodplain lake to examine the relationship between carbon burial and changing land cover and land use. Historical records from the 1930s and satellite data from the 1970s were used to calculate deforestation rates between 1930 to 1970 and 1970 to 2010 in four zones with different distances from the margins of the lake and its tributaries (100, 500, 1000 and 6000 m buffers). A sediment accumulation rate of ˜ 4 mm yr-1 for the previous ˜ 120 years was determined from the 240+239Pu signatures and the excess 210Pb method. The carbon burial rates ranged between 85 and 298 g C m-2 yr-1, with pulses of high carbon burial in the 1950s, originating from the forest vegetation as indicated by δ13C and δ15N signatures. Our results revealed a potentially important spatial dependence of the organic carbon (OC) burial in Amazon lacustrine sediments in relation to deforestation rates in the catchment. These deforestation rates were more intense in the riparian vegetation (100 m buffer) during the period 1930 to 1970 and the larger open water areas (500, 1000 and 6000 m buffer) during 1970 to 2010. The continued removal of vegetation from the interior of the forest was not related to the peak of OC burial in the lake, but only the riparian deforestation which peaked during the 1950s. Therefore, this supports the conservation priority of riparian forests as an important management practice for Amazon flooded areas. Our findings suggest the importance of abrupt and temporary events in which some of the biomass released by deforestation, especially restricted to areas along open water edges, might reach the depositional environments in the floodplain of the Amazon Basin.

  8. Global change and response of coastal dune plants to the combined effects of increased sand accretion (burial) and nutrient availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosini, Silvia; Lardicci, Claudio; Balestri, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Coastal dune plants are subjected to natural multiple stresses and vulnerable to global change. Some changes associated with global change could interact in their effects on vegetation. As vegetation plays a fundamental role in building and stabilizing dune systems, effective coastal habitat management requires a better understanding of the combined effects of such changes on plant populations. A manipulative experiment was conducted along a Mediterranean dune system to examine the individual and combined effects of increased sediment accretion (burial) and nitrogen enrichment associated with predicted global change on the performance of young clones of Sporobolus virginicus, a widespread dune stabilizing species. Increased burial severity resulted in the production of taller but thinner shoots, while nutrient enrichment stimulated rhizome production. Nutrient enrichment increased total plant biomass up to moderate burial levels (50% of plant height), but it had not effect at the highest burial level (100% of plant height). The effects of such factors on total biomass, shoot biomass and branching were influenced by spatial variation in natural factors at the scale of hundreds of metres. These results indicate that the effects of burial and nutrient enrichment on plant performance were not independent. Their combined effects may not be predicted by knowing the individual effects, at least under the study conditions. Under global change scenarios, increased nutrient input could alleviate nutrient stress in S. virginicus, enhancing clonal expansion and productivity, but this benefit could be offset by increased sand accretion levels equal or exceeding 100% of plant height. Depletion of stored reserves for emerging from sand could increase plant vulnerability to other stresses in the long-term. The results emphasize the need to incorporate statistical designs for detecting non-independent effects of multiple changes and adequate spatial replication in future works to

  9. Carbon burial in salt marshes following tidal restriction: A case study from Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanks, K. M.; Gonneea, M. E.; Kroeger, K. D.; Spivak, A. C.; Roberts, D.

    2016-12-01

    Current and future sea-level rise poses an imminent threat to coastal ecosystems, in part due to accelerating global warming resulting from increasing greenhouse gasses, mainly CO2 and CH4, in the atmosphere. Coastal ecosystems, such as salt marshes, sequester CO2 at greater rates than terrestrial ecosystems and store carbon for millennia, potentially playing an important role in the climate system due to their influence on atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. However, these ecosystems have lost significant area globally and continue to be threatened by coastal development, rising sea level, and climate change. Restoration of coastal wetlands has been undertaken to preserve ecosystem services, such as bird and wild life habitat, storm protection, and recreation. The potential impact of wetland restoration on carbon burial is also an important ecosystem service. Indeed, it is now possible to receive carbon credits on voluntary carbon markets for coastal wetland restoration that demonstrate net carbon removal. However, science lags policy, as little is known about carbon burial post restoration. Nine marshes in Cape Cod, MA were studied to compare the natural marsh to restored areas where a tidal restriction previously impeded the supply of salt water, causing the loss of salt marsh vegetation. Over the past 5 to 20 years, these restrictions were widened to allow for increased tidal flow, which has allowed salt marsh vegetation to prosper again. Sediment cores were taken from both restored and natural areas in the marsh and age dated using the 210Pb continuous rate of supply model. Carbon density was evaluated in the top 80 cm of all cores. In the region of the cores representing post restoration conditions, the mean carbon densities of the natural sites are similar when compared to restored sites, thus showing that through restoration of salt marsh vegetation, carbon sequestration rates are similar to undisturbed salt marshes. Regions of the sediment cores

  10. Earliest evidence of personal ornaments associated with burial: the Conus shells from Border Cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Errico, Francesco; Backwell, Lucinda

    2016-04-01

    The four to six month old infant from Border Cave, found with a perforated Conus shell in a pit excavated in Howiesons Poort (HP) layers dated to 74 ± 4 BP, is considered the oldest instance of modern human burial from Africa, and the earliest example of a deceased human interred with a personal ornament. In this article we present new data retrieved from unpublished archives on the burial excavation, and conduct an in-depth analysis of the Conus found with the infant, and a second similar Conus that probably originates from the same layer. Based on morphological, morphometric and ecological evidence we assign these two shells to Conus ebraeus Linnaeus 1758, a tropical species still living on the nearest coastline to Border Cave, in northern KwaZulu-Natal. This attribution changes the paleoclimatic setting inferred from the previous ascription of these shells to Conus bairstowi, a species endemic to the Eastern Cape and adapted to colder sea surface temperatures. Reconstructions of 74 ka sea surface temperatures along the southern African east coast are consistent with our reassignment. Analysis of shell thanatocoenoses and biocoenosis from the KwaZulu-Natal coast, including microscopic study of their surfaces, reveals that complete, well preserved living or dead Conus, such as those found at Border Cave, are rare on beaches, can be collected at low tide at a depth of c. 0.5-2 m among the rocks, and that the archeological shells were dead when collected. We demonstrate that the perforations at the apex were produced by humans, and that traces of wear due to prolonged utilization as an ornament are present. SEM-EDX analysis of patches of red residue on the Conus found in the pit with the infant indicates that it is composed of iron, phosphorus, silicon, aluminium, and magnesium. Results indicate that, at least in some areas of southern Africa, the use of marine gastropods as ornaments, already attested in Still Bay, extended to the first phases of the HP

  11. Cretaceous–Cenozoic burial and exhumation history of the Chukchi shelf, offshore Arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, William H.; Houseknecht, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Apatite fission track (AFT) and vitrinite reflectance data from five exploration wells and three seafloor cores illuminate the thermal history of the underexplored United States Chukchi shelf. On the northeastern shelf, Triassic strata in the Chevron 1 Diamond well record apatite annealing followed by cooling, possibly during the Triassic to Middle Jurassic, which is a thermal history likely related to Canada Basin rifting. Jurassic strata exhumed in the hanging wall of the frontal Herald Arch thrust fault record a history of probable Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous structural burial in the Chukotka fold and thrust belt, followed by rapid exhumation to near-surface temperatures at 104 ± 30 Ma. This history of contractional tectonism is in good agreement with inherited fission track ages in low-thermal-maturity, Cretaceous–Cenozoic strata in the Chukchi foreland, providing complementary evidence for the timing of exhumation and suggesting a source-to-sink relationship. In the central Chukchi foreland, inverse modeling of reset AFT samples from the Shell 1 Klondike and Shell 1 Crackerjack wells reveals several tens of degrees of cooling from maximum paleo-temperatures, with maximum heating permissible at any time from about 100 to 50 Ma, and cooling persisting to as recent as 30 Ma. Similar histories are compatible with partially reset AFT samples from other Chukchi wells (Shell 1 Popcorn, Shell 1 Burger, and Chevron 1 Diamond) and are probable in light of regional geologic evidence. Given geologic context provided by regional seismic reflection data, we interpret these inverse models to reveal a Late Cretaceous episode of cyclical burial and erosion across the central Chukchi shelf, possibly partially overprinted by Cenozoic cooling related to decreasing surface temperatures. Regionally, we interpret this kinematic history to be reflective of moderate, transpressional deformation of the Chukchi shelf during the final phases of contractional tectonism in the

  12. The influence of climate on early and burial diagenesis of Triassic and Jurassic sandstones from the Norwegian – Danish Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weibel, Rikke; Olivarius, Mette; Kjøller, Claus

    2017-01-01

    Climate changes preserved in sandstones are documented by comparing the sediment composition and early diagenetic changes in sandstones deposited during arid to semi-arid conditions, the Skagerrak Formation, with sandstones of the Gassum Formation deposited in a humid well-vegetated environment...... to the Gassum Formation, which was characterized by quartz and more stable heavy minerals. The arid to semi-arid climate led to early oxidising conditions under which abundant iron-oxide/hydroxide coatings formed, while the evaporative processes occasionally resulted in caliche and gypsum precipitation. Under...... changes occurring during deeper burial, so dolomite preferentially formed in the sandstones deposited in an arid environment while ankerite characterises sandstones deposited under humid conditions. In addition to climate induced burial diagenetic changes, there are also temperature dependent phases...

  13. Widespread mixing and burial of Earth's Hadean crust by asteroid impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, S; Bottke, W F; Elkins-Tanton, L T; Bierhaus, M; Wuennemann, K; Morbidelli, A; Kring, D A

    2014-07-31

    The history of the Hadean Earth (∼4.0-4.5 billion years ago) is poorly understood because few known rocks are older than ∼3.8 billion years old. The main constraints from this era come from ancient submillimetre zircon grains. Some of these zircons date back to ∼4.4 billion years ago when the Moon, and presumably the Earth, was being pummelled by an enormous flux of extraterrestrial bodies. The magnitude and exact timing of these early terrestrial impacts, and their effects on crustal growth and evolution, are unknown. Here we provide a new bombardment model of the Hadean Earth that has been calibrated using existing lunar and terrestrial data. We find that the surface of the Hadean Earth was widely reprocessed by impacts through mixing and burial by impact-generated melt. This model may explain the age distribution of Hadean zircons and the absence of early terrestrial rocks. Existing oceans would have repeatedly boiled away into steam atmospheres as a result of large collisions as late as about 4 billion years ago.

  14. Ancient astronomical instrument from Srubna burial of kurgan field Tavriya-1 (Northern Black Sea Coast)

    CERN Document Server

    Vodolazhskaya, Larisa; Nevskiy, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the results of analysis of the spatial arrangement of the wells on the unique slab from Srubna burial of kurgan field Tavriya-1 (Rostov region, Russia) by astronomical methods. At the slab revealed two interrelated groups of wells, one of which - in the form of a circle, is proposed to interpret how analemmatic sundial, and second group, consisting of disparate wells, as auxiliary astronomical markers of rising luminaries directions, to correct the position of the gnomon. Simultaneous location of both groups of wells on the same slab is a possible indication of one of the stages of development of the design features analemmatic sundial - setting movable gnomon and technology of measuring time with it. It may point to local origin, as the very idea of analemmatic sundial as well technology measurement of time with them. The article also describes the model analemmatic sundial, hour marks which in many cases coincide with the wells arranged in a circle, particularly in a working range from ...

  15. Molybdenum speciation and burial pathway in weakly sulfidic environments: Insights from XAFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Meghan; Chappaz, Anthony; Lyons, Timothy W.

    2017-06-01

    Sedimentary molybdenum (Mo) accumulation is a robust proxy for sulfidic conditions in both modern and ancient aquatic systems and has been used to infer changing marine redox chemistry throughout Earth's history. Accurate interpretation of any proxy requires a comprehensive understanding of its biogeochemical cycling, but knowledge gaps remain concerning the geochemical mechanism(s) leading to Mo burial in anoxic sediments. Better characterization of Mo speciation should provide mechanistic insight into sedimentary Mo accumulation, and therefore in this study we investigate Mo speciation from both modern (Castle Lake, USA) and ancient (Doushantuo Formation, China) environments using X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopy. By utilizing a series of laboratory-synthesized oxythiomolybdate complexes-many containing organic ligands-we expand the number of available standards to encompass a greater range of known Mo chemistry and test the linkage between Mo and total organic carbon (TOC). In weakly euxinic systems ([H2S(aq)] < 11 μM), or where sulfide is restricted to pore waters, natural samples are best represented by a linear combination of MoO3, MoOxS4-x2- (intermediate thiomolybdates), and [MoOx(cat)4-x]2- (cat = catechol, x = 2 or 3). These results suggest a revised model for how Mo accumulates in weakly sulfidic sediments, including a previously unrecognized role for organic matter in early sequestration of Mo and a de-emphasized importance for MoS42- (tetrathiomolybdate).

  16. Large difference in carbon emission – burial balances between boreal and arctic lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, E J; Klaminder, J; Bastviken, D; Olid, C; Hansson, S V; Karlsson, J

    2015-09-15

    Lakes play an important role in the global carbon (C) cycle by burying C in sediments and emitting CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere. The strengths and control of these fundamentally different pathways are therefore of interest when assessing the continental C balance and its response to environmental change. In this study, based on new high-resolution estimates in combination with literature data, we show that annual emission:burial ratios are generally ten times higher in boreal compared to subarctic - arctic lakes. These results suggest major differences in lake C cycling between biomes, as lakes in warmer boreal regions emit more and store relatively less C than lakes in colder arctic regions. Such effects are of major importance for understanding climatic feedbacks on the continental C sink - source function at high latitudes. If predictions of global warming and northward expansion of the boreal biome are correct, it is likely that increasing C emissions from high latitude lakes will partly counteract the presumed increasing terrestrial C sink capacity at high latitudes.

  17. Site characterization investigations at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [Shallow land burial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketelle, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The geologic and geohydrologic characterization and assessment techniques currently used at ORNL are integrated into a systematic approach. The investigations are multi-faceted, and involve investigators with a variety of expertise. Characterization studies are designed to obtain the data requirements of pathways analysis and facility design in addition to the detailed site description. The approach effectively minimizes the redundancy and lack of coordination which often arise when the study is broken down into totally independent tasks. The geologic environment of the Oak Ridge Reservation is one of structural and stratigraphic complexity which requires a comprehensive and systematic approach to characterize. Recent characterization studies have included state-of-the-science techniques in the areas of unsaturated zone testing, geochemical tests to determine attenuation properties of soils, and numerical analyses of site performance. The results of these studies and analyses are changing the technology of shallow land burial by indicating that chemically stable waste forms are required to limit radionuclide migration to acceptable levels. 11 refs., 1 tab.

  18. Molybdenum speciation and burial pathway in weakly sulfidic environments: Insights from XAFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Meghan; Chappaz, Anthony; Lyons, Timothy W.

    2017-06-01

    Sedimentary molybdenum (Mo) accumulation is a robust proxy for sulfidic conditions in both modern and ancient aquatic systems and has been used to infer changing marine redox chemistry throughout Earth’s history. Accurate interpretation of any proxy requires a comprehensive understanding of its biogeochemical cycling, but knowledge gaps remain concerning the geochemical mechanism(s) leading to Mo burial in anoxic sediments. Better characterization of Mo speciation should provide mechanistic insight into sedimentary Mo accumulation, and therefore in this study we investigate Mo speciation from both modern (Castle Lake, USA) and ancient (Doushantuo Formation, China) environments using X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopy. By utilizing a series of laboratory-synthesized oxythiomolybdate complexes—many containing organic ligands—we expand the number of available standards to encompass a greater range of known Mo chemistry and test the linkage between Mo and total organic carbon (TOC). In weakly euxinic systems ([H2S(aq)] < 11 µM), or where sulfide is restricted to pore waters, natural samples are best represented by a linear combination of MoO3, MoOxS4-x2- (intermediate thiomolybdates), and [MoOx(cat)4-x]2- (cat = catechol, x = 2 or 3). These results suggest a revised model for how Mo accumulates in weakly sulfidic sediments, including a previously unrecognized role for organic matter in early sequestration of Mo and a de-emphasized importance for MoS42- (tetrathiomolybdate).

  19. Thawing of permafrost may disturb historic cattle burial grounds in East Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris A. Revich

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Climate warming in the Arctic may increase the risk of zoonoses due to expansion of vector habitats, improved chances of vector survival during winter, and permafrost degradation. Monitoring of soil temperatures at Siberian cryology control stations since 1970 showed correlations between air temperatures and the depth of permafrost layer that thawed during summer season. Between 1900s and 1980s, the temperature of surface layer of permafrost increased by 2–4°C; and a further increase of 3°C is expected. Frequent outbreaks of anthrax caused death of 1.5 million deer in Russian North between 1897 and 1925. Anthrax among people or cattle has been reported in 29,000 settlements of the Russian North, including more than 200 Yakutia settlements, which are located near the burial grounds of cattle that died from anthrax. Statistically significant positive trends in annual average temperatures were established in 8 out of 17 administrative districts of Yakutia for which sufficient meteorological data were available. At present, it is not known whether further warming of the permafrost will lead to the release of viable anthrax organisms. Nevertheless, we suggest that it would be prudent to undertake careful monitoring of permafrost conditions in all areas where an anthrax outbreak had occurred in the past.

  20. 26Al/10Be burial dating of Xujiayao-Houjiayao site in Nihewan Basin, northern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Tu

    Full Text Available The Xujiayao-Houjiayao site in Nihewan Basin is among the most important Paleolithic sites in China for having provided a rich collection of hominin and mammalian fossils and lithic artifacts. Based on biostratigraphical correlation and exploratory results from a variety of dating methods, the site has been widely accepted as early Upper Pleistocene in time. However, more recent paleomagnetic analyses assigned a much older age of ∼500 ka (thousand years. This paper reports the application of 26Al/10Be burial dating as an independent check. Two quartz samples from a lower cultural horizon give a weighted mean age of 0.24 ± 0.05 Ma (million years, 1σ. The site is thus younger than 340 ka at 95% confidence, which is at variance with the previous paleomagnetic results. On the other hand, our result suggests an age of older than 140 ka for the site's lower cultural deposits, which is consistent with recent post-infrared infrared stimulated luminescence (pIR-IRSL dating at 160-220 ka.

  1. Luxurious Merovingian Textiles Excavated from Burials in the Saint Denis Basilica, France, 6th-7th century

    OpenAIRE

    Desrosiers, Sophie; Rast-Eicher, Antoinette

    2013-01-01

    A new examination of the textile fragments found in the Merovingian burials in the basilica of Saint Denis, near Paris, has recently underscored the diversity of fabrics used to make garments in which members of the royal court were buried. Among them, some woolens of fine quality had been dyed with indigotin. The most astonishing fibre found belongs to a mixed textile (not skin) with beaver fibers and wool. Silks contained shellfish purple and in one case kermes? Two dyestuffs associated wit...

  2. Sensitivity of Shallow Land Burial to neutron environment and activation cross sections in IFE thick-liquid concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Cabellos de Francisco, Oscar Luis; J. Sanz; Reyes, S; Latkowski, J.; García Herranz, Nuria

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment on the eligibility of reduced activation (RA) steels as structural chamber material in Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) thick-liquid concepts is performed. As far as alloying elements, it is shown that the activation of tungsten is a question to debate. Regarding impurity elements, it is analyzed if they could question the possibility of obtaining real RA steels for shallow land burial (SLB). The effect of the thickness of the liquid wall on the SLB response of alloying...

  3. Mine burial in the seabed of high-turbidity area (Belgian coastal zone): findings from a first experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Baeye, M.; Fettweis, M.; Legrand, S.; Dupont, Y.; Van Lancker, V.

    2012-01-01

    Suspended particulate matter; particle size distribution; statistical handling; coastal turbidity maximum; wind impact; seabed variations The seabed of the North Sea is covered with ammunition dating back from World Wars I and II. With increasing human interference (e.g. fisheries, aggregate extraction, harbour related activities), it forms a threat to the safety at sea. In this study, test mines were deployed on a sandy seabed for three months to investigate mine burial processes as a functi...

  4. Thin terrestrial sediment deposits on intertidal sandflats: effects on pore-water solutes and juvenile bivalve burial behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohaia, A.; Vopel, K.; Pilditch, C. A.

    2014-04-01

    Nearshore zones experience increased sedimentation due to coastal development and enhanced loads of fine terrestrial sediment (hereafter, TS) in river waters. Deposition of TS can alter seabed biogeochemical processes but the effects on benthic ecosystem functioning are unknown. The results of a past experiment with defaunated, intertidal sediment suggest that a decrease in the oxygenation of this sediment by a thin (mm) TS deposit causes substrate rejection (refusal to bury) by post-settlement juvenile recruits of the tellinid bivalve Macomona liliana. We further examined this behaviour, asking if such deposits negatively affect burial when applied to intertidal sediment that is oxygenated by bioturbation (C) or depleted of dead and living organic matter (D). We observed recruits on the surface of four treatments: C, D, and the same sediments to which we added a 1.7-1.9 mm layer of TS (CTS, DTS). The TS deposit decreased the oxygenation and the pH of the underlying intertidal sediment (CTS) confirming previous results, but significantly increased but not decreased the probability of burial, irrespectively of treatment. Juveniles more likely buried into C than into D. The mechanism that caused previously observed substrate rejection by post-settlement juvenile M. liliana remains unclear but our results suggest that contact of the recruits with the TS deposit does not cause substrate rejection. We now hypothesise that conditioning of sediment by bioturbation can mediate negative effects of TS deposits on the recruits' burial behaviour.

  5. An evaluation of temporal changes in sediment accumulation and impacts on carbon burial in Mobile Bay, Alabama, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher G.; Osterman, Lisa E.

    2014-01-01

    The estuarine environment can serve as either a source or sink of carbon relative to the coastal ocean carbon budget. A variety of time-dependent processes such as sedimentation, carbon supply, and productivity dictate how estuarine systems operate, and Mobile Bay is a system that has experienced both natural and anthropogenic perturbations that influenced depositional processes and carbon cycling. Sediments from eight box cores provide a record of change in bulk sediment accumulation and carbon burial over the past 110 years. Accumulation rates in the central part of the basin (0.09 g cm−2) were 60–80 % less than those observed at the head (0.361 g cm−2) and mouth (0.564 g cm−2) of the bay. Sediment accumulation in the central bay decreased during the past 90 years in response to both anthropogenic (causeway construction) and natural (tropical cyclones) perturbations. Sediment accumulation inevitably increased the residence time of organic carbon in the oxic zone, as observed in modeled remineralization rates, and reduced the overall carbon burial. Such observations highlight the critical balance among sediment accumulation, carbon remineralization, and carbon burial in dynamic coastal environments. Time-series analysis based solely on short-term observation would not capture the long-term effects of changes in sedimentation on carbon cycling. Identifying these relationships over longer timescales (multi-annual to decadal) will provide a far better evaluation of coastal ocean carbon budgets.

  6. Seed Burial Depth and Soil Water Content Affect Seedling Emergence and Growth of Ulmus pumila var. sabulosa in the Horqin Sandy Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of seed burial depth and soil water content on seedling emergence and growth of Ulmus pumila var. sabulosa (sandy elm, an important native tree species distributed over the European-Asian steppe. Experimental sand burial depths in the soil were 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 cm, and soil water contents were 4%, 8%, 12% and 16% of field capacity. All two-way ANOVA (five sand burial depths and four soil water contents results showed that seed burial depths, soil water content and their interactions significantly affected all the studied plant variables. Most of the times, seedling emergence conditions were greater at the lower sand burial depths (less than 1.0 cm than at the higher (more than 1.0 cm seed burial depths, and at the lower water content (less than 12% than at the higher soil water content. However, high seed burial depths (more than 1.5 cm or low soil water content (less than 12% reduced seedling growth or change in the root/shoot biomass ratios. In conclusion, the most suitable range of sand burial was from 0.5 to 1.0 cm soil depth and soil water content was about 12%, respectively, for the processes of seedling emergence and growth. These findings indicate that seeds of the sandy elm should be kept at rather shallow soil depths, and water should be added up to 12% of soil capacity when conducting elm planting and management. Our findings could help to create a more appropriate sandy elm cultivation and understand sparse elm woodland recruitment failures in arid and semi-arid regions.

  7. Sediment accretion and organic carbon burial relative to sea-level rise and storm events in two mangrove forests in Everglades National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoak, Joseph M.; Breithaupt, Joshua L.; Smith, Thomas J.; Sanders, Christian J.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to examine how sediment accretion and organic carbon (OC) burial rates in mangrove forests respond to climate change. Specifically, will the accretion rates keep pace with sea-level rise, and what is the source and fate of OC in the system? Mass accumulation, accretion and OC burial rates were determined via 210Pb dating (i.e. 100 year time scale) on sediment cores collected from two mangrove forest sites within Everglades National Park, Florida (USA). Enhanced mass accumulation, accretion and OC burial rates were found in an upper layer that corresponded to a well-documented storm surge deposit. Accretion rates were 5.9 and 6.5 mm yr−1 within the storm deposit compared to overall rates of 2.5 and 3.6 mm yr−1. These rates were found to be matching or exceeding average sea-level rise reported for Key West, Florida. Organic carbon burial rates were 260 and 393 g m−2 yr−1 within the storm deposit compared to 151 and 168 g m−2 yr−1 overall burial rates. The overall rates are similar to global estimates for OC burial in marine wetlands. With tropical storms being a frequent occurrence in this region the resulting storm surge deposits are an important mechanism for maintaining both overall accretion and OC burial rates. Enhanced OC burial rates within the storm deposit could be due to an increase in productivity created from higher concentrations of phosphorus within storm-delivered sediments and/or from the deposition of allochthonous OC. Climate change-amplified storms and sea-level rise could damage mangrove forests, exposing previously buried OC to oxidation and contribute to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, the processes described here provide a mechanism whereby oxidation of OC would be limited and the overall OC reservoir maintained within the mangrove forest sediments.

  8. The impact of male burials on the construction of Corded Ware identity: Reconstructing networks of information in the 3rd millennium BC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Quentin; Kroon, Erik

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of Corded Ware Groups throughout Europe in the 3rd millennium BC is one of the most defining events in European history. From the Wolga to the Rhine communities start to speak Indo-European languages and bury their dead in an extremely similar fashion. Recent ancient DNA-analyses identify a massive migration from the Eurasian steppe as the prime cause for this event. However, there is a fundamental difference between expressing a Corded Ware identity-the sharing of world views and ideas-and having a specific DNA-profile. Therefore, we argue that investigating the exchange of cultural information on burial rites between these communities serves as a crucial complement to the exchange of biological information. By adopting a practice perspective to 1161 Corded Ware burials throughout north-western Europe, combined with similarity indexes and network representations, we demonstrate a high degree of information sharing on the burial ritual between different regions. Moreover, we show that male burials are much more international in character than female burials and as such can be considered as the vector along which cultural information and Corded Ware identity was transmitted. This finding highlights an underlying complex societal organization of Corded Ware burial rites in which gender roles had a significant impact on the composition and transmission of cultural information. Our findings corroborate recent studies that suggest the Corded Ware was a male focused society.

  9. The impact of male burials on the construction of Corded Ware identity: Reconstructing networks of information in the 3rd millennium BC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin Bourgeois

    Full Text Available The emergence of Corded Ware Groups throughout Europe in the 3rd millennium BC is one of the most defining events in European history. From the Wolga to the Rhine communities start to speak Indo-European languages and bury their dead in an extremely similar fashion. Recent ancient DNA-analyses identify a massive migration from the Eurasian steppe as the prime cause for this event. However, there is a fundamental difference between expressing a Corded Ware identity-the sharing of world views and ideas-and having a specific DNA-profile. Therefore, we argue that investigating the exchange of cultural information on burial rites between these communities serves as a crucial complement to the exchange of biological information. By adopting a practice perspective to 1161 Corded Ware burials throughout north-western Europe, combined with similarity indexes and network representations, we demonstrate a high degree of information sharing on the burial ritual between different regions. Moreover, we show that male burials are much more international in character than female burials and as such can be considered as the vector along which cultural information and Corded Ware identity was transmitted. This finding highlights an underlying complex societal organization of Corded Ware burial rites in which gender roles had a significant impact on the composition and transmission of cultural information. Our findings corroborate recent studies that suggest the Corded Ware was a male focused society.

  10. Organic Carbon Burial Rates in Mangrove Soils Along Florida's Coast from Tampa Bay to Biscayne National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoak, J. M.; Breithaupt, J. L.; Moyer, R. P.; Sanders, C. J.; Proctor, M. R.; Jacobs, J. A.; Chappel, A. R.; Comparetto, K. R.

    2016-12-01

    Mangrove forests provide a range of valuable ecosystem services including sequestering organic carbon (OC) in their soils at rates much greater on a per area basis than those found in other types of forests. This restricts a large quantity of OC to a relatively small area along tropical and sub-tropical coastal margins, where dramatic climate-driven impacts are expected. Hence this small yet highly-vulnerable area will have a disproportionally large impact on global carbon cycling. One of the fundamental climate-related questions in mangrove systems is whether their soils will continue to function as a globally significant OC sink or become a source as previously buried OC is oxidized and returned to the atmosphere. While changes to precipitation, temperature, cyclone activity, etc. may influence this sink capacity, it is accelerating sea-level rise (SLR) that is of greatest immediate concern because if mangrove peat formation fails to keep pace then all ecosystem services, including carbon burial, will collapse. Mangroves that receive minimal terrigenous sediments (such as those in South Florida) are largely dependent on the rate of OC accumulation as a key contributor to accretion. To investigate these processes, we measured OC burial and accretion rates over the last 100 years (via 210Pb dating) from sites in Tampa Bay, Charlotte Harbor, Ten Thousand Islands, Everglades National Park, Biscayne National Park, and the Lower Florida Keys. The mean 100-year burial rate over all sites is 119 ± 33 (SD) g m-2 yr-1 which is lower than the global mean. Mean accretion rates were found to match (within error) the relatively modest average SLR over the last 100 years, but rates may not have kept pace with the substantially higher SLR in the last decade. This investigation contributes to establishing regional-scale Blue Carbon budgets, and examines how OC burial in mangroves has changed over the last 100 years. This improved understanding of past mangrove OC burial response

  11. The burial of organic carbon over the last 10 kyr by the Waipaoa River, New Zealand sedimentary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, N. E.; Childress, L. B.; Fournillier, K. M.; Leithold, E. L.

    2013-12-01

    Small mountainous rivers (SMRs), most of which are located along active margins, play a unique role in marine and global carbon cycles. SMRs drain only ~20% of land, but deliver approximately 40% of the fluvial sediment to the global ocean. Unlike large passive margin systems in which riverine organic carbon (OC) is efficiently incinerated on continental shelves, SMR-dominated shelves are highly effective in the burial and preservation of OC. This is the result of the rapid, episodic delivery of OC derived from terrestrial vegetation, aged soil organic matter, and sedimentary rock OC. Most of our understanding concerning the carbon cycling dynamics of SMR systems is derived from modern, heavily anthropogenically impacted environments however. The nature and fluxes of OC prior to land use change is poorly documented. Erosion and depositional patterns associated with SMRs are affected by several large-scale forcing mechanisms, primarily climate and tectonics. To investigate the effect of natural and anthropogenic forcing on the geochemical record of a SMR we use the Waipaoa River, New Zealand. The Waipaoa River is a system of interest due to its large current sediment yield (6800 tons km-2 yr-1) and extensive characterization. Continental shelf cores collected offshore of the Waipaoa by the MATACORE group aboard the R/V Marion Dufresne extend to 10 kyr BP, and records climatic transitions with tectonic overprints in the region. The OC burial flux ranged from ~15-20 kg C m-2 kyr-1 at the location of one shelf core (MD 3007) approximately 3.5-10 kyr before present. This corresponds to a period of relatively rapid shoreline progradation. OC accumulation decreased to ~4-6 kg C m-2 kyr-1 after 3.5 kyr BP. Anthropogenic deforestation has caused OC burial fluxes to rebound to beyond the 3.5-10 kyr levels. Organic geochemical proxies, including δ13C, δ15N, and lignin phenols, indicate a depositional site that is dominated by riverine input. The proxies do not correlate

  12. Historic carbon burial spike in an Amazon floodplain lake linked to riparian deforestation near Santarém, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Sanders

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Forests along the Amazon Basin produce significant quantities of organic material, a portion of which is deposited in floodplain lakes. Deforestation in the watershed may then have potentially important effects on the carbon fluxes. In this study, a sediment core was extracted from an Amazon floodplain lake to examine the relationship between carbon burial and changing land cover and land use. Historical records from the 1930s and satellite data from the 1970s were used to calculate deforestation rates between 1930 to 1970 and 1970 to 2010 in four zones with different distances from the margins of the lake and its tributaries (100, 500, 1000 and 6000 m buffers. A sediment accumulation rate of  ∼ 4 mm yr−1 for the previous  ∼ 120 years was determined from the 240+239Pu signatures and the excess 210Pb method. The carbon burial rates ranged between 85 and 298 g C m−2 yr−1, with pulses of high carbon burial in the 1950s, originating from the forest vegetation as indicated by δ13C and δ15N signatures. Our results revealed a potentially important spatial dependence of the organic carbon (OC burial in Amazon lacustrine sediments in relation to deforestation rates in the catchment. These deforestation rates were more intense in the riparian vegetation (100 m buffer during the period 1930 to 1970 and the larger open water areas (500, 1000 and 6000 m buffer during 1970 to 2010. The continued removal of vegetation from the interior of the forest was not related to the peak of OC burial in the lake, but only the riparian deforestation which peaked during the 1950s. Therefore, this supports the conservation priority of riparian forests as an important management practice for Amazon flooded areas. Our findings suggest the importance of abrupt and temporary events in which some of the biomass released by deforestation, especially restricted to areas along open water edges, might reach the depositional environments in

  13. Phosphorus burial in sediments of the sulfidic deep Black Sea: Key roles for adsorption by calcium carbonate and apatite authigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraal, Peter; Dijkstra, Nikki; Behrends, Thilo; Slomp, Caroline P.

    2017-05-01

    Sedimentary burial of the essential nutrient phosphorus (P) under anoxic and sulfidic conditions is incompletely understood. Here, we use chemical and micro-scale spectroscopic methods to characterize sedimentary P burial along a water column redox transect (six stations, 78-2107 m water depth) in the Black Sea from the shelf with its oxygenated waters to the anoxic and sulfidic deep basin. Organic P is an important P pool under all redox regimes, accounting for up to 60% of P burial. We find a general down-core increase in the relative importance of organic P, especially on the shelf where P bound to iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) (oxyhydr)oxides is abundant in the uppermost sediment but rapidly declines in concentration with sediment depth. Our chemical and spectroscopic data indicate that the carbonate-rich sediments (Unit I, ∼3000 years, ∼0-30 cm depth) of the sulfidic deep Black Sea contain three major P pools: calcium phosphate (apatite), organic P and P that is strongly associated with CaCO3 and possibly clay surfaces. Apatite concentrations increase from 5% to 25% of total P in the uppermost centimeters of the deep basin sediments, highlighting the importance of apatite formation for long-term P burial. Iron(II)-associated P (ludlamite) was detected with X-ray absorption spectroscopy but was shown to be a minor P pool (∼5%), indicating that lateral Fe-P transport from the shelf ("shuttling") likely occurs but does not impact the P burial budget of the deep Black Sea. The CaCO3-P pool was relatively constant throughout the Unit I sediment interval and accounted for up to 55% of total P. Our results highlight that carbonate-bound P can be an important sink for P in CaCO3-rich sediments of anoxic, sulfidic basins and should also be considered as a potential P sink (and P source in case of CaCO3 dissolution) when reconstructing past ocean P dynamics from geological records.

  14. Micromorphological aspects of forensic geopedology: time-dependent markers of decomposition and permanence in soil in experimental burials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangarini, Sara; Cattaneo, Cristina; Trombino, Luca

    2014-05-01

    The importance of the role played by soil scientists grows up in the modern forensic sciences, in particular when buried human remains strongly decomposed or skeletonized are found in different environment situations. An interdisciplinary team, formed by earth and legal medicine researchers from the University of Milan is working on several sets of experimental burial of pigs in different soil types and for different times of burial, in order to get new evidences on environmental responses to the burial, focusing specifically on geopedological and micropedological aspects. The present work is aimed at the micromorphological (petrographic microscope) and ultramicroscopic (SEM) cross characterization of bone tissue in buried remains, in order to describe bone alteration pathways due both to decomposition and to permanence in soil. These methods allow identifying in the tissues of analysed bones: - Unusual concentrations of metal oxides (i.e. Fe, Mn), in the form of violet-blue colorations (in XPL), which seem to be related to chemical conditions in the burial area; their presence could be a method to discriminate permanence in soil rather than a different environment of decomposition. - Magnesium phosphate (i.e. Mg3(PO4)2 ) crystallizations, usually noticed in bones buried from 7 to 103 weeks; their presence seems to be related to the decomposition both of the bones themselves and of soft tissues. - The presence of significant sulphur levels (i.e. SO3) in bones buried for over 7 weeks, which seem to be related to the transport and fixation of soft tissues decomposition fluids. These results point out that micromorphological techniques coupled with spatially resolved chemical analyses allow identifying both indicators of the permanence of the remains into the soil (i.e. metal oxides concentrations) and time-dependent markers of decomposition (i.e. significant sulphur levels and magnesium phosphate) in order to determine PMI (post-mortem-interval) and TSB (time-since-burial

  15. Mesozoic burial, Mesozoic and Cenozoic exhumation of the Funeral Mountains core complex, Death Valley, Southeastern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyene, Mengesha Assefa

    2011-12-01

    The Funeral Mountains of Death Valley National Park, CA, provide an opportunity to date metamorphism resulting from crustal shortening and subsequent episodic extensional events in the Sevier hinterland. It was not clear whether crustal shortening and thus peak temperature metamorphism in the hinterland of the Sevier-Laramide orogenic wedge have occurred whether in Late Jurassic, Early Cretaceous, Late Cretaceous or somewhere between. Particularly ambiguous is the timing of crustal shortening in the deep levels of the hinterland of the Sevier belt, now manifest in the metamorphic core complexes, and how and when these middle-to-lower crustal rocks were exhumed. A 6-point garnet and a whole rock Savillax isochron from middle greenschist facies pelitic schist of the southeastern Funeral Mountains core complex yields an age of 162.1 +/- 5.8 Ma (2sigma). Composite PT paths determined from growth-zoned garnets from the same samples show a nearly isothermal pressure increase of ˜2 kbar at ˜490°C, suggesting thrust burial at 162.1 +/- 5.8 Ma. A second sample of Johnnie Formation from the comparatively higher metamorphic grade area to the northwest (East of Chloride Cliff) yielded an age of 172.9 +/- 4.9 Ma (2sigma) suggesting an increase of thrust burial age towards the higher grade rocks (northwest part of the core complex), consistent with paleo-depth interpretation and metamorphic grade. 40Ar/ 39Ar muscovite ages along footwall of the Boundary Canyon detachment fault and intra-core Chloride Cliff shear zone exhibit significant 40Ar/39Ar muscovite age differences. For samples from the immediate footwall of BCD, the pattern of ages decreasing toward the northwest is consistent with differences in depth of metamorphism, and for Late Cretaceous, top-to-northwest exhumation by motion along the precursor BCD; consistent with mesoscopic and microscopic kinematic studies. Samples from the footwall of the structurally-lower Chloride Cliff shear zone yield Tertiary 40Ar/39Ar

  16. The genome of a Late Pleistocene human from a Clovis burial site in western Montana

    KAUST Repository

    Rasmussen, Morten Arendt Rendt

    2014-02-12

    Clovis, with its distinctive biface, blade and osseous technologies, is the oldest widespread archaeological complex defined in North America, dating from 11,100 to 10,700 14 C years before present (bp) (13,000 to 12,600 calendar years bp). Nearly 50 years of archaeological research point to the Clovis complex as having developed south of the North American ice sheets from an ancestral technology. However, both the origins and the genetic legacy of the people who manufactured Clovis tools remain under debate. It is generally believed that these people ultimately derived from Asia and were directly related to contemporary Native Americans. An alternative, Solutrean, hypothesis posits that the Clovis predecessors emigrated from southwestern Europe during the Last Glacial Maximum. Here we report the genome sequence of a male infant (Anzick-1) recovered from the Anzick burial site in western Montana. The human bones date to 10,705 ± 35 14 C years bp (approximately 12,707-12,556 calendar years bp) and were directly associated with Clovis tools. We sequenced the genome to an average depth of 14.4× and show that the gene flow from the Siberian Upper Palaeolithic Mal\\'ta population into Native American ancestors is also shared by the Anzick-1 individual and thus happened before 12,600 years bp. We also show that the Anzick-1 individual is more closely related to all indigenous American populations than to any other group. Our data are compatible with the hypothesis that Anzick-1 belonged to a population directly ancestral to many contemporary Native Americans. Finally, we find evidence of a deep divergence in Native American populations that predates the Anzick-1 individual. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  17. Tillage Reduces Survival of Grape Berry Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), via Burial Rather Than Mechanical Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlock, Jason M; Isaacs, Rufus; Grieshop, Matthew

    2017-02-01

    The grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Clemens), is a key pest of vineyards in eastern North America that overwinters as pupae in leaf litter on the vineyard floor. This presents an opportunity for tillage to disturb and bury the pupae, providing a potential nonchemical approach to control of this pest. Using a Lilleston-style rotary cultivator, we determined the distribution of pupae within the soil profile after single tillage passes, measured the type and severity of damage inflicted on pupae, and investigated how these effects on pupae influenced their survival. Survivorship of pupae recovered from the vineyard immediately after tillage and held until emergence was not significantly different from those recovered from an untilled control area, indicating little effect of mechanical damage on this pest. However, a single pass of the tillage implement buried three-quarters of pupae under at least 1 cm of soil. A laboratory experiment to recreate these conditions resulted in significant increase in mortality when pupae were buried in more than 1 cm of sand. We conclude that 1) interference with adult emergence of diapausing pupae via burial is the primary mechanism by which tillage controls grape berry moth, and 2) efforts to optimize the impact of tillage on grape berry moth populations should focus on maximizing the number of pupae buried. We discuss the potential integration of tillage into different vineyard management systems to enhance pest management. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Analysis of Chemical Composition of Non-Ferrous Metal Items from the Ananyino Burial Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saprykina Irina А.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of an analysis conducted by the authors in order to study chemical composition of items from non-ferrous metals found on the Ananyino burial ground. A number of research methods, including OES, XRF and TXRF was applied to study a selection of 387 samples of arrow- and spearheads, celts, tail-pieces, warhammers, poleaxes, knives and daggers, as well as items of attire and jewelry, some sporadic details of harness and bridle. The fi ndings are quite comparable. The results were classifi ed by the geochemical principle of 1,0% alloyage threshold. It was found out that the sample primarily consists of copper items, including “pure” copper and copper with a wide range of trace elements (particularly, Ni, As, Sb. The core (48% consists of copper items with traces of antimony and arsenic, or “pure” copper (7%, tin or triple bronze (40%; it also includes some other types of alloys based on copper or silver (5%. As the analysis has shown, complex ores seem to be the most probable source of copper. Traditionally, the Urals, the Sayan and the Altay Mountains, Kazakhstan and the Northern Caucasus were regarded as the most probable minefi elds to supply ores to the barren regions of Eastern Europe. While ore sources for products made of metallurgical “pure” copper are localized within the Ural mining and metallurgical region, metal sources for items cast from different groups of alloys (rather than imports of ready-made products require further research.

  19. Molybdenum speciation and burial pathway in weakly sulfidic environments: Insights from XAFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Meghan; Chappaz, Anthony; Lyons, Timothy W.

    2017-06-01

    Sedimentary molybdenum (Mo) accumulation is a robust proxy for sulfidic conditions in both modern and ancient aquatic systems and has been used to infer changing marine redox chemistry throughout Earth’s history. Accurate interpretation of any proxy requires a comprehensive understanding of its biogeochemical cycling, but knowledge gaps remain concerning the geochemical mechanism(s) leading to Mo burial in anoxic sediments. Better characterization of Mo speciation should provide mechanistic insight into sedimentary Mo accumulation, and therefore in this study we investigate Mo speciation from both modern (Castle Lake, USA) and ancient (Doushantuo Formation, China) environments using X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopy. By utilizing a series of laboratory-synthesized oxythiomolybdate complexes—many containing organic ligands—we expand the number of available standards to encompass a greater range of known Mo chemistry and test the linkage between Mo and total organic carbon (TOC). In weakly euxinic systems ([H2S(aq)] < 11 µM), or where sulfide is restricted to pore waters, natural samples are best represented by a linear combination of MoO3, MoOxS4-x2- (intermediate thiomolybdates), and [MoOx(cat)4-x]2- (cat = catechol, x = 2 or 3). These results suggest a revised model for how Mo accumulates in weakly sulfidic sediments, including a previously unrecognized role for organic matter in early sequestration of Mo and a de-emphasized importance for MoS42- (tetrathiomolybdate).

  20. Site characterization techniques used at a low-level waste shallow land burial field demonstration facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, E.C.; Boegly, W.J. Jr.; Rothschild, E.R.; Spalding, B.P.; Vaughan, N.D.; Haase, C.S.; Huff, D.D.; Lee, S.Y.; Walls, E.C.; Newbold, J.D.

    1984-07-01

    The Environmental Sciences Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been investigating improved shallow land burial technology for application in the humd eastern United States. As part of this effort, a field demonstration facility (Engineered Test Facility, or ETF) has been established in Solid Waste Storage Area 6 for purposes of investigatig the ability of two trench treatments (waste grouting prior to cover emplacement and waste isolation with trench liners) to prevent water-waste contact and thus minimize waste leaching. As part of the experimental plan, the ETF site has been characterized for purposes of constructing a hydrologic model. Site characterization is an extremely important component of the waste disposal site selection process; during these activities, potential problems, which might obviate the site from further consideration, may be found. This report describes the ETF site characterization program and identifies and, where appropriate, evaluates those tests that are of most value in model development. Specific areas covered include site geology, soils, and hydrology. Each of these areas is further divided into numerous subsections, making it easy for the reader to examine a single area of interest. Site characterization is a multidiscipliary endeavor with voluminous data, only portions of which are presented and analyzed here. The information in this report is similar to that which will be required of a low-level waste site developer in preparing a license application for a potential site in the humid East, (a discussion of licensing requirements is beyond its scope). Only data relevant to hydrologic model development are included, anticipating that many of these same characterization methods will be used at future disposal sites with similar water-related problems.

  1. Development and Applications of Thallium isotopes: a new proxy tracking the extent of manganese oxide burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, J. D.; Nielsen, S.; Ostrander, C.; Peterson, L. C.; Anbar, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    Thallium (Tl) isotopes are a new and potential powerful paleoredox proxy with the possibility to track bottom water oxygen conditions based on the burial flux of manganese oxides. Thallium has a residence time of ~20 thousand years, which is long enough to render modern oxic seawater conservative with respect to concentration and isotopes. The isotopic signature of Tl in the global ocean is driven mainly by two outputs (1) adsorption onto manganese oxides and (2) low temperature oceanic crust alteration. Importantly, the isotopic inputs of Tl are all nearly the same value; thus, the isotopic composition and flux of the outputs almost exclusively set the seawater signature. For relatively short term redox events it is reasonable to assume that the dominant isotope fractionation process is associated with manganese oxide precipitation because low temperature alteration is controlled by long-term average ocean crust production rates. We present a broad range of modern samples that span several open ocean profiles combined with water column and sediment profiles from the permanently anoxic basins of the Black Sea and Cariaco Basins. The open ocean shows no variation in depth profiles that encompass most of the major water masses in the Atlantic and Southern Oceans. The anoxic basins, however, reveal Tl isotope signatures closer to their inputs, which is likely due to basinal restriction. The authigenic fraction of organic-rich sediments from the Black Sea and Cariaco Basin capture the Tl isotope value of the overlying water column, which shows that Tl isotopes could be applied as a faithful deep time redox proxy. For the first time, we will present new data showing that Tl isotopes is tracking bottom water ocean oxygenation. We are applying this isotope system to ancient samples, testing the spatial and temporal variability of ocean oxygenation coinciding with major biogeochemical events.

  2. Inside the "African cattle complex": animal burials in the holocene central Sahara.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savino di Lernia

    Full Text Available Cattle pastoralism is an important trait of African cultures. Ethnographic studies describe the central role played by domestic cattle within many societies, highlighting its social and ideological value well beyond its mere function as 'walking larder'. Historical depth of this African legacy has been repeatedly assessed in an archaeological perspective, mostly emphasizing a continental vision. Nevertheless, in-depth site-specific studies, with a few exceptions, are lacking. Despite the long tradition of a multi-disciplinary approach to the analysis of pastoral systems in Africa, rarely do early and middle Holocene archaeological contexts feature in the same area the combination of settlement, ceremonial and rock art features so as to be multi-dimensionally explored: the Messak plateau in the Libyan central Sahara represents an outstanding exception. Known for its rich Pleistocene occupation and abundant Holocene rock art, the region, through our research, has also shown to preserve the material evidence of a complex ritual dated to the Middle Pastoral (6080-5120 BP or 5200-3800 BC. This was centred on the frequent deposition in stone monuments of disarticulated animal remains, mostly cattle. Animal burials are known also from other African contexts, but regional extent of the phenomenon, state of preservation of monuments, and associated rock art make the Messak case unique. GIS analysis, excavation data, radiocarbon dating, zooarchaeological and isotopic (Sr, C, O analyses of animal remains, and botanical information are used to explore this highly formalized ritual and the lifeways of a pastoral community in the Holocene Sahara.

  3. Geohydrology of the 218-W-5 Burial Ground, 200-West Area, Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjornstad, B.N.

    1990-05-01

    Construction a disposal facility for solid, mixed low-level radioactive and hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State (Figure 1) is planned. A site-specific performance assessment for each new disposal facility to ensure that wastes will be isolated from the environment is required. To demonstrate the adequacy of the facility for isolating the wastes, computer codes are used to simulate the physical processes that could cause the waste to migrate to underground water supplies or to the land's surface. The purpose of this report is provide a compilation and interpretation of geologic and hydrologic data available use in the performance assessment modeling. A variety of data are needed to model flow and transport from a solid-waste burial trench. These data include soil water content, soil moisture potential, saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, and phase mineralogy of the soils and sediments within the vadose zone. The hydrologic data that are critical for quantifying the water storage and transport properties for unsaturated soils require a characterization of the heterogeneities of various soil layers and the moisture characteristic curves for these layers. Hydraulic properties and mineralogic data for the saturated sediments are also important for modelling the flow and transport of wastes in the unconfined aquifer. This report begins with a discussion of the procedures and methods used to gather data both in the field and in the laboratory. This is followed by a summary of the geology, including the stratigraphic framework, lithofacies, and mineralogic/geochemical characteristics of the suprabasalt sediments. The hydrology of the region of the site is discussed next. In this discussion, the characteristics of the uppermost aquifer(s), unsaturated zone, and the various hydrogeologic units are presented. 54 refs., 39 figs., 11 tabs.

  4. Dynamics of carbon sources supporting burial in seagrass sediments under increasing anthropogenic pressure

    KAUST Repository

    Mazarrasa, Inés

    2017-03-15

    Seagrass meadows are strong coastal carbon sinks of autochthonous and allochthonous carbon. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of coastal anthropogenic pressure on the variability of carbon sources in seagrass carbon sinks during the last 150 yr. We did so by examining the composition of the sediment organic carbon (Corg) stocks by measuring the δ13Corg signature and C : N ratio in 210Pb dated sediments of 11 Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadows around the Balearic Islands (Spain, Western Mediterranean) under different levels of human pressure. On average, the top meter sediment carbon deposits were mainly (59% ± 12%) composed by P. oceanica derived carbon whereas seston contribution was generally lower (41% ± 8%). The contribution of P. oceanica to the total sediment carbon stock was the highest (∼ 80%) in the most pristine sites whereas the sestonic contribution was the highest (∼ 40–80%) in the meadows located in areas under moderate to very high human pressure. Furthermore, an increase in the contribution of sestonic carbon and a decrease in that of seagrass derived carbon toward present was observed in most of the meadows examined, coincident with the onset of the tourism industry development and coastal urbanization in the region. Our results demonstrate a general increase of total carbon accumulation rate in P. oceanica sediments during the last century, mainly driven by the increase in sestonic Corg carbon burial, which may have important implications in the long-term carbon sink capacity of the seagrass meadows in the region examined.

  5. The formation of the patterns of desert shrub communities on the Western Ordos Plateau, China: the roles of seed dispersal and sand burial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yange; Yang, Xiaohui; Shi, Zhongjie

    2013-01-01

    The western Ordos Plateau is a key area of shrub diversity and a National Nature Reserve of endangered shrub species in north-west China. Desert expansion is becoming the most important threat to these endangered species. However, little is known about the effects of sand burial on the dynamics of the shrub community. This study aims to investigate how the shrubs as a community and as different individual shrubs respond to the disturbances caused by the desert expansion. The approach used by this study is to separate the seed-dispersal strategy from the sand-burial forces that are involved in structuring the shrub communities at different disturbance stages. Four communities for different disturbance stages were surveyed by using 50×50 m plots. The individual shrubs were classified into coloniser and successor groups at the seed-dispersal stage and strong and weak sand-burial tolerance groups at the sand-expansion stage. We employed spatial point pattern analysis with null models for each community to examine the seed-dispersal strategy and sand-burial forces affecting community distribution patterns. At the seed-dispersal stage, the interactions between the colonisers and the successors showed significant positive correlation at a scale of 0-1 m and significant negative correlation at a scale of 2 m; significant negative correlations between the groups with strong and weak sand-burial tolerance in the early stage of sand expansion at scales of 3-6 m, and significant positive correlation in the later stage of sand expansion at a scale of 13 m, were found. Seed-dispersal strategy is a reasonable mechanism to explain the shrub community pattern formation in the earlier stages, whereas sand burial is the primary reason for the disappearance of shrubs with weak sand-burial tolerance, this irreversible disturbance causes homogenisation of the community structure and produces aging populations of shrub species. This has an important influence on the succession direction

  6. The impact of physical disturbance and increased sand burial on clonal growth and spatial colonization of Sporobolus virginicus in a coastal dune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestri, Elena; Lardicci, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Dune plants are subjected to disturbance and environmental stresses, but little is known about the possible combined effects of such factors on growth and spatial colonization. We investigated how clones of Sporobolusvirginicus, a widespread dune species, responded to the independent and interactive effects of breakage of rhizomes, breakage position and burial regime. Horizontal rhizomes were severed at three different internode positions relative to the apex to span the range of damage by disturbance naturally observed or left intact, and apical portions exposed to two burial scenarios (ambient vs. increased frequency) for three months in the field. The performance of both parts of severed rhizomes, the apical portion and the remaining basal portion connected to clone containing four consecutive ramets, was compared with that of equivalent parts in intact rhizomes. Apical portions severed proximal to the third internode did not survive and their removal did not enhance branching on their respective basal portions. Severing the sixth or twelfth internode did not affect survival and rhizome extension of apical portions, but suppressed ramet production and reduced total biomass and specific shoot length. Their removal enhanced branching and ramet production on basal portions and changed the original rhizome growth trajectory. However, the gain in number of ramets in basal portions never compensated for the reduction in ramet number in apical portions. Recurrent burial increased biomass allocation to root tissues. Burial also stimulated rhizome extension only in intact rhizomes, indicating that disturbance interacts with, and counteracts, the positive burial effect. These results suggest that disturbance and recurrent burial in combination reduces the regeneration success and spread capacity of S. virginucus. Since global change leads to increasingly severe or frequent storms, the impact of disturbance and burial on clones could be greater in future and possibly

  7. Patinas developed in environmental burial conditions: the Neolithic steles of Reguers de Seró (Lleida, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Valles, Maite; Aulinas, Meritxell; López-Melción, Joan B; Moya-Garra, Andreu

    2010-08-01

    Weathering patinas in rocks are the result of interaction processes between rock surfaces and atmosphere, biosphere and soil. Therefore, their textural and mineral composition is strongly related to environmental and bioactivity conditions. Whereas the development of weathering patinas in atmospheric conditions is well documented (e.g. typical Mediterranean patina), only very few studies focus on their formation in a burial environment. Our study of patinas developed on the tumular structure of Reguers de Seró deals with the knowledge of burial patinas from a textural and mineralogical point of view. The aims of this study include: (1) the characterisation of the rock used in this megalithic monument as well as inferences regarding the origin of the raw material; (2) the evaluation of the patinas developed on the surface of the carved steles; and (3) the discussion of the environmental conditions (atmospheric or burial) that favoured the development of the patinas. Whole rock and related patinas (powdered samples and small single pieces) were carefully sampled in five of the seven Neolithic steles discovered during a municipal excavation. Some whole rock samples from the surrounding outcrops were also collected in order to correlate them with the stone forming the megalith. Samples were analysed macroscopically, using a glass binocular, and microscopically, by means of a polarising light microscope and a scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDAX). The mineralogical composition was determined by X-ray diffraction, and a colorimetric analysis was also carried out in all the sampled patinas. The obtained results evidence a strong textural and mineralogical correlation between the whole rock of the megalith and the collected samples of the nearby outcrops; both are classified as calcarenite. A uniformly distributed beige-orange patina (35-100 microm thick) covering the surface of the steles modifies their aspect. A layer of calcite (micrite) with granular texture was

  8. Final Hazard Categorization for the Remediation of the 118-D-1, 118-D-2, 118-D-3, 118-H-1, 118-H-2, and 118-H-3 Solid Waste Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Ludowise

    2009-06-17

    This report presents the final hazard categorization for the remediation of the 118-D-1, 118-D-2, 118-D-3 Burial Grounds located within the 100-D/DR Area of the Hanford Site and the 118-H-1, 118-H-2, and 118-H-3 Burial Grounds located within the 100-H Area of the Hanford Site. A material at risk calculation was performed that determined the radiological inventory for each burial ground to be Hazard Category 3.

  9. Drought effect on biocrust resilience: High-speed winds result in crust burial and crust rupture and flaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidron, Giora J; Ying, Wang; Starinsky, Abraham; Herzberg, Moshe

    2017-02-01

    Once established, biocrusts (known also as biological soil crusts or microbiotic crusts) are thought to be relatively resilient to wind erosion, with crust burial being considered as the main mechanism responsible for crust death. Thus far, to the best of our knowledge, crust flaking and rupture under natural conditions were not reported. We report herein a two-year study during two severe drought years (2010-2012) in a dunefield in the Negev Desert during which in addition to crust burial, crust rupture and flaking also took place. As for crust burial, it took place under sand sheets or coppice dunes (mounds). Subsequent removal of the coppice dunes by wind resulted in crust disintegration and erosion of the formerly buried crust and the formation of patches devoid of crusts termed herein 'erosion cirques'. As for crust flaking and rupture, it is explained by a large change in the properties of the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) composing the crust. The EPS adherence and viscoelastic properties were monitored using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCD-M) technology. EPS adherence and viscoelastic properties deduced from the QCM-D experiments suggest that crust coherence and elasticity, mediated by the EPS, were affected by droughts. Although crust flaking affected up to 25% of the interdunal surface, it is suggested that with continuous rain shortage, further crust flaking is likely to take place under continuous drought-driven dry surface conditions. This positive feedback mechanism, during which initially eroded crusts trigger additional crust erosion, may have severe consequences on the structure and function of drought-prone ecosystems, and may endanger the stability of dunefields, causing dust storms, triggering dune encroachment and declining air quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Application of geographic information systems to investigating associations between social status and burial location in medieval Trino Vercellese (Piedmont, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Marissa C; Vercellotti, Giuseppe

    2017-09-01

    Socioeconomic status differences in skeletal populations are often inferred from skeletal indicators of stress and burial location. However, to date, the association between osteometric parameters and spatial location in relation to socioeconomic status in medieval Italy has not been explicitly tested. This study examined the spatial distribution of osteometric data in the medieval (8th-13th c.) cemetery of San Michele di Trino (Trino Vercellese, VC, Italy) to determine whether skeletal correlates of socioeconomic status correspond with privileged burial locations. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that greater growth outcomes are associated with privileged burials located inside the church by examining osteometric data (femoral bicondylar length [N = 74], maximum tibial length [N = 62], and the sum of the two measurements [N = 59]) in a geographic information system (GIS) of the cemetery. Getis-Ord G Hot Spot analysis identified significant (90% CI) spatial clustering of high osteometric values within the church, while low values clustered in areas of the cemetery farther from the church. These results, supported by the results of interpolation analyses, became more pronounced when z-scores were calculated to combine the male and female samples and the analyses were repeated. Overall, the findings corroborate the observation that the spatial distribution of osteometric data reflects socioeconomic status differences within the population. This research exemplifies the advantages of integrating bioarchaeology and spatial analysis to examine mortuary behavior and health outcomes in highly stratified societies where access to resources is demarcated in both life and in death. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Monumental megalithic burial and rock art tell a new story about the Levant Intermediate Bronze “Dark Ages”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barash, Alon; Eisenberg-Degen, Davida; Grosman, Leore; Oron, Maya; Berger, Uri

    2017-01-01

    The Intermediate Bronze Age (IB) in the Southern Levant (ca. 2350–2000 BCE) is known as the “Dark Ages,” following the collapse of Early Bronze urban society and predating the establishment of the Middle Bronze cities. The absence of significant settlements and monumental building has led to the reconstruction of IB social organization as that of nomadic, tribal society inhabiting rural villages with no central governmental system. Excavation in the Shamir Dolmen Field (comprising over 400 dolmens) on the western foothills of the Golan Heights was carried out following the discovery of rock art engravings on the ceiling of the central chamber inside one of the largest dolmens ever recorded in the Levant. Excavation of this multi-chambered dolmen, covered by a basalt capstone weighing some 50 tons, revealed a secondary multi-burial (of both adults and children) rarely described in a dolmen context in the Golan. Engraved into the rock ceiling above the multi-burial is a panel of 14 forms composed of a vertical line and downturned arc motif. 3D-scanning by structured-light technology was used to sharpen the forms and revealed the technique employed to create them. Building of the Shamir dolmens required a tremendous amount of labor, architectural mastery, and complex socio-economic organization well beyond the capacity of small, rural nomadic groups. The monumental megalithic burial of the Shamir dolmens indicates a hierarchical, complex, non-urban governmental system. This new evidence supports a growing body of recent criticism stemming from new discoveries and approaches that calls for rethinking our views of the Levantine IB “Dark Ages.” PMID:28253312

  12. Monumental megalithic burial and rock art tell a new story about the Levant Intermediate Bronze "Dark Ages".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon, Gonen; Barash, Alon; Eisenberg-Degen, Davida; Grosman, Leore; Oron, Maya; Berger, Uri

    2017-01-01

    The Intermediate Bronze Age (IB) in the Southern Levant (ca. 2350-2000 BCE) is known as the "Dark Ages," following the collapse of Early Bronze urban society and predating the establishment of the Middle Bronze cities. The absence of significant settlements and monumental building has led to the reconstruction of IB social organization as that of nomadic, tribal society inhabiting rural villages with no central governmental system. Excavation in the Shamir Dolmen Field (comprising over 400 dolmens) on the western foothills of the Golan Heights was carried out following the discovery of rock art engravings on the ceiling of the central chamber inside one of the largest dolmens ever recorded in the Levant. Excavation of this multi-chambered dolmen, covered by a basalt capstone weighing some 50 tons, revealed a secondary multi-burial (of both adults and children) rarely described in a dolmen context in the Golan. Engraved into the rock ceiling above the multi-burial is a panel of 14 forms composed of a vertical line and downturned arc motif. 3D-scanning by structured-light technology was used to sharpen the forms and revealed the technique employed to create them. Building of the Shamir dolmens required a tremendous amount of labor, architectural mastery, and complex socio-economic organization well beyond the capacity of small, rural nomadic groups. The monumental megalithic burial of the Shamir dolmens indicates a hierarchical, complex, non-urban governmental system. This new evidence supports a growing body of recent criticism stemming from new discoveries and approaches that calls for rethinking our views of the Levantine IB "Dark Ages."

  13. Monumental megalithic burial and rock art tell a new story about the Levant Intermediate Bronze "Dark Ages".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonen Sharon

    Full Text Available The Intermediate Bronze Age (IB in the Southern Levant (ca. 2350-2000 BCE is known as the "Dark Ages," following the collapse of Early Bronze urban society and predating the establishment of the Middle Bronze cities. The absence of significant settlements and monumental building has led to the reconstruction of IB social organization as that of nomadic, tribal society inhabiting rural villages with no central governmental system. Excavation in the Shamir Dolmen Field (comprising over 400 dolmens on the western foothills of the Golan Heights was carried out following the discovery of rock art engravings on the ceiling of the central chamber inside one of the largest dolmens ever recorded in the Levant. Excavation of this multi-chambered dolmen, covered by a basalt capstone weighing some 50 tons, revealed a secondary multi-burial (of both adults and children rarely described in a dolmen context in the Golan. Engraved into the rock ceiling above the multi-burial is a panel of 14 forms composed of a vertical line and downturned arc motif. 3D-scanning by structured-light technology was used to sharpen the forms and revealed the technique employed to create them. Building of the Shamir dolmens required a tremendous amount of labor, architectural mastery, and complex socio-economic organization well beyond the capacity of small, rural nomadic groups. The monumental megalithic burial of the Shamir dolmens indicates a hierarchical, complex, non-urban governmental system. This new evidence supports a growing body of recent criticism stemming from new discoveries and approaches that calls for rethinking our views of the Levantine IB "Dark Ages."

  14. Impacts of leachates from livestock carcass burial and manure heap sites on groundwater geochemistry and microbial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Man Jae; Yun, Seong-Taek; Ham, Baknoon; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Oh, Jun-Seop; Jheong, Weon-Wha

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the impacts of leachates from a swine carcass burial site and a cow manure heap on the geochemical and microbiological properties of agricultural water samples, including leachate, groundwater from monitoring wells and background wells, and stream water. The leachate from the livestock burial site showed extremely high electrical conductivity, turbidity, and major ion concentrations, but low redox potential and dissolved oxygen levels. The groundwater in the monitoring wells adjacent to both sites showed severe contamination from the leachate, as indicated by the increases in EC, turbidity, Cl-, and SO42-. Bacteria from the phylum Firmicutes and Bacteriodetes and Archaea from the phylum Euryarchaeota were the major phyla in both the leachates and manure heap. However, the class- or genus-level components of these phyla differed markedly between the leachate and manure heap samples. The relative abundance of Firmicutes decreased from 35% to 0.3~13.9% in the monitoring wells and background wells at both sites. The Firmicutes in these wells was unlikely to have originated from the transportation of leachate to the surrounding environment because Firmicutes genera differed drastically between the leachate and monitoring wells. Meanwhile, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) from the livestock carcass burial site were detected in the monitoring wells close to the leachate. This was likely because the release of carcass decomposition products, such as organic acids, to adjacent areas improved the suitability of the local environments for SRB, which were not abundant in the leachate. This study highlights the need to better understand microbial community dynamics along groundwater flow paths to evaluate bacterial transport in subsurface environments and provides new insights into the effective management of groundwater quality at both farm and regional scales.

  15. The influence of burial heating on the (U-Th)/He system in apatite: Grand Canyon case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Matthew; Shuster, David L.

    2014-07-01

    Thermochronological data can constrain the cooling paths of rocks exhumed through the uppermost 1-2 km of earth's crust, and have thus been pivotal in illuminating topographic development over timescales >0.1 Ma. However, in some cases, different methods have led to conflicting conclusions about timing of valley-scale exhumation. Here, we investigate the case of Western Grand Canyon, USA, where different thermochronological datasets have been interpreted to record very different timings of canyon incision (∼70 Ma versus ∼5 Ma). We present a method to assess key assumptions in these constraints and demonstrate that burial heating conditions of basement rocks in the Mesozoic can result in incomplete annealing of radiation damage in apatite. In turn, this has a dramatic effect on the temperature sensitivity of the apatite (U-Th)/He system and its ability to record post-burial exhumation. The possibility of incomplete annealing resolves the apparent conflict in time-temperature paths inferred over the last 70 Ma, although it requires temperatures during burial that are lower than predicted by apatite fission track data. A refinement of parameters that prescribe the kinetics of damage annealing and related control on 4He diffusivity in apatite would account for this discrepancy, specifically if alpha recoil damage anneals at a lower rate than fission tracks at a given temperature. These effects will be important for any application of the apatite (U-Th)/He system in geologic settings that experienced prolonged residence (>10 Ma) between 50-150 °C; the approaches developed here provide means to assess these effects.

  16. Impacts of leachates from livestock carcass burial and manure heap sites on groundwater geochemistry and microbial community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Seong-Taek; Ham, Baknoon; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Oh, Jun-Seop; Jheong, Weon-Wha

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the impacts of leachates from a swine carcass burial site and a cow manure heap on the geochemical and microbiological properties of agricultural water samples, including leachate, groundwater from monitoring wells and background wells, and stream water. The leachate from the livestock burial site showed extremely high electrical conductivity, turbidity, and major ion concentrations, but low redox potential and dissolved oxygen levels. The groundwater in the monitoring wells adjacent to both sites showed severe contamination from the leachate, as indicated by the increases in EC, turbidity, Cl-, and SO42-. Bacteria from the phylum Firmicutes and Bacteriodetes and Archaea from the phylum Euryarchaeota were the major phyla in both the leachates and manure heap. However, the class- or genus-level components of these phyla differed markedly between the leachate and manure heap samples. The relative abundance of Firmicutes decreased from 35% to 0.3~13.9% in the monitoring wells and background wells at both sites. The Firmicutes in these wells was unlikely to have originated from the transportation of leachate to the surrounding environment because Firmicutes genera differed drastically between the leachate and monitoring wells. Meanwhile, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) from the livestock carcass burial site were detected in the monitoring wells close to the leachate. This was likely because the release of carcass decomposition products, such as organic acids, to adjacent areas improved the suitability of the local environments for SRB, which were not abundant in the leachate. This study highlights the need to better understand microbial community dynamics along groundwater flow paths to evaluate bacterial transport in subsurface environments and provides new insights into the effective management of groundwater quality at both farm and regional scales. PMID:28771598

  17. Impact of Submarine Geohazards on Organic Carbon Burial Offshore Southwestern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, C. C.; Tsai, P. H.; Liu, J. T.; Hsu, S. K.; Chiu, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    The tectonically active setting and climatic conditions give Taiwan a high exposure to severe natural hazards. After the Pingtung Earthquake and Morakot Typhoon which occurred in 2006 and 2009, the turbidity currents caused a series of submarine cable breaks along the Gaoping and Fangliao Submarine Canyons off SW Taiwan. Large amounts of terrestrial sediments were fast transported bypass the narrow continental shelf and rapidly moved southward through submarine canyons to the deep sea. Two piston cores which were taken from the Tsangyao Ridge and its adjacent area (OR5-1302-2-MT7 and MT6) might shed light on understanding the export of terrestrial organic carbon to the abyss by submarine geo-hazards. The 210Pb profile of MT7 in conjunction with the grain size data indicates the existence of the Pingtung Earthquake and Morakot Typhoon related deposits. The sedimentation rate of these two cores which derived from 210Pb is approximately 0.05 cm/yr. The cores collected from the Gaoping Submarine Canyon, Gaoping Slope and Fangliao Submarine Canyon are used for analyzing TOC, organic C/N and δ13C ratios. The concentrations of total organic carbon are ~0.5%, and C/N rations almost remain between 4 and 8. The high TOC (~1%) and C/N ratio (>10) are observed in the samples with plant debris. The fluctuation of TOC and C/N ratios in near-shore samples is higher than deep sea. In terms of δ13C-values, it progressively decreases with distances from coastal zone to the deep sea. Due to the larger proportions of land-derived organic carbon, the δ13C-values in the surface sediment of upper Gaoping Submarine Canyon, Gaoping Slope, and the turbidite layers at the head of Fangliao Submarine Canyon are lighter. Furthermore, we use the TOC concentrations and δ13C-values to estimate the fractional contributions of terrestrial organic carbon by a simple two component mixing model, and integrate with the 210Pb-derived sediment accumulation rates to evaluate the organic carbon burial

  18. Limits on the Abundance and Burial Depth of Lunar Polar Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elphic, Richard C.; Paige, David A.; Siegler, Matthew A.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Teodoro, Luis A.; Eke, Vincent R.

    2012-01-01

    The Diviner imaging radiometer experiment aboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter has revealed that surface temperatures in parts of the lunar polar regions are among the lowest in the solar system. Moreover, modeling of these Diviner data using realistic thermal conductivity profiles for lunar regolith and topography-based illumination has been done, with surprising results. Large expanses of circum-polar terrain appear to have near-subsurface temperatures well below 110K, despite receiving episodic low-angle solar illumination [Paige et al., 2010]. These subsurface cold traps could provide areally extensive reservoirs of volatiles. Here we examine the limits to abundance and burial depth of putative volatiles, based on the signature they would create for orbital thermal and epithermal neutrons. Epithermals alone are not sufficient to break the abundance-depth ambiguity, while thermal neutrons provide an independent constraint on the problem. The subsurface cold traps are so large that even modest abundances, well below that inferred from LCROSS observations, would produce readily detectable signatures in the Lunar Prospector neutron spectrometer data [Colaprete et al., 2010]. Specifically, we forward-model the thermal and epithermal neutron leakage flux that would be observed for various ice concentrations, given the depth at which ice stability begins. The LCROSS results point to a water-equivalent hydrogen abundance (WEH) in excess of 10 wt%, when all hydrogenous species are added together (except for H2, detected by LAMP on LRO [Gladstone et al., 2010]). When such an ice abundance is placed in a layer below the stability depth of Paige et al., the epithermal and thermal neutron leakage fluxes are vastly reduced and very much at odds with orbital observations. So clearly an environment that is conducive to cold trapping is necessary but not sufficient for the presence of volatiles such as water. We present the limits on the abundances that are indeed consistent

  19. Resetting of Mg isotopes between calcite and dolomite during burial metamorphism: Outlook of Mg isotopes as geothermometer and seawater proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhongya; Hu, Wenxuan; Wang, Xiaomin; Lu, Yizhou; Wang, Lichao; Liao, Zhiwei; Li, Weiqiang

    2017-07-01

    Magnesium isotopes are an emerging tool to study the geological processes recorded in carbonates. Calcite, due to its ubiquitous occurrence and the large Mg isotope fractionation associated with the mineral, has attracted great interests in applications of Mg isotope geochemistry. However, the fidelity of Mg isotopes in geological records of carbonate minerals (e.g., calcite and dolomite) against burial metamorphism remains poorly constrained. Here we report our investigation on the Mg isotope systematics of a dolomitized Middle Triassic Geshan carbonate section in eastern China. Magnesium isotope analysis was complemented by analyses of Sr-C-O isotopic compositions, major and trace element concentrations, and petrographic and mineralogical features. Multiple lines of evidence consistently indicated that post-depositional diagenesis of carbonate minerals occurred to the carbonate rocks. Magnesium isotope compositions of the carbonate rocks closely follow a mixing trend between a high δ26Mg dolomite end member and a low δ26Mg calcite end member, irrespective of sample positions in the section and calcite/dolomite ratio in the samples. By fitting the measured Mg isotope data using a two-end member mixing model, an inter-mineral Δ26Mgdolomite-calcite fractionation of 0.72‰ was obtained. Based on the experimentally derived Mg isotope fractionation factors for dolomite and calcite, a temperature of 150-190 °C was calculated to correspond to the 0.72‰ Δ26Mgdolomite-calcite fractionation. Such temperature range matches with the burial-thermal history of the local strata, making a successful case of Mg isotope geothermometry. Our results indicate that both calcite and dolomite had been re-equilibrated during burial metamorphism, and based on isotope mass balance of Mg, the system was buffered by dolomite in the section. Therefore, burial metamorphism may reset Mg isotope signature of calcite, and Mg isotope compositions in calcite should be dealt with caution in

  20. A singular children burial from the Bronce Age site of La Motilla del Azuer (Daimiel, Ciudad Real

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nájera Colino, Trinidad

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A child burial with special grave-goods belonging to the Bronze Age is presented. Very small items manufactured in pottery and clay reproduce the typical forms of the materials documented in the settlement.

    Se presenta el hallazgo de un enterramiento infantil de la Edad del Bronce asociado a un ajuar de especiales características. Presenta varios elementos de muy pequeñas dimensiones realizados en cerámica y arcilla que reproducen formas típicas de los materiales del asentamiento.

  1. Effects of burial by the disposal of dredged materials from the Columbia River on Pacific razor clams (Siliqua patula)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vavrinec, John; Kohn, Nancy P.; Hall, Kathleen D.; Romano, Brett A.

    2007-05-07

    Annual maintenance of the Columbia River navigation channel requires the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) to dredge sediment from the river and dispose of the sediment in coastal areas at the mouth of the Columbia River. Some of these disposal areas can be as shallow as 12 m deep in waters off the coastal beaches, and dredged material disposal activities have therefore raised concerns of impacts to local razor clam (Siliqua patula) populations that are prevalent in the area. The Corps’ Portland District requested that the Marine Sciences Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conduct laboratory experiments to evaluate the potential impacts of burial by dredged material to razor clams during disposal. Prior modeling of disposal events indicates three stresses that could have an impact on benthic invertebrates: convective descent and bottom encounter (compression forces due to bottom impact), dynamic collapse and spreading (surge as material washes over the bottom), and mounding (burial by material). Because the razor clam is infaunal, the effects of the first two components should be minimal, because the clams should be protected by substrate that is not eroded in the event and by the clams’ rapid digging capabilities. The mound resulting from the disposal, however, would bury any clams remaining in the footprint under as much as 12 cm of new sediment according to modeling, and the clams’ reaction to such an event and to burial is not known. Although the literature suggests that razor clams may be negatively affected by siltation and therefore perhaps by dredging and disposal activity, as well, impacts of this type have not been demonstrated. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential impacts of dredge material disposal on adult subtidal razor clam populations at the mouth of the Columbia River. Using the parameters defined in a previous model, a laboratory study was created in which a

  2. : A little known element concerning the burial of the first adult at La Ferrassie (Savignac de Miremont, Dordogne).

    OpenAIRE

    Maureille, Bruno; Van Peer, Philip

    1998-01-01

    International audience; Burials are attested over the totality of the Neandertal area of reparütion, but their modalities may be very variable. men the body is supposed to have been deposited in a shallow pit or in an existing natural depression. One of the graves generatly accepted to be of the latter type is that of the individual La Ferrassie 1. Nevertheless the remarks in an unpublished letter from D. Peyrony to M. Boule, inform us that in 1926, the excavator of the La Ferrassie site thou...

  3. Geochemical evidence for global changes in climate, p sub CO2 , and organic carbon burial at Cenomanian/Turonian boundary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, W.E. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (USA)); Arthur, M.A. (Univ. of Rhode Island, Narragansett (USA)); Pratt, L.M. (Univ. of Indiana, Bloomington (USA))

    1990-05-01

    One of the most significant events in the Cretaceous record of organic carbon (OC) burial is the short (< 1 m.y.) but intense period of global organic productivity and OC burial that accompanied a major global rise in sea level at the Cenomanian/Turonian (C/T) boundary (about 91 Ma). The C/T event was nearly synchronous throughout the Atlantic and Tethys basins as well as in higher latitude epicontinental seas. The increased rate of OC burial resulted in massive transfer of carbon from the oceans and atmosphere to marine sediments that contain as much as 50% OC in some areas. This massive removal of isotopically light ({sup 13}C-depleted) OC is recorded as a progressive increase in {delta}{sup 13}C of carbonate carbon by an average of about 2{per thousand} and as an increase in {delta}{sup 13}C of marine organic matter from values of about {minus}27 to {minus}28{per thousand} (typical of pre-C/T organic matter) to values as high as {minus}21{per thousand} at the C/T boundary. The authors calculate that the increased rate of OC burial at the C/T boundary was sufficient to strip the atmosphere of CO{sub 2} within several hundred thousand years. These calculations ignore feedback from oceanic and crustal carbon reservoirs but do suggest that there may have been a significant reduction in p{sub co2} at the C/T boundary. A reduction in p{sub CO2} has two major implications. First, lower p{sub CO2} may have caused global cooling, as suggested by the oxygen isotopic composition of inoceramids from northwest Europe. Second, decreased availability of dissolved p{sub CO2} have affected the isotopic fractionation of OC by phytoplankton, as suggested by experimental studies. The C/T event illustrates how changes in tectonism and sea level can induce significant, rapid paleoenvironmental changes and biotic turnover that affect the partitioning of carbon between sediment and oceanic reservoirs.

  4. Spatial and temporal patterns of stream burial and its effect on habitat connectivity across headwater stream communities of the Potomac River Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzell, R.; Guinn, S. M.; Elmore, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    The process of directing streams into culverts, pipes, or concrete-lined ditches during urbanization, known as stream burial, alters the primary physical, chemical, and biological processes of streams. Knowledge of the cumulative impacts of reduced structure and ecological function within buried stream networks is crucial for informing management of stream ecosystems, in light of continued growth in urban areas, and the uncertain response of freshwater ecosystems to the stresses of global climate change. To address this need, we utilized recently improved stream maps for the Potomac River Basin (PRB) to describe the extent and severity of stream burial across the basin. Observations of stream burial made from high resolution aerial photographs (>1% of total basin area) and a decision tree using spatial statistics from impervious cover data were used to predict stream burial at 4 time-steps (1975, 1990, 2001, 2006). Of the roughly 95,500 kilometers (km) of stream in the PRB, approximately 4551 km (4.76%) were buried by urban development as of 2001. Analysis of county-level burial trends shows differential patterns in the timing and rates of headwater stream burial, which may be due to local development policies, topographical constraints, and/or time since development. Consistently higher rates of stream burial were observed for small streams, decreasing with stream order. Headwater streams (1st-2nd order) are disproportionately affected, with burial rates continuing to increase over time in relation to larger stream orders. Beyond simple habitat loss, headwater burial decreases connectivity among headwater populations and habitats, with potential to affect a wide range of important ecological processes. To quantify changes to regional headwater connectivity we applied a connectivity model based on electrical circuit theory. Circuit-theoretical models function by treating the landscape as a resistance surface, representing hypothesized relationships between

  5. The last dwelling of the dead: the places of burial in the Braga of the XVIII century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberto Tiago Gonçalves Ferraz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article wants to analyse and study the major places of burial chosen by the inhabitants of Braga in the XVIII century. It comes from a more large doctoral investigation about the thematic of the experience of death and the search for the soul salvation among the inhabitants of Braga during this century. The present text makes an analysis not only in a general dimension but also in a more detailed level. The gathered data clearly point towards a major choice for the churches of the parishes and confraternities located in the city. We also seek to show to the reader that in the temples there were different places ob burial, in conformity to the social profile of each person. Beyond this points, the present article wants to show the various motivations on the basis of the choices made by the inhabitants of Braga. This work was possible by the study of 250 local testaments, and the data from the archives of some confraternities of the city.

  6. Emerging genetic patterns of the European Neolithic: perspectives from a late Neolithic Bell Beaker burial site in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Esther J; Makarewicz, Cheryl; Renneberg, Rebecca; Harder, Melanie; Krause-Kyora, Ben; Müller, Stephanie; Ostritz, Sven; Fehren-Schmitz, Lars; Schreiber, Stefan; Müller, Johannes; von Wurmb-Schwark, Nicole; Nebel, Almut

    2012-08-01

    The transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture in Europe is associated with demographic changes that may have shifted the human gene pool of the region as a result of an influx of Neolithic farmers from the Near East. However, the genetic composition of populations after the earliest Neolithic, when a diverse mosaic of societies that had been fully engaged in agriculture for some time appeared in central Europe, is poorly known. At this period during the Late Neolithic (ca. 2,800-2,000 BC), regionally distinctive burial patterns associated with two different cultural groups emerge, Bell Beaker and Corded Ware, and may reflect differences in how these societies were organized. Ancient DNA analyses of human remains from the Late Neolithic Bell Beaker site of Kromsdorf, Germany showed distinct mitochondrial haplotypes for six individuals, which were classified under the haplogroups I1, K1, T1, U2, U5, and W5, and two males were identified as belonging to the Y haplogroup R1b. In contrast to other Late Neolithic societies in Europe emphasizing maintenance of biological relatedness in mortuary contexts, the diversity of maternal haplotypes evident at Kromsdorf suggests that burial practices of Bell Beaker communities operated outside of social norms based on shared maternal lineages. Furthermore, our data, along with those from previous studies, indicate that modern U5-lineages may have received little, if any, contribution from the Mesolithic or Neolithic mitochondrial gene pool. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Nitrous oxide and methane fluxes vs. carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous burial in new intertidal and saltmarsh sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, C.A., E-mail: christopher.adams@uea.ac.uk; Andrews, J.E.; Jickells, T.

    2012-09-15

    Carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) burial rates were determined within natural saltmarsh (NSM) and 'managed realignment' (MR) sediments of the Blackwater estuary, UK. Methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) fluxes were measured along with their ability to offset a portion of the C burial to give net C sequestration. C and N densities (C{rho} and N{rho}) of NSM sediments (0.022 and 0.0019 g cm{sup -3}) are comparable to other UK NSM sediments. Less vegetationally developed MR sediments have lower C{rho} and N{rho} (0.012 and 0.0011 g cm{sup -3}) while the more vegetationally developed sites possess higher C{rho} and N{rho} (0.023 and 0.0030 g cm{sup -3}) than NSM. Both NSM and MR areas were small CH{sub 4} (0.10-0.40 g m{sup -2} yr{sup -1}) and N{sub 2}O (0.03-0.37 g m{sup -2} yr{sup -1}) sources. Due to their large Global Warming Potentials, even these relatively small greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes reduced the net C sequestration within MR marshes by as much as 49%, but by only 2% from NSM. Potential MR areas within the Blackwater estuary (29.5 km{sup 2} saltmarsh and 23.7 km{sup 2} intertidal mudflat) could bury 5478 t C yr{sup -1} and 695.5 t N yr{sup -1}, with a further 476 t N yr{sup -1} denitrified. The saltmarsh MR would also sequester 139.4 t P yr{sup -1}. GHG fluxes would reduce the C burial benefit by 24% giving a C sequestration rate of 4174 t C yr{sup -1}. Similar areas within the Humber estuary (74.95 km{sup 2}) could bury 3597 t C yr{sup -1} and 180 t N yr{sup -1}, with a further 442 t N yr{sup -1} denitrified. GHG fluxes would reduce the C burial benefit by 31% giving a C sequestration rate of 2492 t C yr{sup -1}. Overall, MR sites provide sustainable coastal defence options with significant biogeochemical value and, despite being net sources of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O, can sequester C and reduce estuarine nutrient loads. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated C, N, P, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O fluxes

  8. Estimating the number of secondary Ebola cases resulting from an unsafe burial and risk factors for transmission during the West Africa Ebola epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiffany, Amanda; Dalziel, Benjamin D; Kagume Njenge, Hilary; Johnson, Ginger; Nugba Ballah, Roselyn; James, Daniel; Wone, Abdoulaye; Bedford, Juliet; McClelland, Amanda

    2017-06-01

    Safely burying Ebola infected individuals is acknowledged to be important for controlling Ebola epidemics and was a major component of the 2013-2016 West Africa Ebola response. Yet, in order to understand the impact of safe burial programs it is necessary to elucidate the role of unsafe burials in sustaining chains of Ebola transmission and how the risk posed by activities surrounding unsafe burials, including care provided at home prior to death, vary with human behavior and geography. Interviews with next of kin and community members were carried out for unsafe burials in Sierra Leone, Liberia and Guinea, in six districts where the Red Cross was responsible for safe and dignified burials (SDB). Districts were randomly selected from a district-specific sampling frame comprised of villages and neighborhoods that had experienced cases of Ebola. An average of 2.58 secondary cases were potentially generated per unsafe burial and varied by district (range: 0-20). Contact before and after death was reported for 142 (46%) contacts. Caregivers of a primary case were 2.63 to 5.92 times more likely to become EVD infected compared to those with post-mortem contact only. Using these estimates, the Red Cross SDB program potentially averted between 1,411 and 10,452 secondary EVD cases, reducing the epidemic by 4.9% to 36.5%. SDB is a fundamental control measure that limits community transmission of Ebola; however, for those individuals having contact before and after death, it was impossible to ascertain the exposure that caused their infection. The number of infections prevented through SDB is significant, yet greater impact would be achieved by early hospitalization of the primary case during acute illness.

  9. Church foundation and places of burial of the nobles Kozhins: the transformation of commemorative practices in 18th–19th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budiukin Dmitrii

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the church founding activity in the country estates and choice of the place of burial in 18th-19th centuries of the nobles Kozhins, the relatives of St. Macarius of Kaliazin, as religious commemorative practices. Draws attention the significant number and great architectural quality of the churches built by Kozhins. In 18th century the most Kozhins were buried in churches in their estates, and in 19th century the most of them turn to burial in the monasteries outside churches.

  10. Final Hazard Categorization for the Remediation of the 118-D-1, 118-D-2, 118-D-3, 118-H-1, 118-H-2, and 118-H-3 Solid Waste Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. J. Rodovsky

    2006-12-06

    This report presents the final hazard categorization (FHC) for the remediation of the 118-D-1, 118-D-2, and 118-D-3 Burial Grounds located within the 100-D/DR Area of the Hanford Site and the 118-H-1, 118-H-2, and 118-H-3 Burial Grounds located within the 100-H Area of the Hanford Site.

  11. Final Hazard Categorization for the Remediation of the 118-D-1, 118-D-2, 118-D-3, 118-H-1, 118-H-2, and 118-H-3 Solid Waste Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. J. Rodovsky

    2007-04-12

    This report presents the final hazard categorization (FHC) for the remediation of the 118-D-1, 118-D-2, and 118-D-3 Burial Grounds located within the 100-D/DR Area of the Hanford Site and the 118-H-1, 118-H-2, and 118-H-3 Burial Grounds located within the 100-H Area of the Hanford Site.

  12. Final Hazard Categorization for the Remediation of the 118-D-1, 118-D-2, 118-D-3, 118-H-1, 118-H-2 and 118-H-3 Solid Waste Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. L. Vialetti

    2008-05-20

    This report presents the final hazard categorization for the remediation of the 118-D-1, 118-D-2, and 118-D-3 Burial Grounds located within the 100-D/DR Area of the Hanford Site and the 118-H-1, 118-H-2, and 118-H-3 Burial Grounds located within the 100-H Area of the Hanford Site.

  13. Development and Application of a Paleomagnetic/Geochemical Method for Constraining the Timing of Burial Diagenetic Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmore, Richard D.; Engel, Michael H.

    2006-01-05

    Studies of diagenesis caused by fluid migration or other events are commonly hindered by a lack of temporal control. Our results to date demonstrate that a paleomagnetic/geochemical approach can be used to date fluid migration as well as burial diagenetic events. Our principal working hypothesis is that burial diagenetic processes (e.g., maturation of organic-rich sediments and clay diagenesis) and the migration of fluids can trigger the authigenesis of magnetic mineral phases. The ages of these events can be constrained by comparing chemical remanent magnetizations (CRMs) to independently established Apparent Polar Wander Paths. Whilst geochemical (e.g. stable isotope and organic analyses) and petrographic studies provide important clues for establishing these relationships, the ultimate test of this hypothesis requires the application of independent dating methods to verify the paleomagnetic ages. Towards this end, we have used K-Ar dating of illitization as an alternative method for constraining the ages of magnetic mineral phases in our field areas. We have made significant progress toward understanding the origin and timing of chemical remagnetization related to burial diagenetic processes. For example, a recently completed field study documents a relationship between remagnetization and the maturation of organic matter (Blumstein et al., 2004). We have tested the hypothesized connection between clay diagenesis and remagnetization by conducting K-Ar dating of authigenic illites in units in Scotland and Montana with CRMs (e.g., Elliott et al., 2006a; Elliott et al., 2006b). We have also developed a fluid related model for alteration and remagnetization of Appalachian red beds that involves reduction and mobilization of iron phases by hydrocarbons and precipitation of authigenic hematite as a result of the introduction of meteoric fluid recharge (Cox et al., 2005). In addition, our recent studies of fluid-related CRMs along faults in Scotland provide information

  14. Field demonstration of improved shallow land burial practices for low-level radioactive solid wastes: preliminary site characterization and progress report. [Trench liners and grout for improving shallow land burial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, N.D.; Haase, C.S.; Huff, D.D.; Lee, S.Y.; Walls, E.C.

    1982-12-01

    A 5-year field demonstration (ETF) of improved shallow land burial practices for low-level radioactive solid wastes in a humid environment evaluates the use of a trench liner and grout as alternate trench treatments for improving shallow land burial site performance in the humid East. The ETF is located within the Copper Creek thrust block of the Valley and Ridge Province of east Tennessee and is underlain by strata of the Middle to Late Cambrian Conasauga Group. The Maryville Limestone formation, which is composed of ribbon-bedded and interclastic limestones and dark grey shales and mudstones, comprises the bedrock immediately beneath the site. The bedrock and residuum structure are characterized by anticlinal folds with numerous joints and fractures, some of which are filled with calcite. Seismic and electrical resistivity geophysical methods were useful in characterizing the thickness of residuum and presence of structural features. Soils are illitic and range from podzolic to lithosols to alluvial in the vicinity of the ETF, but the original soil solum was removed in 1975 when the mixed hardwood forest was cleared and the site was planted in grasses. The remaining residuum consists of acidic soil aggregate and extensively weathered siltstone and sandstone which exhibit the original rock structure. Mean annual precipitation at the site is 1500 mm, although during the initial study period (10-1-80 to 9-30-81) the annual total was 939 mm. Runoff was estimated to be about 50% of the precipitation total, based on observations at two Parshall flumes installed at the site. Storm runoff is quite responsive to rainfall, and the lag time between peak rainfall and runoff is less than 15 min during winter storms. Tracer studies of the ground-water system, suggest that ground-water flow has two distinct components, one associated with fracture flow and the other with intergranular flow.

  15. The hydrology and preservation condition in the flat topped burial mound Klangshøj at Vennebjerg in Vendsyssel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breuning-Madsen, Henrik; Henriksen, Peter Steen; Kristensen, Jeppe Ågård

    2016-01-01

    Klangshøj is a flat-topped burial mound similar to the Royal Jelling mounds, although smaller. The myths tell that a well has existed on top of the mound as at Jelling and a spring had flown at the base of the mound. In order to verify the myths and a similar hydrology in Klangshøj as found...... borings, where undecomposed plant remnants, occasionally greenish, were observed. A 14C-dating showed that the mound was built in the Viking Age. The hydrology in Klangshøj is the same as in the Jelling mounds, with a permeable bioturbation zone covering almost impermeable, distinct sod layers. This form...

  16. Opisthorchiasis in infant remains from the medieval Zeleniy Yar burial ground of XII-XIII centuries AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Mikhailovich Slepchenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a paleoparasitological analysis of the medieval Zeleniy Yar burial ground of the XII-XII centuries AD located in the northern part of Western Siberia. Parasite eggs, identified as eggs of Opisthorchis felineus, were found in the samples from the pelvic area of a one year old infant buried at the site. Presence of these eggs in the soil samples from the infant’s abdomen suggests that he/she was infected with opisthorchiasis and imply consumption of undercooked fish. Ethnographic records collected among the population of the northern part of Western Siberia reveal numerous cases of feeding raw fish to their children. Zeleniy Yar case of opisthorchiasis suggests that this dietary custom has persisted from at least medieval times.

  17. Guilds and middle-class welfare, 1550–1800: provisions for burial, sickness, old age, and widowhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leeuwen, Marco H D

    2012-01-01

    Guilds provided for masters' and journeymen's burial, sickness, old age, and widowhood. Guild welfare was of importance to artisans, to the functioning of guilds, to the myriad of urban social relations, and to the political economy. However, it is an understated and neglected aspect of guild activities. This article looks at welfare provision by guilds, with the aim of addressing four questions. Firstly, for which risks did guild welfare arrangements exist in the Netherlands between 1550 and 1800, and what were the coverage, contributions, benefit levels, and conditions? Secondly, can guild welfare arrangements be regarded as insurance? Thirdly, to what extent and how did guilds overcome classic insurance problems such as adverse selection, moral hazards, and correlated risks? Finally, what was the position of guild provision in the Dutch political economy and vis-à-vis poor relief?

  18. Opisthorchiasis in infant remains from the medieval Zeleniy Yar burial ground of XII-XIII centuries AD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepchenko, Sergey Mikhailovich; Gusev, Alexander Vasilevich; Ivanov, Sergey Nikolaevich; Svyatova, Evgenia Olegovna

    2015-01-01

    We present a paleoparasitological analysis of the medieval Zeleniy Yar burial ground of the XII-XII centuries AD located in the northern part of Western Siberia. Parasite eggs, identified as eggs of Opisthorchis felineus, were found in the samples from the pelvic area of a one year old infant buried at the site. Presence of these eggs in the soil samples from the infant’s abdomen suggests that he/she was infected with opisthorchiasis and imply consumption of undercooked fish. Ethnographic records collected among the population of the northern part of Western Siberia reveal numerous cases of feeding raw fish to their children. Zeleniy Yar case of opisthorchiasis suggests that this dietary custom has persisted from at least medieval times. PMID:26602874

  19. A Bayesian inversion framework for yield and height-of-burst/depth-of-burial for near-surface explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannesson, Gardar [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bulaevskaya, Vera [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ramirez, Abe [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ford, Sean [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rodgers, Artie [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-07

    A Bayesian inversion framework is presented to estimate the yield of an explosion and height-of-burst/depth-of-burial (HOB/DOB) using seismic and air pressure data. This is accomplished by first calibrating the parameters in the forward models that relate the observations to the yield and HOB/DOB and then using the calibrated model to estimate yield and HOB/DOB associated with a new set of seismic and air pressure observations. The MCMC algorithms required to perform these steps are outlined, and the results with real data are shown. Finally, an extension is proposed for a case when clustering in the seismic displacement occurs as a function of different types of rock and other factors.

  20. Late leaching under deep burial conditions: a case study from the Miocene Zhujiang Carbonate Reservoir, South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattler, U.; Zampetti, V.; Schlager, W.; Immenhauser, A. [Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Faculty for Earth and Life Sciences

    2004-09-01

    The Zhujiang carbonates are the hydrocarbon reservoir rock of the Liuhua 11-1 field. They comprise three porous zones of around 20 m intercalated with tight zones, parallel to bedding. Thin-section, cathodoluminescence and stable-isotope data were combined with well-log information in order to investigate the origin and spatial distribution of the abundant porosity. The vast majority of pores in the porous zones was generated or overprinted in deep burial settings by late leaching. Two tight zones, however, lack this porosity, because of meteoric cementation and increased compaction and related calcite precipitation prior to late leaching. We propose that migrating corrosive fluids were diverted along bedding-parallel flow barriers of the tight zones and leached the intervals in-between (=the porous zones) thereby emphasizing the depositional pattern. (author)

  1. Presentation of Andronovsky Costume in Museum Exposition (on materials from Lisakovsk burial mound of the Bronze Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usmanova Emma R.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article features an analysis of ancient weaving technologies and women's costume of the Andronovo culture dating back to the Bronze Age. It features a reconstruction of this costume executed by the author on the basis of the discovered remains of woven textile and headwear decoration discovered in burial grounds of Lisakovsk area in the first half of 2nd Millennium B.C. (Kazakhstan, Kostanay Region, Kisakovsk. The preservation of textile base allowed the author to experimentally produce copies of two women's headwear pieces and a vest. As a result, two types of braid adornments were discovrered among grave artifacts. The author substantiates several ideas related to the meaning of the signs and symbols on costume details. As a result of research, the author presents the semantics of headwear corresponding to Andronovo culture in the context of the symbolism of costumes belonging to the traditional peoples of Middle Eurasia.

  2. Discernibility of Burial Mounds in High-Resolution X-Band SAR Images for Archaeological Prospections in the Altai Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Balz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Altai Mountains are a heritage-rich archaeological landscape with monuments in almost every valley. Modern nation state borders dissect the region and limit archaeological landscape analysis to intra-national areas of interest. Remote sensing can help to overcome these limitations. Due to its high precision, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR data can be a very useful tool for supporting archaeological prospections, but compared to optical imagery, the detectability of sites of archaeological interest is limited. We analyzed the limitations of SAR using TerraSAR-X images in different modes. Based on ground truth, the discernibility of burial mounds was analyzed in different SAR acquisition modes. We show that very-high-resolution TerraSAR-X staring spotlight images are very well suited for the task, with >75% of the larger mounds being discernible, while in images with a lower spatial resolution only a few large sites can be detected, at rates below 50%.

  3. Performance assessment for the disposal of low-level waste in the 200 West Area Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, M.I.; Khaleel, R.; Rittmann, P.D.; Lu, A.H.; Finfrock, S.H.; DeLorenzo, T.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Serne, R.J.; Cantrell, K.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This document reports the findings of a performance assessment (PA) analysis for the disposal of solid low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the 200 West Area Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG) in the northwest corner of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This PA analysis is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A (DOE 1988a) to demonstrate that a given disposal practice is in compliance with a set of performance objectives quantified in the order. These performance objectives are applicable to the disposal of DOE-generated LLW at any DOE-operated site after the finalization of the order in September 1988. At the Hanford Site, DOE, Richland Operations Office (RL) has issued a site-specific supplement to DOE Order 5820.2A, DOE-RL 5820.2A (DOE 1993), which provides additiona I ce objectives that must be satisfied.

  4. The Discovery and Excavation of a Human Burial from the Mini-athiliya Shell Midden in Southern Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanti Kulatilake

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Several shell middens of coastal Sri Lanka indicate human occupation in the mid-Holocene and are recognized as being of prime importance in the archaeological narrative of the island. A salvage archaeology operation conducted at the Mini-athiliya shell midden in the Southern Province of Sri Lanka, yielded ancient human remains associated with stone implements and culturally modified faunal remains. The main objective of this rescue operation was to mitigate the destruction to this archaeological site. We report the excavation strategy and dating of this mid-Holocene shell midden, while focusing on the discovery and extraction of a complete human burial that had not been disturbed by the shell mining activity at the site. This excavation is intended to serve as a precursor to systematic investigation of the coastal shell middens of southern Sri Lanka.

  5. The New Space Age in the making: Emergence of exo-mining, exo-burials and exo-marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capova, Klara Anna

    2016-10-01

    At the beginning of the 21st century we witness considerable global developments in space exploration and a new era has begun: the New Space Age. The principal symbols of that age are firstly internationalization of space activities, secondly commercial utilization of space technologies, and lastly emergence of outer space economy. This paper presents selected signposts of the New Space Age. Three cases of recent outer space enterprises: recovery of asteroid resources (exo-mining), post-cremation memorial spaceflight (exo-burials) and first extraterrestrial advert (exo-marketing), are introduced in order to emphasize the monetary and social dimension of commercial application of space technologies. To give an illustration of these trends, this paper provides a brief socioculturally minded account of three outer space undertakings that are interpreted as signposts of the new era.

  6. A detection-level hazardous waste ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the 200 areas low-level burial grounds and retrievable storage units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-02-01

    This plan defines the actions needed to achieve detection-level monitoring compliance at the Hanford Site 200 Areas Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Compliance will be achieved through characterization of the hydrogeology and monitoring of the ground water beneath the LLBG located in the Hanford Site 200 Areas. 13 refs., 20 figs.

  7. An estimation of the effects of Ensis directus on the transport and burial of silt in the near-shore Dutch coastal zone of the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witbaard, R.; Bergman, M.J.N.; van Weerlee, E.M.; Duineveld, G.C.A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the distribution of the razor clam Ensis directus in the Dutch coastal zone with emphasis on its relation to sediment grainsize, in particular silt. The study includes a spatial survey along the coast of North Holland (Netherlands) and an in-situ experiment for the burial of

  8. In situ spectroscopic detection of SMSI effect in a Ni/CeO2 system: hydrogen-induced burial and dig out of metallic nickel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Alfonso; Holgado, Juan P; Gonzalez-delaCruz, Victor M; Habas, Susan E; Herranz, Tirma; Salmeron, Miquel

    2010-02-21

    In situ APPES technique demonstrates that the strong metal support interaction effect (SMSI) in the Ni-ceria system is associated with the decoration and burial of metallic particles by the partially reduced support, a phenomenon reversible by evacuation at high temperature of the previously absorbed hydrogen.

  9. 38 CFR 3.43 - Burial benefits at the full-dollar rate for certain Filipino veterans residing in the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... full-dollar rate for certain Filipino veterans residing in the United States on the date of death. 3.43..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.43 Burial benefits at the full-dollar rate..., United States Code, at the full-dollar rate, based on service described in § 3.40(c) or (d), when an...

  10. Annual Status Report (FY2015) Performance Assessment for the Disposal of Low-Level Waste in the 200 West Area Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaleel, R. [INTERA, Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Mehta, S. [CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Nichols, W. E. [CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This annual review provides the projected dose estimates of radionuclide inventories disposed in the active 200 West Area Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBGs) since September 26, 1988. These estimates area calculated using the original does methodology developed in the performance assessment (PA) analysis (WHC-EP-0645).

  11. On the Problem Related to Reconstructing the Social Structure of the Population that Had Founded Seliksa-Trofimovka (Ancient Mordovian Burial Ground in 4th—5th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grishakov Valeriy V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of reconstruction of the social structure of the ancient Monrovian population that had established the 4th-5th-century Seliksa-Trofimovka burial ground in the Upper Sura river region. The materials of the male burials of the necropolis have been chosen for analysis as most socially informative. An attempt has been made to determine the relationship between the social status of the individual and its expression in ritual rites. The differences in the composition and quantity of grave goods made it possible to distinguish three groups of burials conventionally termed as "the poor", "the ordinary" and "the warriors." The latter group included three graves with swords. The necropolis has a row-based order layout; all the burials are on the ground level, with no traces of gravestones, and have the same northeast orientation. The property-based stratification in the analyzed community was apparently insignificant, while social stratification depended primarily on professional activities.

  12. In situ spectroscopic detection of SMSI effect in a Ni/CeO2 system: hydrogen-induced burial and dig out of metallic nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero, Alfonso; Holgado, Juan P.; Gonzalez-delaCruz, Victor M.; Habas, Susan e.; Herranz, Tirma; Salmeron, Miquel

    2010-06-29

    In situ APPES technique demonstrates that the strong metal support interaction effect (SMSI) in the Ni-ceria system is associated with the decoration and burial of metallic particles by the partially reduced support, a phenomenon reversible by evacuation at high temperature of the previously absorbed hydrogen.

  13. The age of fossil StW573 ("Little Foot": An alternative interpretation of 26Al/10Be burial data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan D. Kramers

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Following the publication (Granger DE et al., Nature 2015;522:85–88 of an 26Al/10Be burial isochron age of 3.67±0.16 Ma for the sediments encasing hominin fossil StW573 (‘Little Foot’, we consider data on chert samples presented in that publication to explore alternative age interpretations. 10Be and 26Al concentrations determined on individual chert fragments within the sediments were calculated back in time, and data from one of these fragments point to a maximum age of 2.8 Ma for the sediment package and therefore also for the fossil. An alternative hypothesis is explored, which involves re-deposition and mixing of sediment that had previously collected over time in an upper chamber, which has since been eroded. We show that it is possible for such a scenario to yield ultimately an isochron indicating an apparent age much older than the depositional age of the sediments around the fossil. A possible scenario for deposition of StW573 in Member 2 would involve the formation of an opening between the Silberberg Grotto and an upper chamber. Not only could such an opening have acted as a death trap, but it could also have disturbed the sedimentological balance in the cave, allowing unconsolidated sediment to be washed into the Silberberg Grotto. This two-staged burial model would thus allow a younger age for the fossil, consistent with the sedimentology of the deposit. This alternative age is also not in contradiction to available faunal and palaeomagnetic data.

  14. The Formation of the Patterns of Desert Shrub Communities on the Western Ordos Plateau, China: The Roles of Seed Dispersal and Sand Burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yange; Yang, Xiaohui; Shi, Zhongjie

    2013-01-01

    The western Ordos Plateau is a key area of shrub diversity and a National Nature Reserve of endangered shrub species in north-west China. Desert expansion is becoming the most important threat to these endangered species. However, little is known about the effects of sand burial on the dynamics of the shrub community. This study aims to investigate how the shrubs as a community and as different individual shrubs respond to the disturbances caused by the desert expansion. The approach used by this study is to separate the seed-dispersal strategy from the sand-burial forces that are involved in structuring the shrub communities at different disturbance stages. Four communities for different disturbance stages were surveyed by using 50×50 m plots. The individual shrubs were classified into coloniser and successor groups at the seed-dispersal stage and strong and weak sand-burial tolerance groups at the sand-expansion stage. We employed spatial point pattern analysis with null models for each community to examine the seed-dispersal strategy and sand-burial forces affecting community distribution patterns. At the seed-dispersal stage, the interactions between the colonisers and the successors showed significant positive correlation at a scale of 0–1 m and significant negative correlation at a scale of 2 m; significant negative correlations between the groups with strong and weak sand-burial tolerance in the early stage of sand expansion at scales of 3–6 m, and significant positive correlation in the later stage of sand expansion at a scale of 13 m, were found. Seed-dispersal strategy is a reasonable mechanism to explain the shrub community pattern formation in the earlier stages, whereas sand burial is the primary reason for the disappearance of shrubs with weak sand-burial tolerance, this irreversible disturbance causes homogenisation of the community structure and produces aging populations of shrub species. This has an important influence on the succession

  15. Burial and exhumation of temperate bedrock reefs as elucidated by repetitive high-resolution sea floor sonar surveys: Spatial patterns and impacts to species' richness and diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Fregoso, Theresa A.; Figurski, Jared D.; Freiwald, Jan; Lonhart, Steve I.; Finlayson, David P.

    2013-01-01

    To understand how chronic sediment burial and scour contribute to variation in the structure of algal and invertebrate communities on temperate bedrock reefs, the dynamics of the substrate and communities were monitored at locations that experience sand inundation and adjacent areas that do not. Co-located benthic scuba-transect surveys and high-resolution swath-sonar surveys were completed on bedrock reefs on the inner shelf of northern Monterey Bay, CA, in early winter 2009, spring 2010, and summer 2010. Analysis of the sonar surveys demonstrates that during the 8 months over which the surveys were conducted, 19.6% of the study area was buried by sand while erosion resulted in the exposure of bedrock over 13.8% of the study area; the remainder underwent no change between the surveys. Substrate classifications from the benthic transect surveys correlated with classifications generated from the sonar surveys, demonstrating the capacity of high-resolution sonar surveys to detect burial of bedrock reefs by sediment. On bedrock habitat that underwent burial and exhumation, species' diversity and richness of rock-associated sessile and mobile organisms were 50–66% lower as compared to adjacent stable bedrock habitat. While intermediate levels of disturbance can increase the diversity and richness of communities, these findings demonstrate that burial and exhumation of bedrock habitat are sources of severe disturbance. We suggest that substrate dynamics must be considered when developing predictions of benthic community distributions based on sea floor imagery. These results highlight the need for predictive models of substrate dynamics and for a better understanding of how burial and exhumation shape benthic communities.

  16. Temporal variability of carbon and nutrient burial, sediment accretion, and mass accumulation over the past century in a carbonate platform mangrove forest of the Florida Everglades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breithaupt, Josh L.; Smoak, Joseph M.; Smith, Thomas J.; Sanders, Christian J.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research was to measure temporal variability in accretion and mass sedimentation rates (including organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorous (TP)) from the past century in a mangrove forest on the Shark River in Everglades National Park, USA. The 210Pb Constant Rate of Supply model was applied to six soil cores to calculate annual rates over the most recent 10, 50, and 100 year time spans. Our results show that rates integrated over longer timeframes are lower than those for shorter, recent periods of observation. Additionally, the substantial spatial variability between cores over the 10 year period is diminished over the 100 year record, raising two important implications. First, a multiple-decade assessment of soil accretion and OC burial provides a more conservative estimate and is likely to be most relevant for forecasting these rates relative to long-term processes of sea level rise and climate change mitigation. Second, a small number of sampling locations are better able to account for spatial variability over the longer periods than for the shorter periods. The site average 100 year OC burial rate, 123 ± 19 (standard deviation) g m-2yr-1, is low compared with global mangrove values. High TN and TP burial rates in recent decades may lead to increased soil carbon remineralization, contributing to the low carbon burial rates. Finally, the strong correlation between OC burial and accretion across this site signals the substantial contribution of OC to soil building in addition to the ecosystem service of CO2 sequestration.

  17. The Influence of Organic Material and Temperature on the Burial Tolerance of the Blue Mussel, Mytilus edulis: Considerations for the Management of Marine Aggregate Dredging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard S Cottrell

    Full Text Available Aggregate dredging is a growing source of anthropogenic disturbance in coastal UK waters and has the potential to impact marine systems through the smothering of benthic fauna with organically loaded screening discards. This study investigates the tolerance of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis to such episodic smothering events using a multi-factorial design, including organic matter concentration, temperature, sediment fraction size and duration of burial as important predictor variables.Mussel mortality was significantly higher in organically loaded burials when compared to control sediments after just 2 days. Particularly, M. edulis specimens under burial in fine sediment with high (1% concentrations of organic matter experienced a significantly higher mortality rate (p<0.01 than those under coarse control aggregates. Additionally, mussels exposed to the summer maximum temperature treatment (20°C exhibited significantly increased mortality (p<0.01 compared to those in the ambient treatment group (15°C. Total Oxygen Uptake rates of experimental aggregates were greatest (112.7 mmol m-2 day-1 with 1% organic loadings in coarse sediment at 20°C. Elevated oxygen flux rates in porous coarse sediments are likely to be a function of increased vertical migration of anaerobically liberated sulphides to the sediment-water interface. However, survival of M. edulis under bacterial mats of Beggiatoa spp. indicates the species' resilience to sulphides and so we propose that the presence of reactive organic matter within the burial medium may facilitate bacterial growth and increase mortality through pathogenic infection. This may be exacerbated under the stable interstitial conditions in fine sediment and increased bacterial metabolism under high temperatures. Furthermore, increased temperature may impose metabolic demands upon the mussel that cannot be met during burial-induced anaerobiosis.Lack of consideration for the role of organic matter and

  18. Perspectives on the terrestrial organic matter transport and burial along the land-deep sea continuum: Caveats in our understanding of biogeochemical processes and future needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvaraj Kandasamy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The natural carbon cycle is immensely intricate to fully understand its sources, fluxes and the processes that are responsible for their cycling in different reservoirs and their balances on a global scale. Anthropogenic perturbations add another dimension to such a complex cycle. Therefore, it is necessary to update the global carbon cycle by combining both natural and anthropogenic sources, fluxes and sinks along the land-sea continuum to assess whether these terms are currently in balance or not. Here, we review the export and it burial rates of terrestrial organic carbon in the oceans to understand the issue of missing terrigenous carbon by comparing data- and model-based estimates of terrestrial carbon fluxes. Our review reveals large disparities between field-based data and model output in terms of dissolved and particulate organic carbon/matter (OC/OM fluxes and their ratios, especially for Oceania and Arctic rivers, suggesting the need of additional investigations in these regions to refine terrestrial OC export budget. Based on our budgeting of global sources and sinks of OC with updated estimates of marine productivity and terrestrial OM burial rate, we find that the marginal sediments are key burial sites of terrestrial OM, which is consistent with earlier views of Berner (1982 and Hedges and Keil (1995. While about 60‒80% of TOM is remineralized in the margins, the estimated budget further reveals the ocean derived OM is efficiently remineralized than that of terrestrial OM, emphasizing the need of further improvements of carbon burial estimation in the marine realm. When we look back in the past, higher terrestrial OC burial (by ~50% in the deep ocean during the glacials than during the interglacials suggests the subdued role of continental margins and an efficient transfer of OM from the shelf to deep sea in glacials. Based on the review of terrestrial and marine OM burial, we suggest some critical regions/ways that need to be

  19. Estimation of the release and migration of nickel through soils and groundwater at the Hanford Site 218-E-12B Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhoads, K.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Lewis, R.E. [and others

    1994-05-01

    An assessment was performed to evaluate release and transport of nickel from large metal components containing nickel-bearing alloys at the Hanford Site 218-E-12B Burial Ground. The potential for nickel within the components to enter groundwater under the burial site was investigated by examining available data on the site`s geology, geochemistry, and geohydrology to develop a conceptual model for release and transport of nickel from the components. In addition, laboratory studies were performed to provide information needed for the model, but which was not available from existing databases. Estimates of future concentrations of nickel radioisotopes ({sup 59}Ni and {sup 63}Ni) and total elemental nickel in the unconfined aquifer and in the Columbia River were developed based on this information.

  20. Change of Grave Goods in the Middle 11th–13th Centuries in the Burial Grounds in the Lower Vetluga Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akilbaev Alexander V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The author examines changing patterns in the decoration set and metal elements of costume traceable by materials offered by the Old Mari burial grounds in the Lower Vetluga area and the neighboring Volga area starting from the middle 11th century. This process reflects trade and cultural contacts of the Lower Vetluga population in the middle of 11th – 13th centuries. The analysis of grave goods from a number of medieval Mari burial grounds in the Lower Vetluga, such as Vyzhum II, Vyzhum III, Dubovo, Rutka, Pochinok, Rusenikha, allowed distinguishing some artefacts originating from the territory of the Old Rus’ and more remote western territories: Finland, Scandinavia, the Baltic Sea zone. The dating and the analogies support the Old Russian origin of the majority of these artefacts. The study allowed linking some types of decoration to certain territories and tribes of the Northern Rus’ and identify their main production centers.

  1. Tectonic burial, thrust emplacement, and extensional exhumation of the Cabot nappe in the Appalachian hinterland of Cape Breton Island, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Gregory

    1996-02-01

    Silurian imbricate thrusting, Early Devonian high-grade metamorphic nappe emplacement, and Devonian-Carboniferous extensional denudation characterize deformation in the Appalachian hinterland of Cape Breton Island. Compressional deformation following Early Silurian arc volcanism features imbrication of Cambrian-Precambrian basement rocks of Gondwana derivation with Ordovician-Silurian cover sequences across thick zones of mylonite during south directed transport. High grade metamorphism and gneissic rocks of late Silurian age in the region indicate that significant tectonic burial and crustal thickening occurred as a result of the thrusting. Partial denudation of the high grade assemblages occurred during Early Devonian thrust emplacement of the Cabot nappe toward the northwest, along the Highlands Shear Zone. The nappe is characterized by an amphibolitic gneiss and high-grade schist complex defining a large folded klippe above Silurian units. Kyanite is widespread within the nappe, and a distinctive feature of the thrust sheet is the dynamothermal metamorphism of cooler greenschist-grade footwall rocks producing inverted isograds; staurolite is regionally distributed and occurs in pelitic units in the immediate footwall of the Highlands Shear Zone forming a discontinuous halo around the klippe. Greenschist-grade footwall rocks are exposed in structural windows as a result of folding and faulting. Shear sense indicators along the margins of the Cabot nappe have been rotated into their present positions due to superposed folding, providing apparent movement directions for the nappe. Complete exhumation to surface occurred during Late Devonian extension along the low-angle Margaree Shear Zone.

  2. Performance assessment for the disposal of low-level waste in the 200 east area burial grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, M.I., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-15

    A performance assessment analysis was completed for the 200 East Area Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) to satisfy compliance requirements in DOE Order 5820.2A. In the analysis, scenarios of radionuclide release from the 200 East Area Low-Level waste facility was evaluated. The analysis focused on two primary scenarios leading to exposure. The first was inadvertent intrusion. In this scenario, it was assumed that institutional control of the site and knowledge of the disposal facility has been lost. Waste is subsequently exhumed and dose from exposure is received. The second scenario was groundwater contamination.In this scenario, radionuclides are leached from the waste by infiltrating precipitation and transported through the soil column to the underlying unconfined aquifer. The contaminated water is pumped from a well 100 m downstream and consumed,causing dose. Estimates of potential contamination of the surrounding environment were developed and the associated doses to the maximum exposed individual were calculated. The doses were compared with performance objective dose limits, found primarily in the DOE order 5850.2A. In the 200 East Area LLBG,it was shown that projected doses are estimated to be well below the limits because of the combination of environmental, waste inventory, and disposal facility characteristics of the 200 East Area LLBG. Waste acceptance criteria were also derived to ensure that disposal of future waste inventories in the 200 East Area LLBG will not cause an unacceptable increase in estimated dose.

  3. A multiobjective decision support/numerical modeling approach for design and evaluation of shallow landfill burial systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ascough, II, James Clifford [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States)

    1992-05-01

    The capability to objectively evaluate design performance of shallow landfill burial (SLB) systems is of great interest to diverse scientific disciplines, including hydrologists, engineers, environmental scientists, and SLB regulators. The goal of this work was to develop and validate a procedure for the nonsubjective evaluation of SLB designs under actual or simulated environmental conditions. A multiobjective decision module (MDM) based on scoring functions (Wymore, 1988) was implemented to evaluate SLB design performance. Input values to the MDM are provided by hydrologic models. The MDM assigns a total score to each SLB design alternative, thereby allowing for rapid and repeatable design performance evaluation. The MDM was validated for a wide range of SLB designs under different climatic conditions. Rigorous assessment of SLB performance also requires incorporation of hydrologic probabilistic analysis and hydrologic risk into the overall design. This was accomplished through the development of a frequency analysis module. The frequency analysis module allows SLB design event magnitudes to be calculated based on the hydrologic return period. The multiobjective decision and freqeuncy anslysis modules were integrated in a decision support system (DSS) framework, SLEUTH (Shallow Landfill Evaluation Using Transport and Hydrology). SLEUTH is a Microsoft Windows {trademark} application, and is written in the Knowledge Pro Windows (Knowledge Garden, Inc., 1991) development language.

  4. Soil burial method for plastic degradation performed by Pseudomonas PL-01, Bacillus PL-01, and indigenous bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shovitri, Maya; Nafi'ah, Risyatun; Antika, Titi Rindi; Alami, Nur Hidayatul; Kuswytasari, N. D.; Zulaikha, Enny

    2017-06-01

    Lately, plastic bag is becoming the most important pollutant for environment since it is difficult to be naturally degraded due to it consists of long hydrocarbon polymer chains. Our previous study indicated that our pure isolate Pseudomonas PL-01 and Bacillus PL-01 could degrade about 10% plastic bag. This present study was aimed to find out whether Pseudomonas PL01 and Bacillus PL01 put a positive effect to indigenous bacteria from marginal area in doing plastic degradation with a soil burial method. Beach sand was used as a representative marginal area, and mangrove sediment was used as a comparison. Plastics were submerged into unsterile beach sand with 10% of Pseudomonas PL-01 or Bacillus PL-01 containing liquid minimal salt medium (MSM) separately, while other plastics were submerged into unsterile mangrove sediments. After 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks, their biofilm formation on their plastic surfaces and plastic degradation were measured. Results indicated that those 2 isolates put positive influent on biofilm formation and plastic degradation for indigenous beach sand bacteria. Bacillus PL-01 put higher influent than Pseudomonas PL-01. Plastic transparent was preferable degraded than black and white plastic bag `kresek'. But anyhow, indigenous mangrove soil bacteria showed the best performance in biofilm formation and plastic degradation, even without Pseudomonas PL-01 or Bacillus PL-01 addition. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis complemented the results; there were attenuated peaks with decreasing peaks transmittances. This FTIR peaks indicated chemical functional group changes happened among the plastic compounds after 16 weeks incubation time.

  5. Pre-accretion metamorphism of the Teloloapan Terrane (southern Mexico): example of burial metamorphism in an island-arc setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talavera Mendoza, O.

    2000-10-01

    Volcanic and interbedded volcaniclastic rocks of the lower Cretaceous island-arc series of the Teloloapan Terrane in southern Mexico contain metamorphic assemblages characteristic of the zeolite, prehnite-pumpellyite and lower greenschist facies produced by burial metamorphism prior to its accretion to nuclear Mexico. Distribution of secondary assemblages throughout the stratigraphic succession, together with the chemical evolution of metamorphic minerals, reveals a depth-controlled metamorphic zonation characterized by the presence of the diagnostic assemblages laumontite+pumpellyite+epidote and laumontite+celadonite+pumpellyite±epidote (zeolite facies) followed downward by assemblages containing prehnite+pumpellyite±white mica (prehnite-pumpellyite facies) and finally by the presence of the assemblages pumpellyite+actinolite+epidote and epidote+actinolite (greenschist facies). Analysis of assemblages in the Al-Fe 3+-FM-K system, reveals that facies boundaries are discontinuous, involving the disappearance of at least one phase and the appearance and/or extension of the field of equilibrium of other diagnostic minerals and assemblages. Application of empirically based thermobarometers, phase equilibria, mineral chemistry, and petrogenetic grids indicates that the P- T conditions of metamorphism ranged from 175 to 342°C and Pgeothermal gradients of about ˜55°C km -1. Seawater-derived fluids were characterized by high aK, high fO 2 and low XCO 2.

  6. Miocene burial and exhumation of the India-Asia collision zone in southern Tibet: response to slab dynamics and erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrapa, Barbara; Orme, D.A.; DeCelles, Peter G.; Kapp, Paul; Cosca, Michael A.; Waldrip, R.

    2014-01-01

    The India-Asia collision zone in southern Tibet preserves a record of geodynamic and erosional processes following intercontinental collision. Apatite fission-track and zircon and apatite (U-Th)/He data from the Oligocene–Miocene Kailas Formation, within the India-Asia collision zone, show a synchronous cooling signal at 17 ± 1 Ma, which is younger than the ca. 26–21 Ma depositional age of the Kailas Formation, constrained by U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology, and requires heating (burial) after ca. 21 Ma and subsequent rapid exhumation. Data from the Gangdese batholith underlying the Kailas Formation also indicate Miocene exhumation. The thermal history of the Kailas Formation is consistent with rapid subsidence during a short-lived phase of early Miocene extension followed by uplift and exhumation driven by rollback and northward underthrusting of the Indian plate, respectively. Significant removal of material from the India-Asia collision zone was likely facilitated by efficient incision of the paleo–Indus River and paleo–Yarlung River in response to drainage reorganization and/or intensification of the Asian monsoon.

  7. In situ grouting of low-level burial trenches with a cement-based grout at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, C.W.; Spence, R.D.; Tamura, T.; Spalding, B.P.

    1993-01-01

    A technology being evaluated for use in the closure of one of the low-level radwaste burial grounds at ORNL is trench stabilization using a cement-based grout. To demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of this technology, two interconnecting trenches in SWSA 6 were selected as candidates for in situ grouting with a particulate grout. The primary objective was to demonstrate the increased trench stability (characterized by trench penetration tests) and the decreased potential for leachate migration (characterized by hydraulic conductivity tests) following in situ injection of a particulate grout into the waste trenches. Stability against trench subsidence is a critical issue. For example, construction of impermeable covers to seal the trenches will be ineffectual unless subsequent trench subsidence is permanently suspended. A grout composed of 39% Type 1 Portland cement, 55.5% Class F fly ash, and 5.5% bentonite mixed at 12.5 lb/gal of water was selected. Before the trenches were grouted, the primary characteristics relating to physical stability, hydraulic conductivity, and void volume of the trenches were determined. Their physical stability was evaluated using soil-penetration tests.

  8. Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequencing of a Burial from a Romano–Christian Cemetery in the Dakhleh Oasis, Egypt: Preliminary Indications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molto, J. Eldon; Loreille, Odile; Malhi, Ripan S.; Fast, Spence; Daniels-Higginbotham, Jennifer; Marshall, Charla; Parr, Ryan

    2017-01-01

    The curse of ancient Egyptian DNA was lifted by a recent study which sequenced the mitochondrial genomes (mtGenome) of 90 ancient Egyptians from the archaeological site of Abusir el-Meleq. Surprisingly, these ancient inhabitants were more closely related to those from the Near East than to contemporary Egyptians. It has been accepted that the timeless highway of the Nile River seeded Egypt with African genetic influence, well before pre-Dynastic times. Here we report on the successful recovery and analysis of the complete mtGenome from a burial recovered from a remote Romano–Christian cemetery, Kellis 2 (K2). K2 serviced the ancient municipality of Kellis, a village located in the Dakhleh Oasis in the southwest desert in Egypt. The data were obtained by high throughput sequencing (HTS) performed independently at two ancient DNA facilities (Armed Forces DNA Identification Laboratory, Dover, DE, USA and Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA). These efforts produced concordant haplotypes representing a U1a1a haplogroup lineage. This result indicates that Near Eastern maternal influence previously identified at Abusir el-Meleq was also present further south, in ancient Kellis during the Romano–Christian period. PMID:28984839

  9. Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequencing of a Burial from a Romano-Christian Cemetery in the Dakhleh Oasis, Egypt: Preliminary Indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molto, J Eldon; Loreille, Odile; Mallott, Elizabeth K; Malhi, Ripan S; Fast, Spence; Daniels-Higginbotham, Jennifer; Marshall, Charla; Parr, Ryan

    2017-10-06

    The curse of ancient Egyptian DNA was lifted by a recent study which sequenced the mitochondrial genomes (mtGenome) of 90 ancient Egyptians from the archaeological site of Abusir el-Meleq. Surprisingly, these ancient inhabitants were more closely related to those from the Near East than to contemporary Egyptians. It has been accepted that the timeless highway of the Nile River seeded Egypt with African genetic influence, well before pre-Dynastic times. Here we report on the successful recovery and analysis of the complete mtGenome from a burial recovered from a remote Romano-Christian cemetery, Kellis 2 (K2). K2 serviced the ancient municipality of Kellis, a village located in the Dakhleh Oasis in the southwest desert in Egypt. The data were obtained by high throughput sequencing (HTS) performed independently at two ancient DNA facilities (Armed Forces DNA Identification Laboratory, Dover, DE, USA and Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA). These efforts produced concordant haplotypes representing a U1a1a haplogroup lineage. This result indicates that Near Eastern maternal influence previously identified at Abusir el-Meleq was also present further south, in ancient Kellis during the Romano-Christian period.

  10. Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequencing of a Burial from a Romano–Christian Cemetery in the Dakhleh Oasis, Egypt: Preliminary Indications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Eldon Molto

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The curse of ancient Egyptian DNA was lifted by a recent study which sequenced the mitochondrial genomes (mtGenome of 90 ancient Egyptians from the archaeological site of Abusir el-Meleq. Surprisingly, these ancient inhabitants were more closely related to those from the Near East than to contemporary Egyptians. It has been accepted that the timeless highway of the Nile River seeded Egypt with African genetic influence, well before pre-Dynastic times. Here we report on the successful recovery and analysis of the complete mtGenome from a burial recovered from a remote Romano–Christian cemetery, Kellis 2 (K2. K2 serviced the ancient municipality of Kellis, a village located in the Dakhleh Oasis in the southwest desert in Egypt. The data were obtained by high throughput sequencing (HTS performed independently at two ancient DNA facilities (Armed Forces DNA Identification Laboratory, Dover, DE, USA and Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA. These efforts produced concordant haplotypes representing a U1a1a haplogroup lineage. This result indicates that Near Eastern maternal influence previously identified at Abusir el-Meleq was also present further south, in ancient Kellis during the Romano–Christian period.

  11. Burial of piglet carcasses in cement: a study of macroscopic and microscopic alterations on an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibelli, Daniele; Di Giancamillo, Alessia; Taborelli, Anna; Porta, Davide; Andreola, Salvatore; Ferro, Francesca; Vitari, Francesca; Domeneghini, Cinzia; Grandi, Marco; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2013-03-01

    Scarce experimental data exist describing postmortem effects of burial in cement. The scanty literature presents several case reports, but no experimental study. To perform a pilot study, the following experimental system was designed: 4 piglet corpses, who died of natural causes, were encased in concrete. After 1, 2, 3, and 6 months, a block was opened, and autopsy and microscopic analyses were performed. At the first month, initial putrefaction had started, and hindlegs were partly skeletonized. At the second month, both forelegs and hindlegs were partly skeletonized, and the abdomen and back showed advanced putrefaction. At the third month, the samples showed areas of mummification at the abdomen within a general context of initial putrefaction. At the sixth month, the sample showed wide adipocere formation. Histological findings revealed in some analyzed tissues (epithelium, dermis, adipose, and subcutaneous muscular tissues) a well-defined histological pattern even at 3 months after encasement in concrete: this means that microscopic changes may be delayed in concrete and that it may be worth performing histological analyses even in such kind of decomposed material.

  12. Micromorphological and ultramicroscopic aspects of buried remains: Time-dependent markers of decomposition and permanence in soil in experimental burial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangarini, Sara; Trombino, Luca; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2016-06-01

    A buried body not only determines an environmental response at the deposition site but it is also affected by the soil. The experiment was performed using eleven swine carcasses buried in an open site (Northern Italy). Changes occurring in bone tissue at different post-burial intervals were evaluated observing thin sections of bones through micromorphological and ultramicroscopic (SEM-EDS) techniques. These methods allowed the identification of: (a) magnesium phosphate (Mg3(PO4)2) crystallizations, probably linked to decomposition of bones and soft tissues; (b) significant sulphur levels which seem to be related to hydrogen sulphide (H2S) fixation in bone tissue; (c) metal oxide concentrations in the form of unusual violet-blue colorations, which probably are evidence of the soil's action and penetration in bones, also testified by (d) the presence of mineral grains enclosed in the osseous tissue. The results underline the possibility of identifying both time-dependent markers of decomposition and indicators of permanence in soil in buried bones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Isotopically zoned carbonate cements in Early Paleozoic sandstones of the Illinois Basin: δ18O and δ13C records of burial and fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Adam C.; Kozdon, Reinhard; Kitajima, Kouki; Valley, John W.

    2017-11-01

    SEM/SIMS imaging and analysis of δ18O and δ13C in sandstones from a transect through the Illinois Basin (USA) show systematic μm-scale isotopic zonation of up to 10‰ in both carbonate and quartz cements of the middle-Ordovician St. Peter and Cambrian Mt. Simon formations. Quartz δ18O values are broadly consistent with the model of Hyodo et al. (2014), wherein burial and heating in the Illinois Basin is recorded in systematically zoned quartz overgrowths. Observations of zoned dolomite/ankerite cements indicate that they preserve a more extended record of temperature and fluid compositions than quartz, including early diagenesis before or during shallow burial, and late carbonates formed after quartz overgrowths. Many carbonate cements show innermost dolomite with δ18O values (21-25‰ VSMOW) that are too low to have formed by deposition at low temperatures from ancient seawater (δ18O > - 3‰) and most likely reflect mixing with meteoric water. A sharp increase in Fe content is commonly observed in zoned carbonate cements to be associated with a drop in δ18O and an abrupt shift in δ13C to higher or lower values. These changes are interpreted to record the passage of hot metal-rich brines through sandstone aquifers, that was associated with Mississippi-Valley Type (MVT) Pb-Zn deposits (ca. 270 Ma) of the Upper Mississippi Valley. Local variability and individual trends in δ13C are likely controlled by the sources of carbon and the degree to which carbon is sourced from adjacent carbonate units or thermal maturation of organic matter. Quartz overgrowths in sandstones provide an excellent record of conditions during burial, heating, and pressure-solution, whereas carbonate cements in sandstones preserve a more-extended record including initial pre-burial conditions and punctuated fluid flow events.

  14. Lugares para la muerte en el espacio meridional andino, Salta en el siglo XVIII: The Southern Andean Region, Salta 18th Century Death and burial places

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Caretta

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Los enterratorios como lugares no solo reflejan el status social, la condición étnica y jurídica del enterrado, sino además todo un entramado de relaciones sociales entre las que encontramos rasgos de exclusión, lazos de sujeción, vinculaciones personales y de grupos. Los lugares de entierro no pueden entenderse sin la consideración de los imaginarios en torno a la muerte. Nos centraremos en los espacios destinados al entierro en la ciudad de Salta a lo largo del siglo XVIII para reconocer en ellos "lugares"; es decir, espacios cargados de sentido para sus habitantes. El concepto de "lugar" nos remite a la construcción concreta y simbólica del espacio, en el que los historiadores, sin caer en la ilusión de su transparencia, pueden leer marcas sociales, pautas de identificación, estratificación y conflictos así como indicios acerca de la presencia de imaginarios que valoran y sostienen el entierro en el centro de la ciudad.Burials not only reflect the legal, social and ethnic status of individuals, they also show a network of social relationships among which we find signs of exclusion, subjection and personal and collective links. The complexity of burial places cannot be understood without considering peoples' imaginary about death. We will focus specifically on spaces thought of as burial grounds on Salta city during the eighteenth Century in order to recognize "places" full of meaning to their inhabitants. The concept of place refers to the real and symbolic construction of space and Historians, without falling in an ethnographic illusion of transparency, are able to search for social markers and signs of identity, hierarchy and stratification as well as some clues regarding different imaginaries which give value and sustain those burial places in the town's center.

  15. Phosphorus burial and diagenesis in the central Bering Sea (Bowers Ridge, IODP Site U1341): Perspectives on the marine P cycle

    OpenAIRE

    März, C; Poulton, SW; Wagner, T; Schnetger, B; Brumsack, H-J

    2014-01-01

    To reconstruct the cycling of reactive phosphorus (P) in the Bering Sea, a P speciation record covering the last ~4Ma was generated from sediments recovered during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 323 at Site U1341 (Bowers Ridge). A chemical extraction procedure distinguishing between different operationally defined P fractions provides new insight into reactive P input, burial and diagenetic transformations. Reactive P mass accumulation rates (MARs) are ~20-110μmol/cm/ka, ...

  16. "Poetic Simplicity and Embracing the Unexpected" Exploring Character Body Costume Design In Two Theatrical Productions: Burial at Thebes and Mr. Burns

    OpenAIRE

    O'Neill, Janet Lynn

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OF THE THESIS"Poetic Simplicity and Embracing the Unexpected"Exploring Character Body Costume Design In Two Theatrical Productions: Burial at Thebes and Mr. BurnsbyJanet O'NeillMaster of Fine Arts in Theatre and Dance (Design) University of California, San Diego, 2015 Professor Judith Dolan, ChairMR.BURNS:Act One, Present Day: The introduction of these very different people meeting under extreme circumstances provided an opportunity to use the actors' preexisting character traits. Co...

  17. Headdress from a Female Burial of 14th Century in the Territory of Bolgar (a turban with goldwork and a knit veil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedotova, Yulia V.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Results of scientific reconstruction of the archaeological materials of a young woman’s headdress from a burial in Bolgar dated 14th century are presented in the article. The burial was discovered inside the ruins of a mausoleum (dig 174 where certain burials deviate from the Muslim tradition. In the grave the researchers discovered the remains of silk fabrics fragments of the remaining complex of a headdress decorated with goldwork. The embroidery pattern covering the surface of the fabric has no counterparts in the monuments of medieval art. During the study of fabrics the researchers discovered a long veil knit with silk threads, which presumably represented a head cover. It was decorated with a fringe of gold threads in the shape of triangles. After the restoration of the items it became possible to reconstruct the appearance of the headdress worn in the fashion of a turban. Today the artifact is the only authentic element of Bolgar clothing included in the complex of young women’s ceremonial costume.

  18. The formation conditions of the burial site of Late Cretaceous dinosaurs and plants in the Kakanaut River basin (Koryak Highlands, Northeastern Asia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shczepetov, S. V.; Herman, A. B.

    2017-07-01

    The stratigraphic position of layers containing plant and animal remains in the Koryak Highlands (Northeast Asia) is under discussion. Their age is defined as late Campanian-early Maastrichtian. Plant-bearing and bone-bearing rocks represent cemented basaltic tephra. The former contain a small amount of xenogenic material and slightly rounded volcaniclastic material, which indicates its insignificant transportation. Ash particles in bone-bearing rocks are even less rounded. Among them, there are no rock fragments of other composition. Large bones and their fragments, as xenoliths, are chaotically distributed in the rock matrix as if floating in mass of ash material. This burial site was probably formed in a continental environment as a result of the gravitational and eolian transportation of the terrigenous material. The burial of small dinosaur bones and teeth occurred during the deposition of a small stream of a semiliquid water-ash mixture. This work presents a possible mechanism of the formation of burial sites, taking into consideration proposed conditions of the life and reproduction of dinosaurs in the Late Mesozoic Arctic.

  19. A distinct section of the Early Bronze Age society? Stable isotope investigations of burials in settlement pits and multiple inhumations of the Únětice culture in central Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipper, Corina; Fragata, Matthias; Nicklisch, Nicole; Siebert, Angelina; Szécsényi-Nagy, Anna; Hubensack, Vera; Metzner-Nebelsick, Carola; Meller, Harald; Alt, Kurt W

    2016-03-01

    Inhumations in so-called settlement pits and multiple interments are subordinate burial practices of the Early Bronze Age Únětice culture in central Germany (2200-1700/1650 BC). The majority of the Únětice population was entombed as single inhumations in rectangular grave pits with a normative position of the body. The goal of the study was to test archaeological hypotheses that the deviant burials may represent socially distinct or nonlocal individuals. The study comprised up to two teeth and one bone each of 74 human individuals from eight sites and faunal comparative samples. The inhumations included regular, deviant burials in so-called settlement or storage pits, and multiple burials. We investigated radiogenic strontium isotope compositions of tooth enamel ((87) Sr/(86) Sr) and light stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen of bone collagen (δ(13) C, δ(15) N) aiming at the disclosure of residential changes and dietary patterns. Site-specific strontium isotope data ranges mirror different geological properties including calcareous bedrock, loess, and glacial till. Independent from burial types, they disclose low portions of nonlocal individuals of up to some 20% at the individual sites. The light stable isotope ratios of burials in settlement pits and rectangular graves overlap widely and indicate highly similar dietary habits. The analytical results let to conclude that inhumations in settlement pits and multiple burials were two of the manifold burial practices of the Early Bronze Age. The selection criteria of the individuals for the different forms of inhumation remained undisclosed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Final Hazard Categorization and Auditable Safety Analysis for the Remediation of the 118-D-1, 118-D-2, 118-D-3, 118-H-1, 118-H-2 and 118-H-3 Solid Waste Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. J. Rodovsky

    2006-03-01

    This report presents the initial hazard categorization, final hazard categorization and auditable safety analysis for the remediation of the 118-D-1, 118-D-2, and 118-D-3 Burial Grounds located within the 100-D/DR Area of the Hanford Site and the 118-H-1, 118-H-2, and 118-H-3 Burial Grounds located within the 100-H Area of the Hanford Site.

  1. The use of a GIS Red-Amber-Green (RAG) system to define search priorities for burials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somma, Roberta; Silvestro, Massimiliano; Cascio, Maria; Dawson, Lorna; Donnelly, Laurance; Harrison, Mark; McKinley, Jennifer; Ruffell, Alastair

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this research is to promote among the Italian police, magistrates, and geologists, the applications of a Geographical Information System (GIS)-based RAG system for use in ground searches for burials. To date the RAG system has not been used and documented in Italy and would potentially be useful for searches related to clandestine burial sites. This technique, was originally documented by the British Army in the 1st World War. The RAG method is based on the construction of theme maps. RAG maps can facilitate the deployment of appropriate search assets (such as geophysics, probe or search dogs) and therefore applied to ground searches for the potential location of homicide graves or other buried objects (including weapons, explosives, etc.). RAG maps also may assist in the management of resources such as the deployment of search personnel, search teams and dogs. A GIS RAG (Red-Amber-Green) system related to a search for a homicide grave was applied to a test site in Italy, simulating the concealment of a victim in the area of Alì. This is an area of hill in Sicily, characterized by Palaeozoic phyllites. It was assumed during this test that information was provided by an observer who saw a suspect carrying tools on his land during daylight hours. A desktop study of the rural area was first implemented. Data was collated from previous geological, geomorphological, hydrogeological, geophysical and land use surveys. All these data were stored and independently analysed in a GIS using ArcGIS software. For the development of the GIS-based RAG map a digital elevation model (DEM) including a digital surface model (DTS) and digital terrain model (DTM) types were used. These were integrated with data from soil surveys to provide a preliminary assessment of "diggability" - including the possible thickness of loose superficial deposits and soils. Data were stored in different layers within the GIS. These included the delineation of the search area with consideration

  2. Incision history of the Colorado River system over the last several Ma from cosmogenic burial dating of high terrace gravels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, A. L.; Karlstrom, K. E.; Kirby, E.; Ouimet, W. B.; Aslan, A.; Granger, D. E.

    2009-12-01

    The incision history of fluvial systems is sensitive to changes in climate, lithologic contrasts, drainage reorganization events, and tectonism. The Colorado River (CR) carries precipitation from the Rocky Mountains to the Gulf of California along a complex longitudinal profile, with a regional knick-zone at Lees Ferry. Features of the upper CR basin profile include a systematically steeper gradient on the Colorado than the Green River, and sub-regional knick-zones. Lithologic contrasts, plotted on the longitudinal profile, weakly correlate with knick-zones and hence appear to be a secondary control on channel steepness. Published incision rate data on the Colorado can be summarized as follows. Grand Canyon incision began 6 Ma with semi-steady incision for the last 4 Ma. Further upstream, incision rates of the Upper Colorado average ca. 150 m/Ma over 10Ma, with a marked increase in incision rates between 10 and 5 Ma near Rifle, CO. Over shorter timescales, lower incision rates (ca. 60 m/Ma) are observed in reaches above knick-zones and much higher rates (~500 m/Ma) are seen within knick-zones. Emerging chronologic constraints are provided by new 40Ar/39Ar dating of basalts associated with fluvial gravels and 26Al /10Be isochron burial dating of gravel deposits. These data will provide new details on the spatio-temporal patterns of incision. Several specific hypotheses can be tested with the evolving datasets: 1) Incision rates along the Colorado watershed increased at ca. 2 - 4 Ma as a consequence of changing climate 2) Differences in incision rate across the knick-zone at Lee’s Ferry are indicative of a transient feature 3) Abandonment of Unaweep Canyon, now known to be 810 +/- 240 ka, instigated knick-zones in Black Canyon and Glenwood Canyon. 4) Spatial variations in incision across the flank of low-velocity mantle in central Colorado are linked to long-wavelength deformation above a dynamic mantle.

  3. Conservation and restoration of archaeological textiles from the disturbed Altai burial mounds of the early Iron age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altynbekova Dana Kyrymovna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the experience of scientific-restoration laboratory “Ostrov Krym” of the conservation and restoration of archaeological textiles from disturbed mounds of the IV–III centuries BC, located in the Kazakh Altai. The specialists of the laboratory participate in field works, carrying out the extraction of large blocks/monoliths with findings, using methods of forming blocks developed in practice. Two methods are considered aimed on conservation of textiles recovered from excavation blocks, depending on their content. The first method is a sequential splitting of the block into its components with random set of fragments of organic material. The process of stratification of the conglomerate as well as the stabilization of the separated fragments and their identification is described. During the reconstruction of the textiles the well-preserved analogs of synchronous Altai burial mounds located on the territory of Russia and Mongolia have been used. Examples of reconstruction the pieces of felt are represented. The second method consists in preservation of the blocks without dissection. It is applied in case of their content has been considered as specific independent complex. The process of conservation is shown by the case-study of the fifth set, extracted from the excavation with the remains of the horse in the wet state. Conservation of dissimilar materials (fabric, felt, vegetable stuffing pillows, a tree with the metallic remains in the form of conglomerate has been carried out similarly to the conservation of wet archaeological wood. The block stabilization has been made in the wet state with a gradual replacement of the soil solution by consolidator.

  4. Variations in Organic Matter Burial and Composition in Sediments from the Indian Ocean Continental Margin Off SW Indonesia (Sumatra - Java - Flores) Since the Last Glacial Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennerjahn, T. C.; Gesierich, K.; Schefuß, E.; Mohtadi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Global climate change is a mosaic of regional changes to a large extent determined by region-specific feedbacks between climate and ecosystems. At present the ocean is forming a major sink in the global carbon cycle. Organic matter (OM) storage in sediments displays large regional variations and varied over time during the Quaternary. Upwelling regions are sites of high primary productivity and major depocenters of organic carbon (OC), the least understood of which is the Indian Ocean upwelling off Indonesia. In order to reconstruct the burial and composition of OM during the Late Quaternary, we analyzed five sediment cores from the Indian Ocean continental margin off the Indonesian islands Sumatra to Flores spanning the last 20,000 years (20 kyr). Sediments were analyzed for bulk composition, stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes of OM, amino acids and hexosamines and terrestrial plant wax n-alkanes and their stable carbon isotope composition. Sedimentation rates hardly varied over time in the western part of the transect. They were slightly lower in the East during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and deglaciation, but increased strongly during the Holocene. The amount and composition of OM was similar along the transect with maximum values during the deglaciation and the late Holocene. High biogenic opal covarying with OM content indicates upwelling-induced primary productivity dominated by diatoms to be a major control of OM burial in sediments in the East during the past 20 kyr. The content of labile OM was low throughout the transect during the LGM and increased during the late Holocene. The increase was stronger and the OM less degraded in the East than in the West indicating that continental margin sediments off Java and Flores were the major depocenter of OC burial along the Indian Ocean margin off SW Indonesia. Temporal variations probably resulted from changes in upwelling intensity and terrestrial inputs driven by variations in monsoon strength.

  5. Evaluating Late Cretaceous OAEs and the influence of marine incursions on organic carbon burial in an expansive East Asian paleo-lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Matthew M.; Ibarra, Daniel E.; Gao, Yuan; Sageman, Bradley B.; Selby, David; Chamberlain, C. Page; Graham, Stephan A.

    2018-02-01

    Expansive Late Cretaceous lacustrine deposits of East Asia offer unique stratigraphic records to better understand regional responses to global climate events, such as oceanic anoxic events (OAEs), and terrestrial organic carbon burial dynamics. This study presents bulk organic carbon isotopes (δ13Corg), elemental concentrations (XRF), and initial osmium ratios (187Os/188Os, Osi) from the Turonian-Coniacian Qingshankou Formation, a ∼5 Ma lacustrine mudstone succession in the Songliao Basin of northeast China. A notable δ13Corg excursion (∼ + 2.5‰) in organic carbon-lean Qingshankou Members 2-3 correlates to OAE3 in the Western Interior Basin (WIB) of North America within temporal uncertainty of high-precision age models. Decreases in carbon isotopic fractionation (Δ13C) through OAE3 in the WIB and Songliao Basin, suggest that significantly elevated global rates of organic carbon burial drew down pCO2, likely cooling climate. Despite this, Osi chemostratigraphy demonstrates no major changes in global volcanism or weathering trends through OAE3. Identification of OAE3 in a lake system is consistent with lacustrine records of other OAEs (e.g., Toarcian OAE), and underscores that terrestrial environments were sensitive to climate perturbations associated with OAEs. Additionally, the relatively radiogenic Osi chemostratigraphy and XRF data confirm that the Qingshankou Formation was deposited in a non-marine setting. Organic carbon-rich intervals preserve no compelling Osi evidence for marine incursions, an existing hypothesis for generating Member 1's prolific petroleum source rocks. Based on our results, we present a model for water column stratification and source rock deposition independent of marine incursions, detailing dominant biogeochemical cycles and lacustrine organic carbon burial mechanisms.

  6. UXO Burial Prediction Fidelity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    for-profit company that operates three Federally Funded Research and Development Centers (FFRDCs). We perform scientific and technical analyses for the...Trajectory for Mine Clearance,” Journal of Defense Modeling and Simulation: Applications,  Methodology , Technology 8 (1) (2011): 25–36.  3P. Chu and C...4P. Chu, et al., “Modeling of Underwater Bomb Trajectory for Mine Clearance,” Journal of Defense Modeling and Simulation: Applications,  Methodology

  7. Spore-pollen assemblage records delayed terrestrial cooling in response to organic carbon burial during OAE1a

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cors, Jean; Heimhofer, Ulrich; Bover-Arnal, Telm; Salas, Ramon

    2013-04-01

    the composition of the hinterland vegetation of the Maestrat basin, most probably due to short-lived but pronounced climatic cooling. Temperature anomalies driven by organic carbon burial and associated CO2 decline have been postulated for all major Mesozoic OAEs. The palynomorph record from eastern Iberia indicates that the climax of this cooling episode (represented by the Classopollis minimum) was significantly delayed in comparison to the end of organic carbon-rich deposition in the world oceans.

  8. Impact of radionuclide spatial variability on groundwater quality downstream from a shallow waste burial in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, H. L.; de Fouquet, C.; Courbet, C.; Simonucci, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    The effects of spatial variability of hydraulic parameters and initial groundwater plume localization on the possible extent of groundwater pollution plumes have already been broadly studied. However, only a few studies, such as Kjeldsen et al. (1995), take into account the effect of source term spatial variability. We explore this question with the 90Sr migration modeling from a shallow waste burial located in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone to the underlying sand aquifer. Our work is based upon groundwater sampled once or twice a year since 1995 until 2015 from about 60 piezometers and more than 3,000 137Cs soil activity measurements. These measurements were taken in 1999 from one of the trenches dug after the explosion of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, the so-called "T22 Trench", where radioactive waste was buried in 1987. The geostatistical analysis of 137Cs activity data in soils from Bugai et al. (2005) is first reconsidered to delimit the trench borders using georadar data as a covariable and to perform geostatistical simulations in order to evaluate the uncertainties of this inventory. 90Sr activity in soils is derived from 137Cs/154Eu and 90Sr/154Eu activity ratios in Chernobyl hot fuel particles (Bugai et al., 2003). Meanwhile, a coupled 1D non saturated/3D saturated transient transport model is constructed under the MELODIE software (IRSN, 2009). The previous 90Sr transport model developed by Bugai et al. (2012) did not take into account the effect of water table fluctuations highlighted by Van Meir et al. (2007) which may cause some discrepancies between model predictions and field observations. They are thus reproduced on a 1D vertical non saturated model. The equiprobable radionuclide localization maps produced by the geostatistical simulations are selected to illustrate different heterogeneities in the radionuclide inventory and are implemented in the 1D model. The obtained activity fluxes from all the 1D vertical models are then injected in a 3D

  9. Methane Hydrate Formation from Enhanced Organic Carbon Burial During Glacial Lowstands: Examples from the Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinverno, Alberto; Cook, Ann; Daigle, Hugh; Oryan, Bar

    2017-12-15

    Methane hydrates in fine-grained marine sediments are often found within veins and fractures occupying discrete depth intervals that are surrounded by hydrate-free sediments. As they are not connected with gas sources beneath the base of the methane hydrate stability zone (MHSZ), these isolated hydrate-bearing intervals have been interpreted as formed by in situ microbial methane. We investigate here the hypothesis that these hydrate deposits form in sediments that were deposited during glacial lowstands and contain higher amounts of labile particulate organic carbon (POC), leading to enhanced microbial methanogenesis. During Pleistocene lowstands, river loads are deposited near the steep top of the continental slope and turbidity currents transport organic-rich, fine-grained sediments to deep waters. Faster sedimentation rates during glacial periods result in better preservation of POC because of decreased exposure times to oxic conditions. The net result is that more labile POC enters the methanogenic zone and more methane is generated in these sediments. To test this hypothesis, we apply an advection-diffusion-reaction model with a time-dependent deposition of labile POC at the seafloor controlled by glacioeustatic sea level variations in the last 250 kyr. The model is run for parameters estimated at three sites drilled by the 2009 Gulf of Mexico Joint Industry Project: Walker Ridge in the Terrebonne Basin (WR313-G and WR313-H) and Green Canyon near the canyon embayment into the Sigsbee Escarpment (GC955-H). In the model, gas hydrate forms in sediments with higher labile POC content deposited during the glacial cycle between 230 and 130 kyr (marine isotope stages 6 and 7). The corresponding depth intervals in the three sites contain hydrates, as shown by high bulk electrical resistivities and resistive subvertical fracture fills. This match supports the hypothesis that enhanced POC burial during glacial lowstands can result in hydrate formation from in situ

  10. Survey of naturally occurring hazardous materials in deep geologic formations: a perspective on the relative hazard of deep burial of nuclear wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonnessen, K.A.; Cohen, J.J.

    1977-01-14

    Hazards associated with deep burial of solidified nuclear waste are considered with reference to toxic elements in naturally occurring ore deposits. This problem is put into perspective by relating the hazard of a radioactive waste repository to that of naturally occurring geologic formations. The basis for comparison derives from a consideration of safe drinking water levels. Calculations for relative toxicity of FBR waste and light water reactor (LWR) waste in an underground repository are compared with the relative toxicity indices obtained for average concentration ore deposits. Results indicate that, over time, nuclear waste toxicity decreases to levels below those of naturally occurring hazardous materials.

  11. Closure certification report for the Bear Creek burial grounds B area and walk-in pits at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    On July 5, 1993, the revised RCRA Closure Plan for the Bear Creek Burial Grounds B Area and Walk-In Pits at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, DOE/OR/01-1100&D3 and Y/ER-53&D3, was approved by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). The closure activities described in that closure plan have been performed. The purpose of this document is to summarize the closure activities for B Area and Walk-In Pits (WIPs), including placement of the Kerr Hollow Quarry debris at the WIPs.

  12. Remaining Sites Verification Package for 132-H-1, 116-H Reactor Stack Burial Site, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-053

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-06-26

    The 132-H-1 waste site includes the 116-H exhaust stack burial trench and the buried stack foundation (which contains an embedded vertical 15-cm (6-in) condensate drain line). The 116-H reactor exhaust stack and foundation were decommissioned and demolished using explosives in 1983, with the rubble buried in situ beneath clean fill at least 1 m (3.3 ft) thick. Residual concentrations support future land uses that can be represented by a rural-residential scenario and pose no threat to groundwater or the Columbia River based on RESRAD modeling.

  13. Enhanced Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal by Woody Plants with Deep-Planting Technique for the Potential Environmental Management of Carcass Burial Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung-Hwan Seo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation is a promising technology to remediate carcass burial sites where deep soil layers are contaminated with nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and other potential contaminants by leachate. The current study was conducted to examine the remedial efficiency of two different woody plants, poplar (Populus euramericana and willow (Salix alba, by employing the deep-planting technique for the enhanced removal of N and P for the soil affected by leachate. For this, pot trials to assess N and P removal efficiency of poplar and willow in liquid manure-applied soil, and pilot-scale column experiments to evaluate the suitability of the deep-planting technique for the enhanced phytoremediation of deep soil layer were conducted. The results of this study showed that poplar and willow removed N and P from soils effectively while surviving under deep-planting conditions. Notably, compared to the surface planted roots, the roots of the deep-planted poplar and willow could transfer significant amounts of N and P leachate from the deep soil layer to the rhizosphere, from where it can be absorbed by the plants. For the first time, the use of poplar or willow plants are recommended by employing the deep-planting technique for the successful remediation of carcass burial sites.

  14. Restoration and research of the archaeological fabric from burial of the bulgarian woman of the Golden Horde period (the end of the XIV century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vizgalova Mariya Yu.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of technological research of silk fabrics from the noble-born woman grave from Bolgar, which was made in the period of the Golden Horde are represented in the article. The burial has been found in the ruins of the mausoleum, which is dated from the end of the XIV century. The deviation from the Islamic traditions is regarded as peculiarity of this burial. There were found clothes from silk, which was decorated by golden threads and the temple rings. The object of study is a well-preserved complex headdress, which includes several textile layers, such kinds of the silk products of various kinds: shawls, scarves, veilings. That sort of headdress has analogues in ethnographic materials in Central Asia. Microscopy has been used to determine the species composition of the fabrics: there were considered the structure of textile weaves, technology for manufacturing threads, in polychrome fabrics - colour selection of the threads. The samples of medieval fabrics, such as lance, taffeta, summit and others have been identified. During the restoration of the veiling the method of stabilizing the object has been used, which combines the strengthening of the gold threads and plasticization of the archaeological fabrics. Golden embroidery pattern has been also recovered. The enhanced diversity indicates on developed trading system with various sources of imports - from China, Central Asia, Egypt.

  15. The Wood-Growth-and-Burial Process (WGBP) Permanent Wood Sequestration to Solve the Global Carbon Dioxide Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, F.; Hasse, U.

    2008-12-01

    , or/and via very slightly increased energy prices. It is a great advantage of the WGBP that it will not be competitive with the agriculture, as the areas most suitable for the process are not attractive for the growth of food or energy plants. The WGBP does not need fertilizers and irrigation, and it does not need genetically engineered plants. It is completely ecological and environmentally friendly. The WGBP can be performed at almost any place of the world, and it is not necessary to perform the process at the sites of carbon dioxide emission. The WGBP will contribute to a fair international trade. The WGBP will be equally available to all countries and societies of the world. There is no discrimination of poorer or less advanced societies. The WGBP will produce wood deposits for future generation, which once may become sources for biomass processing technologies, be it for the production of chemicals of energy. The burial sites will be saving banks of precious material. Ref.: F. Scholz, U. Hasse: ChemSusChem 1 (2008) 381-384 greifswald.de/~analytik/

  16. Mound No. 24 of the Alebastrovo I Burial Ground and the Problem of Succession Among the Early Nomadic Cultures of the Southern Urals in the 6th – 4th and 3rd – 1st Centuries BC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis V. Maryksin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on one of the burial mounds – Alebastrovo I, which is situated in the middle reaches of the Ural river. The analysis of the burial rite and grave goods reveals the combination of features peculiar of the culture of early nomads from the 6th to the 4th centuries BC and later features typical for the 3rd – 1st centuries BC. The collective nature of the burial in a large square pit (burial no. 2 relates to early features. Such burials are typical for the 5th and 4th centuries BC. But a dagger with a direct crosshair and a crescent-shaped pommel found in the burial belongs to the 3rd – 1st centuries BC. Findings of a mirror, a spoon and a whorl also deserve special attention. On formal grounds a mirror belongs to the type “Skripkin 1.6” – with a flat disk without roll and stick in the form of a triangular stem. They appeared in Sauromatian time, but were not widespread. Most of these mirrors refer to the turn of the eras – the first centuries AD. However, in our view the mirror from Alebastrovo I has the greatest similarity with the mirror disks of the so-called “musical” mirrors, which date back to the 2nd half of the 4th century BC. The bone spoon belongs to the type I, peculiar of the Sauromatian-time things of the 6th – 4th centuries BC. However, the pattern is similar to that on the handle of the bone products of later time – the 3rd – 2nd centuries BC. Clay whorl has a pattern in the form of 4 sectors, decorated with grooves and pits. Analogies are available on this ornament spindles from the 3rd – 2nd centuries BC of the Kara-Abyz culture in the Southern Urals. According to the set of attributes, this burial mound dated to the second half of the 3rd - 2nd centuries BC. The finds from this burial mound confirm the conclusion of the first explorer B. F. Zhelezchikov about continuity of the development of the early nomadic culture of this region in the 6th – 3rd centuries BC.

  17. The Effects of Seed Burial and Flooding Depths on Emergence and Seedling Growth of Watergrass (Echinochloa oryzoides and Barnyardgrass (E. crus-galli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Mohammadvand

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the effects of seed burial and flooding depths on the emergence and seedling growth of watergrass (Echinochloa oryzoides and barnyardgrass (E. crus-galli, this experiment was conducted in a covered free air condition, at the Rice Research Institute of Iran, Rasht in summer of 2009. The treatments included four seeding depths (0.1 (seeds were mixed with the top soil, 2, 4 and 6 cm, and four flooding depths (0.1 (saturated soil with no standing water, 3, 6, and 9 cm arranged as a factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block design with three replications. After 28 days, number of emergent seedlings, weed seedlings height, root and shoot fresh weight, leaf and root area were measured, and emergence percentage and root/shoot ratio were calculated. Since no germination of seeds was observed at the 6 cm sowing depth, this treatment wasn’t presented in results. Measured or calculated variable per unit was significantly different between two species and between various levels of seed burial and flooding depths. These variables also influenced by the interactions of the mentioned factors with an exception of emergence percentage. Emergence percentage and growth characteristics except for plant height were higher in E. oryzoides than E. crus-galli when weed seeds were located in the depth of 0.1 centimeter. In seeds located in the depth of 2 centimeters, all variables were higher in E. oryzoides than E. crus-galli. In both species, the higher values for mentioned variables was observed in the saturated condition of soil, when weed seeds were located at the depth of 0.1 centimeter and reduced with increasing flooding and seed burial depth. Results indicated that flooding condition with adequate height caused major limiting effects on emergence, establishment and growth of two Echinochloa species, especially when the seeds were deeply buried; but at decreased height specially saturated soils, emergence and growth of E

  18. Application of the Current Knowledge from Research and Development of the Burial Methods and their Impact on Designing or Transforming Contemporary Cemeteries in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolíková Palánová Klára

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Considerable transformation of the burial method at the turn of the 19th and the 20th centuries is apparent from the existing results of research in the developments of burial and funeral architecture, when after centuries controlled by the church – due to social and political changes – gradual secularisation of the society and subsequent desacralisation of funeral rituals started appearing. This phenomenon, as well as other aspects (e.g. Josephine reforms in 1782 brought about a change in the approach to newly established cemeteries but also the necessity to define areas for new burial methods and constructing new building types of funeral architecture. The position of necropolis is also changing as the society understands it, and its inclusion not only in the organism of towns but also in everyday life of town and municipality citizens. Thus, not only new but mainly original cemeteries are searching for their new position in the society. Studio papers try to react to this situation written by students of the master degree of the specialisation Architecture and civil engineering at the Faculty of Civil Engineering at the VŠB - Technical University in Ostrava, led by prof. Ing. arch. Petr Hrůša, doc. Ing. Martina Peřinková, Ph.D. and Ing. arch. Klára Frolíková Palánová, Ph.D. Students try to view necropolis in an innovative way and give them a new dimension to succeed and become adequate public or semi-public space of cities and municipalities. The contribution represents starting points of possible solutions on case studies, such as transformation of a cemetery in Ostrava on the Hulváky Hill, the design of establishing a new cemetery in open space near the municipality of Velichovky, including the design of a funeral hall, situating a new urn grove in the place of a former cemetery – the current park – a part of which is the design of a new crematorium in Nový Jičín and extension of possibilities for placement of ashes and

  19. Sediment dynamics and the burial and exhumation of bedrock reefs along an emergent coastline as elucidated by repetitive sonar surveys: Northern Monterey Bay, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlazzi, C.D.; Fregoso, T.A.; Golden, N.E.; Finlayson, D.P.

    2011-01-01

    Two high-resolution bathymetric and acoustic backscatter sonar surveys were conducted along the energetic emergent inner shelf of northern Monterey Bay, CA, USA, in the fall of 2005 and the spring of 2006 to determine the impact of winter storm waves, beach erosion, and river floods on biologically-important siliclastic bedrock reef habitats. The surveys extended from water depths of 4 m to 22 m and covered an area of 3.14 km2, 45.8% of which was bedrock, gravel, and coarse-grained sand and 54.2% was fine-grained sand. Our analyses of the bathymetric and acoustic backscatter data demonstrates that during the 6 months between surveys, 11.4% of the study area was buried by fine-grained sand while erosion resulted in the exposure of bedrock or coarse-grained sand over 26.5% of the study area. The probability of burial decreased with increasing water depth and rugosity; the probability of exhumation increased with increasing wave-induced near-bed shear stress, seabed slope and rugosity. Much of the detected change was at the boundary between bedrock and unconsolidated sediment due to sedimentation and erosion burying or exhuming bedrock, respectively. In a number of cases, however, the change in seabed character was apparently due to changes in sediment grain size when scour exposed what appeared to be an underlying coarser-grained lag or the burial of coarser-grained sand and gravel by fine-grained sand. These findings suggest that, in some places, (a) burial and exhumation of nearshore bedrock reefs along rocky, energetic inner shelves occurs over seasonal timescales and appears related to intrinsic factors such as seabed morphology and extrinsic factors such as wave forces, and (b) single acoustic surveys typically employed for geologic characterization and/or habitat mapping may not adequately characterize the geomorphologic and sedimentologic nature of these types of environments that typify most of the Pacific Ocean and up to 50% of the world's coastlines.

  20. [Inadequate burials as an important factor in plague epidemic amongst Serbs in the Habsburg monarchy by the end of the 18th century: a historical analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasin, Goran; Božanić, Snežana; Božić, Milica Kisić

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of the archaic customs of burying the deceased in Srem, primarily amongst Serbs, in the second half of the 18th century is the essential part of the paper that aims at clarifying the consequences of this negative habit onto the spreading of plague epidemic. The Austrian Empire tried to stop and prevent the epidemic with an array of legal norms, but in practice, these orders were often not upheld. Serbian Metropolitans Pavle Nenadović and Stefan Stratimirović insisted on eradicating superstition and retrograde, often uncivilized actions in burial rituals, and they partially succeeded. The example of plague in Irig and the surroundings in 1795-1796 explicitly shows the hazardous effects of the inadequate attitude towards the deceased as one of the factors in spreading the epidemic. Using primary archives, and published sources, with adequate literature, authors depict this complex historical process.

  1. ENTIERROS INTENCIONALES DE PERROS EN LA CULTURA BOLAÑOS, JALISCO (Intentional Dog Burials in the Bolaños Culture, Jalisco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Cabrero G.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Los entierros intencionales de perros en el sitio de Pochotitan, lugar muy importante para el intercambio de mercancías en la ruta comercial que atravesó el cañón de Bolaños, constituye la evidencia fehaciente de que este animal desempeñó un lugar preponderante en la cosmovisión de la cultura Bolaños; a su vez, constata una interrelación con los pueblos mesoamericanos desde las primeras centurias de nuestra era. ENGLISH: Intentional dog burials at the site of Pochotitan, a very important place for commerce located on the trade route that crossed the Bolaños canyon, is convincing evidence that this animal occupied an important place in the Bolaños world view of culture. At the same time, it supports an existing connection to the ideology of Mesoamerican people from the first centuries of our era.

  2. People, dogs and wild game: evidence of human-animal relations from Middle Neolithic burials and personal ornaments in northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bernabò Brea

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to review evidence of human-animal relations, the paper offers an overview of the customs and funerary traditions of the Square Mouthed Pottery culture, between c. 5000 and 4300 calBC. We focus on the importance of domestic and wild animals on the basis of an analysis of grave-goods, funerary rites and personal ornaments. We also consider recent discoveries of peculiar offerings of animals and some dog burials. The evidence testifies to a diffusion of a wild component, symbolically emphasising the importance of the hunter identity in a society where subsistence actually depends primarily on domestic animals. Therefore, a contrast is drawn between the everyday and the symbolic worlds.

  3. Guidelines for selecting codes for ground-water transport modeling of low-level waste burial sites. Volume 1. Guideline approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, C.S.; Cole, C.R.

    1985-05-01

    This document was written for the National Low-Level Waste Management Program to provide guidance for managers and site operators who need to select ground-water transport codes for assessing shallow-land burial site performance. The guidance given in this report also serves the needs of applications-oriented users who work under the direction of a manager or site operator. The guidelines are published in two volumes designed to support the needs of users having different technical backgrounds. An executive summary, published separately, gives managers and site operators an overview of the main guideline report. This volume includes specific recommendations for decision-making managers and site operators on how to use these guidelines. The more detailed discussions about the code selection approach are provided. 242 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Burial diagenetic processes of clay mineral and non-clay mineral, quartz cementation and dissolution in sandstones and mudstones of the Siri Canyon, Danish North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazerouni, Afsoon Moatari; Friis, Henrik; Svendsen, Johan Byskov

    grains (diatoms, radiolaria, sponge spicules), silica released from the hydration of volcanic glass, silica released detrital amorphous alumino-silicates that accumulated in muds, and decomposition of feldspars.  Silica release in shale does not necessarily source sandstone diagenesis but may...... of the biogenic silica has been transformed into opal-CT and partly to microcrystalline quartz.  The microcrystalline quartz is an internal sink for dissolved silica, but the shale may also have been an active silica exporter during this transition. With deeper burial (2000-2900m), opal-CT is fully transformed...... to microcrystalline quartz.  During this phase, silica has been partly mobile and depending on the rate of dissolution compared to the rate of precipitation, silica may have been lost to sandstone cementation.  Zeolite is also dissolved and mobilized silica may also have activated the shale as silica exporter...

  5. Workplan/RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation Report for the Old Radioactive Waste Burial Ground 643-E, S01-S22 - Volume I - Text and Volume II - Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, K.R.

    2000-12-12

    This document presents the assessment of environmental impacts resulting from releases of hazardous substances from the facilities in the Old Radioactive Waste Burial Ground 643-E, including Solvent Tanks 650-01E to 650-22E, also referred to as Solvent Tanks at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina.

  6. Magnetic and Geochemical Records of Glacial Terminations, Weathering and Carbon Burial in the Southeastern South China Sea for the Last 800 kyr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, S.; Kao, S.; Hsu, S.; Lee, T.; Velasco, V. M.; Soon, W.; Chen, M.

    2013-12-01

    Rebuilding of past climate and oceanographic records from monsoon dominated Asia is of vital importance for understanding the causes and mechanisms of global and regional climate changes at orbital-millennial timescales. South China Sea (SCS) provides the best marine platform to investigate a number of paleoclimate and paleoceanographic problems on different timescales mainly because of high sedimentation rates, good preservation of microfossils and the location of SCS as a connector between the Western Pacific Warm Pool and the SE Asian monsoon. Here we investigate magnetic, geochemical and isotopic records from a piston core MD97-2142 rose from the southeastern SCS to understand the past glacial terminations, chemical weathering and carbon burial on orbital to millennial timescales for the last 800 kyr. Terrigenous content and Al/Ti ratio reveal higher terrigenous input during glacial periods and vice versa during interglacials. Proxies of chemical weathering reveal larger fluctuations between 150 and 500 kyr than that of the last 150 kyr. Records of C/N ratio and carbon isotope of total organic carbon (δ13CTOC) mimic each other with higher marine productivity during marine isotope stages (MIS) 8, 10 and 12. Enrichment factors of Mn and Mo (EF Mn and EF Mo) show roughly an opposite pattern with intervals from MIS 1 through MIS 13. EF Mn shows >1 in most odd MIS, whereas intervals (MIS 6, 8, 10 and 12), but vice versa during interglacial (MIS 7, 9 and 11) periods. Our bulk magnetic susceptibility (MS) time series documents the last seven glacial terminations (T1-T7) with distinctive behaviors of T4 and T6. Wavelet analysis of MS record exhibits statistically significant periodicity at 239 kyr, 142 kyr, 85 kyr, 45 kyr, 24 kyr and 13 kyr of eccentricity, obliquity and precession cycles. With the help of diverse proxy records, the role of insolation, monsoon forcing and sea level on the variation of productivity, terrigenous input and carbon burial will be discussed

  7. Seeking sunlight: rapid phototactic motility of filamentous mat-forming cyanobacteria optimize photosynthesis and enhance carbon burial in Lake Huron’s submerged sinkholes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bopaiah A Biddanda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We studied the motility of filamentous mat-forming cyanobacteria consisting primarily of Oscillatoria-like cells growing under low-light, low-oxygen and high-sulfur conditions in Lake Huron’s submerged sinkholes using in situ observations, in vitro measurements and time-lapse microscopy. Gliding movement of the cyanobacterial trichomes (100-10,000 µm long filaments, composed of cells ~10 µm wide and ~3 µm tall revealed individual as well as group-coordinated motility. When placed in a petri dish and dispersed in ground water from the sinkhole, filaments re-aggregated into defined colonies within minutes, then dispersed again. Speed of individual filaments increased with temperature from ~50 µm minute-1 or ~15 body lengths minute-1 at 10°C to ~215 µm minute-1 or ~70 body lengths minute-1 at 35°C – rates that are rapid relative to non-flagellated/ciliated microbes. Filaments exhibited precise and coordinated positive phototaxis towards pinpoints of light and congregated under the light of foil cutouts. Such light-responsive clusters showed an increase in photosynthetic yield – suggesting phototactic motility aids in light acquisition as well as photosynthesis. Once light source was removed, filaments slowly spread out evenly and re-aggregated, demonstrating coordinated movement through inter-filament communication regardless of light. Pebbles and pieces of broken shells placed upon intact mat were quickly covered by vertically motile filaments within hours and became fully buried in the anoxic sediments over 3-4 diurnal cycles – likely facilitating the preservation of falling debris. Coordinated horizontal and vertical filament motility optimize mat cohesion and dynamics, photosynthetic efficiency and sedimentary carbon burial in modern-day sinkhole habitats that resemble the shallow seas in Earth’s early history. Analogous cyanobacterial motility may have played a key role in the oxygenation of the planet by optimizing

  8. Seeking sunlight: rapid phototactic motility of filamentous mat-forming cyanobacteria optimize photosynthesis and enhance carbon burial in Lake Huron's submerged sinkholes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddanda, Bopaiah A; McMillan, Adam C; Long, Stephen A; Snider, Michael J; Weinke, Anthony D

    2015-01-01

    We studied the motility of filamentous mat-forming cyanobacteria consisting primarily of Oscillatoria-like cells growing under low-light, low-oxygen, and high-sulfur conditions in Lake Huron's submerged sinkholes using in situ observations, in vitro measurements and time-lapse microscopy. Gliding movement of the cyanobacterial trichomes (100-10,000 μm long filaments, composed of cells ∼10 μm wide and ∼3 μm tall) revealed individual as well as group-coordinated motility. When placed in a petri dish and dispersed in ground water from the sinkhole, filaments re-aggregated into defined colonies within minutes, then dispersed again. Speed of individual filaments increased with temperature from ∼50 μm min(-1) or ∼15 body lengths min(-1) at 10°C to ∼215 μm min(-1) or ∼70 body lengths min(-1) at 35°C - rates that are rapid relative to non-flagellated/ciliated microbes. Filaments exhibited precise and coordinated positive phototaxis toward pinpoints of light and congregated under the light of foil cutouts. Such light-responsive clusters showed an increase in photosynthetic yield - suggesting phototactic motility aids in light acquisition as well as photosynthesis. Once light source was removed, filaments slowly spread out evenly and re-aggregated, demonstrating coordinated movement through inter-filament communication regardless of light. Pebbles and pieces of broken shells placed upon intact mat were quickly covered by vertically motile filaments within hours and became fully buried in the anoxic sediments over 3-4 diurnal cycles - likely facilitating the preservation of falling debris. Coordinated horizontal and vertical filament motility optimize mat cohesion and dynamics, photosynthetic efficiency and sedimentary carbon burial in modern-day sinkhole habitats that resemble the shallow seas in Earth's early history. Analogous cyanobacterial motility may have played a key role in the oxygenation of the planet by optimizing photosynthesis while favoring

  9. Shallow burial dolomitisation of Middle-Upper Permian paleosols in an extensional tectonic context (SE Iberian Basin, Spain): Controls on temperature of precipitation and source of fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, M. Isabel; De la Horra, Raúl; López-Gómez, José; Barrenechea, José F.; Luque, Javier; Arche, Alfredo

    2011-06-01

    This work is focused on carbonate paleosols developed in three stratigraphic sections (Landete, Talayuelas and Henarejos) of the Middle-Late Permian Alcotas Formation in the SE Iberian Basin. The Alcotas Formation, of alluvial origin, was deposited in semi-connected half-grabens developed during the early stages of the Permian-Triassic rifting stage that affected the Iberian Basin. The studied sections were located in two of these half-grabens, the Henarejos section being much closer to the basin boundary fault than the other two sections. The mineralogy and texture of the carbonate precursor of paleosols in the three studied sections are not preserved because original carbonate is replaced by coarse crystals of dolomite and/or magnesite. Dolomite crystals are typically euhedral, displaying rhombohedral shapes and reddish luminescence, although in the Henarejos section dolomite displays non-planar boundaries and frequently saddle habit. Micas are deformed and adapted to dolomite crystals, which, in turn, are affected by stylolites, suggesting that dolomite precipitated before mechanical and chemical compaction. Carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of dolomite from the three sections show different values (δ 13C VPDB mean values = - 6.7‰, - 5.5‰ and - 7.5‰; δ 18O VPDB mean values = - 4.0‰; -5.6‰ and - 8.2‰, at Landete, Talayuelas and Henarejos sections, respectively). The 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios are similar in the three sections yielding values between 0.71391 and 0.72213. The petrographic and geochemical features of dolomite in the three studied sections suggest precipitation from similar fluids and during shallow burial diagenesis. Assuming that the minimum temperature for dolomite precipitation in the Henarejos section was 60 °C (as suggested by the presence of non-planar saddle habit), and that the dolomitizing fluid had similar δ 18O values at the three localities, then dolomite in the Talayuelas and Landete sections precipitated at temperatures

  10. Burial and thermal history simulation of the Abu Rudeis-Sidri oil field, Gulf of Suez-Egypt: A 1D basin modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awadalla, Ahmed; Hegab, Omar A.; Ahmed, Mohammed A.; Hassan, Saad

    2018-02-01

    An integrated 1D model on seven wells has been performed to simulate the multi-tectonic phases and multiple thermal regimes in the Abu Rudeis-Sidri oilfield. Concordance between measured and calculated present-day temperatures is achieved with present-day heat flows in the range of 42-55 mW/m2. Reconstruction of the thermal and burial histories provides information on the paleotemperature profiles, the timing of thermal activation as well as the effect of the Oligo-Miocene rifting phases and its associated magmatic activity. The burial histories show the pre-rift subsidence was progressive but modest, whereas the syn-rift was more rapid (contemporaneous with the main rifting phases and basin formation). Finally, the early post-rift thermal subsidence was slow to moderate in contrast to the late post-rift thermal subsidence which was moderate to rapid. The simulated paleo heat flow illustrates a steady state for the pre-rift phase and non-steady state (transient) for syn-rift and postrift phases. Three geothermal regimes are recognized, each of which is associated with a specific geological domain. 1) A lower geothermal regime reflects the impact of stable tectonics (pre-rift). 2) The higher temperature distribution reflects the syn-rift high depositional rate as well as the impact of stretching and thinning (rifting phases) of the lithosphere. 3) A local higher geothermal pulse owing to the magmatic activity during the Oligo-Miocene time (ARM-1 and Sidri-7 wells). Paleoheat flow values of 100mW/m2 (Oligo-Miocene rifting phase) increased to 120mW/m2 (Miocene rifting phase) and lesser magnitude of 80mW/m2 (Mio- Pliocene reactivation phase) have been specified. These affected the thermal regime and temperature distribution by causing perturbations in subsurface temperatures. A decline in the background value of 60mW/m2 owing to conductive cooling has been assigned. The blanketing effect caused by low thermal conductivity of the basin-fill sediments has been simulated

  11. Biomarker transformations as constraints for the depositional environment and for maximum temperatures during burial of Opalinus Clay and Posidonia Shale in northern Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elie, Marcel [G2R, Nancy-Universite, CNRS, BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France)], E-mail: Marcel.Elie@Shell.com; Mazurek, Martin [Rock-Water Interaction, Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2008-12-15

    Samples from two argillaceous formations (Opalinus Clay and Posidonia Shale) of near-identical maturity from northern Switzerland were subjected to a geochemical characterisation of organic matter and to confined-system pyrolysis experiments. Throughout the study area, the characteristics of organic matter are similar, indicating a spatially homogeneous sedimentary facies. Posidonia Shale contains marine organic matter deposited in a reducing environment, while a predominantly terrigenous source and a more oxidising environment of deposition was identified for Opalinus Clay. In the western and central parts of the study area, organic maturity is close to the onset of oil generation. In the easternmost part, a higher maturity has been reached due to a deeper burial below thick Tertiary Molasse deposits. Isothermal pyrolysis experiments were conducted at temperatures between 250 and 390 deg. C over 24 h. Bitumen yields increase along similar pathways for both Opalinus Clay and Posidonia Shale, but the maximum values are displaced by 10-20 deg. C. Data pertaining to maturity were determined from GC-MS analyses of saturated hydrocarbons, and specific attention was given to C{sub 29}-sterane and C{sub 32}-hopane isomerisation ratios. The evolution of these parameters with rising temperature is slightly different in the two formations, which is attributed to the contrasting organic facies. The pyrolysis data, together with literature data from natural basins, were used to calculate kinetic parameters for C{sub 29}-sterane and C{sub 32}-hopane, assuming a single-step isomerisation scheme according to the Arrhenius law. The resulting values based on pyrolysis data alone are very similar to those based on the combination of pyrolysis and natural data. Activation energies are similar in both formations, while the frequency factors are up to one order of magnitude higher for Posidonia Shale when compared to Opalinus Clay. For the Benken site, maximum temperature during

  12. Seeking sunlight: rapid phototactic motility of filamentous mat-forming cyanobacteria optimize photosynthesis and enhance carbon burial in Lake Huron’s submerged sinkholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddanda, Bopaiah A.; McMillan, Adam C.; Long, Stephen A.; Snider, Michael J.; Weinke, Anthony D.

    2015-01-01

    We studied the motility of filamentous mat-forming cyanobacteria consisting primarily of Oscillatoria-like cells growing under low-light, low-oxygen, and high-sulfur conditions in Lake Huron’s submerged sinkholes using in situ observations, in vitro measurements and time-lapse microscopy. Gliding movement of the cyanobacterial trichomes (100–10,000 μm long filaments, composed of cells ∼10 μm wide and ∼3 μm tall) revealed individual as well as group-coordinated motility. When placed in a petri dish and dispersed in ground water from the sinkhole, filaments re-aggregated into defined colonies within minutes, then dispersed again. Speed of individual filaments increased with temperature from ∼50 μm min-1 or ∼15 body lengths min-1 at 10°C to ∼215 μm min-1 or ∼70 body lengths min-1 at 35°C – rates that are rapid relative to non-flagellated/ciliated microbes. Filaments exhibited precise and coordinated positive phototaxis toward pinpoints of light and congregated under the light of foil cutouts. Such light-responsive clusters showed an increase in photosynthetic yield – suggesting phototactic motility aids in light acquisition as well as photosynthesis. Once light source was removed, filaments slowly spread out evenly and re-aggregated, demonstrating coordinated movement through inter-filament communication regardless of light. Pebbles and pieces of broken shells placed upon intact mat were quickly covered by vertically motile filaments within hours and became fully buried in the anoxic sediments over 3–4 diurnal cycles – likely facilitating the preservation of falling debris. Coordinated horizontal and vertical filament motility optimize mat cohesion and dynamics, photosynthetic efficiency and sedimentary carbon burial in modern-day sinkhole habitats that resemble the shallow seas in Earth’s early history. Analogous cyanobacterial motility may have played a key role in the oxygenation of the planet by optimizing photosynthesis while

  13. Ristripatsid Eesti 12.–13. sajandi laibakalmistutes: kas ehted või usu tunnused? / The cross-shaped pendants of inhumation burials in 12th-13th century Estonia: adornments or signs of belief?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuuli Kurisoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-shaped pendants are one of the most discussed symbolically laden artefacts among Estonian archaeological material. The beginning of the distribution of cross-shaped pendants dates back to 11th century when the artefacts, though scarce, appear. The number of such pendants increases noticeably at the very end of the Iron Age. Due to the ambiguous entity of cross and time context, cross-pendants have been interpreted either as symbols of Christian faith, as pieces of adornment not affiliated with Christianity, or as objects with magical qualities. In this paper I study pendants found in the inhumation cemeteries of Estonia. Only those provide us with an archaeological context which shows precisely who could have worn them and how. The analyzed cross-pendants were found at Pada, Kaberla, Kukruse, Haimre and Tammiku cemeteries and from the early burials in Viru-Nigula churchyard. As artefacts, the cross pendants are more or less stylized Greek crosses. In most cases the pendants were either used as a part of jewellery or worn singularly around the neck area. From the total of 48 analyzed cross-pendants one fourth could be interpreted as locally produced items. Of local origin are probably lead pendants from Pada cemetery, heads of decorative pins worn as cross-shaped pendants from Viru-Nigula and Kaberla cemeteries, and obvious scrap and unfinished pendant crosses. In addition, I would like to draw attention that cross-pendants from inhumation burials do not contain many widespread forms, such as ‘Scandinavian’ and some other widespread Russian origin types, which have been found in hoards, from hill-forts and cremation burials. This observation could confirm that cross pendants from 12th–13th century inhumation burials were communally recognized and some of them were locally manufactured. As the next stage of my investigation I studied different occurrence contexts of cross pendants in cemeteries and burials: the location of burials with

  14. Rabbits in the grave! Consequences of bioturbation on the Neandertal "burial" at Regourdou (Montignac-sur-Vézère, Dordogne).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Maxime; Royer, Aurélien; Holliday, Trenton W; Discamps, Emmanuel; Madelaine, Stéphane; Maureille, Bruno

    2017-09-01

    The understanding of Neanderthal societies, both with regard to their funerary behaviors and their subsistence activities, is hotly debated. Old excavations and a lack of taphonomic context are often factors that limit our ability to address these questions. To better appreciate the exact nature of what is potentially the oldest burial in Western Europe, Regourdou (Montignac-sur-Vézère, Dordogne), and to better understand the taphonomy of this site excavated more than 50 years ago, we report in this contribution a study of the most abundant animals throughout its stratigraphy: the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). In addition to questions surrounding the potential bioturbation of the site's stratigraphy, analysis of the Regourdou rabbits could provide new information on Neandertal subsistence behavior. The mortality profile, skeletal-part representation, breakage patterns, surface modification, and comparison with modern reference collections supports the hypothesis that the Regourdou rabbit remains were primarily accumulated due to natural (attritional) mortality. Radiocarbon dates performed directly on the rabbit remains give ages ranging within the second half of Marine Isotope Stage 3, notably younger than the regional Mousterian period. We posit that rabbits dug their burrows within Regourdou's sedimentological filling, likely inhabiting the site after it was filled. The impact of rabbit activity now brings into question both the reliability of the archaeostratigraphy of the site and the paleoenvironmental reconstructions previously proposed for it, and suggests rabbits may have played a role in the distribution of the Neandertal skeletal remains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Organo-halogenated contaminants (OHCs) in the sediments from the Soan River, Pakistan: OHCs(adsorbed TOC) burial flux, status and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Riffat Naseem; Mehboob, Fouzia; Ali, Usman; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Schuster, Jasmin K; Moeckel, Claudia; Jones, Kevin C

    2014-05-15

    In this study, regression analysis revealed that TOC is the principal factor in controlling the fate of organo-halogenated contaminants (OHCs: PCBs, PBDEs, OCPs) in Soan River, Pakistan. The OHCs(adsorbed TOC) burial flux (OHCs(adsorbed TOC)Bf; mg/cm(2)·yr) was calculated in the following ranges: ∑PCBs (0.07-0.31), ∑PBDEs (0.005-0.029), ∑HCHs (0.015-0.046) and ∑DDTs (0.007-0.039). Apart from OHCs(adsorbed TOC)Bf, the levels of OHCs were in the following order: PCBs>DDTs>PBDEs>HCH>Chlordane>HCB. PBDEs and PCB congener patterns showed following order respectively: BDE-149>-153>-18>-138>-44 and PCB-149>-153>-18>-138>-44. DDT isomers and metabolites' pattern were p,p'-DDT>p,p'-DDD>p,p'-DDE>o,p'-DDT>o,p'-DDD>o,p'-DDE and HCHs were β-HCH>α-HCH>γ-HCH>δ-HCH. PBDE composition had similarities to penta-BDE and DE-71 mixtures and PCBs with commercial products Aroclor-1254 and -1260. (DDE+DDD)/∑DDTs and p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE suggested the recent input of DDTs in sediments while α/γ-HCH indicated past usage of lindane and technical mixtures. Risk assessment suggested that Soan River and its tributaries are potentially at risk against most of the OHCs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Detecting Neolithic Burial Mounds from LiDAR-Derived Elevation Data Using a Multi-Scale Approach and Machine Learning Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Guyot

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Airborne LiDAR technology is widely used in archaeology and over the past decade has emerged as an accurate tool to describe anthropomorphic landforms. Archaeological features are traditionally emphasised on a LiDAR-derived Digital Terrain Model (DTM using multiple Visualisation Techniques (VTs, and occasionally aided by automated feature detection or classification techniques. Such an approach offers limited results when applied to heterogeneous structures (different sizes, morphologies, which is often the case for archaeological remains that have been altered throughout the ages. This study proposes to overcome these limitations by developing a multi-scale analysis of topographic position combined with supervised machine learning algorithms (Random Forest. Rather than highlighting individual topographic anomalies, the multi-scalar approach allows archaeological features to be examined not only as individual objects, but within their broader spatial context. This innovative and straightforward method provides two levels of results: a composite image of topographic surface structure and a probability map of the presence of archaeological structures. The method was developed to detect and characterise megalithic funeral structures in the region of Carnac, the Bay of Quiberon, and the Gulf of Morbihan (France, which is currently considered for inclusion on the UNESCO World Heritage List. As a result, known archaeological sites have successfully been geo-referenced with a greater accuracy than before (even when located under dense vegetation and a ground-check confirmed the identification of a previously unknown Neolithic burial mound in the commune of Carnac.

  17. An Early Cretaceous garnet pressure-temperature path recording synconvergent burial and exhumation from the hinterland of the Sevier orogenic belt, Albion Mountains, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Eric D.; Hoisch, Thomas D.; Wells, Michael L.; Vervoort, Jeffrey D.; Beyene, Mengesha A.

    2015-08-01

    Rocks may undergo complex pressure-temperature ( P- T) histories during orogenesis in response to alternating episodes of synconvergent burial and exhumation. In this study, chemical zoning in garnets combined with textural and chemical evidence from the schist of Willow Creek in the Albion Mountains of south-central Idaho (USA), reveals a complex P- T path during the early stages of Sevier orogenesis. The distribution of quartz inclusions combined with internal resorption features establishes a hiatus in garnet growth. Chemical zoning was simulated using a G-minimization approach to yield a P- T path consisting of three distinct pressure changes during increasing temperature, defining an "N" shape. Lu-Hf isochron ages from multiple garnet fractions and whole-rock analyses in two samples are 132.1 ± 2.4 and 138.7 ± 3.5 Ma. The samples were collected from the hanging wall of the Basin-Elba thrust fault and yielded results similar to those previously obtained from the footwall. This leads to several conclusions: (1) Both the hanging wall and footwall experienced the same metamorphic event, (2) the paths document a previously unrecognized crustal thickening and synorogenic extension cycle that fills an important time gap in the shortening history of the Sevier retroarc, suggesting progressive eastward growth of the orogen rather than a two-stage history, and (3) episodes of extensional exhumation during protracted convergent orogenesis are increasingly well recognized and highlight the dynamic behavior of orogenic belts.

  18. Task plan to evaluate the effectiveness of in situ grouting of an ORNL waste burial trench with a cement-based grout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, C.W.

    1991-11-01

    This task will demonstrate the feasibility of using an in situ grouting technique with a particulate-grout formulation as a closure action to stabilize waste trenches in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6. It also supports technology development for closure of other SWSAs. A particulate grout will be formulated using cement-bentonite and fly ash from a coal-fired power plant. The grout solids will be dry-blended, mixed with water, and injected (using {similar to}5 to 10 lb/in.{sup 2} pressure) into five injection wells per trench. After 28 days for setting, soil penetration resistance and hydraulic conductivity measurements will be repeated for comparison to pregrouting measurements. The primary objective of this task is to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the in situ injection of a particulate grout into waste burial trenches. Effectiveness is defined here as increased trenched stability (characterized by trench penetration resistance tests) and decreased potential for leachate migration (characterized by hydraulic conductivity tests).

  19. Task plan to evaluate the effectiveness of in situ grouting of an ORNL waste burial trench with a cement-based grout. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, C.W.

    1991-11-01

    This task will demonstrate the feasibility of using an in situ grouting technique with a particulate-grout formulation as a closure action to stabilize waste trenches in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6. It also supports technology development for closure of other SWSAs. A particulate grout will be formulated using cement-bentonite and fly ash from a coal-fired power plant. The grout solids will be dry-blended, mixed with water, and injected (using {similar_to}5 to 10 lb/in.{sup 2} pressure) into five injection wells per trench. After 28 days for setting, soil penetration resistance and hydraulic conductivity measurements will be repeated for comparison to pregrouting measurements. The primary objective of this task is to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the in situ injection of a particulate grout into waste burial trenches. Effectiveness is defined here as increased trenched stability (characterized by trench penetration resistance tests) and decreased potential for leachate migration (characterized by hydraulic conductivity tests).

  20. Analysis of long-term degradation behaviour of polyethylene mulching films with pro-oxidants under real cultivation and soil burial conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briassoulis, Demetres; Babou, Epifaneia; Hiskakis, Miltiadis; Kyrikou, Ioanna

    2015-02-01

    Apart from the conventional polyethylene and the bio-based or mainly bio-based biodegradable in soil mulching films, polyethylene mulching films of controlled degradation in soil are already used in agriculture. The use of special pro-oxidants as additives is expected to accelerate the abiotic oxidation and the subsequent chain scission of the polymer under specific UV radiation or thermal degradation conditions, according to the literature. The role of pro-oxidants in the possible biodegradation of polyethylene has been theoretically supported through the use of controlled laboratory conditions. However, results obtained in real soil conditions, but also several laboratory test results, are not supporting these claims and the issue remains disputed. Mulching films made of linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) with pro-oxidants, after being used for one cultivation period in an experimental field with watermelon cultivation, were buried in the soil under real field conditions. This work presents the analysis of the degradation of the mulching films during the cultivation period as compared to the corresponding changes after a long soil burial period of 8.5 years. The combined effects of critical factors on the photochemical degradation of the degradable mulching LLDPE films with pro-oxidants under the cultivation conditions and their subsequent further degradation behaviour in the soil are analysed by testing their mechanical properties and through spectroscopic and thermal analysis.

  1. Dynamics of Indian Ocean Slavery Revealed through Isotopic Data from the Colonial Era Cobern Street Burial Site, Cape Town, South Africa (1750-1827.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisette M Kootker

    Full Text Available The Dutch East India Company (VOC intended the Cape of Good Hope to be a refreshment stop for ships travelling between the Netherlands and its eastern colonies. The indigenous Khoisan, however, did not constitute an adequate workforce, therefore the VOC imported slaves from East Africa, Madagascar and Asia to expand the workforce. Cape Town became a cosmopolitan settlement with different categories of people, amongst them a non-European underclass that consisted of slaves, exiles, convicts and free-blacks. This study integrated new strontium isotope data with carbon and nitrogen isotope results from an 18th-19th century burial ground at Cobern Street, Cape Town, to identify non-European forced migrants to the Cape. The aim of the study was to elucidate individual mobility patterns, the age at which the forced migration took place and, if possible, geographical provenance. Using three proxies, 87Sr/86Sr, δ13Cdentine and the presence of dental modifications, a majority (54.5% of the individuals were found to be born non-locally. In addition, the 87Sr/86Sr data suggested that the non-locally born men came from more diverse geographic origins than the migrant women. Possible provenances were suggested for two individuals. These results contribute to an improved understanding of the dynamics of slave trading in the Indian Ocean world.

  2. Isochron burial dating of the Haslau terrace of the Danube (Vienna Basin) and interlaboratory comparison of sample preparation in Vienna and Budapest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruszkiczay-Rüdiger, Zsófia; Neuhuber, Stephanie; Decker, Kurt; Braucher, Régis; Fiebig, Marcus; Braun, Mihály; Lachner, Johannes; Aster Team

    2017-04-01

    In the Vienna Basin, terraces to the South of the Danube form a staircase with altitudes ranging between 25 and 130 m above current water level. The terrace system has been strongly dissected by faults related to the sinistral movement of the Vienna Basin Transform Fault System [1, 2]. Although each fault block displays a slightly different succession of terraces, fault-related vertical displacements south of the Danube have not yet been quantified. To better understand the Quaternary terrace sequence and its displacement along a fault segment south of the Danube, the isochron burial dating method [3] based on the 26Al and 10Be cosmogenic nuclide pair has been used on a terrace at Haslau an der Donau (˜40 m above river level). This terrace is locally the lowest of a staircase of a total of 6 different levels. Based on geomorphological mapping, its age was considered to be Middle Pleistocene [4]. The sample set consisted of several quartzite cobbles taken from two sedimentary units (5.5 m and 11.8 m depth) separated by an erosional hiatus of unknown duration. Six cobbles were selected for inter-laboratory comparison and processed at both the Cosmogenic Nuclide Sample Preparation Laboratory at Vienna and at Budapest [5]. AMS measurements were performed at the French national facility ASTER (CEREGE, Aix-en-Provence) and at the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator (VERA). Initially, the obtained results show that the 10Be and 26Al concentrations calculated from the subsamples processed independently using different extraction schemes at both laboratories overlap within error for all subsamples but one, whose 26Al concentrations were significantly different. The low 26Al concentration measured in one Budapest sample probably resulted from Al having been trapped within the insoluble residues observed after evaporation to dryness. A modification of the sample processing allows overcoming this difficulty while treating for the following sample set. The results

  3. Conceptual Design and Simulation of a Semi-Automatic Cell for the Washing and Preparation of a Corpse Prior to an Islamic Burial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Meghdari

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Washing the corpse and dressing the body prior to burial is an act of love and necessity in many religions. Applying robotics and automation technologies for the washing and preparation of a deceased Muslim in accordance with the Islamic Shari'at laws has been the challenging foundation of this research. With an increasing annual population growth resulting in an increase in the number of deaths (historically and/or immediately after a national disaster, automating part of this procedure to increase the speed of operation, reducing the health risks to the personnel of washing rooms “Ghassalkhaneh” at the cemeteries and enhancing their quality of life have been the primary objectives of this project. We have named and patented this semi-automated corpse preparation machine as the “PaakShooy” or “پاک شوی” in Persian (Farsi which means purifying the deceased. The whole process is composed of three operational units lined up in a series; the automatic washing chamber, drying cell and the semi-automatic shrouding table. This paper covers an introductory concept of the subject in Islam, a conceptual design of various machines and mechanisms to automate the important tasks in accordance with Islamic laws, and the final detailed design, graphic simulation and animation of the PaakShooy machine. In doing so, consultation with Islamic scholars has been a priority from the beginning of the project to the end and a few Fatwa have been issued by some high ranking Ayatollahs in support of the project. With a few modifications, the semi-automated PaakShooy machine may now be updated to conform to other religions/customs.

  4. Burial of Emperor Augustus' villa at Somma Vesuviana (Italy) by post-79 AD Vesuvius eruptions and reworked (lahars and stream flow) deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrotta, Annamaria; Scarpati, Claudio; Luongo, Giuseppe; Aoyagi, Masanori

    2006-11-01

    A new archaeological site of Roman Age has been recently found engulfed in the products of Vesuvius activity at Somma Vesuviana, on the northern flank of the Somma-Vesuvius, 5 km from the vent. A 9 m deep, 30 by 35 m trench has revealed a monumental edifice tentatively attributed to the Emperor Augustus. Different than Pompeii and Herculaneum sites which were completely buried in the catastrophic eruption of 79 AD, this huge roman villa survived the effects of the 79 AD plinian eruption as suggested by stratigraphic and geochronologic data. It was later completely engulfed in the products of numerous explosive volcanic eruptions ranging from 472 AD to 1631 AD, which were separated by reworked material and paleosols. The exposed burial sequence is comprised of seven stratigraphic units. Four units are composed exclusively of pyroclastic products each emplaced during a unique explosive event. Two units are composed of volcaniclastic material (stream flow and lahars) emplaced during quiescent periods of the volcano. Finally, one unit is composed of both pyroclastic and volcaniclastic deposits. One of the more relevant volcanological results of this study is the detailed reconstruction of the destructive events that buried the Emperor Augustus' villa. Stratigraphic evidence shows the absence of any deposit associated with the 79 AD eruption at this site and that the building was extensively damaged (sacked) before it was engulfed by the products of subsequent volcanic eruptions and lahars. The products of the 472 AD eruption lie directly on the roman structures. They consist of scoria fall layers intercalated with massive and stratified pyroclastic density current deposits that caused limited damage to the structure. The impact on the building of penecontemporaneous lahars was more important; these caused the collapse of some structures. The remaining part of the building was subsequently entombed by the products of explosive eruptions (e.g. 512/536 eruption, 1631

  5. Sarmatian Attributes in Archaeological Complexes of Catacombs Burials in Arys Culture of Southern Kazakhstan (1st Century B.C. - 3rd Century A.D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podushkin Aleksandr Nikolaevich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The publication is devoted to archaeological research of monuments of the catacomb of Arys culture of Southern Kazakhstan (1st Century B.C. - 3rd Century A.D.. Now scientists have a complete understanding of the range and typology, periodization and chronology of monuments of this culture. There are three stages: Karaultobe (4th century B.C. - 1st century A.D.; Karatobe (1st Century B.C. - 4th century A.D.; Altintobe (4th-6th centuries A.D.. These stages are characterized by specific clusters of signs in the form of artifacts. The author also carried out the ethnic attribution of the Arys culture in association with the ancient state Kangiuj. As a result of this work, the ethnicity of the state Kangiuj was revealed: in particular, late Saka’s, Sarmatian, Huns and Kangiuj ethnic components which are relevant to archaeological complexes, were identified. In the Arys monuments of culture the author discovered complexes of findings which associated with the Sarmatian world of Eurasia by their ethno-cultural parameters. They include typical for the Sarmatians list of ritual action and the funerary equipment, including weapons, bronze mirrors, ritual and religious objects, signs-tamgas, jewelry (including Egyptian faience, articles in “animal”, gold-turquoise and polychrome style. The characteristics of the burial complexes of catacombs of the Arys culture discussed in the publication and corresponding to chronological calculations and ethno-cultural interpretations, allow to speak about presence in the territory of South Kazakhstan of the Asian Sarmatians or any local branch of the Union of the Sarmatian tribes in the 1st century B.C. - 3rd century A.D.

  6. Rapid shut-off and burial of slope channel-levee systems: new imaging and analysis of the Rio Grande submarine fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, J. M.; Mohrig, D. C.; Gulick, S. P. S.; Stockli, D. F.; Daniller-Varghese, M. S.; Fernandez, R.

    2016-12-01

    The continental slope of the western Gulf of Mexico is host to a major depositional system, the Rio Grande Fan. Unlike many submarine fans, the surface of the Rio Grande Fan lacks large submarine channels and associated levees. Prior analysis of continental shelf stratigraphy has identified the presence of past extensive shelf-edge delta systems, when the Rio Grande River system flowed across the modern shelf and delivered high volumes of sediment to the shelf/slope break. A major gap in understanding this system is how large volumes of sediment, particularly sands, are transported from the shelf edge systems down the slope and onto the basin-floor fan without constructional channel-levee systems. Over 500km of new high-resolution 2D multichannel seismic (MCS) and CHIRP echosounder data were collected over the shelf edge and upper slope of the Rio Grande fan. These new data provide unprecedented imaging of the shelf-edge delta systems and associated slope deposits. Our preliminary observations indicate that while the modern seafloor morphology of the fan is dominated by mass-transport deposits, slumps and minor inactive channels, buried below thick mud deposits are very large aggradational channels-levee systems. These systems have channel belts almost 1km wide, with confining levees that approach 10km in width. The main body of the fan is built from these channel complexes, which appear to have then rapidly buried in mud. We document the evolution, from initial channelization to burial, of these massive slope systems. Regional correlation suggests that this most recent episode of channel-levee growth and shutoff occurred very rapidly, and could indicate drastically higher sediment flux through the paleo-Rio Grande River than that of the modern. Our results highlight an example of a slope-channel system that is subject to significant variations in sediment supply. Such systems can apparently build large late Pleistocene submarine fan deposits that can be difficult

  7. The role of self-help voluntary associations for women empowerment and social capital: the experience of women's iddirs (burial societies) in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshome, Elias; Zenebe, Mulumebt; Metaferia, Henok; Biadgilign, Sibhatu

    2012-06-01

    Mutual help is essential to the human race to progress to a full humanity. Participating in voluntary associations has multiple benefits and makes a bigger contribution to resiliency in socio-economically deprived neighborhoods. Therefore, the objective of the study is to assess the role of women's iddirs (burial societies) in promoting their lives, particularly in terms of their social and economic well-being. We employed a quantitative cross-sectional survey. The study population from which the survey data were collected was members of five women's iddirs'. Majority of them (52.5%) reported that their iddirs helped them to a great extent to become more connected with the people in their local community and 36.4% reported that their confidence has increased to have their own say. Nearly three-fourth (70.3%) of the participants indicated that members were willing to help each other. About 71.6% totally agreed that participation in iddirs alleviates stress and difficulty when a relative or family member dies. Majority of the participants (93.3%) stated that their iddirs didn't help them to have access to money. All participants (100%) reported that their iddirs don't have explicitly stated credit mechanisms and nearly all (94.8%) didn't have any experience of borrowing money from banks. Most study participants appeared to appreciate the social benefits of iddirs much higher than that of their economic benefits. This suggests that iddirs need to be well-organized and co-operate with each other and ensuring flexible lending and interest payment criteria need to be established logistically to serve the needs of the poor members.

  8. Extended Survival of Several Microorganisms and Relevant Amino Acid Biomarkers under Simulated Martian Surface Conditions as a Function of Burial Depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Adam [Indiana University; Pratt, L.M. [Indiana University; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A [ORNL; Pfiffner, S. M. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Bryan, R. A. [Yeshiva University, New York; Dadachova, E. [Yeshiva University, New York; Whyte, L G [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec; Radtke, K. [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec; Chan, E. [Princeton University; Tronick, S. [Princeton University; Borgonie, G. [Ghent University, Belgium; Mancinelli, R. [SETI Institute; Rothschild, L. [NASA Ames Research Center; Rogoff, D. [NASA Ames Research Center; Horikawa, D. D. [NASA Ames Research Center; Onstott, T. C. [Princeton University

    2011-01-01

    Recent orbital and landed missions have provided substantial evidence for ancient liquid water on the martian surface as well as evidence of more recent sedimentary deposits formed by water and/or ice. These observations raise serious questions regarding an independent origin and evolution of life on Mars. Future missions seek to identify signs of extinct martian biota in the form of biomarkers or morphological characteristics, but the inherent danger of spacecraft-borne terrestrial life makes the possibility of forward contamination a serious threat not only to the life detection experiments, but also to any extant martian ecosystem. A variety of cold and desiccation-tolerant organisms were exposed to 40 days of simulated martian surface conditions while embedded within several centimeters of regolith simulant in order to ascertain the plausibility of such organisms survival as a function of environmental parameters and burial depth. Relevant amino acid biomarkers associated with terrestrial life were also analyzed in order to understand the feasibility of detecting chemical evidence for previous biological activity. Results indicate that stresses due to desiccation and oxidation were the primary deterrent to organism survival, and that the effects of UV-associated damage, diurnal temperature variations, and reactive atmospheric species were minimal. Organisms with resistance to desiccation and radiation environments showed increased levels of survival after the experiment compared to organisms characterized as psychrotolerant. Amino acid analysis indicated the presence of an oxidation mechanism that migrated downward through the samples during the course of the experiment and likely represents the formation of various oxidizing species at mineral surfaces as water vapor diffused through the regolith. Current sterilization protocols may specifically select for organisms best adapted to survival at the martian surface, namely species that show tolerance to radical

  9. Rates of burial and exhumation of lawsonite blueschist/eclogite in subduction zones from in situ UV laser ablation 40Ar/39Ar phengite geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornash, K.; Cosca, M. A.; Whitney, D. L.; Teyssier, C. P.

    2014-12-01

    Lawsonite eclogites and blueschists are accessible records of processes that occur at depth in subducting slabs and can therefore provide information about the chemical and physical evolution of subduction zones. In composite blueschist-eclogite terranes, blueschists may have formed (1) by prograde metamorphism (pre-eclogite), (2) at the same P-T conditions as eclogite-facies metamorphism as a result of differences in bulk composition, H2O content, or oxidation state, or (3) from retrogression of eclogite, e.g. during exhumation. Field and petrologic observations of lawsonite eclogite and blueschist in the Sivrihisar Massif, Turkey, suggest that some blueschist formed from eclogite during exhumation in the subduction channel, whereas results from thermobarometry suggest that some blueschist formed at the same P-T conditions as eclogite. To test the age, petrologic, and tectonic relationship of coexisting eclogite and blueschist, we applied in situ UV laser ablation 40Ar/39Ar phengite geochronology to eclogite- and blueschist-facies rocks representing different structural positions and displaying different phengite textures and coexisting mineral assemblages. Phengite from fresh lawsonite eclogite yield an age of 93 ± 2 Ma and have the narrowest spread in ages (glaucophane-rich margins of eclogite pods also record 92 Ma. Omphacite-bearing lawsonite blueschist and a blueschist-facies quartzite from the same structural position contain age populations at 97 Ma and 110 Ma. These results document a sequence of events from prograde blueschist-facies (> 93 Ma) to peak eclogite-facies metamorphism and vein formation (~93 Ma) to retrograde metamorphism (< 90 Ma). Combined with P-T estimates, these new results distinguish prograde from retrograde blueschist assemblages and allow calculation of burial/exhumation rates over the depth range ~80-45 km in a subduction zone.

  10. Book review: Peregruznoe I Burial Ground: Results of Interdisciplinary Research : Monograph [Text] / M. A. Balabanova, E. V. Pererva [at al.]. – Volgograd : Izd-vo Volgogradskogo Filiala FGBOU VPO RANHiGS, 2014. – 360 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tairov Aleksandr Dmitrievich

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The review concerns the monograph “Peregruznoe I Burial Ground: Results of Interdisciplinary Research. The book was prepared by the team of authors including archaeologists, anthropologists, paleosoil specialists, archaeozoologists. The review contains examination of materials and main conclusions for every chapter of the monograph. The monograph is devoted to the analysis of materials from 52 burial mounds dated from the Aeneolith to the Middle Ages. Most of them were erected in the Sarmatian period. In the review, the controversial points concerning the reconstruction of the paleodemographic and physicalgenetic structure of the buried Sarmatian population were pointed out. The authors consider that the gender disharmony of the Early and Middle Sarmatian samples was determined by the peculiarities of mounds formation of nomadic groups localized at the winter and summer nomad camps. This conclusion provokes some objections. As a positive moment, it should be noted that the authors have discovered new trends by means of analysis of cultural and chronological Sarmatian groups according to anthropological data. The monograph presents new interesting data related to reconstruction of the social structure of the Sarmatian societies, burial mound construction, the taxonomic composition of animals from grave pits and mounds. It is necessary to note, that the authors carried out a great deal of investigation and study. The monograph presents abundant scientific data. Interpretation of this material has a great potential which resources are far from being exhausted. The book is going to be a significant event not only for the study of the Volga-Ural steppe antiquities but for all over the Sarmatian archaeology.

  11. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Interim Measures for the Mixed Waste Management Facility Groundwater at the Burial Ground Complex at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-12-08

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this environmental assessment (EA) to analyze the potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed interim measures for the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MW) groundwater at the Burial Ground Complex (BGC) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. DOE proposes to install a small metal sheet pile dam to impound water around and over the BGC groundwater seepline. In addition, a drip irrigation system would be installed. Interim measures will also address the reduction of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) from ''hot-spot'' regions associated with the Southwest Plume Area (SWPA). This action is taken as an interim measure for the MWMF in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) to reduce the amount of tritium seeping from the BGC southwest groundwater plume. The proposed action of this EA is being planned and would be implemented concurrent with a groundwater corrective action program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). On September 30, 1999, SCDHEC issued a modification to the SRS RCRA Part B permit that adds corrective action requirements for four plumes that are currently emanating from the BGC. One of those plumes is the southwest plume. The RCRA permit requires SRS to submit a corrective action plan (CAP) for the southwest plume by March 2000. The permit requires that the initial phase of the CAP prescribe a remedy that achieves a 70-percent reduction in the annual amount of tritium being released from the southwest plume area to Fourmile Branch, a nearby stream. Approval and actual implementation of the corrective measure in that CAP may take several years. As an interim measure, the actions described in this EA would manage the release of tritium from the southwest plume area until the final actions under the CAP can be implemented. This proposed action is expected to reduce the

  12. DEBATE ENTRE NIVELES ARTIFICIALES Y UNIDADES ESTRATIGRÁFICAS: EL ENTIERRO HUMANO POSTERIOR AL FUERTE SANCTI SPIRITUS (1527-1529, PUERTO GABOTO (SANTA FE / Artificial levels vs. stratigraphic units: the human burial subsequent to Sancti Spiritus Fort (15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Pasquali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el estudio y análisis de un entierro humano hallado dentro del alcance del proyecto de investigación del Fuerte Sancti Spiritus, en la localidad de Puerto Gaboto (provincia de Santa Fe. La recuperación del mismo se realizó en el año 2010, mediante la metodología de excavación por niveles artificiales. Dentro del marco del proyecto, a partir del año 2010, con la incorporación del equipo de arqueólogos pertenecientes a la Universidad del País Vasco se aplica una nueva metodología de intervención en el campo: excavación en extensión (open area por unidades estratigráficas. Este trabajo consta de una primera parte, en donde se presenta la recuperación de los restos óseos por niveles artificiales y su curaduría, así como, la clasificación y descripción de los materiales asociados al entierro. En una segunda etapa, se presenta la secuencia histórica del sitio determinada por las excavaciones estratigráficas y su relación con el entierro. A esto se le agrega el proceso de trabajo seguido para integrar el entierro dentro de la secuencia estratigráfica y para poder señalar a cuál de las fases de la secuencia histórica pertenece. Palabras clave: Esqueleto humano; Niveles artificiales; Unidades estratigráficas; Siglo XVI; Nordeste argentino   Abstract This study analyses a human burial found within the excavations of the Fort Sancti Spiritus (Puerto Gaboto, province of Santa Fe. Artificial levels excavation methodology was used to recover it in 2010. Subsequently a new excavation methodology was applied, open area through stratigraphic units. The recovery and treatment of the bones by artificial levels is initially presented, as well as the classification and description of materials linked to the burial. Secondly the historical sequence of the site deduced by the stratigraphic excavations and its relationship to the burial is provided. Additionally the process followed to integrate the burial into the

  13. Report about the contribution of new technologies to the burial of high and very-high voltage power lines; Rapport sur l'apport de nouvelles technologies dans l'enfouissement des lignes electriques a haute et tres haute tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kert, Ch. [Assemblee Nationale, 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-12-01

    Today, high voltage overhead power lines are badly perceived by the population in particular in urban areas and in areas with remarkable landscapes, for their visual impact on the environment and for their possible effect on human health. With the increase of the domestic and foreign power demand, the high voltage grid will develop in the future and the partial burial of power lines can be the first steps towards a solution to these problems. This report makes a worldwide status of the state-of-the-art of power line burial technologies, all voltages considered, and then focusses on the very-high voltage challenge which encounters the most important technological and economical constraints. The technical feasibility has been proven but the lowering of costs needs the development of a real European market of power lines burial. (J.S.)

  14. Time scale dependent negative emission potential of forests and biomass plantations via wood burial, torrefied biomass, biochar and pyrogas condensate sequestration in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Kammann, Claudia; Lucht, Wolfgang; Gerten, Dieter; Foidl, Nikolaus

    2017-04-01

    quality of the charred biomass (biochar), post thermal treatment and plant nutrient enhancement, regrowth is expected to accelerate and soil carbon content to increase. Overall, the time until such a biochar based CSS systems generates negative carbon emissions (biomass regrowth exceeds the C-loss from CSS transformation) can thus be reduced compared to BE-CCS while increasing the sustainability of the global biomass production system and fostering ecosystem services. In our presentation we will provide first assessments of various biochar-based CCS systems and compare them to conventional BE-CCS, an evaluation of their global time scale dependent C-sequestration potential and their economic frame. E.g. (1) a biochar system with pyrolysis temperatures of 750°C and without liquefying the pyrolysis gases delivers a very recalcitrant biochar but the C-efficiency is low (40%) and fostering of regrowth is only about 10-15%. A (2) biochar system with trunk burial, pyrolysis of needles, bark, twigs, and branches with organic N-enhancement, and pyrolysis gas condensation and chemical oxidation could achieve a C-efficiency of 85% to 90% and foster regrowth over a time scale of 60% by up to 50%. Future challenges of biochar classification, certification, ecotoxicology, C-leaching, carbon credits and integration into agro-forestry practices will be discussed.

  15. A semiótica de um enterro prematuro: o feminismo em uma era pós-feminista The semiotics of pemature burial: feminism in a postfeminist age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Hawkesworth

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, exploro as representações da morte do feminismo para compreender os significados maiores que cercam as declarações do fim simbólico do feminismo. Começarei investigando dois mecanismos pelos quais a morte do feminismo é produzida para expor os valores implícitos dos tanatófilos do feminismo. Depois considerarei versões rivais dos "signos da morte", de forma a explorar como as suposições peculiares sobre a ontologia do feminismo estão presas a formas específicas de morte metafórica. Dado o tipo particular de distorção implicada no enterro prematuro de um feminismo global florescente, a seção final do artigo situa o contemporâneo dobrar dos sinos pela morte do feminismo no contexto de uma história gendrada de práticas de enterro em vida. Através da escavação e da interpretação de tais práticas arcaicas, relacionarei o enterro retórico do feminismo contemporâneo a um esforço contínuo para minar as lutas feministas por justiça social.In this article, I will explore how the death of feminism is represented in order to plumb the larger meanings embedded in proclamations of feminism's symbolic death. I will begin by investigating two mechanisms by which feminism's death has been produced to unearth the tacit values of feminism's morticians. I will then consider competing accounts of the "signs of death" in order to explore how particular assumptions about the ontology of feminism are tied to specific forms of metaphorical death. Given the particular kind of distortion involved in the premature burial of a thriving global feminism, the final section of the article situates contemporary feminism's death knell in the context of a gendered history of live burial practices. By excavating and interpreting such archaic practices, I will link the rhetorical burial of contemporary feminism to an ongoing effort to undermine feminist struggles for social justice.

  16. Plio-Quaternary river incision rates inferred from burial dating (Al-26/Be-10) of in cave-deposited alluvium in the Meuse catchment (E Belgium): new insights into the uplift history of the Ardennes massif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rixhon, Gilles; Bourlès, Didier; Braucher, Régis; Peeters, Alexandre; Demoulin, Alain

    2017-04-01

    Although the Late Cenozoic uplift of the intraplate Variscan Ardennes/Rhenish massif (N Europe) has been long studied, its causes, shape and timing are still under debate (Demoulin & Hallot, 2009). This is mainly due to the scarcity of reliable ages for uplift markers, such as Quaternary terrace staircases along the deeply-incised valleys or Late Tertiary planation surfaces. In parallel, multi-level cave systems in limestone rocks, wherein abandoned phreatic passages filled with alluvium represent former phases of fluvial base-level stability, record the history of regional river incision (Anthony & Granger, 2007). Here, we present new burial ages (Al-26/Be-10) from fluvial gravels washed in a multi-level cave system developed in Devonian limestones of the lower Ourthe valley (main Ardennian tributary of the Meuse). Our results highlight a significant increase of incision rates from the Middle Pleistocene on, and allow reconstructing the incision history in the northern part of the Ardennes over the last 3.4 Ma. These long-term incision rates derived from burial ages are then discussed in relation to the existing studies dealing with river incision and/or tectonic uplift of the Ardennes/Rhenish massif (e.g. Demoulin & Hallot, 2009; Rixhon et al., 2011). Our cosmogenic nuclide ages thus enlarge the data pool required to explore the spatio-temporal characteristics of the drainage system's incision response to combined tectonic and climatic signals. References Anthony, D., Granger, D.E., 2007. A new chronology for the age of Appalachian erosional surfaces determined by cosmogenic nuclides in cave sediments. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 32, 874-887 Demoulin, A., Hallot, E., 2009. Shape and amount of the Quaternary uplift of the western Rhenish shield and the Ardennes (western Europe). Tectonophysics 474, 696-708. Rixhon, G., et al., 2011. Quaternary river incision in NE Ardennes (Belgium): Insights from Be-10/Al-26 dating of rive terraces. Quaternary Geochronology 6

  17. Coordinated motility of cyanobacteria favor mat formation, photosynthesis and carbon burial in low-oxygen, high-sulfur shallow sinkholes of Lake Huron; whereas deep-water aphotic sinkholes are analogs of deep-sea seep and vent ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddanda, B. A.; McMillan, A. C.; Long, S. A.; Snider, M. J.; Weinke, A. D.; Dick, G.; Ruberg, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    Microbial life in submerged sinkhole ecosystems of the Laurentian Great Lakes is relatively understudied in comparison to seeps and vents of the deep-sea. We studied the filamentous benthic mat-forming cyanobacteria consisting primarily of Oscillatoria-like cells growing under low-light, low-oxygen and high-sulfur conditions in Lake Huron's submerged sinkholes using in situ observations, in vitro measurements and time-lapse microscopy. Gliding movement of the cyanobacterial trichomes revealed individual as well as group-coordinated motility. When placed in a petri dish and dispersed in ground water from the sinkhole, filaments re-aggregated into defined colonies within minutes. Measured speed of individual filaments ranged from 50 µm minute-1 or 15 body lengths minute-1 to 215 µm minute-1 or 70 body lengths minute-1 - rates that are rapid relative to non-flagellated/ciliated microbes. Filaments exhibited precise and coordinated positive phototaxis towards pinpoints of light and congregated under the light of foil cutouts. Such light-responsive clusters showed an increase in photosynthetic yield - suggesting phototactic motility aids in light acquisition as well as photosynthesis. Pebbles and pieces of broken shells placed upon the mat in intact sediemnt cores were quickly covered by vertically motile filaments within hours and became fully buried in the anoxic sediments over 3-4 diurnal cycles - likely facilitating the preservation of falling plankton debris. Coordinated horizontal and vertical filament motility optimize mat cohesion and dynamics, photosynthetic efficiency and sedimentary carbon burial in modern-day sinkhole habitats where life operates across sharp redox gradients. Analogous cyanobacterial motility in the shallow seas during Earth's early history, may have played a key role in the oxygenation of the planet by optimizing photosynthesis while favoring carbon burial. We are now eagerly mapping and exploring life in deep-water aphotic sinkholes of

  18. PRIMERAS INVESTIGACIONES SOBRE UNA ESTRUCTURA MORTUORIA SINGULAR DE CAZADORES-RECOLECTORES EN LA PATAGONIA ARGENTINA: EL ENTIERRO SHAG (The Shag Burial: Preliminary Research Results from a Singular Mortuary Structure of Hunter-Gatherers in Argentinian Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Zilio

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available El entierro Shag se ubica en la costa norte de la provincia de Santa Cruz, Patagonia argentina. Se trata de una estructura con morfología anular o de anillo, de aproximadamente 10 m de diámetro, conformada por rocas. La estructura fue alterada por pingüinos de Magallanes, quienes realizaron un pozo de nidificación y, como consecuencia, expusieron en superficie una serie de restos óseos humanos. Para la Patagonia no existen antecedentes de estructuras mortuorias similares a Shag. Se presenta una datación radiocarbónica, el plano de la estructura, determinaciones bioantropológicas, estudios de isótopos estables δ13C y δ15N, y análisis tafonómicos de los restos óseos. Se interpreta que el sitio corresponde a una estructura mortuoria de cazadores-recolectores datada en el Holoceno tardío. Los estudios isotópicos permiten inferir que el individuo analizado basó su dieta en recursos de ambientes marinos y terrestres. ENGLISH: The Shag burial is located in the Santa Cruz province along the northern coast of the Argentinian Patagonia. The Shag burial site is contained by a structure with annular or ring morphology made out of rocks and approximately 10 m in diameter. The structure was altered by Magellanic penguins that built a nesting well, exposing a series of human bone remains on the surface. There is no record of similar mortuary structures within Patagonia. This paper presents a number of data including absolute radiocarbon dates, the plan of the structure, bioanthropological determinations, stable isotope studies of δ13C and δ15N, and taphonomic analyses of the bone remains. The site is interpreted to as a hunter-gatherers mortuary structure dated to the Late Holocene. The isotopic studies on the individual allow us to infer a varied diet, in which both marine and terrestrial food products were consumed.

  19. Traditions of the Middle Sarmatian Culture in Burial Mounds of the Caspian Dagestan in the Second Half of the 2nd - First Half of the 5th Century A.D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malashev Vladimir Yuryevich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The continuity of a number of the traditions which are going back to a funeral ceremony of Middle Sarmatiаn culture is observed in the burial grounds of Caspian Dagestan dating back to the second half of the 2nd - first half of the 5th centuries. The signs of this culture are gradually transformed in these traditions. It was complicated by the influences of traditions of Late Sarmatian culture (orientation of some corpses; the traditions of early Sarmatian population are more significant: catacombs of type II, narrow pits and loculuses, the western orientation of the corpse. The author highlights the major importance of the results of contacts between the descendants of the Middle Sarmatiаn culture and the population of Alan North Caucasus culture, manifested in the spread of the catacombs of type I and the formation of the catacombs of type IV under their influence. At the same time there is a sharp decrease in the proportion of burials in narrow rectangular pits and the disappearance of the diagonal position of corpses (middle 3rd-4th Centuries A.D., that leads to the formation of a ritual complex, fixed in Lvovsky cemeteries. This complex was moved from its native territory of the Terek-Sulak interfluve to the Southern Dagestan in the 1st half - the middle of the 4th century A.D., where it was preserved until the 1st half - the middle of the 5th century A.D. This completes the process of development of the Middle Sarmatian ritual complex in the region which absorbed a number of traditions of Early Sarmatian time. The complex existed in relative isolation from the late cultural Sarmatian influences, but it was affected by bearers of Alan culture. Considering also that formation of Alan culture passed on the basis of culture of the population of the region in the 2nd century B.C. - 1st century A.D. under the influence of a middle Sarmatian migratory impulse, the author assumes that carriers of the Middle Sarmatian traditions with the

  20. Request for interim approval to operate Trench 94 of the 218-E-12B Burial Ground as a chemical waste landfill for disposal of polychlorinated biphenyl waste in submarine reactor compartments. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummins, G.D.

    1994-06-01

    This request is submitted to seek interim approval to operate a Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) of 1976 chemical waste landfill for the disposal of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) waste. Operation of a chemical waste landfill for disposal of PCB waste is subject to the TSCA regulations of 40 CFR 761. Interim approval is requested for a period not to exceed 5 years from the date of approval. This request covers only the disposal of small 10 quantities of solid PCB waste contained in decommissioned, defueled submarine reactor compartments (SRC). In addition, the request applies only to disposal 12 of this waste in Trench 94 of the 218-E-12B Burial Ground (Trench 94) in the 13 200 East Area of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Facility. Disposal of this waste will be conducted in accordance with the Compliance 15 Agreement (Appendix H) between the DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and 16 the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 10. During the 5-year interim approval period, the DOE-RL will submit an application seeking final 18 approval for operation of Trench 94 as a chemical waste landfill, including 19 any necessary waivers, and also will seek a final dangerous waste permit from 20 the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) for disposal of lead 21 shielding contained in the SRCS.

  1. Assessment report: Application from OKG AB for a license according to the Act on Nuclear Activities concerning a shallow land burial/landfill for low-level nuclear waste in Simpevarp in the Oskarshamn municipality; Granskningsrapport: Ansoekan fraan OKG Aktiebolag om tillstaand enligt kaerntekniklagen (1984:3) till en markdeponi foer laagaktivt avfall i Simpevarp i Oskarshamns kommun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindbom, G.; Wiebert, A.; Norden, M.; Larsson, Carl-Magnus; Loefgren, T.; Lumpus, J

    2000-10-01

    OKG AB has to SSI submitted an application for a license according to the Act on Nuclear Activities (1984:3) concerning a shallow land burial/landfill for low-level nuclear waste in Simpevarp in the Oskarshamn municipality. The application for a license covers permission to build, possess and operate a shallow land burial/landfill for low-level nuclear waste. Attached to the application is an environmental impact statement. An application for a license according to the Environmental Act (1998:808) has been submitted to the Environmental Court in Vaexjoe. SSI has circulated the application for consideration to the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, the County Government Board of Kalmar and the Oskarshamn municipality. SSI has informed the European Commission about the application in accordance with the EURATOM Treaty, article 37. This assessment report constitutes the base for the decision by SSI 2000-09-18 for approval and radiation protection conditions. In the report, earlier permissions for shallow land burials/landfills at the Swedish nuclear installations are described. This report shows the development of the legal system during the last years, the premises for the assessment of the application, and SSI's review of OKG's plans, consequence analysis and environmental impact statement.

  2. Artificial neural network modeling and cluster analysis for organic facies and burial history estimation using well log data: A case study of the South Pars Gas Field, Persian Gulf, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Bahram; Najjari, Saeid; Kadkhodaie-Ilkhchi, Ali

    2012-08-01

    Intelligent and statistical techniques were used to extract the hidden organic facies from well log responses in the Giant South Pars Gas Field, Persian Gulf, Iran. Kazhdomi Formation of Mid-Cretaceous and Kangan-Dalan Formations of Permo-Triassic Data were used for this purpose. Initially GR, SGR, CGR, THOR, POTA, NPHI and DT logs were applied to model the relationship between wireline logs and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). The correlation coefficient (R2) between the measured and ANN predicted TOC equals to 89%. The performance of the model is measured by the Mean Squared Error function, which does not exceed 0.0073. Using Cluster Analysis technique and creating a binary hierarchical cluster tree the constructed TOC column of each formation was clustered into 5 organic facies according to their geochemical similarity. Later a second model with the accuracy of 84% was created by ANN to determine the specified clusters (facies) directly from well logs for quick cluster recognition in other wells of the studied field. Each created facies was correlated to its appropriate burial history curve. Hence each and every facies of a formation could be scrutinized separately and directly from its well logs, demonstrating the time and depth of oil or gas generation. Therefore potential production zone of Kazhdomi probable source rock and Kangan- Dalan reservoir formation could be identified while well logging operations (especially in LWD cases) were in progress. This could reduce uncertainty and save plenty of time and cost for oil industries and aid in the successful implementation of exploration and exploitation plans.

  3. Uprooting and burial of invasive alien plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kollmann, Johannes Christian; Brink-Jensen, Kasper; Frandsen, Sally I.

    2011-01-01

    increased with fragment dry mass (0.5–168.5 g). After 18 months with harrowing the species was still resprouting, flowering, and fruiting, albeit with no difference between shrub margin and center. Resprouts were taller (26 cm) and coverage was higher (0–4%) after two compared with three times harrowing...

  4. Resistance to burial of cyanobacteria in stromatolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromkamp, J.C.; Perkins, R.; Dijkman, N.A.; Consalvey, M.; Andres, R.P.; Reid, R.P.

    2007-01-01

    Stromatolites are complex lithified structures with a well-defined layered structure thought to have been formed by trapping and binding of sediment particles by micro-organisms, especially cyanobacteria. Modern marine stromatolites in the Bahamas live in a high-energy environment (surf zone) and

  5. CUSTOMARY RIGHT TO BEFITTING BURIAL: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dean SPGS NAU

    language, dress, manners, tastes in food, music and a host of other features which comprise a way of life. Dewey (1929) ..... the corpse is washed, finger nails cut and the body laid in state amidst canon shots. As the dead lies in state, .... These customs flow from their belief that death does not just occur, it is always caused ...

  6. 77 FR 4676 - Parents Eligible for Burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... national cemetery unless they had attained eligibility through military service or marriage. However... (including potential economic, environmental, public health and safety effects, and other advantages... action that is likely to result in a rule that may: (1) Have an annual effect on the economy of $100...

  7. Can seabirds modify carbon burial in fjords?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Marcin Węsławski

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Two high latitude fjords of Spitsbergen (Hornsund 77°N and Kongsfjorden 79°N are regarded as being highly productive (70 g and 50 gC m−2 year−1 and having organic-rich sediments. Hornsund has more organic matter in its sediments (8%, nearly half of it of terrestrial origin, while most of that in Kongsfjorden (5% comes from fresh, marine sources (microplankton. Analysis of the carbon sources in both fjords shows that a major difference is the much larger seabird population in Hornsund-dominated with over 100 thousands pairs of plankton feeding little auks in Hornsund versus 2 thousand pairs in Kongsfjorden, and marine food consumption estimated as 5573 tonnes of carbon in Hornsund, versus 3047 tonnes in Kongsfjorden during one month of chick feeding period. Seabird colonies supply rich ornithogenic tundra (595 tonnes of C, as against only 266 tonnes of C in the Kongsfjorden tundra. No much of the terrestrial carbon, flushed out or wind-blown to the fjord, is consumed on the seabed – a state of affairs that is reflected by the low metabolic activity of bacteria and benthos and the lower benthic biomass in Hornsund than in Kongsfjorden.

  8. New research results on “La Plaza de Toros” of Cerro de San Pelayo” (Martimor, Salamanca: a tumulus burial with inhumation at the beginning of the Firts Millenium in the Western area of the North Meseta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Jiménez, Óscar

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present the latest results obtained from the systematic revision of the materials from this unique site. We present here the burial level in its complete context and the first results of the analyses of this assemblage. We have documented in it human bones, elements of fauna possibly associated with a funerary feast, storage pottery and the well-known geometric painted vessel. The results obtained by analysis of the distribution and post-depositional processes are also very interesting, allowing us to recreate the space in which seem to be represented symbolic and prestige elements that indicate important social changes in these societies. All this, together with the calibration of the radiocarbon dates taken from the tumulus, offers a more complete archaeological documentation of this little known area in the South-western of the Northern Meseta.

    En este trabajo pretendemos adelantar los últimos resultados obtenidos de la revisión sistemática realizada sobre los materiales de este yacimiento de características únicas hasta ahora en la región. Avanzamos aquí la presentación del nivel de enterramiento en su contexto completo y los primeros resultados de los análisis de este conjunto. En él documentamos restos humanos, elementos de fauna posiblemente asociados a un banquete funerario, elementos de almacenaje y el ya conocido vaso pintado con decoración geométrica. Los resultados obtenidos por los análisis de dispersión y procesos postdeposicionales son igualmente de gran interés, permitiéndonos recrear ese espacio en el que parecen estar representados elementos simbólicos y de prestigio que indican importantes cambios en las sociedades de aquel momento. Todo ello, unido a la recalibración de las fechas radiocarbónicas del interior del túmulo, ofrece una completa documentación arqueológica de un momento poco conocido en el área sudoccidental de la Meseta Norte.

  9. Résines et asphaltènes : évolution en fonction des types de matière organique et de leur enfouissement Resins and Asphaltenes: Evolution As a Function of Organic-Matter Type and Burial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castex H.

    2006-11-01

    several basins. It was shown that: (a Resins have higher mean carbon and hydrogen values as well as a lower C/H ratio than asphaltenes. Resins thus have a more aliphatic and or more alicyclic structure. On the other hand, asphaltenes contain more sulfur, oxygen end nitrogen. (b Sulfur and oxygen are not parameters enabling basins to be differentiated. (c Different types of organic matter are revealed by an H/C, O/C diagram. Their chemical evolution with burial is characterized by a decrease in hydrogen, oxygen and sulfur contents. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and infrared spectroscopy (IRS were used to follow the structural evolution of resins and asphaltenes coming from different types of organic matter (algal, marine and terrestrial buried at increasing depths. NMR can be used to compute several structural parameters such as FA aromaticity and the degree of sigma substitution of the aromatic system. The FA factor seems to increase with burial and according to the type of organic matter, while sigma seems to decrease. These data were completed by infrared spectroscopy. The surface areas of the bands corresponding to the following functions were computed: (a OH in the 3700-2700 cm-1 range; (b carbonyl C-O around 1700 cm-1; (c aliphatic C-H at 2900, 2455 and 1380 cm-1; (d aromatic C-H at 1610 cm-1. Variations in the intensity of bands: (a decrease of aliphatic C-H and of C-O functions; (b increase of aromatic C-H and C-C are related to both the type of organic matter and its catagenesis.

  10. Un petit ensemble funéraire du haut Moyen Âge à Neuillé-Pont-Pierre (Indre-et-Loire : nouveau regard sur le statut de ces lieux d’inhumation A small funerary collection from the Early Middle Ages at Neuillé-Pont-Pierre (Indre-et-Loire: a new look at the status of these burial places

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Papin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available C’est dans le cadre du diagnostic de la ZAC Polaxis sur la commune de Neuillé-Pont-Pierre, en Indre-et-Loire, que la mise au jour d’un groupe de cinq inhumations présentant des caractéristiques particulières a été effectuée. Datées du début du haut Moyen Âge, ces sépultures ont la spécificité de posséder des structures sur poteaux associées aux fosses. L’organisation de ces monuments funéraires prouve une réelle volonté de marquer ce lieu de mémoire dans le paysage et dénote un traitement privilégié du mort. Ceci invite à jeter un regard nouveau sur la position sociale de ces petits lieux d’inhumations du haut Moyen Âge. Cette découverte originale est semble-t-il, un cas unique en région Centre, et les rares points de comparaison doivent être cherchés principalement en Normandie et en Europe du Nord, dans des contextes particuliers. Cette question reste cependant difficile à appréhender, à la mesure de la pauvreté des publications de ce type de sites.It was during the archaeological diagnosis of the Polaxis urban development zone, in the municipality of Neuillé-Pont-Pierre (Indre-et-Loire, that a discovery of a group of five burials presenting particular characteristics was made. These graves from the beginning of the Early Middle Ages are unique in possessing associated structures on posts. The organization of these funerary monuments proves a real will to mark this memorable place in the landscape and signify a privileged treatment of the dead. This invites us to look anew at the social position of these small burial places in the Early Middle Ages. This original discovery seems to be a unique event in the Centre region , and the rare points of comparison must be mainly looked for in Normandy and in Northern Europe, in particular contexts. This question is however difficult to understand, considering the lack of publications of this kind of sites.

  11. Étude anthropologique d’un cimetière de paroisse rurale : les sépultures (8e-19e s. de Rigny (Rigny-Ussé, Indre-et-Loire Anthropological study of a rural parish: burials of the 8th to 19th centuries at Rigny (Rigny-Ussé, Indre-et-Loire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Theureau

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Le cimetière rural de l’ancien centre paroissial de Rigny a livré 1704 sépultures des époques historiques. Ce confortable effectif a favorisé d’utiles adaptations des techniques anthropologiques fondamentales. Il a apporté une image originale de ce monde paysan qui a accueilli, depuis longtemps, des personnes physiquement défavorisées et des enfants venant de villes voisines. Les conditions de vie de ce milieu ont été suffisantes pour générer des améliorations biologiques, en particulier pour la longévité.The rural cemetery of the former parochial centre of Rigny yielded 1,704 burials dating from historical periods. This good-sized sample has facilitated a useful reappraisal of basic anthropological techniques. It paints a singular picture of this rustic world which, over a long period of time, took in physically disadvantaged people and children from the neighbouring towns. Conditions of life in this milieu were sufficient to bring about certain biological improvements, especially where longevity was concerned.

  12. Fire at a dry material burial site in Pierrefonds : atmospheric emissions of pollutants and health impacts; Incendie au site d'enfouissement de materiaux secs de Pierrefonds : emissions de polluants a l'atmosphere et impacts sur la sante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beausoleil, M.

    2005-05-01

    The Quebec Health Agency for the City of Montreal was asked to evaluate the health risk associated with the atmospheric emissions associated with a fire that occurred at a dry material burial site in Pierrefonds in December 2004. The fire lasted several weeks, resulting in a release of pollutants into the ambient air of a residential district located near the site. Air emission concentration measurements were taken at 3 intervals in order to evaluate the health risks that the chemical substances posed to the residents in the area. During the few hours when the fire was out of control and while flames were visible, the concentrations of aldehydes, acids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and particulates in the plume of smoke were very high, causing residents to experience respiratory problems and irritations to eyes, nose and throat. However, as soon as the fire was controlled, the concentrations of these pollutants decreased quickly. Fire extinction efforts continued for several weeks. Although the concentrations of pollutants measured in the ambient air of the residential district were higher than those generally measured in this district and elsewhere on the island of Montreal, they were in the same order of magnitude as those measured occasionally in certain districts under similar circumstances. The fire was extinguished in February 2005 at which time the measured concentrations were very similar to those generally measured in the urban environment. However, the strong and unpleasant odours that persist, particularly in the evening, correspond to the high values of hydrogen sulphide (H{sub 2}S). The Health Agency has reassured the residents that these values do not present long term health risks, but recognizes that the situation constitutes a reduction in the quality of life for the residents that can have psychosocial impacts of which the long-term repercussions are difficult to measure. refs., tabs., figs.

  13. La nécropole gauloise de “ Vaugrignon ” à Esvres-sur-Indre (Indre-et-Loire The gaulish burial ground of “ Vaugrignon ” at Esvres-sur-Indre (Indre-et-Loire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine Riquier

    2006-05-01

    .This burial ground, which was used from the middle of the 2nd century B.C. until reign og Augustus, contained twenty-nine tombs, including one cremation. Its study allows us to follow the evolution of the burial rites (from the poorest tombs to those with amphorae or weapons and to address the status of children. The analysis of the objects shows some original deposits, such as: three fibulae in bags, shield fragments in babies tombs, divers objects associated with iron working, coins and " funeral wares ” specific to certain age groups. Scatterings of burnt objects show up post-inhumation funeray practices. The comparison was made with prestigious " biturige ” type graves from the group of burial at nearly Fléré-la-Rivière. It gave an occasion to establish a strict social hierachy through the small-finds assemblages and to illustrate a hitherto poorly know of the population.

  14. Specific surface as a measure of burial diagenesis of chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borre, Mai Kirstine; Lind, Ida; Mortensen, Jeanette

    1997-01-01

    the relative importance of the three processes, simple models have been established to illustrate changes in pore space, particle size and -shape and the resulting trends in the specific surface. Specific surface and porosity of the samples were measured using image analysis on electron micrographs of polished...

  15. burial customs and the pollution of death in ancient rome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Pliny, Historia Naturalis xviii.118-9). Pontifical laws authorised certain exceptions, however, for instance in cases of death in the homes of priests or civic officers (Lindsay 2000:154). The deaths of pre-puber- tal children were not traditionally seen as causing pollution, as long as the corpses were speedily buried or ...

  16. Burial customs and the pollution of death in ancient Rome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, considerations of hygiene relating to possible physical contamination also played a role. In this study the ... Obvious paradoxes in the Roman attitude towards the dead are discussed, e.g. the contrast between the respect for the recently departed on the one hand, and the condoning of brutal executions and public

  17. Revisiting Field Burial by Accretion onto Neutron Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Since January 2016, the Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy has moved to Continuous Article Publishing (CAP) mode. This means that each accepted article is being published immediately online with DOI and article citation ID with starting page number 1. Articles are also visible in Web of Science immediately.

  18. Patriarchal Reductionism in Ewu- Nzuzo of Ogodi Female Burial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    channels on gender related data and the present study aims to bridge the gap in gender documentation. Key Words: Ewu-nzuzo, ... This duality of identity makes it mandatory that the woman be buried in her paternal community. The origin of the practice of ... Gender identity, in this case is the result of economic and socially ...

  19. Mine Burial Expert System for Change of MIW Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    The MBES has been incorporated into the Environmental Post Mission Analysis ( EPMA ) tool for Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVO), which could give the...Environmental Post Mission Analysis ( EPMA ) tool for Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVO), which could give the MCM planners an idea of the confidence level of...49 Figure 26. Cumulative plot of 16 scenarios available to current EPMA users. Legend shows known input parameters

  20. Early iron age burial complex from the Svrljig area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Vojislav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2005, a group of objects was ploughed up, comprising a bronze openwork belt, bronze belt parts in the form of a four-spoked wheel, a bronze bell-shaped pendant, the arc of a bimetal fibula, fragment(s of an iron sword, and part(s of a horse's iron bit, at the Kalnica site in the village of Niševac. According to the finder, while ploughing a field, his plough dug up several larger slab-shaped stones, beneath which were found the above objects, as well as fragments of human bones. The most important finds from the Kalnica grave are three parts of a bronze openwork belt (fig. 3a-c and three bronze belt parts in the form of a four-spoked wheel. According to the finder, the belt was composed of three more belt links, two or three parts in the form of a wheel, and a final segment with a larger round buckle. The links of the belt were cast, with dimensions of 4.2-4.3 cm (length, 2-2.1 cm (height and 0.6-0.7 cm (width. All three links were made in the same mold, after which they were decorated with perforations, incisions, and points in an identical manner. The circular bronze parts of the belt in the shape of a four-spoked wheel (fig. 3d-f were cast, with a diametar of 2-2.1 cm, and their height precisely matches the links of the belt. All three circular parts were made in the same mold and then decorated with perforations, incisions, and points. One more item from this group of finds that probably belongs to the belt collection, is a bronze bell-shaped pendant (fig. 4/a, with a height of 4 cm and a diameter of 1.7-1.8 cm. A larger arc of a bimetal fibula was discovered in the grave, with its foot in the shape of an hourglass. The arc is 5.5 cm in width, decorated with dense small ribs. Part of a damaged horse's iron bit 11 x 4.3 cm in dimension was also found in the grave (fig. 4/c. The last find in this collection comprises part of a bent single-bladed iron sword, 11.9 x 4.4 cm (fig. 4/d. In this kind of bent sword, a so-called T end is usually found at the end of the handle/hilt, so we suppose that this sword had such an end. Bearing in mind the chronological classification of all finds from this destroyed grave (fig. 5, the openwork belt from Kalnica could be dated to the end of the VII or the very beginning of the VI centuries BC at the earliest. Such dating in principle agrees with the Ha C2/D1 central-European period, i.e. horizontal 2 according to R. Vasić, since other finds of openwork belts were dated to this period by the same author. Nevertheless, the type II iron bit does raise a slight doubt regarding the dating of the Kalnica belt, since according to M. Werner such belts were dominant in the Ha D2/3 period, i.e. at the end of the first half of the Vth century BC. The find of the composite belt from Kalnica raises several interesting observations. Firstly, the belt differs from most examples previously discovered on the territory of south-eastern Europe in that most belt link sets were formed in the shape of a square, with less frequent deviation regarding link dimensions, while those of the belt from Kalnica are relatively elongated. Links similar to the Kalnica elongated links have only be discovered in north Macedonia and in grave 5 of tumulus I in the Kenete site in Albania. The difference in the decoration of the belt from Kalnica compared with other belts is interesting. They are decorated with pierced triangles and perforated concentric circles, with a central point, repeated in countless combinations. Half-elliptical perforations appear for the first time on the belt from Kalnica, to some extent inexpertly carried out. Openwork belts have been discovered throughout the territory between the Timok river in Serbia and the Isker in Bulgaria, although according to recently published finds from the Trojan region in Bulgaria, that area could be extended eastward to the Rosica river. Outside these territories, more significant groupings are visible in the Vardar valley in Macedonia, as well as in an early Iron Age necropolis in the Donja dolina in northern Bosnia. The production center of these belts is connected with the Zlot group (Zlot-Sofronijevo, or with the Triballi tribe, but it could be said that in the VII and VI centuries BC such belts were also worn among their neighbors.

  1. Assessment of Hanford burial grounds and interim TRU storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, J.F.; Brown, D.J.; Isaacson, R.E.

    1977-08-01

    A review and assessment is made of the Hanford low level solid radioactive waste management sites and facilities. Site factors considered favorable for waste storage and disposal are (1) limited precipitation, (2) a high deficiency of moisture in the underlying sediments (3) great depth to water table, all of which minimize radionuclide migration by water transport, and (4) high sorbtive capacity of the sediments. Facilities are in place for 20 year retrievable storage of transuranic (TRU) wastes and for disposal of nontransuranic radioactive wastes. Auxiliary facilities and services (utilities, roads, fire protection, shops, etc.) are considered adequate. Support staffs such as engineering, radiation monitoring, personnel services, etc., are available and are shared with other operational programs. The site and associated facilities are considered well suited for solid radioactive waste storage operations. However, recommendations are made for study programs to improve containment, waste package storage life, land use economy, retrievability and security of TRU wastes.

  2. Chalk porosity and sonic velocity versus burial depth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Gommesen, Lars; Krogsbøll, Anette Susanne

    2008-01-01

    but not pore-structure stiffening cementation in this presumably water-wet chalk. These results should improve the modeling of chalk background velocity for seismic inversion analysis. When describing the porosity-reducing process, pore-volume compressibility should probably be disregarded when correcting...... so that smectite-bearing chalk has a high Poisson's ratio in the water-saturated case, but a low value in the dry case. Oil-bearing chalk has up to 25 units higher porosity than water-saturated chalk at similar depth but similar velocity, probably because hydrocarbons prevent pore-filling cementation...

  3. Quantification and presence of human ancient DNA in burial place ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... was shown to consists of intact DNA that is virtually free of RNA, resulting in a more accurate representation of gene expression using RTPCR and PCR amplification methods. In this study, the results demonstrate that RT-PCR method can be useful for the improved ancient DNA extraction in anthropology and archeology.

  4. Quantification and presence of human ancient DNA in burial place ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... useful for the improved ancient DNA extraction in anthropology and archeology. Key words: Ancient DNA, fossil bone, RT-PCR. INTRODUCTION. Ancient DNA research, defined as the retrieval and analysis of DNA sequences from various degraded biological source materials, has promoted many.

  5. Revisiting Field Burial by Accretion onto Neutron Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dipanjan Mukherjee

    2017-09-12

    Sep 12, 2017 ... ease, the results with an isothermal EoS are incorrect at the base of .... be determined by assuming r0(ψ) to be the top of the mound i.e. xF = 0 → ρ = 0 at r = r0(ψ). Using the above criterion, equation (12) can be inverted to give the density ... me is the electron mass, ma the atomic mass unit and μe = 2 the ...

  6. Dust Deposition and the Burial of Organic Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, C. L.; Rothman, D. H.

    2008-12-01

    Understanding the behavior of the carbon cycle necessitates analyzing the differing processes involved in the production, transport, and eventual preservation of organic carbon in marine sediments. To quantify the potential role of dust in these processes, we propose a connection between dust fluxes to the ocean and the physical protection of organic matter in ocean sediments. Previous work suggests a linear relationship between the preservation of organic matter and mineral surface area [4]. Assuming that dust contributes to this mineral fraction, we calculate the organic carbon that would be associated with its surface area. We find that the organic matter associated with dust would be about 10% of the total organic carbon buried in ocean sediments. This finding is consistent both with global sedimentation rates [3] and with recent work based on marine particle flux data [1,2]. Our work suggests a potential connection between the physical protection of organic matter and the associations found between the lithogenic and organic carbon fluxes in the ocean [1]. It also strengthens the idea that large perturbations to dust fluxes could directly impact carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. [1] R.A. Armstrong, C. Lee, J.I. Hedges, S. Honjo, and S.G. Wakeham. A new, mechanistic model for organic carbon fluxes in the ocean based on the quantitative association of POC with ballast minerals. Deep-Sea Research Part II, 49(1-3):219--236, 2001. [2] J.P. Dunne, J.L. Sarmiento, and A. Gnanadesikan. A synthesis of global particle export from the surface ocean and cycling through the ocean interior and on the seafloor. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 21, 2007. [3] R.A. Jahnke. The global ocean flux of particulate organic carbon: Areal distribution and magnitude. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 10:71--88, 1996. [4] L.M. Mayer. Surface area control of organic carbon accumulation in continental shelf sediments. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 58(4):1271--1284, 1994.

  7. Dynamics of Sandwaves under Combined Wave - Current Forcing and Mine Burial Processes, and RIVET I and Mine Burial Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    boat with an ADCP, and motorized kayak with sidescan, echosounder and post-processing kinetic (PPK) GPS system and a REMUS-100 AUV with an ADCP...we developed a motorized kayak shipboard bathymetry and sidescan system to document the spatial variability of the bedform field. This system...of absence of breaking waves. Based on the success of the motorized kayak , in 2013, in collaboration with Hanu Singh we developed an autonomous

  8. Low-grade metamorphism of Cambro-Ordovician successions in the Famatina belt, Southern-Central Andes: Burial-inversion history linked to the evolution of the proto-Andean Gondwana margin Metamorfismo de bajo grado de sucesiones cambro-ordovícicas en el cinturón del Famatina, Andes Centrales de Argentina: Historia de enterramiento-exhumación ligada a la evolución del margen proto-andino de Gondwana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda Collo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The metamorphic P-T conditions of low-grade units from the Famatina belt, Central Andes of Argentina, were estimated through petrography, X-ray diffraction, and electron microscopy. For the Middle-Upper Cambrian Negro Peinado Formation a tectono-metamorphic event associated with intense intrafoliar folding, with estimated temperatures between 290 and 400°C (KIcis: 0.16-0.27A°29, biotite blastesis and compositional homogeneity in dioctahedral micas and intermediate pressure conditions (white mica b parameter: 9.010Á-9.035Á, was recognized. The Achavil Formation (Middle-Upper Cambrian presents a main metamorphic event associated with temperatures between 200 and 290°C (KIcis: 0.26-0.41A°29 and intermediate- to low-pressure conditions (white mica b parameter values: 8.972Á-9.017Á. Some illitic substitution in dioctahedral micas also indicates lower metamorphic grade than the Negro Peinado Formation. For Upper Cambrian to Middle Ordovician sequences a burial metamorphic pattern, with a progressive decrease in metamorphic grade from Volcancito Formation to Cerro Morado Group (ca. 490-465 Ma; KIcis: 0.31-0.69A°29 and absence of tendency changes linked to strati-graphic discontinuities was proposed. Mica and chlorite are the main phyllosilicates in the oldest units, while Ilt/ Sme (R3 mixed-layer is almost the only one in the youngest. White mica b parameter indicates intermediate- to low-pressure conditions for all these sequences. This burial metamorphic pattern presents a marked break as the youngest Ordovician unit (La Aguadita Formation, after ca. 452 Ma records higher metamorphic conditions (IKcis: 0.28-0.19A°29 than units from the Ordovician arc, with estimated temperatures between 270 and 330°C and intermediate-pressure conditions. Our results indicate that basin contraction and inversion processes related to the Ordovician Ocloyic Orogeny involved at least two well-discriminated and not superposed metamorphic episodes in this region

  9. Dance as a Medium for Social Stability: A Case of Umuada Burial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dance has been suggested as an effective tool to actualize this true African dream. As a live art, dance has the flexibility to incorporate the current trends in the society in its package. A dance project can present the happenings of a society to a community and can suggest how the community ought to be. Most importantly ...

  10. Evolution of Mineral-Organic Matter Associations in Sediments: From (Bio)mineralization to Burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, E.; Nordlund, D.; Wankel, S. D.; Hansel, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Physical and chemical associations with mineral surfaces may protect organic matter (OM) from oxidative degradation and allow its preservation in soils and sediments. This study evaluates the mechanism of mineral-based preservation (MBP) and the time scale on which MBP is operative by tracking the co-evolution of oxide minerals and associated OM during mineral precipitation and ripening. Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy coupled to near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM-NEXAFS) as well as bulk NEXAFS demonstrate that, in laboratory systems using cell-free filtrate from pure bacterial cultures, an association between OM and biogenic manganese oxides is rapidly established. OM associated with freshly precipitated biominerals consists of proteinaceous carbon and nitrogen consistent with a microbial origin; this composition remains constant over the course of 96 hours, despite mineral aggregation and structural evolution from hexagonal to triclinic birnessite. We predict that, in natural systems, oxide minerals simultaneously drive remineralization and offer MBP. Different minerals will promote a different balance between the two, imparting a mineral-specific signature on the concentration and composition of preserved OM. We test this idea by conducting incubations of natural estuary waters spiked with compositionally and structurally diverse synthetic oxide minerals. The concentration and composition of mineral-associated OM were tracked by element analyzer-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-IRMS) and STXM-NEXAFS in multiple experiments lasting between 4 weeks and 1 year. Results from incubation experiments are contrasted with natural sediment samples from a range of depositional environments in order to evaluate the potential for long-term sequestration of organic carbon in sediments facilitated by minerals.

  11. Yield and Depth of Burial Hydrodynamic Calculations in Granodiorite: Implications for the North Korean Test Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    for rock under dynamic loading, The 38th U.S. Rock Mechanics Symposium, UCRL-JC-142748. Bache, T. C. (1976). The effects of tectonic stress release...seismic data from underground nuclear explosions in salt and granite, Interim Technical Report CSC-TR-78-0003. Patton, H. J. (2011) A Method to Infer

  12. Evidence for Prehistoric Origins of Egyptian Mummification in Late Neolithic Burials

    OpenAIRE

    Jana Jones; Higham, Thomas F. G.; Ron Oldfield; Terry P O'Connor; Buckley, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional theories on ancient Egyptian mummification postulate that in the prehistoric period (i.e. the Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods, 5th and 4th millennia B.C.) bodies were naturally desiccated through the action of the hot, dry desert sand. Although molding of the body with resin-impregnated linen is believed to be an early Pharaonic forerunner to more complex processes, scientific evidence for the early use of resins in artificial mummification has until now been limited to isolate...

  13. Evidence for prehistoric origins of Egyptian mummification in late Neolithic burials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jana; Higham, Thomas F G; Oldfield, Ron; O'Connor, Terry P; Buckley, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    Traditional theories on ancient Egyptian mummification postulate that in the prehistoric period (i.e. the Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods, 5th and 4th millennia B.C.) bodies were naturally desiccated through the action of the hot, dry desert sand. Although molding of the body with resin-impregnated linen is believed to be an early Pharaonic forerunner to more complex processes, scientific evidence for the early use of resins in artificial mummification has until now been limited to isolated occurrences during the late Old Kingdom (c. 2200 B.C.), their use becoming more apparent during the Middle Kingdom (c. 2000-1600 BC). We examined linen wrappings from bodies in securely provenanced tombs (pit graves) in the earliest recorded ancient Egyptian cemeteries at Mostagedda in the Badari region (Upper Egypt). Our investigations of these prehistoric funerary wrappings using a combination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and thermal desorption/pyrolysis (TD/Py)-GC-MS have identified a pine resin, an aromatic plant extract, a plant gum/sugar, a natural petroleum source, and a plant oil/animal fat in directly AMS-dated funerary wrappings. Predating the earliest scientific evidence by more than a millennium, these embalming agents constitute complex, processed recipes of the same natural products, in similar proportions, as those utilized at the zenith of Pharaonic mummification some 3,000 years later. The antibacterial properties of some of these ingredients and the localized soft-tissue preservation that they would have afforded lead us to conclude that these represent the very beginnings of experimentation that would evolve into the famous mummification practice of the Pharaonic period.

  14. Vitamin C as an antioxidant supplement in women's health: a myth in need of urgent burial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaulikar, Vikram Sinai; Manyonda, Isaac T

    2011-07-01

    Epidemiological data suggest that diets rich in antioxidants protect against diseases associated with free radical damage, including cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Early observations also suggested that vitamin supplements with antioxidant properties, like vitamins C and E, could also prevent or ameliorate pre-eclampsia, but most large randomized clinical trials have failed to show any benefit. Vitamin C given orally, even at high doses, does not achieve sustained serum levels that might be required for effective antioxidant activity. This may explain the failure of the numerous clinical trials involving its use in pre-eclampsia, cancers, cardiovascular diseases, etc. Vitamin C supplementation to stave off pre-eclampsia, cancer and other diseases is a 'nutraceutical' industry-driven myth which should be abandoned. We do not dispute a role for oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia, nor the possibility of amelioration of the disease by an anti-oxidant given at the right time and in the correct dosage. We simply wish to make a case that the massive and expensive clinical trials of vitamins C and E should cease until further rigorous scientific research is undertaken. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Archaeological Investigations at Nonhabitation and Burial Sites, Chief Joseph Dam Project, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    from their limited pollen dispersal capabilities or their rather Infrequent appearance In the local vegetation. Except for Juglans . Plantago. and...associated with disturbed sites. Its occurence in one of the topsoil samples is not remarkable. The presence of either Juglans or Hippocastanea Is rather

  16. Genetic history of the classic period of teotihuacan’s burials in Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Julia Aguirre Samudio

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available La ciudad de Teotihuacan tuvo un gran crecimiento poblacional durante el Período Clásico (300-700 AC, del inglés (after Christ, cuando alcanzó el desarrollo urbano y llegó a ser un centro ceremonial de gran importancia. Los patrones de asentamiento, cultura y los entierros excavados muestran una ocupación organizada en barrios. En este estudio se realiza el análisis genético, por medio del ADN antiguo, de tres barrios ubicados en el Valle de Teotihuacan con el objetivo de identificar patrones de multietnicidad durante el Período Clásico. Se identificaron los haplogrupos mitocondriales amerindios en 10 individuos de San Francisco Mazapa, 7 de San Sebastián Xolalpan y 19 residuos de herramientas óseas de La Ventilla. Estos barrios mostraron diversidad genética. El análisis de FST reveló poca estructura genética, pero estadísticamente significativa (p<0.001, entre los barrios estudiados, en comparación con 7 poblaciones antiguas del centro y sur de México. En los análisis, Xaltocan fue congruente con el número de migrantes estimado. Tlailotlacan, otro barrio de Teotihuacan, tuvo una relación pequeña con los barrios estudiados. La estimación de migrantes mostró que pudieron tener contacto con mayas de Xcaret en Yucatán, en coincidencia con los datos arqueológicos reportados. Los datos genéticos podrían señalar que la migración y poca deriva genética jugaron un papel importante entre los grupos teotihuacanos, lo que sugiere intercambio con otros grupos por propósitos de comercio, servicios o gubernamentales, lo cual implica integración y fusión genética que determina multietnicidad en Teotihuacan durante el período Clásico. Estos resultados pueden ser corroborados por estudios en otros barrios de Teotihuacan y con futuros análisis de secuenciación.

  17. Bowls and Burials – an Update from Grand Bay, Carriacou, West Indies: May–June 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaye Quetta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available From May 23 to June 23 2011 Kaye, Fitzpatrick and Kappers directed a team comprising four staff members from England, The Netherlands and the U.S., together with 27 students from various American universities and UCL's Institute of Archaeology, to conduct the sixth season of archaeological investigation at the coastal site of Grand Bay, Carriacou (fig. 1. Our major goal this year was to finalise the excavation of three previously opened 5×5 metre trenches (nos 592, 415 and 446 (fig. 2 (see summaries in Fitzpatrick 'et al.' 2009a, 2009b; Kaye 'et al.' 2009, while training students in fieldwork techniques and continuing our community outreach work by encouraging site visits, giving talks to schools, organising an exhibition of small finds for a public open day and conducting a series of television, radio, and newspaper interviews in order to raise public awareness and encourage interest in the archaeological heritage of the island. The Carriacou Historical Society (CHS also requested us to prepare a report on the possible impact of a proposed "Free Port" coastal development on archaeological sites along the southeastern part of the island. The brief results of the 2011 project are presented in the following.

  18. MTADS Geophysical Survey of Potential Burial Pits Along the C&O Canal in Washington, DC

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nelson, Herbert

    2002-01-01

    .... We have identified, however, 30 magnetic anomalies in and adjacent to the survey site. Many of the anomalies have been identified with ferrous metal objects visible on the surface or arise from shallow trash and scrap. There are eight anomalies that appear to arise from relatively large ferrous metal objects buried at depths greater than 6 to 8 feet. These remalning anomalies may require further investigation.

  19. To Die a Living Death: Phantasms of Burial and Cremation in Derrida’s Final Seminar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Naas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the Third Session of his seminar The Beast and the Sovereign, Volume 2, Jacques Derrida turns from a close reading of Heidegger’s 1929–1930 seminar on The Fundamental Concepts of Metaphysics and Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe—the two books at the center of the seminar—to the question of what it means for a large and growing number of people in the Western world to have to decide, in a seemingly sovereign fashion, about how their bodies are to be treated after their deaths, that is, whether they are to be buried or cremated. This question marks a rather surprising turn to the present—even the autobiographical—in the seminar. This essay follows Derrida’s treatment of the question in the rest of the seminar. It considers, first, what Derrida calls the phantasms attendant upon all speculations regarding this supposedly binary alternative between inhumation and creation and then what this alternative might tell us about Greco-European modernity and certain modern conceptions of the subject and the subject’s putative autonomy and sovereignty over its life, its body, and its remains.

  20. Importance of light and oxygen for photochemical reactivation in photosynthetic stromatolite communities after natural sand burial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perkins, R.; Kromkamp, J.C.; Reid, R.P.

    2007-01-01

    Modern stromatolites at Highborne Cay, Exuma, Bahamas are formed in a high energy environment, where turbulent mixing of the water column supplies the sand particles that are trapped and bound by microbial phototrophs. The photosynthetic communities consist of cyanobacteria within the surface fabric

  1. Reconstruction of burial history, temperature, source rock maturity and hydrocarbon generation in the northwestern Dutch offshore

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Fattah, R.; Verweij, J.M.; Witmans, N.; Veen, J.H. ten

    2012-01-01

    3D basin modelling is used to investigate the history of maturation and hydrocarbon generation on the main platforms in the northwestern part of the offshore area of the Netherlands. The study area covers the Cleaverbank and Elbow Spit Platforms. Recently compiled maps and data are used to build the input geological model. An updated and refined palaeo water depth curve and newly refined sediment water interface temperatures (SWIT) are used in the simulation. Basal heat flow is calculated usi...

  2. Reconstruction of burial history, temperature, source rock maturity and hydrocarbon generation in the northwestern Dutch offshore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdul Fattah, R.; Verweij, J.M.; Witmans, N.; Veen, J.H. ten

    2012-01-01

    3D basin modelling is used to investigate the history of maturation and hydrocarbon generation on the main platforms in the northwestern part of the offshore area of the Netherlands. The study area covers the Cleaverbank and Elbow Spit Platforms. Recently compiled maps and data are used to build the

  3. The death of Sir Victor Horsley (1857-1916) and his burial in Amarah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toodayan, Nadeem

    2017-01-01

    Sir Victor Alexander Haden Horsley (1857-1916), the pioneering British neurological surgeon, passed away 100 years ago. He died young in his sixtieth year from the effects of heat stroke while serving as consulting military surgeon to the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force in Amarah, modern-day Iraq, and was buried in the now largely abandoned "Amara War Cemetery." By the time of his death in 1916, Victor Horsley had established himself as one of the most eminent innovators of modern neurological surgery. His pioneering researches in cerebral physiology earned him an early reputation in the field, and his experiences with vivisection allowed him to confidently operate on the brain and spinal cord at a time when surgical intervention of the nervous system was fraught with uncertainty. Outside the operating theatre, Horsley was a proud advocate for a number of sometimes controversial sociopolitical issues; national temperance, women's suffrage, and medical unionism particularly interested him. He brought the same courageousness to the British army during the First World War, and labored tirelessly under considerable hardships to improve the conditions for soldiers. Otherwise robust and healthy, it was only through great self-denial and overwork that Horsley suddenly succumbed to the burning heat of Mesopotamia. He died as he lived-a fearless and painstaking fighter for the common man. His was a most beautiful life of unselfish devotion to others.

  4. Search for Barents: Evaluation of possible burial sites on north Novaya Zemlya, Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeberg, J.J.; Floore, P.M.; Maat, G.J.R.; Gawronski, J.H.

    2002-01-01

    Three cairns on northernmost Novaya Zemlya identified as possible rock-pile graves by Russian investigators in 1977 and 1988 were located and inspected for human remains. These cairns are in the area visited by Dutch seafarers between 17 and 22 June 1597, after their wintering on Novaya Zemlya, and

  5. Abrupt climate-induced changes in carbonate burial in the Arabian Sea: Causes and consequences.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naidu, P.D.; Singh, A.D.; Ganeshram, R.S.; Bharti, S.K.

    experienced large declines in monsoon-driven productivity and greater penetration of Antarctica Intermediate Water (AAIW). Thus, pteropod preservation in the Arabian Sea appears to be linked to rapid climate change through atmospheric and oceanic...

  6. Transport of explosive chemicals from the landmine burial in granular soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Gutiérrez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El transporte de compuestos químicos relacionados con explosivos (ERCs en suelos se estudió durante procesos de infiltración y evaporación de agua como función del contenido de agua del suelo y la temperatura. Los experimentos fueron desarrollados en dos columnas cilíndricas uniformes de 100 cm de longitud empacadas con arena homogénea, equipada con sensores de presión de aire y de agua y puntos de muestreo para monitorear las condiciones hidráulicas y los perfiles de concentraciones de ERCs en el suelo. Los cristales de TNT y DNT fueron localizados en una membrana porosa y se enterraron como fuente puntual cerca de la superficie del suelo. Las distribuciones espaciales y temporales de la concentración de solutos conservadores fueron utilizadas para evaluar el comportamiento del transporte de TNT y del DNT en suelo granular. Las variaciones de velocidad y la comparación con los resultados de la simulación numérica usando el modelo HYDRUS-2D indica la presencia de flujos preferenciales. El contenido de agua y el movimiento de agua alrededor de la fuente enterrada de TNT y DNT influencia altamente su transporte en suelos granulares y cerca de la superficie que interactúa con la atmósfera. La formación de caminos preferenciales son atribuidos a la alteración de las propiedades del suelo debido al enterramiento de las fuentes de ERC y a las heterogeneidades en el contenido de agua. Las alteraciones alrededor de la fuente enterrada que conlleva a heterogeneidades hidráulicas, influye en el transporte cerca a la fuente. El flujo preferencial produce un movimiento más rápido y mayor dispersión de los solutos durante los periodos de infiltración, e influencia la tasa de mezcla en el sistema.

  7. Black rain: The burial of the Galilean satellites in irregular satellite debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottke, William F.; Vokrouhlický, David; Nesvorný, David; Moore, Jeffrey M.

    2013-04-01

    Irregular satellites are dormant comet-like bodies that reside on distant prograde and retrograde orbits around the giant planets. They are likely to be captured objects. Dynamical modeling work indicates they may have been caught during a violent reshuffling of the giant planets ˜4 Gy ago (Ga) as described by the so-called Nice model. According to this scenario, giant planet migration scattered tens of Earth masses of comet-like bodies throughout the Solar System, with some comets finding themselves near giant planets experiencing mutual encounters. In these cases, gravitational perturbations between the giant planets were often sufficient to capture the comet-like bodies onto irregular satellite-like orbits via three-body reactions. Modeling work suggests these events led to the capture of on the order of ˜0.001 lunar masses of comet-like objects on isotropic orbits around the giant planets. Roughly half of the population was readily lost by interactions with the Kozai resonance. The remaining half found themselves on orbits consistent with the known irregular satellites. From there, the bodies experienced substantial collisional evolution, enough to grind themselves down to their current low-mass states. Here we explore the fate of the putative irregular satellite debris in the Jupiter system. Pulverized by collisions, we hypothesize that the carbonaceous chondrite-like material was beaten into small enough particles that it could be driven toward Jupiter by Poynting-Robertson (P-R) drag forces. Assuming its mass distribution was dominated by D > 50 μm particles, we find that >40% ended up striking the Galilean satellites. The majority were swept up by Callisto, with a factor of 3-4 and 20-30 fewer particles reaching Ganymede and Europa/Io, respectively. Collision evolution models indicate most of this material arrived about 4 Ga, but some is still arriving today. We predict that Callisto, Ganymede, Europa, and Io were buried about 4 Ga by ˜120-140 m, 25-30 m, 7-15 m, and 7-8 m of dark debris, respectively. The first two values are consistent with observations of the deepest dark lag deposits found on the most ancient terrains of Callisto and Ganymede. The rest of the debris was likely worked into the crusts of these worlds by geologic and impact processes. This suggests the debris is a plausible source of the dark lag material found in Europa's low-lying crevices. More speculatively, it is conceivable that the accreted dark particles were a significant source of organic material to Europa's subsurface ocean.

  8. Burial customs, the afterlife and the pollution of death in ancient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the views on disposing of the dead which were prevalent from the 8th to the 4th century BC in Greece, and in Attica in particular. The sources consulted include Homer's epic poems, archaeological data and vase paintings, as well as the writings of later historians, philosophers and other prominent ...

  9. burial customs, the afterlife and the pollution of death in ancient

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sources consulted include Homer's epic poems, archaeological data and vase paintings, as well as the writings of later historians, philosophers and other prominent people. 1. THE VIEW OF THE AFTERLIFE. There was never complete Pan-Hellenic uniformity on the concept of the hereafter, or more specifically Hades, ...

  10. Do manganese nodules grow or dissolve after burial? Results from the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pattan, J.N.; Parthiban, G.P.S.

    formed under more oxidizing conditions than those from red clay. Nodules buried at depths between 1.5 and 2.5 m are diagenetic (Mn/Fe ratio 10-15), formed in highly oxic environments (large positive Ce anomalies) and record aeolian dust (high Eu anomalies...

  11. Burial rites for Ken Saro-Wiwa and the Ogoni Nine: implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... abode of evil forces. In the Ogoni traditional religion, it is a taboo and a thing that attracts bad omen to society of the living if the heads of their heroes are buried outside or left at the war front away from home. This belief and practices amongst others informed the Ogonis' demand for a monument that will stand in memories ...

  12. Animal remains of the Neolithic Ritual Burial Complex near Krum Village (Haskovo Region, SE Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatozar Boev

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available From a total of 389 highly fragmented animal bone and tooth finds, dated ca. 6500-6300 B.P. have been identified 7 taxa: Lesser mole rat, Eurasian beaver, Cattle, Sheep, Goat, Pig, and Donkey.

  13. Multiple marriages, burial rights and the role of lobolo at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lastly, there seems to be conflict between the official customary law and the living law regarding the return of the lobolo at the dissolution of a customary marriage. Empirical research should be undertaken to determine whether lobolo is in fact still returned. Veelvuldige huwelike, die reg om te begrawe en die rol van lobolo ...

  14. Social Security in Zimbabwe : Phase II: Zunde raMambo and Burial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zunde raMambo, which provide for the contingency of famine and chronic poverty, was useful in alleviating the plight of rural people but the scheme was not being implemented in all communities because of problems such as lack of fertile land, inputs and poor community mobilization. Communities need more land, seed ...

  15. Effects of sand burial on the survival and physiology of three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corispermum macrocarpum, Setaria viridis and Agriophyllum squarrosum are dominant psammophytes with strong environmental adaptability in Horqin Sandy Land, a typical agro-pastoral ecotone with frequent and intense sand activity in Northern China. We studied the survival rates, activity of antioxidant enzyme ...

  16. Burial customs, the afterlife and the pollution of death in ancient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Algeria (5); Benin (2); Botswana (3); Burkina Faso (3); Cameroon (8); Congo, Republic (1); Côte d'Ivoire (4); Egypt, Arab Rep. (14); Eritrea (1); Ethiopia (30); Ghana (27); Kenya (29); Lesotho (1); Libya (2); Madagascar (1); Malawi (4); Mauritius (3); Mozambique (1); Nigeria (221); Rwanda (3); Senegal (6); Sierra Leone (1) ...

  17. Ocean Carbon Flux, Transport, and Burial Within the Western and Eastern US Coastal Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, James C.; Moisan, John R.; Haidvogel, Dale B.; Miller, Arthur J.; Cornuelle, Bruce; Stolzenbach, Keith D.

    2004-01-01

    This project has been to develop and apply a regional. eddy-resolving circulation and biogeochemistry model of both the western and eastern U.S. coastal regions, capable of simulating the processes that control the carbon cycle. Validation has been by statistical comparison with analyses from various satellite measurements, including those from EOS sensors, as well as from in situ measurements. Sensitivity studies were carried out to investigate how the coastal ecosystem and biogeochemical cycles respond to changes in climate, large-scale eutrophication from indus- trial pollution, and other anthropogenic induced changes. The research has been conducted in collaboration with research groups at UCLA. NASA/GSFC (Wallops), Rutgers, and SIO. Overall. the project was focused on several key modeling issues, each of which tie back into completing the primary task of developing a coastal carbon model for both the eastern and western US. coasts. Individual groups within the entire program are still collaborating to address these specific tasks. These include: implementation of the coupled circulation/biogeochemical model within the U.S. West Coast. including high-resolution, embedded subdomains for the Southern California Bight and Monterey Bay region; development of a biogeochemical model with resolved carbon, nitrogen and oxygen cycles; development of data assimilation techniques for use of satellite data sets; reconfiguration of the model domain to U.S. East Coast; development of coastal forcing fields: development of methods to compare the model against remotely sensed data; and, the test of model sensitivity to environmental conditions. Below, we present a summary of the progress made toward achieving these soak. Because this has been a multi-institutional, collaborative effort, we note the groups involved with particular activities.

  18. Veterans Affairs: Data Needed to Help Improve Decisions Concerning Veterans’ Access to Burial Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Appendix II Objectives, Scope, and Methodology 45 Appendix III Printer Friendly Version of National Service Area Map 50 Appendix IV Leading...Unserved Veterans by the end of Fiscal Year 2017, Calculated Using Different Methodologies 15 Figure 4: National Service Area Map 17 Figure 5...different ways using the national service area map we created. 20 2. Methodology 2, proportional distribution of county populations: We multiplied the

  19. SLOPE STABILITY EVALUATION AND EQUIPMENT SETBACK DISTANCES FOR BURIAL GROUND EXCAVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCSHANE DS

    2010-03-25

    After 1970 Transuranic (TRU) and suspect TRU waste was buried in the ground with the intention that at some later date the waste would be retrieved and processed into a configuration for long term storage. To retrieve this waste the soil must be removed (excavated). Sloping the bank of the excavation is the method used to keep the excavation from collapsing and to provide protection for workers retrieving the waste. The purpose of this paper is to document the minimum distance (setback) that equipment must stay from the edge of the excavation to maintain a stable slope. This evaluation examines the equipment setback distance by dividing the equipment into two categories, (1) equipment used for excavation and (2) equipment used for retrieval. The section on excavation equipment will also discuss techniques used for excavation including the process of benching. Calculations 122633-C-004, 'Slope Stability Analysis' (Attachment A), and 300013-C-001, 'Crane Stability Analysis' (Attachment B), have been prepared to support this evaluation. As shown in the calculations the soil has the following properties: Unit weight 110 pounds per cubic foot; and Friction Angle (natural angle of repose) 38{sup o} or 1.28 horizontal to 1 vertical. Setback distances are measured from the top edge of the slope to the wheels/tracks of the vehicles and heavy equipment being utilized. The computer program utilized in the calculation uses the center of the wheel or track load for the analysis and this difference is accounted for in this evaluation.

  20. The eastern Central Pamir Gneiss Domes: temporal and spatial geometry of burial and exhumation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutte, Daniel; Stearns, Michael; Ratschbacher, Lothar

    2013-04-01

    We present a structural and thermochronologic study of the Gneiss Domes and their cover in the Central Pamir. Emphasis is laid on presentation and discussion of new 40Ar-39Ar dates embedded in two structural profiles through the central Muskol and western Shatput domes. The structure of the Central Pamir is dominated by Cenozoic deformation related to the India-Asia collision. Only few structures of the Phanerozoic amalgamation of the Pamir were not reactivated. The Cenozoic structural development of the Central Pamir can be simplified into three phases: 1) Between initial collision of India and Asia to 28-20 Ma (peak metamorphism, U-Pb monazite) the emplacement of large thrust sheets led to strong north-south shortening;" in the eastern Central Pamir the major thrust sheet has a minimum displacement of 35 km. The stratigraphic thickness of this nappe is ~7 km but its internal structure and thus its true thickness is weakly constrained by the available data. Klippen of Early Paleozoic strata of this thrust sheet south of the Central Pamir Muskol and Shatput domes cover Carboniferous to Triassic strata of the footwall; they can be linked to the Akbaital nappe previously mapped by Russian geologists north of the domes. In the Sasaksu valley of the Muskol dome, the thrust sheet is intruded by a ~36 Ma granodiorite (new U-Pb zircon dates). (2) This crustal imbricate stack is cut by east-trending normal faults and shear zones that define the Central Pamir Gneiss Domes. Normal shear is concentrated along the northern margin of the domes and was the main process associated with exhumation of the domes from ~30 km depth at 20-15 Ma (U-Th/Pb titanite and monazite, Ar-Ar, fission-track geo-thermochronology). One granite at ~35 Ma (U-Pb zircon) pre-dates exhumation while three leucocratic dykes (18-20 Ma U-Pb monazite and zircon) are dated to be coeval with the initial stages of exhumation. Detrital U-Pb zircon ages of the high-grade metasediments indicate that the protoliths of the domes are Paleozoic. Detrital zircon data from the low-grade cover and surrounding units of the Muskol dome suggest that low-grade cover and high-grade dome formed from the same Paleozoic, possibly early Mesozoic strata. This indicates that the upper crust of the Central Pamir thickened to at least 30 km in phase (1). Based on our data and those of Robinson et al. (2012) underthrusted Karakul-Mazar (Songpan-Ganze) material (as discussed by Schwab et al. 2004), in analogy to the Tibetan Qiangtang domes (Kapp et al. 2000), can be ruled out as protolith for the Muskol and Shatput domes. (3) Neogene shortening is bi-vergent: top-to-S back-thrusting north of the Central Pamir Gneiss Domes opposes top-to-N thrusting in the south. Neogene deformation affected ~18 Ma (Ar-Ar) coarse fluvial and alluvial fan strata with basaltic dikes and flows south of the dome; restoration of these strata yielded up to 40% shortening. Total shortening by thrusting of the Central Pamir is at least 40% in the Shatput-Muskol area with a minimal total shortening of 70 km; internal deformation with recumbent north-verging folds within the domes and its cover indicate much higher values. Literature: Kapp, P., Yin, A., Manning, C. E., Murphy, M., Harrison, T. M., Spurlin, M., Lin, D., Yi-Guang, D., Cun-Ming, W. (2000) Blueshist-bearing metamorphic core complexes in the Qiangtang block reveal deep crustal structure of northern Tibet, Geology, v. 28; no. 1; p.19-22 Robinson, A. C., M. Ducea, and T. J. Lapen (2012), Detrital zircon and isotopic constraints on the crustal architecture and tectonic evolution of the northeastern Pamir, Tectonics, 31, TC2016, doi:10.1029/2011TC003013. Schwab, M., Ratschbacher, L., Siebel, W., McWilliams, M., Minaev, V., Lutkov., V., Chen, F., Stanek, K., Nelson, B. and Wooden, J. L. (2004) Assembly of the Pamir: Age and origin of magmatic belts from the southern Tien Shan to the southern Pamir and their relation to Tibet, Tectonics, 23, No. 4, TC4002

  1. Estimating Yield and Depth of Burial from Rg (POSTPRINT) Annual Report 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    combinations of the explosion characteristics (e.g., emplacement depth, cavity radii, damage , and elastic radii). We determine that correcting the observed...often observed from single-point explosions, delay-fired explosions, and shallow earthquakes . While the phase rarely propagates to regional distances...for GZ. We assumed a gas porosity of 10% based on geotechnical data for alluvium. The observed moment for the 1450-lb ANFO (1189-lb TNT equivalent

  2. The genome of a Late Pleistocene human from a Clovis burial site in western Montana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten; Anzick, Sarah L.; Waters, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    American ancestors is also shared by the Anzick-1 individual and thus happened before 12,600 years bp. We also show that the Anzick-1 individual is more closely related to all indigenous American populations than to any other group. Our data are compatible with the hypothesis that Anzick-1 belonged...

  3. News from the west: ancient DNA from a French megalithic burial chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguilloux, Marie-France; Soler, Ludovic; Pemonge, Marie-Hélène; Scarre, Chris; Joussaume, Roger; Laporte, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Recent paleogenetic studies have confirmed that the spread of the Neolithic across Europe was neither genetically nor geographically uniform. To extend existing knowledge of the mitochondrial European Neolithic gene pool, we examined six samples of human skeletal material from a French megalithic long mound (c.4200 cal BC). We retrieved HVR-I sequences from three individuals and demonstrated that in the Neolithic period the mtDNA haplogroup N1a, previously only known in central Europe, was as widely distributed as western France. Alternative scenarios are discussed in seeking to explain this result, including Mesolithic ancestry, Neolithic demic diffusion, and long-distance matrimonial exchanges. In light of the limited Neolithic ancient DNA (aDNA) data currently available, we observe that all three scenarios appear equally consistent with paleogenetic and archaeological data. In consequence, we advocate caution in interpreting aDNA in the context of the Neolithic transition in Europe. Nevertheless, our results strengthen conclusions demonstrating genetic discontinuity between modern and ancient Europeans whether through migration, demographic or selection processes, or social practices. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Gristhorpe Man: an Early Bronze Age log-coffin burial scientifically defined

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melton, Nigel; Montgomery, Janet; Knüsel, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    A log-coffin excavated in the early nineteenth century proved to be well enough preserved in the early twenty-first century for the full armoury of modern scientific investigation to give its occupants and contents new identity, new origins and a new date. In many ways the interpretation is much...... the same as before: a local big man buried looking out to sea. Modern analytical techniques can create a person more real, more human and more securely anchored in history. This research team shows how....

  5. Innovative permeable cover system to reduce risks at a chemical munitions burial site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powels, C.C. [Army Garrison, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States); Bon, I. [Army Corps. of Engineers, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States); Okusu, N.M. [ICF Kaiser Engineering, Savannah, GA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    An innovative permeable sand cover with various integrated systems has been designed to contain and treat the Old O-Field chemical munitions landfill at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The 18,200 m{sup 2} (4.5 acre) landfill was used from the mid 1930s to the mid 1950s for the disposal of chemical, incendiary, and explosive munitions from domestic and foreign origins, together with contaminated wastes associated with the development and production of chemical warfare agents (CWA). The site is suspected to be contaminated with white phosphorous (WP) (which when dry, spontaneously burns when exposed to air), shock sensitive picric acid fuses and has the potential to contain large quantities of CWA-filled munitions. Historically, one to three explosions or fires occurred per ten-year period at the landfill. Such events have the potential to cause a CWA release to the environment, which could potentially affect densely populated areas. Recovery and decontamination projects conducted at the site in the late 1940s and early 1950s used large amounts of decontamination chemicals (containing solvents) and fuels which further contaminated the area. The groundwater downgradient of the landfill is contaminated with volatile organic compounds, metals, explosives and CWA degradation compounds and is currently being contained by a groundwater extraction and treatment system. This report describes a remedial action program for the site.

  6. Action of earthworms on flint burial - a return to Darwin's estate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin R. Butt; Mac Callaham; E. Louise Loudermilk; Rowan Blaik

    2016-01-01

    For thirty years, from the early 1840s, Charles Darwin documented the disappearance of flints in the grounds of Down House in Kent, at a location originally known as the “Stony Field”. This site (Great Pucklands Meadow – GPM) was visited in 2007 and an experiment set up in this ungrazed grassland. Locally-sourced flints (either large – 12 cm, or small – 5 cm dia.) were...

  7. Species sensitivity distributions for suspended clays, sediment burial and grain size change in the marine environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, M.G.D.; Holthaus, K.I.E.; Trannum, H.C.; Neff, J.M.; Kjeilen-Eilertsen, G.; Jak, R.G.; Singsaas, I.; Huijbregts, M.A.J.; Hendriks, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of the environmental risk of discharges, containing both chemicals and suspended solids (e.g., drilling discharges to the marine environment), requires an evaluation of the effects of both toxic and nontoxic pollutants. To date, a structured evaluation scheme that can be used for

  8. Tarrant Launceston: Survey and excavation of a long barrow with secondary burial at Race Down.

    OpenAIRE

    Manley, H.P.; Evans, Damian; Hewitt, Iain; Phurphy, P.; Russell, Miles; Welham, Kate

    2017-01-01

    In March 2003, it was noted that rabbit burrowing had uncovered possible human remains close to the centre of Race Down long barrow. In order to determine whether the bones were human and/or of forensic interest, the School of Conservation Sciences (now the Department of Archaeology, Anthropology & Forensic Science), Bournemouth University, carried out a limited investigation on behalf of Dorset Police and the landowner, Defence Estates. The spoil heap of the rabbit burrow was excavated and t...

  9. Direct Burial Broadband Seismic Instrumentation that are Rugged and Tilt Tolerant for Polar Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Tim; Winberry, Paul; Huerta, Audrey; Bainbridge, Geoff; Devanney, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The integrated broadband Meridian Posthole and Compact seismic systems have been engineered and tested for extreme polar environments. Ten percent of the Earth's surface is covered in glacial ice and the dynamics of these environments is a strategic concern for all. The development for these systems was driven by researchers needing to densify observations in ice covered regions with difficult and limited logistics. Funding from an NSF MRI award, GEOICE and investment from the vendor enabled researchers to write the specifications for a hybrid family of instruments that can operate at -55C autonomously with very little power, 1 watt for the Meridian Compact system and 1.5 watts for the Meridian 120PH. Tilt tolerance in unstable ice conditions was a concern and these instruments have a range of up to +/-5 degrees. The form factor, extreme temperature tolerance and power load of the instruments has reduced the bulk of a complete station by 1/2 and simplified installation greatly allowing more instruments to be deployed with limited support and a lighter logistical load. These systems are being tested in the Antarctic at SouthPole Station and McMurdo for the second year and the investment has encouraged other instrument and power system vendors to offer polar rated equipment including telemetry for ancillary support.

  10. Evidence for prehistoric origins of Egyptian mummification in late Neolithic burials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Jones

    Full Text Available Traditional theories on ancient Egyptian mummification postulate that in the prehistoric period (i.e. the Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods, 5th and 4th millennia B.C. bodies were naturally desiccated through the action of the hot, dry desert sand. Although molding of the body with resin-impregnated linen is believed to be an early Pharaonic forerunner to more complex processes, scientific evidence for the early use of resins in artificial mummification has until now been limited to isolated occurrences during the late Old Kingdom (c. 2200 B.C., their use becoming more apparent during the Middle Kingdom (c. 2000-1600 BC. We examined linen wrappings from bodies in securely provenanced tombs (pit graves in the earliest recorded ancient Egyptian cemeteries at Mostagedda in the Badari region (Upper Egypt. Our investigations of these prehistoric funerary wrappings using a combination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and thermal desorption/pyrolysis (TD/Py-GC-MS have identified a pine resin, an aromatic plant extract, a plant gum/sugar, a natural petroleum source, and a plant oil/animal fat in directly AMS-dated funerary wrappings. Predating the earliest scientific evidence by more than a millennium, these embalming agents constitute complex, processed recipes of the same natural products, in similar proportions, as those utilized at the zenith of Pharaonic mummification some 3,000 years later. The antibacterial properties of some of these ingredients and the localized soft-tissue preservation that they would have afforded lead us to conclude that these represent the very beginnings of experimentation that would evolve into the famous mummification practice of the Pharaonic period.

  11. 32 CFR 553.15 - Persons eligible for burial in Arlington National Cemetery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...). (3) Distinguished Service Medal. (4) Silver Star. (5) Purple Heart. (e) Persons who have held any of...), is carried on an official retired list, and is entitled to receive retired pay stemming from service... to receive retired pay stemming from his service in the Armed Forces until some future date, the...

  12. Phytolith analysis on dental calculus, enamel surface, and burial soil: information about diet and paleoenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, C L; Juan, J; Albert, R M

    1996-09-01

    Silica phytoliths (microscopic remains originating in plant tissues) have been identified on the enamel surface and dental calculus of a sample of teeth selected from well preserved skeletons from a Late Roman necropolis in Tarragona (Spain). Phytoliths were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and their siliceous nature was confirmed by X-ray microanalysis. The phytoliths were compared to those of soil samples from both the areas of the tombs corresponding to the abdomen and the periphery of the skeletons, and were classified taxonomically by comparison with a large collection of silica particles from modern plants in the Mediterranean area. Most of the phytoliths identified on the enamel and the dental calculus belong to the family of Poaceae, while the phytoliths from the abdominal area belong to Poaceae, Leguminosae, Cyperaceae, and Chenopodiaceae. Results are concordant with archaeological, ecological, and historical data from the same site, and with the human Mediterranean diet. If done properly, the study of phytoliths can provide direct information about the vegetable diet of past human populations, and could be applied to the study of human fossils.

  13. Ancient coins: cluster analysis applied to find a correlation between corrosion process and burial soil characteristics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reale, Rita; Plattner, Susanne H; Guida, Giuseppe; Sammartino, Maria Pia; Visco, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    ...) were collected together with soils, both near and far from them, and then analysed using different analytical techniques looking for a correlation between the corrosion products covering the coins...

  14. Ancient coins: cluster analysis applied to find a correlation between corrosion process and burial soil characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Although it is well known that any material degrades faster when exposed to an aggressive environment as well as that "aggressive" cannot be univocally defined as depending also on the chemical-physical characteristics of material, few researches on the identification of the most significant parameters influencing the corrosion of metallic object are available. A series of ancient coins, coming from the archaeological excavation of Palazzo Valentini (Rome) were collected together with soils, both near and far from them, and then analysed using different analytical techniques looking for a correlation between the corrosion products covering the coins and the chemical-physical soil characteristics. The content of soluble salts in the water-bearing stratum and surfacing in the archaeological site, was also measured. The obtained results stress the influence of alkaline soils on formation of patina. Cerussite, probably due to the circulation of water in layers rich in marble and plaster fragments, was the main corrosion product identified by X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Copper, lead and vanadium were found in soil surrounding coins. By measuring conductivity, pH and soluble salts content of the washing solutions from both coins and soils, we could easily separate coins coming from different stratigraphic units of the site. Data were treated by cluster and multivariate analysis, revealing a correlation between part of the coins and the nearby soil samples. PMID:22594444

  15. Gamma well-logging in the Old Burial Ground of the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winn, W. G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Hofstetter, K. J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); MacMurdo, K. W. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Johnson, R. W. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Matthews, W. B. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Diamond, W. D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Moore, F. S. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Hall, G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Maus, R. J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Walker, V. W. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Sigg, R. A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Sanders, M. A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Results are given sequentially by well in the appendix; total is 44 wells. Overall, the 1994 results do not suggest that any significant changes in activity or location have occurred since the 1980 measurements. Depths and magnitudes of plume activities for 1980 and 1994 are compared.

  16. Measuring Organic Carbon Sequestration, Burial, and Preservation in Salt Marsh Sediments over the Past Two Millennia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTigue, N. D.; Davis, J.; Tobias, C. R.; McKee, B. A.; Rodriguez, A. B.; Currin, C.

    2016-12-01

    Salt marshes have enormous potential to bury and store organic carbon in sediment for centuries to millennia. This production of "blue carbon" in coastal systems is an ecosystem service that is posited as a long-term store of atmospheric CO2, but the sequestration rate, longevity, and ultimate fate of this stored carbon is not well understood. Furthermore, the loss of wetlands is predicted to release a large fraction of the organic carbon stock back into the atmosphere via remineralization, yet very few experimental data exist to substantiate or refute this hypothesis. In order to elucidate the long-term diagenesis of blue carbon, we measured the organic carbon stock in two transects of marsh perpendicular to the creekbank and radiocarbon-dated (14C) the organic carbon at the marsh interface at the bottom of each core. Given the ages of the marsh (ranging from 145 to 2400 yBP), sediment carbon accumulation rates were determined for all cores, which varied from 19 to 190 g C m-2 y-1. We used stable carbon isotopes ratios (δ13C) to examine not only historic transitions between C3 (e.g., Juncus roemarianus or upland maritime forest) and C4 (e.g., Spartina alterniflora) vegetation but also the relationship between carbon storage and plant community. More depleted stable carbon isotope signatures (δ13C < -26‰), which correspond to C3 vegetation, tended to have higher organic carbon concentrations, even to depths of 2 m and ages of 2000 years old, and accumulated carbon on the order of 120 - 190 g C m-2 y-1 averaged over century timescales. Relatively 13C-enriched sediment, indicative of Spartina marshes, buried and preserved less organic carbon (19 - 86 g C m-2 y-1) over the past millennium. Overall, these measurements provide evidence that a fraction of belowground biomass production of marsh plants can be stored thousands of years, but the efficiency of this ecosystem service depends on various factors such as the rate of sea level rise and plant community production.

  17. Phosphorus dynamics in and below the redoxcline in the Black Sea and implications for phosphorus burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, N.; Kraal, P.; Séguret, M. J. M.; Flores, M. R.; Gonzalez, S.; Rijkenberg, M. J. A.; Slomp, C. P.

    2018-02-01

    Marine basins with oxygen-depleted deep waters provide a natural laboratory to investigate the consequences of anoxic and sulfidic (i.e. euxinic) conditions for biogeochemical processes in seawater and sediments. In this study, we investigate the dynamics of the key nutrient phosphorus (P) and associated elements such as manganese (Mn), iron (Fe) and calcium (Ca) in the euxinic deep basin of the Black Sea. By examining water column particles with scanning electron microscope - energy dispersive spectroscopy and synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy, we show that Mn(III/IV)-P is the key form of particulate P in the redoxcline. Other forms of particulate P include organic P, Fe(III)-P, and inorganic polyphosphates. Most inorganic P particles that are formed in the redoxcline subsequently dissolve in the underlying sulfidic waters, with the exception of some particulate Fe(III)-P that accounts for efficiency in the sediments is ∼27%, which is relatively high when compared to estimates for sediments in other euxinic basins such as the Baltic Sea (efficient sequestration of P in Black Sea sediments.

  18. Reviews and syntheses: Calculating the global contribution of coralline algae to total carbon burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijden, L. H.; Kamenos, N. A.

    2015-11-01

    The ongoing increase in anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is changing the global marine environment and is causing warming and acidification of the oceans. Reduction of CO2 to a sustainable level is required to avoid further marine change. Many studies investigate the potential of marine carbon sinks (e.g. seagrass) to mitigate anthropogenic emissions, however, information on storage by coralline algae and the beds they create is scant. Calcifying photosynthetic organisms, including coralline algae, can act as a CO2 sink via photosynthesis and CaCO3 dissolution and act as a CO2 source during respiration and CaCO3 production on short-term timescales. Long-term carbon storage potential might come from the accumulation of coralline algae deposits over geological timescales. Here, the carbon storage potential of coralline algae is assessed using meta-analysis of their global organic and inorganic carbon production and the processes involved in this metabolism. Net organic and inorganic production were estimated at 330 g C m-2 yr-1 and 900 g CaCO3 m-2 yr-1 respectively giving global organic/inorganic C production of 0.7/1.8 × 109 t C yr-1. Calcium carbonate production by free-living/crustose coralline algae (CCA) corresponded to a sediment accretion of 70/450 mm kyr-1. Using this potential carbon storage for coralline algae, the global production of free-living algae/CCA was 0.4/1.2 × 109 t C yr-1 suggesting a total potential carbon sink of 1.6 × 109 tonnes per year. Coralline algae therefore have production rates similar to mangroves, salt marshes and seagrasses representing an as yet unquantified but significant carbon store, however, further empirical investigations are needed to determine the dynamics and stability of that store.

  19. Measured deformations and calculated stresses of high-density polyethylene pipes under very deep burial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krushelnitzky, R. P; Brachman, R. W.I

    2009-01-01

    .... These pressures greatly exceed typical pressures for conventional sewer and culvert applications, but may be encountered in special applications, such as very deep tailing dams, heap-leach mining pads, and landfills...

  20. Preferential burial of permafrost-derived organic carbon in Siberian-Arctic shelf waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, Jorien E.; Semiletov, Igor P.; Dudarev, Oleg V.; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Andersson, August; Shakhova, Natalia; Charkin, Alexander; Heim, Birgit; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2014-01-01

    The rapidly changing East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS) receives large amounts of terrestrial organic carbon (OC) from coastal erosion and Russian-Arctic rivers. Climate warming increases thawing of coastal Ice Complex Deposits (ICD) and can change both the amount of released OC, as well as its

  1. Burial, excavation, and preparation of primate skeletal material for morphological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrod, Ben; Roberts, Alice M; Duhig, Corinne; Cox, Debby; McGrew, William

    2015-10-01

    Inclusion of osteological material in primatological research has a long history, and use of skeletal remains continues to be important in anatomical and anthropological research. Here we report a set of proven methods, including equipment, protocol, and procedure, which enable relatively simple acquisition of skeletal material from naturally deceased animals in field sites and sanctuaries. Such skeletal material, often with extensive accompanying life-history data, is a unique and valuable source of data for both academic and conservation-based research.

  2. The impact of shallow burial on differential decomposition to the body: a temperate case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotsmans, Eline M J; Van de Voorde, Wim; De Winne, Joan; Wilson, Andrew S

    2011-03-20

    Extant literature contains a number of specific case studies on differential decomposition involving adipocere formation or desiccation, but few describe the co-occurrence of these features within a temperate climate. The case of a 65-year-old male, partially buried in a shallow grave for 7 months, is presented in which the soft tissues of the body were outwardly well preserved. The right leg was desiccated, some parts of the body were covered with adipocere (head, neck, right shoulder, upper torso and left leg) and other parts could be classified as in the early stages of decomposition. In this study the taphonomic variables resulting in differential decomposition with desiccation and adipocere formation are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Integrated Access to Cultural Heritage Information Pieces in Iran over Imam Reza's 4th Zarih (Burial Chamber) as a Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhnia, Maliheh; Zarei, Mitra

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to offer an example of how ontology, such as CIDOC, can be turned into a format from the perspective of an object. In fact, it illustrates the possible semantic analysis of an object description into a view neutral machine-interpretable form. The aim is to show that a museum object located in a museum can be…

  4. Characterisation of corrosion layers formed under burial environment of copper-based Greek and Roman coins from Pompeii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronti, Lucilla; Felici, Anna Candida; Alesiani, Marcella; Tarquini, Ombretta; Bracciale, Maria Paola; Santarelli, Maria Laura; Pardini, Giacomo; Piacentini, Mario

    2015-10-01

    This paper reports on a study carried out on patinas covering copper-based Greek and Roman coins found in the archaeological excavation of Regio VIII.7.1-15 in Pompeii (Italy). Since in cultural heritage ancient artefacts should not be damaged, non-destructive and micro-destructive techniques have been used to identify typical and uncommon compounds and to characterize the surface morphology. The chlorine content of light green patinas and the presence of typical minerals allowed us to identify the bronze disease. Coins from the same stratigraphic unit have shown different morphologies of corrosion, probably due to different micro-environmental conditions.

  5. Sedimentary development, seismic stratigraphy and burial compaction of the Chalk Group in the Netherlands North Sea area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, A.S.

    2004-01-01

    In the Netherlands offshore sector, available data and knowledge of the sediments of the Upper Cretaceous to Lower Tertiary (Danian) Chalk Group is limited due to its hitherto restricted significance as a hydrocarbon reservoir. For example, the stratigraphic subdivision of the Chalk in this area

  6. On the viability of state-church models: Muslim burial and mosque building in France and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Breemer, R.; Maussen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Do national institutional repertoires of religious governance still have an effect on the accommodation of Muslims' religious needs in France and the Netherlands? Or do they become inconsequential because of increasing European pressures on liberal democracies to accommodate? Comparing the

  7. Correlation between chemical composition of dental calculus and bone samples in ancient human burials: perspectives in paleonutritional studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capasso, L.; Di Tota, G. [National Aechaeological Museum, Chieta, (Italy); Bondioli, L. [Prehistory and Ethnology Museum, Rome (Italy)

    1997-12-31

    Full text: The authors describe the results of an assay based on the comparison between chemical composition of dental calculus and bone respectively obtained from teeth and bones of ancient skeletons. The chemical analysis has been performed by synchrotron light. The concentrations of the following oligoelements having paleonutritional correlations were analysed: Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Sr and Ca. The authors demonstrate that- in a given individual the concentration of such elements in the bone sample were in the range of those obtained for the same elements in the sample of dental calculus. Such correspondence suggests that the chemical analysis of dental calculus may give paleonutritional indications analogous to those deriving from the analysis of bone samples. The authors underline also that the use of dental calculus has a distinct advantage over the use of bone samples, since it may allow a diachronic investigation. In fact, dental calculus typically presents a concentric pattern of growth, and the chemical composition of each layer may vary in accordance with temporal dietary variations. This is not the case for bone. This fact is the theoretical basis for the possible future development of techniques directed to the reconstruction of variations in the dietary habits of ancient individuals, possibly in relation to environmental seasonal changes.

  8. Validation of the global model for {sup 90}SR migration from the waste burial in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewiere, L.; Bugai, D.; Kashparov, V.; Barthes, V. [Institute for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety, DEI/SARG/LETS, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses cedex, (France)

    2004-07-01

    The Institute for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) has managed (1999-2003) the Chernobyl Pilot Site Project (CPS project) in collaboration with the Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology (UIAR), the Institute of Geological Sciences (IGS) and the Tracer Application Section (CEA/SAT). The special focus of the CPS project was environmental behavior and radionuclide release mechanisms from dispersed nuclear fuel particles, forming radionuclide migration source-term. So, the contaminated environment was used as an open-sky laboratory to develop site characterization techniques, better understand and model processes of radionuclides migration in soils and geological environment. The CPS project resulted in detailed characterization of site geology structure, hydrogeology regime, hydro-dispersion regime in the aquifer and unsaturated zone, radionuclide inventory and distribution in trench no.22, focused at {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr. The special research program using scanning electron microscopy and sequential extraction analytical techniques was devoted to characterization of fuel particles and quantification of their dissolution behavior. It was established that Chernobyl radionuclides are associated with uranium oxide matrix particles of different degree of oxidation, characterized by different dissolution rates, as well as with non-dissolvable zirconium containing matrix particles. The multi-component fuel particles dissolution model with empirical dissolution rate constants was developed to describe the source-term. The methodology for radionuclide transport was based on application of the classical advection-diffusion equation and utilization of effective transport parameters. The developed so far modeling methodology is mostly suited for producing spatially averaged parameter values (such as radionuclide concentrations in trench porous solution, and/or integral radionuclide release to aquifer), and for long-term predictions on a scale of years and decades assuming that hydrological and geochemical conditions remain steady state. (author)

  9. Remagnetization in bituminous limestones of the Neoproterozoic Araras Group (Amazon craton): Hydrocarbon maturation, burial diagenesis, or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, E.; Trindade, R. I. F.; NéDéLec, A.

    2006-06-01

    Neoproterozoic carbonates of the Araras Group exhibit two distinct magnetic components across the same carbonate succession in a cross-section between the Amazon craton and the Paraguay fold belt. Pink dolostones of the Mirassol d'Oeste Formation carry a dual polarity, primary component, whereas black bituminous limestones of the Guia Formation yield a secondary postfolding component. Magnetic signatures of the Guia limestones, such as high anhysteretic remanence magnetization/saturation isothermal remanence magnetization ratios, high-frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility and contradictory Lowrie-Fuller and Cisowski tests, are typical of remagnetized carbonates. Unblocking temperatures suggest that the stable high-temperature remanence is carried by both pyrrhotite and magnetite for which an authigenic origin is suggested by scanning electron microscope observations. The different magnetic properties noted between dolostones with or without bitumen and between dolostones and limestones in the same metamorphic conditions lead to the hypothesis that the amount of hydrocarbon as well as the lithology influence nucleation of authigenic magnetic minerals in these rocks. Presence of magnetite pseudoframboids and euhedral iron sulphide crystals occurring in fracture and voids are in favor of a chemical remanence (CRM). The presence of pyrrhotite as one of the main carriers of CRM in these rocks, and its association with bitumen in fractures is probably related to an epigenetic enrichment of sulfur due to hydrocarbon seepage. However, hydrocarbon maturation solely could not explain the differences of the magnetic mineralogy observed in the craton and the fold belt. Enhanced magnetite formation in the thrust and fold belt is interpreted to be the result of higher temperatures leading to stronger diagenesis of clay minerals.

  10. India-Asia convergence: Insights from burial and exhumation of the Xigaze fore-arc basin, south Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangwei; Kohn, Barry; Sandiford, Mike; Xu, Zhiqin

    2017-05-01

    The composite fore-arc/syncollisional Xigaze basin in south Tibet preserves a key record of India-Asia collision. New apatite fission track and zircon (U-Th)/He data from an N-S transect across the preserved fore-arc basin sequence near Xigaze show a consistent northward Late Cretaceous to middle Miocene younging trend, while coexisting apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He ages are all Miocene. Corresponding detrital zircon U-Pb data are also reported for constraining the Cretaceous depositional ages of the Xigaze basin sequence in the region. Thermal history modeling indicates that the basin experienced northward propagating episodic exhumation, along with a northward migration of the depocenter and a pre-existing Cenozoic syncollisional basin sequence which had been removed. In the southern part, fore-arc exhumation commenced in the Late Cretaceous ( 89 ± 2 Ma). Following transition to a syncollisional basin in the Paleocene, sedimentation in the central and northern Xigaze basin continued until the latest Eocene ( 34 ± 4 Ma). Ongoing folding and thrusting (e.g., Great Counter Thrusts) caused by progressive plate convergence during late Oligocene-early Miocene time resulted in regional uplift and considerable basin denudation, which fed two fluvial basins along its northern and southern flanks and exposed the basement ophiolite. Subsequent incision of the Yarlung River resulted in Miocene cooling in the region. Different episodes in the exhumation history of the Xigaze basin, caused by thrusting of an accretionary wedge and ophiolitic basement, can be linked to changes in India-Asia convergence rates and the changing subduction pattern of the Indian and Neo-Tethyan slabs.

  11. Assessment of microbial processes on radionuclide mobility in shallow land burial. [West Valley, NY; Beatty, Nevada; Maxey Flats, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colombo, P.; Tate, R.L. III; Weiss, A.J.

    1982-07-01

    The impact of microbial metabolism of the organic substituents of low level radioactive wastes on radionuclide mobility in disposal sites, the nature of the microbial transformations involved in this metabolism and the effect of the prevailing environmental parameters on the quantities and types of metabolic intermediates accumulated were examined. Since both aerobic and anaerobic periods can occur during trench ecosystem development, oxidation capacities of the microbial community in the presence and absence of oxygen were analyzed. Results of gas studies performed at three commercial low level radioactive waste disposal sites were reviewed. Several deficiencies in available data were determined. Further research needs are suggested. This assessment has demonstrated that the biochemical capabilities expressed within the low level radioactive waste disposal site are common to a wide variety of soil bacteria. Hence, assuming trenches would not be placed in sites with such extreme abiotic conditions that all microbial activity is precluded, the microbial populations needed for colonization and decomposition of the organic waste substances are readily provided from the waste itself and from the soil of existing and any proposed disposal sites. Indeed, considering the ubiquity of occurrence of the microorganisms responsible for waste decomposition and the chemical nature of the organic waste material, long-term prevention of biodecomposition is difficult, if not impossible.

  12. Redox-controlled carbon and phosphorus burial: A mechanism for enhanced organic carbon sequestration during the PETM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komar, Nemanja; Zeebe, Richard E.

    2017-12-01

    Geological records reveal a major perturbation in carbon cycling during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, ∼56 Ma), marked by global warming of more than 5 °C and a prominent negative carbon isotope excursion of at least 2.5‰ within the marine realm. The entire event lasted about 200,000 yr and was associated with a massive release of light carbon into the ocean-atmosphere system over several thousands of years. Here we focus on the terminal stage of the PETM, during which the ocean-atmosphere system rapidly recovered from the carbon cycle perturbation. We employ a carbon-cycle box model to examine the feedbacks between surface ocean biological production, carbon, oxygen, phosphorus, and carbonate chemistry during massive CO2 release events, such as the PETM. The model results indicate that the redox-controlled carbon-phosphorus feedback is capable of producing enhanced organic carbon sequestration during large carbon emission events. The locale of carbon oxidation (ocean vs. atmosphere) does not affect the amount of carbon sequestered. However, even though the model produces trends consistent with oxygen, excess accumulation rates of organic carbon (∼1700 Pg C during the recovery stage), export production and δ13 C data, it fails to reproduce the magnitude of change of sediment carbonate content and the CCD over-deepening during the recovery stage. The CCD and sediment carbonate content overshoot during the recovery stage is muted by a predicted increase in CaCO3 rain. Nonetheless, there are indications that the CaCO3 export remained relatively constant during the PETM. If this was indeed true, then an initial pulse of 3,000 Pg C followed by an additional, slow leak of 2,500 Pg C could have triggered an accelerated nutrient supply to the surface ocean instigating enhanced organic carbon export, consequently increasing organic carbon sequestration, resulting in an accelerated restoration of ocean-atmosphere biogeochemistry during the termination phase of the PETM.

  13. Foreign elites from the Oxus civilization? A craniometric study of anomalous burials from Bronze Age Tepe Hissar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, B E

    1999-12-01

    Discovery of a small number of individuals in the Period III necropolis at the large northern Iranian Bronze Age site of Tepe Hissar directly associated with a complex of imported artifacts raises the question of whether these individuals represent elites who had access to these exotic commodities, or an imposed foreign elite that may have brought these unusual artifacts from their homelands. The source of the atypical objects is believed to be the Oxus civilization of central Asia. This study investigates the identity of these individuals by employing canonical discriminant function analysis of 20 craniometric variables among 174 adult males from Tepe Hissar Period III and Oxus civilization males from Sapalli tepe and Djarkutan. Dicriminant function analysis provides a strong separation between Tepe Hissar Period III males and Oxus civilization males and a high level of correct assignation by sample (95.8%). Imposition of the five males associated with imported central Asian artifacts from the Period III necropolis indicates that the majority (4/5) are phenetically indistinguishable from other Period III Tepe Hissar males. The results indicate that these individuals most likely represent local elite inhabitants of Tepe Hissar, rather than the presence of an imposed foreign elite. However, given the scarcity of crucial specimens, especially females, and comparative skeletal series, this conclusion must remain tentative. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Combining 3D seismic tomography and ground-penetrating radar to reveal the structure of a megalithic burial tomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Manuela; Caldeira, Bento; Borges, José

    2017-04-01

    This work describes a case study concerning a prehistoric buried tomb (around 3000 years B.C.) located near Évora (Portugal). This monument is a tomb completely buried with only five visible irregular small stones distributed in a circle of 3 meter in diameter. A multi-approach combining 3D seismic tomography and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) have been applied to identify hidden elements and arrangement of the stones, required prior to any excavation work. The methodology for the 3D seismic data acquisition involves a total of 24 shots recorded by four lines, with twelve fixed receivers each one. For the GPR survey was used a 400 MHz antenna which moves along parallel lines with 50 cm separation, over a 30x30 m2 area that contains the buried tomb; the GPR unit was configured to a horizontal rate of 50 scans per meter (1024 samples/scan) and a time window of 60 ns. This multi-approach procedure allowed defining: (i) the housing of the tomb in the basement structure; (ii) the presence of a hidden corridor; (iii) the description of the internal structure of the walls of the tomb; (iv) the state of preservation of the monument. Acknowledgements: This work is co-financed by the European Union through the European Regional Development Fund under COMPETE 2020 (Operational Program for Competitiveness and Internationalization) through the ICT project (UID / GEO / 04683/2013) under the reference POCI-01-0145 -FEDER-007690.

  15. New devices for flow measurements: Hot film and burial wire sensors, infrared imagery, liquid crystal, and piezo-electric model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcree, Griffith J., Jr.; Roberts, A. Sidney, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental program aimed at identifying areas in low speed aerodynamic research where infrared imaging systems can make significant contributions is discussed. Implementing a new technique, a long electrically heated wire was placed across a laminar flow. By measuring the temperature distribution along the wire with the IR imaging camera, the flow behavior was identified.

  16. A case report on a burned ear: Elastic memory of cartilage following temporary burial in a skin pocket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, D O; van Zuijlen, P P M

    2017-05-01

    Preserving exposed ear cartilage following a facial burn remains a major challenge. Normally, burned ear cartilage cannot be preserved in case of a full thickness burn of the overlying skin, and the cartilage has to be surgically removed. Sometimes, reconstructions can be performed at a later stage. We report a case where burned ear cartilage was directly surgically buried in a retroauricular skin pocket showing remarkable elastic memory: the buried ear cartilage, in this case the antihelix, regenerated over time and regained its original position protruding from the facial area. This case illustrates that ear cartilage is highly resilient, even when it has sustained significant thermal damage, and can be buried in a retroauricular skin pocket to avoid radical excision of the framework. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  17. Mechanical and chemical processes affecting the chalk during burial, insights from combined reflection seismics, well data and field work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, Julien; Boussaha, Myriam; Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph

    2014-01-01

    and cores analyses, respectively.However, few sites allow to combine all the different scale of observation for chalk diagenesis. Onshore and offshore high resolution seismics, two fully cored >350 m wells with wireline logging tools and very high quality exposures from a coastal cliff and a quarry form......The chalk must undergo several phases of grain reorganisation and chemical reactions during its diagenetic evolution from a carbonaceous ooze to a sedimentary rock. Some of these transformations could be observed on structures from the kilometre- to the micrometre-scale with seismic reflection....... The pressure-solution allows the formation of carbonate seams in the hairline fractures. At larger scale, on the field are observed faults which are sealed with flint precipitations. They slightly offset (seismic reflection profiles, numerous...

  18. Predicting the Mobility and Burial of Underwater Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) Using the UXO Mobility Model (ESTCP) 200417

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    sections. 5.1.2 Period of Operation The following Gantt chart for the total ESTCP UXO Mobility Model program shows the demonstration periods highlighted... Henry to the north, Cape Hatteras in the mid-reach where the angle of the coastline makes a dog-leg departure toward the southwest, and Cape Lookout to

  19. To the problem of attribution of the Golden Horde plaques from the Malyaevka-V burial mound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isakov Rudolf V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available 13-14th-century Juchid plated military belts with dragon images are considered in the article. Their study has shown that the tradition of wearing them had been borrowed by the Mongols from China together with corresponding imperial symbols, dragon images included. In the authors’ opinion, the images of these mythological creatures were used by both the elite of the Ulus Juchi and the privileged classes of lesser rank. This viewpoint is confirmed by numerous finds of belt plaques and other items with the symbolic in question (often manufactured from inexpensive materials from the Volga River region, and by Yuan literary sources.

  20. Archaeological and Osteological Analysis of Two Burial Sites Along Harlan County Lake, Nebraska: Chronological and Evolutionary Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Ratibida columnifera, Echinacea angustifolia, Psoralia argophylla, Gaura coccinea, and members of Astragalus, Petalostemon, Oxytropis, and Opuntia ...then further investigations might attempt to explain this as a result of changes in climate, dietary habits, gene flow or a combination of these. Such...such as prickly pear ( Opuntia ). As stated in Tieszen et al. (1979:352): One of the characteristics which distinguishes C3 froin[C4 plants is the

  1. Nuclear archeology in a bottle: evidence of pre-Trinity U.S. weapons activities from a waste burial site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwantes, Jon M; Douglas, Matthew; Bonde, Steven E; Briggs, James D; Farmer, Orville T; Greenwood, Lawrence R; Lepel, Elwood A; Orton, Christopher R; Wacker, John F; Luksic, Andrzej T

    2009-02-15

    During World War II, the Hanford Site in Washington became the location for U.S. plutonium production. In 2004, a bottle containing a sample of plutonium was recovered from a Hanford waste trench. Here, state-of-the-art instrumental analyses, reactor model simulations, and investigative science techniques were used to provide insights as to the origin of this unknown sample, a process collectively termed as nuclear archeology. Isotopic age dating conducted on the sample in 2007 indicated the sample was separated from the spent fuel 61.6 +/- 4.5 years earlier. The isotope (22)Na, a detectable product of a secondary nuclear reaction, proved useful as a powerful tool for nuclear forensic analysis as (1) an easily detectable signifier of the presence of alpha emitting actinides, (2) an indicator of sample splitting, and (3) a measure of the time since sample splitting. Analytical results of minor actinide isotopes and reactor model simulations confirmed the material originated from the X-10 reactor in Oak Ridge, TN. Corroborated by historical documents, we concluded this sample was part of the first batch of Pu separated at T-Plant, Hanford, the world's first industrial-scale reprocessing facility, on December 9, 1944. This sample represents the oldest known collection of man-made (239)Pu in the world.

  2. Scientist as detective: Luis Alvarez and the pyramid burial chambers, the JFK assassination, and the end of the dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Charles G.

    2007-11-01

    Luis Alvarez (1911-1988) was one of the most brilliant and productive experimental physicists of the twentieth century. His investigations of three mysteries, all of them outside his normal areas of research, show what remarkable things a far-ranging imagination working with an immense store of knowledge can accomplish.

  3. Impact assessment of shallow land burial for low-level waste: modelling of the water flow and transport of radionuclides in the near-field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walravens, J.; Volckaert, G.

    1996-09-18

    The Belgian concept for disposal of low-level waste consists of storage of waste drums into a concrete vault backfilled with a cementitious grout. The vault is placed above the water table and will be covered with a multilayer cap of clay, gravel, and sandy materials. The SCK/CEN is charged with the long-term performance assessment of the disposal site. The main processes and parameters determining the radioactivity release from the site are identified. The principal processes are the infiltration through the top cover and the sorption of waste on the backfill. The release of radionuclides from the site was modelled with the PORFLOW numerical code.

  4. Perspectives on the terrestrial organic matter transport and burial along the land-deep sea continuum: Caveats in our understanding of biogeochemical processes and future needs

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kandasamy, S.; Nath, B.N.

    yr−1, of which only 0.9 Pg C yr−1 of this carbon sink is actually sequestered in biomass and soil of land ecosystem, as 1.0 Pg C yr−1 is returned to the atmosphere by CO2 outgassing owing to land-use changes, and a similar amount (0.95 Pg C yr−1...) used NEWS (Global Nutrient Export from Watersheds) models to estimate global nutrient export at the mouth of 5761 exoreic river basins, as a function of natural biogeophysical properties (such as land use, nutrients inputs, hydrology, etc...

  5. Research Results of the Salme Ship Burials in 2011-2012 / Jüri Peets, Raili Allmäe, Liina Maldre ... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2013-01-01

    Eelviikingiaja lõppu dateeritud matuselaevast. Sõdalased olid maetud väikesele alale ja varustatud rohkete panustega. Väliuuringud Salme muististekompleksil on lõppenud. Käimasolevate uuringute keskseks ülesandeks on muistise võimalikult täpne dateerimine

  6. The importance of catchment vegetation for alkalinity, phosphorus burial and macrophytes as revealed by a recent paleolimnological study in a soft water lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klamt, Anna-Marie; Jensen, Henning S.; Mortensen, Morten Fischer

    2017-01-01

    to mainly coniferous forest) occurring during the last ca. 200years were reflected in the sediments of a soft water lake and how these changes influenced the lake ecosystem. Pollen, macrofossils, metals, different phosphorus (P) forms, organic matter, carbon and nitrogen contents were determined in short...... increases in acidophilic species. 2) The sedimentary contents of organic matter, non-reactive P and humic-bound P were evidently higher in sediments deposited during the time when deciduous trees were abundant, which is probably linked to a stabilising effect by Ca. 3) An erosion event clearly reduced...

  7. Mineralogical, chemical and K-Ar isotopic changes in Kreyenhagen Shale whole rocks and clay fractions during natural burial and hydrous-pyrolysis experimental maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauer, N.; Lewan, M. D.; Dolan, M. P.; Chaudhuri, S.; Curtis, J. B.

    2014-04-01

    Progressive maturation of the Eocene Kreyenhagen Shale from the San Joaquin Basin of California was studied by combining mineralogical and chemical analyses with K-Ar dating of whole rocks and clay fractions from naturally buried samples and laboratory induced maturation by hydrous pyrolysis of an immature outcrop sample. The K-Ar age decreases from 89.9 ± 3.9 and 72.4 ± 4.2 Ma for the outcrop whole rock and its bitumen. This hindrance is interpreted to result from bitumen impregnating the smectite interlayer sites and rock matrix. Bitumen remains in the clay fraction to fully expand or collapse once bitumen generation from the thermal decomposition of the kerogen is completed, and by almost invariable K-Ar ages confirming for the lack of any K supply and/or radiogenic 40Ar removal. This suggests that once bitumen impregnates the porosity of a progressively maturing source rock, the pore system is no longer wetted by water and smectite to illite conversion ceases. Experimental attempts to evaluate the smectite conversion to illite should preferentially use low-TOC rocks to avoid inhibition of the reaction by bitumen impregnation.

  8. Evidence of interpersonal violence or a special funeral rite in the Neolithic multiple burial from Koszyce in southern Poland – a forensic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konopka Tomasz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study uses anthropological and forensic medical analyses to determine the cause of fractures found in the remains of 15 individuals buried at a site associated with the Globular Amphora Culture (2875-2670 BC. The intent was to determine the mechanism underlying the injuries and to indicate the types of tools that might have inflicted the blows. The fractures were diversified in their forms, but the majority of the injuries appear to have been inflicted by a flint axe, which is frequently found in graves of the Globular Amphora Culture. Apart from the forearm being severed in one of the victims, all the remaining skeletons showed from 1 to 4 injuries involving solely the skulls. The grave might contain victims attacked by invaders who executed the captives, or else the feature is ritual in character and it reflects the beliefs of the Neolithic community.

  9. Burial effects of organic coatings on the heterogeneous reactivity of particle-borne benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) toward ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, S; Lee, A K Y; McWhinney, R D; Abbatt, J P D

    2012-07-05

    With an aerosol flow tube coupled to an Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), room temperature (296 ± 3 K) kinetics studies have been performed on the reaction of gas-phase ozone with benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) adsorbed in submonolayer amounts to dry ammonium sulfate (AS) particles. Three organic substances, i.e., bis(2-ethylhexyl)sebacate (BES, liquid), phenylsiloxane oil (PSO, liquid), and eicosane (EC, solid), were used to coat BaP-AS particles to investigate the effects of such organic coatings on the heterogeneous reactivity of PAHs toward ozone. All the reactions of particle-borne BaP with excess ozone exhibit pseudo-first-order kinetics in terms of BaP loss, and reactions with a liquid organic coating proceed by the Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H) mechanism. Liquid organic coatings did not significantly affect the kinetics, consistent with the ability of reactants to rapidly diffuse through the organic coating. In contrast, the heterogeneous reactivity of BaP was reduced substantially by a thin (4-8 nm), solid EC coating and entirely suppressed by thick (10-80 nm) coatings, presumably because of slow diffusion through the organic layer. Although the heterogeneous reactivity of surface-bound PAHs is extremely rapid in the atmosphere, this work is the first to experimentally demonstrate a mechanism by which the lifetime of PAHs may be significantly prolonged, permitting them to undergo long-range transport to remote locations.

  10. Integrated seismic analysis of the Chalk Group in eastern Denmark—Implications for estimates of maximum palaeo-burial in southwest Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars; Boldreel, Lars Ole; Hansen, Thomas Mejer

    2011-01-01

    The origin of the topography of southwest Scandinavia is subject to discussion. Analysis of borehole seismic velocity has formed the basis for interpretation of several hundred metres of Neogene uplift in parts of Denmark.Here, refraction seismic data constrain a 7.5km long P-wave velocity model...... Group. The sonic velocities are consistent with the overall seismic layering, although they show additional fine-scale layering. Integration of gamma and sonic log with porosity data shows that seismic velocity is sensitive to clay content. In intervals near boundaries of the refraction model, moderate...

  11. Sarmatian Attributes in Archaeological Complexes of Catacombs Burials in Arys Culture of Southern Kazakhstan (1st Century B.C. - 3rd Century A.D.)

    OpenAIRE

    Podushkin Aleksandr Nikolaevich

    2015-01-01

    The publication is devoted to archaeological research of monuments of the catacomb of Arys culture of Southern Kazakhstan (1st Century B.C. - 3rd Century A.D.). Now scientists have a complete understanding of the range and typology, periodization and chronology of monuments of this culture. There are three stages: Karaultobe (4th century B.C. - 1st century A.D.); Karatobe (1st Century B.C. - 4th century A.D.); Altintobe (4th-6th centuries A.D.). These stages are characterized by specific ...

  12. Shallow burial dolomitisation of Middle–Upper Permian paleosols in an extensional tectonic context (SE Iberian Basin, Spain): Controls on temperature of precipitation and source of fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Benito Moreno, María Isabel; Horra del Barco, Raúl de la; López Gómez, José; Fernández Barrenechea, José María; Luque del Villar, Francisco Javier; Arche, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    This work is focused on carbonate paleosols developed in three stratigraphic sections (Landete, Talayuelas and Henarejos) of theMiddle–Late Permian Alcotas Formation in the SE Iberian Basin. The Alcotas Formation, of alluvial origin, was deposited in semi-connected half-grabens developed during the early stages of the Permian–Triassic rifting stage that affected the Iberian Basin. The studied sections were located in two of these half-grabens, the Henarejos section being much clos...

  13. Role of cold resistance and burial for winter survival and spring initiation of an Ulva spp. (Chlorophyta) bloom in a eutrophic lagoon (Veerse Meer lagoon, The Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamermans, P.; Malta, E.J.; Verschuure, J.M.; Lentz, L.F.; Schrijvers, L.

    1998-01-01

    In the eutrophic Veerse Meer lagoon (The Netherlands) large amounts of free-floating thalli from Ulva spp. are present from May to October. In winter however, no algae seem to occur in the lagoon. Sexual reproduction appears to be negligible, as spore formation and germling growth are observed only

  14. Enhanced productivity rather than enhanced preservation led to increased organic carbon burial in the euxinic southern proto North Atlantic Ocean during the Cenomanian/Turonian Oceanic Anoxic Event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Kuypers, M.M.M.; Pancost, R.D.; Nijenhuis, I.A.

    2002-01-01

    Three Cenomanian/Turonian (C/T, ∼93.5 Ma) black shale sections along a northeast-southwest transect in the southern part of the proto-North Atlantic Ocean were correlated by stable carbon isotope stratigraphy using the characteristic excursion in δ¹³C values of both bulk organic matter (OM) and

  15. Black shale deposition on the northwest African Shelf during the Cenomanian/Turonian oceanic anoxic event : climate coupling and global organic carbon burial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolonic, S.; Wagner, T.; Forster, A; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Walsworth-Bell, B.; Erba, E.; Turgeon, S.; Chellai, E.H.; Brumsack, H.-J.; Tsikos, H.; Kuhnt, W.; Kuijpers, M.M.M.

    2005-01-01

    High-resolution geochemical records from a depth transect through the Cenomanian/Turonian (C/T) Tarfaya Basin (northwest African Shelf) reveal high-amplitude fluctuations in accumulation rates of organic carbon (OC), redox-sensitive and sulphide-forming trace metals, and biomarkers indicative of

  16. FROM TRADITIONAL PRACTICES TO REDUCTION PRACTICES: RITUALS OF HEALING, GRIEF AND BURIAL AT THE JESUIT-GUARANI REDUCTIONS (JESUIT PROVINCE OF PARAGUAY, 17TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Cristina Deckmann Fleck

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to evince and analyze the impact of the Christian conceptions of sickness and death on the Guarani indian sensibility and its translation in terms of representations and social practices in the Jesuitical reductions. The analysis of the records made by the missionaries, especially the Cartas Ânuas of the Jesuitical Province of Paraguay regarding the period from 1609 to 1675, revealed that, on the one hand, the Guarani kept traditional practices of their religious sensibility – as is evinced in the resignification of the "copious crying" and the funereal laments –, and, on the other hand, that the missionaries, besides incorporating the native pharmacopoeia and many of the indian healing practices, skillfully manipulated the cures and the "bien morir", a strategy that was fundamental to the success of the civilization-conversion project of the Companhia de Jesus alongside the Guarani.

  17. Impact of basin burial and exhumation on Jurassic carbonates diagenesis on both sides of a thick clay barrier (Paris Basin, NE France).

    OpenAIRE

    Carpentier, Cédric; Brigaud, Benjamin; Blaise, Thomas; Vincent, Benoît; Durlet, Christophe; Boulvais, Philippe; PAGEL, Maurice; Hibsch, Christian; Yven, Béatrice; Lach, Philippe; Cathelineau, Michel; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Landrein, Philippe; Buschaert, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    27 pages; International audience; Several diagenetic models have been proposed for Middle and Upper Jurassic carbonates of the eastern Paris Basin. The paragenetic sequences are compared in both aquifers to propose a diagenetic model for the Middle and Late Jurassic deposits as a whole. Petrographic (optical and cathodoluminescence microscopy), structural (fracture orientations) and geochemical (δ18O, δ13C, REE) studies were conducted to characterize diagenetic cements, with a focus on blocky...

  18. The importance of catchment vegetation alkalinity, phosphorus burial and macrophytes as revealed by a recent paleolimnological study in a soft water lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klamt, Anna-Maria; Jensen, Henning S.; Mortensen, Morten Fischer

    2016-01-01

    coniferous forest) occurring during the last ca. 200 years were reflected in the sediments of a soft water lake and how these changes influenced the lake ecosystem. Pollen, macrofossils, metals, different phosphorus (P) forms, organic matter, carbon and nitrogen contents were determined in short sediment...... environmental conditions and species composition in soft water lakes and the storage of organic matter and P in their sediments....

  19. Formation and dissolution of zeolite during burial diagenesis - Examples from glauconitic sandstones in the Palaeogene Siri Canyon, Danish North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazerouni, Afsoon Moatari; Friis, Henrik; Svendsen, Johan B

    or diagenetic alteration of volcanic glass. Authigenic zeolites are uncommon constituents in most sandstones. However, authigenic zeolites are common in some of the glauconitic sandstones from the Siri Canyon, where it is generally associated with thick coatings of opal/microquartz on the detrital framework...... Paleocene–early Eocene volcanic ash layers. Zeolites have a hydrated alumosilicate framework with varying amounts of alkali and alkaline earth metals.Authigenic zeolites may be common in deep marine sediments, and in volcanoclastic deposits. They are generally related to dissolution of siliceous fossils...

  20. Geology, water supply, and waste disposal at sites II and IIA, burial ground D, and vicinity, national reactor testing station, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voegeli, P. T.; Deutson, M.

    1953-06-01

    The problems of geology, water-supply, and waste disposal at the National Reactor Testing Station (NRTS), Idaho are studied. The geologic and hydrologic information about sites II and IIA are summarized. Information about the physical properties of geologic materials is summarized. Information obtained from deep test holes and wells near the mapped area and data from test pits and shallow test holes within the area are included. Chemical analysis of samples of ground water was performed. Ion exchange tests of sediments were also performed. These results are included. (DC)