WorldWideScience

Sample records for burial

  1. Burial Ground Expansion Hydrogeologic Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaughan , T.F.

    1999-02-26

    Sirrine Environmental Consultants provided technical oversight of the installation of eighteen groundwater monitoring wells and six exploratory borings around the location of the Burial Ground Expansion.

  2. The Bahrain Burial Mound Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Steffen; Johansen, Kasper Lambert

    2007-01-01

    the majority of burial mounds have been removed to make way for roads and housing, and in this process about 8000 mounds have been excavated; of these only c. 265 have been published. In 2006 the Bahrain Directorate for Culture & National Heritage and Moesgaard Museum decided on a collaborative project...... focussed on the Bahrain burial mounds. Within the framework of the Burial Mound Project aerial photos from 1959 have been orto-rectified and geo-referenced and so far a GIS-based digital map representing more than 60.000 mounds have been completed. With respect to the thousands of excavated mounds the huge...... process of linking relevant information to the mounds have been initiated in the course of which excavation data of individual monument is being fed into a relational database. Our preliminary study of the digital maps of the mound cemeteries has revealed an abundance of interesting patterns...

  3. Sediment Burial Intolerance of Marine Macroinvertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrick, Vicki J.; Hutchison, Zoë L.; Last, Kim S.

    2016-01-01

    The marine environment contains suspended particulate matter which originates from natural and anthropogenic sources. Settlement of this material can leave benthic organisms susceptible to smothering, especially if burial is sudden i.e. following storms or activities such as dredging. Their survival will depend on their tolerance to, and their ability to escape from burial. Here we present data from a multi-factorial experiment measuring burial responses incorporating duration, sediment fract...

  4. Carbon sequestration via wood burial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ning

    2008-01-03

    To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink.It is estimated that a sustainable long-term carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 +/- 5 GtC y-1, and currently about 65 GtC is on the world's forest floors in the form of coarse woody debris suitable for burial. The potential is largest in tropical forests (4.2 GtC y-1), followed by temperate (3.7 GtC y-1) and boreal forests (2.1 GtC y-1). Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger. There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized.Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be $14/tCO2($50/tC), lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage. The cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is low because CO2 is removed from the atmosphere by the natural process of photosynthesis at little cost. The technique is low tech, distributed, easy to monitor, safe, and reversible, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market.

  5. Carbon sequestration via wood burial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Ning

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It is estimated that a sustainable long-term carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 ± 5 GtC y-1, and currently about 65 GtC is on the world's forest floors in the form of coarse woody debris suitable for burial. The potential is largest in tropical forests (4.2 GtC y-1, followed by temperate (3.7 GtC y-1 and boreal forests (2.1 GtC y-1. Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger. There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized. Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be $14/tCO2($50/tC, lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage. The cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is low because CO2 is removed from the atmosphere by the natural process of photosynthesis at little cost. The technique is low tech, distributed, easy to monitor, safe, and reversible, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market.

  6. Sediment Burial Intolerance of Marine Macroinvertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki J Hendrick

    Full Text Available The marine environment contains suspended particulate matter which originates from natural and anthropogenic sources. Settlement of this material can leave benthic organisms susceptible to smothering, especially if burial is sudden i.e. following storms or activities such as dredging. Their survival will depend on their tolerance to, and their ability to escape from burial. Here we present data from a multi-factorial experiment measuring burial responses incorporating duration, sediment fraction and depth. Six macroinvertebrates commonly found in sediment rich environments were selected for their commercial and/or conservation importance. Assessments revealed that the brittle star (Ophiura ophiura, the queen scallop (Aequipecten opercularis and the sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis were all highly intolerant to burial whilst the green urchin (Psammichinus miliaris and the anemone (Sagartiogeton laceratus, showed intermediate and low intolerance respectively, to burial. The least intolerant, with very high survival was the Ross worm (Sabellaria spinulosa. With the exception of C. intestinalis, increasing duration and depth of burial with finer sediment fractions resulted in increased mortality for all species assessed. For C. intestinalis depth of burial and sediment fraction were found to be inconsequential since there was complete mortality of all specimens buried for more than one day. When burial emergence was assessed O. ophiura emerged most frequently, followed by P. miliaris. The former emerged most frequently from the medium and fine sediments whereas P. miliaris emerged more frequently from coarse sediment. Both A. opercularis and S. laceratus showed similar emergence responses over time, with A. opercularis emerging more frequently under coarse sediments. The frequency of emergence of S. laceratus increased with progressively finer sediment and C. intestinalis did not emerge from burial irrespective of sediment fraction or depth. Finally

  7. Cleanup Verification Package for the 618-2 Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. S. Thompson

    2006-12-28

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 618-2 Burial Ground, also referred to as Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 2; Burial Ground No. 2; 318-2; and Dry Waste Burial Site No. 2. This waste site was used primarily for the disposal of contaminated equipment, materials and laboratory waste from the 300 Area Facilities.

  8. 38 CFR 38.629 - Outer Burial Receptacle Allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Outer Burial Receptacle... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL CEMETERIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS § 38.629 Outer Burial Receptacle Allowance. (a) Definitions—Outer burial receptacle. For purposes of this section, an outer burial...

  9. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, G.H.

    1994-10-01

    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

  10. Landscapes of the Dead: an Argument for Conservation Burial

    OpenAIRE

    Harker, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    The American funeral industry has long influenced how and where we bury the dead. Current industry-standard burial practices harm the environment through the use of embalming and hardwood caskets. This article argues for a different model for burials, one which will preserve open space, incorporate cultural landscapes into cities and regions, and increase the ecological sensitivity of burial practices and social acceptance of death as a natural process. Conservation burials support ecological...

  11. 77 FR 4676 - Parents Eligible for Burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... of veterans and eligible family members are met by providing burial and memorialization in VA... action that is likely to result in a rule that may: (1) Have an annual effect on the economy of $100 million or more or adversely affect in a material way the economy, a sector of the economy,...

  12. Effects of sand burial on dune plants:a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Qu; HaLin Zhao; RuiLian Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Burial of different growth stages of plants (e.g., adult plants, seedlings and seeds) is frequent in dune ecosystems. The soil micro-environment, which differs from surface conditions, influences the survival and growth of dune plants. To sum up knowledge about the survival mechanisms of plants under sand burial and to promote practical rehabilitation of dune vegetation, we reviewed relevant published literature and concluded that:(1) Focus in recent years has been on impacts of sand burial on seed germination and seedling emergence. Generally, shallow burial increased seed germination and seed-ling emergence, but deeper burial was negative. Buried at the same depth, large seeds showed higher germination and seedling emergence rates, attributed to larger energy reserves. (2) Survival, growth and reproduction rates of dune plants show plasticity in response to sand burial. Long-term deep burial is fatal because it creates a physical barrier which overcomes the vertical growth of plants, reduces photosynthetic leaf area, and limits oxygen availability to roots. Modest burial, on the other hand, is advantageous for growth and reproduction of many dune plants, due to protection from ex-cessive temperature and drought. (3) There are few reports concerning effects of sand burial on plant physiology, but a limited number of studies indicate that partial burial increases water use efficiency, chlorophyll content, transpiration rate and net photosynthetic rates. The antioxidant protective enzyme system and osmolyte balance were reported to be involved in the mechanisms of dune plant resistance to burial.

  13. Cleanup Verification Package for the 618-8 Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. J. Appel

    2006-08-10

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 618-8 Burial Ground, also referred to as the Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 8, 318-8, and the Early Solid Waste Burial Ground. During its period of operation, the 618-8 site is speculated to have been used to bury uranium-contaminated waste derived from fuel manufacturing, and construction debris from the remodeling of the 313 Building.

  14. Pesticide burial grounds in Poland: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Migaszewski, Zdzisław M; Manecki, Piotr

    2011-10-01

    Obsolete pesticides were stored in Poland from the middle sixties until the late eighties of the 20th century mostly in underground disposal sites, called "pesticide burial grounds" or "pesticide tombs". The total amount of pesticide waste and packaging materials disposed of in these landfills exceeded 20000 Mg. Typically, the content of a pesticide tomb was dominated by organochlorine pesticides (comprising 10-100% of the total waste volume) with DDT as the prevailing compound. Other pesticide types, such as phosphoroorganic, carbamate insecticides, dinitrophenols, phenoxyacids, and inorganic compounds were stored in smaller quantities, usually not exceeding 10-20% of the total waste volume. With the growing awareness of the threats that these landfills posed to the environment, the first inventory for the whole country was made in 1993 and remediation was initiated in 1999. The total amount of waste, which had to be removed from the known pesticide tombs (hazardous substances, contaminated soils, construction materials etc.) was about 100000 Mg. According to the National Waste Management Plan, the reclamation of pesticide tombs was assumed to have been finished by the end of 2010, however, this goal has not been achieved. The aim of this review is to present a historical perspective of pesticide burial grounds in Poland with an emphasis on their creation, function, inventory, and remediation. Based on unpublished reports, and other published materials of limited availability written in Polish, this review may serve as a source of information for representatives of other countries, where remediation of pesticide burial grounds is still in progress. The experience gained over a ten-year period, when restoration of pesticide tombs was implemented in Poland, reveals that there are many obstacles to this action arising not only from technical, but also from economic and social issues.

  15. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-1 Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. J. Farris and H. M. Sulloway

    2008-01-10

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-1 Burial Ground on the Hanford Site. This burial ground is a combination of two locations formerly called Minor Construction Burial Ground No. 2 and Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 2. This waste site received radioactive equipment and other miscellaneous waste from 105-F Reactor operations, including dummy elements and irradiated process tubing; gun barrel tips, steel sleeves, and metal chips removed from the reactor; filter boxes containing reactor graphite chips; and miscellaneous construction solid waste.

  16. Uprooting and burial of invasive alien plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kollmann, Johannes Christian; Brink-Jensen, Kasper; Frandsen, Sally I.

    2011-01-01

    Invasive alien plants are a problem for conservation management, and control of these species can be combined with habitat restoration. Subsoil burial of uprooted plants is a new method of mechanical control, which might be suitable in disturbed habitats. The method was tested in Rosa rugosa...... increased with fragment dry mass (0.5–168.5 g). After 18 months with harrowing the species was still resprouting, flowering, and fruiting, albeit with no difference between shrub margin and center. Resprouts were taller (26 cm) and coverage was higher (0–4%) after two compared with three times harrowing...

  17. The Deterministic Mine Burial Prediction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-12

    authors wish to especially recognize and thank Peter Chu and Chenwu Fan for providing the IMPACT35 code, Carl Friedrichs and Art Trembanis for...A.C. Trembanis, C.T. Friedrichs , M.D. Richardson, P.A. Traykovski, P.A. Howd, P.A. Elmore, and T.F. Weaver, “Predicting Mine Scour Burial at Indian...Iredell, B. Katz , H.-L. Pan, J. Sela, and G.H. White, “Recent Changes Implemented into the Global Forecast System at NMC,” Weather and Forecasting 6

  18. 40 CFR 229.1 - Burial at sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Burial at sea. 229.1 Section 229.1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING GENERAL PERMITS § 229.1 Burial at sea. (a) All persons subject to title I of the Act are hereby granted a general permit...

  19. URBAN STREAM BURIAL INCREASES WATERSHED-SCALE NITRATE EXPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen (N) uptake in streams is an important ecosystem service that may be affected by the widespread burial of streams in stormwater pipes in urban watersheds. We predicted that stream burial reduces the capacity of streams to remove nitrate (NO3-) from the water column by in...

  20. The effect of the burial environment on adipocere formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Shari L; Stuart, Barbara H; Dent, Boyd B

    2005-11-10

    Adipocere is a decomposition product comprising predominantly of saturated fatty acids which results from the hydrolysis and hydrogenation of neutral fats in the body. Adipocere formation may occur in various decomposition environments but is chiefly dependent on the surrounding conditions. In a soil burial environment these conditions may include such factors as soil pH, temperature, moisture and the oxygen content within the grave site. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of these particular burial factors on the rate and extent of adipocere formation. Controlled laboratory experiments were conducted in an attempt to form adipocere from pig adipose tissue in model burial environments. Infrared spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were employed to determine the lipid profile and fatty acid composition of the adipocere product which formed in the burial environments. The results suggest that adipocere can form under a variety of burial conditions. Several burial factors were identified as enhancing adipocere formation whilst others clearly inhibited its formation. This study acts as a preliminary investigation into the effect of the burial environment on the resultant preservation of decomposing tissue via adipocere formation.

  1. Bone foreshafts from a clovis burial in southwestern montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahren, L; Bonnichsen, R

    1974-10-11

    Formal and functional analyses of bone artifacts from a Clovis burial in southwestern Montana suggest that they were constructed to serve as (detachable or nondetachable) foreshafts for attaching fluted projectile points to lance shafts.

  2. [The craniofacial identification of the remains from the Yekaterinburg burial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, S S

    1998-01-01

    Based on expert evaluation of remains of 7 members of Imperial Romanov family and 4 persons in their attendance, the author demonstrates methodological approaches to identification craniocephalic studies in cases with group burials.

  3. Sulfate burial constraints on the Phanerozoic sulfur cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevy, Itay; Peters, Shanan E; Fischer, Woodward W

    2012-07-20

    The sulfur cycle influences the respiration of sedimentary organic matter, the oxidation state of the atmosphere and oceans, and the composition of seawater. However, the factors governing the major sulfur fluxes between seawater and sedimentary reservoirs remain incompletely understood. Using macrostratigraphic data, we quantified sulfate evaporite burial fluxes through Phanerozoic time. Approximately half of the modern riverine sulfate flux comes from weathering of recently deposited evaporites. Rates of sulfate burial are unsteady and linked to changes in the area of marine environments suitable for evaporite formation and preservation. By contrast, rates of pyrite burial and weathering are higher, less variable, and largely balanced, highlighting a greater role of the sulfur cycle in regulating atmospheric oxygen.

  4. Onset of scour below pipelines and self-burial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Truelsen, Christoffer; Sichmann, T.;

    2001-01-01

    locally (but not along the length of the pipeline as a two-dimensional process). The critical condition corresponding to the onset of scour was determined both in the case of currents and in the case of waves. Once the scour breaks out, it will propagate along the length of the pipeline, scour holes being......). At this point, the pipe begins to sink at the span shoulder (self-burial). It was found that the self-burial depth is governed mainly by the Keulegan-Carpenter number. The time scale of the self-burial process, on the other hand, is governed by the Keulegan-Carpenter number and the Shields parameter. Diagrams...

  5. The growth responses of coastal dune species are determined by nutrient limitation and sand burial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Matthew; Pammenter, Norman; Ripley, Brad

    2008-05-01

    Past work suggests that burial and low nutrient availability limit the growth and zonal distribution of coastal dune plants. Given the importance of these two factors, there is a surprising lack of field investigations of the interactions between burial and nutrient availability. This study aims to address this issue by measuring the growth responses of four coastal dune plant species to these two factors and their interaction. Species that naturally experience either high or low rates of burial were selected and a factorial burial by nutrient addition experiment was conducted. Growth characteristics were measured in order to determine which characteristics allow a species to respond to burial. Species that naturally experience high rates of burial (Arctotheca populifolia and Scaevola plumieri) displayed increased growth when buried, and this response was nutrient-limited. Stable-dune species had either small (Myrica cordifolia, N-fixer) or negligible responses to burial (Metalasia muricata), and were not nutrient-limited. This interspecific difference in response to burial and/or fertiliser is consistent with the idea that burial maintains the observed zonation of species on coastal dunes. Species that are unable to respond to burial are prevented from occupying the mobile dunes. Species able to cope with high rates of burial had high nitrogen-use efficiencies and low dry mass costs of production, explaining their ability to respond to burial under nutrient limitation. The interaction between burial and nutrient limitation is understudied but vital to understanding the zonation of coastal dune plant species.

  6. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-6 Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. M. Sulloway

    2008-10-02

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-6 Burial Ground located in the 100-FR-2 Operable Unit of the 100-F Area on the Hanford Site. The trenches received waste from the 100-F Experimental Animal Farm, including animal manure, animal carcasses, laboratory waste, plastic, cardboard, metal, and concrete debris as well as a railroad tank car.

  7. The effects of burial on drug detection in skeletal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosiers, Nathalie A; Watterson, James H

    2010-07-01

    Skeletal tissues have recently been investigated for use in post-mortem toxicology. Variables affecting drug concentration in these tissues, however, are still poorly characterized. In this work, the relative effects of burial on the response of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) assays were examined. Rats were acutely exposed to ketamine or diazepam, euthanized and buried outdoors. After one month, the remains were exhumed and skeletal tissue drug levels were compared those of non-buried rats. A climate-controlled burial was also undertaken using defleshed bones to approximate an extended decomposition. Long bones (femora, tibiae) were isolated and separated into tissue type (diaphyseal bone, epiphyseal bone, and marrow), and according to treatment (i.e. buried or non-buried). Following methanolic extraction (bone) or simple homogenization (marrow), samples were analyzed with ELISA. Samples were then pooled according to treatment, extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) and confirmed with GC-MS. Under the conditions examined, the effects of burial appear to be drug and tissue dependent. Ketamine-exposed tissues demonstrated the greatest differences, especially in bone marrow. In diazepam-exposed tissues, burial did not seem to greatly affect drug response and some gave greater assay response compared to the non-buried set. Overall, the data suggest that fresh tissue samples may not be representative of decomposed samples in terms of skeletal tissue drug levels.

  8. Informal Workshop on Burial and Mobility Modeling of Munitions in the Underwater Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    WORKSHOP REPORT Informal Workshop on Burial and Mobility Modeling of Munitions in the Underwater Environment DECEMBER 2014 SERDP and...SUBTITLE Informal Workshop on Burial and Mobility Modeling of Munitions 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER in the Underwater Environment 5b. GRANT...relevant project efforts. Quite often, underwater environments can be dynamic locations where munitions are more likely subject to mobility, burial , and

  9. Funeral dress and textiles in 17th and 19th century burials in Ostrobothnia, Finland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Lipkin; K. Vajanto; T. Kallio-Seppä; T. Kuokkanen; S. Niinimäki; T. Väre; M. van Bommel

    2014-01-01

    The 17th-19th-century burial materials from northern Ostrobothnia are studied in order to consider the value, origin and meaning of textiles especially in child burials. The focus is on the preservation, quality and dyes of burial textiles unearthed at the yard of Oulu Cathedral as well as the cloth

  10. Funeral dress and textiles in 17th and 19th century burials in Ostrobothnia, Finland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lipkin, S.; Vajanto, K.; Kallio-Seppä, T.; Kuokkanen, T.; Niinimäki, S.; Väre, T.; van Bommel, M.; Grömer, K.; Pritchard, F.

    2015-01-01

    The 17th-19th-century burial materials from northern Ostrobothnia are studied in order to consider the value, origin and meaning of textiles especially in child burials. The focus is on the preservation, quality and dyes of burial textiles unearthed at the yard of Oulu Cathedral as well as the cloth

  11. Sarmatian Burials Near the Astanino Village in the Eastern Crimea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kropotov Viktor Valeryevich

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article contains the materials of two Sarmatian burials that had been studied in 1966-1967 years by the Kerch expedition of Institute of Archeology of Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (the chief of expedition – A.M. Leskov in the Astanino village in the Eastern Crimea. These burials had been made on small depth in embankments of barrows of the bronze epoch, therefore it is not possible to track contours of funeral constructions. The dead were laid on their backs, heads turned to the North and the North-West. The utensils buried in the same tombs included two ceramic gray-clay pelikes, two gray-clay bowls, a red-gloss vessel, a red-clay pottery, a set of glass and cornelian beads, and the Egyptian faience beads. These things allow to exactly date the investigated complexes within the second half of the 1st century BC – the beginnings of the 1st century AD. The main distinctive characteristics of Early-Sarmatian burials of Northern Pontic region consist in the use of already existing barrows for burial places, orientations of the dead in the Northern sector, the insignificant depth of burials. Therefore published monuments should be also referred to them. A small number of such complexes with their distribution on the quite big territory between the Don and Dnepr rivers testify to the low density of the nomadic population at that time. The antique sources of the end of the 2nd – 1st centuries BC mention the presence of Roxolani in the given region. The described complexes supplement our poor knowledge of Sarmatian antiquities of the Eastern Crimea and specify the direct contacts of nomads of Northern Pontic region to the antique centers, in immediate proximity from which they had been located.

  12. Late Sarmatian Elite Military Burial From the Southern Urals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krivosheev Mikhail Vasilyevich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the burial of a warrior of Late Sarmatian time from the Southern Urals. The complex from mound no. 4 of the burial mound Taksai I is distinguished by large size of barrow and grave. The reconstructed height of the mound was less than 2 meters. The depth of the burial pit was more than 3 meters. For Late Sarmatian culture such dimensions of sepulchral structures are unique. Under the mound the ritual platform from mainland soil was discovered. The found inventory of a warrior-rider included: horse bridle, a set of bladed weapons consisting of a long sword, dagger and knife, as well as a small bronze cauldron. Analysis of inventory allows us to date this burial to the second half of the 3rd century A.D. This burial belongs to an elite funerary complexes of Late Sarmatian culture and is a burial of professional warriors. This social stratum was formed in Late Sarmatian society at the end of the 2nd - first half of the 3rd century A.D. Most of these graves are dating back to the first half of the 3rd century A.D and were found in the Low Don and in the Volga region. The situation in these regions changed in that period due to the invasion of the tribes of the North-Caucasian origin. Their occurrence is associated with the destruction of the Tanais in the Lower Don region and the spread of graves in the T-shaped catacombs in the steppe monuments. The tradition of burying warriors-horsemen of high social status almost disappears in the Volga-Don steppes after the middle of 3rd century A.D. In the Southern Urals where these processes had an indirect influence, the existence of traditional hierarchies of Late Sarmatian society could continue until the end of the 3rd century A.D. Among the parts of a horse bridle the researchers discovered bronze B-shape buckle. These buckles are widely distributed in the 4th-5th centuries A.D. in the basin of the Kama river and the Danube river. The found buckle is the earliest currently known

  13. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan Zhuang; Yang Li; Wei Su

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emerge...

  14. Chalk porosity and sonic velocity versus burial depth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Gommesen, Lars; Krogsbøll, Anette Susanne;

    2008-01-01

    Seventy chalk samples from four formations in the overpressured Danish central North Sea have been analyzed to investigate how correlations of porosity and sonic velocity with burial depth are affected by varying mineralogy, fluid pressure, and early introduction of petroleum. The results show...... for fluid pressure because the cementing ions originate from stylolites, which are mechanically similar to fractures. We find that cementation occurs over a relatively short depth interval....

  15. Low-Level Burial Grounds Waste Analysis Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ELLEFSON, M.D.

    2000-03-02

    The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document the waste acceptance process, sampling methodologies, analytical techniques, and overall processes that are undertaken for waste accepted for storage and/or disposal at the Low-Level Burial Grounds which are located in the 200 East and West Areas of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. This WAP documents the methods used to characterize, obtain and analyze representative samples of waste managed at this unit.

  16. Ground resistance influences lizard burial in dry and wet sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Sarah; Kuckuk, Robyn; Goldman, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    Many terrestrial animals move within soil in which water content can vary, and little is known about how water content affects locomotor performance. To investigate the effect of water content on burial, we created controlled dry and wet substrates. We used 0.3 mm glass particles and varied water content W, the mass of water to mass of dry loosely packed sand. Drag force on a submerged 1.6 cm diameter rod increased by a factor of 4 as W increased from 0 to 0.03, after which force increases were small. Drag force in wet media periodically fluctuated with time and corresponded with surface fracturing. We characterized how W affected burial performance and strategy of a generalist burrower, the ocellated skink lizard (Chalcides ocellatus). High speed x-ray imaging was used to measure head, body and limb kinematics in substrates with W= 0 and W= 0.03. In both states during burial the body was maintained in a curved posture and the animal moved using a start-stop motion. During movement, the head oscillated and the forelimb on the convex side of the body was used to push the animal forward. Both speed and angular excursion of the head oscillation decreased in the W= 0.03 state. The differences in locomotion were attributed to the changing resistance force within the media.

  17. Self-burial mechanics of hygroscopically active awns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Wonjong; Kim, Wonjung; Kim, Ho-Young

    2013-11-01

    We present the results of a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the mechanics of self-burial of some plant seeds whose morphologies respond to humidity change of the surroundings. The seeds of Pelargonium species have hygroscopically active awns that play a critical role in the dispersal from the parent plant and burial in soil. While the awn uncoils to a linear shape in a highly humid condition, it recoils to a helical shape when dry. The rotation is driven by the structure of the cell walls that are comprised of cellulose microfibers aligned in a tilted helix. During uncoiling of the awn, the revolving tail generates thrust to burrow into soil, so that the seed is self-buried. We present the direct observation of the self-burial of the seed with the thrust into a soft substrate being measured at the same time. The elastica theory allows us to rationalize this botanical digging mechanics using the structural deformations of the hygroexpansive tissues. This work was supported by the Sogang University Research Grant of 2013 (201310009.01) and the National Research Foundation of Korea (grant no. 2012-008023).

  18. Episodic burial metamorphism in the Andes—A viable model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevins, R. E.; Robinson, D.; Aguirre, L.; Vergara, M.

    2003-08-01

    Burial metamorphism of regional extent throughout Mesozoic to Cenozoic sequences in the Andean Mountain belt has been attributed previously to a unique model of metamorphic development, involving episodic ˜40 m.y. cycles of extensional basin formation, burial, metamorphism, and then exhumation. A main premise of this model is that breaks in metamorphic grade occur at major stratigraphic unconformities, so marking successive metamorphic cycles. This model is tested in a Mesozoic Cenozoic sequence east of Santiago, where three metamorphic episodes have been reported on the basis of sharp breaks in metamorphic grade at two main unconformities. In metabasites from this area, reaction progress in mafic phyllosilicates shows a continuum across the sequence without breaks at the unconformities. There are differences in mineral assemblages between the various stratigraphic units, from which contrasting subgreenschist facies can be recognized. However, consideration of the controls on mineral paragenesis at subgreenschist facies conditions demonstrates that these different facies cannot be used as evidence of sharp breaks in metamorphic grade at unconformities, as has been reported in many previous publications. Thus, metamorphic breaks within this Andean section cannot be confirmed. Accordingly, models of Andean burial metamorphism linked to episodic tectonic cycles throughout the Mesozoic and Cenozoic appear unfounded.

  19. Dynamics of Sandwaves under Combined Wave - Current Forcing and Mine Burial Processes, and RIVET I and Mine Burial Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    the mine burial project has been documented in previous annual reports. Preparation of new side-looking multibeam bedform imaging sonars and mine...Instrumentation for Plume, Sediment and Bed Dynamics in Energetic Coastal Environments: A Multibeam Sidescan Sonar and Portable Turbulance Profiler”) is a...support of optical measurements of particle dynamics (Environmental Optics ), and integrating the pcADPs on Geyer’s MAST (Physical Oceanography). The

  20. Multibeam observations of mine burial near Clearwater, FL, including comparisons to predictions of wave-induced burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, M.L.; Naar, D.F.; Howd, P.A.; Locker, S.D.; Donahue, B.T.; Friedrichs, Carl T.; Trembanis, A.C.; Richardson, M.D.; Wever, T.F.

    2007-01-01

    A Kongsberg Simrad EM 3000 multibeam sonar (Kongsberg Simrad, Kongsberg, Norway) was used to conduct a set of six repeat high-resolution bathymetric surveys west of Indian Rocks Beach (IRB), just to the south of Clearwater, FL, between January and March 2003, to observe in situ scour and burial of instrumented inert mines and mine-like cylinders. Three closely located study sites were chosen: two fine-sand sites, a shallow one located in ??? 13 m of water depth and a deep site located in ???14 m of water depth; and a coarse-sand site in ???13 m. Results from these surveys indicate that mines deployed in fine sand are nearly buried within two months of deployment (i.e., they sunk 74.5% or more below the ambient seafloor depth). Mines deployed in coarse sand showed a lesser amount of scour, burying until they present roughly the same hydrodynamic roughness as the surrounding rippled bedforms. These data were also used to test the validity of the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS, Gloucester Point, VA) 2-D burial model. The model worked well in areas of fine sand, sufficiently predicting burial over the course of the experiment. In the area of coarse sand, the model greatly overpredicted the amount of burial. This is believed to be due to the presence of rippled bedforms around the mines, which affect local bottom morphodynamics and are not accounted for in the model, an issue currently being addressed by the modelers. This paper focuses specifically on two instrumented mines: an acoustic mine located in fine sand and an optical instrumented mine located in coarse sand. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  1. Sediment burial stimulates the growth and propagule production of Spartina alterniflora Loisel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zifa; An, Shuqing; Zhao, Congjiao; Chen, Lin; Zhou, Changfang; Zhi, Yingbiao; Li, Hongli

    2008-03-01

    Spartina alterniflora Loisel., an extensively invasive species on the Chinese coast, is a focus of increasing management concern due to its high expansion rate in estuaries and tidal zone, and the significant damage it causes to native ecosystems. In order to understand the processes and mechanisms of invasion of S. alterniflora in China, the impact of three sediment types (sand, sand-loam mixture and loam) and five buried patterns (unburied, 50% burial of initial plant height, 75% burial of initial plant height, complete burial and repeated burial) on the growth of seedlings or ramets was investigated. Results showed that each of the three factors (sediment types, burial pattern and plant materials) and interactions between/among them, significantly affected height and clonal growth, and biomass accumulation and allocation. Plant height, total biomass and number of new vegetative propagules significantly increased with progressive burial treatments. However, the complete burial treatment resulted in the death of all plant materials, and the maximum values of three parameters were found in the 50% burial or repeated burial treatments. Plant responses were determined by the instantaneous thickness of sediment of each time burial rather than by the total quantity of repeated burial. The growth of S. alterniflora was not shown to be dependent on specific types of sediment in sedimentation environment. In contrast to the unburied control, the proportion of primary tillers produced directly from initial individuals and the ratio between the aboveground and belowground biomass were greater under burial treatments. Seedlings produced more new vegetative propagules than vegetative offspring in all experimental treatments, and the former were apt to produce ramets from rhizomes rather than primary tillers. It is concluded that under various sedimentation environments, the clonal spread efficiency of seedlings was higher than that of vegetative offspring, and there is a

  2. Preliminary soilwater conductivity analysis to date clandestine burials of homicide victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Jamie K; Cassella, John P; Jervis, John R

    2010-05-20

    This study reports on a new geoscientific method to estimate the post-burial interval (PBI) and potential post-mortem interval (PMI) date of homicide victims in clandestine graves by measuring decomposition fluid conductivities. Establishing PBI/PMI dates may be critical for forensic investigators to establish time-lines to link or indeed rule out suspects to a crime. Regular in situ soilwater analysis from a simulated clandestine grave (which contained a domestic buried pig carcass) in a semi-rural environment had significantly elevated conductivity measurements when compared to background values. A temporal rapid increase of the conductivity of burial fluids was observed until one-year post-burial, after this values slowly increased until two years (end of the current study period). Conversion of x-axis from post-burial days to 'accumulated degree days' (ADDs) corrected for both local temperature variations and associated depth of burial and resulted in an improved fit for multiple linear regression analyses. ADD correction also allowed comparison with a previous conductivity grave study on a different site with a different soil type and environment; this showed comparable results with a similar trend observed. A separate simulated discovered burial had a conductivity estimated PBI date that showed 12% error from its actual burial date. Research is also applicable in examining illegal animal burials; time of burial and waste deposition. Further research is required to extend the monitoring period, to use human cadavers and to repeat this with other soil types and depositional environments.

  3. Geologic setting of the low-level burial grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey, K.A.; Jaeger, G.K. [CH2M Hill Hanford, Inc., Richland, WA (United States); Slate, J.L. [Associated Western Universities Northwest, Richland, WA (United States); Swett, K.J.; Mercer, R.B. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-10-13

    This report describes the regional and site specific geology of the Hanford Sites low-level burial grounds in the 200 East and West Areas. The report incorporates data from boreholes across the entire 200 Areas, integrating the geology of this area into a single framework. Geologic cross-sections, isopach maps, and structure contour maps of all major geological units from the top of the Columbia River Basalt Group to the surface are included. The physical properties and characteristics of the major suprabasalt sedimentary units also are discussed.

  4. Progressive chemical modification of clastic sediments with burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, C. D.

    1987-03-01

    The porosity of clastic sediments at deposition varies very approximately between about 45% (sands) and 85% (muds). With burial, consolidation takes place as pore water is progressively eliminated. It would be misleading, however, to attribute alterations in sediment bulk properties to physical processes alone. Very significant mineralogical changes occur and these start soon after burial, especially in mudrocks. Striking heterogeneities such as thin, laterally continuous cemented horizons or discrete concretions are commonly introduced. These shallow burial processes are predominently the result of microbial activity. Thermodynamically unstable mixtures of organic matter and various oxidants [dissolved oxygen, sulphate, nitrate, particulate Fe(III) and Mn(IV)] provide both substrate and energy source for a variety of different microbial ecosystems. Mineralogical consequences include both leaching and the precipitation of carbonate, sulphide, phosphate and silica cements. The type and extent of mineral modification depends strongly on depositional environment variables such as rate of sedimentation and water composition. At greater depths, large scale modification of detrital clay minerals (particularly the smectite-I/S-illite transformation) takes place. Recent work of various kinds, however, has demonstrated that these changes may not be solid state transformations: clay mineral dissolution, transport and precipitation occur much more widely than was formerly supposed. In sandstones, authigenic precipitation of clay minerals from pore solution is much more obviouis. Systematic patterns of precipitation, alteration and replacement have been documented in many sedimentary basins. Porosity and permeability are reduced by cementation and, sometimes, enhanced by mineral dissolution. Whereas the general nature of these chemical reactions is fairly well understood, it is not yet possible to predict with certainty the scale or distribution of mineralogical consequences

  5. Closure Plan for Active Low Level Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    2000-11-16

    This plan has been prepared in response to direction from the U.S. Department of Energy. The purpose of the plan is to define approaches that will be implemented to ensure protection of the public and the environment when active Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBGs) at the Hanford Site are closed. Performance assessments for active burial grounds in the 200 East and West 200 Areas provide current estimates of potential environmental contamination and doses to the ''maximum exposed individual'' from burial ground operation and closure and compare dose estimates to performance objective dose limits for the facilities. This is an Operational Closure Plan. The intent of the guidance in DOE Order 435.1 is that this plan will be a living document, like the facility performance assessments, and will be revised periodically through the operational life of the LLBGs to reflect updated information on waste inventory. management practices, facility transition planning, schedule dates, assessments of post-closure performance, and environmental consequences. Out year dates identified in this plan are tentative. A Final Closure Plan will be prepared in the future when the timing and extent of closure-related activities for LLBGs can be established with greater certainty. After current operations at the LLBGs are concluded, this plan proposes transitioning of these facilities to the Environmental Restoration Program. This action will enable the Environmental Restoration Program to design and implement consistent and coordinated final remedial actions for active and inactive LLBGs. Active and inactive burial grounds in the 200 West and 200 East Areas are commingled. This plan describes approaches that will be implemented during Interim Closure, Final Closure, and Institutional Control Periods to prepare LLBGs for surface barriers, and the construction of barriers, as well as the scope of inspection, monitoring and maintenance practices that will be performed during

  6. Micromorphology of two prehistoric ritual burials from Yemen, and considerations on methodological aspects of sampling the burial matrix - work in progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usai, Maria-Raimonda; Brothwell, Don; Buckley, Stephen; Ai-Thour, Kalid; Canti, Matthew

    2010-05-01

    Introduction In the central area of Yemen, two burial sites placed high in the crevices of vertical cliff face of Cretaceous sandstone (Tawilah Group) provided evidence of human remains and yielded burial soils. Radiocarbon dating indicated c.2500-2900 years BP for the burials. In other local comparable sites the deep horizontal crevices yielded Bronze Age human remains, in exceptional state of preservation Questions: What was the nature of the burial matrix? Are other human influences superimposed on the soils derived from it? Is it simply decomposed crevice rock, scraped together at the time of burial, or the result of a more complex burial practice? Such questions are also relevant to a variety of other burials of different periods and world regions. Methods Seven matrix samples from Cliff Burials (A) Talan (Layers 4,10,12,14,18,20 and 22, from top to bottom) and (B) Shiban Kawkaban (Layer 1 and 9) were analysed with micromorphology, supplemented by SEM microprobe, X-ray diffraction, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results Cliff Burial Site Talan. The presence of cholesterol was confirmed in the lower sample. The second layer contained darker earth with fibrous plant material. A hard calcareous upper capping contrasted with the other levels of matrix, and it displayed a highly birefingent material with a significant component of uric acid. The other levels had variable organic content and plant inclusions, and possibly pollen. In Layer 10, aromatic acids indicative of balsam and sugar markers suggested plant gum. Cholesterol was the major sterol in Layers 10 and 22, but whilst in Layer 10 its oxidation products were present and cholestanol was abundant as normally in soils, it was only a minor component of Layer 22 where, rather, a significant amount of coprostanol indicated faecal input, and cholesterol oxidation products were absent. Cliff Burial Site Shiban Kawkaban. Although no stratification was visible to the naked eye, variation was observed at a

  7. A clandestine burial in Costa Rica: prospection and excavation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congram, Derek R

    2008-07-01

    This case report describes the search for a clandestine grave in Costa Rica for which the police sought the assistance of an archaeologist. An anonymous informant suggested that the victim had been kidnapped and murdered, placed in a shallow grave in the woods, then covered with lime and cement. A search of the area to detect conventional signs of burial (e.g., slumping, different plant growth) resulted in excavation of unrelated features of past disturbance. Different aspects of the grave including the deposition of cement powder over the body prevented its initial discovery. Improvisation of conventional archaeological excavation methods and use of police familiar with archaeological excavation resulted in the location of the grave and exhumation of the victim without loss of important contextual evidence that supported testimony on the cause of death. The taphonomic effects of high-lying ground water and lime in the tropical burial environment are briefly discussed. Recommendations such as the construction of a temporary sump to lower the ground water level in the grave during excavation are made to assist in similar investigations in the future.

  8. Genetic research at a fivefold children's burial from medieval Berlin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothe, Jessica; Melisch, Claudia; Powers, Natasha; Geppert, Maria; Zander, Judith; Purps, Josephine; Spors, Birgit; Nagy, Marion

    2015-03-01

    Berlin originated from the two twin cities Berlin and Cölln, which both were founded at the beginning of the 13th century. However the real date of their foundation as well as the origin of the first settlers is still unknown. On the Berlin site the historic city center is still visible in the Nikolaiviertel, but the medieval origin of Cölln disappeared almost completely. In 2007 a large scale excavation, which comprised an area of about 1700m(2) of the historical center of the St. Peters church, recovers the remains of Cölln's first citizens and span a period of 500 years of medieval population. Here we present the first genetic analysis of a fivefold children's burial from excavations in Berlin. The genetic data unveiled next to ancestry and eye color data also the kinship and the gender of the five individuals. Together with the archeological context the new gained information help to shed more light on the possible reasons for this burial.

  9. The Application of GPR in Florida for Detecting Forensic Burials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. K. Koppenjan; J. J. Schultz; S. Ono; H. Lee

    2003-01-01

    A study was performed at the University of Florida to measure ground penetrating radar(GPR) performance for detecting forensic burials. In controlled scenarios, 24 burials were constructed with pig cadavers. Two soils were utilized to represent two of the most common soil orders in Florida: an Entisol and an Ultisol. Graves were monitored on a monthly basis for time periods up to 21 months with grid data acquired with pulsed and swept-frequency GPR systems incorporating several different frequency antennas. A small subset of the graves was excavated to assess decomposition and relate to the GPR images during the test. The grave anomalies in the GPR depth profiles became less distinctive over time due to body decomposition and settling of the disturbed soil (backfill) as it compacted. Soil type was a major factor. Grave anomalies became more difficult to recognize over time for deep targets that were within clay. Forensic targets that were in sandy soil were recognized for the duration of this study. Time elapsed imagery will be presented to elucidate the changes, or lack thereof, of grave anomalies over the duration of this study. Further analysis was performed using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) reconstruction of images in 2-D and 3-D.

  10. Effects of sand burial on survival and growth of Artemisia halodendron and its physiological response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HaLin Zhao; Hao Qu; RuiLian Zhou; JianYing Yun; Jin Li

    2015-01-01

    There is a great deal of literature on the effects of sand burial upon the survival and growth of desert plants, but the physiological adaption mechanisms of desert plants to sand burial have as yet rarely been studied. Artemisia halodendron is widely distributed in the semi-arid deserts of China and is a dominant species in semi-moving dune vegetation. The growth and physiological properties of A. halodendron seedlings under different sand burial depths were studied in 2010 and 2011 in the Horqin Sand Land, Inner Mongolia, to better understand the ability and physiological mechanism by which desert plants withstand sand burial. The results showed that A. halodendron as a prammophyte species had a stronger ability to withstand sand burial compared to non-prammophytes, with some plants still surviving even if buried to a depth reaching 225% of seedling height. Although seedling growth was inhibited significantly once the depth of sand burial reached 50%of the seedling height, seedling survival did not decrease significantly until the burial depth exceeded 100%of the seedling height. Sand burial did not result in significant water stress or MDA (Malondialdehyde) accumulation in the seedlings, but membrane permeability increased significantly when the burial depth exceeded 100%of the seedling height. After being subjected to sand burial stress, POD (Peroxidase) activity and proline content increased significantly, but SOD (Superoxide Dismutase) and POD activities and soluble sugar content did not. The primary mechanism resulting in in-creased mortality and growth inhibition were that cell membranes were damaged and photosynthetic area decreased when subjected to the severe stress of sand burial, while proline and POD played key roles in osmotic adjustment and protecting cell membranes from damage, respectively.

  11. 618-10 Burial Ground Trench Remediation and 618-10 and 618-11 Burial Ground Nonintrusive Characterization of Vertical Pipe Units Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, J. W.

    2012-06-28

    A “lessons learned” is a noteworthy practice or innovative approach that is captured and shared to promote repeat application, or an adverse work practice/experience that is captured and shared to avoid reoccurrence. This document provides the lessons learned identified by the 618-10 Burial Ground trench remediation and the 618-10 and 618-11 Burial Ground nonintrusive characterization of the vertical pipe units (VPUs).

  12. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-C-1, 105-C Solid Waste Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. J. Appel and J. M. Capron

    2007-07-25

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-C-1, 105-C Solid Waste Burial Ground. This waste site was the primary burial ground for general wastes from the operation of the 105-C Reactor and received process tubes, aluminum fuel spacers, control rods, reactor hardware, spent nuclear fuel and soft wastes.

  13. Effects of urban stream burial on organic matter dynamics and reach scale nitrate retention - final

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen (N) retention in streams is an important ecosystem service that may be affected by the widespread burial of streams in stormwater pipes in urban watersheds. We predicted that stream burial suppresses the capacity of streams to retain nitrate (NO3 −) by eliminating primar...

  14. The study of secondary burial in Mycenaean mortuary traditions: a new approach to the evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Olivia A.

    2014-01-01

    This article outlines the methodological and interpretative frameworks proposed as the most holistic and inclusive manner for studying Mycenaean burial data. It provides a deeper exploration of mortuary themes, such as secondary burial, and argues that human remains should be studied in correlation

  15. Shallow burial of district heating pipes; Grund foerlaeggning av fjaerrvaermeledningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Stefan; Saellberg, Sven-Erik; Bergstroem, Gunnar [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    2006-07-28

    Previous studies have shown that the investment costs for district heating installations in suburban areas can be lowered with more rational construction work. This project has studied the possibilities of decreasing the laying depth for pipes in residential-area roads without risking damage on neither pipe nor road surface. An inventory of regulations from national and local authorities and district heating companies in Sweden was done. The larger cities have specific requirements regarding laying depth in road structures. In most places, however, the guidelines issued by the Swedish District Heating Association are followed. And in smaller cities, the question is handled directly by the municipal district heating company. In some places, e.g., Goeteborg, Joenkoeping and Luleaa, the local authorities and the district heating company have agreed on a smaller laying depth under certain circumstances. An analysis of the costs related to the excavation work, backfilling and asphalt laying showed that the costs can be reduced with about 30 % by decreasing the laying depth from 600 mm to 350 mm. A field trial was done with four twin pipes of dimension 2 x DN 32/160 laid 600 mm, 380 mm, 280 mm and 180 mm below the asphalt surface in a road with heavy traffic. Apart from the laying depth, the installation work was done in accordance with the guidelines from the Swedish District Heating Association. During traffic loading, measurements of internal deformations of the pipes, wheel-track depths in the asphalt surface and load-bearing capacity of the road structure were made. The deformation of the pipes is negligible at all laying depths. This is likely due to an arching action from the backfill which supports most of the forces from the traffic load. Significant wheel-tracks were measured, but they seem to correspond directly to settlements in the new soil. Hence, a shallower pipe trench leads to less prominent wheel-tracks. Shallow pipe burial yields slightly larger heat

  16. Burial patterns during times of armed conflict in Cyprus in the 1960s and 1970s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikellide, Maria

    2014-09-01

    The island of Cyprus experienced two periods of intercommunal conflict during which c. 2000 individuals went missing. The Committee on Missing Persons in Cyprus began a program of exhumations in 2005, through which more than 185 burial sites pertaining to the two periods of conflict have been identified and excavated. The aim of this study was twofold: (i) to present a classification of the main types of clandestine burial and (ii) to test the hypothesis that the nature of conflict influences the mode of interment. Burials can be divided into "public burials" and "concealed burials," based on the possible motives of those involved in the interment and then subdivided into smaller categories based on similarities in archeological context. A comparison of results from the two periods of conflict reveals that there are statistical differences (p < 0.005), which indicate that the mode of interment may reflect the nature, character, and atmosphere of conflict.

  17. Biosecurity procedures for the environmental management of carcasses burial sites in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Geon-Ha; Pramanik, Sudipta

    2016-12-01

    Avian influenza and foot-and-mouth disease are two main contagious pathogenic viral disease which are responsible for the massive burials of livestock in Korea since burial is the primary measure to control these outbreaks. Biosecurity is a set of preventive measures designed to prevent the risk of spreading of these infectious diseases. The main objective of this paper is to discuss about the requirements of biosecurity and develop protocol outlines for environmental management of burial sites in Korea. Current practice prescribes to minimize the potential for on-farm pollution and the spread of the infectious diseases. Specific biosecurity procedures such as proper assessment of leachate quality, safe handling and disposal of leachate, adequate leachate pollution monitoring, necessary seasonal management of burial site, and appropriate sterilization process must be carried out to prevent the indirect transmission of pathogens from the burial sites. Policy makers should acquire robust knowledge of biosecurity for establishing more effective future legislation for carcasses disposal in Korea.

  18. Mathematical model quantifies multiple daylight exposure and burial events for rock surfaces using luminescence dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freiesleben, Trine Holm; Sohbati, Reza; Murray, Andrew;

    2015-01-01

    Interest in the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of rock surfaces has increased significantly over the last few years, as the potential of the method has been explored. It has been realized that luminescence-depth profiles show qualitative evidence for multiple daylight exposure...... luminescence-depth profile from a feldspar-rich granite cobble from an archaeological site near Aarhus, Denmark. This profile shows qualitative evidence for multiple daylight exposure and burial events; these are quantified using the model developed here. By determining the burial ages from the surface layer...... events. This study confirms the suggestion that rock surfaces contain a record of exposure and burial history, and that these events can be quantified. The burial age of rock surfaces can thus be dated with confidence, based on a knowledge of their pre-burial light exposure; it may also be possible...

  19. 77 FR 58591 - Report on Waste Burial Charges: Changes in Decommissioning Waste Disposal Costs at Low-Level...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... Burial Facilities AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft NUREG; request for comment... document entitled: NUREG-1307 Revision 15, ``Report on Waste Burial Charges: Changes in Decommissioning... a document is referenced. The NUREG-1307, Revision 15 is available electronically under...

  20. Effects of urban stream burial on nitrogen uptake and ecosystem metabolism: implications for watershed nitrogen and carbon fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanization has resulted in extensive burial and channelization of headwater streams, yet little is known about impacts on stream ecosystem functions critical for reducing downstream nitrogen pollution. To characterize the biogeochemical impact of stream burial, we measured NO3...

  1. Determination of post-burial interval using entomology: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajinder; Sharma, Sahil; Sharma, Arun

    2016-08-01

    Insects and other arthropods are used in different matters pertinent to the criminal justice system as they play very important role in the decomposition of cadavers. They are used as evidence in a criminal investigation to determine post mortem interval (PMI). Various researches and review articles are available on forensic entomology to determine PMI in the terrestrial environment but very less work has been reported in context to buried bodies. Burring the carcass, is one of the methods used by criminals to conceal the crime. So, to drive the attention of researchers toward this growing field and to help various investigating agencies, the present paper reviews the studies done on determination of post-burial interval (PBI), its importance and future prospective.

  2. Burial stress and elastic strain of carbonate rocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2014-01-01

    the product of pore pressure and Biot's coefficient. We can now calculate the elastic strain by dividing “effective stress” with the rock frame modulus. By this procedure, the degree of elastic deformation at a given time and depth can be directly expressed. This facilitates the discussion of the deformation......Burial stress on a sediment or sedimentary rock is relevant for predicting compaction or failure caused by changes in, e.g., pore pressure in the subsurface. For this purpose, the stress is conventionally expressed in terms of its effect: “the effective stress” defined as the consequent elastic...... strain multiplied by the rock frame modulus. We cannot measure the strain directly in the subsurface, but from the data on bulk density and P‐wave velocity, we can estimate the rock frame modulus and Biot's coefficient and then calculate the “effective vertical stress” as the total vertical stress minus...

  3. Bruce Wannell, Wahid Amini. Kabul Elite Burials. A wounded heritage.

    OpenAIRE

    Aube, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Cet ouvrage résulte d’un programme de conservation conduit entre 2002 et 2010 par le Historic Cities Programme of the Aga Khan Trust for Culture. Il paraît la même année que son pendant : Herat Elite Burials. An endangered heritage, écrit par les mêmes auteurs (Kaboul, AKTC, 2013). Si aucun de ces deux livres ne suit une démarche historique, ils s’avèrent constituer néanmoins deux outils utiles pour l’étude des monuments funéraires et de l’épigraphie, dans la mesure où ils proposent un matéri...

  4. Burial metamorphism in rocks of the Western Andes of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offler, R.; Aguirre, L.; Levi, B.; Child, S.

    1980-01-01

    An unconformity bound, episodic pattern of burial metamorphism is preserved in marine and terrestrial volcanic and sedimentary rocks which were deposited in the West Peruvian Trough during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras. A particular metamorphic facies series is developed in each of the stratigraphic-structural units bounded by unconformities. In each unit, grade increases with stratigraphic depth and covers part or all of the range from zeolite to greenschist facies. At every unconformity a mineralogic break occurs where higher grade assemblages on top of the unconformity plane overlie lower grade assemblages. The presence of wairakite and the development of a wide range of metamorphic facies in thin sequences suggest high geothermal gradients, possibly related to generation of magma at depth.

  5. Mesolithic heritage in early Neolithic burial rituals and personal adornments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Lenneis

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Some burial rituals such as cremation or the use of colorants, especially ochre, have old roots in the preceding Mesolithic and even in the Palaeolithic. The evidence for these old rituals is more dense in central or western Europe than in south east Europe, whence most of the new Neo- lithic ideas came. Among the personal adornments a small amount of snail-shell ornaments, stag tusks, tusks of wild boar and pendants made from antler are of special interest. People wearing these very traditional, old adornments are generally equipped with precious ‘new’ things such as Spondylus, ceramics, adzes etc, and therefore show them as high status people in early Neolithic society.

  6. Chemical and Mechanical processes during burial diagenesis of chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borre, Mai Kirstine; Lind, Ida

    1998-01-01

    or larger influence on the textural development. In the chalk interval below, compaction is not the only porosity reducing agent but it has a larger influence on texture than concurrent recrystallization. Below 850 m grain-bridging cementation becomes important resulting in a lithified limestone below 1100......Burial diagenesis of chalk is a combination of mechanical compaction and chemical recrystallization as well as cementation. We have predicted the characteristic trends in specific surface resulting from these processes. The specific surface is normally measured by nitrogen adsorption but is here...... in the Pacific, where a > 1 km thick package of chalk facies sediments accumulated from the Cretaceous to the present. In the upper 200-300 m the sediment is unconsolidated carbonate ooze, throughout this depth interval compaction is the principal porosity reducing agent, but recrystallization has an equal...

  7. CHALLENGES WITH RETRIEVING TRANSURANIC WASTE FROM THE HANFORD BURIAL GROUNDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SWAN, R.J.; LAKES, M.E.

    2007-08-06

    The U.S. DOE's Hanford Reservation produced plutonium and other nuclear materials for the nation's defense starting in World War II. The defense mission generated wastes that were either retrievably stored (i.e. retrievably stored waste) and/or disposed of in burial grounds. Challenges have emerged from retrieving suspect TRU waste including adequacy of records, radiological concerns, container integrity, industrial hygiene and safety issues, the lack of processing/treatment facilities, and the integration of regulatory requirements. All retrievably stored waste is managed as mixed waste and assumed to be TRU waste, unless documented otherwise. Mixed waste is defined as radioactive waste that contains hazardous constituents. The Atomic Energy Act governs waste with radionuclides, and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) governs waste with hazardous constituents. Waste may also be governed by the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), and a portion may be managed under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). In 1970, TRU waste was required to be placed in 20-year retrievable storage and segregated from other Waste. Prior to that date, segregation did not occur. Because of the changing definition of TRU over the years, and the limitations of early assay equipment, all retrievably stored waste in the burial grounds is managed as suspect TRU. Experience has shown that some of this waste will be characterized as low-level (non-TRU) waste after assay. The majority of the retrieved waste is not amenable to sampling due to waste type and/or radiological issues. Key to waste retrieval and disposition are characterization, historical investigation and research, knowledge of past handling and packaging, as well as a broad understanding and application of the regulations.

  8. Organic carbon burial in fjords: Terrestrial versus marine inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xingqian; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Savage, Candida; Smith, Richard W.

    2016-10-01

    Fjords have been identified as sites of enhanced organic carbon (OC) burial and may play an important role in regulating climate change on glacial-interglacial timescales. Understanding sediment processes and sources of sedimentary OC are necessary to better constrain OC burial in fjords. In this study, we use Fiordland, New Zealand, as a case study and present data on surface sediments, sediment down-cores and terrestrial end-members to examine dynamics of sediments and the sources of OC in fjord sediments. Sediment cores showed evidence of multiple particle sources, frequent bioturbation and mass-wasting events. A multi-proxy approach (stable isotopes, lignin-phenols and fatty acids) allowed for separation of marine, soil and vascular plant OC in surface sediments. The relationship between mass accumulation rate (MAR) and OC contents in fjord surface sediments suggested that mineral dilution is important in controlling OC content on a global scale, but is less important for specific regions (e.g., New Zealand). The inconsistency of OC budgets calculated by using MAR weighted %OC and OC accumulation rates (AR; 6 vs 21-31 Tg OC yr-1) suggested that sediment flux in fjords was likely underestimated. By using end-member models, we propose that 55% to 62% of total OC buried in fjords is terrestrially derived, and accounts for 17 ± 12% of the OCterr buried in all marine sediments. The strong correlation between MAR and OC AR indicated that OC flux will likely decrease in fjords in the future with global warming due to decrease in sediment flux caused by glacier denudation.

  9. Effects of sand burial on growth and antioxidant enzyme activities of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Qu; HaLin Zhao; RuiLian Zhou; Jin Li; ChengChen Pan

    2015-01-01

    Growth and physiological responses of wheat to sand burial were studied in Horqin Sandy Land, to determine the impact on productivity and survival as well as antioxidant enzymes responses. This study consisted of one control (no sand) and four sand burial treatments:25%, 50%, 75%and 100%of seedling height, respectively. Minor burial (25%) had no effect on wheat growth and survival;deep burial (100%) was fatal, and the others had an intermediate effect. Thus, the survival limit to sand burial was equal to seedling height. Sand burial mainly decreased shoot biomass and crop yield, but had small effects on belowground biomass. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased with time after burial in all treatments with surviving plants. Peroxidase (POD) activity increased after six days under burial, and catalase (CAT) activity de-creased after burial, but recovered after 12 days. The concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), a marker for oxidative stress, was low on the sixth day, but increased thereafter with burial depth. Thus, sand burial>25%should be avoided due to growth rate reduction leading to reduced crop yield, and even 25%burial showed physiological indicators of stress.

  10. Geology and hydrology of radioactive solid-waste burial grounds at the Hanford Reservation, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaSala, Albert Mario; Doty, Gene C.

    1976-01-01

    The geology and hydrology of radioactive solid waste burial grounds at the Hanford Reservation were investigated, using existing data, by the U.S. Geological Survey as part of the waste management plan of the Richland Operations Office of the Energy Research and Development Administration. The purpose of the investigation was to assist the operations office in characterizing the burial sites as to present environmental safety and as to their suitability for long-term storage (several thousand to tens of thousands of years) of radioactive sol id wastes. The burial ground sites fall into two classifications: (1) those on the low stream terraces adjacent to the Columbia River, mainly in the 100 Areas and 300 Area, and (2) those lying on the high terraces south of Gable Mountain in the 200 Areas. Evaluation of the suitability of the burial grounds for long-term storage was made almost entirely on hydrologic, geologic, and topographic criteria. Of greatest concern was the possibility that radionuclides might be leached from the buried wastes by infiltrating water and carried downward to the water table. The climate is semi-arid and the average annual precipitation is 6.4 inches at the Hanford Meteorological Station. However, the precipitation is seasonally distributed with about 50 percent occurring during the months of November, December, January, and February when evapotranspiration is negligible and conditions for infiltration are most favorable. None of the burial grounds are instrumented with monitoring devices that could be used to determine if radionuclides derived from them are reaching the water table. Burial grounds on the low stream terraces are mainly underlain by permeable materials and the water table lies at relatively shallow depths. Radionuclides conceivably could be leached from these burial grounds by percolating soil water, and radionuclides might reach the Columbia River in a relatively short time. These sites could also be inundated by erosion

  11. Ab initio protein folding simulations using atomic burials as informational intermediates between sequence and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Marx Gomes; Ferreira, Diogo César; de Oliveira, Leandro Cristante; Onuchic, José N; de Araújo, Antônio F Pereira

    2014-07-01

    The three-dimensional structure of proteins is determined by their linear amino acid sequences but decipherment of the underlying protein folding code has remained elusive. Recent studies have suggested that burials, as expressed by atomic distances to the molecular center, are sufficiently informative for structural determination while potentially obtainable from sequences. Here we provide direct evidence for this distinctive role of burials in the folding code, demonstrating that burial propensities estimated from local sequence can indeed be used to fold globular proteins in ab initio simulations. We have used a statistical scheme based on a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) to classify all heavy atoms of a protein into a small number of burial atomic types depending on sequence context. Molecular dynamics simulations were then performed with a potential that forces all atoms of each type towards their predicted burial level, while simple geometric constraints were imposed on covalent structure and hydrogen bond formation. The correct folded conformation was obtained and distinguished in simulations that started from extended chains for a selection of structures comprising all three folding classes and high burial prediction quality. These results demonstrate that atomic burials can act as informational intermediates between sequence and structure, providing a new conceptual framework for improving structural prediction and understanding the fundamentals of protein folding.

  12. Resurrection imageries: A study of the motives for extravagant burial rituals in ancient Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jock M. Agai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Unlike in the New Testament whereby faith in Christ can resurrect the dead, the ancient Egyptians believed that the bereaved created the resurrection of their deceased through burial rituals and by encouraging the living to serve their kings. They thought that faith alone in god or the gods was not enough to resurrect the dead, thus they seemingly superimposed resurrection alongside burials. Using the various forms of Egyptian burial rituals and evaluated from the perspective of the Christian concept of resurrection, this researcher attempts to search for the motives behind specific Egyptian burial rituals. The researcher proposes that the activities of the bereaved or of the living over the dead were paramount in resurrecting the dead in ancient Egypt. The purpose of this research is, firstly, to explain how the Egyptian burial rituals influenced their thoughts on resurrection and, secondly, to show that the Egyptian god(s might have depended on the living to raise the dead.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: The ancient Egyptians lived their lives mainly to satisfy the interests of the dead, hence their extensive burial rituals. Whilst they believed in the power of the gods to raise the dead, there seemed to be another motive behind their burial practices which suggested that the living may have had more power to raise the dead. The power was realised in the activities of the living in the form of burials, tomb designs, mummification, food offering, and in remembering the dead. This research explains that these burial activities were relevant in resurrecting the dead without which the gods alone were not able to do that.

  13. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 2 (Appendices) contains the detailed analyses and data needed to support the results given in Volume 1.

  14. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Main Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, E. S.; Holter, G. M.

    1980-06-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains background information and study results in summary form.

  15. Miscellaneous information regarding operation and inventory of 618-11 Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, C.R.

    1993-06-01

    This report is a compilation of inventories and radiation surveys taken for the 618-11 Burial Ground at Hanford. This report deals with waste management activities at the facility during the early to mid-1960s.

  16. Biobarriers used in shallow-burial ground stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, J.F.

    1979-03-01

    These data show that cobblestone can be effective as a barrier to burrowing animals and insects, but not totally effective as a barrier to plant roots. Because of variable weather patterns at Hanford, five to six year studies are recommended for further evaluation of the effectiveness of different materials as biobarriers to radioactive substances. The following criteria must be met to present plant roots from entering buried waste and transporting radioactive or other elements to the soil surface where they can enter the food web: (1) the burial zone beneath the cover should be kept dry; (2) enough soil or other water-retaining substance should be placed in the cover to hold annual precipitation; (3) plants or other substances should be placed in the cover to remove soil moisture from site each year via evaporation and plant transpiration; and (4) different additions to the cover should be designed and placed over the buried waste to prevent burrowing animals from causing channelization of water through the cover to the lower levels. Stone size appeared to affect the plants' rate of root growth since root growth slowed in the air spaces between stones. Root toxin was 100% effective as a means of keeping roots out of the buried waste; this method could be used as a barrier modification where no plant cover is needed. 9 figures, 2 tables.

  17. The Dispersion and Burial of Well-Mixed Gravels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haschenburger, J. K.

    2012-12-01

    Over the last two decades, results from numerous tracing experiments have shed light on grain kinematics in gravel-bed channels, including the distance of grain displacement and the depth of vertical mixing. However, most of these studies report results for relatively short temporal and spatial scales, when the behavior of tagged gravels may not reflect the overall streambed dynamics. The purpose of this talk is to highlight the grain kinematics of well-mixed gravels. Field observations come from a tracing experiment operated for nearly 20 years in Carnation Creek, which is located on the west coast of Vancouver Island, Canada. The small gravel-bed river with pool-riffle-bar morphology and large woody debris experiences an average of 15 ± 5 floods per year, which facilitates frequent streambed activity and relatively high bed material transport rates typically under partial sediment transport conditions. The magnetically tagged gravels, which range in size from 16 to 180 mm, have been recovered more than 10 times over the study period. Evaluation of the spatial distribution of tagged gravels over time documents the complex evolution of streamwise dispersion. Once tracers are well mixed vertically, the displacement of mobile gravels is only partly influenced by the tracer starting position in the bed morphology and its depth of burial before a given flooding period.

  18. Trend in groundwater quality near FMD burials in agricultural region, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jeong-Won; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2015-04-01

    After the nation-wide outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) in winter of 2010-2011, thousands of mass burial site had been built all over the country in Korea. Though the burial pits were partially lined with impermeable material, potential threat of leachate leakage was still in concern. In worry of leachate release from those livestock burials during decomposition of carcasses, groundwater samples from wells near the burials were collected and analyzed in between 2011 and 2013. Among the sample locations, 250 wells with monitoring priorities were chosen and had been watched continuously through the years. For trend analysis of groundwater quality, relations between land use types, distances to burial and nitrate concentrations are studied. Types of land use within 300 m radius of each well were investigated. Nitrate concentrations show proportional relations to the area of agricultural activity and inversely proportional to the area of forest. The proportionality decreased with both agricultural and forest area since 2011. When seasonal variation is concerned, slightly stronger proportionality is shown in dry season for both agricultural and forested area. For a qualitative analysis of the trend, non-parametric Kendall test is applied. Especially, regional Kendall test is implemented to find out spatial feature of nitrate concentration. Nitrate concentrations show slow but statistically significant deceasing trend for every well. When the wells are group according to their distances from the nearest burial pit, decreasing trend of nitrate concentration is shown in all groups. However, there was no consistency in significant factor among the groups. Considering the above mentioned results, the groundwater wells near the burials seem to be influence more from agricultural activities near the wells than from the burial leachate. The slow but significant decreasing trend in nitrate concentration is supposed as the result of an increasing governmental interest in

  19. Extent of Stream Burial and Relationships to Watershed Area, Topography, and Impervious Surface Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy E. Weitzell

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stream burial—the routing of streams through culverts, pipes, and concrete lined channels, or simply paving them over—is common during urbanization, and disproportionately affects small, headwater streams. Burial undermines the physical and chemical processes governing life in streams, with consequences for water quality and quantity that may amplify from headwaters to downstream receiving waters. Knowledge of the extent of stream burial is critical for understanding cumulative impacts to stream networks, and for future decision-making allowing for urban development while protecting ecosystem function. We predicted stream burial across the urbanizing Potomac River Basin (USA for each 10-m stream segment in the basin from medium-resolution impervious cover data and training observations obtained from high-resolution aerial photography in a GIS. Results were analyzed across a range in spatial aggregation, including counties and independent cities, small watersheds, and regular spatial grids. Stream burial was generally correlated with total impervious surface area (ISA, with areas exhibiting ISA above 30% often subject to elevated ratios of stream burial. Recurring patterns in burial predictions related to catchment area and topographic slope were also detected. We discuss these results in the context of physiographic constraints on stream location and urban development, including implications for environmental management of aquatic resources.

  20. Molybdenum isotope composition from Yangtze block continental margin and its indication to organic burial rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Lian; HUANG Junhua; Corey Archer; Chris Hawkesworth

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents the molybdenum isotope data,along with the trace element content,to investigate the geochemical behavior of authigenic Mo during long-term burial in sediments in continental margin settings of the Yangtze block,as well as their indication to the burial of original organic carbon.The burial rate of original organic carbon was estimated on the basis of the amount of sedimentary sulfur (TS content),whilst the carbon loss by aerobic degradation was estimated according to calculated Mn contents.On these points,the original organic carbon flux was calculated,exhibiting a large range of variation (0.17-0.67mmol/m2/day).The strong correlation between sedimentary Mo isotope values and organic carbon burial rates previously proposed on the basis of the investigations on modern ocean sediments,was also used here to estimate the organic carbon burial rate.The data gained through this model showed that organic carbon burial rates have large variations,ranging from 0.43-2.87 mmol/m2/day.Although the two sets of data gained through different geochemical records in the Yangtze block show a deviation of one order of magnitude,they do display a strong correlation.It is thus tempting to speculate that the Mo isotope signature of sediments may serve as a tracer for the accumulation rate of original organic carbon in the continental margin sediments.

  1. Dating floodplain sediments using tree-ring response to burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, J.M.; Vincent, K.R.; Shafroth, P.B.

    2005-01-01

    Floodplain sediments can be dated precisely based on the change in anatomy of tree rings upon burial. When a stem of tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima) or sandbar willow (Salix exigua) is buried, subsequent annual rings in the buried section resemble the rings of roots: rings become narrower, vessels within the rings become larger, and transitions between rings become less distinct. We combined observations of these changes with tree-ring counts to determine the year of deposition of sedimentary beds exposed in a 150-m-long trench across the floodplain of the Rio Puerco, a rapidly filling arroyo in New Mexico. This method reliably dated most beds thicker than about 30 cm to within a year of deposition. Floodplain aggradation rates varied dramatically through time and space. Sediment deposition was mostly limited to brief overbank flows occurring every few years. The most rapid deposition occurred on channel-margin levees, which migrated laterally during channel narrowing. At the decadal timescale, the cross-section-average sediment deposition rate was steady, but there was a shift in the spatial pattern of deposition in the 1980s. From 1936 to 1986, sediment deposition occurred by channel narrowing, with little change in elevation of the thalweg. After 1986 sediment deposition occurred by vertical aggradation. From 1936 to 2000 about 27 per cent of the arroyo cross-section filled with sediment. The rate of filling from 1962 to 2000 was 0-8 vertical m/decade or 85 m2/decade. Published in 2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Coccolith Carbonate Burial in the Open Ocean: Neogene Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderiks, J.

    2003-12-01

    Coccolithophorids, gold-brown algae, are prominent primary producers in the World's oceans. They produce calcite scales (coccoliths) that surround their cell, which represents a potential short-term CO2 source to the environment. The burial of coccoliths into marine sediments acts as a long-term sink of carbon. In fact, sedimentary carbonates are the largest reservoir of carbon on Earth, and hence play a vital role in the global carbon cycle. The contribution by coccolithophorids to this long-term sink can be expressed by accumulation rates of fine fraction carbonate. In more detail, absolute abundances of coccoliths combined with species-specific carbonate weights can resolve which taxa are most effective contributors to deep-sea carbonate. Surprisingly little has been done to link biogenic calcium carbonate budgets in the geological past to the general evolutionary patterns of calcifying plankton. Coccolithophorids have evolved relatively rapidly since their first appearance in the Mesozoic. Their evolutionary patterns are characterized by several periods of increasing species diversity and subsequent decline, as well as changes in their coccolith size and morphology. An overall decrease in the coccolith sizes is recorded during the Neogene, with the disappearance of large coccoliths (>10 micron) since the Middle Miocene. Because larger coccoliths are generally more resistant to dissolution, this observation cannot be due to (selective) carbonate dissolution. Hence, it implies significant variability in the amount of coccolith carbonate effectively buried through time, and potentially drastic changes in coccolithophorid productivity in the open ocean, with consequences for the short-term effects of biocalcification. This study focuses on Neogene proportions and accumulation rates of coccolith carbonate in selected well-preserved DSDP and ODP Sites from the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans, at a 1-2 M.y. resolution. Ultimately, the aim is to understand the

  3. Molybdenum isotope signatures from the Yangtze block continental margin and its indication to organic burial rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L.; Zhou, H. B.; Huang, J. H.

    2007-12-01

    The paper presents the molybdenum isotope data, along with the trace element content, to investigate the geochemical behavior of authigenic Mo during long-term burial in sediments in continental margin settings of the Yangtze block, as well as their indication to the burial of original organic carbon. The burial rate of original organic carbon were estimated on the basis of the amount of sedimentary sulfur (TS content), whilst the carbon loss by aerobic degradation was estimated according to calculated Mn contents. On these points, the original organic carbon flux was calculated, exhibiting a large range of variation (2.54-15.82 mmol/m2/day). The strong correlation between sedimentary Mo isotope values and organic carbon burial rates previously proposed on the basis of the investigations on modern ocean sediments was also used here to estimate the organic carbon burial rate. The data gained through this model showed that organic carbon burial rates have large variations, ranging from 0.43- 2.87mmol/m2/day. Although the two sets of data gained through different geochemical records in the Yangtze block show a deviation of one order of magnitude, they do display a strong correlation. It is thus tempting to speculate that the Mo isotope signature of sediments may serve as a tracer for the accumulation rate of original organic carbon in the continental margin sediments. Keywords: Molybdenum isotopes; organic carbon burial rate; ancient continental margin setting ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We thank Professor Xie Shucheng for his constructive review comments. This research is co-supported by the Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University (grants IRT0441), the SinoPec project (grant no. G0800-06-ZS-319) and the National Nature Science Foundation of China (grants 40673020).

  4. Evaluation of Elevated Tritium Levels in Groundwater Downgradient from the 618-11 Burial Ground Phase I Investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.; Smith, R.M.; Williams, B.A.; Thompson, C.J.; Evans, J.C.; Hulstrom, L.C.

    2000-05-01

    This report describes the results of the preliminary investigation of elevated tritium in groundwater discovered near the 618-11 burial ground, located in the eastern part of the Hanford Site. Tritium in one well downgradient of the burial ground was detected at levels up to 8,140,000 pCi/L. The 618-11 burial ground received a variety of radioactive waste from the 300 Area between 1962 and 1967. The burial ground covers 3.5 hectare (8.6 acre) and contains trenches, large diameter caissons, and vertical pipe storage units. The burial ground was stabilized with a native sediment covering. The Energy Northwest reactor complex was constructed immediately east of the burial ground.

  5. Roman Bronze Vessels From the Late Sarmatian Burial of the Lebedevka Burial-Ground in Western Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treister Mikhail Yuryevich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to studying cultural monuments – bronze vessels, a jug and a basin from the barrow no. 1/1967 of the Lebedevka Late Sarmatian burial mound (Western Kazakhstan, dating back to the middle of the 3rd century AD at the latest. These items do not find exact parallels among the bronze vessels of provincial Rome. Although the shape of the jug handle with a curved leaf turned upright between two horizontally arranged swan heads has parallels on the so-called “composite jug with handles” (“gegliederten Henkelkrügen”, the cylindrical form of the jug’s neck peculiar of the glass jugs of allegedly Syrian manufacture of the second half of the 3rd-4th centuries AD is very unusual. Even more unusual is a basin with horizontally bent rim and elaborate handles with pearls on a high narrow stand-ring. The XRF analyses of the Lebedevka jug’s metal revealed that its body and handle were made of a copper-based alloy with very high admixtures of zinc (24-27 % and inconsiderable additions of lead (up to 3 %. A similar alloy was used for manufacturing a vessel in the form of a crouching young negro from Niederbieber. Most objects of provincial Roman import reached Western Kazakhstan via the Bosporan kingdom along the Northern branch of the Silk Road. The above discussed bronze vessels from Lebedevka let suggest, that the nomads could receive some import articles that were brought along the caravan routes leading from Egypt and Syria to the East.

  6. Buried Alive: The Behavioural Response of the Mussels, Modiolus modiolus and Mytilus edulis to Sudden Burial by Sediment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoë L Hutchison

    Full Text Available Sedimentation in the sea occurs through natural processes, such as wave and tidal action, which can be exacerbated during storms and floods. Changes in terrestrial land use, marine aggregate extraction, dredging, drilling and mining are known to result in substantial sediment deposition. Research suggests that deposition will also occur due to the modern development of marine renewable energy. The response to individual burial under three depths of sediment, three sediment fractions and five burial durations was investigated in two mussel species, Modiolus modiolus and Mytilus edulis in specialist mesocosms. Both mussel species showed substantial mortality, which increased with duration of burial and burial by finer sediment fractions. M. modiolus was better able to survive short periods of burial than M. edulis, but at longer durations mortality was more pronounced. No mortality was observed in M. modiolus in burial durations of eight days or less but by 16 days of burial, over 50% cumulative mortality occurred. Under variable temperature regimes, M. edulis mortality increased from 20% at 8°C to over 60% at 14.5 and 20°C. Only M. edulis was able to emerge from burial, facilitated by increased byssus production, laid mostly on vertical surfaces but also on sediment particles. Emergence was higher from coarse sediment and shallow burials. Byssus production in M. edulis was not related to the condition index of the mussels. Results suggest that even marginal burial would result in mortality and be more pronounced in warm summer periods. Our results suggest that in the event of burial, adult M. modiolus would not be able to emerge from burial unless local hydrodynamics assist, whereas a small proportion of M. edulis may regain contact with the sediment water interface. The physiological stress resulting in mortality, contribution of local hydrodynamics to survival and other ecological pressures such as mussels existing in aggregations, are

  7. Buried Alive: The Behavioural Response of the Mussels, Modiolus modiolus and Mytilus edulis to Sudden Burial by Sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Zoë L; Hendrick, Vicki J; Burrows, Michael T; Wilson, Ben; Last, Kim S

    2016-01-01

    Sedimentation in the sea occurs through natural processes, such as wave and tidal action, which can be exacerbated during storms and floods. Changes in terrestrial land use, marine aggregate extraction, dredging, drilling and mining are known to result in substantial sediment deposition. Research suggests that deposition will also occur due to the modern development of marine renewable energy. The response to individual burial under three depths of sediment, three sediment fractions and five burial durations was investigated in two mussel species, Modiolus modiolus and Mytilus edulis in specialist mesocosms. Both mussel species showed substantial mortality, which increased with duration of burial and burial by finer sediment fractions. M. modiolus was better able to survive short periods of burial than M. edulis, but at longer durations mortality was more pronounced. No mortality was observed in M. modiolus in burial durations of eight days or less but by 16 days of burial, over 50% cumulative mortality occurred. Under variable temperature regimes, M. edulis mortality increased from 20% at 8°C to over 60% at 14.5 and 20°C. Only M. edulis was able to emerge from burial, facilitated by increased byssus production, laid mostly on vertical surfaces but also on sediment particles. Emergence was higher from coarse sediment and shallow burials. Byssus production in M. edulis was not related to the condition index of the mussels. Results suggest that even marginal burial would result in mortality and be more pronounced in warm summer periods. Our results suggest that in the event of burial, adult M. modiolus would not be able to emerge from burial unless local hydrodynamics assist, whereas a small proportion of M. edulis may regain contact with the sediment water interface. The physiological stress resulting in mortality, contribution of local hydrodynamics to survival and other ecological pressures such as mussels existing in aggregations, are discussed.

  8. Recovery of macrobenthic assemblages following experimental sand burial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José J. Barrón

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was supported by a fund provided by the Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología (UNAM and a fund provided to Celia Olabarria in 2004 and 2005 by the University of Vigo for overseas short stays.AbstractPeriodic inundation by sand is a very common feature of rocky coasts throughout the world. Even so, there have been few direct observations or experiments to investigate the role of sediments on intertidal rocky shores. We designed a field experiment in Mazatlán Bay, Mexico, to test the initial impact and subsequent recovery of intertidal macrobenthic assemblages exposed to sand burial at two sites of varying wave exposure. Both sites supported different natural assemblages. Treatment plots for the addition of sediment and control plots (50 × 50 cm, separated by at least 1.5 m, were randomly placed across the mid-water tidal level. The initial response of the resident macrobenthos and the subsequent recolonization was monitored over a period of 95 days. The main effect of sediment deposition at both sites was mortality and removal of biota due to smothering. The recovery process was rapid and may in part have been the result of the mechanism by which the small, disturbed patches were recolonized. Most of the invertebrates colonized the patches as adults; several seaweeds exhibited vegetative growth as the major mechanism of colonization (e.g., Ulva lactuca Linnaeus, 1753, Amphiroa valonioides Yendo, 1902 and Chaetomorpha antennina (Borgensen Kutzing, 1849. The rate of recovery varied between the sites, however. Recovery of species numbers proceeded quickly at the sheltered site (day 7, but took 95 days at the exposed site. In contrast, biomass reached control levels by day 45 at the sheltered site, but already by day 15 at the exposed site. By day 95, the assemblages recovered to 83.5% and 81% similarity with the controls at the sheltered and exposed sites respectively. Although differences in wave exposure could be very

  9. Controlled preparation of wet granular media reveals limits to lizard burial ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Sarah S.; Kuckuk, Robyn; Goldman, Daniel I.

    2015-07-01

    Many animals move within ground composed of granular media (GM); the resistive properties of such substrates can depend on water content and compaction, but little is known about how such parameters affect locomotion or the physics of drag and penetration. Using apparatus to control compaction of GM, our recent studies of movement in dry GM have revealed locomotion strategies of specialized dry-sand-swimming reptiles. However, these animals represent a small fraction of the diversity and presumed burial strategies of fossorial reptilian fauna. Here we develop a system to create states of wet GM of varying moisture content and compaction in quantities sufficient to study the burial and subsurface locomotion of the Ocellated skink (C. ocellatus), a generalist lizard. X-ray imaging revealed that in wet and dry GM the lizard slowly buried (≈ 30 s) propagating a wave from head to tail, while moving in a start-stop motion. During forward movement, the head oscillated, and the forelimb on the convex side of the body propelled the animal. Although body kinematics and ‘slip’ were similar in both substrates, the burial depth was smaller in wet GM. Penetration and drag force experiments on smooth cylinders revealed that wet GM was ≈ 4× more resistive than dry GM. In total, our measurements indicate that while the rheology of the dry and wet GM differ substantially, the lizard's burial motor pattern is conserved across substrates, while its burial depth is largely constrained by environmental resistance.

  10. Late Quaternary strata and carbon burial records in the Yellow River delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guangming; Ye, Siyuan; Li, Guangxue; Ding, Xigui; Yuan, Hongming

    2015-06-01

    Sediment carbon sequestration plays an essential role in mitigating atmospheric CO2 increases and the subsequently global greenhouse effect. To clarify the late Quaternary strata and carbon burial records in Yellow River delta (YRD), detailed analysis of benthic foraminifera, total carbon (TC), organic carbon (Corg), sedimentary characteristics and moisture contents of sediments, was performed on core ZK3, 30.3 m in length and obtained from YRD in 2007. Eight depositional units (designated U1-U8 in ascending order) were identified. A comprehensive analysis method of historical geography and sedimentary geology was used to determine the precise depositional ages of the modern Yellow River delta (MYRD), from which pre-MYRD ages were deduced. The results indicates that the maximum burial rates of TC, inorganic carbon (IC) and Corg occurred in the delta front (U5), and the minimum in the shallow sea (U3). Remarkable high sedimentation rates in the MYRD are responsible for burial efficiency of carbon, with an average rate of Corg burial reaching 2087±251 g (m2 yr)-1, and that of IC reaching 13741±808 g (m2 yr)-1, which are much higher than those of other regions with high contents of Corg. Therefore, YRD has a significant burial efficiency for carbon sequestration.

  11. The manipulation of death: a burial area at the Neolithic Settlement of Avgi, NW Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Stratouli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Neolithic of Northern Greece the disposal of the deceased is strongly related to the community of the living, and in most cases to the built environment. Burials often occur in close proximity to, or underneath ‘domestic’ structures. The constant association of dead ancestors with the living social environment may indicate a particular desire by Neolithic people to negotiate their past by incorporating it into their own present. This paper addresses such issues, based on new evidence from the Neolithic settlement of Avgi, NW Greece. A group of cremations were recently located inside ten small pots buried in an open space in the Neolithic village. The burials consisted of tiny amounts of heavily burnt human bones and, in two cases, were accompanied by carbonized seeds. This paper will discuss the occurrence of the burial pots and the associated cremations as tokens of memory and of special links to the past represented by the dead ancestors.

  12. Potential application of Raman spectroscopy for determining burial duration of skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Gregory; Lednev, Igor K

    2011-11-01

    Raman spectroscopy was used to study trends in chemical composition of bones in a burial environment. A turkey bone was sectioned and buried for short intervals between 12 and 62 days. Buried sections were analyzed using Raman microspectroscopy with 785 nm excitation. The results indicate that chemical changes in bone due to soil bacteria are time-dependent. Spectroscopic trends within buried bone segments were correlated to burial duration. A preliminary model was constructed using peak integration of Raman bands. Data collected within buried bone segments fit very well in this model. The model constructed is sensitive to changes in bone composition in a scale of days. This study illustrates the great potential of Raman spectroscopy as a non-destructive method for estimating the burial duration of bone for forensic purposes.

  13. Effects of sediment burial on grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes,1844), eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.; Deters, Joseph E.; Erwin, Susannah O.; Hayer, Cari-Ann

    2015-01-01

    It is thought that grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) eggs must remain suspended in the water column in order to hatch successfully. Using sand, the effects of varying sediment levels on grass carp eggs were tested at different developmental states and temperatures. Survival was high (15–35%, depending on temperature and trial) in the unburied treatment where eggs rested on a sand bed but were not covered by sediment. Survival was lower in the partial burial (5–10%) and very low (0–4%) in the full burial treatment. In all treatments, delayed hatching (organisms remaining in membranes past the stage of hatching competence) was noted. Deformities such as missing heads and pericardial edema occurred at high rates in the partial and full burials. Eggs that come in contact with the benthos and are resuspended in the water column should be considered in embryonic drift models.

  14. How burial diagenesis of chalk sediments controls sonic velocity and porosity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2003-01-01

    to the progress of burial diagenesis of chalk, which is revised as follows: Newly deposited carbonate ooze and mixed sediments range in porosity from 60 to 80%, depending on the prevalence of hollow microfossils. Despite the high porosity, these sediments are not in suspension, as reflected in IFs of 0.......1 or higher. Upon burial, the sediments lose porosity by mechanical compaction, and concurrently, the calcite particles recrystallize into progressively more equant shapes. High compaction rates may keep the particles in relative motion, whereas low compaction rates allow the formation of contact cement......, whereby IF increases and chalk forms. Rock mechanical tests show that when compaction requires more than in-situ stress, porosity reduction is arrested. During subsequent burial, crystals and pores grow in size as a consequence of the continuing recrystallization. ne lack of porosity loss during...

  15. New hydroxyproline radiocarbon dates from Sungir, Russia, confirm early Mid Upper Palaeolithic burials in Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalawade-Chavan, Shweta; McCullagh, James; Hedges, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Sungir (Russia) is a key Mid-Upper Palaeolithic site in Eurasia, containing several spectacular burials that disclose early evidence for complex burial rites in the form of a range of grave goods deposited along with the dead. Dating has been particularly challenging, with multiple radiocarbon dates ranging from 19,160±270 to 28,800±240 BP for burials that are believed to be closely similar in age. There are disparities in the radiocarbon dates of human bones, faunal remains and charcoal found on the floor of burials. Our approach has been to develop compound-specific methods using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to separate single amino acids, such as hydroxyproline, and thereby avoid the known human contamination on the bones themselves. Previously, we applied this technique to obtain radiocarbon dates of ∼30,000 BP for Sungir 2, Sungir 3 and a mammoth bone from the occupation levels of the site. The single amino acid radiocarbon dates were in good agreement with each other compared to all the dates previously reported, supporting their reliability. Here we report new hydroxyproline dates for two more human burials from the same site, Sungir 1 and Sungir 4. All five hydroxyproline dates reported are statistically indistinguishable and support an identical age for the group. The results suggest that compound-specific radiocarbon analysis should be considered seriously as the method of choice when precious archaeological remains are to be dated because they give a demonstrably contaminant-free radiocarbon age. The new ages are, together with the previously dated 'Red Lady of Paviland' human in the British Isles, the earliest for Mid Upper Palaeolithic burial behaviour in Eurasia, and point to the precocious appearance of this form of rite in Europe Russia.

  16. Determination of burial dose in incompletely bleached fluvial samples using single grains of quartz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov; Murray, A.S.; Bøtter-Jensen, Lars

    2007-01-01

    We determine the burial dose in three known-age incompletely bleached fluvial samples using single grains of quartz. Estimation of burial dose in incompletely bleached samples requires that the characteristics of the well-bleached part of the distribution are known in order to distinguish between...... well-bleached and poorly bleached grains. It is especially important to investigate if the uncertainties assigned to individual estimates of dose adequately describe the observed variability in well-bleached dose distributions. We investigate this by quantifying the overdispersion in laboratory...

  17. Mine Burial Experiments at the Martha’s Vineyard Coastal Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    waves," Ocean Eng., vol. 30, pp. 1647-1667, 2003. [3] Y. A. Catan6-Lopera and M. H. Garcia , "Burial of short cylinders in- duced by scour and...K. Prada , "A self-contained sector-scanning sonar for bottom roughness observa- tions as part of sediment transport studies," J. Atmos. Ocean...pp. 204-213, Jan. 2007. [31] Y. A. Catano-Lopera, S. T Demir, and M. H. Garcia , "Self-burial of short cylinders under oscillatory flows and combined

  18. Limits for the burial of the Department of Energy transuranic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healy, J.W.; Rodgers, J.C.

    1979-01-15

    Potential limits for the shallow earth burial of transuranic elements were examined by simplified models of the individual pathways to man. Pathways examined included transport to surface steams, transport to ground water, intrusion, and people living on the burial ground area after the wastes have surfaced. Limits are derived for each pathway and operational limits are suggested based upon a dose to the organ receiving the maximum dose rate of 0.5 rem/y after 70 years of exposure for the maximum exposed individual.

  19. 77 FR 64361 - Report on Waste Burial Charges: Changes in Decommissioning Waste Disposal Costs at Low-Level...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ... Burial Facilities AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft NUREG-1307, revision 15; extension... Commission (NRC or the Commission) issued Draft NUREG-1307, Revision 15, ``Report on Waste Burial Charges... Register for a 30 day public comment period. The NRC is extending the public comment period for Draft...

  20. Effects of sand burial on biomass, chlorophyll fluorescence and extracellular polysaccharides of man-made cyanobacterial crusts under experimental conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG WeiBo; YANG CuiYun; TANG DongShan; LI DunHai; LIU YongDing; HU ChunXiang

    2007-01-01

    Soil cyanobacterial crusts occur throughout the world, especially in the semiarid and arid regions. It always encounters sand burial, which is an important feature of mobile sand dunes. A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the effects of sand burial on biomass, chlorophyll fluorescence andextracellular polysaccharides of man-made cyanobacterial crusts in six periods of time (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 d after burying) and at five depths (0, 0.2, 0.5, 1 and 2cm). The results indicated that with the increase of the burial time and burial depth extracellular polysaccharides content and Fv/Fm decreased correspondingly and there were no significant differences between 20 and 30 burial days under different burial depths. The degradation of chlorophyll a content appeared only at 20 and 30 burial days and there was also no significant difference between them under different burial depths. It was also observed a simultaneous decrease of the values of the Fv/Fm and the content of extracellular polysaccharides happened in the crusted cyanobacterium Microcoleus vaginatus Gom. It may suggest that there exists a relationship between extracellular polysaccharides and recovery of the activity of photosystem Ⅱ (PS Ⅱ) after rehydration.

  1. Effects of experimental stem burial on radial growth and wood anatomy of pedunculate oak

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Copini, P.; Decuyper, M.; Sass-Klaassen, U.G.W.; Gärtner, H.; Mohren, G.M.J.; Ouden, den J.

    2015-01-01

    In dendrogeomorphology, abrupt changes in wood anatomy are frequently used to date the exact year of burial and exposure events. However, few studies have addressed the precision and underlying mechanisms of these changes. In a field experiment, performed in a drift-sand area in the Netherlands, we

  2. Short-Term Sediment Burial Effects on the Seagrass Phyllospadix scouleri

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    additive. Seasonal, age-related, or phenological differences may also dictate how resistant to burial a population might be. Future work should compare...growing season; add a field-based component; and design an experiment to account for genetic variation and local adaptation to sediment dynamics. 7 ERDC

  3. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) Old Burial Ground (OBG) source control technology and inventory study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G.P.; Rehder, T.E.; Kanzleiter, J.P.

    1996-10-02

    This report has been developed to support information needs for wastes buried in the Burial Ground Complex. Information discussed is presented in a total of four individual attachments. The general focus of this report is to collect information on estimated source inventories, leaching studies, source control technologies, and to provide information on modeling parameters and associated data deficiencies.

  4. A unique human-fox burial from a pre-Natufian cemetery in the Levant (Jordan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A Maher

    Full Text Available New human burials from northern Jordan provide important insights into the appearance of cemeteries and the nature of human-animal relationships within mortuary contexts during the Epipalaeolithic period (c. 23,000-11,600 cal BP in the Levant, reinforcing a socio-ideological relationship that goes beyond predator-prey. Previous work suggests that archaeological features indicative of social complexity occur suddenly during the latest Epipalaeolithic phase, the Natufian (c. 14,500-11,600 cal BP. These features include sedentism, cemeteries, architecture, food production, including animal domestication, and burials with elaborate mortuary treatments. Our findings from the pre-Natufian (Middle Epipalaeolithic cemetery of 'Uyun al-Hammam demonstrate that joint human-animal mortuary practices appear earlier in the Epipalaeolithic. We describe the earliest human-fox burial in the Near East, where the remains of dogs have been found associated with human burials at a number of Natufian sites. This is the first time that a fox has been documented in association with human interments pre-dating the Natufian and with a particular suite of grave goods. Analysis of the human and animal bones and their associated artefacts provides critical data on the nature and timing of these newly-developing relationships between people and animals prior to the appearance of domesticated dogs in the Natufian.

  5. Social Workers' Final Act of Service: Respectful Burial Arrangements for Indigent, Unclaimed, and Unidentified People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castex, Graciela M.

    2007-01-01

    Social workers have long been involved in identifying resources and making final arrangements for clients who die without an estate or have no heirs, who may be institutionalized or unknown to the community, or whose body may be unclaimed for burial. Absent quick intervention, these individuals are often at risk for an anonymous potter's field…

  6. Re-evaluating luminescence burial doses and bleaching of fluvial deposits using Bayesian computational statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cunningham, A. C.; Wallinga, J.; Hobo, N.; Versendaal, A. J.; Makaske, B.; Middelkoop, H.

    2015-01-01

    The optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) signal from fluvial sediment often contains a remnant from the previous deposition cycle, leading to a partially bleached equivalent-dose distribution. Although identification of the burial dose is of primary concern, the degree of bleaching could potentia

  7. Re-evaluating luminescence burial doses and bleaching of fluvial deposits using Bayesian computational statistics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cunningham, A.C.; Wallinga, J.; Versendaal, Alice; Makaske, A.; Middelkoop, H.; Hobo, N.

    2015-01-01

    The optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) signal from fluvial sediment often contains a remnant from the previous deposition cycle, leading to a partially bleached equivalent-dose distribution. Although identification of the burial dose is of primary concern, the degree of bleaching could potentia

  8. Decifering mega-ripple variability in an anthropogenically steered environment: implications for mine burial studies

    OpenAIRE

    Papili, S.; Baeye, M.; Van Lancker, V.

    2013-01-01

    In 2007 the Ministery of Defence, in collaboration with Ghent University, developed a project on the understanding of mega-ripple variability in view of improving mine burial prediction models in sandbank areas. Results will assist in the monitoring of sea-mines, heritage of two World Wars, nowadays partially or totally buried by sandy bedforms.

  9. 77 FR 35114 - Agency Information Collection (NCA PreNeed Burial Planning) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    .... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Denise McLamb, Enterprise Records Service (005R1B), Department of..., service members, and their eligible family members with planning for burial in a VA national cemetery... members, and their potentially eligible family members. Affected Public: Individuals or...

  10. Archaeological Investigations at Nonhabitation and Burial Sites, Chief Joseph Dam Project, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    reported by Sprague (1971:3) the firm succeeded in relocating 1,380 burials. Speed was of the essence because the firm was paid on a piecework basis...nine soil samples for use in the pollen extraction process. At this point, a known quantity of exotic Eucalyptus pollen was added to enable us to

  11. Geologic Descriptions for the Solid-Waste Low Level Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.

    2007-09-23

    This document provides the stratigraphic framework and six hydrogeologic cross sections and interpretations for the solid-waste Low Level Burial Grounds on the Hanford Site. Four of the new cross sections are located in the 200 West Area while the other two are located within the 200 East Area. The cross sections display sediments of the vadose zone and uppermost unconfined aquifer.

  12. Compositional variation in Roman colourless glass objects from the bocholtz burial (the Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, D.J.; Groot, T. de; Pols, S.; Os, B.J.H. van; Degryse, P.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the major and trace element composition and Pb and Sr isotope characteristics of a series of about 20 colourless glass objects from a single high-status Roman burial from the Netherlands (Bocholtz). The major elements show a relatively homogeneous group, with one outlier. This is cor

  13. Degradation processes in colourless Roman glass: cases from the Bocholtz burial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, D.J.; Pols, S.; Joosten, I.; Os, B.J.H. van; Smit, A.

    2008-01-01

    A group of Roman glass objects from the Bocholtz burial in the SW of Limburg (The Netherlands) was found to have been subject to varying degrees of degradation. Many of the 25 colourless glass objects were fragmented to pieces <0.1 cm ("sugared"), whereas the three transparent blue-green glass objec

  14. Mesopotamian ceramics from the burial mounds of Bahrain, c.2250–1750 BC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    Among the ceramic vessels recovered from the burial mounds of Bahrain, a small percentage represents Mesopotamian imports or local emulations of such. In this paper two overall horizons are distinguished in these Mesopotamian ceramics. These are significant because both coincide with major stages...

  15. Burial-nutrient feedbacks amplify the sensitivity of carbon dioxide to changes in organic matter remineralisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Roth

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the marine remineralization of particulate organic carbon (POC and calcium carbonate potentially provide a positive feedback under climate change. The responses to changes in remineralization length scales are systematically mapped with the Bern3D ocean–sediment model for CO2 and tracer fields for which observations and palaeoproxies exist. Spatio-temporal evolutions are captured by empirical orthogonal functions. Results show that the "sediment burial-nutrient feedback" amplifies the initial response in atmospheric CO2 by a factor of four to seven. A temporary imbalance between the weathering flux and the burial of organic matter and calcium carbonate lead to sustained changes the ocean's phosphate and alkalinity inventory and in turn in surface nutrient availability, marine productivity, and atmospheric CO2. It takes decades to centuries to reorganize tracers and fluxes within the ocean, many millennia to approach equilibrium for burial fluxes, while δ13C signatures are still changing 200 000 years after the perturbation. CO2 sensitivity is with 1.7 ppm m−1 about fifty times larger for a unit change in the remineralisation depth of POC than of calcium carbonate. The results highlight the role of organic matter burial for atmospheric CO2 and the substantial impacts of seemingly small changes in POC remineralisation.

  16. Burial society versus the Church in the Black society of South Africa: A pastoral response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David K. Semenya

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to provide insight to the church councils of mainly Black churches, regarding members� absenteeism during Sunday church services and also the lack of financial contributions to the church. A number of church-going members are often absent on the last Sunday of the month or the first Sunday of the month because of their commitments to burial societies − burial societies prefer to meet on Sundays. Because the meetings take place at the end of the month and funding is one of the main issues at these meetings, the members� tithing to the church is negatively impacted. Our research found that members considered their contribution to the societies to be more important than their tithing to the church. In some cases members belonged to more than one burial society, and these members spent more money so as to receive greater support in the event of a death. Unfortunately this left them with nothing to give to the church. Another reason given for belonging to burial societies was that their membership helped them to prepare for death, would enable them to have a decent funeral service and would ensure that those who attended the funeral service did not go home hungry.

  17. Burial society versus the Church in the Black society of South Africa: A pastoral response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David K. Semenya

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to provide insight to the church councils of mainly Black churches, regarding members’ absenteeism during Sunday church services and also the lack of financial contributions to the church. A number of church-going members are often absent on the last Sunday of the month or the first Sunday of the month because of their commitments to burial societies − burial societies prefer to meet on Sundays. Because the meetings take place at the end of the month and funding is one of the main issues at these meetings, the members’ tithing to the church is negatively impacted. Our research found that members considered their contribution to the societies to be more important than their tithing to the church. In some cases members belonged to more than one burial society, and these members spent more money so as to receive greater support in the event of a death. Unfortunately this left them with nothing to give to the church. Another reason given for belonging to burial societies was that their membership helped them to prepare for death, would enable them to have a decent funeral service and would ensure that those who attended the funeral service did not go home hungry.

  18. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-B-6, 108-B Solid Waste Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. L. Proctor

    2006-06-13

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-B-6, 108-B Solid Waste Burial Ground. The 118-B-6 site consisted of 2 concrete pipes buried vertically in the ground and capped by a concrete pad with steel lids. The site was used for the disposal of wastes from the "metal line" of the P-10 Tritium Separation Project.

  19. 76 FR 31683 - Proposed Information Collection (NCA PreNeed Burial Evaluation) Activity: Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (NCA PreNeed Burial Evaluation) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY... comment on the proposed collection of certain information by the agency. Under the Paperwork Reduction Act... proposed collection of information, including each proposed new collection and allow 60 days for...

  20. Burial of organic carbon and pyrite sulfur in sediments over phanerozoic time: a new theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Robert A.; Raiswell, Robert

    1983-05-01

    In present day marine sediments, almost all of which are deposited in normal oxygenated seawater, rates of burial of organic carbon (C) and pyrite sulfur (S) correlate positively and bear a constant ratio to one another (C/S ˜- 3 on a weight basis). By contrast, calculations, based on the isotopic model of GARRELS and LERMAN (1981), indicate that at various times during the Phanerozoic the worldwide burial ratio must have been considerably different than the present day value. This ratio change is caused by the requirement that, increases in the worldwide mass of organic carbon must be accompanied by equivalent decreases in the mass of sedimentary pyrite sulfur, in order to maintain a roughly constant level of O 2 in the atmosphere. Such apparently contradictory behavior can be explained if the locus of major organic carbon burial has shifted over time from normal marine environments, as at present, to non-marine freshwater, or to euxinic environments, in the geologic past. A shift to predominantly freshwater burial can help explain predicted high C/S ratios in Permo-Carboniferous sediments, and a shift to euxinic environments can help explain predicted low C/S ratios during the early Paleozoic. It is demonstrated that the three environments today exhibit distinguishably different average C/S ratios.

  1. Two Catacombs of Late Sarmatian Time From Pashkovsky Burial Mound no. 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limberis Natalya Yuryevna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with two burials from the Kuban basin region excavated in Pashkovsky burial mound no. 2 belonging to Maeotian Pashkovskoe ancient settlement. The burials were made in catacombs of similar construction and orientation. The narrow grave entrances and grave chambers are situated in-line. The grave chambers of the catacombs adjoin one other that probably was the reason for plunder of a little earlier burial no. 2. There were the complete horse skeleton, the cow skull and the sheep chap in the grave entrance ofthe catacomb no. 2. A skeleton of a man (about 50 years old was in extended supine position diagonally across the grave chamber, his scull had SSW orientation. Grave goods found near the buried man include the gray-clay bowl and the mug-jar, the iron spearhead, the long sword and the dagger, the bit with wheel-shaped cheek-pieces, the sickle, the knives and the shoe buckles, the glass bead, the chalk rock bead, the bronze buckle and fibula. The catacomb no. 2 plundered in ancient times situated north-ward of the first one, the southern border of the grave chamber is partially cutted by catacomb no. 1. In the grave entrance of the catacomb no. 1 there were the remains of the horse skeleton and the sheep skull. Grave goods scattered in grave chamber included the gray-clay bowl, pieces of chalk, the bronze ring, fragments of the iron buckle, rod, hasp, silver temple ring, bronze escutcheon for the box lock, the iron snap-up loop and fragments of silver flacon with a cover. Late Sarmatian burial rites and grave goods give evidence of the belonging these burials to spokesmen of the equestrian order. The chronological range of the burials stays within terms from the second half of 2nd to the middle of 3rd century A.D. The lower date of the catacomb no. 1 turns toward the end of the 2nd century A.D., the upper date is limited by the first half of the 3rd century A.D. The catacomb no. 2 is stratigraphically older. The eques status of

  2. Holocene age of the Yuha burial: Direct radiocarbon determinations by accelerator mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Thomas W.; Jull, A.J.T.; Zabel, T.H.; Donahue, D.J.; Duhamel, R.C.; Brendel, K.; Haynes, C.V.; Bischoff, J.L.; Payen, L.A.; Taylor, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    The view that human populations may not have arrived in the Western Hemisphere before about 12,000 radiocarbon yr BP1,2 has been challenged by claims of much greater antiquity for a small number of archaeological sites and human skeleton samples. One such site is the Homo sapiens sapiens cairn burial excavated in 1971 from the Yuha desert, Imperial County, California3-5. Radiocarbon analysis of caliche coating one of the bones of the skeleton yielded a radiocarbon age of 21,500??1,000 yr BP4, while radiocarbon and uranium series analyses of caliche coating a cairn boulder yielded ages of 22,125??400 and 19,000??3,000 yr BP, respectively5. The late Pleistocene age assignment to the Yuha burial has been challenged by comparing the cultural context of the burial with other cairn burials in the same region6, on the basis of the site's geomorphological context and from radiocarbon analyses of soil caliches. 7,8 In rebuttal, arguments in defence of the original age assignment have been presented9,10 as well as an amino acid racemization analysis on the Yuha skeleton indicating an age of 23,600??2,600 yr BP11. The tandem accelerator mass spectrometer at the University of Arizona has now been used to measure the ratio of 14C/13C in several organic and inorganic fractions of post-cranial bone from the Yuha H. sapiens sapiens skeleton. Isotope ratios from six chemical fractions all yielded radiocarbon ages for the skeleton of less than 4,000 yr BP. These results indicate that the Yuha skeleton is of Holocene age, in agreement with the cultural context of the burial, and in disagreement with the previously assigned Pleistocene age of 19,000-23,000 yr. ?? 1984 Nature Publishing Group.

  3. Organic carbon burial rates in mangrove sediments: strengthening the global budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breithaupt, J.; Smoak, Joseph M.; Smith, Thomas J.; Sanders, Christian J.; Hoare, Armando

    2012-01-01

    Mangrove wetlands exist in the transition zone between terrestrial and marine environments and as such were historically overlooked in discussions of terrestrial and marine carbon cycling. In recent decades, mangroves have increasingly been credited with producing and burying large quantities of organic carbon (OC). The amount of available data regarding OC burial in mangrove soils has more than doubled since the last primary literature review (2003). This includes data from some of the largest, most developed mangrove forests in the world, providing an opportunity to strengthen the global estimate. First-time representation is now included for mangroves in Brazil, Colombia, Malaysia, Indonesia, China, Japan, Vietnam, and Thailand, along with additional data from Mexico and the United States. Our objective is to recalculate the centennial-scale burial rate of OC at both the local and global scales. Quantification of this rate enables better understanding of the current carbon sink capacity of mangroves as well as helps to quantify and/or validate the other aspects of the mangrove carbon budget such as import, export, and remineralization. Statistical analysis of the data supports use of the geometric mean as the most reliable central tendency measurement. Our estimate is that mangrove systems bury 163 (+40; -31) g OC m-2 yr-1 (95% C.I.). Globally, the 95% confidence interval for the annual burial rate is 26.1 (+6.3; -5.1) Tg OC. This equates to a burial fraction that is 42% larger than that of the most recent mangrove carbon budget (2008), and represents 10–15% of estimated annual mangrove production. This global rate supports previous conclusions that, on a centennial time scale, 8–15% of all OC burial in marine settings occurs in mangrove systems.

  4. Nationwide Surveillance for Pathogenic Microorganisms in Groundwater near Carcass Burials Constructed in South Korea in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha Kyung Joung

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Widespread outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease and avian influenza occurred in South Korea during 2010. In response to the culling of many animals to attenuate the spread of disease, South Korea used mass burial sites to dispose of the large number of carcasses; consequently, concerns about groundwater contamination by leachate from these burial sites are increasing. Groundwater is one of the main sources of drinking water, and its cleanliness is directly related to public health. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the safety of groundwater around the burial sites (total of 600 sites. A total of 1,200 groundwater samples were collected though the country, and microbial analysis was conducted during two time periods: during the spring (n = 600; April to June 2012 and after rainfall (n = 600; August to October, 2012; fall. Fecal coliform and Escherichia coli were detected in 173 (14.4% and 85 (7.1% of the 1,200 samples, respectively. Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. each were detected only once (0.083%. Clostridium perfringens was detected from 7 groundwater samples (0.583%, and E. coli O157:H7 was not detected. With respect to norovirus, only the GII type was detected from six groundwater samples (0.5%, and enterovirus was detected in 15 groundwater samples (1.25%. The frequency of E. coli that we detected was lower than that found in previous studies conducted in South Korea, but we detected higher frequency of fecal coliform than that observed in a previous report. The contamination frequencies of Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. were very low, but C. perfringens, which could be an indicator of fecal pollution, was detected in seven regions. Overall, the results of the present study indicate a low possibility of contamination from burial sites. However, consistent monitoring is required to prevent microbial contamination of groundwater near the burial sites.

  5. Organic carbon burial rates in mangrove sediments: Strengthening the global budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breithaupt, Joshua L.; Smoak, Joseph M.; Smith, Thomas J., III; Sanders, Christian J.; Hoare, Armando

    2012-09-01

    Mangrove wetlands exist in the transition zone between terrestrial and marine environments and as such were historically overlooked in discussions of terrestrial and marine carbon cycling. In recent decades, mangroves have increasingly been credited with producing and burying large quantities of organic carbon (OC). The amount of available data regarding OC burial in mangrove soils has more than doubled since the last primary literature review (2003). This includes data from some of the largest, most developed mangrove forests in the world, providing an opportunity to strengthen the global estimate. First-time representation is now included for mangroves in Brazil, Colombia, Malaysia, Indonesia, China, Japan, Vietnam, and Thailand, along with additional data from Mexico and the United States. Our objective is to recalculate the centennial-scale burial rate of OC at both the local and global scales. Quantification of this rate enables better understanding of the current carbon sink capacity of mangroves as well as helps to quantify and/or validate the other aspects of the mangrove carbon budget such as import, export, and remineralization. Statistical analysis of the data supports use of the geometric mean as the most reliable central tendency measurement. Our estimate is that mangrove systems bury 163 (+40; -31) g OC m-2 yr-1 (95% C.I.). Globally, the 95% confidence interval for the annual burial rate is 26.1 (+6.3; -5.1) Tg OC. This equates to a burial fraction that is 42% larger than that of the most recent mangrove carbon budget (2008), and represents 10-15% of estimated annual mangrove production. This global rate supports previous conclusions that, on a centennial time scale, 8-15% of all OC burial in marine settings occurs in mangrove systems.

  6. Tracing organic matter sources and carbon burial in mangrove sediments over the past 160 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonneea, Meagan Eagle; Paytan, Adina; Herrera-Silveira, Jorge A.

    2004-10-01

    Mangrove ecosystems may be a source of organic carbon and nutrients to adjacent coastal systems on one hand and provide a sedimentary sink for organic carbon on the other. The balance between these two functions may be sensitive to both natural and anthropogenically induced variability, yet these effects have not been thoroughly evaluated in mangrove ecosystems. We determine organic matter sources and carbon burial rates over the past 160 years in three lagoons on the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Carbon isotopes and C/N elemental ratios are utilized to trace the three sources contributing to sedimentary organic matter, mangroves, seagrasses and phytoplankton, while nitrogen isotopes are used to elucidate potential post-depositional biogeochemical transformations in mangrove lagoon sediments. All three organic matter sources contribute to organic carbon burial. Phytoplankton and mangroves are the dominant sources of organic matter in lagoon bank sediments and seagrasses are a significant source to central lagoon sediments. Organic carbon burial rates are higher at the lagoon fringes, where mangrove vegetation dominates, than in seagrass-dominated mid-lagoon areas. A reduction in mangrove contribution to the sedimentary organic matter pool concurrent with reduced total organic carbon burial rates is observed in the recent past at all three lagoons studied. Natural cycles in sediment organic matter source over the past 160 years are observed in a high-resolution core. These fluctuations correspond to climatic variability in this region, as recorded in deep-sea foraminiferal assemblages. Additional work is required in order to differentiate between recent anthropogenic perturbations and natural variability in organic carbon sources and burial rates within these ecosystems.

  7. Development of Chemical Indicators of Groundwater Contamination Near the Carcass Burial Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Choi, J.; Kim, M.; Choi, J.; Lee, M.; Lee, H.; Jeon, S.; Bang, S.; Noh, H.; Yoo, J.; Park, S.; Kim, H.; Kim, D.; Lee, Y.; Han, J.

    2011-12-01

    A serious outbreak of foot and mouth disease (FMD) and avian influenza (AI) led to the culling of millions of livestock in South Korea from late 2010 to earlier 2011. Because of the scale of FMD and AI epidemic in Korea and rapid spread of the diseases, mass burial for the disposal of carcass was conducted to halt the outbreak. The improper construction of the burial site or inappropriate management of the carcass burial facility can cause the contamination of groundwater mainly due to the discharges of leachate through the base of disposal pit. The leachate from carcass burial contains by products of carcass decay such as amino acids, nitrate, ammonia and chloride. The presence of these chemical components in groundwater can be used as indicators demonstrating contamination of groundwater with leachate from carcass. The major concern about using these chemical indicators is that other sources including manures, fertilizers and waste waters from human or animal activities already exist in farming area. However, we lack the understanding of how groundwater contamination due to mass burial of carcass can be differentiated from the contamination due to livestock manures which shows similar chemical characteristics. The chemical compositions of the leachate from carcass burial site and the wastewater from livestock manure treatment facilities were compared. The chemical compositions considered include total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), nitrate, organic nitrogen (Organic nitrogen =TN-Ammonium Nitrogen- Nitrate nitrogen), ammonia, chloride, sodium, potassium and amino acids (20 analytes). The ratios of concentrations of the chemical compositions as indicators of contamination were determined to distinguish the sources of contamination in groundwater. Indicators which showed a linear relationship between two factors and revealed a distinct difference between the carcass leachate and livestock manure were chosen. In addition, the background level of the

  8. Gamma well-logging in burial ground of Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winn, W.G.; Hofstetter, K.J.; MacMurdo, K.W. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Gamma well-logging measurements were conducted in an inactive radioactive waste burial ground of the Savannah River site to appraise whether any evidence existed for downward movement of radioactivity toward the water table. Similar measurements on the same wells were conducted in 1980, providing a baseline from which to measure any changes in their radioactive plumes. In particular, the recent measurements sought to detect significant changes in depth location and radiation magnitude of the plumes, as well as the existence of any new plumes. By comparing measurements on a number of these wells, which were distributed on a grid pattern, it was anticipated that the general status of this section of the burial ground could be established.

  9. Changes in CaCO3 Burial Trump the Biological Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toggweiler, J.; Dunne, J. P.

    2008-12-01

    The dramatic increases in atmospheric CO2 at the ends of ice ages are usually attributed to a one-two punch coming from the ocean. First, a weakened biological pump vents organically cycled CO2 from the deep ocean via changes in the ventilation of the deep ocean around Antarctica. The initial CO2 increase is then augmented by an enhancement of CaCO3 burial due to a process called CaCO3 compensation (after Broecker, W. S and T.-H. Peng, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 1, 15-29, 1987). Here, we argue that the importance of the biological pump has been exaggerated. The main effect comes from circulation-induced changes in the burial of CaCO3. As shown in a recent paper by Andreas Schmittner and co-authors (Schmittner, A., E. Brook and J. Ahn, Impact of the ocean's overturning circulation on atmospheric CO2, in Ocean Circulation: Mechanisms and Impacts, Geophys. Monogr. 173, A. Schmittner, J. Chiang, and S. Hemming, eds., pp. 209-246, AGU, 2007) changes in the ventilation of the deep ocean around Antarctica gave rise to 20-30 ppm increases in atmospheric CO2 every 5,000-7,000 years during isotope stages 3 and 4 (30,000 to 70,000 years ago). None of these venting events gave rise to a compensation response. Meanwhile, Jaccard et al. (Science, 308, 1003-1006, 2005) show that all the big CO2 increases during terminations through stage 11 were accompanied by huge increases in CaCO3 burial. This suggests that the enhanced burial of CaCO3 is obligatory rather than compensatory with respect to the dramatic CO2 increases. Broecker and Peng's compensation idea is based on an assumption that the rain of CaCO3 to the sea floor is the same everywhere. More specifically, it assumes that there is no spatial correlation between the production of CaCO3 at the surface and the burial on the sea floor. We find instead that the production and burial of CaCO3 tend to be co-located in regional "hot spots" and that burial in the hot spots balances the input of Ca++ and HCO3- ions in rivers. The

  10. Burial diagenesis of deep sea chalk as reflected in Biot's coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Alam, Mohammad Monzurul

    2013-01-01

    to limestone as burial increases and porosity decreases. The porosity decrease is accompanied by an increasing velocity to elastic waves, and consequently a decreasing Biot's coefficient, as estimated from velocity and density of core samples. When the effective burial stress is normalized to total horizontal...... cross sectional area, the porosity is found to decline as a function of stress. The porosity trend proceeds smoothly from ooze over chalk to limestone. By contrast, when vertical effective stress is normalized to grain contact area, each lithology shows a distinct porosity-decline - stress pattern....... In the ooze, we find that the natural compaction causes an increasing stress on grain contact area, indicating that the ooze particles become strongly strained. In the chalk section, contact cement is probably the reason why particles become less strained as porosity declines. In the limestone, stress...

  11. Burial diagenesis of deep sea chalk as reflected in Biot’s coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Alam, Mohammad Monzurul

    to limestone as burial increases and porosity decreases. The porosity decrease is accompanied by an increasing velocity to elastic waves, and consequently a decreasing Biot’s coefficient, as estimated from velocity and density of core samples. When the effective burial stress is normalized to total horizontal...... cross sectional area, the porosity is found to decline as a function of stress. The porosity trend proceeds smoothly from ooze over chalk to limestone. By contrast, when vertical effective stress is normalized to grain contact area, each lithology shows a distinct porosity-decline - stress pattern....... In the ooze, we find that the natural compaction causes an increasing stress on grain contact area, indicating that the ooze particles become strongly strained. In the chalk section, contact cement is probably the reason why particles become less strained as porosity declines. In the limestone, stress...

  12. Property and provenance study of fancy celadon samples excavated from the Noble Burials of the Yue State at Hongshan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Noble Burials of the Yue State at Hongshan in Wuxi City with many fancy burial objects were excavated by Archaeology Institute of Jiangsu Province and Xishan District Committee for Administration of Cultural Relics of China. It was appraised as one of the ten major archaeological excavations in 2004. Some precious ceramic samples excavated from this site are very important for studying the development history of Chinese ceramics, especially for studying the origin of porcelain. With the cooperation of Archaeology Institute of Nanjing Museum, the ceramic samples excavated from the Noble Burials of the Yue State at Hongshan were collected and systematically analyzed. Compared with the celadon samples produced in Yue-kiln site during later Eastern Han Dynasty (25–220 A.D.), some important topics such as the provenance and properties of the ceramic samples excavated from the Noble Burials of the Yue State at Hongshan were deeply studied.

  13. Toward On-Site Closed Nuclear Cycles Not Requiring Deep Burial of Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, T. Kenneth; Ahn, Joonhong

    2010-04-01

    We discuss a non-chemical means for onsite reprocessing of spent fuel from hybrid reactors such as LIFE and also deep burn fission reactors. Using a plasma-based Archimedes Filter of standard design, actinides could be removed in a few passes through the Filter to qualify as TRU waste that could be disposed of in a site like WIPP. An improved Filter is discussed that could reduce waste to 1 cubic meter per year, suitable for shallow burial.

  14. Mine burial in the seabed of high-turbidity area - Findings of a first experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Baeye, M.; Fettweis, M.; Legrand, S.; Dupont, Y.; Van Lancker, V.

    2012-01-01

    The seabed of the North Sea is covered with ammunition dating back from World Wars I and II. With increasing human interference (e.g. fisheries, aggregate extraction, harbor related activities), it forms a threat to the safety at sea. In this study, test mines were deployed on a sandy seabed for 3 months to investigate mine burial processes as a function of hydrodynamic and meteorological conditions. The mine experiment was conducted in a shallow (9 m), macrotidal environment characterized by...

  15. Preliminary soilwater conductivity analysis to date clandestine burials of homicide victims

    OpenAIRE

    Pringle, JK; Cassella, JP; Jervis, JR

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on a new geoscientific method to estimate the post-burial interval (PBI) and potential post-mortem interval (PMI) date of homicide victims in clandestine graves by measuring decomposition fluid conductivities. Establishing PBI/PMI dates may be critical for forensic investigators to establish time-lines to link or indeed rule out suspects to a crime. Regular in situ soilwater analysis from a simulated clandestine grave (which contained a domestic buried pig carcass) in a sem...

  16. Buried ion-exchanged glass waveguides: burial-depth dependence on waveguide width.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madasamy, P; West, B R; Morrell, M M; Geraghty, D F; Honkanen, S; Peyghambarian, N

    2003-07-01

    A detailed theoretical and experimental study of the depth dependence of buried ion-exchanged waveguides on waveguide width is reported. Modeling, which includes the effect of nonhomogeneous time-dependent electric field distribution, agrees well with our experiments showing that burial depth increases linearly with waveguide width. These results may be used in the proper design of integrated optical circuits that need waveguides of different widths at different sections, such as arrayed waveguide gratings.

  17. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-3, Minor Construction Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. J. Appel

    2007-01-04

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-3, Minor Construction Burial Ground waste site. This site was an open field covered with cobbles, with no vegetation growing on the surface. The site received irradiated reactor parts that were removed during conversion of the 105-F Reactor from the Liquid 3X to the Ball 3X Project safety systems and received mostly vertical safety rod thimbles and step plugs.

  18. Patterns of Irregular Burials in Western Europe (1st-5th Century A.D.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milella, Marco; Mariotti, Valentina; Belcastro, Maria Giovanna; Knüsel, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Irregular burials (IB—burials showing features that contrast with the majority of others in their geographic and chronological context) have been the focus of archaeological study because of their relative rarity and enigmatic appearance. Interpretations of IB often refer to supposed fear of the dead or to social processes taking place in time-specific contexts. However, a comprehensive and quantitative analysis of IB for various geographical contexts is still lacking, a fact that hampers any discussion of these burials on a larger scale. Methods Here, we collected a bibliographic dataset of 375 IB from both Britain and Continental Europe, altogether spanning a time period from the 1st to the 5th century AD. Each burial has been coded according to ten dichotomous variables, further analyzed by means of chi-squared tests on absolute frequencies, non-metric multidimensional scaling, and cluster analysis. Results Even acknowledging the limits of this study, and in particular the bias represented by the available literature, our results point to interesting patterns. Geographically, IB show a contrast between Britain and Continental Europe, possibly related to historical processes specific to these regions. Different types of IB (especially prone depositions and depositions with the cephalic extremity displaced) present a series of characteristics and associations between features that permit a more detailed conceptualization of these occurrences from a socio-cultural perspective that aids to elucidate their funerary meaning. Conclusions and Significance Altogether, the present work stresses the variability of IB, and the need to contextualize them in a proper archaeological and historical context. It contributes to the discussion of IB by providing a specific geographic and chronological frame of reference that supports a series of hypotheses about the cultural processes possibly underlying their occurrence. PMID:26115408

  19. Hanford environment as related to radioactive waste burial grounds and transuranium waste storage facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.J.; Isaacson, R.E.

    1977-06-01

    A detailed characterization of the existing environment at Hanford was provided by the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) in the Final Environmental Statement, Waste Management Operations, Hanford Reservation, Richland, Washington, December 1975. Abbreviated discussions from that document are presented together with current data, as they pertain to radioactive waste burial grounds and interim transuranic (TRU) waste storage facilities. The discussions and data are presented in sections on geology, hydrology, ecology, and natural phenomena. (JRD)

  20. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, low-level burial grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann, R.H.

    1997-08-12

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Plaste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, `operating` treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the Low-Level Burial Grounds (this document, DOE/RL-88-20).

  1. Dating of Pliocene Colorado River sediments: implications for cosmogenic burial dating and the evolution of the lower Colorado River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matmon, Ari; Stock, Greg M.; Granger, Darryl E.; Howard, Keith A.

    2011-01-01

    We applied cosmogenic 26Al/10Be burial dating to sedimentary deposits of the ancestral Colorado River. We compared cosmogenic burial ages of sediments to the age of an independently well-dated overlying basalt flow at one site, and also applied cosmogenic burial dating to sediments with less precise independent age constraints. All dated gravels yielded old ages that suggest several episodes of sediment burial over the past ∼5.3 m.y. Comparison of burial ages to the overlying 4.4 Ma basalt yielded good agreement and suggests that under the most favorable conditions, cosmogenic burial dating can extend back 4–5 m.y. In contrast, results from other sites with more broadly independent age constraints highlight the complexities inherent in burial dating; these complexities arise from unknown and complicated burial histories, insufficient shielding, postburial production of cosmogenic isotopes by muons, and unknown initial 26Al/10Be ratios. Nevertheless, and in spite of the large range of burial ages and large uncertainties, we identify samples that provide reasonable burial age constraints on the depositional history of sediment along the lower ancestral Colorado River. These samples suggest possible sediment deposition and burial at ca. 5.3, 4.7, and 3.6 Ma. Our calculated basinwide erosion rate for sediment transported by the modern Colorado River (∼187 mm k.y.−1) is higher than the modern erosion rates inferred from the historic sediment load (80–100 mm k.y.−1). In contrast, basinwide paleo-erosion rates calculated from Pliocene sediments are all under 40 mm k.y.−1 The comparatively lower denudation rates calculated for the Pliocene sediment samples are surprising given that the sampled time intervals include significant Pliocene aggradation and may include much incision of the Grand Canyon and its tributaries. This conflict may arise from extensive storage of sediment along the route of the Colorado River, slower paleobedrock erosion, or the inclusion

  2. Runoff and erosion response of simulated waste burial covers in a semi-arid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, G.C.; Goff, B.F.; Rightmire, K.G.; Sidle, R.C.

    1999-01-01

    Control of runoff (reducing infiltration) and erosion at shallow land burials is necessary in order to assure environmentally safe disposal of low-level radioactive-waste and other waste products. This study evaluated the runoff and erosion response of two perennial grass species on simulated waste burial covers at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Rainfall simulations were applied to three plots covered by crested wheatgrass [Agropyron desertorum (Fischer ex Link) Shultes], three plots covered by streambank wheatgrass [Elymus lanceolatus (Scribner and Smith) Gould spp. lanceolatus], and one bare plot. Average total runoff for rainfall simulations in 1987, 1989, and 1990 was 42 percent greater on streambank wheatgrass plots than on crested wheatgrass plots. Average total soil loss for rainfall simulations in 1987 and 1990 was 105 percent greater on streambank wheatgrass plots than on crested wheatgrass plots. Total runoff and soil loss from natural rainfall and snowmelt events during 1987 were 25 and 105 percent greater, respectively, on streambank wheatgrass plots than on crested wheatgrass plots. Thus, crested wheatgrass appears to be better suited in revegetation of waste burial covers at INEEL than streambank wheatgrass due to its much lower erosion rate and only slightly higher infiltration rate (lower runoff rate).

  3. Effect of Soil Burial on Tensile Properties of Polypropylene/Plasticized Cassava Starch Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry C. Obasi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polypropylene (PP/plasticized cassava starch (PCS blended with and without compatibilizer (polypropylene-graft-maleic anhydride (PP-g-MA via melt blending were prepared for soil burial which lasted for 90 days. Plasticized starch loadings of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 wt.% were used, while pp-g-ma was used at 10 wt.% based on starch weight. The PP/PCS and PP/PCS/PP-G-MA blends were evaluated for their tensile properties. It was observed that the tensile strength, elongation at break, and young’s modulus decreased with increases in soil burial time as well as starch content for PP/PCS blends. Similar treads for the tensile properties were observed for PP/PCS/PP-g-MA, but with higher properties as compared to uncompatibilized blends. However, the tensile properties for both PP/PCS and PP/PCS/PP-g-Ma decrease with increases in starch loading and also as the burial period progressed.

  4. The Sequence of Appearance of Bead Sets at the Filippovka I Burial in the Southern Urals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anikeeva Olga Viktorovna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The differences in the composition of bead sets from the Filippovka I burial were analyzed by the author in order to determine regularities in their co-occurrence. The mineralogical analysis has revealed the glass beads made of olivine and fluorite. The mineralogical and technological study allowed to classify all beads according to manufacturing techniques. On the basis of the comparison with beads of the same age from India, Persia, Middle Asia, Northern Black Sea coast, the Caucasus, and the Pamir, possible production centers have been hypothesized. The results were compared with earlier published data on bead sets from the Southern Urals burials of the late 6th - early 3rd centuries B.C. The literature data on the timing of appearance and the origin of beads analogous to those from Filippovka barrows were also analyzed. The results suggest that the observed differences in the composition of bead sets reflect the appearance or disappearance of particular bead types in the region. The analysis of mutual occurrence of certain bead types allowed to allocate two groups of the sets which are smoothly replacing each other in time. This allowed the author to reconstruct the sequence of appearance of bead sets in the Filippovka I burial.

  5. Sediment organic carbon burial in agriculturally eutrophic impoundments over the last century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, J.A.; Cole, J.J.; Middelburg, J.J.; Striegl, R.G.; Duarte, C.M.; Kortelainen, Pirkko; Prairie, Y.T.; Laube, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    We estimated organic carbon (OC) burial over the past century in 40 impoundments in one of the most intensively agricultural regions of the world. The volume of sediment deposited per unit time varied as a function of lake and watershed size, but smaller impoundments had greater deposition and accumulation rates per unit area. Annual water storage losses varied from 0.1-20% and were negatively correlated with impoundment size. Estimated sediment OC content was greatest in lakes with low ratios of watershed to impoundment area. Sediment OC burial rates were higher than those assumed for fertile impoundments by previous studies and were much higher than those measured in natural lakes. OC burial ranged from a high of 17,000 g C m-2 a-1 to a low of 148 g C m-2 a-1 and was significantly greater in small impoundments than large ones. The OC buried in these lakes originates in both autochthonous and allochthonous production. These analyses suggest that OC sequestration in moderate to large impoundments may be double the rate assumed in previous analyses. Extrapolation suggests that they may bury 4 times as much carbon (C) as the world's oceans. The world's farm ponds alone may bury more OC than the oceans and 33% as much as the world's rivers deliver to the sea. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Diversity of burial rates in convergent settings decreased as Earth aged

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoli, Gautier; Moyen, Jean-François; Stevens, Gary

    2016-05-01

    The evolution and the growth of the continental crust is inextricably linked to the evolution of Earth’s geodynamic processes. The detrital zircon record within the continental crust, as well as the isotopic composition of this crust, indicates that the amount of juvenile felsic material decreased with time and that in geologically recent times, the generation of new crust is balanced by recycling of the crust back into the mantle within subduction zones. However it cannot always have been so; yet the nature of the crust and the processes of crustal reworking in the Precambrian Earth are not well constrained. Here we use both detrital zircon ages and metamorphic pressure-temperature-time (P-T-t) information from metasedimentary units deposited in proposed convergent settings from Archaean, Proterozoic and Phanerozoic terrains to characterize the evolution of minimum estimates of burial rate (km.Ma-1) as a function of the age of the rocks. The demonstrated decrease in burial rate correlates positively with a progressive decrease in the production of juvenile felsic crust in the Archaean and Proterozoic. Burial rates are also more diverse in the Archaean than in modern times. We interpret these features to reflect a progressive decrease in the diversity of tectonic processes from Archaean to present, coupled with the emergence of the uniquely Phanerozoic modern-style collision.

  7. Soil burial biodegradation studies of palm oil-based UV-curable films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajau, Rida, E-mail: rida@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Salleh, Mek Zah, E-mail: mekzah@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Salleh, Nik Ghazali Nik, E-mail: nik-ghazali@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Abdurahman, Mohamad Norahiman, E-mail: iman5031@yahoo.com [Division of Radiation Processing Technology, Malaysia Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Salih, Ashraf Mohammed, E-mail: ashraf.msalih@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Processing, Sudan Atomic Energy Commission, Khartoum, 1111 Sudan (Sudan); Fathy, Siti Farhana, E-mail: farhana811@hotmail.com [Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience (IBS), Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Azman, Anis Asmi, E-mail: anisasmi18@gmail.com; Hamidi, Nur Amira, E-mail: amirahamidi93@yahoo.com [School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), 11800 USM, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    The palm oil-based ultraviolet (uv)-curable films were subjected to an outdoor soil burial test to investigate the biodegradation under natural environment. The films were burial in the soil experiment plot at the Nuclear Malaysia’s Dengkil complex. The uv-curable films were synthesized from the epoxidized palm oil acrylated (EPOLA) resin and the polyurethane palm oil (POBUA) resin, respectively. Biodegradation tests are more specific to burial film in soil experiments for 12 months under natural conditions. The biodegradability of palm oil resin based uv-curable films were investigated and compared with the petrochemical resin based film. The films properties were compared with respect to properties of the thermal characteristic, the crystallinity, the morphology and the weight loss which are analyzed using the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the scanning electron microscope (SEM), an optical microscope and the weight loss of film calculation. These findings suggested that the palm oil-based uv-curable films show quite satisfactory biodegradation levels.

  8. Soil burial biodegradation studies of palm oil-based UV-curable films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajau, Rida; Salleh, Mek Zah; Salleh, Nik Ghazali Nik; Abdurahman, Mohamad Norahiman; Salih, Ashraf Mohammed; Fathy, Siti Farhana; Azman, Anis Asmi; Hamidi, Nur Amira

    2016-01-01

    The palm oil-based ultraviolet (uv)-curable films were subjected to an outdoor soil burial test to investigate the biodegradation under natural environment. The films were burial in the soil experiment plot at the Nuclear Malaysia's Dengkil complex. The uv-curable films were synthesized from the epoxidized palm oil acrylated (EPOLA) resin and the polyurethane palm oil (POBUA) resin, respectively. Biodegradation tests are more specific to burial film in soil experiments for 12 months under natural conditions. The biodegradability of palm oil resin based uv-curable films were investigated and compared with the petrochemical resin based film. The films properties were compared with respect to properties of the thermal characteristic, the crystallinity, the morphology and the weight loss which are analyzed using the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the scanning electron microscope (SEM), an optical microscope and the weight loss of film calculation. These findings suggested that the palm oil-based uv-curable films show quite satisfactory biodegradation levels.

  9. Experimental Simulation of Dolomite Dissolution Under Burial Diagenesis Conditions and Thermodynamic Interpretation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄思静; 肖林萍; 等

    2000-01-01

    Simulating experiments on dolomite dissolution by acetic acid were made under burial diagenesis conditions,at temperatures ranging from 75℃to 130℃ and pressures from 20 MPA to 30MPa,The results show that the dissolution rate of dolomite increased rapidly with increasing temperature and prssure,From 75℃/Mpa to 130℃/30 MPa,the total amount of released ca and Mg increased from 32.98mg/L to 337.9mg/L,over one order of magnitude in difference,Thermodynamic calculation indicates that the increment of Gibbs free energy (ΔG) of the chemical reaction decreases with increasing temperature and pressure.This thermodynamic result is consistent with the experimental result.Based on the Experimental results.it is suggested that secondary prosities formed by dolomite dissolution under conditions of deep burial diagenesis should be more common than those under epigenesis and shallow burial conditions,and therefore dolomite reservoires in the formations that have been deeply buried should be more abundant than in the formations that have only been shallowly buried.

  10. RETRIEVING SUSPECT TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE FROM THE HANFORD BURIAL GROUNDS PROGRESS PLANS & CHALLENGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FRENCH, M.S.

    2006-02-01

    This paper describes the scope and status of the program for retrieval of suspect transuranic (TRU) waste stored in the Hanford Site low-level burial grounds. Beginning in 1970 and continuing until the late 1980's, waste suspected of containing significant quantities of transuranic isotopes was placed in ''retrievable'' storage in designated modules in the Hanford burial grounds, with the intent that the waste would be retrieved when a national repository for disposal of such waste became operational. Approximately 15,000 cubic meters of waste, suspected of being TRU, was placed in storage modules in four burial grounds. With the availability of the national repository (the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant), retrieval of the suspect TRU waste is now underway. Retrieval efforts, to date, have been conducted in storage modules that contain waste, which is in general, contact-handled, relatively new (1980's and later), is stacked in neat, engineered configurations, and has a relatively good record of waste characteristics. Even with these optimum conditions, retrieval personnel have had to deal with a large number of structurally degraded containers, radioactive contamination issues, and industrial hazards (including organic vapors). Future retrieval efforts in older, less engineered modules are expected to present additional hazards and difficult challenges.

  11. Diversity of burial rates in convergent settings decreased as Earth aged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoli, Gautier; Moyen, Jean-François; Stevens, Gary

    2016-05-24

    The evolution and the growth of the continental crust is inextricably linked to the evolution of Earth's geodynamic processes. The detrital zircon record within the continental crust, as well as the isotopic composition of this crust, indicates that the amount of juvenile felsic material decreased with time and that in geologically recent times, the generation of new crust is balanced by recycling of the crust back into the mantle within subduction zones. However it cannot always have been so; yet the nature of the crust and the processes of crustal reworking in the Precambrian Earth are not well constrained. Here we use both detrital zircon ages and metamorphic pressure-temperature-time (P-T-t) information from metasedimentary units deposited in proposed convergent settings from Archaean, Proterozoic and Phanerozoic terrains to characterize the evolution of minimum estimates of burial rate (km.Ma(-1)) as a function of the age of the rocks. The demonstrated decrease in burial rate correlates positively with a progressive decrease in the production of juvenile felsic crust in the Archaean and Proterozoic. Burial rates are also more diverse in the Archaean than in modern times. We interpret these features to reflect a progressive decrease in the diversity of tectonic processes from Archaean to present, coupled with the emergence of the uniquely Phanerozoic modern-style collision.

  12. A new perspective on studying burial environment before archaeological excavation: analyzing bacterial community distribution by high-throughput sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jinjin; Wei, Yanfei; Jia, Hanqing; Xiao, Lin; Gong, Decai

    2017-01-01

    Burial conditions play a crucial role in archaeological heritage preservation. Especially, the microorganisms were considered as the leading causes which incurred degradation and vanishment of historic materials. In this article, we analyzed bacterial diversity and community structure from M1 of Wangshanqiao using 16 S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. The results indicated that microbial communities in burial conditions were diverse among four different samples. The samples from the robber hole...

  13. Mine Burial Assessment State-of the Art in Prediction and Modeling Workshop and Initiation of Technical Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-09-30

    Mine Burial Assessment State-of the Art in Prediction and Modeling Workshop and Initiation of Technical Program Richard H. Bennett SEAPROBE, Inc 501...Assessment State-of the Art in Prediction and Modeling Workshop and Initiation of Technical Program 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM... Technical Program , Agenda, Background, and References, Bennett and Wilkens, 2000. d. Completed Reviews of the state-of-the-art practices in Mine Burial

  14. The utility of ground-penetrating radar and its time-dependence in the discovery of clandestine burials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsarola, Dominic; Poppa, Pasquale; Amadasi, Alberto; Mazzarelli, Debora; Gibelli, Daniele; Zanotti, Emma; Porta, Davide; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-08-01

    In the field of forensic investigation burial is a relatively common method of hiding a corpse. The location of clandestine graves is, however, a particularly difficult task in which multiple forensic disciplines such as anthropology, botany or archaeology can provide valuable assistance. The use of GPR (ground-penetrating radar) has recently been introduced as a method in the detection of these graves, but what is the true potential of this tool in an operative search scenario? In this study a total of 11 pig carcasses were buried in two wooded areas, each presenting a similar soil composition. The animals were subsequently exhumed at regular intervals, ranging from 2 to 111 weeks, using systematic GPR analysis of the burial sites and archaeological recovery of the subjects that were then autopsied. GPR proved to be useful in recognizing anomalies at the chosen depths of burial and appeared to be dependent on the state of decay of the samples, producing only slight anomalous readings in the presence of skeletal remains: at 92 weeks from burial the difference in signal was weak and at 111 weeks GPR survey offered no helpful information as to burial location. The experiment, in this particular context, determined the technique as being successful in the presence of recent burials, highlighting the need for a multidisciplinary approach in the operative search for buried human remains.

  15. The value of trophic interactions for ecosystem function: dung beetle communities influence seed burial and seedling recruitment in tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Hannah M; Bardgett, Richard D; Louzada, Julio; Barlow, Jos

    2016-12-14

    Anthropogenic activities are causing species extinctions, raising concerns about the consequences of changing biological communities for ecosystem functioning. To address this, we investigated how dung beetle communities influence seed burial and seedling recruitment in the Brazilian Amazon. First, we conducted a burial and retrieval experiment using seed mimics. We found that dung beetle biomass had a stronger positive effect on the burial of large than small beads, suggesting that anthropogenic reductions in large-bodied beetles will have the greatest effect on the secondary dispersal of large-seeded plant species. Second, we established mesocosm experiments in which dung beetle communities buried Myrciaria dubia seeds to examine plant emergence and survival. Contrary to expectations, we found that beetle diversity and biomass negatively influenced seedling emergence, but positively affected the survival of seedlings that emerged. Finally, we conducted germination trials to establish the optimum burial depth of experimental seeds, revealing a negative relationship between burial depth and seedling emergence success. Our results provide novel evidence that seed burial by dung beetles may be detrimental for the emergence of some seed species. However, we also detected positive impacts of beetle activity on seedling recruitment, which are probably because of their influence on soil properties. Overall, this study provides new evidence that anthropogenic impacts on dung beetle communities could influence the structure of tropical forests; in particular, their capacity to regenerate and continue to provide valuable functions and services.

  16. Inventory and burial fluxes of Black Carbon in the Swedish continental shelf sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-García, L.; Cato, I.; Gustafsson, Ö.

    2009-04-01

    Highly condensed black carbon (BC) particles, mainly derived from incomplete combustion of biomass and fossil fuel, are involved in several important processes in the biogeosphere [1], including sedimentary carbon burial, sequestration of organic pollutants in soils and sediments, affecting Earth's radiative heat balance and even human respiratory health. BC is commonly found to constitute several to 20% of total sedimentary carbon, and thus plays an important but poorly constrained role in the global biogeospheric carbon cycle. Sequestration of biogenic carbon as BC is a direct sink of the element from the rapidly cycling atmosphere-biosphere reservoirs, whereas burial of petrogenic/fossil BC is simply a conversion of one form of geological carbon to another [2]. Considerable emphasis has been made on the relevant role this recalcitrant form of organic matter (OM) may play on the global C cycle and yet large uncertainty exists around BC detection and quantification. This work seeks to provide a large-scale estimate of the reservoir and burial sink flux of BC in sediments from the extensive Swedish continental shelf (SCS), as a first approach to global inventories. To this end, a total of 120 sediment samples were collected from the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) along the ?2000 km SCS stretch. The most recalcitrant fraction of the sedimentary OM was isolated and determined by means of a commonly applied method in biogeochemical studies of soils and sediments: chemo-thermal oxidation at 375˚ C in air (CTO-375). The obtained BC concentration was used to estimate the inventory and burial flux of BC in the SCS surface sediments, following [3], which takes into account key geophysical and geochemical properties of the nine distinct sedimentary regimes of the SCS that was separately assessed. Globally representative values of the sediment properties (e.g. density of dried sediments, bioturbated mixing depth, sedimentation rate or porosity over the mixed depth) were

  17. Information and redundancy in the burial folding code of globular proteins within a wide range of shapes and sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Diogo C; van der Linden, Marx G; de Oliveira, Leandro C; Onuchic, José N; de Araújo, Antônio F Pereira

    2016-04-01

    Recent ab initio folding simulations for a limited number of small proteins have corroborated a previous suggestion that atomic burial information obtainable from sequence could be sufficient for tertiary structure determination when combined to sequence-independent geometrical constraints. Here, we use simulations parameterized by native burials to investigate the required amount of information in a diverse set of globular proteins comprising different structural classes and a wide size range. Burial information is provided by a potential term pushing each atom towards one among a small number L of equiprobable concentric layers. An upper bound for the required information is provided by the minimal number of layers L(min) still compatible with correct folding behavior. We obtain L(min) between 3 and 5 for seven small to medium proteins with 50 ≤ Nr ≤ 110 residues while for a larger protein with Nr = 141 we find that L ≥ 6 is required to maintain native stability. We additionally estimate the usable redundancy for a given L ≥ L(min) from the burial entropy associated to the largest folding-compatible fraction of "superfluous" atoms, for which the burial term can be turned off or target layers can be chosen randomly. The estimated redundancy for small proteins with L = 4 is close to 0.8. Our results are consistent with the above-average quality of burial predictions used in previous simulations and indicate that the fraction of approachable proteins could increase significantly with even a mild, plausible, improvement on sequence-dependent burial prediction or on sequence-independent constraints that augment the detectable redundancy during simulations.

  18. Design and evaluation of a bioreactor with application to forensic burial environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunphy, Melissa A; Weisensee, Katherine E; Mikhailova, Elena A; Harman, Melinda K

    2015-12-01

    Existing forensic taphonomic methods lack specificity in estimating the postmortem interval (PMI) in the period following active decomposition. New methods, such as the use of citrate concentration in bone, are currently being considered; however, determining the applicability of these methods in differing environmental contexts is challenging. This research aims to design a forensic bioreactor that can account for environmental factors known to impact decomposition, specifically temperature, moisture, physical damage from animals, burial depth, soil pH, and organic matter content. These forensically relevant environmental variables were characterized in a soil science context. The resulting metrics were soil temperature regime, soil moisture regime, slope, texture, soil horizon, cation exchange capacity, soil pH, and organic matter content. Bioreactor chambers were constructed using sterilized thin-walled polystyrene boxes housed in calibrated temperature units. Gravesoil was represented using mineral soil (Ultisols), and organic soil proxy for Histosols, horticulture mix. Gravesoil depth was determined using mineral soil horizons A and Bt2 to simulate surface scatter and shallow grave burial respectively. A total of fourteen different environmental conditions were created and controlled successfully over a 90-day experiment. These results demonstrate successful implementation and control of forensic bioreactor simulating precise environments in a single research location, rather than site-specific testing occurring in different geographic regions. Bone sections were grossly assessed for weathering characteristics, which revealed notable differences related to exposure to different temperature regimes and soil types. Over the short 90-day duration of this experiment, changes in weathering characteristics were more evident across the different temperature regimes rather than the soil types. Using this methodology, bioreactor systems can be created to replicate many

  19. Species sensitivity distributions for suspended clays, sediment burial, and grain size change in the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Mathijs G D; Holthaus, Karlijn I E; Trannum, Hilde C; Neff, Jerry M; Kjeilen-Eilertsen, Grete; Jak, Robbert G; Singsaas, Ivar; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Hendriks, A Jan

    2008-04-01

    Assessment of the environmental risk of discharges, containing both chemicals and suspended solids (e.g., drilling discharges to the marine environment), requires an evaluation of the effects of both toxic and nontoxic pollutants. To date, a structured evaluation scheme that can be used for prognostic risk assessments for nontoxic stress is lacking. In the present study we challenge this lack of information by the development of marine species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) for three nontoxic stressors: suspended clays, burial by sediment, and change in sediment grain size. Through a literature study, effect levels were obtained for suspended clays, as well as for burial of biota. Information on the species preference range for median grain size was used to assess the sensitivity of marine species to changes in grain size. The 50% hazardous concentrations (HC50) for suspended barite and bentonite based on 50% effect concentrations (EC50s) were 3,010 and 1,830 mg/L, respectively. For burial the 50% hazardous level (HL50) was 5.4 cm. For change in median grain size, two SSDs were constructed; one for reducing and one for increasing the median grain size. The HL50 for reducing the median grain size was 17.8 mum. For increasing the median grain size this value was 305 mum. The SSDs have been constructed by using information related to offshore oil- and gas-related activities. Nevertheless, the results of the present study may have broader implications. The hypothesis of the present study is that the SSD methodology developed for the evaluation of toxic stress can also be applied to evaluate nontoxic stressors, facilitating the incorporation of nontoxic stressors in prognostic risk assessment tools.

  20. A Study on Generic Representation of Skeletal Remains Replication of Prehistoric Burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, C.-W.; Chiu, H.-L.; Chang, S.-K.

    2015-08-01

    Generic representation of skeletal remains from burials consists of three dimensions which include physical anthropologists, replication technicians, and promotional educators. For the reason that archaeological excavation is irreversible and disruptive, detail documentation and replication technologies are surely needed for many purposes. Unearthed bones during the process of 3D digital scanning need to go through reverse procedure, 3D scanning, digital model superimposition, rapid prototyping, mould making, and the integrated errors generated from the presentation of colours and textures are important issues for the presentation of replicate skeleton remains among professional decisions conducted by physical anthropologists, subjective determination of makers, and the expectations of viewers. This study presents several cases and examines current issues on display and replication technologies for human skeletal remains of prehistoric burials. This study documented detail colour changes of human skeleton over time for the reference of reproduction. The tolerance errors of quantification and required technical qualification is acquired according to the precision of 3D scanning, the specification requirement of rapid prototyping machine, and the mould making process should following the professional requirement for physical anthropological study. Additionally, the colorimeter is adopted to record and analyse the "colour change" of the human skeletal remains from wet to dry condition. Then, the "colure change" is used to evaluate the "real" surface texture and colour presentation of human skeletal remains, and to limit the artistic presentation among the human skeletal remains reproduction. The"Lingdao man No.1", is a well preserved burial of early Neolithic period (8300 B.P.) excavated from Liangdao-Daowei site, Matsu, Taiwan , as the replicating object for this study. In this study, we examined the reproduction procedures step by step for ensuring the surface

  1. Clay mineralogy, organic carbon burial, and redox evolution in Proterozoic oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosca, Nicholas J.; Johnston, David T.; Mushegian, Alexandra; Rothman, Daniel H.; Summons, Roger E.; Knoll, Andrew H.

    2010-03-01

    Clay minerals formed through chemical weathering have long been implicated in the burial of organic matter (OM), but because diagenesis and metamorphism commonly obscure the signature of weathering-derived clays in Precambrian rocks, clay mineralogy and its role in OM burial through much of geologic time remains incompletely understood. Here we have analyzed the mineralogy, geochemistry and total organic carbon (TOC) of organic rich shales deposited in late Archean to early Cambrian sedimentary basins. Across all samples we have quantified the contribution of 1 M and 1 Md illite polytypes, clay minerals formed by diagenetic transformation of smectite and/or kaolinite-rich weathering products. This mineralogical signal, together with corrected paleo-weathering indices, indicates that late Archean and Mesoproterozoic samples were moderately to intensely weathered. However, in late Neoproterozoic basins, 2 M1 illite/mica dominates clay mineralogy and paleo-weathering indices sharply decrease, consistent with an influx of chemically immature and relatively unweathered sediment. A late Neoproterozoic switch to micaceous clays is inconsistent with hypotheses for oxygen history that require an increased flux of weathering-derived clays (i.e., smectite or kaolinite) across the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary. Compared to previous studies, our XRD data display the same variation in Schultz Ratio across the late Neoproterozoic, but we show the cause to be micaceous clay and not pedogenic clay; paleo-weathering signals cannot be recovered from bulk mineralogy without this distinction. We find little evidence to support a link between these mineralogical variations and organic carbon in our samples and conclude that modal clay mineralogy cannot by itself explain an Ediacaran increase in atmospheric oxygen driven by enhanced OM burial.

  2. Quasi-100 ky glacial-interglacial cycles triggered by subglacial burial carbon release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Zeng

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A mechanism is proposed in which climate, carbon cycle and icesheets interact with each other to produce a feedback that can lead to quasi-100 ky glacial-interglacial cycles. A central process is the burial and preservation of organic carbon by icesheets which contributes to the observed glacial-interglacial CO2 change (the glacial burial hypothesis, Zeng, 2003. Allowing carbon cycle to interact with physical climate, here I further hypothesize that deglaciation can be triggered by the ejection of glacial burial carbon when a major icesheet grows to sufficiently large size after a prolonged glaciation so that subglacial transport becomes significant. Glacial inception may be initiated by CO2 drawdown due to a relaxation from a high but transient interglacial CO2 value as the land-originated CO2 invades into deep ocean via thermohaline circulation and CaCO3 compensation. Also important for glacial inception may be the CO2 uptake by vegetation and soil regrowth in the previously ice-covered regions. When tested in a fully coupled Earth system model with comprehensive carbon cycle components and semi-empirical physical climate components, it produced under certain parameter regimes self-sustaining glacial-interglacial cycles with durations of 93 ky, CO2 changes of 90 ppmv, temperature changes of 6°C. Since the 100 ky cycles can not be easily explained by the Milankovitch astronomical forcing alone, this carbon-climate-icesheet mechanism provides a strong feedback that could interact with external forcings to produce the major observed Quaternary climatic variations. It is speculated that some glacial terminations may be triggered by this internal feedback while others by orbital forcing. Some observable consequences are highlighted that may support or falsify the theory.

  3. Characterization of the Hanford 300 area burial grounds. Final report: decontamination and decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, S.J.; Ames, L.L.; Fitzner, R.E.; Gee, G.W.; Sandness, G.A.; Simmons, C.S.

    1980-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a series of investigations at the Hanford Site to develop technologies for characterizing and monitoring radioactive waste burial facilities that could be used in determining appropriate decommissioning alternatives. Specific objectives were to develop unique functional geophysics, geochemical, soil physics, numerical modeling, and biological methodologies needed to better characterize and monitor buried radioactive waste disposal sites. To meet these objectives the project was divided into four tasks: Task I, Geophysical Evaluation - Geophysical surveys were taken to locate and define the gross composition of waste materials. Task II, Geochemical Analysis - The interaction of disposed radionuclides with geologic media was analyzed through an integrated radiochemical procedure. Task III, Fluid Transport and Modeling - Computer modeling of water migration in partially saturated groundwater systems was verified with actual data collected at a field test facility used to monitor micrometeorological and geohydrological energy and mass transfer factors. Task IV, Biological Transport - Several biological organisms were evaluated for potential radionuclide uptake and transport. Along with the four tasks, the project included a review of pertinent literature and regulatory issues that might affect the alternatives selected. Surveys were taken of the surrounding area and specific sites and operations. The overall results indicated that the 300 Area Burial Grounds have been adequate in containing radioactive waste. Based on the results of the project, the alternatives identified for decommissioning these sites are exhumation and translocation, entombment, perpetual care, and abandonment. Perpetual care (currently used) appears to be the best decommissioning alternative for these burial grounds at this time. However, another alternative may be selected depending on future waste management policies, plans, or activities.

  4. Apotropaic practices and the undead: a biogeochemical assessment of deviant burials in post-medieval poland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley A Gregoricka

    Full Text Available Apotropaic observances-traditional practices intended to prevent evil-were not uncommon in post-medieval Poland, and included specific treatment of the dead for those considered at risk for becoming vampires. Excavations at the Drawsko 1 cemetery (17th-18th c. AD have revealed multiple examples (n = 6 of such deviant burials amidst hundreds of normative interments. While historic records describe the many potential reasons why some were more susceptible to vampirism than others, no study has attempted to discern differences in social identity between individuals within standard and deviant burials using biogeochemical analyses of human skeletal remains. The hypothesis that the individuals selected for apotropaic burial rites were non-local immigrants whose geographic origins differed from the local community was tested using radiogenic strontium isotope ratios from archaeological dental enamel. 87Sr/86Sr ratios ( = 0.7112±0.0006, 1σ from the permanent molars of 60 individuals reflect a predominantly local population, with all individuals interred as potential vampires exhibiting local strontium isotope ratios. These data indicate that those targeted for apotropaic practices were not migrants to the region, but instead, represented local individuals whose social identity or manner of death marked them with suspicion in some other way. Cholera epidemics that swept across much of Eastern Europe during the 17th century may provide one alternate explanation as to the reason behind these apotropaic mortuary customs, as the first person to die from an infectious disease outbreak was presumed more likely to return from the dead as a vampire.

  5. Characterization of 618-11 solid waste burial ground, disposed waste, and description of the waste generating facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hladek, K.L.

    1997-10-07

    The 618-11 (Wye or 318-11) burial ground received transuranic (TRTJ) and mixed fission solid waste from March 9, 1962, through October 2, 1962. It was then closed for 11 months so additional burial facilities could be added. The burial ground was reopened on September 16, 1963, and continued operating until it was closed permanently on December 31, 1967. The burial ground received wastes from all of the 300 Area radioactive material handling facilities. The purpose of this document is to characterize the 618-11 solid waste burial ground by describing the site, burial practices, the disposed wastes, and the waste generating facilities. This document provides information showing that kilogram quantities of plutonium were disposed to the drum storage units and caissons, making them transuranic (TRU). Also, kilogram quantities of plutonium and other TRU wastes were disposed to the three trenches, which were previously thought to contain non-TRU wastes. The site burial facilities (trenches, caissons, and drum storage units) should be classified as TRU and the site plutonium inventory maintained at five kilograms. Other fissile wastes were also disposed to the site. Additionally, thousands of curies of mixed fission products were also disposed to the trenches, caissons, and drum storage units. Most of the fission products have decayed over several half-lives, and are at more tolerable levels. Of greater concern, because of their release potential, are TRU radionuclides, Pu-238, Pu-240, and Np-237. TRU radionuclides also included slightly enriched 0.95 and 1.25% U-231 from N-Reactor fuel, which add to the fissile content. The 618-11 burial ground is located approximately 100 meters due west of Washington Nuclear Plant No. 2. The burial ground consists of three trenches, approximately 900 feet long, 25 feet deep, and 50 feet wide, running east-west. The trenches constitute 75% of the site area. There are 50 drum storage units (five 55-gallon steel drums welded together

  6. A revised burial dose estimation procedure for optical dating of youngand modern-age sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, L.J.; Roberts, R.G.; Galbraith, R.F.; DeLong, S.B.

    2009-01-01

    The presence of genuinely zero-age or near-zero-age grains in modern-age and very young samples poses a problem for many existing burial dose estimation procedures used in optical (optically stimulated luminescence, OSL) dating. This difficulty currently necessitates consideration of relatively simplistic and statistically inferior age models. In this study, we investigate the potential for using modified versions of the statistical age models of Galbraith et??al. [Galbraith, R.F., Roberts, R.G., Laslett, G.M., Yoshida, H., Olley, J.M., 1999. Optical dating of single and multiple grains of quartz from Jinmium rock shelter, northern Australia: Part I, experimental design and statistical models. Archaeometry 41, 339-364.] to provide reliable equivalent dose (De) estimates for young and modern-age samples that display negative, zero or near-zero De estimates. For this purpose, we have revised the original versions of the central and minimum age models, which are based on log-transformed De values, so that they can be applied to un-logged De estimates and their associated absolute standard errors. The suitability of these 'un-logged' age models is tested using a series of known-age fluvial samples deposited within two arroyo systems from the American Southwest. The un-logged age models provide accurate burial doses and final OSL ages for roughly three-quarters of the total number of samples considered in this study. Sensitivity tests reveal that the un-logged versions of the central and minimum age models are capable of producing accurate burial dose estimates for modern-age and very young (<350??yr) fluvial samples that contain (i) more than 20% of well-bleached grains in their De distributions, or (ii) smaller sub-populations of well-bleached grains for which the De values are known with high precision. Our results indicate that the original (log-transformed) versions of the central and minimum age models are still preferable for most routine dating applications

  7. Hydrogeology of the 200 Areas low-level burial grounds: An interim report: Volume 2, Appendixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, G.V.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Bergeron, M.P.; Wallace, D.W.; Newcomer, D.R.; Schramke, J.A.; Chamness, M.A.; Cline, C.S.; Airhart, S.P.; Wilbur, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents information derived form the installation of 35 ground-water monitoring wells around six low-level radioactive/hazardous waste burial grounds located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. This information was collected between May 20, 1987 and August 1, 1988. The contents of this report have been divided into two volumes. Volume 1 contains the main text. This Volume contains the appendixes, including data and supporting information that verify content and results found in the main text.

  8. Potential role of biotic transport models in low-level-waste management. [Shallow land burial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Soldat, J.K.; Cadwell, L.L.; McKenzie, D.H.

    1982-06-15

    This paper is a summary of the initial results of a study being conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to determine the relevance of biotic pathways to the regulation of nuclear waste disposal. Biotic transport is defined as the actions of plants and animals that result in the transport of radioactive materials from a LLW burial ground to a location where they can enter exposure pathways to man. A critical review of the role of modeling in evaluating biotic transport is given. Both current applications and the need for future modeling development are discussed.

  9. Relationship between karstification and burial dolomitization in Permian platform carbonates (Lower Khuff - Oman)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckert, Julia; Vandeginste, Veerle; John, Cédric M.

    2016-08-01

    Large breccia fabrics associated with karst constitute an important structure in massive limestone successions. The dimensions and shapes of breccia structures are controlled by the initial fracture pattern of the limestone and preferential pathways of the karstifying fluids, but subsequently breccia fabrics can also govern the migration of later fluids. Therefore, breccias are highly relevant features to capture for reservoir characterisation. Outcrop analogues for Lower Khuff units in the Middle East present in the Central Oman Mountains reveal brecciated fabrics up to 10s of metres in diameter. These brecciated units are closely associated with dolomite bodies of late diagenetic origin. Based on an integrated set of data, the breccias are interpreted as collapsed karst cavities either formed by meteoric or hypogenic fluids. The exact origin of the fluids could not be constrained due to an overprint by later dolomitizing fluids. Based on the composition of the clasts and matrix in the breccias, two dolomitization events are interpreted to have affected the succession, one prior to (early diagenetic [ED] dolomite) and one after brecciation (late diagenetic [DT2] dolomite). Dolomite of shallow burial origin (ED dolomite) was only observed as clasts within breccia and is much more frequent than late diagenetic (medium to deep burial) dolomite clasts. Thus, the timing of the brecciation and collapse is assumed to postdate shallow burial early diagenetic dolomitization. Late diagenetic replacive dolomite (DT2 dolomite) forms 90% of the matrix in the breccia fabrics with the exception of a small area that was not affected by dolomitization, but is rarely present as clasts. Stable isotope measurements [δ18O: - 2.5‰ to - 6‰ VPDB and δ13C: 2.9‰ to 4.8‰ VPDB] suggest a burial origin for the late diagenetic dolomite potentially with the participation of hydrothermal fluids. The dolomitized matrix indicates a migration of late dolomitizing fluids subsequent to or

  10. Status of corrective measures technology for shallow land burial at arid sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeele, W. V.; Nyhan, J. W.; Drennon, B. J.; Lopez, E. A.; Herrera, W. J.; Langhorst, G. J.

    The field research program involving corrective measure technologies for arid shallow land burial sites is described. Soil erosion and infiltration of water into a simulated trench cap with various surface treatments was measured and compared with similar data from agricultural systems across the United States. Report of field testing of biointrusion barriers continues at a closed-out waste disposal site at Los Alamos. Final results of an experiment designed to determine the effects of subsidence on the performance of a cobble-gravel biobarrier system are reported, as well as the results of hydrologic modeling activities involving biobarrier systems.

  11. A new perspective on studying burial environment before archaeological excavation: analyzing bacterial community distribution by high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinjin; Wei, Yanfei; Jia, Hanqing; Xiao, Lin; Gong, Decai

    2017-02-07

    Burial conditions play a crucial role in archaeological heritage preservation. Especially, the microorganisms were considered as the leading causes which incurred degradation and vanishment of historic materials. In this article, we analyzed bacterial diversity and community structure from M1 of Wangshanqiao using 16 S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. The results indicated that microbial communities in burial conditions were diverse among four different samples. The samples from the robber hole varied most obviously in community structure both in Alpha and Beta diversity. In addition, the dominant phylum in different samples were Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes, respectively. Moreover, the study implied that historical materials preservation conditions had connections with bacterial community distribution. At the genus level, Acinetobacter might possess high ability in degrading organic culture heritage in burial conditions, while Bacteroides were associated closely with favorable preservation conditions. This method contributes to fetch information which would never recover after excavation, and it will help to explore microbial degradation on precious organic culture heritage and further our understanding of archaeological burial environment. The study also indicates that robbery has a serious negative impact on burial remains.

  12. Examining the diagenetic alteration of human bone material from a range of archaeological burial sites using nuclear microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, T. A.; Grime, G. W.

    1993-05-01

    The inorganic analysis of archaeological bone material can potentially provide a wealth of information about the chronology, diet and palaeoenvironment of past populations: for example, strontium and uranium levels are used in palaeodietary and dating studies, respectively. However, the extent to which the chemical composition of bone is subject to diagenetic change during burial is open to controversy due, in part, to differences in analytical technique, bone types and burial conditions. To investigate this problem, archaeological human bone material from a number of different geological environments including Pompeii and a 12th century British ecclesiastical site, together with material from two seawater burials (The "Mary Rose" and a 6th century Mediterranean wreck) have been studied using the nuclear microprobe facility at the University of Oxford. Results using microbeam PIXE show that bone is subject to contamination from a wide range of trace elements depending on the burial conditions. Elemental maps are presented to demonstrate the distribution of trace element accumulation under different burial conditions, and the significance of this work to future trace element studies is discussed.

  13. Hysterical paralysis and premature burial: a medieval Persian case, fear and fascination in the West, and modern practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agutter, Paul S; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane; Rashidi, Mohammad Reza; Khalili, Majid; Hosseini, Seyed Fazel; Ghabili, Kamyar; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A; Loukas, Marios

    2013-04-01

    Premature burial (taphophobia) is an ancient fear, but it became especially common in 18th and 19th century Europe and may have a modern-day counterpart. Examination of a well-documented case from medieval Persia reveals the importance of funeral practices in the risk of actual premature burial and sheds light on the question of why taphophobia became so prevalent in Europe during the early industrial revolution period. The medieval Persian case was attributed to hysterical paralysis (conversion). We discuss the relationship between hysterical paralysis and premature burial more generally and show that although understanding of conversion syndrome remains incomplete, modern knowledge and practices have limited the risk of any similar tragedy today.

  14. A theoretical model to estimate the oil burial depth on sandy beaches: A new oil spill management tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabeu, Ana M; Fernández-Fernández, Sandra; Rey, Daniel

    2016-08-15

    In oiled sandy beaches, unrecovered fuel can be buried up to several metres. This study proposes a theoretical approach to oil burial estimation along the intertidal area. First, our results revealed the existence of two main patterns in seasonal beach profile behaviour. Type A is characterized by intertidal slopes of time-constant steepness which advance/recede parallel to themselves in response to changing wave conditions. Type B is characterized by slopes of time-varying steepness which intersect at a given point in the intertidal area. This finding has a direct influence on the definition of oil depth. Type A pattern exhibits oil burial along the entire intertidal area following decreasing wave energy, while the type B pattern combines burial in high intertidal and exhumation in mid and/or low intertidal zones, depending on the position of the intersection point. These outcomes should be incorporated as key tools in future oil spill management programs.

  15. Analyzing and Interpreting Lime Burials from the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939): A Case Study from La Carcavilla Cemetery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotsmans, Eline M J; García-Rubio, Almudena; Edwards, Howell G M; Munshi, Tasnim; Wilson, Andrew S; Ríos, Luis

    2017-03-01

    Over 500 victims of the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) were buried in the cemetery of La Carcavilla (Palencia, Spain). White material, observed in several burials, was analyzed with Raman spectroscopy and powder XRD, and confirmed to be lime. Archaeological findings at La Carcavilla's cemetery show that the application of lime was used in an organized way, mostly associated with coffinless interments of victims of Francoist repression. In burials with a lime cast, observations made it possible to draw conclusions regarding the presence of soft tissue at the moment of deposition, the sequence of events, and the presence of clothing and other evidence. This study illustrates the importance of analyzing a burial within the depositional environment and taphonomic context.

  16. Final Hazard Categorization for the Remediation of Six 300-FF-2 Operable Unit Solid Waste Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. D. Ludowise

    2006-12-12

    This report provides the final hazard categorization (FHC) for the remediation of six solid waste disposal sites (referred to as burial grounds) located in the 300-FF-2 Operable Unit (OU) on the Hanford Site. These six sites (618-1, 618-2, 618-3, 618-7, 618-8, and 618-13 Burial Grounds) were determined to have a total radionuclide inventory (WCH 2005a, WCH 2005d, WCH 2005e and WCH 2006b) that exceeds the DOE-STD-1027 Category 3 threshold quantity (DOE 1997) and are the subject of this analysis. This FHC document examines the hazards, identifies appropriate controls to manage the hazards, and documents the FHC and commitments for the 300-FF-2 Burial Grounds Remediation Project.

  17. Identification of technical problems encountered in the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, D.G.; Epler, J.S.; Rose, R.R.

    1980-03-01

    A review of problems encountered in the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes has been made in support of the technical aspects of the National Low-Level Waste (LLW) Management Research and Development Program being administered by the Low-Level Waste Management Program Office, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The operating histories of burial sites at six major DOE and five commercial facilities in the US have been examined and several major problems identified. The problems experienced st the sites have been grouped into general categories dealing with site development, waste characterization, operation, and performance evaluation. Based on this grouping of the problem, a number of major technical issues have been identified which should be incorporated into program plans for further research and development. For each technical issue a discussion is presented relating the issue to a particular problem, identifying some recent or current related research, and suggesting further work necessary for resolving the issue. Major technical issues which have been identified include the need for improved water management, further understanding of the effect of chemical and physical parameters on radionuclide migration, more comprehensive waste records, improved programs for performance monitoring and evaluation, development of better predictive capabilities, evaluation of space utilization, and improved management control.

  18. Burial Records of Reactive Iron in Cretaceous Black Shales and Oceanic Red Beds from Southern Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yongjian; WANG Chengshan; HU Xiumian; CHEN Xi

    2007-01-01

    One of the new directions in the field of Cretaceous research is to elucidate the mechanism of the sedimentary transition from the Cretaceous black shales to oceanic red beds. A chemical sequential extraction method was applied to these two types of rocks from southern Tibet to investigate the burial records of reactive iron. Results indicate that carbonate-associated iron and pyrite are relatively enriched in the black shales, but depleted or absent in red beds. The main feature of the reactive iron in the red beds is relative enrichment of iron oxides (largely hematite), which occurred during syn-depostion or early diagenesis. The ratio between iron oxides and the total iron indicates an oxygen-enriched environment for red bed deposition. A comparison between the reactive iron burial records and proxies of paleo-productivity suggests that paleo-productivity decreases when the ratio between iron oxides and the total iron increases in the red beds. This phenomenon could imply that the relationship between marine redox and productivity might be one of the reasons for the sedimentary transition from Cretaceous black shale to oceanic red bed deposition.

  19. Pyrosequencing-based assessment of microbial community shifts in leachate from animal carcass burial lysimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Young; Seo, Jiyoung; Kim, Tae-Hun; Shim, Bomi; Cha, Seok Mun; Yu, Seungho

    2017-02-26

    This study examined the use of microbial community structure as a bio-indicator of decomposition levels. High-throughput pyrosequencing technology was used to assess the shift in microbial community of leachate from animal carcass lysimeter. The leachate samples were collected monthly for one year and a total of 164,639 pyrosequencing reads were obtained and used in the taxonomic classification and operational taxonomy units (OTUs) distribution analysis based on sequence similarity. Our results show considerable changes in the phylum-level bacterial composition, suggesting that the microbial community is a sensitive parameter affected by the burial environment. The phylum classification results showed that Proteobacteria (Pseudomonas) were the most influential taxa in earlier decomposition stage whereas Firmicutes (Clostridium, Sporanaerobacter, and Peptostreptococcus) were dominant in later stage under anaerobic conditions. The result of this study can provide useful information on a time series of leachate profiles of microbial community structures and suggest patterns of microbial diversity in livestock burial sites. In addition, this result can be applicable to predict the decomposition stages under clay loam based soil conditions of animal livestock.

  20. Effect of burial depth on seismic signals. Volume I. Final report 1976-1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perl, N.; Thomas, F.J.; Trulio, J.; Woodie, W.L.

    1979-05-01

    This report discusses a calculational program aimed at improving the U.S. capability to verify a Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT) by seismic means. The analysis emphasizes shallow bursts, examining both body-wave and surface-wave effects. Two-dimensional inelastic source calculations, using Applied Theory's AFTON program, were made on a representative set of 150 KT explosions. Simple elastic theory is reviewed, indicating the primary body wave from a buried explosion receives positive or negative reinforcement from the free-surface reflection. The more refined calculations, which include inelastic and gravitational effects, indicate a 'reflection' amplitude smaller than that calculated for the elastic case. More important, the reflected wave is relatively delayed in time, so that transitions between positive and negative reinforcement occur at shallower depths of burial. A surface-wave model is developed, based on Green's function. Many problems were encountered in modifying the AFTON source-data program to provide information that was accurate for long-period displacements, and to extrapolate calculations well beyond the reasonable truncation times for the program. Preliminary conclusions are made concerning the need for inelastic source calculations; depth-of-burial effects on signal generation; the resulting yield estimation; possible improved yield estimation procedures; and topographic effects. Volume I presents summaries of the body-wave and surface-wave calculations to date.

  1. Do ENSO and Coastal Development Enhance Coastal Burial of Terrestrial Carbon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macreadie, Peter I.; Rolph, Timothy C.; Boyd, Ron; Schröder-Adams, Claudia J.; Skilbeck, Charles G.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon cycling on the east coast of Australia has the potential to be strongly affected by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) intensification and coastal development (industrialization and urbanization). We performed paleoreconstructions of estuarine sediments from a seagrass-dominated estuary on the east coast of Australia (Tuggerah Lake, New South Wales) to test the hypothesis that millennial-scale ENSO intensification and European settlement in Australia have increased the transfer of organic carbon from land into coastal waters. Our data show that carbon accumulation rates within coastal sediments increased significantly during periods of maximum millennial-scale ENSO intensity (“super-ENSO”) and coastal development. We suggest that ENSO and coastal development destabilize and liberate terrestrial soil carbon, which, during rainfall events (e.g., La Niña), washes into estuaries and becomes trapped and buried by coastal vegetation (seagrass in this case). Indeed, periods of high carbon burial were generally characterized as having rapid sedimentation rates, higher content of fine-grained sediments, and increased content of wood and charcoal fragments. These results, though preliminary, suggest that coastal development and ENSO intensification—both of which are predicted to increase over the coming century—can enhance capture and burial of terrestrial carbon by coastal ecosystems. These findings have important relevance for current efforts to build an understanding of terrestrial-marine carbon connectivity into global carbon budgets. PMID:26691557

  2. Beach morphodynamics forcements in oiled shorelines: Coupled physical and chemical processes during and after fuel burial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernabeu, A.M.; Nuez de la Fuente, M.; Rey, D.; Rubio, B.; Vilas, F. [Universidad de Vigo, Vigo (Spain). Dpto. de Geociencias Marinas y O.T., Marine and Environmental Geology Group

    2006-10-15

    In November 2002, the sinking of the Prestige oil tanker off the Galician coast (N.W. Spain) caused the largest ecological catastrophe in the history of Spain, affecting the coast called the 'Costa da Morte' (Galicia, N.W. Spain). This work is focused on the study of the oil contamination of the intertidal area of two beaches located on this stretch of coast. The study of twenty cores extracted from both beaches has identified fuel embedded in the sedimentary column up to a depth of 2.38 m (this being the maximum depth of extraction). This, along with the presence of oil below the groundwater indicates the existence of a new factor which determines the burial of oil: the morphodynamic behaviour of the beach. Furthermore, this morphodynamic variation conditions the physical appearance of the buried oil. Four different types have been identified: tar-balls (cm), particles (mm), oil coatings on sediment grains and on emulsion, with distribution patterns conditioned by the degree of wave exposure. The analysis of the information obtained have permitted the development of a conceptual model of the burial and oil evolution in the sedimentary column in relation to wave exposure, and thus to the morphodynamic variability of the beach. (author)

  3. Investigation of a Medieval Pilgrim Burial Excavated from the Leprosarium of St Mary Magdalen Winchester, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Katie; Filipek-Ogden, Kori; Montgomery, Janet; Cameron, Jamie; O’Connell, Tamsin; Evans, Jane; Marter, Phil; Taylor, G. Michael

    2017-01-01

    We have examined the remains of a Pilgrim burial from St Mary Magdalen, Winchester. The individual was a young adult male, aged around 18–25 years at the time of death. Radiocarbon dating showed the remains dated to the late 11th–early 12th centuries, a time when pilgrimages were at their height in Europe. Several lines of evidence in connection with the burial suggested this was an individual of some means and prestige. Although buried within the leprosarium cemetery, the skeleton showed only minimal skeletal evidence for leprosy, which was confined to the bones of the feet and legs. Nonetheless, molecular testing of several skeletal elements, including uninvolved bones all showed robust evidence of DNA from Mycobacterium leprae, consistent with the lepromatous or multibacillary form of the disease. We infer that in life, this individual almost certainly suffered with multiple soft tissue lesions. Genotyping of the M.leprae strain showed this belonged to the 2F lineage, today associated with cases from South-Central and Western Asia. During osteological examination it was noted that the cranium and facial features displayed atypical morphology for northern European populations. Subsequently, geochemical isotopic analyses carried out on tooth enamel indicated that this individual was indeed not local to the Winchester region, although it was not possible to be more specific about their geographic origin. PMID:28125649

  4. Quasi-100 ky glacial-interglacial cycles triggered by subglacial burial carbon release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Zeng

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A new mechanism is proposed in which climate, carbon cycle and icesheets interact with each other to produce a feedback that can produce quasi-100 ky glacial-interglacial cycles. A key process is the burial and preservation of organic carbon by icesheets. The switch from glacial maximum to deglaciation is triggered by the ejection of glacial burial carbon when icesheets grow to sufficiently large size and subglacial transport becomes significant. Glacial inception is initiated by CO2 drawdown due to a ''rebound'' from a high but transient interglacial CO2 value as the land-originated CO2 invades into deep ocean via thermohaline circulation and CaCO3 compensation. Also important for glacial inception is the CO2 uptake by vegetation regrowth in the previously ice-covered boreal regions. When tested using a fully coupled Earth system model with comprehensive carbon cycle components and semi-empirical physical climate components, it produced self-sustaining glacial-interglacial cycles of duration about 93 ky, CO2 change of 90 ppmv, temperature change of 6°C under certain parameter regimes. Since the 100 ky cycles can not be easily explained by the weak Milankovitch astronomical forcing alone, this carbon-climate mechanism provides a strong feedback that could interact with external forcings to produce the major observed Quaternary climatic variations.

  5. Glacial-Interglacial Atmospheric CO2 Change--The Glacial Burial Hypothesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning ZENG

    2003-01-01

    Organic carbon buried under the great ice sheets of the Northern Hemisphere is suggested to bethe missing link in the atmospheric CO2 change over the glacial-interglacial cycles. At glaciation, theadvancement of continental ice sheets buries vegetation and soil carbon accumulated during warmer pe-riods. At deglaciation, this burial carbon is released back into the atmosphere. In a simulation over twoglacial-interglacial cycles using a synchronously coupled atmosphere-land-ocean carbon model forced byreconstructed climate change, it is found that there is a 547-Gt terrestrial carbon release from glacialmaximum to interglacial, resulting in a 60-Gt (about 30-ppmv) increase in the atmospheric CO2, with theremainder absorbed by the ocean in a scenario in which ocean acts as a passive buffer. This is in contrastto previous estimates of a land uptake at deglaciation. This carbon source originates from glacial burial,continental shelf, and other land areas in response to changes in ice cover, sea level, and climate. The inputof light isotope enriched terrestrial carbon causes atmospheric 513C to drop by about 0.3% at deglaciation,followed by a rapid rise towards a high interglacial value in response to oceanic warming and regrowthon land. Together with other ocean based mechanisms such as change in ocean temperature, the glacialburial hypothesis may offer a full explanation of the observed 80 100-ppmv atmospheric CO2 change.

  6. Hydrogeology of the 200 Areas low-level burial grounds: An interim report: Volume 1, Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, G.V.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Bergeron, M.P.; Wallace, D.W.; Newcomer, D.R.; Schramke, J.A.; Chamness, M.A.; Cline, C.S.; Airhart, S.P.; Wilbur, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents information derived from the installation of 35 ground-water monitoring wells around six low-level radioactive/hazardous waste burial grounds located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. This information was collected between May 20, 1987 and August 1, 1988. The contents of this report have been divided into two volumes. This volume contains the main text. Volume 2 contains the appendixes, including data and supporting information that verify content and results found in the main text. This report documents information collected by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company. Presented in this report are the preliminary interpretations of the hydrogeologic environment of six low-level burial grounds, which comprise four waste management areas (WMAs) located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site. This information and its accompanying interpretations were derived from sampling and testing activities associated with the construction of 35 ground-water monitoring wells as well as a multitude of previously existing boreholes. The new monitoring wells were installed as part of a ground-water monitoring program initiated in 1986. This ground-water monitoring program is based on requirements for interim status facilities in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1976).

  7. Chronology of the Third – Fifth Centuries Male Graves from the Tarasovo Burial Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldina Rimma D.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the chronological attribution of male graves from the late Mazunino stage of the Tarasovo burial ground and is a sequel to an earlier article about dating of the early Nyrgynda stage (1st – 2nd centuries of the same site. The three main methods employed in this research include those of formal typology, cultural stratigraphy and the nearest neighbor method. Eighty-six male graves of the third-fifth centuries were analyzed, with 12 identified as a result: first half of the 3rd c. AD (group 1, second half of the 3rd c. AD (2; 3rd c. (3; first half of the 4th c. (group 4; second half of the 3rd – 4th c. (5; third quarter of the 4th c. (6; fourth quarter of the 4th c. (group 7; second half of the 4th c. (8; second half of the 4th – 5th c. (9; 4th – 5th cc. (10; second half of the 3rd – 5th cc. (11 and 3rd – 5th cc. (12. This article minutes investigates the first six groups, while the rest will be covered in the next publication. Artifacts form the third – fifth century female graves of the Tarasovo burial ground will be studied separately.

  8. Grout testing and characterization for shallow-land burial trenches at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallent, O.K.; Sams, T.L.; Tamura, T.; Godsey, T.T.; Francis, C.L.; McDaniel, E.W.

    1986-10-01

    An investigation was conducted to develop grout formulations suitable for in situ stabilization of low-level and transuranic (TRU) waste in shallow-land burial trenches at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The acceptabilities of soil, ordinary particulate, and fine particulate grouts were evaluated based on phase separation, compressive strength, freeze/thaw, penetration resistance, rheological, water permeability, column, and other tests. Soil grouts with soil-to-cement weight ratios from 0.91 to 1.60 were found to be suitable for open trench or drum disposal. Ordinary particulate grouts containing type I,II Portland cement, class C fly ash, bentonite, water, and a fluidizer were formulated to fill large voids within the soil/waste matrix of a closed shallow-land burial trench. Fine particulate grouts containing fine (mean particle size, 9.6 m) cement and water were formulated to fill smaller voids and to establish a grout-soil barrier to prevent water intrusion into the grouted waste trench. Solution, or chemical grouts, were evaluated as possible substitutes for the fine particulate grouts.

  9. Sources and burial of organic carbon in the middle Okinawa Trough during late Quaternary paleoenvironmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Hebin; Yang, Shouye; Cai, Feng; Li, Chao; Liang, Jie; Li, Qing; Hyun, Sangmin; Kao, Shuh-Ji; Dou, Yanguang; Hu, Bangqi; Dong, Gang; Wang, Feng

    2016-12-01

    The sediments from a piston core ECS12A recovered from the middle Okinawa Trough in the East China Sea were measured for total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), and other biogenic elements to provide constraints on the sources and burial rates of depositional organic matter (OM) and on the changes in primary productivity since 19 ka. The last glacial sediments (ca. 17-19 ka) are characterized by low contents of biogenic elements and well-developed turbidite layers, suggesting low primary productivity but a high component of terrigenous sediment. With rising sea level and enhanced monsoons during the deglacial period, the proportion of marine OM gradually increased. The least negative δ13Corg values and the smallest grain size of sediments deposited ca. 10-14.5 ka indicate high primary productivity and a sedimentary environment dominated by the marine component. The source and burial rates of OM in the Holocene sediments (ca. 5.4-10 ka) were largely controlled by the intensification of the Kuroshio Current, which caused a slight decrease in primary productivity, but strengthened the oceanic circulation in the East China Sea. Overall, the source-to-sink process of OM in the Okinawa Trough is governed by complex interactions between sea level, climate and ocean circulation.

  10. Effects of continual burial by sediment on seedling emergence and morphology of Suaeda salsa in the coastal marsh of the Yellow River estuary, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhigao; Song, Hongli; Sun, Jingkuan; Sun, Wenguang

    2014-03-15

    A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the impacts of continual burial on seedling emergence and morphology of Suaeda salsa, a pioneer species in the coastal marsh of the Yellow River estuary. From May to June 2012, seeds of S. salsa were artificially buried to depths of 0 cm (no burial), 2 cm (burial of 1 mm d(-1)), 4 cm (burial of 2 mm d(-1)), 6 cm (burial of 3 mm d(-1)), 8 cm (burial of 4 mm d(-1)) and 10 cm (burial of 5 mm d(-1)) in plastic pots filled with unsterilized sediment. Results showed that the percent emergence of seedlings had a significantly negative correlation with continual burial depth (p burial depths, with the highest emergence (56.00 ± 6.60%) occurring from 2 cm depth. The shortest emergence time occurred at 4 cm burial depth and seeds buried at 10 cm depth took longer to emerge than those at other depths. At shallow or moderate burials, a stimulatory effect on seedling height, stem diameter, number and length of branch, taproot length and dry mass were observed. With increasing burial depth, root-mass and leaf-mass ratios generally increased while stem-mass ratio decreased. Sediment burial also stimulated part of the hypocotyl below the sediment to form adventitious roots, implying that S. salsa seedlings had a special adaptive strategy in response to the rapid and dynamic burial environment in the coastal marsh of the Yellow River estuary. The use of thin-layer continual burial (1-2 mm d(-1)) to promote the emergence of S. salsa seedlings in degraded marsh was feasible, and our study provided another way for the restoration of S. salsa marsh during the initial stage of seedling establishment and laid a good foundation for the scientific decision-making and management of restoration project at a large scale.

  11. Experimental sand burial affects seedling survivorship, morphological traits, and biomass allocation of Ulmus pumila var. sabulosa in the Horqin Sandy Land, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jiao; Busso, Carlos Alberto; Jiang, Deming; Musa, Ala; Wu, Dafu; Wang, Yongcui; Miao, Chunping

    2016-07-01

    As a native tree species, Ulmus pumila var. sabulosa (sandy elm) is widely distributed in the Horqin Sandy Land, China. However, seedlings of this species have to withstand various depths of sand burial after emergence because of increasing soil degradation, which is mainly caused by overgrazing, climate change, and wind erosion. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the changes in its survivorship, morphological traits, and biomass allocation when seedlings were buried at different burial depths: unburied controls and seedlings buried vertically up to 33, 67, 100, or 133 % of their initial mean seedling height. The results showed that partial sand burial treatments (i.e., less than 67 % burial) did not reduce seedling survivorship, which still reached 100 %. However, seedling mortality increased when sand burial was equal to or greater than 100 %. In comparison with the control treatment, seedling height and stem diameter increased at least by 6 and 14 % with partial burial, respectively. In the meantime, seedling taproot length, total biomass, and relative mass growth rates were at least enhanced by 10, 15.6, and 27.6 %, respectively, with the partial sand burial treatment. Furthermore, sand burial decreased total leaf area and changed biomass allocation in seedlings, partitioning more biomass to aboveground organs (e.g., leaves) and less to belowground parts (roots). Complete sand burial after seedling emergence inhibited its re-emergence and growth, even leading to death. Our findings indicated that seedlings of sandy elm showed some resistance to partial sand burial and were adapted to sandy environments from an evolutionary perspective. The negative effect of excessive sand burial after seedling emergence might help in understanding failures in recruitments of sparse elm in the study region.

  12. Long-term sequential monitoring of controlled graves representing common burial scenarios with ground penetrating radar: Years 2 and 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, John J.; Walter, Brittany S.; Healy, Carrie

    2016-09-01

    Geophysical techniques such as ground-penetrating radar (GPR) have been successfully used for forensic searches to locate clandestine graves and physical evidence. However, additional controlled research is needed to fully understand the applicability of this technology when searching for clandestine graves in various environments, soil types, and for longer periods of time post-burial. The purpose of this study was to determine the applicability of GPR for detecting controlled graves in a Spodosol representing multiple burial scenarios for Years 2 and 3 of a three-year monitoring period. Objectives included determining how different burial scenarios are factors in producing a distinctive anomalous response; determining how different GPR imagery options (2D reflection profiles and horizontal time slices) can provide increased visibility of the burials; and comparing GPR imagery between 500 MHz and 250 MHz dominant frequency antennae. The research site contained a grid with eight graves representing common forensic burial scenarios in a Spodosol, a common soil type of Florida, with six graves containing a pig carcass (Sus scrofa). Burial scenarios with grave items (a deep grave with a layer of rocks over the carcass and a carcass wrapped in a tarpaulin) produced a more distinctive response with clearer target reflections over the duration of the monitoring period compared to naked carcasses. Months with increased precipitation were also found to produce clearer target reflections than drier months, particularly during Year 3 when many grave scenarios that were not previously visible became visible after increased seasonal rainfall. Overall, the 250 MHz dominant frequency antenna imagery was more favorable than the 500 MHz. While detection of a simulated grave may be difficult to detect over time, long term detection of a grave in a Spodosol may be possible if the disturbed spodic horizon is detected. Furthermore, while grave visibility increased with the 2D

  13. A model for microbial phosphorus cycling in bioturbated marine sediments: Significance for phosphorus burial in the early Paleozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Andrew W.; Boyle, Richard A.; Lenton, Timothy M.; Ingall, Ellery D.; Wallmann, Klaus

    2016-09-01

    A diagenetic model is used to simulate the diagenesis and burial of particulate organic carbon (Corg) and phosphorus (P) in marine sediments underlying anoxic versus oxic bottom waters. The latter are physically mixed by animals moving through the surface sediment (bioturbation) and ventilated by burrowing, tube-dwelling organisms (bioirrigation). The model is constrained using an empirical database including burial ratios of Corg with respect to organic P (Corg:Porg) and total reactive P (Corg:Preac), burial efficiencies of Corg and Porg, and inorganic carbon-to-phosphorus regeneration ratios. If Porg is preferentially mineralized relative to Corg during aerobic respiration, as many previous studies suggest, then the simulated Porg pool is found to be completely depleted. A modified model that incorporates the redox-dependent microbial synthesis of polyphosphates and Porg (termed the microbial P pump) allows preferential mineralization of the bulk Porg pool relative to Corg during both aerobic and anaerobic respiration and is consistent with the database. Results with this model show that P burial is strongly enhanced in sediments hosting fauna. Animals mix highly labile Porg away from the aerobic sediment layers where mineralization rates are highest, thereby mitigating diffusive PO43- fluxes to the bottom water. They also expand the redox niche where microbial P uptake occurs. The model was applied to a hypothetical shelf setting in the early Paleozoic; a time of the first radiation of benthic fauna. Results show that even shallow bioturbation at that time may have had a significant impact on P burial. Our model provides support for a recent study that proposed that faunal radiation in ocean sediments led to enhanced P burial and, possibly, a stabilization of atmospheric O2 levels. The results also help to explain Corg:Porg ratios in the geological record and the persistence of Porg in ancient marine sediments.

  14. Variation in the effects of burial in different peatland successional stages on seed survival of four wetland species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egawa, Chika

    2017-01-01

    The availability of viable seeds in soil helps to determine the success of ecological restoration in disturbed habitats. Although seed survival in soil generally increases with an increase in burial depth, whether the effects of burial on seed survival are comparable across different sites is unclear. In this study, I tested the hypothesis that the positive effects of burial on seed survival decrease as vegetation develops through succession. Four wetland species, Drosera rotundifolia, Lobelia sessilifolia, Rhynchospora alba and Moliniopsis japonica, were used for the study. The four species differ in their light requirement for germination; i.e., D. rotundifolia, L. sessilifolia and R. alba germinate best in light, whereas M. japonica germinates equally well in light and darkness. The seeds of these species were buried for two years at three depths (litter, 0 and 4 cm) in three successional stages with different amounts of vegetation and litter in a post-mined peatland. The photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and temperature at each of litter layer, 0 cm and 4 cm depths were measured for each successional stage. The between-depth differences in PAR and temperature fluctuations decreased as succession progressed. For the three light-demanding species, burial promoted seed survival more in the initial successional stage than in the later successional stages, whereas for M. japonica, burial promoted seed survival equally in all successional stages. This study revealed significant variation in the effects of burial on seed survival, particularly for light-sensitive seeds, and that the soil surface layers in vegetated sites can contain persistent seeds, which could be used as a seed source in restoration.

  15. Micromorphological Aspects of Forensic Geopedology II: Ultramicroscopic vs Microscopic Characterization of Phosphatic Impregnations on Soil Particles in Experimental Burials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ern, S. I. E.; Trombino, L.; Cattaneo, C.

    2012-04-01

    Grows up the importance of the role played by soil scientists in the modern forensic sciences, in particular when buried human remains strongly decomposed or skeletonized are found in different environment situations. Among the different techniques normally used in geopedology, it is usefull to apply in such forensic cases, soil micromorphology (including optical microscopy and ultramicroscopy) that has been underused up today, for various kind of reasons. An interdisciplinary Italian-team, formed by earth scientists and legal medicine, is working on several sets of experimental burial of pigs and piglets in different soil types and for different times of burial, in order to get new evidences on environmental behaviour related to the burial, focalising on geopedological and micropedological aspects. The present work is focused on: - ultramicroscopic (SEM-EDS) characterization of the phosphatic impregnation (by body fluids) on soils sampled under the dead bodies of five couples of pigs, buried respectively for one month, six month, one year, two years and two years and half in two different areas; - microscopic (petrographic microscope) and ultramicroscopic (SEM-EDS) cross characterization of the phosphatic impregnation (by body fluids) on soils sampled under the dead bodies of several piglets, buried for twenty months. The first results show trends of persistency of such phosphatic features, mainly related to the grain size of the impregnated soil particles and weather conditions (or seasons) of exhumation, while apparently time since burial is only marginally effective for the investigated burial period. Further experiments are in progress in order to clarify the pathways of phosphorus precipitation and leaching for longer times of burial and different seasons of exhumation, both from the microscopic and the pedological/chemical point of view.

  16. "Interred with their bones" - linking soil micromorphology and chemistry to unlock the hidden archive of archaeological human burials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothwell, Don; Usai, Maria-Raimonda; Keely, Brendan; Pickering, Matt; Wilson, Clare

    2010-05-01

    "Interred with their bones" Acronym: InterArChive - an ERC-funded project *** " Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears; " I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him. " The evil that men do lives after them; " The good is oft 'interred with their bones'; " So let it be with Caesar. William Shakespeare, Julius Caesar, Act III, Scene 2. *** Background The state of decay within soils in archaeological graves is often such that degradable objects are not preserved in a condition that can be visually recognised. However, microscopic soil features, inorganic element distributions and organic residues can be measured. Thus, archaeological burial soils have the potential to reveal signatures of decay; pre-burial treatment; presence and nature of associated clothing and perishable artefacts; diet of the individual; cause of death; evidence of morbidity and drug-use. Aims • To develop and test a multidisciplinary approach linking soil micromorphology and chemistry to recover environmental and cultural information; • Revealing the hidden archaeological archive within the burial soil • Developing soil sampling and analysis recommendations for archaeological human burials Methods 1: Sampling and soil field description from archaeological sites contrasting in soil, geology, age, and culture and from experimental piglet burials 2: Microscopic/micromorphological analysis (micro-scale observations) of remains and features in burial soils. We will establish the order of occurrence, spatial patterns, displacement, mode of formation and decay of micromorphological features including exotic components, parasites, hair and remnants of footwear and clothing [cf. pilot study of soils from Yemen]; microfabrics and textural pedofeatures, also to facilitate resolution of body decay products from other accumulations. 3: Microprobe analysis (nano-scale) will generate elemental maps of soil thin sections, allowing identification of features with distinct chemical signatures

  17. [About the possibility to detect the fact of corpse transportation from the sea coastline with the subsequent burial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarev, D Yu; Nikitaev, A V; Kurch, A M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to detect and describe the new features characterizing the long-term stay of a corpse in seawater followed by its burial on earth. The bones of the skeletonized corpse were found to be covered with mussels and petrified sea worms that can serve as the indicators of staying the corps in seawater and its subsequent transportation from the sea coastline to the inland. These findings can be used to clarify the circumstances of death of the people found in the illegal burial places at the seacoast of maritime areas.

  18. Effects of sand burial on biomass, chlorophyll fluores-cence and extracellular polysaccharides of man-made cyanobacterial crusts under experimental conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Soil cyanobacterial crusts occur throughout the world, especially in the semiarid and arid regions. It always encounters sand burial, which is an important feature of mobile sand dunes. A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the effects of sand burial on biomass, chlorophyll fluorescence and extracellular polysaccharides of man-made cyanobacterial crusts in six periods of time (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 d after burying) and at five depths (0, 0.2, 0.5, 1 and 2cm). The results indicated that with the increase of the burial time and burial depth extracellular polysaccharides content and Fv/Fm decreased correspondingly and there were no significant differences between 20 and 30 burial days under dif-ferent burial depths. The degradation of chlorophyll a content appeared only at 20 and 30 burial days and there was also no significant difference between them under different burial depths. It was also observed a simultaneous decrease of the values of the Fv/Fm and the content of extracellular poly-saccharides happened in the crusted cyanobacterium Microcoleus vaginatus Gom. It may suggest that there exists a relationship between extracellular polysaccharides and recovery of the activity of pho-tosystem II (PS II) after rehydration.

  19. Responses of Hedysarum Laeve,a guerrilla clonal semi-shrub in the Mu Us Sandland,to local sand burial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Fengbong; YE Xuehua; YU Feihai; DONG Ming

    2007-01-01

    In arid and semi-arid inland deserts,one of the environmental stresses for plants is recurrent sand burial,which can influence the physical and biotic microenvironments of the plants and soil.Previous studies have shown that different levels of sand burial have different effects on plants.Slight sand burial could increase the height increment,leaf biomass and the number of new ramets of the plants while heavy sand burial could impair the growth of the plants and even decrease their chances of survival.In other words,below a certain threshold level of burial,the growth of plants is stimulated probably because of multiple factors.However,as the level of burial increases,the positive response starts to decline until it becomes a negative value.Arid and semi-arid inland deserts are frequently colonized and stabilized by many rhizomatous clonal plants.Clonal physiological integration often helps clonal plants buffer local environmental stress encountered by ramets.A rhizomatous clonal semishrub,Hedysarum laeve (H.laeve),is the dominant plant species and important for vegetation restoration in the Mu Us sandland.To investigate whether clonal integration can increase the threshold of sand burial and help rhizomatous H.laeve tolerate heavy sand burial,we conducted a field experiment.The results showed that slight sand burial could accelerate ramet growth and enhance leaf biomass,stem biomass and shoot biomass,while heavy sand burial reducesed the biomass of the plant and impairs survival and growth of the ramets.Clonal integration increased the threshold of sand burial.Under heavy sand burial,ramets connected to other ramets not buried in sand were more in terms of height increment,stem biomass,leaf biomass and shoot biomass compared to the ramets encountering sand burial but disconnected from other ramets.It suggested that clonal physiological integration could help H.laeve ramets tolerate relatively heavy sand burial.We also discussed that clonal integration plays a role

  20. Burial fluxes and sources of organic carbon in sediments of the central Yellow Sea mud area over the past 200 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Shu; YANG Qian; LIU Sai; CAI Deling; QU Keming; SUN Yao

    2015-01-01

    Long-term changes of composition, sources and burial fluxes of TOC (total organic carbon) in sediments of the central Yellow Sea mud area and their possible affecting factors are discussed in this paper. Firstly, similarity analysis is employed to confirm that the carbon burial features resulted from two collected cores are typical in the central Yellow Sea mud area where YSWC (Yellow Sea Warm Current) is prevalent. On this basis, the burial flux of TOC here was considered to be 235.5–488.4 μmol/(cm2∙a) since the first industrial revolution, accounting for about 70%–90% among burial fluxes of TC (total carbon) in the sediments. Compared TOC/TC ratio in the two cores with that in other marine sediments worldwide, we suggest that the growth of calcareous/non-calcareous organisms and dissolution of IC (inorganic carbon) are important factors controlling the TOC/TC ratio in sediment. Results of two-end mixed model based onδ13C data indicate that marine-derived organic carbon (OCa) is the main part among total burial organic carbon which accounts for a ratio over 85%. Due to the high TOC/TC ratio in the two cores, TC in the sediments also mainly exists as OCa, and the proportion of OCa is about 60%–80%. Away from the shore and relatively high primary production in upper waters are the main reasons that OCa is predominant among all burial OC in sediments of the central Yellow Sea mud area. Burial of OC in this mud area is probably mainly influenced by the human activities. Although the economic development during the late 19th century caused by the first industrial revolution in China did not obviously increase the TOC burial fluxes in the sediments, the rise of industry and agriculture after the founding of new China has clearly increased the TOC burial flux since 1950s. Otherwise, we also realize that among TC burial fluxes, TIC account for about 10%–30% in sediments of the central Yellow Sea mud area, so its burial could not be simply ignored here

  1. 75 FR 72845 - Notice of Availability; NUREG-1307, Revision 14, “Report on Waste Burial Charges Changes in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Availability; NUREG-1307, Revision 14, ``Report on Waste Burial Charges Changes in.... ACTION: Notice of Availability. SUMMARY: The NRC is announcing the completion and availability of NUREG.... ADDRESSES: NUREG-1307 may be purchased from The Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing...

  2. The genome of a Late Pleistocene human from a Clovis burial site in western Montana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten; Anzick, Sarah L.; Waters, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    Clovis, with its distinctive biface, blade and osseous technologies, is the oldest widespread archaeological complex defined in North America, dating from 11,100 to 10,700 (14)C years before present (bp) (13,000 to 12,600 calendar years bp). Nearly 50 years of archaeological research point...... to the Clovis complex as having developed south of the North American ice sheets from an ancestral technology. However, both the origins and the genetic legacy of the people who manufactured Clovis tools remain under debate. It is generally believed that these people ultimately derived from Asia and were...... directly related to contemporary Native Americans. An alternative, Solutrean, hypothesis posits that the Clovis predecessors emigrated from southwestern Europe during the Last Glacial Maximum. Here we report the genome sequence of a male infant (Anzick-1) recovered from the Anzick burial site in western...

  3. Anthropogenic perturbation of the global carbon cycle as a result of agricultural carbon erosion and burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengang; Govers, Gerard; Kaplan, Jed; Hoffmann, Thomas; Doetterl, Sebastian; Six, Johan; Van Oost, Kristof

    2016-04-01

    Changes in terrestrial carbon storage exert a strong control over atmospheric CO2 concentrations but the underlying mechanisms are not fully constrained. Anthropogenic land cover change is considered to represent an important carbon loss mechanism, but current assessments do not consider the associated acceleration of carbon erosion and burial in sediments. We evaluated the role of anthropogenic soil erosion and the resulting carbon fluxes between land and atmosphere from the onset of agriculture to the present day. We show, here, that agricultural erosion induced a significant cumulative net uptake of 198±57 Pg carbon on terrestrial ecosystems. This erosion-induced soil carbon sink is estimated to have offset 74±21% of carbon emissions. Since 1850, erosion fluxes have increased 3-fold. As a result, the erosion and lateral transfer of organic carbon in relation to human activities is an important driver of the global carbon cycle at millennial timescales.

  4. Groundwater monitoring in the Savannah River Plant Low Level Waste Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlton, W.H.

    1983-12-31

    This document describes chemical mechanisms that may affect trace-level radionuclide migration through acidic sandy clay soils in a humid environment, and summarizes the extensive chemical and radiochemical analyses of the groundwater directly below the SRP Low-Level Waste (LLW) Burial Ground (643-G). Anomalies were identified in the chemistry of individual wells which appear to be related to small amounts of fission product activity that have reached the water table. The chemical properties which were statistically related to trace level transport of Cs-137 and Sr-90 were iron, potassium, sodium and calcium. Concentrations on the order of 100 ppM appear sufficient to affect nuclide migration. Several complexation mechanisms for plutonium migration were investigated.

  5. Burial of Zostera marina seeds in sediment inhabited by three polychaetes: laboratory and field studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delefosse, Matthieu; Kristensen, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The large number of seeds produced by eelgrass, Zostera marina, provides this plant with a potential to disperse widely and colonise newareas. After dispersal, seedsmust be buried into sediment for assuring long-term survival, successful germination and safe seedling development. Seedsmay be buried......–3200 ind m −2), Arenicola marina (20–80 ind m−2), and the invasive Marenzelleria viridis (400–1600 ind m −2). The obtained results were subsequently compared with burial rates of seed mimics in experimental field plots (1m2) dominated by the respective polychaetes. High recovery of seeds in the laboratory...... (97–100%) suggested that none of these polychaetes species feed on eelgrass seeds. N. diversicolor transported seeds rapidly (marina and M. viridis buried seeds by depositing their faeces on top of the sediment...

  6. Shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes. A selected, annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fore, C.S.; Vaughan, N.D.; Tappen, J. (comps.)

    1978-06-01

    The data file was built to provide information support to DOE researchers in the field of low-level radioactive waste disposal and management. The scope of the data base emphasizes studies which deal with the ''old'' Manhattan sites, commercial disposal sites, and the specific parameters which affect the soil and geologic migration of radionuclides. Specialized data fields have been incorporated into the data base to improve the ease and accuracy of locating pertinent references. Specific radionuclides for which data are presented are listed in the ''Measured Radionuclides'' field, and specific parameters which affect the migration of these radionuclides are presented in the ''Measured Parameters'' field. The 504 references are rated indicating applicability to shallow land burial technology and whether interpretation is required. Indexes are provided for author, geographic location, title, measured parameters, measured radionuclides, keywords, subject categories, and publication description. (DLC)

  7. Development of technology for the design of shallow land burial facilities at arid sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyhan, J. W.; Abeele, W. V.; Drennon, B. J.; Herrera, W. J.; Lopez, E. A.; Langhorst, G. J.; Stallings, E. A.; Walker, R. D.; Martinez, J. L.

    The Los Alamos field research program involving technology development for arid shallow land burial (SLB) sites is described. Field data are presented for an integrated field experiment, which was designed to test individual SLB component experiments related to erosion control, biobarriers, and subsurface capillary and migration barriers. Field tests of biointrusion barriers at waste disposal sites and in experimental plots are reported. The results of a joint DOE/NRC experiment to evaluate leaching and transport of sorbing (Cs, Sr, Li) and nonsorbing (I, Br) solutes in sandy silt backfill are presented for steady-state and unsteady-state flow conditions. A capillary barrier experiment performed in a large caisson (3-m diameter, 6.1 m deep) is described and a year's worth of field data is presented.

  8. Development of technology for the design of shallow land burial facilities at arid sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Abeele, W.V.; Drennon, B.J.; Herrera, W.J.; Lopez, E.A.; Langhorst, G.J.; Stallings, E.A.; Walker, R.D.; Martinez, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    The Los Alamos field research program involving technology development for arid shallow land burial (SLB) sites is described. Field data are presented for an integrated field experiment, which was designed to test individual SLB component experiments related to erosion control, biobarriers, and subsurface capillary and migration barriers. Field tests of biointrusion barriers at waste disposal sites and in experimental plots are reported. The results of a joint DOE/NRC experiment to evaluate leaching and transport of sorbing (Cs, Sr, Li) and nonsorbing (I, Br) solutes in sandy silt backfill are presented for steady-state and unsteady-state flow conditions. A capillary barrier experiment performed in a large caisson (3-m diameter, 6.1 m deep) is described and a year's worth of field data is presented.

  9. [Historical and biological approaches to the study of Modern Age French plague mass burials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianuccii, Raffaella; Tzortzis, Stéfan; Fornaciari, Gino; Signoli, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The "Black Death" and subsequent epidemics from 1346 to the early 18th century spread from the Caspian Sea all over Europe six hundred years after the outbreak of the Justinian plague (541-767 AD). Plague has been one of the most devastating infectious diseases that affected the humankind and has caused approximately 200 million human deaths historically. Here we describe the different approaches adopted in the study of several French putative plague mass burials dating to the Modern Age (16th-18th centuries). Through complementation of historical, archaeological and paleobiological data, ample knowledge of both the causes that favoured the spread of the Medieval plague in cities, towns and small villages and of the modification of the customary funerary practices in urban and rural areas due to plague are gained.

  10. Habitat requirements and burrowing depths of rodents in relation to shallow waste burial sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gano, K.A.; States, J.B.

    1982-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the literature and summarize information on factors affecting habitat selection and maximum recorded burrowing depths for representative small mammals that we consider most likely to inhibit waste burial sites in arid and semi-arid regions of the West. The information is intended for waste management designers who need to know what to expect from small mammals that may be present at a particular site. Waste repositories oculd be designed to exclude the deep burrowing rodents of a region by creating an unattractive habitat over the waste. Summaries are given for habitat requirements of each group along with generalized modifications that could be employed to deter habitation. Representatives from the major groups considered to be deep burrowers are discussed. Further, detailed information about a particular species can be obtained from the references cited.

  11. A summary of ecological investigations at the burial ground complex, Savannah River Site - 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friday, G.P.; Hartman, G.D.; Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.; Roach, J.L.; Specht, W.L.; Westbury, H.M.; Wike, L.D.

    1994-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of three ecological investigations that were conducted in 1994 at the Burial Ground Complex (BGC) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The three topics of study included remote sensing, aquatic toxicity testing, and qualitative surveys of herpetofauna and small mammals. Interim reports from each investigation are included in the appendices (A, B, and C). The objectives of the remote sensing effort were to compile historical aerial photography of the BGC and to develop a land use/cover map of the complex using recent aerial imagery. The goal of the aquatic toxicity testing was to determine if surface waters were toxic to aquatic biota whereas the objectives of the vertebrate surveys were to identify the species diversity and relative abundances of amphibians, reptiles, and small mammals inhabiting the study area.

  12. Diagenetic palaeotemperatures from aqueous fluid inclusions: re- equilibration of inclusions in carbonate cements by burial heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burruss, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    Calculations based on the observed behaviour of inclusions in fluorite under external confining P allows prediction of the T and depths of burial necessary to initiate re-equilibration of aqueous inclusions in the common size range 40-4 mu m. Heating of 20-60oC over the initial trapping T may cause errors of 10-20oC in the homogenization T. This suggests that re-equilibration may cause aqueous inclusions in carbonates to yield a poor record of their low-T history, but a useful record of the maximum T experienced by the host rock. Previous work suggests that inclusions containing petroleum fluids will be less susceptible to re-equilibration.This and the following six abstracts represent papers presented at a joint meeting of the Applied Mineralogy Group of the Mineralogical Society and the Petroleum Group of the Geological Society held in Newcastle upon Tyne in April 1986.-R.A.H.

  13. Groundwater flow and tritium migration from the SRS Old Burial Ground to Fourmile Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G.P.; Hamm, L.L.; Harris, M.K. [and others

    1996-04-01

    The objectives of this investigation are twofold. The initial goal is to devise and demonstrate a technique for directly incorporating fine-scale lithologic data into heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity fields, for improved groundwater flow and contaminant transport model accuracy. The ultimate goal is to rigorously simulate past and future tritium migration from the SRS Old Burial Ground towards Fourmile Branch, to better understand the effects of various remediation alternatives such as no action and capping. Large-scale variability in hydraulic conductivity is usually the main influence on field-scale groundwater flow patterns and dispersive transport, following the relative locations of recharge and discharge areas. Incorporating realistic hydraulic conductivity heterogeneity into flow and transport models is paramount to accurate simulations, particularly for contaminant migration. Sediment lithologic descriptions and geophysical logs typically offer finer spatial resolution, and therefore more potential information about heterogeneity, than other site characterization data.

  14. Human impact on erosion and burial of soil carbon through time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Thomas; Amelung, Wulf; Bornemann, Ludger; Gerlach, Renate; Lang, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The effects of soil erosion on atmospheric carbon is governed by three key mechanisms that are i) the replacement of soil organic carbon (SOC) at eroding sites, ii) the mineralization of SOC during erosion and transport and iii) the stability of buried SOC at depositional sites. Markedly different assumptions have been made about the relative importance of the key mechanisms, resulting in a global release of 1 Pg C/a to a global uptake of 1 Pg C/a. Here we present results of a sediment-associated carbon budget in a small headwater catchment in Germany, to highlight the importance of the timescale in controlling the relative importance of the key mechanisms. Therefore, we estimate the loss of SOC through land use change from forests to arable land and compare it with SOC losses at degraded sites and burial of SOC in colluvial deposits. Our results show that the transition of forest to arable land (without erosion and deposition of soils and sediments) resulted in a rapid loss of SOC from 11.8 kg C/m² to 7.2 kg C/m² in our study site. Eroded sites are characterized by carbon stocks of 6.9 kg C/m² compared to depositional sites with 27.9 kg C/m². Thus the combined effect of soil erosion and deposition results in a slow net withdrawal of atmospheric CO2, which compensates land use driven losses. We show that the net effect of SOC degradation and burial depends on the rate of soil erosion and time since the erosion commenced. Given the erosion history in the study site, the removal of SOC through land use change will be compensated after approx. 120 years of erosion and deposition.

  15. Global change and response of coastal dune plants to the combined effects of increased sand accretion (burial) and nutrient availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosini, Silvia; Lardicci, Claudio; Balestri, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Coastal dune plants are subjected to natural multiple stresses and vulnerable to global change. Some changes associated with global change could interact in their effects on vegetation. As vegetation plays a fundamental role in building and stabilizing dune systems, effective coastal habitat management requires a better understanding of the combined effects of such changes on plant populations. A manipulative experiment was conducted along a Mediterranean dune system to examine the individual and combined effects of increased sediment accretion (burial) and nitrogen enrichment associated with predicted global change on the performance of young clones of Sporobolus virginicus, a widespread dune stabilizing species. Increased burial severity resulted in the production of taller but thinner shoots, while nutrient enrichment stimulated rhizome production. Nutrient enrichment increased total plant biomass up to moderate burial levels (50% of plant height), but it had not effect at the highest burial level (100% of plant height). The effects of such factors on total biomass, shoot biomass and branching were influenced by spatial variation in natural factors at the scale of hundreds of metres. These results indicate that the effects of burial and nutrient enrichment on plant performance were not independent. Their combined effects may not be predicted by knowing the individual effects, at least under the study conditions. Under global change scenarios, increased nutrient input could alleviate nutrient stress in S. virginicus, enhancing clonal expansion and productivity, but this benefit could be offset by increased sand accretion levels equal or exceeding 100% of plant height. Depletion of stored reserves for emerging from sand could increase plant vulnerability to other stresses in the long-term. The results emphasize the need to incorporate statistical designs for detecting non-independent effects of multiple changes and adequate spatial replication in future works to

  16. Beads of the Birsk Burial Ground in the Context of the Antiquities of the Early Middle Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslanova Rida Raisovna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Early Middle Ages in the Southern Urals is the time of the tumultuous ethnocultural processes, that is an echo of the era of the Great Migration. At this time, the bakhmutinskaya culture was formed (3rd-8th centuries A.D.. The Birsk burial ground is one of the unique monuments of this period – it appeared in the second third of the 1st millennium B.C. The Birsk burial ground is a fiducial monument for studying history, ethno-cultural, migration and trade processes occurring in the Southern Urals, and the content in the composition of grave goods makes it supplies an important source in the study of early medieval history of East European forest. A variety of types of beads from the Birsk burial ground allows suggesting that the necropolis was one of the major points on the caravan trade and exchange path. According to it, the exchange could take place on imports of products (furs, honey, metals. The article describes a set of beads from the Birsk burials – evidence of a monument in the system of early medieval antiquities (3rd-8th centuries A.D.. The complex morpho-technological research dealt with 218 complexes containing 6705 instances of beads and jewelry. The feature of the monument is the presence of necklaces jewelry from all the selected materials along with the material. The Birsk burial ground demonstrates various forms of products, colors used glass for monochrome and polychrome decorations. The presented work can be used in the study of material culture and trade exchange operations of the medieval population of the Urals.

  17. Effects of sediment burial disturbance on macro and microelement dynamics in decomposing litter of Phragmites australis in the coastal marsh of the Yellow River estuary, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhigao; Mou, Xiaojie

    2016-03-01

    From April 2008 to November 2009, a field decomposition experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of sediment burial on macro (C, N) and microelement (Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni, and Mn) variations in decomposing litter of Phragmites australis in the coastal marsh of the Yellow River estuary. Three one-off sediment burial treatments [no sediment burial (0 mm year(-1), S0), current sediment burial (100 mm year(-1), S10), and strong sediment burial (200 mm year(-1), S20)] were laid in different decomposition sites. Results showed that sediment burials showed significant influence on the decomposition rate of P. australis, in the order of S10 (0.001990 day(-1)) ≈ S20 (0.001710 day(-1)) > S0 (0.000768 day(-1)) (p  0.05). With increasing burial depth, N, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Mn concentrations generally increased, while C, Pb, and Zn concentrations varied insignificantly. Sediment burial was favorable for C and N release from P. australis, and, with increasing burial depth, the C release from litter significantly increased, and the N in litter shifted from accumulation to release. With a few exceptions, Pb, Cr, Zn, and Mn stocks in P. australis in the three treatments evidenced the export of metals from litter to environment, and, with increasing burial depth, the export amounts increased greatly. Stocks of Cu and Ni in P. australis in the S10 and S20 treatments were generally positive, evidencing incorporation of the two metals in most sampling times. Except for Ni, the variations of C, N, Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, and Mn stocks in P. australis in the S10 and S20 treatments were approximated, indicating that the strong burial episodes (S20) occurred in P. australis marsh in the future would have little influence on the stocks of these elements. With increasing burial depths, the P. australis was particularly efficient in binding Cu and Ni and releasing C, N, Pb, Cr, Zn, and Mn, implying that the potential eco-toxic risk of Pb, Cr, Zn, and Mn exposure might be very

  18. Long-term Geophysical Monitoring of Simulated Clandestine Graves using Electrical and Ground Penetrating Radar Methods: 4-6 Years After Burial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Jamie K; Jervis, John R; Roberts, Daniel; Dick, Henry C; Wisniewski, Kristopher D; Cassidy, Nigel J; Cassella, John P

    2016-03-01

    This ongoing monitoring study provides forensic search teams with systematic geophysical data over simulated clandestine graves for comparison to active cases. Simulated "wrapped," "naked," and "control" burials were created. Multiple geophysical surveys were collected over 6 years, here showing data from 4 to 6 years after burial. Electrical resistivity (twin electrode and ERI), multifrequency GPR, grave and background soil water were collected. Resistivity surveys revealed that the naked burial had low-resistivity anomalies up to year four but then difficult to image, whereas the wrapped burial had consistent large high-resistivity anomalies. GPR 110- to 900-MHz frequency surveys showed that the wrapped burial could be detected throughout, but the naked burial was either not detectable or poorly resolved. 225-MHz frequency GPR data were optimal. Soil water analyses showed decreasing (years 4 to 5) to background (year 6) conductivity values. Results suggest both resistivity and GPR surveying if burial style unknown, with winter to spring surveys optimal and increasingly important as time increases.

  19. LIDAR-based coastal landscape reconstruction and harbour location: The Viking-age royal burial site of Borre (Norway)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draganits, Erich; Doneus, Michael; Gansum, Terje

    2013-04-01

    Airborne light detection and ranging (LIDAR) has found wide application in archaeological research for the detection and documentation of archaeological and palaeo-environmental features. In this study we demonstrate the analysis of an LIDAR derived 1x1 m digital elevation model (DTM) combined with geoarchaeological research of the coastal Viking-age burial site in Borre, Olso Fjord (Norway). Borre is an exceptional burial site in Scandinavia, containing burial mounds up to 40 m in diameter and 6 m height, mentioned in Nordic Sagas, especially in the skaldic poem Ynglingatal, as the burial place of one or two kings of the Ynglinga dynasty. Archaeological findings and radiocarbon ages indicate that the Borre burial ground had been in use broadly between 600-1000 AD. Despite the reasonable expectation that a coastal site connected with the Viking kings of Vestfold, with hall buildings and ship graves demands a harbour, up to now no harbour has not been found with traditional archaeological surveys. Since the area of Borre is affected by a continuous land uplift related to glacial rebound of Scandinavia, any former harbour site is expected to be exposed to the land surface today. The present day vertical crustal uplift is calculated around 2.5 mm/yr in the area of Borre. Burial mounds and surrounding borrow pits as well as geomorphological features of the uplifted coast of Borre have been analysed by the 1x1 m LIDAR-DTM, using hillshade, slope and local relief model for visualisation. Altogether, 41 burial mounds and further 6 potential mounds are visible in the high-resolution DTM. A succession of more than 14 beach ridges, cross-cut by the burial mounds, is visible from the present shore line up to 18 m asl. They are more or less parallel and similar in size, except between at ca. 4-6 m asl, where the most prominent ridge is located, which probably has been enforced artificially. Using published shoreline displacement curves from nearby areas, the shore-line at

  20. 26Al/10Be burial ages for a Pleistocene terrace in the Vienna Basin, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braumann, S.; Fiebig, M.; Neuhuber, S.; Schaefer, J. M.; Haeuselmann, P.; Schwartz, R.; Finkel, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Vienna Basin in the northeastern part of Austria between the Eastern Alps and the West Carpathians is a pull-apart basin crossed by the Danube river. The structure is filled with marine and terrestrial sediments showing thicknesses of up to 6 km. An increase in glacial melt water discharges, typically linked to high productivity of Alpine glaciers, had an essential impact on the formation of the investigated terrace. The scale of erosion and sediment transport translates to deposition rates in the foreland and is influenced by the magnitude of melt water discharges in Alpine catchment areas. Variations in layer characteristics (i.e. grain size, sorting, thickness) are an indicator for glacial pulses. Burial dates of ten quartz pebbles originating from the Gaenserndorfer terrace, situated in the northeastern part of the basin, set time dependent constraints on the required hydrological regime for mobilization, transport and sedimentation of bedloads and allow relating the deposition of glacial sediments to past glacial periods. But the geomorphic evolution of the Vienna Basin was not only determined by sedimentation processes. A number of irregularities manifest that tectonics affected the area as well: Terrace tilts are dipping against the slope of the Danube and offsets of some decameters between sediment layers showing the same facies, but located several kilometers apart from each other, could be identified. An extensive Miocene fault system was partly reactivated during the Middle Pleistocene and could have caused the formation of these discontinuities. It is of great interest to discriminate impacts on the area due to deposition from morphological elements formed by seismic events. The preliminary burial ages afford for putting the sampled terrace segment into a coherent geochronological context and provide a dataset to compare ages of the Gaenserndofer terrace to ages of sediment layers at other locations within the basin in order to either validate or

  1. Performance Assessment Monitoring Plan for the Hanford Site Low Level Waste Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SONNICHSEN, J.C.

    2000-11-15

    As directed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), Fluor Hanford, Inc. will implement the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, as the requirements relate to the continued operation of the low-level waste disposal facilities on the Hanford Site. DOE Order 435.1 requires a disposal authorization statement authorizing operation (or continued operation) of a low-level waste disposal facility. The objective of this Order is to ensure that all DOE radioactive waste is managed in a manner that protects the environment and personnel and public health and safety. The manual (DOE Order 435.1 Manual) implementing the Order states that a disposal authorization statement shall be issued based on a review of the facility's performance assessment and composite analysis or appropriate Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 documentation. The disposal authorization shall specify the limits and conditions on construction, design, operations, and closure of the low-level waste facility. Failure to obtain a disposal authorization statement shall result in shutdown of an operational disposal facility. In fulfillment of the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, a disposal authorization statement was issued on October 25, 1999, authorizing the Hanford Site to transfer, receive, possess, and dispose of low-level radioactive waste at the 200 East Area and the 200 West Area Low-Level Burial Grounds. The disposal authorization statement constitutes approval of the performance assessment and composite analysis, authorizes operation of the facility, and includes conditions that the disposal facility must meet. One of the conditions is that monitoring plans for the 200 East Area and 200 West Area Low-Level Burial Grounds be written and approved by the DOE-RL. The monitoring plan is to be updated and implemented within 1 year following issuance of the disposal authorization statement to

  2. Time-capsule concretions: Unlocking burial diagenetic processes in the Mancos Shale using carbonate clumped isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Annabel; John, Cédric M.; Mozley, Peter S.; Smalley, P. C.; Muggeridge, Ann H.

    2014-05-01

    Septarian carbonate concretions contain carbonate precipitated during progressive growth of the concretion and subsequent fracture-filling. As such, they have been used to track variations in δ13C and δ18O of pore waters during diagenesis and to define diagenetic zones in clastic rocks. However, the δ18O value of the carbonate is dependent on precipitation temperature and the δ18O value of the pore fluid from which it precipitated. Interpretations must assume one of these parameters, both of which are highly variable through time in diagenetic settings. Carbonate clumped isotopes of the cement can provide independent estimates of temperature of precipitation, allowing the pore-water δ18O to be back-calculated. Here, we use this technique on carbonate concretions and fracture fills of the Upper Cretaceous Prairie Canyon Member, Mancos Shale, Colorado. We sampled concretions from two permeable horizons separated by a 5 m shale layer, with one permeable horizon containing concretions with septarian fractures. We show cores precipitated at cooler temperatures (31 °C, ˜660 m burial depth) than the rims (68 °C (˜1980 m burial depth) and relate that to the δ13Ccarbonate values to suggest the concretion core precipitated in the methanogenic zone, with increasing input from thermogenically produced CO2. The two concretion-bearing horizons have different back-calculated δ18Oporewater values (mean -2.65‰ and 1.13‰ VSMOW) for cements formed at the same temperature and similar δ13C values, suggesting the shale layer present between the two horizons acted as a barrier to fluid mixing. Additionally, the δ18Ocarbonate of the septarian fractures (-13.8‰ VPBD) are due to precipitation at high temperatures (102 to 115 °C) from a fluid with a mean δ18Oporewater of 0.32‰ (VSMOW). Therefore, we can tie in the cementation history of the formation to temporal and spatial variations in δ18Oporewater.

  3. Cretaceous–Cenozoic burial and exhumation history of the Chukchi shelf, offshore Arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, William H.; Houseknecht, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Apatite fission track (AFT) and vitrinite reflectance data from five exploration wells and three seafloor cores illuminate the thermal history of the underexplored United States Chukchi shelf. On the northeastern shelf, Triassic strata in the Chevron 1 Diamond well record apatite annealing followed by cooling, possibly during the Triassic to Middle Jurassic, which is a thermal history likely related to Canada Basin rifting. Jurassic strata exhumed in the hanging wall of the frontal Herald Arch thrust fault record a history of probable Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous structural burial in the Chukotka fold and thrust belt, followed by rapid exhumation to near-surface temperatures at 104 ± 30 Ma. This history of contractional tectonism is in good agreement with inherited fission track ages in low-thermal-maturity, Cretaceous–Cenozoic strata in the Chukchi foreland, providing complementary evidence for the timing of exhumation and suggesting a source-to-sink relationship. In the central Chukchi foreland, inverse modeling of reset AFT samples from the Shell 1 Klondike and Shell 1 Crackerjack wells reveals several tens of degrees of cooling from maximum paleo-temperatures, with maximum heating permissible at any time from about 100 to 50 Ma, and cooling persisting to as recent as 30 Ma. Similar histories are compatible with partially reset AFT samples from other Chukchi wells (Shell 1 Popcorn, Shell 1 Burger, and Chevron 1 Diamond) and are probable in light of regional geologic evidence. Given geologic context provided by regional seismic reflection data, we interpret these inverse models to reveal a Late Cretaceous episode of cyclical burial and erosion across the central Chukchi shelf, possibly partially overprinted by Cenozoic cooling related to decreasing surface temperatures. Regionally, we interpret this kinematic history to be reflective of moderate, transpressional deformation of the Chukchi shelf during the final phases of contractional tectonism in the

  4. Mine burial in the seabed of high-turbidity area (Belgian coastal zone): findings from a first experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Baeye, M.; Fettweis, M.; Legrand, S.; Dupont, Y.; Van Lancker, V.

    2012-01-01

    Suspended particulate matter; particle size distribution; statistical handling; coastal turbidity maximum; wind impact; seabed variations The seabed of the North Sea is covered with ammunition dating back from World Wars I and II. With increasing human interference (e.g. fisheries, aggregate extraction, harbour related activities), it forms a threat to the safety at sea. In this study, test mines were deployed on a sandy seabed for three months to investigate mine burial processes as a functi...

  5. Techniques and Facilities for Handling and Packaging Tritiated Liquid Wastes for Burial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhinehammer, T. B.; Mershad, E. A.

    1974-06-01

    Methods and facilities have been developed for the collection, storage, measurement, assay, solidification, and packaging of tritiated liquid wastes (concentrations up to 5 Ci/ml) for disposal by land burial. Tritium losses to the environment from these operations are less than 1 ppm. All operations are performed in an inert gas-purged glovebox system vented to an effluent removal system which permits nearly complete removal of tritium from the exhaust gases prior to their dischardge to the environment. Waste oil and water from tritium processing areas are vacuum-transferred to glovebox storage tanks through double-walled lines. Accommodations are also available for emptying portable liquid waste containers and for removing tritiated water from molecular sieve beds with heat and vacuum. The tritium concentration of the collected liquids is measured by an in-line calorimeter. A low-volume metering pump is used to transfer liquids from holding tanks to heavy walled polyethylene drums filled with an absorbent or cement for solidification. Final packaging of the sealed polyethylene drums is in either an asphalt-filled combination 30- and 55- gallon metal drum package or a 30-gallon welded stainless steel container.

  6. Ancient astronomical instrument from Srubna burial of kurgan field Tavriya-1 (Northern Black Sea Coast)

    CERN Document Server

    Vodolazhskaya, Larisa; Nevskiy, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the results of analysis of the spatial arrangement of the wells on the unique slab from Srubna burial of kurgan field Tavriya-1 (Rostov region, Russia) by astronomical methods. At the slab revealed two interrelated groups of wells, one of which - in the form of a circle, is proposed to interpret how analemmatic sundial, and second group, consisting of disparate wells, as auxiliary astronomical markers of rising luminaries directions, to correct the position of the gnomon. Simultaneous location of both groups of wells on the same slab is a possible indication of one of the stages of development of the design features analemmatic sundial - setting movable gnomon and technology of measuring time with it. It may point to local origin, as the very idea of analemmatic sundial as well technology measurement of time with them. The article also describes the model analemmatic sundial, hour marks which in many cases coincide with the wells arranged in a circle, particularly in a working range from ...

  7. Resins and asphaltenes: evolution as a function of organic-matter type and burial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castex, H. (Institut Francais du Petrole, 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France))

    Elemental analysis was used to investigate 151 resins and 175 asphaltenes extracted from rocks from several basins. It was shown that: resins have higher mean carbon and hydrogen values as well as a lower C/H ratio than asphaltenes. Resins thus have a more aliphatic and or more alicyclic structure. On the other hand, asphaltenes contain more sulfur, oxygen and nitrogen. Different types of organic matter are revealed by an H/C, O/C diagram. Their chemical evolution with burial is characterized by a decrease in hydrogen, oxygen and sulfur contents. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and infrared spectroscopy (IRS) were used to follow the structural evolution of resins and asphaltenes coming from different types of organic matter (algal, marine and terrestrial) buried at increasing depths. NMR can be used to compute several structural parameters such as Fsub(A) aromaticity and the degree of sigma substitution of the aromatic system. These data were completed by infrared spectroscopy. Variations in the intensity of bands: decrease of aliphatic C-H and of C = O fonctions; increase of aromatic C-H and C = C are related to both the type of organic matter and its catagenesis.

  8. Widespread mixing and burial of Earth's Hadean crust by asteroid impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, S; Bottke, W F; Elkins-Tanton, L T; Bierhaus, M; Wuennemann, K; Morbidelli, A; Kring, D A

    2014-07-31

    The history of the Hadean Earth (∼4.0-4.5 billion years ago) is poorly understood because few known rocks are older than ∼3.8 billion years old. The main constraints from this era come from ancient submillimetre zircon grains. Some of these zircons date back to ∼4.4 billion years ago when the Moon, and presumably the Earth, was being pummelled by an enormous flux of extraterrestrial bodies. The magnitude and exact timing of these early terrestrial impacts, and their effects on crustal growth and evolution, are unknown. Here we provide a new bombardment model of the Hadean Earth that has been calibrated using existing lunar and terrestrial data. We find that the surface of the Hadean Earth was widely reprocessed by impacts through mixing and burial by impact-generated melt. This model may explain the age distribution of Hadean zircons and the absence of early terrestrial rocks. Existing oceans would have repeatedly boiled away into steam atmospheres as a result of large collisions as late as about 4 billion years ago.

  9. The role of humic substances in the formation of marble patinas under soil burial conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polikreti, K.; Christofides, C.

    2009-05-01

    The present work aim to study the effect of burial on the photoluminescnece (PL) spectra of white, crystalline marble surfaces and the physicochemical processes that take place at the marble—soil interface. The PL was studied by an argon ion laser beam, focused through a microscope objective onto the sample, offering a spatial resolution of 3 μm. Long-buried (time scale of 1,000 years) surfaces show a red (at 610 nm) emission due to Mn2+, which is also shown on fresh marble spectra and an additional broadband blue-green (380-530 nm) one. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) indicate that the latter emission originates from humate complexes. The complexes are most probably Ca-humates, the humic substances found in the soil and the divalent calcium cations released by the dissolution of marble calcite. Finally, the examination of recently (time scale of 50 years) buried surfaces shows that the blue-green emission and consequently the presence of humates in marble patinas are not affected by the soil organic matter content. Soil acidity however, is a critical factor, with a total absence of the blue-green emission at pH values lower than 6.

  10. 26Al/10Be burial dating of Xujiayao-Houjiayao site in Nihewan Basin, northern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Tu

    Full Text Available The Xujiayao-Houjiayao site in Nihewan Basin is among the most important Paleolithic sites in China for having provided a rich collection of hominin and mammalian fossils and lithic artifacts. Based on biostratigraphical correlation and exploratory results from a variety of dating methods, the site has been widely accepted as early Upper Pleistocene in time. However, more recent paleomagnetic analyses assigned a much older age of ∼500 ka (thousand years. This paper reports the application of 26Al/10Be burial dating as an independent check. Two quartz samples from a lower cultural horizon give a weighted mean age of 0.24 ± 0.05 Ma (million years, 1σ. The site is thus younger than 340 ka at 95% confidence, which is at variance with the previous paleomagnetic results. On the other hand, our result suggests an age of older than 140 ka for the site's lower cultural deposits, which is consistent with recent post-infrared infrared stimulated luminescence (pIR-IRSL dating at 160-220 ka.

  11. 26Al/10Be burial dating of Xujiayao-Houjiayao site in Nihewan Basin, northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Hua; Shen, Guanjun; Li, Haixu; Xie, Fei; Granger, Darryl E

    2015-01-01

    The Xujiayao-Houjiayao site in Nihewan Basin is among the most important Paleolithic sites in China for having provided a rich collection of hominin and mammalian fossils and lithic artifacts. Based on biostratigraphical correlation and exploratory results from a variety of dating methods, the site has been widely accepted as early Upper Pleistocene in time. However, more recent paleomagnetic analyses assigned a much older age of ∼500 ka (thousand years). This paper reports the application of 26Al/10Be burial dating as an independent check. Two quartz samples from a lower cultural horizon give a weighted mean age of 0.24 ± 0.05 Ma (million years, 1σ). The site is thus younger than 340 ka at 95% confidence, which is at variance with the previous paleomagnetic results. On the other hand, our result suggests an age of older than 140 ka for the site's lower cultural deposits, which is consistent with recent post-infrared infrared stimulated luminescence (pIR-IRSL) dating at 160-220 ka.

  12. Did greater burial depth increase the seed size of domesticated legumes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluyver, Thomas A; Charles, Michael; Jones, Glynis; Rees, Mark; Osborne, Colin P

    2013-10-01

    The independent domestication of crop plants in several regions of the world formed the basis of human civilizations, and attracts considerable interest from archaeologists and biologists. Selection under cultivation led to a suite of domestication traits which distinguish crops from their wild progenitors, including larger seeds in most seed crops. This selection may be classified as 'conscious' or 'unconscious' selection according to whether humans were aware of the changes that they were driving. The hypothesis that human cultivation buried seeds deeper than natural dispersal, exerting unconscious selection favouring larger seeds with greater reserves, was tested. Using a comparative approach, accessions of eight grain legumes, originating from independent domestication centres across several continents, were sampled. Seeds were planted at different depths in a controlled environment, and seedling emergence scored for 5 weeks after sowing. Domestication in all species was associated with increased seed mass. In three species, greater mass was not correlated with increased ability to emerge from depth. In five species, emergence depth did correlate with mass, suggesting that selection during domestication may have acted on emergence depth. However, domestication only had a significant effect in two of these species (lentil and mung bean), and the increase in depth was no more than predicted by a cube-root allometric relationship with seed mass. The results do not support the hypothesis that burial under cultivation was a general selection mechanism for increased seed mass during the domestication of grain legumes, but it may have acted in particular species or regions.

  13. Inside the "African cattle complex": animal burials in the holocene central Sahara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Lernia, Savino; Tafuri, Mary Anne; Gallinaro, Marina; Alhaique, Francesca; Balasse, Marie; Cavorsi, Lucia; Fullagar, Paul D; Mercuri, Anna Maria; Monaco, Andrea; Perego, Alessandro; Zerboni, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Cattle pastoralism is an important trait of African cultures. Ethnographic studies describe the central role played by domestic cattle within many societies, highlighting its social and ideological value well beyond its mere function as 'walking larder'. Historical depth of this African legacy has been repeatedly assessed in an archaeological perspective, mostly emphasizing a continental vision. Nevertheless, in-depth site-specific studies, with a few exceptions, are lacking. Despite the long tradition of a multi-disciplinary approach to the analysis of pastoral systems in Africa, rarely do early and middle Holocene archaeological contexts feature in the same area the combination of settlement, ceremonial and rock art features so as to be multi-dimensionally explored: the Messak plateau in the Libyan central Sahara represents an outstanding exception. Known for its rich Pleistocene occupation and abundant Holocene rock art, the region, through our research, has also shown to preserve the material evidence of a complex ritual dated to the Middle Pastoral (6080-5120 BP or 5200-3800 BC). This was centred on the frequent deposition in stone monuments of disarticulated animal remains, mostly cattle. Animal burials are known also from other African contexts, but regional extent of the phenomenon, state of preservation of monuments, and associated rock art make the Messak case unique. GIS analysis, excavation data, radiocarbon dating, zooarchaeological and isotopic (Sr, C, O) analyses of animal remains, and botanical information are used to explore this highly formalized ritual and the lifeways of a pastoral community in the Holocene Sahara.

  14. Estimates for Pu-239 loadings in burial ground culverts based on fast/slow neutron measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winn, W.G.; Hochel, R.C.; Hofstetter, K.J.; Sigg, R.A.

    1989-08-15

    This report provides guideline estimates for Pu-239 mass loadings in selected burial ground culverts. The relatively high recorded Pu-239 contents of these culverts have been appraised as suspect relative to criticality concerns, because they were assayed only with the solid waste monitor (SWM) per gamma-ray counting. After 1985, subsequent waste was also assayed with the neutron coincidence counter (NCC), and a comparison of the assay methods showed that the NCC generally yielded higher assays than the SWM. These higher NCC readings signaled a need to conduct non-destructive/non-intrusive nuclear interrogations of these culverts, and a technical team conducted scoping measurements to illustrate potential assay methods based on neutron and/or gamma counting. A fast/slow neutron method has been developed to estimate the Pu-239 in the culverts. In addition, loading records include the SWM assays of all Pu-239 cuts of some of the culvert drums and these data are useful in estimating the corresponding NCC drum assays from NCC vs SWM data. Together, these methods yield predictions based on direct measurements and statistical inference.

  15. CO emission in the air return corner of the working face in shallow burial mining areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Botao Qin; Yi Lu; Yuwei Jia

    2014-01-01

    In shallow burial mining areas, abnormal CO emission and the spontaneous combustion of coal are great threats to safety production at a fully-mechanised working face. In order to prevent the CO concentration in the air return corner from exceeding the critical limit, the paper studied the CO emission regularity and characteristics through theoretical analysis, experimental research and field observation. The results show that the main sources of CO emission were the spontaneous combustion of coal in the goaf and the exhaust emissions coming from underground motorised vehicles. The effect factors of CO emission were also investigated, such as seasonal climate changes, the advancing distance and advancing speed of the working face, the number of underground motorised vehicles and some other factors. In addition to these basic analyses, the influence mechanism of each influence factor was also summarised theoret-ically. Finally, this study researched the distribution and change law of CO concentration in the fully-mechanised working face in two aspects: controlling the change of monitoring points and time respectively. The research results provide a theoretical basis for preventing the CO concentration from exceeding the critical limit in the air return corner and reducing the possibility of spontaneous combus-tion of coal. Additionally, the results also provide important theoretical and practical guidelines for pro-tecting miners’ health in modern mines featuring high production and high efficiency all over the world.

  16. Role of trench caps in the shallow land burial of low level wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezga, L. J.

    1984-05-01

    Experience dating back to the early 1940s clearly documents the importance of isolating waste disposed of by shallow land burial from the biosphere. While no significant threat to the health and safety of the public has occurred to data, poor facility siting and/or design has resulted in a number of sites failing to perform as predicted or in an acceptable manner. The trench cap may be the single most important component of the LLW disposal system. It must effectively isolate the waste from the biosphere by controlling infiltration, gaseous emissions, and biointrusions. At the same time, a number of other forces (i.e., erosion and subsidence) are acting to destroy its integrity. Results of experiments and operational experience to date indicate that while one design feature may be effective at controlling one problem (e.g., cobble gravel effectively controls biointrusion), that same design feature may be ineffective or actually exacerbate another problem (e.g., cobble gravel may allow increased infiltration rates). Therefore, trench cap design must evaluate the systems effects of the various options either using intuitive methods as is currently the case or by using mathematical models which are currently being developed and validated.

  17. Regionwide Geodynamic Analyses of the Cenozoic Carbonate Burial in Sri Lanka Related to Climate and Atmospheric CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amila Sandaruwan Ratnayake

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Asian tectonism and exhumation are critical components to develop modern icehouse climate. In this study, stratigraphic sections of eight wells in the Mannar and Cauvery basins were considered. The author demonstrated that this local system records a wealth of information to understated regional and global paleoclimatic trends over the Cenozoic era. The lithostratigraphic framework has been generally characterized by deposition of carbonate-rich sediments since the Middle Cenozoic. Geological provenance of carbonate sediments had probably related to local sources from Sri Lankan and Indian land masses. The main controlling factor of carbonate burial is rather questionable. However, this carbonate burial has indicated the possible link to the Middle to Late Cenozoic global climatic transition. This major climatic shift was characterized by long-term reduction of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration over the Cenozoic era. Consequently, this geological trend (carbonate burial has a straightforward teleconnection to the global cooling towards the glaciated earth followed by the development of polar ice sheets that persist today.

  18. Routine dose estimates for the removal of soil from a basin to the burial ground at the Savannah River Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpkins, Ali A

    2004-02-01

    Worker dose estimates have been made for various exposure scenarios resulting from the relocation of soil from the H Area Retention Basin to the Old Radioactive Waste Burial Ground at the Savannah River Site. Estimates were performed by hand calculations and using RESRAD and MAXDOSE-SR. Doses were estimated for the following pathways: (1) shine and inhalation as a result of standing on contaminated soil at the H Area Retention Basin and the Old Radioactive Waste Burial Ground; (2) exposure to off-unit receptors due to soil disturbances from excavation type activities at the H Area Retention Basin and the Old Radioactive Waste Burial Ground; (3) exposure to off-unit receptors due to soil disturbances from dumping of soil from bucket and from roll-off pan; and (4) exposure to off-unit receptors from wind driven dust from contaminated area. The highest dose estimates (0.25 mSv h(-1)) resulted from the receptor standing on the H Area Retention Basin.

  19. An evaluation of temporal changes in sediment accumulation and impacts on carbon burial in Mobile Bay, Alabama, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher G.; Osterman, Lisa E.

    2014-01-01

    The estuarine environment can serve as either a source or sink of carbon relative to the coastal ocean carbon budget. A variety of time-dependent processes such as sedimentation, carbon supply, and productivity dictate how estuarine systems operate, and Mobile Bay is a system that has experienced both natural and anthropogenic perturbations that influenced depositional processes and carbon cycling. Sediments from eight box cores provide a record of change in bulk sediment accumulation and carbon burial over the past 110 years. Accumulation rates in the central part of the basin (0.09 g cm−2) were 60–80 % less than those observed at the head (0.361 g cm−2) and mouth (0.564 g cm−2) of the bay. Sediment accumulation in the central bay decreased during the past 90 years in response to both anthropogenic (causeway construction) and natural (tropical cyclones) perturbations. Sediment accumulation inevitably increased the residence time of organic carbon in the oxic zone, as observed in modeled remineralization rates, and reduced the overall carbon burial. Such observations highlight the critical balance among sediment accumulation, carbon remineralization, and carbon burial in dynamic coastal environments. Time-series analysis based solely on short-term observation would not capture the long-term effects of changes in sedimentation on carbon cycling. Identifying these relationships over longer timescales (multi-annual to decadal) will provide a far better evaluation of coastal ocean carbon budgets.

  20. Simulations of long-term health risk from shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, C.A.; Fields, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    PRESTO (Prediction of Radiation Effects from Shallow Trench Operations) is a computer code developed under U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) funding to evaluate possible health effects from shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes. The model is intended to assess radionuclide transport, ensuing exposure, and health impact to a static local population for up to 1000 years following the end of burial operations. Human exposure scenarios that may be considered by model include normal releases (including leaching and operational spillage), human intrusion, and near site farming. Pathways and processes of transit from the trench to an individual or population include:groundwater transport, overland flow, erosion, surface water dilution, resuspension, atmospheric transport, overland flow, erosion, surface water dilution, resuspension, atmospheric transport, deposition, inhalation, and ingestion of contaminated beef, milk, crops, and water. Off-site population and individual doses and cancer risks may be calculated as well as doses and risks to the intruder and farmer. Data have been compiled for three extant shallow land burial sites: Barnwell, South Carolina; Beatty, Nevada; and West Valley, New York. Some simulation results for the Barnwell site are presented. 13 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  1. Guidelines for selecting codes for ground-water transport modeling of low-level waste burial sites. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, C.S.; Cole, C.R.

    1985-05-01

    This document was written to provide guidance to managers and site operators on how ground-water transport codes should be selected for assessing burial site performance. There is a need for a formal approach to selecting appropriate codes from the multitude of potentially useful ground-water transport codes that are currently available. Code selection is a problem that requires more than merely considering mathematical equation-solving methods. These guidelines are very general and flexible and are also meant for developing systems simulation models to be used to assess the environmental safety of low-level waste burial facilities. Code selection is only a single aspect of the overall objective of developing a systems simulation model for a burial site. The guidance given here is mainly directed toward applications-oriented users, but managers and site operators need to be familiar with this information to direct the development of scientifically credible and defensible transport assessment models. Some specific advice for managers and site operators on how to direct a modeling exercise is based on the following five steps: identify specific questions and study objectives; establish costs and schedules for achieving answers; enlist the aid of professional model applications group; decide on approach with applications group and guide code selection; and facilitate the availability of site-specific data. These five steps for managers/site operators are discussed in detail following an explanation of the nine systems model development steps, which are presented first to clarify what code selection entails.

  2. A likely case of scurvy in a rural Early Classic Maya burial from Actun Uayazba Kab, Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobel, Gabriel

    2014-11-01

    A Maya burial of a late adolescent (Burial 98-3) found in the rockshelter entrance of Actun Uayazba Kab (AUK), Belize, displays a combination of lesions that is consistent with scurvy. Signs include large, active lesions on the posterior surfaces of maxilla; relatively mild porotic hyperostosis along the midline of the skull on the parietals and occipital; cribra orbitalia; potential pinprick lesions on the greater wings of sphenoid and temporal; reactive lesions on the palate, temporal lines of frontal and parietals, and external and internal surfaces of zygomatics; small lesions on the popliteal surfaces of both femora; and periodontal disease. Identification of scurvy at AUK potentially informs the analysis of other primary burials and scattered bone found there and at other nearby sites, which often reveal evidence of nonspecific lesions that are usually attributed to anemia and infection, but that are also consistent with scurvy. The social and ecological context of this Protoclassic (0-AD 300) individual, who lived in a rural agricultural community with no evidence of complex social hierarchy, contrasts with typical discussions of disease among the Maya, which tend to focus on the degrading effects of overcrowding and resource deficiencies. While scurvy has been largely overlooked in the Maya area, this study supports earlier arguments for its presence that were based largely on clinical and ethnographic analogies and suggests the need to incorporate scurvy into broader synergistic models of ancient health.

  3. Burial Dissolution of Ordovician Granule Limestone in the Tahe Oilfield of the Tarim Basin, NW China, and Its Geological Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chunyan; LIN Changsong; WANG Yi; WU Maobing

    2008-01-01

    With a comprehensive study on the petrology, geology and geochemistry of some Ordovician granule limestone samples in the Tahe Oilfieid of the Tarim Basin, two stages of burial dissolution were put forward as an in-source dissolution and out-source dissolution based on macro-microcosmic petrology and geochemistry features. The main differences in the two stages arc in the origin and moving pass of acid fluids. Geochemical evidence indicates that burial dissolution fluids might be ingredients of organic acids, CO2 and H2S associated with organic matter maturation and hydrocarbon decomposition, and the in-source fuid came from organic matter in the granule limestone itself, but the out-source was mainly from other argillaceous carbonate rocks far away. So, the forming of a burial dissolution reservoir resulted from both in-source and the out-source dissolutions. The granule limestone firstly formed unattached pinholes under in-source dissolution in situ, and afterwards suffered wider dissolution with out-source fluids moving along unconformities, seams, faults and associate fissures. The second stage was much more important, and the mineral composition in the stratum and heat convection of the fluid were also important in forming favorable reservoirs.

  4. Burial fluxes and source apportionment of carbon in culture areas of Sanggou Bay over the past 200 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Sai; HUANG Jiansheng; YANG Qian; YANG Shu; YANG Guipeng; SUN Yao

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we assessed the burial fluxes and source appointment of different forms of carbon in core sediments collected from culture areas in the Sanggou Bay, and preliminarily analyzed the reasons for the greater proportion of inorganic carbon burial fluxes (BFTIC). The average content of total carbon (TC) in the Sanggou Bay was 2.14%. Total organic carbon (TOC) accounted for a small proportion in TC, more than 65% of which derived from terrigenous organic carbon (Ct), and while the proportion of marine-derived organic carbon (Ca) increased significantly since the beginning of large-scale aquaculture. Total inorganic carbon (TIC) accounted for 60%–75%of TC, an average of which was 60%, with a maximum up to 90% during flourishing periods (1880–1948) of small natural shellfish derived from seashells inorganic carbon (Shell-IC). The TC burial fluxes ranged from 31 g/(m2·a) to 895 g/(m2·a) with an average of 227 g/(m2·a), which was dominated by TIC (about 70%). Shell-IC was the main source of TIC and even TC. As the main food of natural shellfish, biogenic silica (BSi) negatively correlated with BFTIC through affecting shellfish breeding. BFTIC of Sta. S1, influenced greatly by the Yellow Sea Coastal Current, had a certain response to Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) in some specific periods.

  5. A comparison of burial, maturity and temperature histories of selected wells from sedimentary basins in The Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelskamp, S.; David, P.; Littke, R.

    2008-09-01

    Sedimentary basins in The Netherlands contain significant amounts of hydrocarbon resources, which developed in response to temperature and pressure history during Mesozoic and Cenozoic times. Quantification and modelling of burial, maturity and temperature histories are the major goals of this study, allowing for a better understanding of the general geological evolution of the different basins as well as petroleum generation. All major basins in The Netherlands encountered at least one time of inversion and therefore moderate to high amounts of erosion. In order to determine the amount of inversion the basins have experienced, a 1D study was performed on 20 wells within three basins (West Netherlands, Central Netherlands and Lower Saxony Basins). New vitrinite reflectance values were obtained and existing data re-evaluated to gain a good data base. The burial histories of six wells, two for each studied basin, are presented here, to demonstrate the differences in basin evolution that led to their present shape and petroleum potential. The Permo-Triassic subsidence phase can be recognized in all three basins, but with varying intensity. In the Jurassic, the basins experienced different relative movements that culminated in the Cretaceous when the influence of the inversion caused erosion of up to 2,500 m. Most wells show deepest burial at present-day, whereas the timing of maximum temperature differs significantly.

  6. Seed Burial Depth and Soil Water Content Affect Seedling Emergence and Growth of Ulmus pumila var. sabulosa in the Horqin Sandy Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of seed burial depth and soil water content on seedling emergence and growth of Ulmus pumila var. sabulosa (sandy elm, an important native tree species distributed over the European-Asian steppe. Experimental sand burial depths in the soil were 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 cm, and soil water contents were 4%, 8%, 12% and 16% of field capacity. All two-way ANOVA (five sand burial depths and four soil water contents results showed that seed burial depths, soil water content and their interactions significantly affected all the studied plant variables. Most of the times, seedling emergence conditions were greater at the lower sand burial depths (less than 1.0 cm than at the higher (more than 1.0 cm seed burial depths, and at the lower water content (less than 12% than at the higher soil water content. However, high seed burial depths (more than 1.5 cm or low soil water content (less than 12% reduced seedling growth or change in the root/shoot biomass ratios. In conclusion, the most suitable range of sand burial was from 0.5 to 1.0 cm soil depth and soil water content was about 12%, respectively, for the processes of seedling emergence and growth. These findings indicate that seeds of the sandy elm should be kept at rather shallow soil depths, and water should be added up to 12% of soil capacity when conducting elm planting and management. Our findings could help to create a more appropriate sandy elm cultivation and understand sparse elm woodland recruitment failures in arid and semi-arid regions.

  7. Sediment accretion and organic carbon burial relative to sea-level rise and storm events in two mangrove forests in Everglades National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoak, Joseph M.; Breithaupt, Joshua L.; Smith, Thomas J.; Sanders, Christian J.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to examine how sediment accretion and organic carbon (OC) burial rates in mangrove forests respond to climate change. Specifically, will the accretion rates keep pace with sea-level rise, and what is the source and fate of OC in the system? Mass accumulation, accretion and OC burial rates were determined via 210Pb dating (i.e. 100 year time scale) on sediment cores collected from two mangrove forest sites within Everglades National Park, Florida (USA). Enhanced mass accumulation, accretion and OC burial rates were found in an upper layer that corresponded to a well-documented storm surge deposit. Accretion rates were 5.9 and 6.5 mm yr−1 within the storm deposit compared to overall rates of 2.5 and 3.6 mm yr−1. These rates were found to be matching or exceeding average sea-level rise reported for Key West, Florida. Organic carbon burial rates were 260 and 393 g m−2 yr−1 within the storm deposit compared to 151 and 168 g m−2 yr−1 overall burial rates. The overall rates are similar to global estimates for OC burial in marine wetlands. With tropical storms being a frequent occurrence in this region the resulting storm surge deposits are an important mechanism for maintaining both overall accretion and OC burial rates. Enhanced OC burial rates within the storm deposit could be due to an increase in productivity created from higher concentrations of phosphorus within storm-delivered sediments and/or from the deposition of allochthonous OC. Climate change-amplified storms and sea-level rise could damage mangrove forests, exposing previously buried OC to oxidation and contribute to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, the processes described here provide a mechanism whereby oxidation of OC would be limited and the overall OC reservoir maintained within the mangrove forest sediments.

  8. The burial of organic carbon over the last 10 kyr by the Waipaoa River, New Zealand sedimentary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, N. E.; Childress, L. B.; Fournillier, K. M.; Leithold, E. L.

    2013-12-01

    Small mountainous rivers (SMRs), most of which are located along active margins, play a unique role in marine and global carbon cycles. SMRs drain only ~20% of land, but deliver approximately 40% of the fluvial sediment to the global ocean. Unlike large passive margin systems in which riverine organic carbon (OC) is efficiently incinerated on continental shelves, SMR-dominated shelves are highly effective in the burial and preservation of OC. This is the result of the rapid, episodic delivery of OC derived from terrestrial vegetation, aged soil organic matter, and sedimentary rock OC. Most of our understanding concerning the carbon cycling dynamics of SMR systems is derived from modern, heavily anthropogenically impacted environments however. The nature and fluxes of OC prior to land use change is poorly documented. Erosion and depositional patterns associated with SMRs are affected by several large-scale forcing mechanisms, primarily climate and tectonics. To investigate the effect of natural and anthropogenic forcing on the geochemical record of a SMR we use the Waipaoa River, New Zealand. The Waipaoa River is a system of interest due to its large current sediment yield (6800 tons km-2 yr-1) and extensive characterization. Continental shelf cores collected offshore of the Waipaoa by the MATACORE group aboard the R/V Marion Dufresne extend to 10 kyr BP, and records climatic transitions with tectonic overprints in the region. The OC burial flux ranged from ~15-20 kg C m-2 kyr-1 at the location of one shelf core (MD 3007) approximately 3.5-10 kyr before present. This corresponds to a period of relatively rapid shoreline progradation. OC accumulation decreased to ~4-6 kg C m-2 kyr-1 after 3.5 kyr BP. Anthropogenic deforestation has caused OC burial fluxes to rebound to beyond the 3.5-10 kyr levels. Organic geochemical proxies, including δ13C, δ15N, and lignin phenols, indicate a depositional site that is dominated by riverine input. The proxies do not correlate

  9. The burial of headwater streams in drainage pipes reduces in-stream nitrate retention: results from two US metropolitan areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, J. J.; Mayer, P. M.; Kaushal, S.; Pennino, M. J.; Arango, C. P.; Balz, D. A.; Fritz, K. M.; Golden, H. E.; Knightes, C. D.

    2012-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) retention in stream networks is an important ecosystem service that may be affected by the widespread burial of headwater streams in urban watersheds. Stream burial occurs when segments of a channel are encased in drainage pipe and buried beneath the land surface to facilitate above ground development or stormwater runoff. We predicted that burial suppresses the capacity of streams to retain and transform nitrate, the dominate form of bioavailable N in urban streams, by eliminating primary production, reducing respiration rates, and decreasing water residence time. We tested these predictions by measuring whole-stream nitrate (NO3-) removal rates using 15NO3- isotope tracer releases in reaches that were buried and open to the sunlight in three streams in Cincinnati, Ohio and three streams in Baltimore, Maryland during four seasons. Nitrate uptake lengths in buried reaches (range: 560 - 43,650 m) were 2-98 times greater than open reaches exposed to daylight (range: 85 - 7195 m), indicating that buried reaches were substantially less effective at retaining NO3- than open reaches. Nitrate retention in buried reaches was suppressed by a combination of hydrological and biological processes. High water velocities in buried reaches (buried= 5.8 m/s, open=1.48 m/s) rapidly exported NO3- from the channel, reducing the potential for in-stream NO3- retention. Uptake lengths in the buried reaches were lengthened further by low in-stream biological NO3- demand, as indicated by NO3- uptake velocities 16-fold lower than that of the open reaches. Similarly, buried reaches had lower ecosystem respiration rates than open reaches (buried=1.5g O2/m2/hr, open=4.5g O2/m2/hr), likely due to lower organic matter standing stocks (buried=12 gAFMD/m2, open=48 gAFDM/m2). Biological activity in the buried reaches was further suppressed by the absence of light which precluded photosynthetic activity and the associated assimilative N demand. Overall, our results demonstrate that the

  10. Micromorphological aspects of forensic geopedology: time-dependent markers of decomposition and permanence in soil in experimental burials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangarini, Sara; Cattaneo, Cristina; Trombino, Luca

    2014-05-01

    The importance of the role played by soil scientists grows up in the modern forensic sciences, in particular when buried human remains strongly decomposed or skeletonized are found in different environment situations. An interdisciplinary team, formed by earth and legal medicine researchers from the University of Milan is working on several sets of experimental burial of pigs in different soil types and for different times of burial, in order to get new evidences on environmental responses to the burial, focusing specifically on geopedological and micropedological aspects. The present work is aimed at the micromorphological (petrographic microscope) and ultramicroscopic (SEM) cross characterization of bone tissue in buried remains, in order to describe bone alteration pathways due both to decomposition and to permanence in soil. These methods allow identifying in the tissues of analysed bones: - Unusual concentrations of metal oxides (i.e. Fe, Mn), in the form of violet-blue colorations (in XPL), which seem to be related to chemical conditions in the burial area; their presence could be a method to discriminate permanence in soil rather than a different environment of decomposition. - Magnesium phosphate (i.e. Mg3(PO4)2 ) crystallizations, usually noticed in bones buried from 7 to 103 weeks; their presence seems to be related to the decomposition both of the bones themselves and of soft tissues. - The presence of significant sulphur levels (i.e. SO3) in bones buried for over 7 weeks, which seem to be related to the transport and fixation of soft tissues decomposition fluids. These results point out that micromorphological techniques coupled with spatially resolved chemical analyses allow identifying both indicators of the permanence of the remains into the soil (i.e. metal oxides concentrations) and time-dependent markers of decomposition (i.e. significant sulphur levels and magnesium phosphate) in order to determine PMI (post-mortem-interval) and TSB (time-since-burial

  11. The genome of a Late Pleistocene human from a Clovis burial site in western Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Morten; Anzick, Sarah L; Waters, Michael R; Skoglund, Pontus; DeGiorgio, Michael; Stafford, Thomas W; Rasmussen, Simon; Moltke, Ida; Albrechtsen, Anders; Doyle, Shane M; Poznik, G David; Gudmundsdottir, Valborg; Yadav, Rachita; Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; White, Samuel Stockton; Allentoft, Morten E; Cornejo, Omar E; Tambets, Kristiina; Eriksson, Anders; Heintzman, Peter D; Karmin, Monika; Korneliussen, Thorfinn Sand; Meltzer, David J; Pierre, Tracey L; Stenderup, Jesper; Saag, Lauri; Warmuth, Vera M; Lopes, Margarida C; Malhi, Ripan S; Brunak, Søren; Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas; Barnes, Ian; Collins, Matthew; Orlando, Ludovic; Balloux, Francois; Manica, Andrea; Gupta, Ramneek; Metspalu, Mait; Bustamante, Carlos D; Jakobsson, Mattias; Nielsen, Rasmus; Willerslev, Eske

    2014-02-13

    Clovis, with its distinctive biface, blade and osseous technologies, is the oldest widespread archaeological complex defined in North America, dating from 11,100 to 10,700 (14)C years before present (bp) (13,000 to 12,600 calendar years bp). Nearly 50 years of archaeological research point to the Clovis complex as having developed south of the North American ice sheets from an ancestral technology. However, both the origins and the genetic legacy of the people who manufactured Clovis tools remain under debate. It is generally believed that these people ultimately derived from Asia and were directly related to contemporary Native Americans. An alternative, Solutrean, hypothesis posits that the Clovis predecessors emigrated from southwestern Europe during the Last Glacial Maximum. Here we report the genome sequence of a male infant (Anzick-1) recovered from the Anzick burial site in western Montana. The human bones date to 10,705 ± 35 (14)C years bp (approximately 12,707-12,556 calendar years bp) and were directly associated with Clovis tools. We sequenced the genome to an average depth of 14.4× and show that the gene flow from the Siberian Upper Palaeolithic Mal'ta population into Native American ancestors is also shared by the Anzick-1 individual and thus happened before 12,600 years bp. We also show that the Anzick-1 individual is more closely related to all indigenous American populations than to any other group. Our data are compatible with the hypothesis that Anzick-1 belonged to a population directly ancestral to many contemporary Native Americans. Finally, we find evidence of a deep divergence in Native American populations that predates the Anzick-1 individual.

  12. The genome of a Late Pleistocene human from a Clovis burial site in western Montana

    KAUST Repository

    Rasmussen, Morten Arendt Rendt

    2014-02-12

    Clovis, with its distinctive biface, blade and osseous technologies, is the oldest widespread archaeological complex defined in North America, dating from 11,100 to 10,700 14 C years before present (bp) (13,000 to 12,600 calendar years bp). Nearly 50 years of archaeological research point to the Clovis complex as having developed south of the North American ice sheets from an ancestral technology. However, both the origins and the genetic legacy of the people who manufactured Clovis tools remain under debate. It is generally believed that these people ultimately derived from Asia and were directly related to contemporary Native Americans. An alternative, Solutrean, hypothesis posits that the Clovis predecessors emigrated from southwestern Europe during the Last Glacial Maximum. Here we report the genome sequence of a male infant (Anzick-1) recovered from the Anzick burial site in western Montana. The human bones date to 10,705 ± 35 14 C years bp (approximately 12,707-12,556 calendar years bp) and were directly associated with Clovis tools. We sequenced the genome to an average depth of 14.4× and show that the gene flow from the Siberian Upper Palaeolithic Mal\\'ta population into Native American ancestors is also shared by the Anzick-1 individual and thus happened before 12,600 years bp. We also show that the Anzick-1 individual is more closely related to all indigenous American populations than to any other group. Our data are compatible with the hypothesis that Anzick-1 belonged to a population directly ancestral to many contemporary Native Americans. Finally, we find evidence of a deep divergence in Native American populations that predates the Anzick-1 individual. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  13. Nonlocal continuum electrostatic theory predicts surprisingly small energetic penalties for charge burial in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Jaydeep P

    2011-09-14

    We study the energetics of burying charges, ion pairs, and ionizable groups in a simple protein model using nonlocal continuum electrostatics. Our primary finding is that the nonlocal response leads to markedly reduced solvent screening, comparable to the use of application-specific protein dielectric constants. Employing the same parameters as used in other nonlocal studies, we find that for a sphere of radius 13.4 Å containing a single +1e charge, the nonlocal solvation free energy varies less than 18 kcal/mol as the charge moves from the surface to the center, whereas the difference in the local Poisson model is ∼35 kcal/mol. Because an ion pair (salt bridge) generates a comparatively more rapidly varying Coulomb potential, energetics for salt bridges are even more significantly reduced in the nonlocal model. By varying the central parameter in nonlocal theory, which is an effective length scale associated with correlations between solvent molecules, nonlocal-model energetics can be varied from the standard local results to essentially zero; however, the existence of the reduction in charge-burial penalties is quite robust to variations in the protein dielectric constant and the correlation length. Finally, as a simple exploratory test of the implications of nonlocal response, we calculate glutamate pK(a) shifts and find that using standard protein parameters (ε(protein) = 2-4), nonlocal results match local-model predictions with much higher dielectric constants. Nonlocality may, therefore, be one factor in resolving discrepancies between measured protein dielectric constants and the model parameters often used to match titration experiments. Nonlocal models may hold significant promise to deepen our understanding of macromolecular electrostatics without substantially increasing computational complexity.

  14. Dynamics of carbon sources supporting burial in seagrass sediments under increasing anthropogenic pressure

    KAUST Repository

    Mazarrasa, Inés

    2017-03-15

    Seagrass meadows are strong coastal carbon sinks of autochthonous and allochthonous carbon. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of coastal anthropogenic pressure on the variability of carbon sources in seagrass carbon sinks during the last 150 yr. We did so by examining the composition of the sediment organic carbon (Corg) stocks by measuring the δ13Corg signature and C : N ratio in 210Pb dated sediments of 11 Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadows around the Balearic Islands (Spain, Western Mediterranean) under different levels of human pressure. On average, the top meter sediment carbon deposits were mainly (59% ± 12%) composed by P. oceanica derived carbon whereas seston contribution was generally lower (41% ± 8%). The contribution of P. oceanica to the total sediment carbon stock was the highest (∼ 80%) in the most pristine sites whereas the sestonic contribution was the highest (∼ 40–80%) in the meadows located in areas under moderate to very high human pressure. Furthermore, an increase in the contribution of sestonic carbon and a decrease in that of seagrass derived carbon toward present was observed in most of the meadows examined, coincident with the onset of the tourism industry development and coastal urbanization in the region. Our results demonstrate a general increase of total carbon accumulation rate in P. oceanica sediments during the last century, mainly driven by the increase in sestonic Corg carbon burial, which may have important implications in the long-term carbon sink capacity of the seagrass meadows in the region examined.

  15. Inside the "African cattle complex": animal burials in the holocene central Sahara.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savino di Lernia

    Full Text Available Cattle pastoralism is an important trait of African cultures. Ethnographic studies describe the central role played by domestic cattle within many societies, highlighting its social and ideological value well beyond its mere function as 'walking larder'. Historical depth of this African legacy has been repeatedly assessed in an archaeological perspective, mostly emphasizing a continental vision. Nevertheless, in-depth site-specific studies, with a few exceptions, are lacking. Despite the long tradition of a multi-disciplinary approach to the analysis of pastoral systems in Africa, rarely do early and middle Holocene archaeological contexts feature in the same area the combination of settlement, ceremonial and rock art features so as to be multi-dimensionally explored: the Messak plateau in the Libyan central Sahara represents an outstanding exception. Known for its rich Pleistocene occupation and abundant Holocene rock art, the region, through our research, has also shown to preserve the material evidence of a complex ritual dated to the Middle Pastoral (6080-5120 BP or 5200-3800 BC. This was centred on the frequent deposition in stone monuments of disarticulated animal remains, mostly cattle. Animal burials are known also from other African contexts, but regional extent of the phenomenon, state of preservation of monuments, and associated rock art make the Messak case unique. GIS analysis, excavation data, radiocarbon dating, zooarchaeological and isotopic (Sr, C, O analyses of animal remains, and botanical information are used to explore this highly formalized ritual and the lifeways of a pastoral community in the Holocene Sahara.

  16. Analysis of Chemical Composition of Non-Ferrous Metal Items from the Ananyino Burial Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saprykina Irina А.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of an analysis conducted by the authors in order to study chemical composition of items from non-ferrous metals found on the Ananyino burial ground. A number of research methods, including OES, XRF and TXRF was applied to study a selection of 387 samples of arrow- and spearheads, celts, tail-pieces, warhammers, poleaxes, knives and daggers, as well as items of attire and jewelry, some sporadic details of harness and bridle. The fi ndings are quite comparable. The results were classifi ed by the geochemical principle of 1,0% alloyage threshold. It was found out that the sample primarily consists of copper items, including “pure” copper and copper with a wide range of trace elements (particularly, Ni, As, Sb. The core (48% consists of copper items with traces of antimony and arsenic, or “pure” copper (7%, tin or triple bronze (40%; it also includes some other types of alloys based on copper or silver (5%. As the analysis has shown, complex ores seem to be the most probable source of copper. Traditionally, the Urals, the Sayan and the Altay Mountains, Kazakhstan and the Northern Caucasus were regarded as the most probable minefi elds to supply ores to the barren regions of Eastern Europe. While ore sources for products made of metallurgical “pure” copper are localized within the Ural mining and metallurgical region, metal sources for items cast from different groups of alloys (rather than imports of ready-made products require further research.

  17. Burial of Authigenic Carbonate in Reducing Sediments of the Cenomanian/Turonian Western Interior Seaway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, M. M.; Zeng, Z.; Wehner, M.; Xu, G.; Maulana, I.; Conte, R.; Laya, J. C.; Miller, B.; Pope, M. C.; Mattson, A.; Osborn, B.; Gillespie, D.; Albert, P.; Bartlett, R.; Berry, H.; Colmenares, E.; Herman, M. D.; Knott, P.; Koerth, J. N.; Levitt, E.; Palachek, R.; Patrolia, M.; Phillips, D.; Shalia, A. K.; Tran, C.; Wilcoxson, R.; Wood, E.; Wood, V.; Worley, D.; Zapalac, R.

    2014-12-01

    apatite clast conglomerates and sandstones indicate episodes of overall sediment starvation. Authigenic carbonate burial was thus controlled primarily by anaerobic microbial processes, and constrained by the redox state of the water column and the duration of exchange with pore fluids.

  18. The impact of physical disturbance and increased sand burial on clonal growth and spatial colonization of Sporobolus virginicus in a coastal dune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestri, Elena; Lardicci, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Dune plants are subjected to disturbance and environmental stresses, but little is known about the possible combined effects of such factors on growth and spatial colonization. We investigated how clones of Sporobolusvirginicus, a widespread dune species, responded to the independent and interactive effects of breakage of rhizomes, breakage position and burial regime. Horizontal rhizomes were severed at three different internode positions relative to the apex to span the range of damage by disturbance naturally observed or left intact, and apical portions exposed to two burial scenarios (ambient vs. increased frequency) for three months in the field. The performance of both parts of severed rhizomes, the apical portion and the remaining basal portion connected to clone containing four consecutive ramets, was compared with that of equivalent parts in intact rhizomes. Apical portions severed proximal to the third internode did not survive and their removal did not enhance branching on their respective basal portions. Severing the sixth or twelfth internode did not affect survival and rhizome extension of apical portions, but suppressed ramet production and reduced total biomass and specific shoot length. Their removal enhanced branching and ramet production on basal portions and changed the original rhizome growth trajectory. However, the gain in number of ramets in basal portions never compensated for the reduction in ramet number in apical portions. Recurrent burial increased biomass allocation to root tissues. Burial also stimulated rhizome extension only in intact rhizomes, indicating that disturbance interacts with, and counteracts, the positive burial effect. These results suggest that disturbance and recurrent burial in combination reduces the regeneration success and spread capacity of S. virginucus. Since global change leads to increasingly severe or frequent storms, the impact of disturbance and burial on clones could be greater in future and possibly

  19. Final Hazard Categorization for the Remediation of the 118-D-1, 118-D-2, 118-D-3, 118-H-1, 118-H-2, and 118-H-3 Solid Waste Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Ludowise

    2009-06-17

    This report presents the final hazard categorization for the remediation of the 118-D-1, 118-D-2, 118-D-3 Burial Grounds located within the 100-D/DR Area of the Hanford Site and the 118-H-1, 118-H-2, and 118-H-3 Burial Grounds located within the 100-H Area of the Hanford Site. A material at risk calculation was performed that determined the radiological inventory for each burial ground to be Hazard Category 3.

  20. The influence of burial heating on the (U-Th)/He system in apatite: Grand Canyon case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Matthew; Shuster, David L.

    2014-07-01

    Thermochronological data can constrain the cooling paths of rocks exhumed through the uppermost 1-2 km of earth's crust, and have thus been pivotal in illuminating topographic development over timescales >0.1 Ma. However, in some cases, different methods have led to conflicting conclusions about timing of valley-scale exhumation. Here, we investigate the case of Western Grand Canyon, USA, where different thermochronological datasets have been interpreted to record very different timings of canyon incision (∼70 Ma versus ∼5 Ma). We present a method to assess key assumptions in these constraints and demonstrate that burial heating conditions of basement rocks in the Mesozoic can result in incomplete annealing of radiation damage in apatite. In turn, this has a dramatic effect on the temperature sensitivity of the apatite (U-Th)/He system and its ability to record post-burial exhumation. The possibility of incomplete annealing resolves the apparent conflict in time-temperature paths inferred over the last 70 Ma, although it requires temperatures during burial that are lower than predicted by apatite fission track data. A refinement of parameters that prescribe the kinetics of damage annealing and related control on 4He diffusivity in apatite would account for this discrepancy, specifically if alpha recoil damage anneals at a lower rate than fission tracks at a given temperature. These effects will be important for any application of the apatite (U-Th)/He system in geologic settings that experienced prolonged residence (>10 Ma) between 50-150 °C; the approaches developed here provide means to assess these effects.

  1. Monumental megalithic burial and rock art tell a new story about the Levant Intermediate Bronze "Dark Ages".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon, Gonen; Barash, Alon; Eisenberg-Degen, Davida; Grosman, Leore; Oron, Maya; Berger, Uri

    2017-01-01

    The Intermediate Bronze Age (IB) in the Southern Levant (ca. 2350-2000 BCE) is known as the "Dark Ages," following the collapse of Early Bronze urban society and predating the establishment of the Middle Bronze cities. The absence of significant settlements and monumental building has led to the reconstruction of IB social organization as that of nomadic, tribal society inhabiting rural villages with no central governmental system. Excavation in the Shamir Dolmen Field (comprising over 400 dolmens) on the western foothills of the Golan Heights was carried out following the discovery of rock art engravings on the ceiling of the central chamber inside one of the largest dolmens ever recorded in the Levant. Excavation of this multi-chambered dolmen, covered by a basalt capstone weighing some 50 tons, revealed a secondary multi-burial (of both adults and children) rarely described in a dolmen context in the Golan. Engraved into the rock ceiling above the multi-burial is a panel of 14 forms composed of a vertical line and downturned arc motif. 3D-scanning by structured-light technology was used to sharpen the forms and revealed the technique employed to create them. Building of the Shamir dolmens required a tremendous amount of labor, architectural mastery, and complex socio-economic organization well beyond the capacity of small, rural nomadic groups. The monumental megalithic burial of the Shamir dolmens indicates a hierarchical, complex, non-urban governmental system. This new evidence supports a growing body of recent criticism stemming from new discoveries and approaches that calls for rethinking our views of the Levantine IB "Dark Ages."

  2. Climate change influence on organic carbon remobilization, transport and burial in mangrove forests of Everglades National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoak, J. M.; Breithaupt, J.; Smith, T. J.; Sanders, C. J.

    2013-05-01

    Mangrove ecosystems store large quantities of organic carbon (OC), burying it in their soils at a greater rate than terrestrial forests, thus providing an important negative climate change feedback. However, mangrove ecosystem response to climate change-induced stressors will determine if mangrove ecosystems continue to be a sink for OC. The threats of rising sea level outpacing mangrove forest soil accretion and the increased wave energy associated with this rise are two potential climate change stressors that may alter the carbon balance in mangrove ecosystems. The threat from wave energy is amplified during storm events, which may become more intense and/or frequent with climate change. Climate change-amplified storms could increasingly damage mangrove forests along the coastline, remobilizing and exposing previously buried OC to oxidation, and contribute to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. We investigate the fate of this remobilized OC by examining soil cores from two sites within Everglades National Park. Soil accretion rates and OC burial rates within a storm surge deposit are compared to long-term rates (i.e., last 100 years). The sites are 4 and 10 km inland from the coast and data show these mangrove soils are accreting at a rate sufficient to keep pace with the current rate of sea-level rise. The accretion rates range from 2.5 to 3.6 mm yr-1 and are much greater within the storm surge deposit, reaching as high as 6.5 mm yr-1. We also discovered enhanced rates of OC burial within this same storm surge deposit which are approximately 2-fold greater than the long-term rates. Our findings indicate that these enhanced accretion and OC burial rates are due to inland transport of marine carbonate material and OC remobilized from along the coast during the storm. Furthermore, we find OC burial rates within the storm deposit at the site 10 km inland are substantially greater than the site 4 km inland, while mass accumulation rates show the opposite trend

  3. A singular children burial from the Bronce Age site of La Motilla del Azuer (Daimiel, Ciudad Real

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nájera Colino, Trinidad

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A child burial with special grave-goods belonging to the Bronze Age is presented. Very small items manufactured in pottery and clay reproduce the typical forms of the materials documented in the settlement.

    Se presenta el hallazgo de un enterramiento infantil de la Edad del Bronce asociado a un ajuar de especiales características. Presenta varios elementos de muy pequeñas dimensiones realizados en cerámica y arcilla que reproducen formas típicas de los materiales del asentamiento.

  4. Morphogenetic evolution of the Têt river valley (eastern Pyrenees) using 10Be/21Ne cosmogenic burial dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartégou, Amandine; Blard, Pierre-Henri; Braucher, Régis; Bourlès, Didier L.; Calvet, Marc; Zimmermann, Laurent; Tibari, Bouchaïb; Hez, Gabriel; Gunnell, Yanni; Aumaitre, Georges; Keddadouche, Karim

    2016-04-01

    The rates and chronologies of valley incision are closely modulated by the tectonic uplift of active mountain ranges and were controlled by repeated climate changes during the Quaternary. The continental collision between the Iberian and Eurasian plates induced a double vergence orogen, the Pyrenees, which has been considered as a mature mountain range in spite of significant seismicity (e.g. Chevrot et al., 2011) and evidence of neotectonics (e.g. Goula et al., 1999). Nevertheless, recent studies indicate that the range may have never reached a steady state (Ford et al., in press). One option for resolving this controversy is to quantify the incision rates since the Miocene by reconstructing the vertical movement of geometric markers such as fluvial terraces. However, the few available ages from the Pyrenean terrace systems do not exceed the middle Pleistocene. Thus, to enlarge the time span of this dataset, we studied alluvium-filled horizontal epiphreatic passages in limestone karstic networks. Such landforms are used as substitutes of fluvial terraces because they represent former valley floors (e.g. Palmer, 2007; Audra et al., 2013). They record the transient position of former local base levels during the process of valley deepening. The Têt river valley (southern Pyrenees) was studied near the Villefranche-de-Conflent limestone gorge where 8 cave levels have been recognized over a vertical height of 600 meters. Given that 26Al/10Be cosmogenic burial dating in this setting was limited to the last ~5 Ma (Calvet et al., 2015), here we used the cosmogenic 10Be/21Ne method in order to restore a more complete chronology of valley incision (e.g. Balco & Shuster, 2009; McPhilipps et al., 2016). Burial age results for alluvial deposits from 12 caves document incision rates since the Langhian (~14 Ma). Preliminary results indicate a history of valley deepening in successive stages. The data show a regular incision rate of 70-80 mm/a from the Langhian to the Messinian

  5. Limits on the Abundance and Burial Depth of Lunar Polar Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elphic, Richard C.; Paige, David A.; Siegler, Matthew A.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Teodoro, Luis A.; Eke, Vincent R.

    2012-01-01

    The Diviner imaging radiometer experiment aboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter has revealed that surface temperatures in parts of the lunar polar regions are among the lowest in the solar system. Moreover, modeling of these Diviner data using realistic thermal conductivity profiles for lunar regolith and topography-based illumination has been done, with surprising results. Large expanses of circum-polar terrain appear to have near-subsurface temperatures well below 110K, despite receiving episodic low-angle solar illumination [Paige et al., 2010]. These subsurface cold traps could provide areally extensive reservoirs of volatiles. Here we examine the limits to abundance and burial depth of putative volatiles, based on the signature they would create for orbital thermal and epithermal neutrons. Epithermals alone are not sufficient to break the abundance-depth ambiguity, while thermal neutrons provide an independent constraint on the problem. The subsurface cold traps are so large that even modest abundances, well below that inferred from LCROSS observations, would produce readily detectable signatures in the Lunar Prospector neutron spectrometer data [Colaprete et al., 2010]. Specifically, we forward-model the thermal and epithermal neutron leakage flux that would be observed for various ice concentrations, given the depth at which ice stability begins. The LCROSS results point to a water-equivalent hydrogen abundance (WEH) in excess of 10 wt%, when all hydrogenous species are added together (except for H2, detected by LAMP on LRO [Gladstone et al., 2010]). When such an ice abundance is placed in a layer below the stability depth of Paige et al., the epithermal and thermal neutron leakage fluxes are vastly reduced and very much at odds with orbital observations. So clearly an environment that is conducive to cold trapping is necessary but not sufficient for the presence of volatiles such as water. We present the limits on the abundances that are indeed consistent

  6. Survival of the fittest: phosphorus burial in the sulfidic deep Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraal, Peter; Dijkstra, Nikki; Behrends, Thilo; Slomp, Caroline

    2016-04-01

    The Black Sea is characterized by permanently anoxic and sulfidic deep waters. Studies of the mechanisms of P burial in such a setting can be used to improve our understanding of P cycling in modern coastal systems undergoing eutrophication and ancient oceans during periods of anoxia in Earth's past. Here, we present phosphorus and iron (Fe) pools as determined in surface sediments along a transect from oxic shallow waters to sulfidic deep waters in the northwestern Black Sea, using a combination of bulk chemical analyses and micro-scale X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (μXAS). We show that under oxic bottom water conditions, ferric iron oxides (Fe(III)ox) in surficial sediment efficiently scavenge dissolved phosphate from pore waters. Under these conditions, Fe(III)ox-bound P constitutes the main P pool at the sediment surface, but rapidly declines with depth in the sediment due to anoxic diagenesis. The transition from shallow (oxic) to deep (sulfidic) waters along the depth transect is reflected in a slight increase in the fraction of organic P. We also show evidence for authigenic calcium phosphate formation under sulfidic conditions at relatively low dissolved PO4 concentrations. Furthermore, we provide spectroscopic evidence for the presence of Fe(II)-Mn(II)-Mg-P minerals in sediments of the sulfidic deep basin. We hypothesize that these minerals are formed as a result of input of Fe(III)ox-P from shallower waters and subsequent transformation in either the water column or sediment. This finding suggests an unexpected strength of Fe-P shuttling from the shelf to the deep basin. While the presence of Fe-P species in such a highly sulfidic environment is remarkable, further analysis suggests that this P pool may not be quantitatively significant. In fact, our results indicate that some of the P that is interpreted as Fe-bound P based on chemical extraction may in fact be Ca-associated PO4 consisting of a combination of fish debris

  7. 1,500-Year Cycle in Holocene Climate from Burial Lake, Arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkenbinder, M. S.; Abbott, M. B.; Dorfman, J. M.; Finney, B.; Stoner, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Millennial-scale fluctuations in climate conditions are commonly observed in Holocene paleoclimate archives, however the meaning of these variations including whether they might arise from internal or external forcing are still actively debated. Proxy evidence of millennial-scale variability is most clearly present in a few specific parts of the world (e.g. North Atlantic region), whereas a lack of evidence from many other regions may result from a lack of observations or a lack of signal. Here we present the first evidence for such variations in Arctic Alaska using sedimentological and geochemical analyses from Burial Lake (68.43°N, 159.17°W; 460 m above sea level) in the western Brooks Range. We measured biogenic silica (BSi), total organic carbon, total nitrogen, C/N ratios, dry bulk density, magnetic susceptibility and magnetic remanence measurements, and elemental abundances from scanning XRF and use radiocarbon dating on terrestrial macrofossils to establish age control. Large fluctuations in biogenic silica and related proxies at millennial time scales over the last 10,000 cal yr BP are attributed to changes in aquatic productivity, which is indirectly mediated by climate through changes in the duration of the ice-free growing season and the availability of limiting nutrients. Spectral and wavelet analysis of the BSi record indicates a significant 1,500-yr cycle (above 95% confidence) emerges by ~6,000 cal yr BP. Comparison of BSi with reconstructed total solar irradiance reveals a low correlation (r2 = 0.01), suggesting no direct solar forcing of aquatic productivity. A comparison with Northern Hemisphere wide records shows no consistent phase relationship between the timing of maxima/minima in our BSi record. These results are consistent with previous work showing a strong middle Holocene transition into a ~1500-yr cycle. Similar timing for the emergence of an ~1500-yr cycle are found in proxies sensitive to thermohaline circulation and deep water

  8. Safety Evaluation Report for the Tennessee Valley Authority's Plan to Decommission its Low-Level Radioactive Waste Burial Site at Muscle Shoals, Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gant, K.S.; Kettelle, R.H.

    1998-11-01

    From 1966 to 1981, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) operated a burial site, licensed under the former 10 CFR 20.304, for low-level radioactive waste on its Muscle Shoals, Alabama, reservation. TVA submitted a decommissioning plan for the burial site and requested approval for unrestricted use of the site. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission requested Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate this plan to determine if the site meets the radiological requirements for unrestricted use as specified in 10 CFR 20.1402; that is, an average member of the critical group would not receive more than 25 mrem/y from residual radioactivity at the TVA Low-Level Radioactive Waste Burial Site and the radioactivity has been reduced to levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA).

  9. Carbolineum in the Imperial burial vault of Vienna/Austria; Belastungen durch Carbolineum in der Wiener Kaisergruft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutter, H.P.; Moshammer, H.; Kundi, M. [Medizinische Univ. Wien (Austria). Inst. fuer Umwelthygiene; Wallner, P. [Medizin und Umweltschutz (mus), Wien (Austria); Damberger, B. [Oesterreichisches Inst. fuer Baubiologie und -oekologie, Wien (Austria); Tappler, P. [Oesterreichisches Inst. fuer Baubiologie und -oekologie, Wien (Austria); Donau Univ. Krems (Austria). Dept. fuer Bauen und Umwelt; Schleritzko, K. [Architekt DI Wolfgang Brenner, Wien (Austria)

    2007-07-01

    In the course of restoration work carried out on Vienna's Imperial Burial Vault, workers upon removing bituminous material developed acute skin reactions. A detailed medical history of the workers was taken and an inspection by a multidisciplinary team was carried out. As a result, samples from the wallmaterial of the Imperial Burial Vault were taken for analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The results of this analysis (PAH 1.900 mg/kg) confirmed that carbolineum/creosote had been used. For the restoration work that followed extensive safety measures for the workers were introduced to prevent direct exposure to dust. Furthermore, indoor air measurements were conducted to assess the outcome of applied measures. PAH concentrations were reduced to negligible amounts. The acute health problems of the workers were managed quickly and effectively. No further health problems of the workers were reported, which is probably due to prompt introduction of safety measures. With restoration work of this kind, the most common exposure usually is to moulds. This case demonstrates, however, that even today the possibility of exposure to toxic materials, which were historically used, has to be considered. (orig.)

  10. From Stone Graves to Churchyards. Burial traditions in the Late Prehistoric and Early Medieval Island of Saaremaa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika Mägi

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Even though pre-historic burials have been the favourite topic of research of Estonian archaeologists at least for the past century, the focus has been on their appearance, chronology, ethnic context and objects discovered in them. Burial tradition, as it reflects in the archaeological remnants, has hardly been studied. Research in the field over the past few years, as well as osteological analysis of bone material, which was first carried out in the 1990s, has introduced new findings in the funeral customs of our ancestors. The article examines funeral customs on the island of Saaremaa, and the ideology behind it. The main focus is on the final centuries of the prehistoric period and the beginning of the Middle Ages – more specifically, on changes brought along by Christianity, although the study also provides an overview of earlier customs. A separate chapter discusses the partial distribution of bones and objects in graves, objects determining the boundaries of graves, and traces of funeral rituals. This evidently reflects a set of traditions, and thus also conceptions about the otherworld, composed of multiple layers and differing considerably from the modern funeral tradition. Christianisation of the population of Saaremaa in the 13th century changed these conceptions beyond recognition over a very short period of time.

  11. Controlling mechanism of sedimentation-burial historyon oil-gas maturation history——A case study in Qaidam Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈显杰; 汪缉安; 张菊明; 杨淑贞; 沈继英

    1995-01-01

    Three types of practical data are used for basin simulation: stratigraphic column thicknesses interpreted in the light of the common seismic reflecting layers, the percentage of mudy rocks in the column and the statistical heat flow values. A mesh point data read-in technique is used for the region covered by Tertiary strata in the basin A B-T-M computer software is developed for simulating the burial, thermal and oil-gas maturation histories on 703 mesh points. Furthermore, five typical types of oil-gas evolution trends are summarized on the basis of the characteristics of B-T-M evolution graph of each single mesh point. A careful analysis shows that the sedimentation-burial history through differentiated stratum thermal history in the different parts of the basin ultimately controls the temporal sequence and the threshold temperature and depth of oil-gas maturation, as well as the whole evolutionary process of petroleum formation of oil-source rocks from low-maturation, high-maturation through over-ma

  12. Time interval between volcanism and burial metamorphism and rate of basin subsidence in a Cretaceous Andean extensional setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, L.; Féraud, G.; Morata, D.; Vergara, M.; Robinson, D.

    1999-11-01

    40Ar/ 39Ar ages were obtained from basaltic flows belonging to a 9-km-thick sequence generated in an extensional ensialic setting of an arc/back-arc basin type during the Early Cretaceous and presently exposed along the Coastal Range of central Chile. The basalts have been affected by very low- to low-grade burial metamorphism, mostly under prehnite-pumpellyite facies. Age values obtained from primary (volcanic) and secondary (metamorphic) minerals permit to quantify the time interval between volcanism and burial metamorphism. A plateau age of 119±1.2 Ma from primary plagioclase represents the best estimation of the age of the volcanism, whereas adularia, in low-variance assemblages contained in amygdules, gave a plateau age of 93.1±0.3 Ma which is interpreted as the age of the metamorphism. Considering the P- T conditions estimated for this metamorphic event, the c. 25 Ma time interval between volcanic emplacement and prehnite-pumpellyite facies metamorphism, the rate of basin subsidence in this extensional geodynamic setting would be comprised in the interval 150-180 m/Ma.

  13. Improving the Treatment of the Vertical Snow Burial Fraction over Short Vegetation in the NCAR CLM3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Aihui; Xubin ZENG

    2009-01-01

    One deficiency of the NCAR Community Land Model (CLM3) is the disappearance of the simulated snow even in the middle of winter over a boreal grassland site due to unrealistically modeled high downward turbulent fluxes.This is caused by the inappropriate treatment of the vertical snow burial fraction for short vegetation.A new snow burial fraction formulation for short vegetation is then proposed and validated using in situ observations.This modification in the CLM3 largely removes the unrealistic surface turbulent fluxes,leading to a more reasonable snowmelt process,and improves the snow water equivalent (SWE) simulation.Moreover,global offline simulations show that the proposed formulation decreases sensible and latent heat fluxes as well as the ground temperature during the snowmelt season over short vegetation dominant regions.Correspondingly,the SWE is enhanced,leading to the increase in snowmelt-induced runoff during the same period.Furthermore,sensitivity tests indicate that these improvements axe insensitive to the exact functional form or parameter values in the proposed formulation.

  14. Burial of organic carbon and carbonate on inner shelf of the northern South China Sea during the postglacial period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shouye YANG; Wyss W.-S. YIM; Min TANG; Guangqing HUANG

    2008-01-01

    Two vibrocores from the inner shelf off Hong Kong are investigated to compare the contents of organic and inorganic carbon in postglacial sediments. The com-positions of organic elements and carbonate are highly variable in the core sediments, but overall drop within the compositional ranges of modern seabed sediments in the Zhujiang estuarine and its shelf area. The Holocene sediments in the inner shelf have never been subject to subaerial exposure and the organic matter and carbonate can be preserved well. The burial of carbon in river-domi-nated shelf environments is highly dependent on the river flux with time. Nevertheless, it is difficult to establish a simple relationship between carbon burial in sediments in relation to climatic changes of basin-wide scale due to complex controls of production, transport and deposition of organic matter and carbonate. Our study suggests that the organic carbon to nitrogen ratio can not reliably identify the sources of depositional organic matters because of selective decomposition of organic matter com-ponents during humification and sedimentation. Caution is therefore needed in using organic elemental composi-tions as indicators of organic matter sources and paleoen-vironmental changes in the East Asian continental shelves where intense river-sea interaction and variable carbon flux in geologic record occur.

  15. Development and Application of a Paleomagnetic/Geochemical Method for Constraining the Timing of Burial Diagenetic and Fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmore, Richard D.; Engel, Michael H.

    2005-03-10

    Studies of diagenesis caused by fluid migration or other events are commonly hindered by a lack of temporal control. Our results to date demonstrate that a paleomagnetic/geochemical approach can be used to date fluid migration as well as burial diagenetic events. Our principal working hypothesis is that burial diagenetic processes (e.g., maturation of organic-rich sediments and clay diagenesis) and the migration of fluids can trigger the authigenesis of magnetic mineral phases. The ages of these events can be constrained by comparing chemical remanent magnetizations (CRMs) to independently established Apparent Polar Wander Paths. While geochemical (e.g. stable isotope and organic analyses) and petrographic studies provide important clues for establishing these relationships, the ultimate test of this hypothesis requires the application of independent dating methods to verify the paleomagnetic ages. Towards this end, we have used K-Ar dating of illitization as an alternative method for constraining the ages of magnetic mineral phases in our field areas.

  16. Considerations regarding Barrow Burials and Metal Depositions during the Early Bronze Age in the Carpathian-Danube Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Preda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of the Early Bronze Age brought significant changes in the Carpathian-Danube Area, including new burial customs, a different economy and innovative technologies, most of them with eastern steppe origins. Thus, burial barrows appeared in the landscape raised over rectangular grave-pits, sometimes with wood or stone structures containing individuals lying in contracted or supine position with flexed legs, stained with ochre, rarely accompanied by grave-goods like wares, ornaments or weapons made of stone, bone and precious metals. Among the metallurgical innovations, items such as silver hair rings, copper shaft-hole axes and tanged daggers are considered specific to the new era. However, a careful approach of the deposition contexts of these artifacts, as compared with the eastern space, indicates that in some cases the objects were not just adopted, but reinterpreted and involved in different social practices. This paper aims to analyze the manner in which metal pieces were disposed of and to identify the rules governing this behavior.

  17. Response of Reactive Phosphorus Burial to the Sedimentary Transition from Cretaceous Black Shales to Oceanic Red Beds in Southern Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The mechanism of sedimentary transition from the Cretaceous black shales to the oceanic red beds is a new and important direction of Cretaceous research. Chemical sequential extraction is applied to study the burial records of reactive phosphorus in the black shale of the Gyabula Formation and oceanic red beds of the Chuangde Formation, Southern Tibet. Results indicate that the principal reactive phosphorus species is the authigenic and carbonate-associated phosphorus (CaP) in the Gyabula Formation and iron oxides-associated phosphorus (FeP) in the Chuangde Formation which accounts for more than half of their own total phosphorus content. While the authigenic and carbonate-associated phosphorus (CaP) is almost equal in the two Formations; the iron oxidesassociated phosphorus is about 1.6 times higher in the Chuangde Formation than that in the Gyabula Formation resulting in a higher content of the total phosphorus in the Chuangde Formation.According to the observations on the marine phosphorus cycle in Modern Ocean, it is found that preferential burial and regeneration of reactive phosphorus corresponds to highly oxic and reducing conditions, respectively, leading to the different distribution of phosphorus in these two distinct type of marine sediments. It is the redox-sensitive behavior of phosphorus cycle to the different redox conditions in the ocean and the controlling effects of phosphorus to the marine production that stimulate the local sedimentary transition from the Cretaceous black shale to the oceanic red beds.

  18. Nitrous oxide and methane fluxes vs. carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous burial in new intertidal and saltmarsh sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, C.A., E-mail: christopher.adams@uea.ac.uk; Andrews, J.E.; Jickells, T.

    2012-09-15

    Carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) burial rates were determined within natural saltmarsh (NSM) and 'managed realignment' (MR) sediments of the Blackwater estuary, UK. Methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) fluxes were measured along with their ability to offset a portion of the C burial to give net C sequestration. C and N densities (C{rho} and N{rho}) of NSM sediments (0.022 and 0.0019 g cm{sup -3}) are comparable to other UK NSM sediments. Less vegetationally developed MR sediments have lower C{rho} and N{rho} (0.012 and 0.0011 g cm{sup -3}) while the more vegetationally developed sites possess higher C{rho} and N{rho} (0.023 and 0.0030 g cm{sup -3}) than NSM. Both NSM and MR areas were small CH{sub 4} (0.10-0.40 g m{sup -2} yr{sup -1}) and N{sub 2}O (0.03-0.37 g m{sup -2} yr{sup -1}) sources. Due to their large Global Warming Potentials, even these relatively small greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes reduced the net C sequestration within MR marshes by as much as 49%, but by only 2% from NSM. Potential MR areas within the Blackwater estuary (29.5 km{sup 2} saltmarsh and 23.7 km{sup 2} intertidal mudflat) could bury 5478 t C yr{sup -1} and 695.5 t N yr{sup -1}, with a further 476 t N yr{sup -1} denitrified. The saltmarsh MR would also sequester 139.4 t P yr{sup -1}. GHG fluxes would reduce the C burial benefit by 24% giving a C sequestration rate of 4174 t C yr{sup -1}. Similar areas within the Humber estuary (74.95 km{sup 2}) could bury 3597 t C yr{sup -1} and 180 t N yr{sup -1}, with a further 442 t N yr{sup -1} denitrified. GHG fluxes would reduce the C burial benefit by 31% giving a C sequestration rate of 2492 t C yr{sup -1}. Overall, MR sites provide sustainable coastal defence options with significant biogeochemical value and, despite being net sources of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O, can sequester C and reduce estuarine nutrient loads. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated C, N, P, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O fluxes

  19. Estimation of the release and migration of lead through soils and groundwater at the Hanford Site 218-E-12B Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhoads, K.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Lewis, R.E.; Teel, S.S.; Cantrell, K.J.; Serne, R.J.; Smoot, J.L.; Kincaid, C.T.; Wurstner, S.K.

    1992-10-01

    This report describes the technical basis for a groundwater transport analysis that was conducted to evaluate migration of potentially hazardous materials from the Hanford Site 218-E-12B burial ground. The analysis characterized the geologic, chemical, and hydrologic properties of the disposal site, and used that information to perform a screening analysis for transport of materials from the burial ground to downgradient groundwater locations and to the Columbia River. Subsequent sections of the appendix describe the geologic setting, geochemistry, and hydrology of the disposal site and their relationship to the transport analysis.

  20. Estimation of the release and migration of lead through soils and groundwater at the Hanford Site 218-E-12B Burial Ground. Volume 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhoads, K.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Lewis, R.E.; Teel, S.S.; Cantrell, K.J.; Serne, R.J.; Smoot, J.L.; Kincaid, C.T.; Wurstner, S.K.

    1992-10-01

    This report describes the technical basis for a groundwater transport analysis that was conducted to evaluate migration of potentially hazardous materials from the Hanford Site 218-E-12B burial ground. The analysis characterized the geologic, chemical, and hydrologic properties of the disposal site, and used that information to perform a screening analysis for transport of materials from the burial ground to downgradient groundwater locations and to the Columbia River. Subsequent sections of the appendix describe the geologic setting, geochemistry, and hydrology of the disposal site and their relationship to the transport analysis.

  1. Final Hazard Categorization for the Remediation of the 118-D-1, 118-D-2, 118-D-3, 118-H-1, 118-H-2, and 118-H-3 Solid Waste Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. J. Rodovsky

    2006-12-06

    This report presents the final hazard categorization (FHC) for the remediation of the 118-D-1, 118-D-2, and 118-D-3 Burial Grounds located within the 100-D/DR Area of the Hanford Site and the 118-H-1, 118-H-2, and 118-H-3 Burial Grounds located within the 100-H Area of the Hanford Site.

  2. Evaluation of alternatives for the future of facilities at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center. [State and NRC-licensed burial areas; low-level liquid waste treatment facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-08-01

    Regulatory considerations are discussed. Alternatives for the continued operation or decommissioning of the state-licensed burial area, the low-level waste treatment facilities, and the NRC licensed burial area are evaluated. Radiological impact analyses were also performed for alternatives on other facilities. (DLC)

  3. Final Hazard Categorization for the Remediation of the 118-D-1, 118-D-2, 118-D-3, 118-H-1, 118-H-2 and 118-H-3 Solid Waste Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. L. Vialetti

    2008-05-20

    This report presents the final hazard categorization for the remediation of the 118-D-1, 118-D-2, and 118-D-3 Burial Grounds located within the 100-D/DR Area of the Hanford Site and the 118-H-1, 118-H-2, and 118-H-3 Burial Grounds located within the 100-H Area of the Hanford Site.

  4. Final Hazard Categorization for the Remediation of the 118-D-1, 118-D-2, 118-D-3, 118-H-1, 118-H-2, and 118-H-3 Solid Waste Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. J. Rodovsky

    2007-04-12

    This report presents the final hazard categorization (FHC) for the remediation of the 118-D-1, 118-D-2, and 118-D-3 Burial Grounds located within the 100-D/DR Area of the Hanford Site and the 118-H-1, 118-H-2, and 118-H-3 Burial Grounds located within the 100-H Area of the Hanford Site.

  5. Development and Application of a Paleomagnetic/Geochemical Method for Constraining the Timing of Burial Diagenetic Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmore, Richard D.; Engel, Michael H.

    2006-01-05

    Studies of diagenesis caused by fluid migration or other events are commonly hindered by a lack of temporal control. Our results to date demonstrate that a paleomagnetic/geochemical approach can be used to date fluid migration as well as burial diagenetic events. Our principal working hypothesis is that burial diagenetic processes (e.g., maturation of organic-rich sediments and clay diagenesis) and the migration of fluids can trigger the authigenesis of magnetic mineral phases. The ages of these events can be constrained by comparing chemical remanent magnetizations (CRMs) to independently established Apparent Polar Wander Paths. Whilst geochemical (e.g. stable isotope and organic analyses) and petrographic studies provide important clues for establishing these relationships, the ultimate test of this hypothesis requires the application of independent dating methods to verify the paleomagnetic ages. Towards this end, we have used K-Ar dating of illitization as an alternative method for constraining the ages of magnetic mineral phases in our field areas. We have made significant progress toward understanding the origin and timing of chemical remagnetization related to burial diagenetic processes. For example, a recently completed field study documents a relationship between remagnetization and the maturation of organic matter (Blumstein et al., 2004). We have tested the hypothesized connection between clay diagenesis and remagnetization by conducting K-Ar dating of authigenic illites in units in Scotland and Montana with CRMs (e.g., Elliott et al., 2006a; Elliott et al., 2006b). We have also developed a fluid related model for alteration and remagnetization of Appalachian red beds that involves reduction and mobilization of iron phases by hydrocarbons and precipitation of authigenic hematite as a result of the introduction of meteoric fluid recharge (Cox et al., 2005). In addition, our recent studies of fluid-related CRMs along faults in Scotland provide information

  6. Perspectives on the terrestrial organic matter transport and burial along the land-deep sea continuum: Caveats in our understanding of biogeochemical processes and future needs

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kandasamy, S.; Nath, B.N.

    . Here, we review the export and burial rates of terrestrial organic carbon in the oceans to understand the issue of “missing terrigenous carbon” by comparing data- and model-based estimates of terrestrial carbon fluxes. Our review reveals large...

  7. A detection-level hazardous waste ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the 200 areas low-level burial grounds and retrievable storage units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-02-01

    This plan defines the actions needed to achieve detection-level monitoring compliance at the Hanford Site 200 Areas Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Compliance will be achieved through characterization of the hydrogeology and monitoring of the ground water beneath the LLBG located in the Hanford Site 200 Areas. 13 refs., 20 figs.

  8. In situ spectroscopic detection of SMSI effect in a Ni/CeO2 system: hydrogen-induced burial and dig out of metallic nickel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Alfonso; Holgado, Juan P; Gonzalez-delaCruz, Victor M; Habas, Susan E; Herranz, Tirma; Salmeron, Miquel

    2010-02-21

    In situ APPES technique demonstrates that the strong metal support interaction effect (SMSI) in the Ni-ceria system is associated with the decoration and burial of metallic particles by the partially reduced support, a phenomenon reversible by evacuation at high temperature of the previously absorbed hydrogen.

  9. Discernibility of Burial Mounds in High-Resolution X-Band SAR Images for Archaeological Prospections in the Altai Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Balz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Altai Mountains are a heritage-rich archaeological landscape with monuments in almost every valley. Modern nation state borders dissect the region and limit archaeological landscape analysis to intra-national areas of interest. Remote sensing can help to overcome these limitations. Due to its high precision, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR data can be a very useful tool for supporting archaeological prospections, but compared to optical imagery, the detectability of sites of archaeological interest is limited. We analyzed the limitations of SAR using TerraSAR-X images in different modes. Based on ground truth, the discernibility of burial mounds was analyzed in different SAR acquisition modes. We show that very-high-resolution TerraSAR-X staring spotlight images are very well suited for the task, with >75% of the larger mounds being discernible, while in images with a lower spatial resolution only a few large sites can be detected, at rates below 50%.

  10. Phanerozoic burial and exhumation history of southernmost Norway estimated from apatite fission-track analysis data and geological observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japsen, Peter; Green, Paul F.; Bonow, Johan M.; Chalmers, James A.; Rasmussen, Erik S.

    2016-04-01

    We present new apatite fission-track analysis (AFTA) data from 27 basement samples from Norway south of ~60°N. The data define three events of cooling and exhumation that overlap in time with events defined from AFTA in southern Sweden (Japsen et al. 2015). The samples cooled below palaeotemperatures of >100°C in a major episode of Triassic cooling as also reported by previous studies (Rohrman et al. 1995). Our study area is just south of the Hardangervidda where Cambrian sediments and Caledonian nappes are present. We thus infer that these palaeotemperatures reflect heating below a cover that accumulated during the Palaeozoic and Triassic. By Late Triassic, this cover had been removed from the Utsira High, off SW Norway, resulting in deep weathering of a granitic landscape (Fredin et al. 2014). Our samples were therefore at or close to the surface at this time. Palaeotemperatures reached ~80°C prior to a second phase of cooling and exhumation in the Jurassic, following a phase of Late Triassic - Jurassic burial. Upper Jurassic sandstones rest on basement near Bergen, NW of our study area (Fossen et al. 1997), and we infer that the Jurassic event led to complete removal of any remaining Phanerozoic cover in the region adjacent to the evolving rift system prior to Late Jurassic subsidence and burial. The data reveal a third phase of cooling in the early Miocene when samples that are now near sea level cooled below palaeotemperatures of ~60°C. For likely values of the palaeogeothermal gradient, such palaeotemperatures correspond to burial below rock columns that reach well above the present-day landscape where elevations rarely exceed 1 km above sea level. This implies that the present-day landscape was shaped by Neogene erosion. This is in agreement with the suggestion of Lidmar-Bergström et al. (2013) that the near-horizontal Palaeic surfaces of southern Norway are the result of Cenozoic erosion to sea level followed by uplift to their present elevations in a

  11. A Bayesian inversion framework for yield and height-of-burst/depth-of-burial for near-surface explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannesson, Gardar [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bulaevskaya, Vera [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ramirez, Abe [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ford, Sean [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rodgers, Artie [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-07

    A Bayesian inversion framework is presented to estimate the yield of an explosion and height-of-burst/depth-of-burial (HOB/DOB) using seismic and air pressure data. This is accomplished by first calibrating the parameters in the forward models that relate the observations to the yield and HOB/DOB and then using the calibrated model to estimate yield and HOB/DOB associated with a new set of seismic and air pressure observations. The MCMC algorithms required to perform these steps are outlined, and the results with real data are shown. Finally, an extension is proposed for a case when clustering in the seismic displacement occurs as a function of different types of rock and other factors.

  12. Opisthorchiasis in infant remains from the medieval Zeleniy Yar burial ground of XII-XIII centuries AD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepchenko, Sergey Mikhailovich; Gusev, Alexander Vasilevich; Ivanov, Sergey Nikolaevich; Svyatova, Evgenia Olegovna

    2015-12-01

    We present a paleoparasitological analysis of the medieval Zeleniy Yar burial ground of the XII-XII centuries AD located in the northern part of Western Siberia. Parasite eggs, identified as eggs of Opisthorchis felineus, were found in the samples from the pelvic area of a one year old infant buried at the site. Presence of these eggs in the soil samples from the infant's abdomen suggests that he/she was infected with opisthorchiasis and imply consumption of undercooked fish. Ethnographic records collected among the population of the northern part of Western Siberia reveal numerous cases of feeding raw fish to their children. Zeleniy Yar case of opisthorchiasis suggests that this dietary custom has persisted from at least medieval times.

  13. Chemical Species of Migrating Radionuclides at Commercial Shallow Land Burial Sites: Quarterly Progress Report - October-December, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, L. J.; RIckard, W. H.; Toste, A. P.

    1984-02-01

    The primary purpose of this project is to develop an understanding of chemical processes that significantly influence the migration of radionuclides at commercial low-level waste (LLW} burial sites. Chemical measurements of waste trench leachate and identification of chanical changes in leachate during migration will provide a basis for geochemical waste transport models. This project will produce for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory C011mission (NRC) information to support guidance for implementation of 10 CFR 61, particularly in the developnent of criteria for low level waste disposal site selection, management, permanent closure and monitoring. This project will also produce information needed by the Canmonwealth of Kentucky as they finalize plans to stabilize. close and monitor the Maxey Flats site.

  14. Opisthorchiasis in infant remains from the medieval Zeleniy Yar burial ground of XII-XIII centuries AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Mikhailovich Slepchenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a paleoparasitological analysis of the medieval Zeleniy Yar burial ground of the XII-XII centuries AD located in the northern part of Western Siberia. Parasite eggs, identified as eggs of Opisthorchis felineus, were found in the samples from the pelvic area of a one year old infant buried at the site. Presence of these eggs in the soil samples from the infant’s abdomen suggests that he/she was infected with opisthorchiasis and imply consumption of undercooked fish. Ethnographic records collected among the population of the northern part of Western Siberia reveal numerous cases of feeding raw fish to their children. Zeleniy Yar case of opisthorchiasis suggests that this dietary custom has persisted from at least medieval times.

  15. The New Space Age in the making: Emergence of exo-mining, exo-burials and exo-marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capova, Klara Anna

    2016-10-01

    At the beginning of the 21st century we witness considerable global developments in space exploration and a new era has begun: the New Space Age. The principal symbols of that age are firstly internationalization of space activities, secondly commercial utilization of space technologies, and lastly emergence of outer space economy. This paper presents selected signposts of the New Space Age. Three cases of recent outer space enterprises: recovery of asteroid resources (exo-mining), post-cremation memorial spaceflight (exo-burials) and first extraterrestrial advert (exo-marketing), are introduced in order to emphasize the monetary and social dimension of commercial application of space technologies. To give an illustration of these trends, this paper provides a brief socioculturally minded account of three outer space undertakings that are interpreted as signposts of the new era.

  16. Performance assessment for the disposal of low-level waste in the 200 West Area Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, M.I.; Khaleel, R.; Rittmann, P.D.; Lu, A.H.; Finfrock, S.H.; DeLorenzo, T.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Serne, R.J.; Cantrell, K.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This document reports the findings of a performance assessment (PA) analysis for the disposal of solid low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the 200 West Area Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG) in the northwest corner of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This PA analysis is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A (DOE 1988a) to demonstrate that a given disposal practice is in compliance with a set of performance objectives quantified in the order. These performance objectives are applicable to the disposal of DOE-generated LLW at any DOE-operated site after the finalization of the order in September 1988. At the Hanford Site, DOE, Richland Operations Office (RL) has issued a site-specific supplement to DOE Order 5820.2A, DOE-RL 5820.2A (DOE 1993), which provides additiona I ce objectives that must be satisfied.

  17. Guilds and middle-class welfare, 1550–1800: provisions for burial, sickness, old age, and widowhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leeuwen, Marco H D

    2012-01-01

    Guilds provided for masters' and journeymen's burial, sickness, old age, and widowhood. Guild welfare was of importance to artisans, to the functioning of guilds, to the myriad of urban social relations, and to the political economy. However, it is an understated and neglected aspect of guild activities. This article looks at welfare provision by guilds, with the aim of addressing four questions. Firstly, for which risks did guild welfare arrangements exist in the Netherlands between 1550 and 1800, and what were the coverage, contributions, benefit levels, and conditions? Secondly, can guild welfare arrangements be regarded as insurance? Thirdly, to what extent and how did guilds overcome classic insurance problems such as adverse selection, moral hazards, and correlated risks? Finally, what was the position of guild provision in the Dutch political economy and vis-à-vis poor relief?

  18. The Discovery and Excavation of a Human Burial from the Mini-athiliya Shell Midden in Southern Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanti Kulatilake

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Several shell middens of coastal Sri Lanka indicate human occupation in the mid-Holocene and are recognized as being of prime importance in the archaeological narrative of the island. A salvage archaeology operation conducted at the Mini-athiliya shell midden in the Southern Province of Sri Lanka, yielded ancient human remains associated with stone implements and culturally modified faunal remains. The main objective of this rescue operation was to mitigate the destruction to this archaeological site. We report the excavation strategy and dating of this mid-Holocene shell midden, while focusing on the discovery and extraction of a complete human burial that had not been disturbed by the shell mining activity at the site. This excavation is intended to serve as a precursor to systematic investigation of the coastal shell middens of southern Sri Lanka.

  19. "BABYLON CAVES" NARRATIVES AND INTERVENTIONS: PRECOLONIAL BURIAL REMAINS IN THE MICRORREGION OF JUIZ DE FORA, MG - BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângelo Alves Corrêa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the nineteenth century an important archaeological site was found in the "Serra da Babilônia", city of Goianá, Minas Gerais, containing many naturally mummified bodies and many burial accompaniments on a rocky cavity since then called "caverna da Babilônia". Reports of important researchers of the period have been produced about this finding, as well as quotes for more than a century, having also the site gone through modern archaeological interventions and analyzes in the 1980s. This article is meant to gather and make public some documents about this site, and thus highlight its importance in the current context of regional archaeological research.

  20. Cenozoic burial and exhumation history of the Kangerlussuaq area, East Greenland, revealed by new apatite fission-track data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japsen, Peter; Green, Paul F.; Bonow, Johan M.; Nielsen, Troels F.

    2010-05-01

    The Kangerlussuaq area in East Greenland (c. 68°N) has witnessed a complex geological development during the Cenozoic. The Skaergaard intrusion and the up to 5 km thick flood basalts formed during a short period around 55 Ma, and subsequently numerous intrusive bodies were emplaced, primarily during the Eocene. Relatively little is known about the geological history over the last 35 Myr, other than that an outlier of Middle Miocene lavas is located in the area at an elevation of c. 2.7 km. At the present-day, the area is deeply eroded and magmatic bodies that were emplaced deeply in the crust, are now exposed at the surface, but at the same time, the area has a significant elevation and even hosts the highest peak in Greenland, Gunbjørn Fjeld, 3.7 km above sea level. To unravel the history of burial and exhumation in the Kangerlussuaq area, new apatite fission-track analysis (AFTA) data has been acquired for 75 rock samples. Preliminary results show that the area has been subject to several phases of cooling since burial under the Palaeogene flood basalts. Phases of regional cooling along the coast that occurred at the Eocene-Oligocene transition and in the late Neogene are interpreted to be due to uplift and exhumation. Cooling events of local extent that occurred in the Eocene, Oligocene and Miocene are interpreted to be related to both exhumation and to circulating hot fluids. Results from samples along vertical transects reveal details of the protracted exhumation history, and that the present topography was formed during the late Neogene.

  1. Metamorphic gradients in burial metamorphosed vesicular lavas: Comparison of basalt and spilite in Cretaceous basic flows from central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Beatriz; Aguirre, Luis; Nyström, Jan Olov

    1982-08-01

    Partial spilitization of a 9 km thick pile of flood basalts with highly vesicular flow tops gave rise to patterns of secondary mineralogy at different scales: (a) a local pattern of mineralogical variation from the almost unaltered bottom towards the altered top of each flow, and (b) an overall pattern, comparing flow tops throughout the pile, with changes in mineralogical composition within a sequence of metamorphic zones and facies. The local patterns mimic the trend of the overall pattern, but are of opposite direction and telescoped. Thus, a gradual ordering and Andepletion of the secondary “albite” and increases in the Fe*/Al ratio of epidote and pumpellyite upwards within individual flows are comparable in range to corresponding overall changes downwards throughout several kilometres. The mineralogical changes within the flows diminish in range towards the more altered deeper part of the pile. The local and overall patterns cannot be interpreted in terms of grade. They represent trends from metastable towards stable equilibrium, this latter only approached in the flow tops of the lower part of the pile. The patterns of secondary mineralogy were formed by an interplay of metamorphic gradients at different scales at any given time, and as burial proceeded. The overall pattern was caused by depth-controlled gradients: increasing P fluid, temperature and temperature-induced increase of reaction rates, and decreasing fO2 (downwards in the pile). The local patterns resulted from permeability-controlled gradients: increasing reaction rates, fO2 and contrast in chemical activity between different domains, and decreasing P fluid (upwards in each flow). The mineralogical observations reported in this paper fall into line if the overall temperature-induced increase of reaction rates and the local permeability-controlled rate factors played the leading role during burial metamorphism of the pile.

  2. Internal Tooth Structure and Burial Practices: Insights into the Neolithic Necropolis of Gurgy (France, 5100-4000 cal. BC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Luyer, Mona; Coquerelle, Michael; Rottier, Stéphane; Bayle, Priscilla

    2016-01-01

    Variations in the dental crown form are widely studied to interpret evolutionary changes in primates as well as to assess affinities among human archeological populations. Compared to external metrics of dental crown size and shape, variables including the internal structures such as enamel thickness, tissue proportions, and the three-dimensional shape of enamel-dentin junction (EDJ), have been described as powerful measurements to study taxonomy, phylogenetic relationships, dietary, and/or developmental patterns. In addition to providing good estimate of phenotypic distances within/across archeological samples, these internal tooth variables may help to understand phylogenetic, functional, and developmental underlying causes of variation. In this study, a high resolution microtomographic-based record of upper permanent second molars from 20 Neolithic individuals of the necropolis of Gurgy (France) was applied to evaluate the intrasite phenotypic variation in crown tissue proportions, thickness and distribution of enamel, and EDJ shape. The study aims to compare interindividual dental variations with burial practices and chronocultural parameters, and suggest underlying causes of these dental variations. From the non-invasive characterization of internal tooth structure, differences have been found between individuals buried in pits with alcove and those buried in pits with container and pits with wattling. Additionally, individuals from early and recent phases of the necropolis have been distinguished from those of the principal phase from their crown tissue proportions and EDJ shape. The results suggest that the internal tooth structure may be a reliable proxy to track groups sharing similar chronocultural and burial practices. In particular, from the EDJ shape analysis, individuals buried in an alcove shared a reduction of the distolingual dentin horn tip (corresponding to the hypocone). Environmental, developmental and/or functional underlying causes might be

  3. Reuse of the collective burials in the South-East of the Iberian Peninsula: the Siret collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorrio, Alberto J.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A detailed review of the archaeological items and original documents from the Siret Collection at the National Archaeological Museum allows us to evaluate the use of megalithic tombs during the Late Bronze Age until the Late Roman Period in the SE of the Iberian Peninsula. The presence of diagnostic grave goods of these periods and the dating of the human bones confirm that this funerary practice occurred with greater frequency than had hitherto been thought, not only in dolmens but also in other collective burials. The ritual of cremation is discussed and the absen ce of evidence for it in the Chalcolithic, given the frequent re-use of the tombs. Radiocarbon dating of human bones is essential to raise the anthropological research of these collective burials in the future.

    La revisión del material y de la documentación original de la colección Siret en el Museo Arqueológico Nacional permite hacer una valoración sobre la reutilización funeraria de los dólmenes del Sureste desde el Bronce Final hasta la Antigüedad Tardía. La presencia en los ajuares de materiales diagnósticos de esos periodos y la datación de restos óseos confirman esta práctica funeraria con mayor frecuencia de la hasta ahora considerada, no sólo en dólmenes, sino también en otros espacios funerarios colectivos. Se discute el ritual de cremación y la falta de evidencias en la zona para su adscripción al Calcolítico debido a la frecuente reutilización de los sepulcros. La datación por C14 se convierte en herramienta imprescindible a la hora de abordar futuros estudios del material óseo humano procedente de estos enterramientos colectivos.

  4. Reconstruction of burial history of eroded Mesozoic strata using kimberlite shale xenoliths, volcaniclastic and crater facies, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stasiuk, Lavern D.; Sweet, Art R.; Issler, Dale R. [Natural Resources Canada, Geological Survey of Canada-Calgary, 3303-33rd ST N.W., Calgary AB, Canada (T2L 2A7)

    2006-01-03

    Reconstruction of Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary 'cover' on the Precambrian shield in the Lac de Gras diamond field, Northwest Territories, Canada, has been achieved using Cretaceous and early Tertiary sedimentary xenoliths and contemporaneous organic matter preserved in volcaniclastic sediments associated with late Cretaceous to early Tertiary kimberlite pipe intrusions, and in situ, Eocene crater lake, lacustrine and peat bog strata. Percent reflectance in oil (%Ro) of vitrinite within shale xenoliths for: (i) Albian to mid-Cenomanian to Turonian ranges from >0.27 to 0.42 %Ro (mean 0.38 %Ro), (ii) Maastrichtian to early Paleocene from 0.24 to <0.30%; (iii) latest Paleocene to early middle Eocene 0.15 to <0.23 %Ro (mean = 0.18 %Ro). These levels of thermal maturity are corroborated by Rock Eval pyrolysis T{sub max} ({sup o}C) and VIS region fluorescence of liptinites, with wavelengths of maximum emission for sporinite, prasinophyte alginite and dinoflagellates consistent with vitrinite reflectance of 0.20 to <0.50 %Ro. Burial-thermal history modeling, constrained by measured vitrinite reflectance and porosity of shale xenoliths, predicts a maximum burial temperature for Mid to Late Albian strata ({approx}115 Ma) of 60 {sup o}C with {approx}1.2 to 1.4 km of Cretaceous strata in the Lac de Gras kimberlite field region prior to major uplift and erosion, which began at 90 Ma. Late Paleocene to middle Eocene volcanic crater lake lacustrine to peat bog strata were only buried to a few hundreds of meters and are in a peat-brown coal stage of thermal maturation. (author)

  5. Temporal variability of carbon and nutrient burial, sediment accretion, and mass accumulation over the past century in a carbonate platform mangrove forest of the Florida Everglades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breithaupt, Josh L.; Smoak, Joseph M.; Smith, Thomas J.; Sanders, Christian J.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research was to measure temporal variability in accretion and mass sedimentation rates (including organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorous (TP)) from the past century in a mangrove forest on the Shark River in Everglades National Park, USA. The 210Pb Constant Rate of Supply model was applied to six soil cores to calculate annual rates over the most recent 10, 50, and 100 year time spans. Our results show that rates integrated over longer timeframes are lower than those for shorter, recent periods of observation. Additionally, the substantial spatial variability between cores over the 10 year period is diminished over the 100 year record, raising two important implications. First, a multiple-decade assessment of soil accretion and OC burial provides a more conservative estimate and is likely to be most relevant for forecasting these rates relative to long-term processes of sea level rise and climate change mitigation. Second, a small number of sampling locations are better able to account for spatial variability over the longer periods than for the shorter periods. The site average 100 year OC burial rate, 123 ± 19 (standard deviation) g m-2yr-1, is low compared with global mangrove values. High TN and TP burial rates in recent decades may lead to increased soil carbon remineralization, contributing to the low carbon burial rates. Finally, the strong correlation between OC burial and accretion across this site signals the substantial contribution of OC to soil building in addition to the ecosystem service of CO2 sequestration.

  6. Epigenetic dolomitization of the Přaídolí formation (Upper Silurian), the Barrandian basin, Czech Republic: implications for burial history of Lower Paleozoic strata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchý, V.; Rozkošný, I.; Žák, K.; Franců, J.

    1996-06-01

    Stratabound epigenetic dolomite occurs in carbonate facies of the Barrandian basin (Silurian and Devonian), Czech Republic. The most intense dolomitization is developed in bioclastic calcarenites within the transition between micritic limestone and shaledominated Přídolí and Lochkov formations deposited on a carbonate slope. Medium-crystalline (100-400 µm), inclusion-rich, xenotopic matrix dolomite ( δ 18O=-4.64 to -3.40‰ PDB; δ 13C=+1.05 to +1.85‰ PDB) which selectively replaced most of the bioclastic precursor is volumetrically the most important dolomite type. Coarse crystalline saddle dolomite ( δ 18O=-8.04 to -5.14‰ PDB; δ 18C=+0.49 to +1.49 PDB) which precipitated in fractures and vugs within the matrix dolomite represents a later diagenetic dolomitization event. In some vugs, saddle dolomite coprecipitated with petroleum inclusion-rich authigenic quartz crystals and minor sulfides which, in turn, were post-dated by semisolid asphaltic bitumen. The interpretation of the dolomitization remains equivocal. Massive xenotopic dolomite, although generally characteristic of a deeper burial setting, may have been formed by a recrystallization of an earlier, possibly shallow burial dolomite. Deeper burial recrystallization by reactive basinal pore fluids that presumably migrated through the more permeable upper portion of the Přídolí sequence appears as a viable explanation for this dolomitization overprint. Saddle dolomite cement of the matrix dolomite is interpreted as the last dolomitization event that occurred during deep burial at the depth of the oil window zone. The presence of saddle dolomite, the fluid inclusion composition of associated quartz crystals, and vitrinite paleogeothermometry of adjacent sediments imply diagenetic burial temperatures as high as 160°C. Although high geothermal gradients in the past or the involvement of hydrothermally influenced basinal fluids can account for these elevated temperatures, burial heating beneath

  7. Epigenetic dolomitization of the Přídolí formation (Upper Silurian), the Barrandian basin, Czech Republic: implications for burial history of Lower Paleozoic strata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchý, V.; Rozkošný, I.; Žák, K.; Franců, J.

    Stratabound epigenetic dolomite occurs in carbonate facies of the Barrandian basin (Silurian and Devonian), Czech Republic. The most intense dolomitization is developed in bioclastic calcarenites within the transition between micritic limestone and shale-dominated Přídolí and Lochkov formations deposited on a carbonate slope. Medium-crystalline (100-400μm), inclusion-rich, xenotopic matrix dolomite (δ18O=-4.64 to -3.40ö PDBδ13C=+1.05 to +1.85ö PDB) which selectively replaced most of the bioclastic precursor is volumetrically the most important dolomite type. Coarse crystalline saddle dolomite (δ18O=-8.04 to -5.14ö PDBδ18C=+0.49 to +1.49 PDB) which precipitated in fractures and vugs within the matrix dolomite represents a later diagenetic dolomitization event. In some vugs, saddle dolomite coprecipitated with petroleum inclusion-rich authigenic quartz crystals and minor sulfides which, in turn, were postdated by semisolid asphaltic bitumen. The interpretation of the dolomitization remains equivocal. Massive xenotopic dolomite, although generally characteristic of a deeper burial setting, may have been formed by a recrystallization of an earlier, possibly shallow burial dolomite. Deeper burial recrystallization by reactive basinal pore fluids that presumably migrated through the more permeable upper portion of the Přídolí sequence appears as a viable explanation for this dolomitization overprint. Saddle dolomite cement of the matrix dolomite is interpreted as the last dolomitization event that occurred during deep burial at the depth of the oil window zone. The presence of saddle dolomite, the fluid inclusion composition of associated quartz crystals, and vitrinite paleogeothermometry of adjacent sediments imply diagenetic burial temperatures as high as 160 °C. Although high geothermal gradients in the past or the involvement of hydrothermally influenced basinal fluids can account for these elevated temperatures, burial heating beneath approximately 3

  8. Isochron burial dating of Danube terraces in the course of an interlaboratory comparison on sample preparation in Vienna and Budapest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhuber, Stephanie; Ruszkiczay-Rüdiger, Zsófia; Decker, Kurt; Braucher, Regis; Fiebig, Markus; Braun, Mihály; Häuselmann, Philipp; Aster Team

    2016-04-01

    The Neogene development of the Vienna Basin's tectonic history is well-documented in seismic sections and hydrocarbon wells. The late Neogene to Quaternary history is less well preserved due to a gap in the sediment record starting from the Late Pannonian due to a large-scale uplift during a phase of basin inversion [1]. Quaternary sediments in the Vienna Basin form prominent Pleistocene terraces north and south of the Danube's recent floodplain. The Danube's course currently shifts to the south where it erodes into its own gravel terraces that were presumably accumulated during the Pliocene and Early to Middle Pleistocene. North of the Danube, a wide alluvial plain has developed with one prominent Middle Quaternary terrace level 17-25 m above the river (Gänserndorf and Schlosshof Terraces). The most recent tectonic events related to the sinistral movement of the Vienna Basin transform fault system are recorded north of the Danube by faulted terrace segments that were identified by paleoseismological trenching in combination with OSL [2]. In contrast, terraces south of the Danube form a staircase with altitudes ranging between 25 and 130 m above todays water level. The terraces in the south have also been strongly dissected by faults [3], each fault block preserved a slightly different succession of terraces. The fault-related vertical displacements south of the Danube have not yet been quantified. To better understand the Quaternary terrace sequence and its displacement in the southern zone, we use the cosmogenic nuclide pair of 26Al and 10Be for isochron burial dating of a Danube terrace at Haslau an der Donau (~40 m above river level). This terrace is locally the lowest of a staircase of a total of 6 different levels. Based on published geomorphological works, the expected age is Middle Pleistocene. The isochron burial dating method is therefore well-suited to date this sedimentary setting due to the presence of large individual clasts that share the same post

  9. Fate of organic matter released from permafrost to the East Siberian Arctic Shelf: burial vs lateral transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröder, Lisa; Tesi, Tommaso; Dudarev, Oleg; Semiletov, Igor; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2015-04-01

    Ongoing global warming may trigger the remobilization of old terrigenous organic carbon (TerrOC) pools into the modern carbon cycle, which could then provide a potential positive feedback for global warming. A better understanding of the fate of such material, released from thawing permafrost via rivers and coastal erosion into the Arctic shelves seas, is therefore crucial for anticipating its influence on putative carbon-climate couplings. The main goal of this study is therefore to explore how sources and degradation status of TerrOC on the East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS) vary both spatially and over time. To compare processes occurring during the cross-shelf transport and after burial we analyzed a suite of well-known terrestrial and marine biomarkers as well as source-diagnostic bulk carbon isotopes (δ13C, Δ14C) in sediments from the vast ESAS. Sediments were collected at increasing distances from the main river outlets (Kolyma and Lena rivers) while sediment cores encompassed over a century of accumulation. Our results show that TerrOC concentrations vary noticeably more during cross-shelf transport than during burial in sediments. The concentrations of lignin phenols and cutin acids (tracers of vascular plants) do not display clear changes down-core, whereas they decrease over one order of magnitude along the transect. From the molecular-based degradation proxies for TerrOC (CPI of HMW lipids, the HMW acids/alkanes ratio and the acid/aldehyde ratio of lignin phenols) no clear picture arises for down-core changes. With increasing distance from the coast there appears to be a trend to more degraded TerrOC. Furthermore, across the shelf bulk parameters indicate growing relative importance of marine organic matter at the expense of TerrOC. Strongly decreasing marine biomarker concentrations over time confirm the lability of this fresh marine material towards degradation. Overall, we infer that two different key processes affect the TerrOC cycling on this

  10. Mineralogical, chemical and K-Ar isotopic changes in Kreyenhagen Shale whole rocks and <2 µm clay fractions during natural burial and hydrous-pyrolysis experimental maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauer, Norbert; Lewan, Michael D.; Dolan, Michael P.; Chaudhuri, Sambhudas; Curtis, John B.

    2014-01-01

    Progressive maturation of the Eocene Kreyenhagen Shale from the San Joaquin Basin of California was studied by combining mineralogical and chemical analyses with K–Ar dating of whole rocks and chemical organization of the K-bearing alumino-silicates with depth. No supply of K from outside of the rock volumes occurred, which indicates a closed-system behavior for it. Conversely, the content of the total organic carbon (TOC) content decreases significantly with burial, based on the progressive increasing Al/TOC ratio of the whole rocks. The initial varied mineralogy and chemistry of the rocks and their <2 μm fractions resulting from differences in detrital sources and depositional settings give scattered results that homogenize progressively during burial due to increased authigenesis, and concomitant increased alteration of the detrital material.

  11. Chemistry of surface sediment along a north-south transect across the equator in the Central Indian Basin: An assessment of biogenic and detrital influences on elemental burial on the seafloor

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banakar, V.K.; Parthiban, G.; Pattan, J.N.; Jauhari, P.

    -elemental correlations yield four main carrier phases responsible for burial of several elements; a) Carbonate phase, b) detrital phase, c) Oxide phase, and d) Biogenic phase. Elemental Ba exhibits latitudinal similarity and strong positive association with Mn, Co and Cu...

  12. 闽南墓葬文化及宗教墓碑形制%The Research of Burial Culture and Tombstones in Minnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢蓉; 王文广

    2012-01-01

    通过梳理闽南墓葬文化的发展历史,初步总结出该地区的墓葬特点:闽南人的祖先多半是中原的南迁移民,承接了古老的中国墓葬文化传统。但随着海上贸易的拓展,留居闽南的外国人,一面入乡随俗,一面也渗透着他们的葬俗观念,闽南墓葬呈现出多种宗教意识和平共存、兼容并蓄的时代风貌。从现今的考古发掘和遗留来看,闽南宗教墓碑与传统意义中的墓碑有些不同,其形制装饰、铭文布局、规格等级等,无不折射出闽南人在丧葬上的价值观念和审美观照。%Through combing the development history of burial culture in Minnan, this article summarizes the burial characteristics of the region preliminarily: the most of the Minnan people's ancestors were immigrants migrating from the south of China, following the ancient Chinese burial cultural traditions. With the expansion of sea trade, while many foreigners here accepted local bur- ial custom, they have permeated with their own concept. So the Minnan burial culture shows inclusive style of the times, such as a variety of religions awareness and peaceful coexistence. From the modem archaeological excavations and legacy, the tombstone in Minnan is different from the traditional tombstone in the shape decoration, inscriptions layout, specification grade, reflecting the funeral values and the aesthetic contemplation of the Mirman peopie.

  13. Organic fraction of the total carbon burial flux deduced from carbon isotopes across the Permo-Triassic boundary at Meishan,Zhejiang Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Junhua; LUO Genming; BAI Xiao; TANG Xinyan

    2007-01-01

    By combining the carbon cycle model with the records of carbonate and organic (kerogen) carbon isotope,this paper presents the calculation of the fraction of organic carbon burial (forg) of beds 23-40 at the global boundary stratotype section and point (GSSP) of the Permian-Triassic boundary at Meishan,Zhejiang Province.The resulting calculation produces two episodes of forg maxima observed to occur at beds 23-24 and 27-29,which respectively corresponds to the two episodic anoxic events indicated by the flourish of green sulfur bacteria.Two episodic forg minima occurred at beds 25-26 and 32-34,generally coincident with the flourish of cyanobacteria (bed 26 and upper part of beds 29 to 34) as shown by the high value of 2-melthyhopnoanes.It appears that the forg is related to the redox conditions,with greater forg values observed under the reductive condition.The relationship between forg and the total organic carbon (TOC) content was complex.The forg value was low at some beds with a high TOC content (such as bed 26),while high observed at some beds with a low TOC content (e.g.bed 27).This association infers the important contribution of primary productivity to the TOC content.The original organic burial could be thus calculated through the configuration of the function of the primary productivity and forg,which can be used to correct the residual TOC measured today.This investigation indicates that compiling the organic-inorganic carbon isotopes with the carbon cycle model favors to understand the fraction of organic carbon burial,providing information for the reconstruction of the coupling among biota,environments and organic burial.

  14. Performance assessment for the disposal of low-level waste in the 200 east area burial grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, M.I., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-15

    A performance assessment analysis was completed for the 200 East Area Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) to satisfy compliance requirements in DOE Order 5820.2A. In the analysis, scenarios of radionuclide release from the 200 East Area Low-Level waste facility was evaluated. The analysis focused on two primary scenarios leading to exposure. The first was inadvertent intrusion. In this scenario, it was assumed that institutional control of the site and knowledge of the disposal facility has been lost. Waste is subsequently exhumed and dose from exposure is received. The second scenario was groundwater contamination.In this scenario, radionuclides are leached from the waste by infiltrating precipitation and transported through the soil column to the underlying unconfined aquifer. The contaminated water is pumped from a well 100 m downstream and consumed,causing dose. Estimates of potential contamination of the surrounding environment were developed and the associated doses to the maximum exposed individual were calculated. The doses were compared with performance objective dose limits, found primarily in the DOE order 5850.2A. In the 200 East Area LLBG,it was shown that projected doses are estimated to be well below the limits because of the combination of environmental, waste inventory, and disposal facility characteristics of the 200 East Area LLBG. Waste acceptance criteria were also derived to ensure that disposal of future waste inventories in the 200 East Area LLBG will not cause an unacceptable increase in estimated dose.

  15. Is it health or the burial environment: differentiating between hypomineralised and post-mortem stained enamel in an archaeological context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha McKay

    Full Text Available Developmental enamel defects are often used as indicators of general health in past archaeological populations. However, it can be difficult to macroscopically distinguish subtle hypomineralised opacities from post-mortem staining, unrelated to developmental defects. To overcome this difficulty, we have used non-destructive x-ray microtomography to estimate the mineral density of enamel. Using a sample of deciduous teeth from a prehistoric burial site in Northeast Thailand, we demonstrate that it is possible to determine whether observed enamel discolourations were more likely to be true hypomineralised lesions or artefacts occurring as the result of taphonomic effects. The analyses of our sample showed no evidence of hypomineralised areas in teeth with macroscopic discolouration, which had previously been thought, on the basis of macroscopic observation, to be hypomineralisations indicative of growth disruption. Our results demonstrate that x-ray microtomography can be a powerful, non-destructive method for the investigation of the presence and severity of hypomineralisation, and that diagnosis of enamel hypomineralisation based on macroscopic observation of buried teeth should be made with caution. This method makes it possible to identify true dental defects that are indicative of growth disruptions.

  16. Miocene burial and exhumation of the India-Asia collision zone in southern Tibet: response to slab dynamics and erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrapa, Barbara; Orme, D.A.; DeCelles, Peter G.; Kapp, Paul; Cosca, Michael A.; Waldrip, R.

    2014-01-01

    The India-Asia collision zone in southern Tibet preserves a record of geodynamic and erosional processes following intercontinental collision. Apatite fission-track and zircon and apatite (U-Th)/He data from the Oligocene–Miocene Kailas Formation, within the India-Asia collision zone, show a synchronous cooling signal at 17 ± 1 Ma, which is younger than the ca. 26–21 Ma depositional age of the Kailas Formation, constrained by U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology, and requires heating (burial) after ca. 21 Ma and subsequent rapid exhumation. Data from the Gangdese batholith underlying the Kailas Formation also indicate Miocene exhumation. The thermal history of the Kailas Formation is consistent with rapid subsidence during a short-lived phase of early Miocene extension followed by uplift and exhumation driven by rollback and northward underthrusting of the Indian plate, respectively. Significant removal of material from the India-Asia collision zone was likely facilitated by efficient incision of the paleo–Indus River and paleo–Yarlung River in response to drainage reorganization and/or intensification of the Asian monsoon.

  17. Is It Health or the Burial Environment: Differentiating between Hypomineralised and Post-Mortem Stained Enamel in an Archaeological Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Samantha; Farah, Rami; Broadbent, Jonathan M.; Tayles, Nancy; Halcrow, Sian E.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental enamel defects are often used as indicators of general health in past archaeological populations. However, it can be difficult to macroscopically distinguish subtle hypomineralised opacities from post-mortem staining, unrelated to developmental defects. To overcome this difficulty, we have used non-destructive x-ray microtomography to estimate the mineral density of enamel. Using a sample of deciduous teeth from a prehistoric burial site in Northeast Thailand, we demonstrate that it is possible to determine whether observed enamel discolourations were more likely to be true hypomineralised lesions or artefacts occurring as the result of taphonomic effects. The analyses of our sample showed no evidence of hypomineralised areas in teeth with macroscopic discolouration, which had previously been thought, on the basis of macroscopic observation, to be hypomineralisations indicative of growth disruption. Our results demonstrate that x-ray microtomography can be a powerful, non-destructive method for the investigation of the presence and severity of hypomineralisation, and that diagnosis of enamel hypomineralisation based on macroscopic observation of buried teeth should be made with caution. This method makes it possible to identify true dental defects that are indicative of growth disruptions. PMID:23734206

  18. In situ grouting of low-level burial trenches with a cement-based grout at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, C.W.; Spence, R.D.; Tamura, T.; Spalding, B.P.

    1993-01-01

    A technology being evaluated for use in the closure of one of the low-level radwaste burial grounds at ORNL is trench stabilization using a cement-based grout. To demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of this technology, two interconnecting trenches in SWSA 6 were selected as candidates for in situ grouting with a particulate grout. The primary objective was to demonstrate the increased trench stability (characterized by trench penetration tests) and the decreased potential for leachate migration (characterized by hydraulic conductivity tests) following in situ injection of a particulate grout into the waste trenches. Stability against trench subsidence is a critical issue. For example, construction of impermeable covers to seal the trenches will be ineffectual unless subsequent trench subsidence is permanently suspended. A grout composed of 39% Type 1 Portland cement, 55.5% Class F fly ash, and 5.5% bentonite mixed at 12.5 lb/gal of water was selected. Before the trenches were grouted, the primary characteristics relating to physical stability, hydraulic conductivity, and void volume of the trenches were determined. Their physical stability was evaluated using soil-penetration tests.

  19. The effectiveness of ground-penetrating radar surveys in the location of unmarked burial sites in modern cemeteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Sabine; Illich, Bernhard; Berger, Jochen; Graw, Matthias

    2009-07-01

    Ground-penetration radar (GPR) is a geophysical method that is commonly used in archaeological and forensic investigations, including the determination of the exact location of graves. Whilst the method is rapid and does not involve disturbance of the graves, the interpretation of GPR profiles is nevertheless difficult and often leads to incorrect results. Incorrect identifications could hinder criminal investigations and complicate burials in cemeteries that have no information on the location of previously existing graves. In order to increase the number of unmarked graves that are identified, the GPR results need to be verified by comparing them with the soil and vegetation properties of the sites examined. We used a modern cemetery to assess the results obtained with GPR which we then compared with previously obtained tachymetric data and with an excavation of the graves where doubt existed. Certain soil conditions tended to make the application of GPR difficult on occasions, but a rough estimation of the location of the graves was always possible. The two different methods, GPR survey and tachymetry, both proved suitable for correctly determining the exact location of the majority of graves. The present study thus shows that GPR is a reliable method for determining the exact location of unmarked graves in modern cemeteries. However, the method did not allow statements to be made on the stage of decay of the bodies. Such information would assist in deciding what should be done with graves where ineffective degradation creates a problem for reusing graves following the standard resting time of 25 years.

  20. Recycling and burial of phosphorus in sediments of an anoxic fjord-the By Fjord, western Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viktorsson, Lena; Kononets, Mikhail; Roos, Per;

    2013-01-01

    the DIC and DIP fluxes at oxic bottoms was almost 10 times higher than the Redfield C: P ratio indicating partial immobilization of P in oxic sediments. In contrast, the C: P ratio in fluxes was on average 1.5 times lower than Redfield at the anoxic bottoms. The benthic fluxes from anoxic bottoms were P...... rich not only in relation to C, but also to N. The low C: P flux ratio at anoxic sites coincided with an about 2.5 times higher than Redfield C: P ratio of organic matter in the sediment solid phase clearly suggesting preferential regeneration of P at anoxic bottoms. Burial of inorganic P was higher...... water. The water in the basin is exchanged only every 3 to 5 years and the water below sill level is anoxic or sulfidic between water renewals. Five sites were examined in the By Fjord; three shallow sites above the sill level with oxic bottom waters and two deeper sites with anoxic bottom waters...

  1. Is it health or the burial environment: differentiating between hypomineralised and post-mortem stained enamel in an archaeological context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Samantha; Farah, Rami; Broadbent, Jonathan M; Tayles, Nancy; Halcrow, Sian E

    2013-01-01

    Developmental enamel defects are often used as indicators of general health in past archaeological populations. However, it can be difficult to macroscopically distinguish subtle hypomineralised opacities from post-mortem staining, unrelated to developmental defects. To overcome this difficulty, we have used non-destructive x-ray microtomography to estimate the mineral density of enamel. Using a sample of deciduous teeth from a prehistoric burial site in Northeast Thailand, we demonstrate that it is possible to determine whether observed enamel discolourations were more likely to be true hypomineralised lesions or artefacts occurring as the result of taphonomic effects. The analyses of our sample showed no evidence of hypomineralised areas in teeth with macroscopic discolouration, which had previously been thought, on the basis of macroscopic observation, to be hypomineralisations indicative of growth disruption. Our results demonstrate that x-ray microtomography can be a powerful, non-destructive method for the investigation of the presence and severity of hypomineralisation, and that diagnosis of enamel hypomineralisation based on macroscopic observation of buried teeth should be made with caution. This method makes it possible to identify true dental defects that are indicative of growth disruptions.

  2. Evolution of Early Cretaceous paleotemperatures: A balance between global carbon burial rates and large igneous provinces activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin, Stephane; Meissner, Philipp; Janssen, Nico; Steuber, Thomas; Mutterlose, Jörg

    2015-04-01

    The lack of a high-resolution, long-term Early Cretaceous paleotemperature record hampers a full-scale comprehension, as well as a more holistic approach, to Early Cretaceous climate changes. Here we present an extended compilation of belemnite-based oxygen, carbon and strontium isotope records covering the late Berriasian - middle Albian from the Vocontian Basin (SE France). Integrated with paleontological and sedimentological evidences, this dataset clearly demonstrates that three intervals of cold climatic conditions have taken place during the Early Cretaceous greenhouse world. More specifically, these have taken place during (1) the late Valanginian-earliest Hauterivian, (2) the late early Aptian and (3) the latest Aptian - earliest Albian. Each of these intervals is associated with high amplitude sea-level fluctuations, pointing at transient installations of polar ice caps. As evidenced by carbon isotope positive excursions, each cold episode is associated with enhanced burial of organic matter on a global scale. Moreover, there is a very good match between the timing and size of large igneous provinces eruptions and the amplitude of Early Cretaceous warming episodes. Altogether, these observations confirm the instrumental role of atmospheric CO2 variations in the making of Mesozoic climate change. On a long-term perspective, during the Early Cretaceous, the coupling of global paleotemperature and seawater strontium isotopic ratio is best explained by temperature-controlled changes of continental crust weathering rates.

  3. Micromorphological and ultramicroscopic aspects of buried remains: Time-dependent markers of decomposition and permanence in soil in experimental burial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangarini, Sara; Trombino, Luca; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2016-06-01

    A buried body not only determines an environmental response at the deposition site but it is also affected by the soil. The experiment was performed using eleven swine carcasses buried in an open site (Northern Italy). Changes occurring in bone tissue at different post-burial intervals were evaluated observing thin sections of bones through micromorphological and ultramicroscopic (SEM-EDS) techniques. These methods allowed the identification of: (a) magnesium phosphate (Mg3(PO4)2) crystallizations, probably linked to decomposition of bones and soft tissues; (b) significant sulphur levels which seem to be related to hydrogen sulphide (H2S) fixation in bone tissue; (c) metal oxide concentrations in the form of unusual violet-blue colorations, which probably are evidence of the soil's action and penetration in bones, also testified by (d) the presence of mineral grains enclosed in the osseous tissue. The results underline the possibility of identifying both time-dependent markers of decomposition and indicators of permanence in soil in buried bones.

  4. Citrate content of bone for time since death estimation: results from burials with different physical characteristics and known PMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanz, Fabian; Reiter, Christian; Risser, Daniele U

    2014-05-01

    A recently introduced method to determine the postmortem interval (PMI) based on quantification of the citrate content in bone was applied on the temporal bones and femora of 20 individuals buried in wooden coffins (WO) and body bags (BB), respectively. Concerning known vs. calculated PMI, a significant difference between the temporal and the femur bone samples of the same individuals was observed in the BB group (p = 0.012). In contrast, differences were insignificant for the WO group (p = 0.400). Moreover, similar levels of underestimation of PMIs resulted from the analysis of the femora for both burial groups (p = 0.247). Also, there was consistently less citrate preserved in the flat temporal bones as compared to the femora, indicating that the cortical layer of the long bones should be preferentially employed for citrate-based PMI estimations. The results call for additional research on subsurface-buried and surface-deposited remains to enhance the accuracy of the published PMI equation.

  5. Final Hazard Categorization and Auditable Safety Analysis for the Remediation of the 118-D-1, 118-D-2, 118-D-3, 118-H-1, 118-H-2 and 118-H-3 Solid Waste Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. J. Rodovsky

    2006-03-01

    This report presents the initial hazard categorization, final hazard categorization and auditable safety analysis for the remediation of the 118-D-1, 118-D-2, and 118-D-3 Burial Grounds located within the 100-D/DR Area of the Hanford Site and the 118-H-1, 118-H-2, and 118-H-3 Burial Grounds located within the 100-H Area of the Hanford Site.

  6. 地下水埋深的影响因素分析及模型研究%Study on Impact Factors for Groundwater Burial Depth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李世峰; 马小雷; 付丹平; 张希

    2014-01-01

    At first, the paper states the necessity of research on impact factors for groundwater burial depth and the mean-ing of model construction and then gives an brief introduction to the hydrogeological condition , annual and interannual ground-water level variations.By taking a grey correlation analysis, the impact factors for groundwater burial depth are identified.The result indicates that the most powerful impact factor is the burial depth the year before, follow by evaporation from water sur-faces, rainfall and exploitation quantity.Moreover, a Multiple Linear Regression Mode is established to figure out the varia-tions of groundwater burial depth.The result shows that the water level of groundwater in downtown changes dramatically and decrease constantly, in addition, the burial depth fluctuates frequently.The study can be used as a reference for water re-sources regulation and the most strict water management.%分析地下水位埋深影响因素的必要性和建立模型的意义,介绍研究区的概况、水文地质条件及地下水位年内和年际动态特征,利用灰色关联理论分析确定影响地下水位的主要因素,结果表明,对地下水位埋深影响程度按大到小排序为前年埋深、水面蒸发、降雨量、开采量。在灰色关联理论分析的基础上采用多元线性回归模型分析地下水位埋深变化,邯郸市主城区地下水位变化明显,整体有持续下降的趋势,但地下水埋深波动比较频繁。研究为主城区地下水资源的人工调蓄和最严格水资源管理提供依据。

  7. Testing a mechanical model of fracture formation by compaction-related burial in Gale crater, Mars: Implications for the origin of Aeolis Mons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Jessica; Grotzinger, John P.

    2016-10-01

    Gale crater's 5-km-high central mound, Aeolis Mons (Mt. Sharp), has two leading hypotheses for its formation: buildup of windblown sediments, and exhumation of deeply buried strata. The deep burial hypothesis implies deformation by gravitational body forces and we evaluate that idea here. Ubiquitous fracture-related features have been regionally mapped from orbit and observed by the Curiosity rover in sedimentary strata including the Murray formation (dominantly mudstone) and the unconformably overlying Stimson formation (sandstone). Large fractures which exhibit complex banding structures with distinct chemical trends (e.g. halos) are primarily found in the Stimson fm, but do extend into the Murray fm in one location. Smaller, sulfate-filled fractures are most prevalent in the Murray but are also associated with haloed fractures in the Stimson. We test a compaction-related burial origin for these features based on a mechanical model for mode I fracture formation in order to constrain the regional stress history. According to the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion, extension fracturing requires that the minimum principal stress (σ3) exceed the elastic tensile strength in the plane perpendicular to the opening. Given that tectonic driving processes are inoperative within Gale, non-tectonic mechanisms including overburden (maximum compressive stress; σ1 = ρgD) and pore fluid pressure (pf α D) must account for this tensile stress. Significant compaction as a result of increased depth of burial is required for pf to exceed σ3 and cause fracturing. When applied to Gale, we find that the estimated horizontal stress (σ3), as influenced by crater geometry, requires a substantial burial depth to produce sufficient pf to cause hydrofracture. Rheology contrasts likely caused fractures to develop and propagate more easily in the Stimson sandstone, which can support a smaller σ3, than in the Murray mudstone. In these permeable rocks, the sudden local decrease of pf at

  8. The use of a GIS Red-Amber-Green (RAG) system to define search priorities for burials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somma, Roberta; Silvestro, Massimiliano; Cascio, Maria; Dawson, Lorna; Donnelly, Laurance; Harrison, Mark; McKinley, Jennifer; Ruffell, Alastair

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this research is to promote among the Italian police, magistrates, and geologists, the applications of a Geographical Information System (GIS)-based RAG system for use in ground searches for burials. To date the RAG system has not been used and documented in Italy and would potentially be useful for searches related to clandestine burial sites. This technique, was originally documented by the British Army in the 1st World War. The RAG method is based on the construction of theme maps. RAG maps can facilitate the deployment of appropriate search assets (such as geophysics, probe or search dogs) and therefore applied to ground searches for the potential location of homicide graves or other buried objects (including weapons, explosives, etc.). RAG maps also may assist in the management of resources such as the deployment of search personnel, search teams and dogs. A GIS RAG (Red-Amber-Green) system related to a search for a homicide grave was applied to a test site in Italy, simulating the concealment of a victim in the area of Alì. This is an area of hill in Sicily, characterized by Palaeozoic phyllites. It was assumed during this test that information was provided by an observer who saw a suspect carrying tools on his land during daylight hours. A desktop study of the rural area was first implemented. Data was collated from previous geological, geomorphological, hydrogeological, geophysical and land use surveys. All these data were stored and independently analysed in a GIS using ArcGIS software. For the development of the GIS-based RAG map a digital elevation model (DEM) including a digital surface model (DTS) and digital terrain model (DTM) types were used. These were integrated with data from soil surveys to provide a preliminary assessment of "diggability" - including the possible thickness of loose superficial deposits and soils. Data were stored in different layers within the GIS. These included the delineation of the search area with consideration

  9. Sediment Dynamics and the Burial and Exhumation of Bedrock Reefs as Elucidated by High-resolution Repetitive Sonar Surveys: Northern Monterey Bay, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlazzi, C. D.; Fregoso, T. A.; Golden, N. E.; Finlayson, D. P.

    2011-12-01

    Two high-resolution bathymetric and acoustic backscatter sonar surveys were conducted along the energetic emergent inner shelf of northern Monterey Bay, CA, USA, in the fall of 2005 and the spring of 2006 to determine the impact of winter storm waves, beach erosion, and river floods on biologically-important bedrock reef habitats. The surveys extended from water depths of 4 m to 22 m and covered an area of 3.14 km2, of which 45.8% was bedrock, gravel, and coarse-grained sand and 54.2% was fine-grained sand. Our analysis of the bathymetric and acoustic backscatter data demonstrates that during the 6 months between surveys, 11.4% of the study area was buried by fine-grained sand while erosion exposed of bedrock or coarse-grained sand over 26.5% of the study area. The probability of burial decreased with increasing water depth and rugosity; the probability of exhumation increased with increasing seabed slope and rugosity. Much of the detected change was at the boundary between bedrock and unconsolidated sediment due to burial or exhumation of bedrock. In a number of cases, however, the change in seabed character was apparently due to fluctuations in sediment grain size, where scour exposed what appeared to be an underlying coarser-grained lag or fine-grained sand buried coarser-grained sand. These findings suggest that, in some places, (a) single acoustic surveys typically employed for geologic characterization and/or habitat mapping may not adequately characterize the geomorphology and sedimentologic nature of rocky, energetic inner shelves, and (b) burial and exhumation likely play a role in the life history of the numerous organisms that inhabit these reefs and thus information on the frequency and magnitude of such processes may better constrain our understanding of physical controls on benthic species' distribution patterns.

  10. Variations in Organic Matter Burial and Composition in Sediments from the Indian Ocean Continental Margin Off SW Indonesia (Sumatra - Java - Flores) Since the Last Glacial Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennerjahn, T. C.; Gesierich, K.; Schefuß, E.; Mohtadi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Global climate change is a mosaic of regional changes to a large extent determined by region-specific feedbacks between climate and ecosystems. At present the ocean is forming a major sink in the global carbon cycle. Organic matter (OM) storage in sediments displays large regional variations and varied over time during the Quaternary. Upwelling regions are sites of high primary productivity and major depocenters of organic carbon (OC), the least understood of which is the Indian Ocean upwelling off Indonesia. In order to reconstruct the burial and composition of OM during the Late Quaternary, we analyzed five sediment cores from the Indian Ocean continental margin off the Indonesian islands Sumatra to Flores spanning the last 20,000 years (20 kyr). Sediments were analyzed for bulk composition, stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes of OM, amino acids and hexosamines and terrestrial plant wax n-alkanes and their stable carbon isotope composition. Sedimentation rates hardly varied over time in the western part of the transect. They were slightly lower in the East during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and deglaciation, but increased strongly during the Holocene. The amount and composition of OM was similar along the transect with maximum values during the deglaciation and the late Holocene. High biogenic opal covarying with OM content indicates upwelling-induced primary productivity dominated by diatoms to be a major control of OM burial in sediments in the East during the past 20 kyr. The content of labile OM was low throughout the transect during the LGM and increased during the late Holocene. The increase was stronger and the OM less degraded in the East than in the West indicating that continental margin sediments off Java and Flores were the major depocenter of OC burial along the Indian Ocean margin off SW Indonesia. Temporal variations probably resulted from changes in upwelling intensity and terrestrial inputs driven by variations in monsoon strength.

  11. Hydrocarbon Potentials, Thermal and Burial History in Herwa-1 Well from the Nigerian Sector of the Chad Basin: An Implication of 1-D Basin Modeling Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar Mijinyawa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This research study attempt to evaluate the hydrocarbon potentials, thermal and burial history and the timing of hydrocarbon generation in Herwa-1 well within the Nigerian Sector of the Chad basin. Organic geochemical study of some ditch cuttings samples from Herwa-1 well and a One-dimensional basin modeling study was carried out. The result of the geochemical analysis revealed a moderate to good TOC greater than 0.5wt% in Fika and Gongila formation, the Hydrogen Index (HI ranges from 150-300 (mgHC/g and the Tmax values falls within the range of greater than or equal to 430°C. The hydrocarbon potentials in Herwa-1 well was further supported with the values of S1+S2 which is greater than or equal to 2 mg/g of rock in almost all the samples, suggesting a good hydrocarbon potentials. The 1-D basin model was constructed for Herwa-1 well in order to assess the burial history and thermal maturity of the potential source rocks in the Nigerian sector of the Chad basin. The modeling results indicate that maximum burial occurred in the late Miocene and suggesting erosion might have been the cause of the thinning of the Tertiary sediments in the present time. The calibration of Vitrinite reflectance against Temperature revealed the present day heat flow to be at 60 mW/m2 and Paleo heat flow falls within the range of 68 mW/m2. However, it is also revealed that Oil Window begins at (0.60-1.30% VRr at the depth of (2000-3000 m in the middle Cretaceous and the Gas Window start during the late Cretaceous to Tertiary with a value of (1.3-2.5% VRr at a depth greater than (3500 m.

  12. Dietary reconstruction of the individuals interred in the Bronze Age burial cist of Ondarre (Aralar, Guipuzcoa through carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis on bone collagen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Fernández-Crespo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis on bone collagen of the individuals interred in the Bronze Age (II millennium cal. BC cist burial of Ondarre suggest a mixed diet based on C3 plants and mainly domesticated terrestrial animals. As observed in other contemporary sites in Iberia and the Balearic islands, marine and freshwater resources and C4 plants do not seem to have played an important role in everyday life subsistence. The observed high protein consumption may relate to the status of the people interred and/or to a dominant livestock economy where animal products would have a great importance in diet.

  13. Closure certification report for the Bear Creek burial grounds B area and walk-in pits at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    On July 5, 1993, the revised RCRA Closure Plan for the Bear Creek Burial Grounds B Area and Walk-In Pits at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, DOE/OR/01-1100&D3 and Y/ER-53&D3, was approved by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). The closure activities described in that closure plan have been performed. The purpose of this document is to summarize the closure activities for B Area and Walk-In Pits (WIPs), including placement of the Kerr Hollow Quarry debris at the WIPs.

  14. Enhanced Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal by Woody Plants with Deep-Planting Technique for the Potential Environmental Management of Carcass Burial Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung-Hwan Seo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation is a promising technology to remediate carcass burial sites where deep soil layers are contaminated with nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and other potential contaminants by leachate. The current study was conducted to examine the remedial efficiency of two different woody plants, poplar (Populus euramericana and willow (Salix alba, by employing the deep-planting technique for the enhanced removal of N and P for the soil affected by leachate. For this, pot trials to assess N and P removal efficiency of poplar and willow in liquid manure-applied soil, and pilot-scale column experiments to evaluate the suitability of the deep-planting technique for the enhanced phytoremediation of deep soil layer were conducted. The results of this study showed that poplar and willow removed N and P from soils effectively while surviving under deep-planting conditions. Notably, compared to the surface planted roots, the roots of the deep-planted poplar and willow could transfer significant amounts of N and P leachate from the deep soil layer to the rhizosphere, from where it can be absorbed by the plants. For the first time, the use of poplar or willow plants are recommended by employing the deep-planting technique for the successful remediation of carcass burial sites.

  15. Respiratory failure and spontaneous hypoglycemia during noninvasive rewarming from 24.7°C (76.5°F) core body temperature after prolonged avalanche burial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strapazzon, Giacomo; Nardin, Michele; Zanon, Peter; Kaufmann, Marc; Kritzinger, Meinhard; Brugger, Hermann

    2012-08-01

    Clinical reports on management and rewarming complications after prolonged avalanche burial are not common. We present a case of an unreported combination of respiratory failure and unexpected spontaneous hypoglycemia during noninvasive rewarming from severe hypothermia. We collected anecdotal observations in a 42-year-old, previously healthy, male backcountry skier admitted to the ICU at a tertiary care center after 2 hours 7 minutes of complete avalanche burial, who presented with a patent airway and a core body temperature of 25.0°C (77.0°F) on extrication. There was no decrease in core body temperature during transport (from 25.0°C [77.0°F] to 24.7°C [76.5°F]). Atrial fibrillation occurred during active noninvasive external rewarming (to 37.0°C [98.6°F] during 5 hours), followed by pulmonary edema and respiratory failure (SaO(2) 73% and PaO(2)/FIO(2) 161 mm Hg), which resolved with endotracheal intubation and continuous positive end-respiratory pressure. Moreover, a marked spontaneous glycemic imbalance (from 22.2 to 1.4 mmol/L) was observed. Despite a possible favorable outcome, clinicians should be prepared to identify and treat severe respiratory problems and spontaneous hypoglycemia during noninvasive rewarming of severely hypothermic avalanche victims.

  16. High molecular weight (C+35) n-alkanes of high-waxy condensate and its source kitchen orientation in the Qianmiqiao burial-hill zone, Bohai Gulf Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Tieguan(WANG T.-G.); ZHU Dan; LU Hong; ZHANG Zhihuan; SU Junqing; LIAO Qianjin

    2004-01-01

    The high-waxy condensate in the Qianmiqiao Ordovician burial-hill zone, Bohai Gulf Basin, North China has been investigated by way of high temperature gas chromatography. As high-mature oil, its high molecular weight wax fraction is mainly composed of C35-C69 n-alkanes with CPI37-55 values of 0.94-1.10. On conditions that core-drilling of source rocks was limited and the exact location of source kitchen is still uncertain in the region, it is inferred that the orientation of main source kitchen for the condensate should be on the east of the burial-hill zone, i.e. from the direction of Qikou Sag, according to oil-oil correlation between the condensate and surrounding high-waxy oils as well as lateral distribution of the wax content of crude oils. In addition, it is also further confirmed that the oil filling direction for this condensate reservoir is from NE to SW, i.e. from wells BS-4, through BS-7, to BS-8 based on the analyses of 9 maturity and 3 pyrrolic N-compound parameters.

  17. The Wood-Growth-and-Burial Process (WGBP) Permanent Wood Sequestration to Solve the Global Carbon Dioxide Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, F.; Hasse, U.

    2008-12-01

    , or/and via very slightly increased energy prices. It is a great advantage of the WGBP that it will not be competitive with the agriculture, as the areas most suitable for the process are not attractive for the growth of food or energy plants. The WGBP does not need fertilizers and irrigation, and it does not need genetically engineered plants. It is completely ecological and environmentally friendly. The WGBP can be performed at almost any place of the world, and it is not necessary to perform the process at the sites of carbon dioxide emission. The WGBP will contribute to a fair international trade. The WGBP will be equally available to all countries and societies of the world. There is no discrimination of poorer or less advanced societies. The WGBP will produce wood deposits for future generation, which once may become sources for biomass processing technologies, be it for the production of chemicals of energy. The burial sites will be saving banks of precious material. Ref.: F. Scholz, U. Hasse: ChemSusChem 1 (2008) 381-384 greifswald.de/~analytik/

  18. A funerary perspective on Bell Beaker period in the Western Mediterranean. Reading the social context of individual burials at La Vital (Gandía, Valencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Puchol, Oreto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The discussion about social dynamics in recent Prehistory is supported by the study of funerary practices. The presence and significance of individual and collective burials in Final Neolithic/Chalcolithic societies in the southeast of the Iberian Peninsula provides new evidence for the debate concerning the emergence of social inequalities in this region. Our contribution is based on the recent discovery and excavation of several individual pit burials in domestic contexts at the site of La Vital (Gandía, Valencia. The particularities of the identified burials (different ritual episodes and their content (Bell Beaker pottery, metal objects, animal offerings together with an accurate chronometric database allow us to consider several issues in relation to settlement dynamics, social networks and relationships for the period from the end of the 4th to the middle of the 3rd millennium cal BC in the central area of the Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula.La reflexión sobre la dinámica de las relaciones sociales en la Prehistoria reciente encuentra un apoyo clave en el análisis de las prácticas funerarias. La presencia y significación de los enterramientos individuales y colectivos en las sociedades del Neolítico final/ Calcolítico en el sureste de la Península Ibérica proporciona una nueva evidencia al debate sobre la aparición de las desigualdades sociales en la región. Nuestra contribución se basa en el reciente descubrimiento y excavación de varias tumbas individuales en fosa, localizadas en contextos domésticos, en el yacimiento de La Vital (Gandía, Valencia. Las peculiaridades del continente (detección de episodios rituales particulares en las distintas tumbas y del contenido (vasos campaniformes, objetos metálicos, ofrendas animales, unido a una ajustada cronometría, permiten plantear diversas alternativas relativas a la dinámica poblacional, las redes de circulación de información y las formas de reproducci

  19. Sediment dynamics and the burial and exhumation of bedrock reefs along an emergent coastline as elucidated by repetitive sonar surveys: Northern Monterey Bay, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlazzi, C.D.; Fregoso, T.A.; Golden, N.E.; Finlayson, D.P.

    2011-01-01

    Two high-resolution bathymetric and acoustic backscatter sonar surveys were conducted along the energetic emergent inner shelf of northern Monterey Bay, CA, USA, in the fall of 2005 and the spring of 2006 to determine the impact of winter storm waves, beach erosion, and river floods on biologically-important siliclastic bedrock reef habitats. The surveys extended from water depths of 4 m to 22 m and covered an area of 3.14 km2, 45.8% of which was bedrock, gravel, and coarse-grained sand and 54.2% was fine-grained sand. Our analyses of the bathymetric and acoustic backscatter data demonstrates that during the 6 months between surveys, 11.4% of the study area was buried by fine-grained sand while erosion resulted in the exposure of bedrock or coarse-grained sand over 26.5% of the study area. The probability of burial decreased with increasing water depth and rugosity; the probability of exhumation increased with increasing wave-induced near-bed shear stress, seabed slope and rugosity. Much of the detected change was at the boundary between bedrock and unconsolidated sediment due to sedimentation and erosion burying or exhuming bedrock, respectively. In a number of cases, however, the change in seabed character was apparently due to changes in sediment grain size when scour exposed what appeared to be an underlying coarser-grained lag or the burial of coarser-grained sand and gravel by fine-grained sand. These findings suggest that, in some places, (a) burial and exhumation of nearshore bedrock reefs along rocky, energetic inner shelves occurs over seasonal timescales and appears related to intrinsic factors such as seabed morphology and extrinsic factors such as wave forces, and (b) single acoustic surveys typically employed for geologic characterization and/or habitat mapping may not adequately characterize the geomorphologic and sedimentologic nature of these types of environments that typify most of the Pacific Ocean and up to 50% of the world's coastlines.

  20. Assessment on Redox Conditions and Organic Burial of Siliciferous Sediments at the Latest Permian Dalong Formation in Shangsi, Sichuan, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Lian; Zhang Haiqiang; Wang Jin; Huang Junhua; Xie Xinong

    2008-01-01

    The redox sensitive elements, molybdenum (Mo) and uranium (U), in marine sediments from the latest Permian Dalong (大隆) Formation at the Shangsi (上寺) Section, Northeast Siehuan (四川), South China, were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to determine their response to a range of redox conditions, and to estimate the organic carbon burial rate. On the basis of the correlation between authigenic Mo abundance and organic carbon content in modern oceans, the organic carbon burial rates were calculated for the rocks at Dalong Formation, ranging from 0.48-125.83 mmol/(m2-d), which shows a larger range than the mineralization rate of organic carbon at the continental margins (1.6-4.23 mmol/(m2.d)). The Zr-normalized Mo and U abundances show large fluctuations in the entire section. The maxima of Zr-normalized Mo abundance and thus the maxima of the organic carbon burial rates were observed at the interval between the 155th and 156th beds (404-407 m above the base of Middle Permian). A decrease (the minimum) in U/Mo ratios is present in this interval. It is speculated that the oxygen-limited conditions and ultimately anoxia or euxinia may develop within this depth interval. In contrast, an enhanced enrichment of Zr-normallzed U abundance is found, in association with less enrichment in Zr-normnllzed Mo abundance in the interval from the I51st to 154th beds (395-404 m above the base of Middle Permian), inferring the dominance of a suboxic/anoxic depositional condition (denitrifying condition), or without free H2S. The presence of small quantities of dissolved oxygen may have caused the solubilization and loss of Mo from sediments. It is proposed that the multiple cycles of abrupt oxidation and reduction due to the upwelllng at this interval lead to the enhanced accumulation of authigenic U, but less enrichment of Mo. A decrease in the contents of U, Mo, and TOC is found above the 157th bed (407 m above the base of Middle Permian), in

  1. Workplan/RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation Report for the Old Radioactive Waste Burial Ground 643-E, S01-S22 - Volume I - Text and Volume II - Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, K.R.

    2000-12-12

    This document presents the assessment of environmental impacts resulting from releases of hazardous substances from the facilities in the Old Radioactive Waste Burial Ground 643-E, including Solvent Tanks 650-01E to 650-22E, also referred to as Solvent Tanks at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina.

  2. Potentials and pitfalls of depth profile (10Be), burial isochron (26Al/10Be) and palaeomagnetic techniques for dating Early Pleistocene terrace deposits of the Moselle valley (Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rixhon, Gilles; Cordier, Stéphane; May, Simon Matthias; Kelterbaum, Daniel; Szemkus, Nina; Keulertz, Rebecca; Dunai, Tibor; Binnie, Steven; Hambach, Ulrich; Scheidt, Stephanie; Brueckner, Helmut

    2016-04-01

    Throughout the river network of the Rhenish Massif the so-called main terraces complex (MTC) forms the morphological transition between a wide upper palaeovalley and a deeply incised lower valley. The youngest level of this complex (YMT), directly located at the edge of the incised valley, represents a dominant geomorphic feature; it is often used as a reference level to identify the beginning of the main middle Pleistocene incision episode (Demoulin & Hallot, 2009). Although the main terraces are particularly well preserved in the lower Moselle valley, a questionable age of ca. 800 ka is assumed for the YMT, mainly based on the uncertain extrapolation of controversially interpreted palaeomagnetic data obtained in the Rhine valley. In this study, we applied terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) dating (10Be/26Al) and palaeomagnetic dating to Moselle fluvial sediments of the MTC. To unravel the spatio-temporal characteristics of the Pleistocene evolution of the valley, several sites along the lower Moselle were sampled following two distinct TCN dating strategies: depth profiles where the original terrace (palaeo-) surface is well preserved and did not experience a major post-depositional burial (e.g., loess cover); and the isochron technique, where the sediment thickness exceeds 4.5-5 m. One terrace deposit was sampled for both approaches (reference site). In addition, palaeomagnetic sampling was systematically performed in each terrace sampled for TCN measurements. The TCN dating techniques show contrasting results for our reference site. Three main issues are observed for the depth profile method: (i) an inability of the modeled profile to constrain the 10Be concentration of the uppermost sample; (ii) an overestimated density value as model output; and (iii) a probable concentration steady state of the terrace deposits. By contrast, the isochron method yields a burial age estimate of 1.26 +0.29/-0.25 Ma, although one sample showed a depleted 26Al/10Be ratio

  3. Guidelines for selecting codes for ground-water transport modeling of low-level waste burial sites. Volume 1. Guideline approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, C.S.; Cole, C.R.

    1985-05-01

    This document was written for the National Low-Level Waste Management Program to provide guidance for managers and site operators who need to select ground-water transport codes for assessing shallow-land burial site performance. The guidance given in this report also serves the needs of applications-oriented users who work under the direction of a manager or site operator. The guidelines are published in two volumes designed to support the needs of users having different technical backgrounds. An executive summary, published separately, gives managers and site operators an overview of the main guideline report. This volume includes specific recommendations for decision-making managers and site operators on how to use these guidelines. The more detailed discussions about the code selection approach are provided. 242 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Vertical Extraction Process Implemented at the 118-K-1 Burial Ground for Removal of Irradiated Reactor Debris from Silo Structures - 12431

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teachout, Douglas B. [Vista Engineering Technologies, LLC, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States); Adamson, Clinton J.; Zacharias, Ames [Washington Closure Hanford, LLC, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The primary objective of a remediation project is the safe extraction and disposition of diverse waste forms and materials. Remediation of a solid waste burial ground containing reactor hardware and irradiated debris involves handling waste with the potential to expose workers to significantly elevated dose rates. Therefore, a major challenge confronted by any remediation project is developing work processes that facilitate compliant waste management practices while at the same time implementing controls to protect personnel. Traditional burial ground remediation is accomplished using standard excavators to remove materials from trenches and other excavation configurations often times with minimal knowledge of waste that will be encountered at a specific location. In the case of the 118-K-1 burial ground the isotopic activity postulated in historic documents to be contained in vertical cylindrical silos was sufficient to create the potential for a significant radiation hazard to project personnel. Additionally, certain reported waste forms posed an unacceptably high potential to contaminate the surrounding environment and/or workers. Based on process knowledge, waste management requirements, historic document review, and a lack of characterization data it was determined that traditional excavation techniques applied to remediation of vertical silos would expose workers to unacceptable risk. The challenging task for the 118-K-1 burial ground remediation project team then became defining an acceptable replacement technology or modification of an existing technology to complete the silo remediation. Early characterization data provided a good tool for evaluating the location of potential high exposure rate items in the silos. Quantitative characterization was a different case and proved difficult because of the large diameter of the silos and the potential for variable density of attenuating soils and waste forms in the silo. Consequently, the most relevant

  5. People, dogs and wild game: evidence of human-animal relations from Middle Neolithic burials and personal ornaments in northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bernabò Brea

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to review evidence of human-animal relations, the paper offers an overview of the customs and funerary traditions of the Square Mouthed Pottery culture, between c. 5000 and 4300 calBC. We focus on the importance of domestic and wild animals on the basis of an analysis of grave-goods, funerary rites and personal ornaments. We also consider recent discoveries of peculiar offerings of animals and some dog burials. The evidence testifies to a diffusion of a wild component, symbolically emphasising the importance of the hunter identity in a society where subsistence actually depends primarily on domestic animals. Therefore, a contrast is drawn between the everyday and the symbolic worlds.

  6. Guidelines for selecting codes for ground-water transport modeling of low-level waste burial sites. Volume 2. Special test cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, C.S.; Cole, C.R.

    1985-08-01

    This document was written for the National Low-Level Waste Management Program to provide guidance for managers and site operators who need to select ground-water transport codes for assessing shallow-land burial site performance. The guidance given in this report also serves the needs of applications-oriented users who work under the direction of a manager or site operator. The guidelines are published in two volumes designed to support the needs of users having different technical backgrounds. An executive summary, published separately, gives managers and site operators an overview of the main guideline report. Volume 1, titled ''Guideline Approach,'' consists of Chapters 1 through 5 and a glossary. Chapters 2 through 5 provide the more detailed discussions about the code selection approach. This volume, Volume 2, consists of four appendices reporting on the technical evaluation test cases designed to help verify the accuracy of ground-water transport codes. 20 refs.

  7. A Molecular Approach to the Sexing of the Triple Burial at the Upper Paleolithic Site of Dolní Věstonice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, Jiří; Krause, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    In the past decades ancient DNA research has brought numerous insights to archaeological research where traditional approaches were limited. The determination of sex in human skeletal remains is often challenging for physical anthropologists when dealing with incomplete, juvenile or pathological specimens. Molecular approaches allow sexing on the basis of sex-specific markers or by calculating the ratio of DNA derived from different chromosomes. Here we propose a novel approach that relies on the ratio of X chromosome-derived shotgun sequencing data to the autosomal coverage, thus establishing the probability of an XX or XY karyotype. Applying this approach to the individuals of the Upper Paleolithic triple burial of Dolní Věstonice reveals that all three skeletons, including the individual DV 15, whose sex has long been debated due to a pathological condition, were male. PMID:27706187

  8. Numerical prediction on the scour burial of cylinder object freely resting on the sandy seabed in the East China Sea using the DRAMBUIE model1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chong-guang PANG; Li-qian LIU; Kun LI

    2014-01-01

    After experiencing 8-day combined tidal current, circulation and wave actions, scour depth surrounding cylinder object freely resting on sandy seabed in the East China Sea (ECS) in January is numerically predicted using the DRAMBUIE model designed for scour burial, which has been widely used and verified by in-situ experiments. During the period of numerical integration, the value of time t is generally variable at every time step via the special time-stepped approach developed by this paper to eliminate the time error. The tidal current velocity, wave orbital velocity and the depth-averaged circulation in the ECS have been obtained by numerical simulations with Estuarine Coastal and Ocean Model (ECOM), Simulating Waves Nearshore (SWAN) model and Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) model respectively. The control experiment and several idealized test cases on influential factors in scour depth reveal that the dominant hydrodynamic factor is tidal current in the ECS under normal weather conditions, and the impacts of shelf circulation and wave motion on local scour almost can be ignored with an exception of the Kuroshio area where the high-speed mainstream of Kuroshio flows. It is also indicated that in sandy sediments, the distribution of scour depth nearly follows the pattern of tidal currents, while the secondary influencing factor on scour depth appears to be grain size of sandy sediment in the ECS. Numerical tests on sediment grain size further testify that much finer sand is more easily scoured, and an increasing trend for scour depth with reduction of grain size is displayed due to imposed resistance of larger sized particles. Three aspects explored by this paper, including the empirical equations in the Defense Research Agency Mine Burial Environment (DRAMBUIE) model, the accuracy of inputs and infill process can severely affect the prediction of scour depth surrounding cylinder objects freely resting on sandy seabed in the ECS.

  9. Seeking sunlight: rapid phototactic motility of filamentous mat-forming cyanobacteria optimize photosynthesis and enhance carbon burial in Lake Huron's submerged sinkholes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddanda, Bopaiah A; McMillan, Adam C; Long, Stephen A; Snider, Michael J; Weinke, Anthony D

    2015-01-01

    We studied the motility of filamentous mat-forming cyanobacteria consisting primarily of Oscillatoria-like cells growing under low-light, low-oxygen, and high-sulfur conditions in Lake Huron's submerged sinkholes using in situ observations, in vitro measurements and time-lapse microscopy. Gliding movement of the cyanobacterial trichomes (100-10,000 μm long filaments, composed of cells ∼10 μm wide and ∼3 μm tall) revealed individual as well as group-coordinated motility. When placed in a petri dish and dispersed in ground water from the sinkhole, filaments re-aggregated into defined colonies within minutes, then dispersed again. Speed of individual filaments increased with temperature from ∼50 μm min(-1) or ∼15 body lengths min(-1) at 10°C to ∼215 μm min(-1) or ∼70 body lengths min(-1) at 35°C - rates that are rapid relative to non-flagellated/ciliated microbes. Filaments exhibited precise and coordinated positive phototaxis toward pinpoints of light and congregated under the light of foil cutouts. Such light-responsive clusters showed an increase in photosynthetic yield - suggesting phototactic motility aids in light acquisition as well as photosynthesis. Once light source was removed, filaments slowly spread out evenly and re-aggregated, demonstrating coordinated movement through inter-filament communication regardless of light. Pebbles and pieces of broken shells placed upon intact mat were quickly covered by vertically motile filaments within hours and became fully buried in the anoxic sediments over 3-4 diurnal cycles - likely facilitating the preservation of falling debris. Coordinated horizontal and vertical filament motility optimize mat cohesion and dynamics, photosynthetic efficiency and sedimentary carbon burial in modern-day sinkhole habitats that resemble the shallow seas in Earth's early history. Analogous cyanobacterial motility may have played a key role in the oxygenation of the planet by optimizing photosynthesis while favoring

  10. Seeking sunlight: rapid phototactic motility of filamentous mat-forming cyanobacteria optimize photosynthesis and enhance carbon burial in Lake Huron’s submerged sinkholes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bopaiah A Biddanda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We studied the motility of filamentous mat-forming cyanobacteria consisting primarily of Oscillatoria-like cells growing under low-light, low-oxygen and high-sulfur conditions in Lake Huron’s submerged sinkholes using in situ observations, in vitro measurements and time-lapse microscopy. Gliding movement of the cyanobacterial trichomes (100-10,000 µm long filaments, composed of cells ~10 µm wide and ~3 µm tall revealed individual as well as group-coordinated motility. When placed in a petri dish and dispersed in ground water from the sinkhole, filaments re-aggregated into defined colonies within minutes, then dispersed again. Speed of individual filaments increased with temperature from ~50 µm minute-1 or ~15 body lengths minute-1 at 10°C to ~215 µm minute-1 or ~70 body lengths minute-1 at 35°C – rates that are rapid relative to non-flagellated/ciliated microbes. Filaments exhibited precise and coordinated positive phototaxis towards pinpoints of light and congregated under the light of foil cutouts. Such light-responsive clusters showed an increase in photosynthetic yield – suggesting phototactic motility aids in light acquisition as well as photosynthesis. Once light source was removed, filaments slowly spread out evenly and re-aggregated, demonstrating coordinated movement through inter-filament communication regardless of light. Pebbles and pieces of broken shells placed upon intact mat were quickly covered by vertically motile filaments within hours and became fully buried in the anoxic sediments over 3-4 diurnal cycles – likely facilitating the preservation of falling debris. Coordinated horizontal and vertical filament motility optimize mat cohesion and dynamics, photosynthetic efficiency and sedimentary carbon burial in modern-day sinkhole habitats that resemble the shallow seas in Earth’s early history. Analogous cyanobacterial motility may have played a key role in the oxygenation of the planet by optimizing

  11. The collective chalcolithic burial of Camino del Molino (Caravaca de la Cruz, Murcia, Spain. Methodology and the first results of an exceptional archaeological site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lomba Maurandi, Joaquín

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The preliminary results of the excavation of a multiple burial cave are presented. Itt contains remains of more than 1,300 individuals, in what it seems to be the complete representation of a chalcolithic population of the second half of the third millenium B.C. deposited during a continuous period of approximately 450 years. A small part of this population is accompanied by grave goods that include some metallic elements typical of the bell-beaker horizon. Also dogs accompanyied various burials. The exceptional character of the find and the circumstances of the excavation required the development of a new methodology for this type of excavation.

    Se presentan los resultados preliminares de la excavación de un enterramiento múltiple en cueva que contiene restos de más de 1300 individuos, en lo que parece ser la representación completa de una población calcolítica de la segunda mitad del III milenio a.C. depositada durante un período continuado de unos 350-400 años. Una pequeña parte de esa población se acompaña de un ajuar que incluye, entre otros elementos, algunos elementos metálicos característicos del horizonte campaniforme. También se documenta el enterramiento de cánidos acompañando a diversos inhumados. El carácter excepcional del hallazgo y las circunstancias de la excavación han obligado a un desarrollo metodológico novedoso para este tipo de actuaciones.

  12. Difference of brightness temperatures between 19.35 GHz and 37.0 GHz in CHANG'E-1 MRM: implications for the burial of shallow bedrock at lunar low latitude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen YU; Xiongyao LI; Guangfei WEI; Shijie WANG

    2016-01-01

    Indications of buried lunar bedrock may help us to understand the tectonic evolution of the Moon and provide some clues for formation of lunar regolith.So far,the information on distribution and burial depth of lunar bedrock is far from sufficient.Due to good penetration ability,microwave radiation can be a potential tool to ameliorate this problem.Here,a novel method to estimate the burial depth of lunar bedrock is presented using microwave data from Chang'E-1 (CE-1) lunar satellite.The method is based on the spatial variation of differences in brightness temperatures between 19.35 GHz and 37.0 GHz (△TB).Large differences are found in some regions,such as the southwest edge of Oceanus Procellarum,the area between Mare Tranquillitatis and Mare Nectaris,and the highland east of Mare Smythii.Interestingly,a large change of elevation is found in the corresponding region,which might imply a shallow burial depth of lunar bedrock.To verify this deduction,a theoretical model is derived to calculate the △TB.Results show that △TB varies from 12.7 K to 15 K when the burial depth of bedrock changes from 1 m to 0.5 m in the equatorial region.Based on the available data at low lunar latitude (30°N-30°S),it is thus inferred that the southwest edge of Oceanus Procellarum,the area between Mare Tranquillitatis and Mare Nectaris,the highland located east of Mare Smythii,the edge of Pasteur and Chaplygin are the areas with shallow bedrock,the burial depth is estimated between 0.5 m and 1 m.

  13. Difference of brightness temperatures between 19.35 GHz and 37.0 GHz in CHANG'E-1 MRM: implications for the burial of shallow bedrock at lunar low latitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wen; Li, Xiongyao; Wei, Guangfei; Wang, Shijie

    2016-03-01

    Indications of buried lunar bedrock may help us to understand the tectonic evolution of the Moon and provide some clues for formation of lunar regolith. So far, the information on distribution and burial depth of lunar bedrock is far from sufficient. Due to good penetration ability, microwave radiation can be a potential tool to ameliorate this problem. Here, a novel method to estimate the burial depth of lunar bedrock is presented using microwave data from Chang'E-1 (CE-1) lunar satellite. The method is based on the spatial variation of differences in brightness temperatures between 19.35 GHz and 37.0 GHz (ΔTB). Large differences are found in some regions, such as the southwest edge of Oceanus Procellarum, the area between Mare Tranquillitatis and Mare Nectaris, and the highland east of Mare Smythii. Interestingly, a large change of elevation is found in the corresponding region, which might imply a shallow burial depth of lunar bedrock. To verify this deduction, a theoretical model is derived to calculate the ΔTB. Results show that ΔTB varies from 12.7 K to 15 K when the burial depth of bedrock changes from 1 m to 0.5 m in the equatorial region. Based on the available data at low lunar latitude (30°N-30°S), it is thus inferred that the southwest edge of Oceanus Procellarum, the area between Mare Tranquillitatis and Mare Nectaris, the highland located east of Mare Smythii, the edge of Pasteur and Chaplygin are the areas with shallow bedrock, the burial depth is estimated between 0.5 m and 1 m.

  14. 埋藏条件下页岩气赋存形式研究%Shale gas occurrence under burial conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞凌杰; 范明; 腾格尔; 刘友祥

    2016-01-01

    以川东南龙马溪组页岩为主要研究对象,开展埋藏条件下页岩气赋存形式定量研究。重点基于重量法等温吸附实验,分析TOC含量、温度、湿度对吸附能力的影响,并通过建立3个主要因素与吸附能力的经验关系来获取埋藏条件下的吸附气量。另外,通过总孔隙空间扣除孔隙水和吸附气占据空间来厘定游离气占据空间,并基于甲烷状态方程( PR方程)获取游离气密度,从而构建埋藏条件下游离气赋存计算方法。超压条件下吸附气随埋深呈下降趋势,而游离气增加明显并成为主要赋存形式。定量计算了焦页1井22个页岩样品(主要取自底部38 m优质层段)的赋存量。焦页1井优质段吸附气占比27.1%~47.8%,平均占比为34.3%,而游离气占比52.2%~72.9%,平均占比为65.7%。%Shale samples were collected from the Longmaxi Formation in southeastern Sichuan Basin to carry out quan⁃titative studies of shale gas occurrence under burial conditions. The impacts of TOC content, temperature and moisture on adsorption capacity were studied using gravimetric isothermal adsorption, and some related empirical equations were established to calculate adsorbed gas content under burial conditions. In addition, free gas storage space was derived by deducting the volume of pore water and adsorbed gas from total space. The density of free gas was calculated using the Peng⁃Robinson equation. Therefore, a quantitative calculation method for shale gas occurrence was proposed. Under overpressure condition, adsorbed gas content decreases with the increase of burial depth, while free gas content increases and becomes dominant. Shale gas content of well Jiaoye1 was calculated using 22 samples mainly from 38 m interval. The adsorbed gas fraction is 27. 1%-47. 8% with an average of 34.3%, and the free gas fraction is 52.2%-72.9% with an average of 65.7%.

  15. Ristripatsid Eesti 12.–13. sajandi laibakalmistutes: kas ehted või usu tunnused? / The cross-shaped pendants of inhumation burials in 12th-13th century Estonia: adornments or signs of belief?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuuli Kurisoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-shaped pendants are one of the most discussed symbolically laden artefacts among Estonian archaeological material. The beginning of the distribution of cross-shaped pendants dates back to 11th century when the artefacts, though scarce, appear. The number of such pendants increases noticeably at the very end of the Iron Age. Due to the ambiguous entity of cross and time context, cross-pendants have been interpreted either as symbols of Christian faith, as pieces of adornment not affiliated with Christianity, or as objects with magical qualities. In this paper I study pendants found in the inhumation cemeteries of Estonia. Only those provide us with an archaeological context which shows precisely who could have worn them and how. The analyzed cross-pendants were found at Pada, Kaberla, Kukruse, Haimre and Tammiku cemeteries and from the early burials in Viru-Nigula churchyard. As artefacts, the cross pendants are more or less stylized Greek crosses. In most cases the pendants were either used as a part of jewellery or worn singularly around the neck area. From the total of 48 analyzed cross-pendants one fourth could be interpreted as locally produced items. Of local origin are probably lead pendants from Pada cemetery, heads of decorative pins worn as cross-shaped pendants from Viru-Nigula and Kaberla cemeteries, and obvious scrap and unfinished pendant crosses. In addition, I would like to draw attention that cross-pendants from inhumation burials do not contain many widespread forms, such as ‘Scandinavian’ and some other widespread Russian origin types, which have been found in hoards, from hill-forts and cremation burials. This observation could confirm that cross pendants from 12th–13th century inhumation burials were communally recognized and some of them were locally manufactured. As the next stage of my investigation I studied different occurrence contexts of cross pendants in cemeteries and burials: the location of burials with

  16. 宇宙成因核素埋藏年龄测定及其在地球科学中的应用%TERRESTRIAL IN SITU COSMOGENIC NUCLIDES BURIAL DATING AND ITS APPLICATION IN GEOSCIENCES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁兆德; 陈杰; 张会平

    2011-01-01

    原地生成宇宙成因核素埋藏测年方法,在晚新生代沉积物尤其是陆相碎屑沉积物测年上具有广泛的应用前景.在同一岩石或矿物中的宇宙成因核素对,例如26Al和10Be在地表的生成速率比值是固定的,不受纬度和海拔的影响,但是这一核素对分别具有不同的半衰期.在地表经历了暴露的沉积物被埋藏后,该比值会随着时间而降低,因此具有不同的半衰期的核素对(例如26Al/10Be)可以作为一种地质时钟,测年范围在几十万a至5Ma.文中简要介绍了目前常用的4种方法及其应用:暴露-埋藏图解法、深度剖面法、等时线法以及26Al-21Ne和10Be-21Ne法.%Terrestrial in situ cosmogenic nuclides burial dating has a promising application in dating of late Cenozoic detrital sediments,for example,cave sediments,fluvial sediments and moraine. This method relies on a pair of cosmic-ray-produced nuclides that are produced in the same rock or mineral target at a fixed ratio, but have different half-lives. For example, 26Al and 10Be are produced in quartz at 26Al: 10Be = 6.75: 1. The ratio is not affected by latitude and altitude. After sediments are buried, the ratio would become less as time goes. Therefore, 26Al/10Be ratio can be used as a geological clock. The dating range can be from several hundreds of thousand years to five million years. In this article, we introduce four methods and their applications: exposure-burial diagram method,depth profile method,isochron method, 26Al-21Ne and 10Be-21Ne method. Exposure-burial diagram method is often applied to cave sediments dating, for exposure-burial history of cave deposits is easy. Depth profile method is applied to fluvial sediments dating. There is a good application for isochron approach in till-paleosol sequences in North America. 26Al-21Ne and 10Be-21Ne method has a great potential applicaton in future for its larger dating time and less uncertainty than other methods. The dating method still

  17. Organo-halogenated contaminants (OHCs) in the sediments from the Soan River, Pakistan: OHCs(adsorbed TOC) burial flux, status and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Riffat Naseem; Mehboob, Fouzia; Ali, Usman; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Schuster, Jasmin K; Moeckel, Claudia; Jones, Kevin C

    2014-05-15

    In this study, regression analysis revealed that TOC is the principal factor in controlling the fate of organo-halogenated contaminants (OHCs: PCBs, PBDEs, OCPs) in Soan River, Pakistan. The OHCs(adsorbed TOC) burial flux (OHCs(adsorbed TOC)Bf; mg/cm(2)·yr) was calculated in the following ranges: ∑PCBs (0.07-0.31), ∑PBDEs (0.005-0.029), ∑HCHs (0.015-0.046) and ∑DDTs (0.007-0.039). Apart from OHCs(adsorbed TOC)Bf, the levels of OHCs were in the following order: PCBs>DDTs>PBDEs>HCH>Chlordane>HCB. PBDEs and PCB congener patterns showed following order respectively: BDE-149>-153>-18>-138>-44 and PCB-149>-153>-18>-138>-44. DDT isomers and metabolites' pattern were p,p'-DDT>p,p'-DDD>p,p'-DDE>o,p'-DDT>o,p'-DDD>o,p'-DDE and HCHs were β-HCH>α-HCH>γ-HCH>δ-HCH. PBDE composition had similarities to penta-BDE and DE-71 mixtures and PCBs with commercial products Aroclor-1254 and -1260. (DDE+DDD)/∑DDTs and p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE suggested the recent input of DDTs in sediments while α/γ-HCH indicated past usage of lindane and technical mixtures. Risk assessment suggested that Soan River and its tributaries are potentially at risk against most of the OHCs.

  18. Dynamics of Indian Ocean Slavery Revealed through Isotopic Data from the Colonial Era Cobern Street Burial Site, Cape Town, South Africa (1750-1827).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kootker, Lisette M; Mbeki, Linda; Morris, Alan G; Kars, Henk; Davies, Gareth R

    2016-01-01

    The Dutch East India Company (VOC) intended the Cape of Good Hope to be a refreshment stop for ships travelling between the Netherlands and its eastern colonies. The indigenous Khoisan, however, did not constitute an adequate workforce, therefore the VOC imported slaves from East Africa, Madagascar and Asia to expand the workforce. Cape Town became a cosmopolitan settlement with different categories of people, amongst them a non-European underclass that consisted of slaves, exiles, convicts and free-blacks. This study integrated new strontium isotope data with carbon and nitrogen isotope results from an 18th-19th century burial ground at Cobern Street, Cape Town, to identify non-European forced migrants to the Cape. The aim of the study was to elucidate individual mobility patterns, the age at which the forced migration took place and, if possible, geographical provenance. Using three proxies, 87Sr/86Sr, δ13Cdentine and the presence of dental modifications, a majority (54.5%) of the individuals were found to be born non-locally. In addition, the 87Sr/86Sr data suggested that the non-locally born men came from more diverse geographic origins than the migrant women. Possible provenances were suggested for two individuals. These results contribute to an improved understanding of the dynamics of slave trading in the Indian Ocean world.

  19. Dynamics of Indian Ocean Slavery Revealed through Isotopic Data from the Colonial Era Cobern Street Burial Site, Cape Town, South Africa (1750-1827.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisette M Kootker

    Full Text Available The Dutch East India Company (VOC intended the Cape of Good Hope to be a refreshment stop for ships travelling between the Netherlands and its eastern colonies. The indigenous Khoisan, however, did not constitute an adequate workforce, therefore the VOC imported slaves from East Africa, Madagascar and Asia to expand the workforce. Cape Town became a cosmopolitan settlement with different categories of people, amongst them a non-European underclass that consisted of slaves, exiles, convicts and free-blacks. This study integrated new strontium isotope data with carbon and nitrogen isotope results from an 18th-19th century burial ground at Cobern Street, Cape Town, to identify non-European forced migrants to the Cape. The aim of the study was to elucidate individual mobility patterns, the age at which the forced migration took place and, if possible, geographical provenance. Using three proxies, 87Sr/86Sr, δ13Cdentine and the presence of dental modifications, a majority (54.5% of the individuals were found to be born non-locally. In addition, the 87Sr/86Sr data suggested that the non-locally born men came from more diverse geographic origins than the migrant women. Possible provenances were suggested for two individuals. These results contribute to an improved understanding of the dynamics of slave trading in the Indian Ocean world.

  20. Plant crop remains from the outer burial pit of the Han Yangling Mausoleum and their significance to Early Western Han agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG XiaoYan; LIU ChangJiang; ZHANG JianPing; YANG WuZhan; ZHANG XiaoHu; L(U) HouYuan

    2009-01-01

    A large amount of carbonized plant remains were discovered in one of the outer burial pits of the Han Yangling Mausoleum, which was built more than 2000 years ago for the Jing Emperor, Liu, Qi (188-141 cal a BC), the fourth emperor of the Western Han Dynasty. The remains are identified by phytolith analysis and macrofossil morphological features. Seeds from foxtail millet (Setaria italica), broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum), rice (Oryza sativa) and chenopod (possible Chenopodium giganteum) are identified, suggesting that these four crops might have been the staple plant foods in the capital area (Guanzhong area), Shaanxi Province during the Early Western Han Dynasty. Chenopods were often considered as weeds since they have only been rarely found as carbonized seeds in prehistoric sites. This is the first time such a large amount of seeds has been found at a site, which provides strong material evidence for chenopod cultivation with a long history in China. Wheat was thought to be promoted and popularized in the Guanzhong area since the Wu Emporor, Liu, Che (156-87 cal a BC), the fifth emperor of the Western Han Dynasty. No wheat was found at this site, which supports the historical document record that wheat was still secondary in the diet and agrarian economy before the Wu Emperor's reign.

  1. Response of SCP-2L domain of human MFE-2 to ligand removal: binding site closure and burial of peroxisomal targeting signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lensink, M F; Haapalainen, A M; Hiltunen, J K; Glumoff, T; Juffer, A H

    2002-10-11

    In the study of the structure and function relationship of human MFE-2, we have investigated the dynamics of human MFE-2SCP-2L (hSCP-2L) and its response to ligand removal. A comparison was made with homologous rabbit SCP-2. Breathing and a closing motion are found, identifiable with an adjustment in size and a closing off of the binding pocket. Crucial residues for structural integrity have been identified. Particularly mobile areas of the protein are loop 1 that is connecting helices A and C in space, and helix D, next to the entrance of the pocket. In hSCP-2L, the binding pocket gets occupied by Phe93, which is making a tight hydrophobic contact with Trp36. In addition, it is found that the C-terminal peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS1) that is solvent exposed in the complexed structure becomes buried when no ligand is present. Moreover, an anti-correlation exists between burial of PTS1 and the size of the binding pocket. The results are in accordance with plant nsLTPs, where a similar accommodation of binding pocket size was found after ligand binding/removal. Furthermore, the calculations support the suggestion of a ligand-assisted targeting mechanism.

  2. Dynamics of Indian Ocean Slavery Revealed through Isotopic Data from the Colonial Era Cobern Street Burial Site, Cape Town, South Africa (1750-1827)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Alan G.; Kars, Henk; Davies, Gareth R.

    2016-01-01

    The Dutch East India Company (VOC) intended the Cape of Good Hope to be a refreshment stop for ships travelling between the Netherlands and its eastern colonies. The indigenous Khoisan, however, did not constitute an adequate workforce, therefore the VOC imported slaves from East Africa, Madagascar and Asia to expand the workforce. Cape Town became a cosmopolitan settlement with different categories of people, amongst them a non-European underclass that consisted of slaves, exiles, convicts and free-blacks. This study integrated new strontium isotope data with carbon and nitrogen isotope results from an 18th-19th century burial ground at Cobern Street, Cape Town, to identify non-European forced migrants to the Cape. The aim of the study was to elucidate individual mobility patterns, the age at which the forced migration took place and, if possible, geographical provenance. Using three proxies, 87Sr/86Sr, δ13Cdentine and the presence of dental modifications, a majority (54.5%) of the individuals were found to be born non-locally. In addition, the 87Sr/86Sr data suggested that the non-locally born men came from more diverse geographic origins than the migrant women. Possible provenances were suggested for two individuals. These results contribute to an improved understanding of the dynamics of slave trading in the Indian Ocean world. PMID:27309532

  3. Effects of shallow burial on the decomposition of triploid Populus tomentosa leaf litter.%浅埋对三倍体毛白杨落叶分解的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋曰钦; 董转年; 程开云; 曹正东

    2011-01-01

    Litter decomposition plays an important role in the nutrient cycling and energy transfer in forest ecosystems. By using Iitterbag method, this paper studied the leaf litter decomposition in 2-, 4-, and 6 years old Populus tomentosa pulp plantations under the condition of shallow burial, aimed to realize the scientific management of nutrients and to accelerate the decomposition of leaf litter in triploid P. Tomentosa pulp plantations. Shallow burial promoted the leaf litter decomposition significantly, as compared to the decomposition on soil surface. The decomposition rate of the leaf litters in 2-, 4-, and 6 years old P. Tomentosa pulp plantations under shallow burial for one year increased significantly, being 130% , 194% , and 186% of that on soil surface, respectively. Compared with the decomposition on soil surface, the days needed for 50% leaf litter decomposition in 2-, 4-, and 6 years old triploid P. Tomentosa pulp plantations under shallow burial were shortened by 58% , 39% , and 38% , and those needed for 95% decomposition were shortened by 60% , 38% and 36% , respectively, indicating that the promotion effect of shallow burial on the leaf litter decomposition differed with triploid P. Tomentosa plantation age.%凋落物分解在森林生态系统养分循环及能量流动中具有十分重要的作用,为实现三倍体毛白杨纸浆林养分的科学管理,加快落叶分解,采用网袋法研究了2、4、6年生3个不同年龄的林分落叶在浅埋条件下的分解情况.结果表明:与在地表分解相比,浅埋显著促进了三倍体毛白杨落叶的分解,1年的分解率显著提高,分别为落叶在地表年分解率的130%、194%和186%;浅埋落叶分解50%所需天数分别只有地表的58%、39%和38%,而分解95%所需的天数分别只有地表的60%、38%和36%;浅埋对不同年龄林分落叶的促进程度不同.

  4. 半干旱风沙区黄柳幼苗生长发育对沙埋的响应%Response of Growth of Salix gordejeviiSeedling to Sand Burial Depth in the Semiarid Aeolian Sand Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗纯萍; 李雪华; 蒋德明

    2012-01-01

    Sand-burial controlled experiment was conducted to investigate the response of Salix gordejevii seedling growth,and the sand burial depths were varied from 0,10 and 20 to 40 cm.The results show that the mortality of S.gordejevii was increased with increasing sand burial depth.There were some significant differences in the stem height,relative height growth rate,biomass allocated to roots,stems and leaves as well as the root-shoot ratio of seedlings in 4 treatments.There was no significant sand burial effect on absolute height growth rate and biomass accumulation.Slight sand burying promoted the growth of stem.With the increase of sand burial depth,the stem growth could be increased,but the relative height growth rate was decreased.The root biomass was increased to absorb water and nutrient under slight sand burial depth.More biomass was allocated to shoots with the increase of sand burial depth.These results reveal that the defense of S.gordejevii seedlings was increased by stem growing and biomass allocation so as to maintain photosynthesis by stem growing or allocating more biomass to shoots.%以科尔沁沙地黄柳(Salix gordejevii)幼苗为研究对象,通过0 cm,10 cm,20 cm和40 cm 4个沙埋处理,研究其生长发育对沙埋的响应。结果表明:随着沙埋深度的增加,黄柳幼苗的死亡率增加,存活率下降。沙埋对黄柳幼苗的株高、相对高度增长率,分配到根、茎、叶的生物量和根冠比有显著影响,对绝对高度增长率和生物量无显著影响。轻度沙埋有利于黄柳幼苗高度增加,随着沙埋深度的增加,株高依然增加,相对高度生长率却下降。轻度沙埋使黄柳幼苗的生物量较多地分配到根,随着沙埋深度的增加,较多的生物量分配给地上部分,根冠比下降。说明黄柳幼苗可通过加快茎的生长或改变生物量的分配等方式维持光合作用能力,增加对沙埋的抵御能力。

  5. High molecular weight n-alkanes of high-waxy condensate and its source kitchen orientation in the Qianmiqiao burial-hill zone, Bohai Gulf Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Tieguan(WANG; T.-G.)

    2004-01-01

    [1]Philp, R. P., Bishop, A. N., Del Rio, J., Characterization of high molecular weight hydrocarbons (>C40) in the oils and reservoir rocks, in The Geochemistry of Reservoirs (eds. Cubitt, J. M., England, W. A.), London: The Geological Society, 1995, 71-85.[2]Hsieh, M., Philp, R. P., Ubiquitous occurrence of high molecular weight hydrocarbons in crude oils, Organic Geochemistry, 2001, 32: 955-966.[3]Lipsky, S. R., Duffy, M. L., High temperature gas chromatography: The development of new aluminum clad flexible fused silica glass capillary columns coated with thermostable nonpolar phases (Part 1), J. of High Resolution Chromatography, 1986, 9: 376-382.[4]Philp, R. P., High temperature gas chromatography for the analysis of fossil fuels: A review, J. of High Resolution Chromatography, 1994, 17: 398-406.[5]Wang Tieguan, Zhu Dan, Lu Hong et al., High molecular weight (C35+) n-alkanes of Neogene heavily biodegraded oil in the Qianmiqiao region, North China, Chinese Science Bulletin, 2002, 47: 1402-1407.[6]The Editorial Board of Petroleam Geology of Dogang Oilfield, Petroleum Geology of China, Vol. 4: Dagang Oilfield, Beijing: Petroleum Industry Press, 1991, 149-153.[7]Yu Zhihai, Yang Chiyin, Liao Qianjun et al., Natural Gas Geology in Huanghua Depression, Beijing: Petroleum Industry Press, 1997, 122-145.[8]Lu Hong, Wang, T. -G., Wang Chunjiang et al., Hydrocarbon sources of high waxy oil and gas pools in Qianmiqiao buried-hill zone, Huanghua depression, Petroleum Exploration and Development (in Chinese), 2001, 28(4): 17-21.[9]Zhang Yousheng, Wang Tieguan, Wang Feiyu, Oil source and entrapment epoch of the Mesozoic oil reservoir in the Kongxi Burial-hill zone, Huanghua Depression, North China, Scientia Geologica Sinica, 1001(4): 257-274.[10]Wang Tieguan, Wang Feiyu, Lu Hong et al., Oil source and entrapment epoch of the Ordovician oil reservoir in the Kongxi Burial-hill zone, Huanghua Depression, North China, Acta Geologica Sinica

  6. Constraints for estimating the future burial depth of host rocks for geological waste disposal: a case study from the Boom Clay, Campine area, Northern Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerten, K.; De Craen, M.; Brassinnes, S.

    2012-04-01

    An important requirement for geological formations hosting a repository for radioactive waste is sufficient depth to ensure isolation of the waste for a very long time period, up to 1 Ma and beyond. Over such long timescales, the repository depth and the thickness of the overburden may vary significantly due to various geodynamic processes. In Belgium, the Boom Clay in the Campine area (NE-Belgium) is considered as reference host formation for the geological disposal of radioactive waste. First results are presented that illustrate the possible impact of future climate change (based on several scenarios studied in the BIOCLIM project (BIOCLIM, 2001)) and tectonic movements in the Campine area on the thickness of the sediment mass overlying the Boom Clay. At present, the subcrop area of Boom Clay in the Campine area is relatively flat (between ~ 0 m a.s.l. near the river Scheldt estuary in the west and ~ 60 m a.s.l. on the Campine Plateau in the east) and is occupied by several sub-basins that belong to the rivers Meuse and Scheldt. Future development of the area will heavily depend on the behaviour of these rivers and tributaries throughout the considered timeframe, in response to climatic changes and tectonic movements. The area is characterised by a long burial history, with some minor isolated uplift and erosional events during the last 30 Ma. In a global warming scenario during a long interglacial (> 50 ka AP), and/or in the case of subsidence, (relative) sea-level may rise such that various parts of the Boom Clay area will be occupied by the marine realm. This is likely to be a minimal erosion scenario because the baseline for landscape evolution will rise in the upstream parts while estuarine and marine deposition may increase the thickness of the overburden in the downstream parts. In the case of a continuation of Pleistocene glacial cycles, i.e. the alternation between warm interglacials and cold glacials, the area will be exposed to erosion and denudation

  7. The role of self-help voluntary associations for women empowerment and social capital: the experience of women's iddirs (burial societies) in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshome, Elias; Zenebe, Mulumebt; Metaferia, Henok; Biadgilign, Sibhatu

    2012-06-01

    Mutual help is essential to the human race to progress to a full humanity. Participating in voluntary associations has multiple benefits and makes a bigger contribution to resiliency in socio-economically deprived neighborhoods. Therefore, the objective of the study is to assess the role of women's iddirs (burial societies) in promoting their lives, particularly in terms of their social and economic well-being. We employed a quantitative cross-sectional survey. The study population from which the survey data were collected was members of five women's iddirs'. Majority of them (52.5%) reported that their iddirs helped them to a great extent to become more connected with the people in their local community and 36.4% reported that their confidence has increased to have their own say. Nearly three-fourth (70.3%) of the participants indicated that members were willing to help each other. About 71.6% totally agreed that participation in iddirs alleviates stress and difficulty when a relative or family member dies. Majority of the participants (93.3%) stated that their iddirs didn't help them to have access to money. All participants (100%) reported that their iddirs don't have explicitly stated credit mechanisms and nearly all (94.8%) didn't have any experience of borrowing money from banks. Most study participants appeared to appreciate the social benefits of iddirs much higher than that of their economic benefits. This suggests that iddirs need to be well-organized and co-operate with each other and ensuring flexible lending and interest payment criteria need to be established logistically to serve the needs of the poor members.

  8. Book review: Peregruznoe I Burial Ground: Results of Interdisciplinary Research : Monograph [Text] / M. A. Balabanova, E. V. Pererva [at al.]. – Volgograd : Izd-vo Volgogradskogo Filiala FGBOU VPO RANHiGS, 2014. – 360 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tairov Aleksandr Dmitrievich

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The review concerns the monograph “Peregruznoe I Burial Ground: Results of Interdisciplinary Research. The book was prepared by the team of authors including archaeologists, anthropologists, paleosoil specialists, archaeozoologists. The review contains examination of materials and main conclusions for every chapter of the monograph. The monograph is devoted to the analysis of materials from 52 burial mounds dated from the Aeneolith to the Middle Ages. Most of them were erected in the Sarmatian period. In the review, the controversial points concerning the reconstruction of the paleodemographic and physicalgenetic structure of the buried Sarmatian population were pointed out. The authors consider that the gender disharmony of the Early and Middle Sarmatian samples was determined by the peculiarities of mounds formation of nomadic groups localized at the winter and summer nomad camps. This conclusion provokes some objections. As a positive moment, it should be noted that the authors have discovered new trends by means of analysis of cultural and chronological Sarmatian groups according to anthropological data. The monograph presents new interesting data related to reconstruction of the social structure of the Sarmatian societies, burial mound construction, the taxonomic composition of animals from grave pits and mounds. It is necessary to note, that the authors carried out a great deal of investigation and study. The monograph presents abundant scientific data. Interpretation of this material has a great potential which resources are far from being exhausted. The book is going to be a significant event not only for the study of the Volga-Ural steppe antiquities but for all over the Sarmatian archaeology.

  9. DEBATE ENTRE NIVELES ARTIFICIALES Y UNIDADES ESTRATIGRÁFICAS: EL ENTIERRO HUMANO POSTERIOR AL FUERTE SANCTI SPIRITUS (1527-1529, PUERTO GABOTO (SANTA FE / Artificial levels vs. stratigraphic units: the human burial subsequent to Sancti Spiritus Fort (15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Pasquali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el estudio y análisis de un entierro humano hallado dentro del alcance del proyecto de investigación del Fuerte Sancti Spiritus, en la localidad de Puerto Gaboto (provincia de Santa Fe. La recuperación del mismo se realizó en el año 2010, mediante la metodología de excavación por niveles artificiales. Dentro del marco del proyecto, a partir del año 2010, con la incorporación del equipo de arqueólogos pertenecientes a la Universidad del País Vasco se aplica una nueva metodología de intervención en el campo: excavación en extensión (open area por unidades estratigráficas. Este trabajo consta de una primera parte, en donde se presenta la recuperación de los restos óseos por niveles artificiales y su curaduría, así como, la clasificación y descripción de los materiales asociados al entierro. En una segunda etapa, se presenta la secuencia histórica del sitio determinada por las excavaciones estratigráficas y su relación con el entierro. A esto se le agrega el proceso de trabajo seguido para integrar el entierro dentro de la secuencia estratigráfica y para poder señalar a cuál de las fases de la secuencia histórica pertenece. Palabras clave: Esqueleto humano; Niveles artificiales; Unidades estratigráficas; Siglo XVI; Nordeste argentino   Abstract This study analyses a human burial found within the excavations of the Fort Sancti Spiritus (Puerto Gaboto, province of Santa Fe. Artificial levels excavation methodology was used to recover it in 2010. Subsequently a new excavation methodology was applied, open area through stratigraphic units. The recovery and treatment of the bones by artificial levels is initially presented, as well as the classification and description of materials linked to the burial. Secondly the historical sequence of the site deduced by the stratigraphic excavations and its relationship to the burial is provided. Additionally the process followed to integrate the burial into the

  10. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Interim Measures for the Mixed Waste Management Facility Groundwater at the Burial Ground Complex at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-12-08

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this environmental assessment (EA) to analyze the potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed interim measures for the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MW) groundwater at the Burial Ground Complex (BGC) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. DOE proposes to install a small metal sheet pile dam to impound water around and over the BGC groundwater seepline. In addition, a drip irrigation system would be installed. Interim measures will also address the reduction of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) from ''hot-spot'' regions associated with the Southwest Plume Area (SWPA). This action is taken as an interim measure for the MWMF in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) to reduce the amount of tritium seeping from the BGC southwest groundwater plume. The proposed action of this EA is being planned and would be implemented concurrent with a groundwater corrective action program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). On September 30, 1999, SCDHEC issued a modification to the SRS RCRA Part B permit that adds corrective action requirements for four plumes that are currently emanating from the BGC. One of those plumes is the southwest plume. The RCRA permit requires SRS to submit a corrective action plan (CAP) for the southwest plume by March 2000. The permit requires that the initial phase of the CAP prescribe a remedy that achieves a 70-percent reduction in the annual amount of tritium being released from the southwest plume area to Fourmile Branch, a nearby stream. Approval and actual implementation of the corrective measure in that CAP may take several years. As an interim measure, the actions described in this EA would manage the release of tritium from the southwest plume area until the final actions under the CAP can be implemented. This proposed action is expected to reduce the

  11. Impact of mangrove vegetation on seasonal carbon burial and other se-diment characteristics in the Vellar-Coleroon estuary, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kandasamy Kathiresan; Venugopal Gomathi; Raj Anburaj; Kandasamy Saravanakumar

    2014-01-01

    This work quantified the total carbon and 12 other sediment characteristics at 10 soil depths, in planted and or natural mangrove forests in comparison with non-vegetated soil for four seasons of the year 2009-2010 in the Vellar-Coleroon estuarine complex, India. The sedi-ment characteristics varied significantly between mangrove-vegetated and non-vegetated habitats or seasons of analysis, but not between soil depths. The mangrove sediments were rich in total carbon and total or-ganic carbon as compared to non-mangrove sediments (p<0.01). Total carbon was 98.2% higher in mature mangroves and 41.8% in planted mangroves than that in non-mangrove soil. Total organic carbon was as much as 2.5 times greater in mature mangroves and 2 times greater in planted mangroves than that in unvegetated soil. Carbon contents also varied many fold by season. Total carbon content was 8.6 times greater during pre-monsoon, 4.1 times greater during post-monsoon and 2.5 times greater during monsoon than during summer (p<0.01 in all cases). Similarly, total organic carbon was 5.9 times greater during pre-monsoon, 3.1 times greater during post-monsoon and 69%greater during monsoon than during summer. In general, higher levels of sediment carbon were recorded during pre and post-monsoon seasons than during other seasons. Total carbon concentration was correlated negatively to temperature, sand and phosphorus (p<0.01);positively correlated with redox potential, silt, clay, C/N ratio, potassium (p<0.01) and nitrogen (p<0.05);but not correlated with soil depth, pH or salinity. This work revealed that the carbon burial was rapid at the annual rate of 2.8%for total carbon, and 6.7%for total organic carbon in mangrove-planted sediment. Clearing of mangroves can result in significantly and rapidly reduced carbon stores. Our study highlights the importance of natural and plantation mangrove stands for conserving sediment carbon in the tropical coastal domain.

  12. Development and Testing of Techniques for In-Ground Stabilization, Size Reduction and Safe Removal of Radioactive Wastes Stored in Large Containments in Burial Grounds - 13591

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halliwell, Stephen [VJ Technologies Inc, 89 Carlough Road, Bohemia, NY (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Radioactive waste materials, including Transuranic (TRU) wastes from laboratories have been stored below ground in large containments at a number of sites in the US DOE Complex, and at nuclear sites in Europe. These containments are generally referred to as caissons or shafts. The containments are in a range of sizes and depths below grade. The caissons at the DOE's Hanford site are cylindrical, of the order of 2,500 mm in diameter, 3,050 mm in height and are buried about 6,000 mm below grade. One type of caisson is made out of corrugated pipe, whereas others are made of concrete with standard re-bar. However, the larger shafts in the UK are of the order of 4,600 mm in diameter, 53,500 mm deep, and 12,000 below grade. This paper describes the R and D work and testing activities performed to date to evaluate the concept of in-ground size reduction and stabilization of the contents of large containments similar to those at Hanford. In practice, the height of the Test Facility provided for a test cell that was approximately 22' deep. That prevented a 'full scale mockup' test in the sense that the Hanford Caisson configuration would be an identical replication. Therefore, the project was conducted in two phases. The first phase tested a simulated Caisson with surrogate contents, and part of a Chute section, and the second phase tested a full chute section. These tests were performed at VJ Technologies Test Facility located in East Haven, CT, as part of the Proof of Design Concept program for studying the feasibility of an in-situ grout/grind/mix/stabilize technology for the remediation of four caissons at the 618-11 Burial Ground at US Department of Energy Hanford Site. The test site was constructed such that multiple testing areas were provided for the evaluation of various tools, equipment and procedures under conditions that simulated the Hanford site, with representative soils and layout dimensions. (authors)

  13. Hydrodynamics of Mine Impact Burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    differential equations of the form: dq =a q+b (a 0) dt ⋅ ≠ (152) The analytical solution will take the form, (Cannon 1967) and ( Boyce and... Diprima 1997): (153) ( ) ( ) ( )q t =q 0 +b t a=0⋅ This represents ordinary integration in a single variable, . Otherwise: q =f(t) ( ) ( ) (a...ft 2 0 1 q t dt=q 0 t+ b t a=0 2 ⋅ ⋅∫ ) (155) The system of first order, linear ordinary differential equations have solutions of form, ( Boyce

  14. Report about the contribution of new technologies to the burial of high and very-high voltage power lines; Rapport sur l'apport de nouvelles technologies dans l'enfouissement des lignes electriques a haute et tres haute tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kert, Ch. [Assemblee Nationale, 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-12-01

    Today, high voltage overhead power lines are badly perceived by the population in particular in urban areas and in areas with remarkable landscapes, for their visual impact on the environment and for their possible effect on human health. With the increase of the domestic and foreign power demand, the high voltage grid will develop in the future and the partial burial of power lines can be the first steps towards a solution to these problems. This report makes a worldwide status of the state-of-the-art of power line burial technologies, all voltages considered, and then focusses on the very-high voltage challenge which encounters the most important technological and economical constraints. The technical feasibility has been proven but the lowering of costs needs the development of a real European market of power lines burial. (J.S.)

  15. 40Ar-39Ar laser dating of ductile shear zones from central Corsica (France): Evidence of Alpine (middle to late Eocene) syn-burial shearing in Variscan granitoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vincenzo, Gianfranco; Grande, Antonietta; Prosser, Giacomo; Cavazza, William; DeCelles, Peter G.

    2016-10-01

    The island of Corsica (France) plays a central role in any reconstruction of Western Mediterranean geodynamics and paleogeography but several key aspects of its geological evolution are still uncertain. The most debated topics include the interpretation of the Corsican orogen as the result of an east- or west-directed subduction, and the actual involvement of the Variscan basement of Corsica in the Alpine orogenic cycle. This study integrates 40Ar-39Ar laserprobe, mesostructural, microtextural, and microchemical analyses and places relevant constraints on the style, P-T conditions, and timing of Alpine-age, pervasive ductile shear zones which affected the Variscan basement complex of central Corsica, a few kilometers to the west of the present-day front of the Alpine nappes. Shear zones strike ~ NNE-SSW, dip at a high angle, and are characterized by a dominant sinistral strike-slip component. Two of the three investigated shear zones contain two texturally and chemically resolvable generations of white mica, recording a prograde (burial) evolution: (1) deformed celadonite-poor relicts are finely overgrown by (2) a celadonite-rich white mica aligned along the main foliation. White mica from a third sample of another shear zone, characterized by a significantly lower porphyroclast/matrix ratio, exhibits a nearly uniform high-celadonite content, compositionally matching the texturally younger phengite from the nearby shear zones. Mineral-textural analysis, electron microprobe data, and pseudosection modeling constrain P-T conditions attained during shearing at ~ 300 °C and minimum pressures of ~ 0.6 GPa. In-situ 40Ar-39Ar analyses of coexisting low- and high-celadonite white micas from both shear zones yielded a relatively wide range of ages, ~ 45-36 Ma. Laser step-heating experiments gave sigmoidal-shaped age profiles, with step ages in line with in-situ spot dates. By contrast, the apparently chemically homogenous high-celadonite white mica yielded concordant in

  16. A semiótica de um enterro prematuro: o feminismo em uma era pós-feminista The semiotics of pemature burial: feminism in a postfeminist age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Hawkesworth

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, exploro as representações da morte do feminismo para compreender os significados maiores que cercam as declarações do fim simbólico do feminismo. Começarei investigando dois mecanismos pelos quais a morte do feminismo é produzida para expor os valores implícitos dos tanatófilos do feminismo. Depois considerarei versões rivais dos "signos da morte", de forma a explorar como as suposições peculiares sobre a ontologia do feminismo estão presas a formas específicas de morte metafórica. Dado o tipo particular de distorção implicada no enterro prematuro de um feminismo global florescente, a seção final do artigo situa o contemporâneo dobrar dos sinos pela morte do feminismo no contexto de uma história gendrada de práticas de enterro em vida. Através da escavação e da interpretação de tais práticas arcaicas, relacionarei o enterro retórico do feminismo contemporâneo a um esforço contínuo para minar as lutas feministas por justiça social.In this article, I will explore how the death of feminism is represented in order to plumb the larger meanings embedded in proclamations of feminism's symbolic death. I will begin by investigating two mechanisms by which feminism's death has been produced to unearth the tacit values of feminism's morticians. I will then consider competing accounts of the "signs of death" in order to explore how particular assumptions about the ontology of feminism are tied to specific forms of metaphorical death. Given the particular kind of distortion involved in the premature burial of a thriving global feminism, the final section of the article situates contemporary feminism's death knell in the context of a gendered history of live burial practices. By excavating and interpreting such archaic practices, I will link the rhetorical burial of contemporary feminism to an ongoing effort to undermine feminist struggles for social justice.

  17. Deposition and burial of organic carbon in coastal salt marsh: Research progress%滨海盐沼湿地有机碳的沉积与埋藏研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹磊; 宋金明; 李学刚; 袁华茂; 李宁; 段丽琴

    2013-01-01

    滨海盐沼湿地有着较高的碳沉积速率和固碳能力,在缓解全球变暖方面发挥着重要作用,而盐渍土壤是滨海盐沼湿地碳收支研究中最大的有机碳库,研究其碳沉积与埋藏对于理解滨海湿地碳收支有着重要的意义.本文从滨海盐沼湿地土壤有机碳的来源、土壤有机碳库与沉积速率、盐沼湿地有机碳的埋藏机制、全球变化与滨海盐沼湿地碳封存等几方面对滨海盐沼湿地有机碳沉积与埋藏的相关研究进行综述.今后研究应侧重:1)加强对控制滨海盐沼湿地碳储存变异的基本因素的迸一步研究;2)对测量滨海盐沼湿地沉积物碳储量和沉积碳埋藏速率的方法进行标准化;3)对潮汐影响下滨海盐沼湿地碳与邻近生态系统之间的横向交换通量进行量化;4)探明全球变暖的影响和生产力的提高是否可以抵消因呼吸增强而造成的有机碳降解速率的升高.确定固碳速率变化驱动因子,理解气候变化和人类活动对碳埋藏的影响机制,有助于提升我国滨海盐沼湿地的固碳能力.%Coastal salt marsh has higher potential of carbon sequestration,playing an important role in mitigating global warming,while coastal saline soil is the largest organic carbon pool in the coastal salt marsh carbon budget.To study the carbon deposition and burial in this soil is of significance for clearly understanding the carbon budget of coastal salt marsh.This paper summarized the research progress on the deposition and burial of organic carbon in coastal salt marsh from the aspects of the sources of coastal salt marsh soil organic carbon,soil organic carbon storage and deposition rate,burial mechanisms of soil organic carbon,and the relationships between the carbon sequestration in coastal salt marsh and the global climate change.Some suggestions for the future related researches were put forward:1) to further study the underlying factors that control the variability of

  18. Mineralogical, chemical and K-Ar isotopic changes in Kreyenhagen Shale whole rocks and <2 μm clay fractions during natural burial and hydrous-pyrolysis experimental maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauer, N.; Lewan, M. D.; Dolan, M. P.; Chaudhuri, S.; Curtis, J. B.

    2014-04-01

    Progressive maturation of the Eocene Kreyenhagen Shale from the San Joaquin Basin of California was studied by combining mineralogical and chemical analyses with K-Ar dating of whole rocks and bearing minerals of the rocks. The Al/K ratio of the naturally matured rocks is essentially constant for the entire depth sequence, indicating that there is no detectable variation in the crystallo-chemical organization of the K-bearing alumino-silicates with depth. No supply of K from outside of the rock volumes occurred, which indicates a closed-system behavior for it. Conversely, the content of the total organic carbon (TOC) content decreases significantly with burial, based on the progressive increasing Al/TOC ratio of the whole rocks. The initial varied mineralogy and chemistry of the rocks and their sources and depositional settings give scattered results that homogenize progressively during burial due to increased authigenesis, and concomitant increased alteration of the detrital material. Hydrous pyrolysis was intended to alleviate the problem of mineral and chemical variations in initially deposited rocks of naturally matured sequences. However, experiments on aliquots from thermally immature Kreyenhagen Shale outcrop sample did not mimic the results from naturally buried samples. Experiments conducted for 72 h at temperatures from 270 to 365 °C did not induce significant changes at temperatures above 310 °C in the mineralogical composition and K-Ar ages of the rock and heated the most at 365 °C for 216 h. This slight decrease in age outlines some loss of radiogenic 40Ar, together with losses of organic matter as oil, gas, and aqueous organic species. Large amounts of smectite layers in the illite-smectite mixed layers of the pyrolyzed outcrop source rock, the pore system is no longer wetted by water and smectite to illite conversion ceases. Experimental attempts to evaluate the smectite conversion to illite should preferentially use low-TOC rocks to avoid

  19. The long-term records of carbon burial fluxes in sediment cores of culture zones from Sanggou Bay%桑沟湾养殖海域沉积物中碳埋藏通量的长期记录

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘赛; 杨茜; 杨庶; 孙耀; 杨桂朋

    2014-01-01

    Total carbon (TC),total organic carbon (TOC),total inorganic carbon (TIC)and marine-derived organic carbon (Ca )in two sediment cores of the Sanggou Bay were analyzed.Combined with sedimentary chronose-quence,the burial fluxes (BF)of carbon were determined.The result shows that burial fluxes of carbon were rela-tively steady before 1900s;however,along with the rise of the industrial revolution,natural small shellfish thrived due to the increase of nutrients in the inner bay,leading to a rapid increase of burial fluxes;and then,from 1960s, with the development of large-scale artificial farming,carbon burial fluxes gradually reached a steady state again be-cause of the growing effort of harvesting.Before the 1960s,the ratios of BFC/BFTOC and BFC a/BFTC were under a 20% and 4% respectively,after that time,with the expansion of farming activities,although the ratios keep increas-ing,the ratio of BFTOC/BFTC were under 40% all the time.The ratio of BFTIC/BFTC in Sanggou Bay,which were between 60% and 98%,was higher than the ratio (about 15%)in the central Huanghai Sea.The high ratio of TIC/TC in Sanggou Bay may result in great errors when using TOC or Ca to estimate the burial fluxes of carbon.%对取自桑沟湾北部和南部养殖海域2个站位柱状沉积物样品进行研究,测定了它们的总碳(TC)、有机碳(TOC)、无机碳(TIC)含量,估算了海源有机碳(Ca ),结合沉积物年代序列测定,对碳的来源和埋藏通量(BF)进行分析。结果表明:从19世纪到20世纪初,桑沟湾碳埋藏基本处于平稳期;20世纪初开始,伴随着中国工业革命兴起,湾内营养水平提高,大量天然小型贝类繁殖及残骸埋藏使桑沟湾碳埋藏量有大幅度突跃;20世纪60年代以来人工养殖活动兴起及到90年代大规模养殖后,天然贝类繁殖受抑制且伴随养殖产品的不断收获,使此期间碳埋藏量又处于平稳期。20世纪60年代前BFCa/BFTOC和 BFCa

  20. 辽河坳陷潜山深化勘探理论与实践%The theory and practice for exploration of burial hill in Liaohe depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭彦民; 尤桂彬; 林洪利

    2009-01-01

    Great progress has been achieved for exploration of buried hill reservoir in Liaohe depression. The exploration work for buried hill reservoir has changed from much distinct hill, such as top buried hill, middle part buried hill to much dee-per, blinder, complex buried bill, such as, lowly buried hill, inner buried hill. The reservoir forming conditions of lowly bur-ied hill and inner buried hill have been discussed considering factors of activities of basement structure, buried hill type, litholo-gy characteristic, reservoir characteristic, hydrocarbon generation system, passage system. A pragmatic classification for inner buried hill reservoir was updated, considering the characteristics of inner buried hill reservoir and exploration fact. The classifi-cation has expanded the areas of finding buried hill reservoir, and result to an objective accumulation model for buried hill reser-voir, with low amplitude, multiple stage fracture and multiple oil sources. From study and practice for exploration of low buri-al hill and inner burial hill in Liaohe depression, a discovery of low burial hill and inner hill reserves (containing proved oil re-serves, controlled reserves and predicted reserves) of 2. 54 × 108 tones and 1.76 × 108 tones respectively from 2001 to 2006 have been reached. It has a great contribution to development of Liaohe Oilfield.%辽河坳陷潜山油气藏勘探近年来不断取得重大突破,实现了由寻找成藏条件相对明显的高、中潜山向寻找埋藏更深、更隐蔽、更复杂的低潜山和潜山内幕油气藏的勘探转变.从基底构造活动、潜山类型、岩性及储集层特征、生烃系统、输导体系等多角度探讨了低潜山和潜山内幕油气成藏条件;同时,考虑潜山内幕油气藏的特点,结合勘探实践,从潜山与油气的关系入手重新建立潜山内幕油藏实用分类方法,拓宽了潜山找油领域,形成了具有低幅度、多期裂缝、多油源充注特点的潜山内

  1. Request for interim approval to operate Trench 94 of the 218-E-12B Burial Ground as a chemical waste landfill for disposal of polychlorinated biphenyl waste in submarine reactor compartments. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummins, G.D.

    1994-06-01

    This request is submitted to seek interim approval to operate a Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) of 1976 chemical waste landfill for the disposal of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) waste. Operation of a chemical waste landfill for disposal of PCB waste is subject to the TSCA regulations of 40 CFR 761. Interim approval is requested for a period not to exceed 5 years from the date of approval. This request covers only the disposal of small 10 quantities of solid PCB waste contained in decommissioned, defueled submarine reactor compartments (SRC). In addition, the request applies only to disposal 12 of this waste in Trench 94 of the 218-E-12B Burial Ground (Trench 94) in the 13 200 East Area of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Facility. Disposal of this waste will be conducted in accordance with the Compliance 15 Agreement (Appendix H) between the DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and 16 the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 10. During the 5-year interim approval period, the DOE-RL will submit an application seeking final 18 approval for operation of Trench 94 as a chemical waste landfill, including 19 any necessary waivers, and also will seek a final dangerous waste permit from 20 the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) for disposal of lead 21 shielding contained in the SRCS.

  2. Assessment report: Application from OKG AB for a license according to the Act on Nuclear Activities concerning a shallow land burial/landfill for low-level nuclear waste in Simpevarp in the Oskarshamn municipality; Granskningsrapport: Ansoekan fraan OKG Aktiebolag om tillstaand enligt kaerntekniklagen (1984:3) till en markdeponi foer laagaktivt avfall i Simpevarp i Oskarshamns kommun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindbom, G.; Wiebert, A.; Norden, M.; Larsson, Carl-Magnus; Loefgren, T.; Lumpus, J

    2000-10-01

    OKG AB has to SSI submitted an application for a license according to the Act on Nuclear Activities (1984:3) concerning a shallow land burial/landfill for low-level nuclear waste in Simpevarp in the Oskarshamn municipality. The application for a license covers permission to build, possess and operate a shallow land burial/landfill for low-level nuclear waste. Attached to the application is an environmental impact statement. An application for a license according to the Environmental Act (1998:808) has been submitted to the Environmental Court in Vaexjoe. SSI has circulated the application for consideration to the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, the County Government Board of Kalmar and the Oskarshamn municipality. SSI has informed the European Commission about the application in accordance with the EURATOM Treaty, article 37. This assessment report constitutes the base for the decision by SSI 2000-09-18 for approval and radiation protection conditions. In the report, earlier permissions for shallow land burials/landfills at the Swedish nuclear installations are described. This report shows the development of the legal system during the last years, the premises for the assessment of the application, and SSI's review of OKG's plans, consequence analysis and environmental impact statement.

  3. Impact of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) plantings on long term {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr recycling from a waste burial site in the Chernobyl Red Forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiry, Yves, E-mail: Yves.Thiry@andra.f [SCK-CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Center, Foundation of Public Utility, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Colle, Claude [IRSN, Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, Ce Cadarache, 13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Yoschenko, Vasyl; Levchuk, Svjatoslav [UIAR, Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology, Mashinostroiteley Str.7, Kiev Region, 08162 Chabany (Ukraine); Van Hees, May [SCK-CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Center, Foundation of Public Utility, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Hurtevent, Pierre [IRSN, Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, Ce Cadarache, 13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Kashparov, Valery [UIAR, Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology, Mashinostroiteley Str.7, Kiev Region, 08162 Chabany (Ukraine)

    2009-12-15

    Plantings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) on a waste burial site in the Chernobyl Red Forest was shown to greatly influence the long term redistribution of radioactivity contained in sub-surfaces trenches. After 15 years of growth, aboveground biomass of the average tree growing on waste trench no.22 had accumulated 1.7 times more {sup 137}Cs than that of trees growing off the trench, and 5.4 times more {sup 90}Sr. At the scale of the trench and according to an average tree density of 3300 trees/ha for the study zone, tree contamination would correspond to 0.024% of the {sup 137}Cs and 2.52% of the {sup 90}Sr contained in the buried waste material. A quantitative description of the radionuclide cycling showed a potential for trees to annually extract up to 0.82% of the {sup 90}Sr pool in the trench and 0.0038% of the {sup 137}Cs. A preferential {sup 90}Sr uptake from the deep soil is envisioned while pine roots would take up {sup 137}Cs mostly from less contaminated shallow soil layers. The current upward flux of {sup 90}Sr through vegetation appeared at least equal to downward loss in waste material leaching as reported by Dewiere et al. (2004, Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 74, 139-150). Using a prospective calculation model, we estimated that maximum {sup 90}Sr cycling can be expected to occur at 40 years post-planting, resulting in 12% of the current {sup 90}Sr content in the trench transferred to surface soils through biomass turnover and 7% stored in tree biomass. These results are preliminary, although based on accurate methodology. A more integrated ecosystem study leading to the coupling between biological and geochemical models of radionuclide cycling within the Red Forest seems opportune. Such a study would help in the adequate management of that new forest and the waste trenches upon which they reside.

  4. New research results on “La Plaza de Toros” of Cerro de San Pelayo” (Martimor, Salamanca: a tumulus burial with inhumation at the beginning of the Firts Millenium in the Western area of the North Meseta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Jiménez, Óscar

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present the latest results obtained from the systematic revision of the materials from this unique site. We present here the burial level in its complete context and the first results of the analyses of this assemblage. We have documented in it human bones, elements of fauna possibly associated with a funerary feast, storage pottery and the well-known geometric painted vessel. The results obtained by analysis of the distribution and post-depositional processes are also very interesting, allowing us to recreate the space in which seem to be represented symbolic and prestige elements that indicate important social changes in these societies. All this, together with the calibration of the radiocarbon dates taken from the tumulus, offers a more complete archaeological documentation of this little known area in the South-western of the Northern Meseta.

    En este trabajo pretendemos adelantar los últimos resultados obtenidos de la revisión sistemática realizada sobre los materiales de este yacimiento de características únicas hasta ahora en la región. Avanzamos aquí la presentación del nivel de enterramiento en su contexto completo y los primeros resultados de los análisis de este conjunto. En él documentamos restos humanos, elementos de fauna posiblemente asociados a un banquete funerario, elementos de almacenaje y el ya conocido vaso pintado con decoración geométrica. Los resultados obtenidos por los análisis de dispersión y procesos postdeposicionales son igualmente de gran interés, permitiéndonos recrear ese espacio en el que parecen estar representados elementos simbólicos y de prestigio que indican importantes cambios en las sociedades de aquel momento. Todo ello, unido a la recalibración de las fechas radiocarbónicas del interior del túmulo, ofrece una completa documentación arqueológica de un momento poco conocido en el área sudoccidental de la Meseta Norte.

  5. Miscellaneous Burial Recovery in Eastern Washington, 1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    slight resorption , and the mandibular left central incisor was missing antemortem. Finally, dental attrition was as marked as that of the individual... resorption , according to criteria set up by Brothwell (1963) . In addition, the upper right third molar and the upper left second molar were missing...bone resorption . The surface of the affected area was smooth. unfortunately, the entire proximal end of this femur was missing. Neither the left

  6. Resistance to burial of cyanobacteria in stromatolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromkamp, J.C.; Perkins, R.; Dijkman, N.A.; Consalvey, M.; Andres, R.P.; Reid, R.P.

    2007-01-01

    Stromatolites are complex lithified structures with a well-defined layered structure thought to have been formed by trapping and binding of sediment particles by micro-organisms, especially cyanobacteria. Modern marine stromatolites in the Bahamas live in a high-energy environment (surf zone) and ar

  7. Birth and Burial Rituals Unique to Labrang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    BirthandBurialRitualsUniquetoLabrangFOLKLOREHUARUIDONGZHIZholma’slaborpainsmadehercryasshelayinhertent,whereholysmokeblewfrom...

  8. Arboreal Burials in Nicrophorus spp. (Coleoptera: Silphidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda J. Lowe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nicrophorus beetles are well known for interring small vertebrates below ground for the purpose of rearing their young. However, the arboreal use of carrion has not been previously investigated. Nest boxes were suspended in the canopy of two forest habitats in Nova Scotia, Canada, to determine if this microhabitat fostered the same behaviour. Although four species of Nicrophorus as well as Oiceoptoma noveboracense (Forster were recorded in association with carrion, arboreal reproduction was recorded exclusively and for the first time in N. tomentosus Weber and N. defodiens Mannerheim. Both N. sayi Laporte and N. pustulatus Herschel were associated with the arboreal carrion but did not reproduce on it during these experiments.

  9. Résines et asphaltènes : évolution en fonction des types de matière organique et de leur enfouissement Resins and Asphaltenes: Evolution As a Function of Organic-Matter Type and Burial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castex H.

    2006-11-01

    several basins. It was shown that: (a Resins have higher mean carbon and hydrogen values as well as a lower C/H ratio than asphaltenes. Resins thus have a more aliphatic and or more alicyclic structure. On the other hand, asphaltenes contain more sulfur, oxygen end nitrogen. (b Sulfur and oxygen are not parameters enabling basins to be differentiated. (c Different types of organic matter are revealed by an H/C, O/C diagram. Their chemical evolution with burial is characterized by a decrease in hydrogen, oxygen and sulfur contents. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and infrared spectroscopy (IRS were used to follow the structural evolution of resins and asphaltenes coming from different types of organic matter (algal, marine and terrestrial buried at increasing depths. NMR can be used to compute several structural parameters such as FA aromaticity and the degree of sigma substitution of the aromatic system. The FA factor seems to increase with burial and according to the type of organic matter, while sigma seems to decrease. These data were completed by infrared spectroscopy. The surface areas of the bands corresponding to the following functions were computed: (a OH in the 3700-2700 cm-1 range; (b carbonyl C-O around 1700 cm-1; (c aliphatic C-H at 2900, 2455 and 1380 cm-1; (d aromatic C-H at 1610 cm-1. Variations in the intensity of bands: (a decrease of aliphatic C-H and of C-O functions; (b increase of aromatic C-H and C-C are related to both the type of organic matter and its catagenesis.

  10. Variations of Carbon Isotope Carbon Burial in the Late Permian and the Significance of Organic at Xinmin Section, Guizhou Province%贵州新民剖面晚二叠世碳同位素变化特征及有机碳埋藏的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡庆; 沈俊; 冯庆来

    2012-01-01

    根据碳循环模式,通过无机碳和有机碳碳同位素记录,半定量—定量地计算了贵州新民剖面晚二叠世有机碳埋藏分数forg,同时结合表征古海洋初级生产力的疑源类、藻类与菌孢的丰度值,详细分析了有机碳埋藏分数forg、古海洋生产力与岩石中保存的残余TOC之间的耦合关系。该研究发现新民剖面晚二叠世初级生产力较有机碳埋藏分数forg对残余TOC的贡献更大。但这一结果仍需进一步论证:新民剖面和煤山剖面forg与δ13Ccarb的高度相关性暗示forg主要受控于δ13Ccarb,而在Kump碳循环模型中忽略了晚二叠世火山活动对无机碳同位素组成的重要影响。%The fraction of organic carbon burial (forg) is calculated on the basis of the carbon cycle model with the re- cords of carbon isotope composition on both carbonate and organic matter in the late Permian at Xinmin section, and the abundance of acritachs, algae and microbes which represents marine primary paleo-productivity is examined. We discuss the relationship among fors, marine paleo-productivity and the content of residual TOC in details. Residual TOC is determined by the combinations of the primary productivity, organic carbon burial fraction (fors) and burial redox conditions. But the data in Xinmin section and Meishan section show that the paleo-productivity plays a domi- nant role on the value of residual TOC. But this conclusion still needs further proof: we found that fo~s is mainly con- trolled by 813Coarb by Kump' s model, in which it concluded increased volcanism leads to only small changes in ~13 Ccarb, and set the carbon isotope value of volcanic activity and weathering as ~w = -5%o. That is to say, a series of secondary environmental effects caused by volcanism were ignored, such as " volcanic winter", ocean acidification, smoke and other toxic substances and so on, all of which had great impact on the marine environment. However, large-sized volcanism

  11. 大河影响下的边缘海沉积有机碳输运与埋藏及再矿化研究进展%RESEARCH PROGRESS IN TRANSPORT, BURIAL AND REMINERALIZATION OF ORGANIC CARBON AT LARGE RIVER DOMINATED OCEAN MARGINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚鹏; 于志刚; 郭志刚

    2013-01-01

    Large-river dominated ocean margins (RiOMars) are, as a major repository of terrestrial materials and one of the most important active sites for burial and remineralization of organic matter on the Earth's surface, play an important role in global biogeochemical cycles of carbon. The research advances in biogeochemistry of sedimentary organic carbon (SOC) in RiOMars were reviewed in this paper concern-ings of transport, burial and remineralization of organic carbon. The nature of SOC, e. g. sources, composition, size and density fractions can significantly influence its distribution and fate in margin systems. The special sedimentation environment in RiOMars, for example the mobile muds, plays a unique role in organic carbon transport, burial and remineralization. Microbial metabolism enhances the decay of SOC, especially the refractory terrestrial organic materials in the margins. Comprehensive studies based on integrated techniques of molecular biology, organic geochemistry and biogeochemistry are helpful to reveal the role of special microbial and phytoplankton functional types in biogeochemical cycles of SOC in RiOMars, and to understand the biogeochemical cycles of biogenic elements in estuaries and continental margins.%大河影响下的边缘海是陆源输入物质的主要储库,也是有机碳埋藏和再矿化的主要场所,在全球碳的生物地球化学循环中有着重要作用.从有机碳的输运、埋藏和再矿化等方面综述了大河影响下的边缘海沉积有机碳生物地球化学研究的最新进展.研究表明,有机碳的来源、组成、粒径和密度分布等显著影响着有机碳的分布特征和归宿,大河影响下的边缘海中移动泥等特殊沉积环境在有机碳的输运、埋藏和再矿化分解等方面发挥了独特的作用;微生物分解作用则是边缘海沉积有机碳,特别是难降解陆源有机碳发生分解的重要因素.综合运用分子生物学、有机地

  12. Un petit ensemble funéraire du haut Moyen Âge à Neuillé-Pont-Pierre (Indre-et-Loire : nouveau regard sur le statut de ces lieux d’inhumation A small funerary collection from the Early Middle Ages at Neuillé-Pont-Pierre (Indre-et-Loire: a new look at the status of these burial places

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Papin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available C’est dans le cadre du diagnostic de la ZAC Polaxis sur la commune de Neuillé-Pont-Pierre, en Indre-et-Loire, que la mise au jour d’un groupe de cinq inhumations présentant des caractéristiques particulières a été effectuée. Datées du début du haut Moyen Âge, ces sépultures ont la spécificité de posséder des structures sur poteaux associées aux fosses. L’organisation de ces monuments funéraires prouve une réelle volonté de marquer ce lieu de mémoire dans le paysage et dénote un traitement privilégié du mort. Ceci invite à jeter un regard nouveau sur la position sociale de ces petits lieux d’inhumations du haut Moyen Âge. Cette découverte originale est semble-t-il, un cas unique en région Centre, et les rares points de comparaison doivent être cherchés principalement en Normandie et en Europe du Nord, dans des contextes particuliers. Cette question reste cependant difficile à appréhender, à la mesure de la pauvreté des publications de ce type de sites.It was during the archaeological diagnosis of the Polaxis urban development zone, in the municipality of Neuillé-Pont-Pierre (Indre-et-Loire, that a discovery of a group of five burials presenting particular characteristics was made. These graves from the beginning of the Early Middle Ages are unique in possessing associated structures on posts. The organization of these funerary monuments proves a real will to mark this memorable place in the landscape and signify a privileged treatment of the dead. This invites us to look anew at the social position of these small burial places in the Early Middle Ages. This original discovery seems to be a unique event in the Centre region , and the rare points of comparison must be mainly looked for in Normandy and in Northern Europe, in particular contexts. This question is however difficult to understand, considering the lack of publications of this kind of sites.

  13. 激发式秸秆深还对土壤养分和冬小麦产量的影响%Effect of Straw Returning via Deep Burial Coupled with Application of Fertilizer as Primer on Soil Nutrients and Winter Wheat Yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵金花; 张丛志; 张佳宝

    2016-01-01

    针对目前黄淮海平原潮土区普遍实施的覆盖式秸秆还田所存在的主要问题,本研究提出了基于氮肥激发的秸秆深埋还田技术,并通过连续4年(2011—2014)的大田定位试验进行检验。系统比较了秸秆移除、秸秆覆盖还田、激发式秸秆深还(秸秆与无机氮肥或有机氮肥配施进行深埋,并于行间种植作物)的3种秸秆还田方式对土壤养分和冬小麦产量的影响。结果表明:激发式秸秆深还在各项土壤养分指标和冬小麦产量方面均有显著优势,该处理能够显著增加土壤有机质、微生物生物量碳、微生物生物量氮、土壤全氮和土壤硝态氮含量,并显著提升冬小麦产量。其中无机氮肥激发秸秆深还处理能显著增加土壤硝态氮含量和冬小麦有效穗数,从而显著提升冬小麦产量。而有机氮肥激发的秸秆深还处理主要通过提升土壤有机质,增加冬小麦千粒重来增加产量。所有处理中16%无机氮肥激发的秸秆深还冬小麦产量最高。%Currently,crop straw return via mulching is a practice extensively applied in the fluvo-aquic soil zone of the North China Plain,however,the straw returned via mulching is not readily decomposed and hence unable to raise soil fertility and crop yield instantly.Moreover,straw decomposition needs to consume soil N in competition with crop growth,thus making it hard for the two to share the limited N supply harmoniously. A technique of deep burial of straw coupled with application of inorganic or organic nitrogen as primer was presented in this paper,and a continuous four-year(2011—2014)field experiment was conducted to study effects of the technique on soil fertility and wheat yield. The experiment was designed to have 3 treatments in straw returning method,i.e.,Treatment NS(No straw returned),Treatment S(Straw returned via mulching,and Treatment IS(straw buried in deep furrows and then covered with crop

  14. Thermodynamic Equilibrium of Calcite in Strata Environment and Its Application of Burial Karst Forcasting in Tahe Oil Field, Tarim Basin%埋藏条件下方解石热力学平衡及其在塔河油田埋藏岩溶预测中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮壮; 于炳松; 李朝晖; 朱筱敏

    2011-01-01

    方解石在成岩环境中的溶解度与地下水化学特征、温度等有着极为密切的关系.通过CaCO3溶解沉淀反应平衡以及地下水中的Ca2+活度可以确定不同温压的地下水条件下方解石的溶解趋势.地下水溶液的pH值和温度是方解石溶解度最直接的控制因素.方解石溶解趋势可以通过CaCO3电离反应的吉布斯自由能(△G)来判断:△G<0时,反应向溶解方向进行;△G>0时,反应向沉淀方向进行.根据方解石的水岩反应理论,对塔河油田34口井的奥陶系地层水进行了△G的统计计算.结果显示:塔河油田现今地下水条件有利于方解石的溶解,西部地区较东部溶解趋势强,北部地区溶解趋势相对较弱.这为定量了解塔河地区埋藏岩溶趋势及该地区的储层评价预测提供了理论依据.%The solubility of calcite in the diagenesis is closely related to the chemistry of groundwater and the temperature. According to the reaction equilibrium of CaCO3 and activity of Ca2+ in groundwater, the solubility of calcite in different temperatures and pressures could be calculated. The pH value and the temperature of solution are the main factors to control the solubility of calcite. The dissolving tendency of calcite could be judged by the Gibbs free energy. The condition with △G0 is favorite to deposit of calcite. The AG of groundwater in thirty-four wells are calculated, Tahe oilfield. The results show that: present groundwater conditions favor the dissolution of calcite, the calcite tends to dissolute more in west and south area. This water-rock reaction theory can be used to quantitative understand the burial karst tendency and support the reservoir evaluaterating.

  15. Tracking Eukaryotic Production and Burial Through Time with Zinc Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, T. Y. S.; Planavsky, N.; Owens, J. D.; Love, G. D.; Lyons, T.; Peterson, L. C.; Knoll, A. H.; Dupont, C. L.; Reinhard, C.; Zumberge, A.

    2015-12-01

    Zinc is an important, often co-limiting nutrient for eukaryotes in the oceans today. Given the importance of Zn in the modern oceans, we developed a Zn isotope approach to track the extent of Zn limitation and eukaryotic production through Earth's history. Specifically, we use the isotopic systematics of the pyrite (δ66Znpyr), rock extracts (bitumen) and kerogen pyrolysate (δ66Znorg) within euxinic black shales. We show that δ66Znpyr of euxinic core-top muds from the Cariaco basin capture the global deep seawater signature, validating its use as a seawater proxy. Additionally, we propose that Δ66Znpyr-org can be used to track surface water zinc bioavailability. Detailed studies of short-lived oceanic anoxic events such as Cretaceous OAE2, which punctuate an otherwise dominantly oxic Phanerozoic world, exhibit dramatic shifts in seawater δ66Zn and organic bound zinc. Such perturbations are consistent with the demise of eukaryotes under a nitrogen stressed regime, in which cyanobacteria carry the competitive advantage. Contradictory to previous models, however, our data suggest that zinc remained largely bioavailable throughout these anoxic intervals despite significant drawdown of the global reservoir. The framework developed from studies of the modern, Cenozoic, and Mesozoic can be used to track the Precambrian evolution of the marine Zn cycle and the rise of eukaryotic algae to ecological dominance.

  16. Effect of Corynebacterium glutamicum on Livestock Material Burial Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bit-Na; Cho, Ho-Seong; Cha, Yougin; Park, Joon-Kyu; Kim, Geonha; Kim, Yang-Hoon; Min, Jiho

    2016-08-28

    In recent years, foot-and-mouth disease has occurred in all parts of the world. The animals with the disease are buried in the ground; therefore, their concentration could affect ground or groundwater. Moreover, the complete degradation of carcasses is not a certainty, and their disposal is important to prevent humans, livestock, and the environment from being affected with the disease. The treatment of Corynebacterium glutamicum is a feasible method to reduce the risk of carcass decomposition affecting humans or the environment. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of C. glutamicum on the soil environment with a carcass. The composition of amino acids in the soil treated with C. glutamicum was generally higher than those in the untreated soil. Moreover, the plant root in the soil samples treated with C. glutamicum had 84.0% amino acids relative to the standard value and was similar to that of the control. The results of this study suggest the possibility to reduce the toxicity of a grave land containing animals with this disease.

  17. Calculating the global contribution of coralline algae to carbon burial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. H. van der Heijden

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing increase in anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions is changing the global marine environment and is causing warming and acidification of the oceans. Reduction of CO2 to a sustainable level is required to avoid further marine change. Many studies investigate the potential of marine carbon sinks (e.g. seagrass to mitigate anthropogenic emissions, however, information on storage by coralline algae and the beds they create is scant. Calcifying photosynthetic organisms, including coralline algae, can act as a CO2 sink via photosynthesis and CaCO3 dissolution and act as a CO2 source during respiration and CaCO3 production on short-term time scales. Long-term carbon storage potential might come from the accumulation of coralline algae deposits over geological time scales. Here, the carbon storage potential of coralline algae is assessed using meta-analysis of their global organic and inorganic carbon production and the processes involved in this metabolism. Organic and inorganic production were estimated at 330 g C m−2 yr−1 and 880 g CaCO3 m−2 yr−1 respectively giving global organic/inorganic C production of 0.7/1.8 × 109 t C yr−1. Calcium carbonate production by free-living/crustose coralline algae (CCA corresponded to a sediment accretion of 70/450 mm kyr−1. Using this potential carbon storage by coralline algae, the global production of free-living algae/CCA was 0.4/1.2 × 109 t C yr−1 suggesting a total potential carbon sink of 1.6 × 109 t C yr−1. Coralline algae therefore have production rates similar to mangroves, saltmarshes and seagrasses representing an as yet unquantified but significant carbon store, however, further empirical investigations are needed to determine the dynamics and stability of that store.

  18. Mine Impact Burial Prediction From One to Three Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    scaled depth of roughly 18.29 m 60 ft. The tank has no current and no wind blowing over its surface. To aid in shape recovery, a 913 m2, 2 cm...netting was mounted to a constructed 1.9 cm diameter PVC piping horizontal grid and placed at the bottom of the tank out of camera view. At the end of a...development, mold construction, and test shape casting, and finishing. This pro- cess was necessary to facilitate more efficient experimentation and to

  19. Using an Instrumented Mine to Validate Models Predicting Mine Burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    surface- gravity -wave-induced momentary and cyclic liquefaction models. APPROACH In FY98 we designed and constructed a mine analogue instrumented with...1 c m S p ac in g Ju ly Augu st 1 3 5 7 9 113028 RELATED PROJECTS 1 – The 1999 NRL 6.1 High -Frequency Acoustics Spatial Variability field

  20. Burial and resurgence of projective identification in French psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widlöcher, Daniel

    2014-08-01

    Curiously enough, the concept of projective identification was ignored, and even rejected in France for at least two decades after the publication of the founding texts of Melanie Klein and Herbert Rosenfeld. This rejection was due to a critique from child psychoanalysts close to Anna Freud and also from the teaching of Lacan: the first took the real mother-child relation extensively into account, while the latter only saw the internal object as a signifier. The fact that during this period the countertransference was a concept reduced to its negative content no doubt explains this deliberate ignorance. With the dissemination of a broader and more positive conception of the countertransference, a renewal of interest could be observed in the 1980s with references to empathic listening and to the effects of thought-induction.

  1. Burial Ad Sanctos at Jaina Sites in India

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of the process of gradual integration of religious artifacts into the originally anti-iconic protestant Jaina traditions, starting with relics of renowned saints, and the evolution of pilgrimage centres from the early nineteenth century onwards shows that it followed the same logic as proposed by the theory of aniconism for the development of anthropomorphic images in ancient India: relics, stūpas, aniconic representations, anthropomorphic iconoplastic representations. It is argu...

  2. Assessment of Hanford burial grounds and interim TRU storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, J.F.; Brown, D.J.; Isaacson, R.E.

    1977-08-01

    A review and assessment is made of the Hanford low level solid radioactive waste management sites and facilities. Site factors considered favorable for waste storage and disposal are (1) limited precipitation, (2) a high deficiency of moisture in the underlying sediments (3) great depth to water table, all of which minimize radionuclide migration by water transport, and (4) high sorbtive capacity of the sediments. Facilities are in place for 20 year retrievable storage of transuranic (TRU) wastes and for disposal of nontransuranic radioactive wastes. Auxiliary facilities and services (utilities, roads, fire protection, shops, etc.) are considered adequate. Support staffs such as engineering, radiation monitoring, personnel services, etc., are available and are shared with other operational programs. The site and associated facilities are considered well suited for solid radioactive waste storage operations. However, recommendations are made for study programs to improve containment, waste package storage life, land use economy, retrievability and security of TRU wastes.

  3. The Role of Variability in Mine Burial Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    An important part of that effort will involve designing user interfaces that will both display the complexities and uncertainties of the problem...before being described and sampled. Images were later combined into master images of each core and added to the MBP website . Samples were returned to

  4. Specific surface as a measure of burial diagenesis of chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borre, Mai Kirstine; Lind, Ida; Mortensen, Jeanette

    1997-01-01

    ODP Leg 130, Site 807, in the western equatorial Pacific, penetrates a sequence of pelagic carbonate ooze, chalk and limestone. Compaction, recrystallisation and cementation of the carbonate matrix are diagenetic processes expected to be taking place more or less simultaneously. In order to assess...... the relative importance of the three processes, simple models have been established to illustrate changes in pore space, particle size and -shape and the resulting trends in the specific surface. Specific surface and porosity of the samples were measured using image analysis on electron micrographs of polished...

  5. Characteristics and significance of the burial dissolution of dolomite reservoirs:Taking the Lower Palaeozoic in eastern Tarim Basin as an example%白云岩储集层埋藏溶蚀作用特征及意义——以塔里木盆地东部下古生界为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金振奎; 余宽宏

    2011-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of core, thin-section, physical properties and carbon, oxygen and strontium isotope, the characteristics of Lower Paleozoic dolomite reservoirs, dissolution features and mechanism in eastern Tarim Basin were studied. Massive dissolution pore-cave dolomite is the main reservoir type in eastern Tarim Basin. The dissolution pores and caves are mainly medium to small with dense distribution. The fillings in dissolution pores and cracks commonly show negative δ18O, generally far lower than the surrounding rock; slightly negative δ13C, partially positive; slightly high 87Sr/86Sr. Proportion of CtLtand CO2 is high in fluid inclusions and some of them contain high proportion of H2S, which demonstrated that the organic matter was at the high evolution stage when the inclusions were captured, suggesting deep burial circumstances. Silicification and high homogeneous temperature also indicate the presence of hydrothermal fluids. Dissolution includes organic acid dissolution and hydrothermal water dissolution. Acid fluid mainly includes organic acid, CO2 and H2S, which were mainly generated in the process of evolution of organic matter, with a little H2S from sulfate reduction, a little CO2 from volcanic activity. As the carrier of acid fluid, hydrothermal fluids overcome kinetic obstruction of dissolution and dissolve the deep dolomite. Major faults and associated faults provide channels for hydrothermal fluids, the acid fluid was further dispersed in dolomites through numerous inter-crystal pores caused by dolomitization and micro-cracks caused by compaction to complete dissolution for dolomite reservoirs.%根据岩心、薄片、物性特征及碳、氧、锶同位素组成特征,研究塔里木盆地东部下古生界白云岩储集层特征、溶蚀作用特征及机理.块状溶蚀孔洞型白云岩为塔东地区最主要的储集岩类型,溶蚀孔洞以中小孔为主,分布较密集.溶蚀孔洞及裂缝充填物δ18O值偏

  6. Innovative permeable cover system to reduce risks at a chemical munitions burial site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powels, C.C. [Army Garrison, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States); Bon, I. [Army Corps. of Engineers, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States); Okusu, N.M. [ICF Kaiser Engineering, Savannah, GA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    An innovative permeable sand cover with various integrated systems has been designed to contain and treat the Old O-Field chemical munitions landfill at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The 18,200 m{sup 2} (4.5 acre) landfill was used from the mid 1930s to the mid 1950s for the disposal of chemical, incendiary, and explosive munitions from domestic and foreign origins, together with contaminated wastes associated with the development and production of chemical warfare agents (CWA). The site is suspected to be contaminated with white phosphorous (WP) (which when dry, spontaneously burns when exposed to air), shock sensitive picric acid fuses and has the potential to contain large quantities of CWA-filled munitions. Historically, one to three explosions or fires occurred per ten-year period at the landfill. Such events have the potential to cause a CWA release to the environment, which could potentially affect densely populated areas. Recovery and decontamination projects conducted at the site in the late 1940s and early 1950s used large amounts of decontamination chemicals (containing solvents) and fuels which further contaminated the area. The groundwater downgradient of the landfill is contaminated with volatile organic compounds, metals, explosives and CWA degradation compounds and is currently being contained by a groundwater extraction and treatment system. This report describes a remedial action program for the site.

  7. Assessment of seafloor burial of proposed OTEC power-transmission cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This study assesses the need for protection of the seafloor OTEC power transmission cables, identifies the means, or development requirements, for accomplishing the required protection, and determines the costs and benefits associated with this protection. Protection of the bottom cable along the entire route from the shoreline to the riser cable were evaluated at four specific sites. Three of the four sites are ''island sites''; they are immediately offshore of: (1) Kahe Point, Oahu, Hawaii; (2) Punta Yeguas, Puerto Rico; and (3) Cabras Island, Guam. The fourth site is in the Gulf of Mexico, due West of Tampa, Florida. All four sites are located in the tropical zones and are fully exposed to open ocean wind waves and currents. Cable routes from the shore to platform site are generally normal to the depth contours fronting the offshore slopes. All four sites are subject to severe hurricane winds and wave action. A total of 1061 sumarine communication cable faults were accumulated and analyzed during the initial portion of this study. These faults cover 101 years (1879 to 1980) of data collection and are reported in probabilistic terms keyed to water depth. Chafing and corrosion were found to be the most common hazard causing just over half of the reported incidents. Fishing activities, specifically trawlers and dredgers, wee the second most common hazard, accounting for approximately one-quarter of the reported incidents. The status of seafloor cable protection technology is also addressed in this study. A comprehensive summary identifying the most suitable commercial systems has been conducted. Both cable and pipeline protection systems were included as well as previous relevant experience and operating conditions.

  8. Assessment of seafloor burial of proposed OTEC power transmission cables. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tate, K.W.; Chern, C.; Tudor, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    This study assesses the need for protection of the seafloor OTEC power transmission cables, identifies the means, or development requirements for accomplishing the required protection, and determines the costs and benefits associated with this protection. Protection of the bottom cable along the entire route from the shoreline to the riser cable were evaluated at four specific sites. These sites were chosen mainly to represent the rather diverse bottom conditions expected in the OTEC program. Three of the four sites are island sites; they are immediately offshore of: (1) Kahe Point, Oahu, Hawaii; (2) Punta Yeguas, Puerto Rico; and (3) Cabras Island, Guam. The fourth site is in the Gulf of Mexico, due west of Tampa, Florida. A total of 1061 submarine communication cable faults were accumulated and analyzed during the initial portion of this study. For three of the proposed OTEC sites, namely Hawaii, Puerto Rico and Guam, a 90% chance of avoiding the hazards of chafing, corrosion, anchors, and trawling can be achieved by using the proper protection techniques over approximately 1 to 2 nautical miles from shore. The status of seafloor cable protection technology is also addressed in this study. A comprehensive summary identifying the most suitable commercial system has been conducted. Both cable and pipeline protection systems were included as well as previous relevant experience and operating conditions. Guidelines, methods, and procedures for cable protection are given in general for the four proposed OTEC plant sites and cable routes, together with seafloor scenarios and protection strategies for each of the four sites.

  9. Colonial bones: the 2006 burial of Savorgnan de Brazza in the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernault, Florence

    2010-01-01

    The Franco-Congolese agreement to enshrine the corpse of Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza in a grand memorial tomb in Brazzaville (2006) has been decried by many observers as neo-colonial farce. This article interprets France's agenda to propose a "suave reconquest" of its former colonies, and Sassou Nguesso's forceful mobilization of national and regional support. Beyond the immediate political significance of the episode, however, the article proposes new ideas on the ways in which modern states, North and South, depend on "tournaments of value" that assign polarized worth to persons, and often back up international deals with transactions in sanctified human remains. The tactic, forged in part during the colonial era, illuminates important aspects of today's global imaginaries of domination. Brazza's bones work, in France and Africa, as a carnal fetish that, borrowing form various philosophies of power, merges Western and African beliefs in the body politic.

  10. Gamma well-logging in the Old Burial Ground of the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winn, W. G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Hofstetter, K. J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); MacMurdo, K. W. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Johnson, R. W. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Matthews, W. B. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Diamond, W. D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Moore, F. S. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Hall, G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Maus, R. J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Walker, V. W. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Sigg, R. A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Sanders, M. A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Results are given sequentially by well in the appendix; total is 44 wells. Overall, the 1994 results do not suggest that any significant changes in activity or location have occurred since the 1980 measurements. Depths and magnitudes of plume activities for 1980 and 1994 are compared.

  11. Evidence for prehistoric origins of Egyptian mummification in late Neolithic burials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Jones

    Full Text Available Traditional theories on ancient Egyptian mummification postulate that in the prehistoric period (i.e. the Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods, 5th and 4th millennia B.C. bodies were naturally desiccated through the action of the hot, dry desert sand. Although molding of the body with resin-impregnated linen is believed to be an early Pharaonic forerunner to more complex processes, scientific evidence for the early use of resins in artificial mummification has until now been limited to isolated occurrences during the late Old Kingdom (c. 2200 B.C., their use becoming more apparent during the Middle Kingdom (c. 2000-1600 BC. We examined linen wrappings from bodies in securely provenanced tombs (pit graves in the earliest recorded ancient Egyptian cemeteries at Mostagedda in the Badari region (Upper Egypt. Our investigations of these prehistoric funerary wrappings using a combination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and thermal desorption/pyrolysis (TD/Py-GC-MS have identified a pine resin, an aromatic plant extract, a plant gum/sugar, a natural petroleum source, and a plant oil/animal fat in directly AMS-dated funerary wrappings. Predating the earliest scientific evidence by more than a millennium, these embalming agents constitute complex, processed recipes of the same natural products, in similar proportions, as those utilized at the zenith of Pharaonic mummification some 3,000 years later. The antibacterial properties of some of these ingredients and the localized soft-tissue preservation that they would have afforded lead us to conclude that these represent the very beginnings of experimentation that would evolve into the famous mummification practice of the Pharaonic period.

  12. Do manganese nodules grow or dissolve after burial? Results from the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pattan, J.N.; Parthiban, G.P.S.

    was recovered at 5.50 m below seafloor in core AAS-04/GC-5A. Approximately 80% of the buried nodules are small in size (approx. 2 cm diameter) in contrast to the Atlantic Ocean and Peru Basin (Pacific Ocean) where the majority of the buried nodules are large...

  13. Abrupt climate-induced changes in carbonate burial in the Arabian Sea: Causes and consequences.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naidu, P.D.; Singh, A.D.; Ganeshram, R.S.; Bharti, S.K.

    the last 380 ka as recorded by the pteropods, Marine Micropaleont. 33, 87-107. Almogi-Labin, A., B. Luz, J-C. Duplessy (1986), Quaternary paleoceanography, pteropod preservation and stable isotope record of the Red Sea, Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol...

  14. SLOPE STABILITY EVALUATION AND EQUIPMENT SETBACK DISTANCES FOR BURIAL GROUND EXCAVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCSHANE DS

    2010-03-25

    After 1970 Transuranic (TRU) and suspect TRU waste was buried in the ground with the intention that at some later date the waste would be retrieved and processed into a configuration for long term storage. To retrieve this waste the soil must be removed (excavated). Sloping the bank of the excavation is the method used to keep the excavation from collapsing and to provide protection for workers retrieving the waste. The purpose of this paper is to document the minimum distance (setback) that equipment must stay from the edge of the excavation to maintain a stable slope. This evaluation examines the equipment setback distance by dividing the equipment into two categories, (1) equipment used for excavation and (2) equipment used for retrieval. The section on excavation equipment will also discuss techniques used for excavation including the process of benching. Calculations 122633-C-004, 'Slope Stability Analysis' (Attachment A), and 300013-C-001, 'Crane Stability Analysis' (Attachment B), have been prepared to support this evaluation. As shown in the calculations the soil has the following properties: Unit weight 110 pounds per cubic foot; and Friction Angle (natural angle of repose) 38{sup o} or 1.28 horizontal to 1 vertical. Setback distances are measured from the top edge of the slope to the wheels/tracks of the vehicles and heavy equipment being utilized. The computer program utilized in the calculation uses the center of the wheel or track load for the analysis and this difference is accounted for in this evaluation.

  15. Importance of light and oxygen for photochemical reactivation in photosynthetic stromatolite communities after natural sand burial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perkins, R.; Kromkamp, J.C.; Reid, R.P.

    2007-01-01

    Modern stromatolites at Highborne Cay, Exuma, Bahamas are formed in a high energy environment, where turbulent mixing of the water column supplies the sand particles that are trapped and bound by microbial phototrophs. The photosynthetic communities consist of cyanobacteria within the surface fabric

  16. Species sensitivity distributions for suspended clays, sediment burial and grain size change in the marine environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, M.G.D.; Holthaus, K.I.E.; Trannum, H.C.; Neff, J.M.; Kjeilen-Eilertsen, G.; Jak, R.G.; Singsaas, I.; Huijbregts, M.A.J.; Hendriks, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of the environmental risk of discharges, containing both chemicals and suspended solids (e.g., drilling discharges to the marine environment), requires an evaluation of the effects of both toxic and nontoxic pollutants. To date, a structured evaluation scheme that can be used for prognost

  17. Effects of Spin-Labels on Membrane Burial Depth of MARCKS-ED Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yifei; Klauda, Jeffery B; Im, Wonpil

    2016-10-18

    Site-directed spin-labeling electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy is a useful tool to obtain information about the environment of specific residues. One of its applications is to investigate membrane protein topology based on the accessibility of the spin label, with the assumption that the position of the spin label in the membrane is close to that of the native residue. This assumption is valid in proteins with well-ordered structures, but could be problematic in small peptides because the labeling may cause a perturbation that is large enough to change local interactions between the peptide and the membrane. To quantitatively characterize such effects, we have simulated the association of a 25-amino-acid peptide, MARCKS-ED, to membranes with and without spin labels. Our simulations show that the depths of spin labels are ∼6-17 Å deeper than the unlabeled charged and polar residues in the wild-type. When the hydrophobic residue Phe is labeled, however, the spin-label depth is close to that of the native residue as well as the experimental value. Our study suggests that one should be cautious in interpretation of spin label data when charged and polar residues in small peptides are labeled.

  18. Symbolic Metal Bit and Saddlebag Fastenings in a Middle Bronze Age Donkey Burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Oz, Guy; Nahshoni, Pirhiya; Motro, Hadas; Oren, Eliezer D.

    2013-01-01

    Here we report the unprecedented discovery of the skeleton of a ritually interred donkey with a metal horse bit in association with its teeth and saddlebag fastenings on its back. This discovery in the Middle Bronze Age III sacred precinct (1700/1650-1550 BCE) at Tel Haror, Israel, presents a unique combination of evidence for the early employment of equid harnessing equipment, both for chariot bridling (horse bit) and pack animals (saddlebags). The ritually deposited donkey with its unique accoutrements advances our understanding of the broad social and religious significance of equids in the Levantine Bronze Age, previously known mainly from textual and iconographical sources. PMID:23484046

  19. Roman coins in mediaeval female burials from the territory of Serbia: Possible interpretations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Ćirić

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the phenomenon of secondary usage of Roman coins (2nd to 4th century in medieval necropolises (10th to 15th century in the territory of Serbia. The research is focused upon the graves in which the coins are used as ornaments on the costume of the deceased, most frequently reshaped as pendants. This type of secondary usage is only registered in female graves. The paper aims to suggest the interpretation of this phenomenon via the analysis of value and importance of secondarily used coins in the formation of family treasures, defined in important and critical moments of the social life. The possibility is explored of the graves in which female individuals were buried with parts of their dowry. The construction of meaning of these objects is analysed through their exchange in the customs linked to marriage and, finally, funerary practices. Since the Roman coins are scarce and exclusively made of bronze, it may be concluded that the definition of their value and importance is based upon the symbolic and representational levels. The starting point of the paper is the concept of the social biography of objects, in order to further investigate the link between the Serbian medieval social structure and evaluation of the coins in rural communities of the Central Balkans.

  20. 77 FR 35755 - Agency Information Collection (Application for Burial Benefits) Activities Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Denise McLamb, Enterprise Records Service (005R1B), Department of Veterans Affairs, 810 Vermont Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20420, (202) 632-7479, FAX (202) 632-7634 or email denise.mclamb@va.gov.... By direction of the Secretary. Denise McLamb, Program Analyst, Enterprise Records Service....

  1. Iron, brass and burial, the Kapsiki blacksmith and his many crafts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van W.E.A.; Moñino, Y.

    1991-01-01

    Sommaire: Avant-propos (D. Barreteau, H. Tourneux) - Discours d'ouverture (A. Marliac) - Introduction (Y. Moñino) - Observations sur le nom du fer et de la forge dans le bassin du lac Tchad (H. Tourneux) - Les migrations des forgerons djorok chez les Massa du Cameroun (J. Pahai) - Les Murgur, ou l'i

  2. 77 FR 326 - Agency Information Collection (Application for United States Flag for Burial Purposes): Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    .... 2900-0013'' in any correspondence. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Denise McLamb, Enterprise Records... 21-2008 is used to determine a family member or friend of a deceased veteran eligibility for issuance.... Denise McLamb, Program Analyst, Enterprise Records Service. BILLING CODE 8320-01-P...

  3. Estimating Yield and Depth of Burial from Rg (POSTPRINT) Annual Report 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    digital photogrammetry. 2011 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies 425 Approved for public...source surface displacements were obtained for the HUMBLE REDWOOD I explosions using digital photogrammetric techniques. We are currently in the process...explosions in alluvium and other tectonic regimes. Figure 11. Time-domain 0.5-2 Hz Rg amplitude decay with distance for 7 small explosions (< 365 lbs

  4. Evidence for prehistoric origins of Egyptian mummification in late Neolithic burials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jana; Higham, Thomas F G; Oldfield, Ron; O'Connor, Terry P; Buckley, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    Traditional theories on ancient Egyptian mummification postulate that in the prehistoric period (i.e. the Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods, 5th and 4th millennia B.C.) bodies were naturally desiccated through the action of the hot, dry desert sand. Although molding of the body with resin-impregnated linen is believed to be an early Pharaonic forerunner to more complex processes, scientific evidence for the early use of resins in artificial mummification has until now been limited to isolated occurrences during the late Old Kingdom (c. 2200 B.C.), their use becoming more apparent during the Middle Kingdom (c. 2000-1600 BC). We examined linen wrappings from bodies in securely provenanced tombs (pit graves) in the earliest recorded ancient Egyptian cemeteries at Mostagedda in the Badari region (Upper Egypt). Our investigations of these prehistoric funerary wrappings using a combination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and thermal desorption/pyrolysis (TD/Py)-GC-MS have identified a pine resin, an aromatic plant extract, a plant gum/sugar, a natural petroleum source, and a plant oil/animal fat in directly AMS-dated funerary wrappings. Predating the earliest scientific evidence by more than a millennium, these embalming agents constitute complex, processed recipes of the same natural products, in similar proportions, as those utilized at the zenith of Pharaonic mummification some 3,000 years later. The antibacterial properties of some of these ingredients and the localized soft-tissue preservation that they would have afforded lead us to conclude that these represent the very beginnings of experimentation that would evolve into the famous mummification practice of the Pharaonic period.

  5. The Mechanical Greenhouse: Burial of Heat by Turbulence in Hot Jupiter Atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Youdin, Andrew N

    2010-01-01

    The intense irradiation received by hot Jupiters suppresses convection in the outer layers of their atmospheres and lowers their cooling rates. "Inflated" hot Jupiters, i.e., those with anomalously large transit radii, require additional sources of heat or suppressed cooling. We consider the effect of forced turbulent mixing in the radiative layer, which could be driven by atmospheric circulation or by another mechanism. Due to stable stratification in the atmosphere, forced turbulence drives a downward flux of heat. Weak turbulent mixing slows the cooling rate by this process, as if the planet was irradiated more intensely. Stronger turbulent mixing buries heat into the convective interior, provided the turbulence extends to the radiative-convective boundary. This inflates the planet until a balance is reached between the heat buried into and radiated from the interior. We also include the direct injection of heat due to the dissipation of turbulence or other effects. Such heating is already known to slow pl...

  6. Reconstruction of burial history, temperature, source rock maturity and hydrocarbon generation in the northwestern Dutch offshore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdul Fattah, R.; Verweij, J.M.; Witmans, N.; Veen, J.H. ten

    2012-01-01

    3D basin modelling is used to investigate the history of maturation and hydrocarbon generation on the main platforms in the northwestern part of the offshore area of the Netherlands. The study area covers the Cleaverbank and Elbow Spit Platforms. Recently compiled maps and data are used to build the

  7. Degradation of PVC/rPLA Thick Films in Soil Burial Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Bożena; Rusinowski, Szymon; Chmielnicki, Blazej; Kamińska-Bach, Grażyna; Bortel, Krzysztof

    2016-10-01

    Some of the biodegradable polymers can be blended with a synthetic polymer to facilitate their biodegradation in the environment. The objective of the study was to investigate the biodegradation of thick films of poly(vinyl chloride)/recycled polylactide (PVC/rPLA). The experiments were carried out in the garden soil or in the mixture of garden soil and hydrocarbon-contaminated soil under laboratory conditions. Since it is widely accepted that the biosurfactants secreted by microorganisms enable biotransformation of various hydrophobic substances in the environment, it was assumed that the use of contaminated soil, rich in biosurfactant producing bacteria, may accelerate biodegradation of plastics. After the experimental period, the more noticeable weight loss of polymer films was observed after incubation in the garden soil. However, more pronounced changes in the film surface morphology and chemical structure as well as decrease of tensile strength were observed after incubation of films in the mixture of garden and contaminated soil. It turned out that as a result of competition between two distinct groups of microorganisms present in the mixture of garden and hydrocarbon-contaminated soils the number of microorganisms and their activity were lower than the activity of indigenous microflora of garden soil as well as the amount of secreted biosurfactants towards plastics.

  8. Ferroan dolomite cement in Cambrian sandstones: burial history and hydrocarbon generation of the Baltic sedimentary basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sliaupa, S.; Cyziene, J.; Molenaar, Nicolaas

    2008-01-01

    The conditions and timing of carbonate cementation in Cambrian sandstones of the Baltic sedimentary basin were determined by oxygen and carbon stable isotope and chemical data in combination with optical and cathodoluminescence petrographic studies. Studied samples represent a range in present...

  9. Symbolic metal bit and saddlebag fastenings in a Middle Bronze Age donkey burial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Bar-Oz

    Full Text Available Here we report the unprecedented discovery of the skeleton of a ritually interred donkey with a metal horse bit in association with its teeth and saddlebag fastenings on its back. This discovery in the Middle Bronze Age III sacred precinct (1700/1650-1550 BCE at Tel Haror, Israel, presents a unique combination of evidence for the early employment of equid harnessing equipment, both for chariot bridling (horse bit and pack animals (saddlebags. The ritually deposited donkey with its unique accoutrements advances our understanding of the broad social and religious significance of equids in the Levantine Bronze Age, previously known mainly from textual and iconographical sources.

  10. Anisotropic Variation Law of Rock Permeability with the Burial Depth of Limestone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Permeability tensors of both macrofracture and microfracture systems were measured progressively along the depth of limestone formations at severed sites. It was found that the principal permeability values Kx, Ky and Kz in these permeability tensors all decrease simultaneously and logarithmically with depth. However, the limestone aquifers are composed of an upper region where the larger permeability ellipsoid is upright or prolate and characterized by Kz>Kx and Kz>Ky, a transitional zone, and a lower zone whose smaller permeability ellipsoid is horizontal or oblate and characterized by Kz<Kx and Kz<Ky. The inversion of the permeability ellipsoids in direction indicates that the anisotropy of rock permeability with the depth of limestone formations has evidently changed. The anisotropic variation law of permeability tensors in a macrofracture system displays a similar pattern with that in a microfracture system. It is next to impossible to examine the rock permeability tensor of the aquifer just by measuring the hydraulic parameters of macrofracture system directly, unless the limestone aquifer is exposed on or near the earth's surface. Therefore, the permeability tensors of a macrofracture system at any depth may be indirectly and roughly determined from the gaugeable permeability tensors of the microfracture system by conversion. This anisotropic variation law of rock permeability with depth is of great significance in the study of three-dimensional fracture water flow the huge carbonate formations and in the research on the conditions of karst development and karst distribution.

  11. Deposition, burial and sequestration of carbon in an oligotrophic, tropical lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Alcocer

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The amount of biogenic carbon that may be deposited, buried and eventually preserved (sequestered in the sediments of a tropical, oligotrophic lake, was evaluated based on i the temporal variation of the particulate organic carbon (POC concentration in the superficial sediments in the deep zone of lake Alchichica, Puebla, Mexico; and ii the POC accumulation and preservation in a 210Pb-dated sediment core from the lake. In lake Alchichica the POC concentration in the surficial sediments ranged between 12 and 60 mg POC g-1 (25 ± 12 mg POC g-1 dry weight. The magnitude of the sedimented POC in Alchichica was high and mostly of autochthonous origin. The POC concentrations recorded in the sediment core (16.6 to 31.6 mg g-1 dry weight were comparable to the concentration range observed in the surface sediment samples collected during the study period, which signaled a high POC preservation capacity in the sedimentary column of lake Alchichica. The POC fluxes, estimated from the 210Pb-dated sediment core, varied between 14.9 and 35.3 g m-2 year-1 within the past century; and the maximum POC losses through diagenesis during this period were estimated to be lower than 25%. This study concludes that deep tropical lakes, exemplified by lake Alchichica, accumulate and preserve most of the POC deposited, playing an important role in regional carbon balances.

  12. Reviews and syntheses: Calculating the global contribution of coralline algae to total carbon burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijden, L. H.; Kamenos, N. A.

    2015-11-01

    The ongoing increase in anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is changing the global marine environment and is causing warming and acidification of the oceans. Reduction of CO2 to a sustainable level is required to avoid further marine change. Many studies investigate the potential of marine carbon sinks (e.g. seagrass) to mitigate anthropogenic emissions, however, information on storage by coralline algae and the beds they create is scant. Calcifying photosynthetic organisms, including coralline algae, can act as a CO2 sink via photosynthesis and CaCO3 dissolution and act as a CO2 source during respiration and CaCO3 production on short-term timescales. Long-term carbon storage potential might come from the accumulation of coralline algae deposits over geological timescales. Here, the carbon storage potential of coralline algae is assessed using meta-analysis of their global organic and inorganic carbon production and the processes involved in this metabolism. Net organic and inorganic production were estimated at 330 g C m-2 yr-1 and 900 g CaCO3 m-2 yr-1 respectively giving global organic/inorganic C production of 0.7/1.8 × 109 t C yr-1. Calcium carbonate production by free-living/crustose coralline algae (CCA) corresponded to a sediment accretion of 70/450 mm kyr-1. Using this potential carbon storage for coralline algae, the global production of free-living algae/CCA was 0.4/1.2 × 109 t C yr-1 suggesting a total potential carbon sink of 1.6 × 109 tonnes per year. Coralline algae therefore have production rates similar to mangroves, salt marshes and seagrasses representing an as yet unquantified but significant carbon store, however, further empirical investigations are needed to determine the dynamics and stability of that store.

  13. Direct Burial Broadband Seismic Instrumentation that are Rugged and Tilt Tolerant for Polar Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Tim; Winberry, Paul; Huerta, Audrey; Bainbridge, Geoff; Devanney, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The integrated broadband Meridian Posthole and Compact seismic systems have been engineered and tested for extreme polar environments. Ten percent of the Earth's surface is covered in glacial ice and the dynamics of these environments is a strategic concern for all. The development for these systems was driven by researchers needing to densify observations in ice covered regions with difficult and limited logistics. Funding from an NSF MRI award, GEOICE and investment from the vendor enabled researchers to write the specifications for a hybrid family of instruments that can operate at -55C autonomously with very little power, 1 watt for the Meridian Compact system and 1.5 watts for the Meridian 120PH. Tilt tolerance in unstable ice conditions was a concern and these instruments have a range of up to +/-5 degrees. The form factor, extreme temperature tolerance and power load of the instruments has reduced the bulk of a complete station by 1/2 and simplified installation greatly allowing more instruments to be deployed with limited support and a lighter logistical load. These systems are being tested in the Antarctic at SouthPole Station and McMurdo for the second year and the investment has encouraged other instrument and power system vendors to offer polar rated equipment including telemetry for ancillary support.

  14. News from the west: ancient DNA from a French megalithic burial chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguilloux, Marie-France; Soler, Ludovic; Pemonge, Marie-Hélène; Scarre, Chris; Joussaume, Roger; Laporte, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Recent paleogenetic studies have confirmed that the spread of the Neolithic across Europe was neither genetically nor geographically uniform. To extend existing knowledge of the mitochondrial European Neolithic gene pool, we examined six samples of human skeletal material from a French megalithic long mound (c.4200 cal BC). We retrieved HVR-I sequences from three individuals and demonstrated that in the Neolithic period the mtDNA haplogroup N1a, previously only known in central Europe, was as widely distributed as western France. Alternative scenarios are discussed in seeking to explain this result, including Mesolithic ancestry, Neolithic demic diffusion, and long-distance matrimonial exchanges. In light of the limited Neolithic ancient DNA (aDNA) data currently available, we observe that all three scenarios appear equally consistent with paleogenetic and archaeological data. In consequence, we advocate caution in interpreting aDNA in the context of the Neolithic transition in Europe. Nevertheless, our results strengthen conclusions demonstrating genetic discontinuity between modern and ancient Europeans whether through migration, demographic or selection processes, or social practices.

  15. Bowls and Burials – an Update from Grand Bay, Carriacou, West Indies: May–June 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaye Quetta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available From May 23 to June 23 2011 Kaye, Fitzpatrick and Kappers directed a team comprising four staff members from England, The Netherlands and the U.S., together with 27 students from various American universities and UCL's Institute of Archaeology, to conduct the sixth season of archaeological investigation at the coastal site of Grand Bay, Carriacou (fig. 1. Our major goal this year was to finalise the excavation of three previously opened 5×5 metre trenches (nos 592, 415 and 446 (fig. 2 (see summaries in Fitzpatrick 'et al.' 2009a, 2009b; Kaye 'et al.' 2009, while training students in fieldwork techniques and continuing our community outreach work by encouraging site visits, giving talks to schools, organising an exhibition of small finds for a public open day and conducting a series of television, radio, and newspaper interviews in order to raise public awareness and encourage interest in the archaeological heritage of the island. The Carriacou Historical Society (CHS also requested us to prepare a report on the possible impact of a proposed "Free Port" coastal development on archaeological sites along the southeastern part of the island. The brief results of the 2011 project are presented in the following.

  16. 32 CFR 553.15 - Persons eligible for burial in Arlington National Cemetery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...). (3) Distinguished Service Medal. (4) Silver Star. (5) Purple Heart. (e) Persons who have held any of... injury incurred or aggravated in line of duty. (g) The spouse, widow or widower, minor child and, at the discretion of the Secretary of the Army, unmarried adult child of any of the persons listed above. (1)...

  17. Phosphorus recycling and burial in Baltic Sea sediments with contrasting redox conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mort, Haydon P; Slomp, Caroline P; Gustafson, Bo G

    2010-01-01

    -day bottom water redox conditions range from fully oxygenated and seasonally hypoxic to almost permanently anoxic and sulfidic. Strong surface enrichments of Fe-oxide bound P are observed at oxic and seasonally hypoxic sites but not in the anoxic basins. Reductive dissolution of Fe-oxides and release...... primary productivity. Historical records of bottom water oxygen at two sites (Bornholm, Northern Gotland) show a decline over the past century and are accompanied by a rise in values for typical sediment proxies for anoxia (total sulfur, molybdenum and organic C/P ratios). While sediment reactive P...

  18. Predicting the Mobility and Burial of Underwater Munitions and Explosives of Concern Using the VORTEX Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    between two or more tectonic plates ; 2) trailing edge coasts that are on the stable, passive margins of continents with broad shelves and low inland...the three major coastal classifications (i.e., collision coastal/West Coast of CONUS, trailing edge/East Coast of CONUS, and biogenic reef/ Hawaii ...sinks to which a particular UXO site belongs. The classification includes three general tectonic types of coasts with their morphologic equivalents

  19. 38 CFR 3.1600 - Payment of burial expenses of deceased veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of the Coast Guard Reserve. (f) Plot or interment allowance. A plot or interment allowance is payable... service for disability incurred in line of duty will be accepted for determining entitlement to the...

  20. Animal remains of the Neolithic Ritual Burial Complex near Krum Village (Haskovo Region, SE Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatozar Boev

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available From a total of 389 highly fragmented animal bone and tooth finds, dated ca. 6500-6300 B.P. have been identified 7 taxa: Lesser mole rat, Eurasian beaver, Cattle, Sheep, Goat, Pig, and Donkey.

  1. Symbolic metal bit and saddlebag fastenings in a Middle Bronze Age donkey burial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Oz, Guy; Nahshoni, Pirhiya; Motro, Hadas; Oren, Eliezer D

    2013-01-01

    Here we report the unprecedented discovery of the skeleton of a ritually interred donkey with a metal horse bit in association with its teeth and saddlebag fastenings on its back. This discovery in the Middle Bronze Age III sacred precinct (1700/1650-1550 BCE) at Tel Haror, Israel, presents a unique combination of evidence for the early employment of equid harnessing equipment, both for chariot bridling (horse bit) and pack animals (saddlebags). The ritually deposited donkey with its unique accoutrements advances our understanding of the broad social and religious significance of equids in the Levantine Bronze Age, previously known mainly from textual and iconographical sources.

  2. Barometric pumping of burial trench soil gases into the atmosphere at the 740-G Sanitary Landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyatt, D.E.; Pirkle, R.J.; Masdea, D.J.

    1992-12-01

    In 1991, a soil gas survey was performed at the Savannah River Site Sanitary Landfill as part of the characterization efforts required under the integrated Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation and Comprehensive Environmental Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (CERCLA) Remedial Investigation (RFI/RI) program. This report details the findings of this survey, which identified several areas of the landfill that were releasing volatile organic compounds to the atmosphere at levels exceeding regulatory standards. Knowledge of the rates of VOC outgassing is necessary to protect site workers, provide input into the human health and environmental risk assessment documents and provide input into the remedial design scenario.

  3. Wave-Induced Scour Burial Experiments in Carbonate Sediments Near Oahu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    polynomial interpolation [6] algorithm in MATLAB [7] in order to get data series of equal sampling rates and equivalent starting and ending times...properties of coral sands, Waikiki, Hawaii,." J. Acoust, Soc. Amer. 115:2013-2020,2004. [4] Bradley J., S. Griffin, M. Thiele , M. D. Richardson, and P...interpolation," SIAM J. Numerical Analysis, vol. 17, pp.238-246, 1980. [8] The MathWorks, MATLAB , Version 7.6, Natick, MA: The Math Works Inc., 2008.

  4. Evolution of Mineral-Organic Matter Associations in Sediments: From (Bio)mineralization to Burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, E.; Nordlund, D.; Wankel, S. D.; Hansel, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Physical and chemical associations with mineral surfaces may protect organic matter (OM) from oxidative degradation and allow its preservation in soils and sediments. This study evaluates the mechanism of mineral-based preservation (MBP) and the time scale on which MBP is operative by tracking the co-evolution of oxide minerals and associated OM during mineral precipitation and ripening. Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy coupled to near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM-NEXAFS) as well as bulk NEXAFS demonstrate that, in laboratory systems using cell-free filtrate from pure bacterial cultures, an association between OM and biogenic manganese oxides is rapidly established. OM associated with freshly precipitated biominerals consists of proteinaceous carbon and nitrogen consistent with a microbial origin; this composition remains constant over the course of 96 hours, despite mineral aggregation and structural evolution from hexagonal to triclinic birnessite. We predict that, in natural systems, oxide minerals simultaneously drive remineralization and offer MBP. Different minerals will promote a different balance between the two, imparting a mineral-specific signature on the concentration and composition of preserved OM. We test this idea by conducting incubations of natural estuary waters spiked with compositionally and structurally diverse synthetic oxide minerals. The concentration and composition of mineral-associated OM were tracked by element analyzer-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-IRMS) and STXM-NEXAFS in multiple experiments lasting between 4 weeks and 1 year. Results from incubation experiments are contrasted with natural sediment samples from a range of depositional environments in order to evaluate the potential for long-term sequestration of organic carbon in sediments facilitated by minerals.

  5. To Die a Living Death: Phantasms of Burial and Cremation in Derrida’s Final Seminar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Naas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the Third Session of his seminar The Beast and the Sovereign, Volume 2, Jacques Derrida turns from a close reading of Heidegger’s 1929–1930 seminar on The Fundamental Concepts of Metaphysics and Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe—the two books at the center of the seminar—to the question of what it means for a large and growing number of people in the Western world to have to decide, in a seemingly sovereign fashion, about how their bodies are to be treated after their deaths, that is, whether they are to be buried or cremated. This question marks a rather surprising turn to the present—even the autobiographical—in the seminar. This essay follows Derrida’s treatment of the question in the rest of the seminar. It considers, first, what Derrida calls the phantasms attendant upon all speculations regarding this supposedly binary alternative between inhumation and creation and then what this alternative might tell us about Greco-European modernity and certain modern conceptions of the subject and the subject’s putative autonomy and sovereignty over its life, its body, and its remains.

  6. Gristhorpe Man: an Early Bronze Age log-coffin burial scientifically defined

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melton, Nigel; Montgomery, Janet; Knüsel, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    A log-coffin excavated in the early nineteenth century proved to be well enough preserved in the early twenty-first century for the full armoury of modern scientific investigation to give its occupants and contents new identity, new origins and a new date. In many ways the interpretation is much...

  7. Concepts of the body and personhood in the Mesolithic-Neolithic Danube Gorges: interpreting animal remains from human burials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Živaljević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, humanities have brought forward the idea of non-human agency; either in the form of meanings bestowed upon objects, animals and natural phenomena, or through deconstruction of ontological differences between ‘people’ and ‘things’. In case of the former, it has been argued that non-human agents have the power to act as ‘participants’ in social action (e.g. the agentive power of material properties of things, or of animal behaviour. In this paper, I discuss the practice of placing animal body parts alongside human bodies in the Mesolithic-Neolithic Danube Gorges, by using the concept of perspectivism as a theoretical framework. The choice of species and their body parts varied, but was by no means accidental. Rather, it reflected certain culturally specific taxonomies, which were based on animal properties: how they look, move, feel or what they do. Common examples include red deer antlers, which have the power to ‘regenerate’ each year, or dog mandibles (physical remains of ‘mouths’ which have the power to ‘communicate’ (i.e. bark. The aim of the paper is to explore how various aspects of animal corporeality, associated with certain ways of seeing and experiencing the world, could be ‘borrowed’ by humans utilizing animal body parts.

  8. [Componential composition of chlororganic pollutants and state of soil microbial cenosis in soil from burial place of waste].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iamborko, N A; Iutyns'ka, H O; Levchuk, I V; Pindrus, A A

    2013-01-01

    The authors have identified 25 chemical pollutants in soil and 12--in the chemical composition of technical waste from chemical production. Broad spectrum of pollutants and their degradation products (26 chemical components) have been also detected outside the proving ground (2 km). This fact evidences for active spreading of chlororganic toxins into neighboring areas. Abnormality in functional activity and functions of soil microbial cenosis of the proving ground has been established: the number of oligonitrophillus, ammoniating, phosphate-mobilizing, amylolytic and pedotrophic microorganisms. Abnormalities of functional activity were manifested in the 1.6-1.9-fold augmentation of basal respiration and deterioration of substrate-induced respiration in comparison with control variant.

  9. Characterisation of corrosion layers formed under burial environment of copper-based Greek and Roman coins from Pompeii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronti, Lucilla; Felici, Anna Candida; Alesiani, Marcella; Tarquini, Ombretta; Bracciale, Maria Paola; Santarelli, Maria Laura; Pardini, Giacomo; Piacentini, Mario

    2015-10-01

    This paper reports on a study carried out on patinas covering copper-based Greek and Roman coins found in the archaeological excavation of Regio VIII.7.1-15 in Pompeii (Italy). Since in cultural heritage ancient artefacts should not be damaged, non-destructive and micro-destructive techniques have been used to identify typical and uncommon compounds and to characterize the surface morphology. The chlorine content of light green patinas and the presence of typical minerals allowed us to identify the bronze disease. Coins from the same stratigraphic unit have shown different morphologies of corrosion, probably due to different micro-environmental conditions.

  10. Mechanical and chemical processes affecting the chalk during burial, insights from combined reflection seismics, well data and field work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, Julien; Boussaha, Myriam; Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph;

    2014-01-01

    and cores analyses, respectively.However, few sites allow to combine all the different scale of observation for chalk diagenesis. Onshore and offshore high resolution seismics, two fully cored >350 m wells with wireline logging tools and very high quality exposures from a coastal cliff and a quarry form...

  11. Structural and thermodynamic consequences of burial of an artificial ion pair in the hydrophobic interior of a protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Aaron C; Castañeda, Carlos A; Schlessman, Jamie L; García-Moreno, E Bertrand

    2014-08-12

    An artificial charge pair buried in the hydrophobic core of staphylococcal nuclease was engineered by making the V23E and L36K substitutions. Buried individually, Glu-23 and Lys-36 both titrate with pKa values near 7. When buried together their pKa values appear to be normal. The ionizable moieties of the buried Glu-Lys pair are 2.6 Å apart. The interaction between them at pH 7 is worth 5 kcal/mol. Despite this strong interaction, the buried Glu-Lys pair destabilizes the protein significantly because the apparent Coulomb interaction is sufficient to offset the dehydration of only one of the two buried charges. Save for minor reorganization of dipoles and water penetration consistent with the relatively high dielectric constant reported by the buried ion pair, there is no evidence that the presence of two charges in the hydrophobic interior of the protein induces any significant structural reorganization. The successful engineering of an artificial ion pair in a highly hydrophobic environment suggests that buried Glu-Lys pairs in dehydrated environments can be charged and that it is possible to engineer charge clusters that loosely resemble catalytic sites in a scaffold protein with high thermodynamic stability, without the need for specialized structural adaptations.

  12. Waste Burial in Arid Environments--Application of Information From a Field Laboratory in the Mojave Desert, Southern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andraski, B.J.; Prudic, David E.; Nichols, William D.

    1995-01-01

    Because of the potentially harmful effect of improper waste disposal on water resources in the arid West, comprehensive laboratory and field studies are critical to identifying likely contaminant-release pathways and the potential for waste migration at arid sites. However, the quandary for those charged with assessment of the suitability of potential disposal sites is that site characterization and evaluation must be accomplished in a relatively short period of time-only 1 to 2 years. Data collection at the Mojave Desert field laboratory provides the needed long-term benchmark against which short-term data from proposed arid sites can be compared. The data base and monitoring facilities developed at the field laboratory also provide an excellent foundation upon which to build collaborative efforts with universities and local, State, and other Federal agencies to further the study and understanding of hydrologic processes in an arid environment.

  13. Maternal and Burial Environment Effects on Seed Mortality of Velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) and Giant Foxtail (Setaria faberi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed seed mortality in the soil seedbank is likely to be influenced by the maternal environment during seed development because the primary defense against seed mortality, the seed coat, is maternally derived. Our central hypothesis was that relative rates of seed mortality for seed lots of contrast...

  14. New devices for flow measurements: Hot film and burial wire sensors, infrared imagery, liquid crystal, and piezo-electric model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcree, Griffith J., Jr.; Roberts, A. Sidney, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental program aimed at identifying areas in low speed aerodynamic research where infrared imaging systems can make significant contributions is discussed. Implementing a new technique, a long electrically heated wire was placed across a laminar flow. By measuring the temperature distribution along the wire with the IR imaging camera, the flow behavior was identified.

  15. Compliance matrix for the mixed waste disposal facilities, trenches 31 and 34, burial ground 218-W-5. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, K.D.

    1995-05-03

    This document provides a listing of applicable regulatory requirements to the Mixed Waste Disposal trenches. After the listing of regulations to be followed is a listing of documents that show how the regulations are being implemented and followed for the Mixed Waste trenches.

  16. Burial history and kinetic modeling for hydrocarbon generation, Part II: Applying the Galo model to Saharan basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markhous, M.; Galushkin, Y. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation); Lopatin, N. [Geosystems Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-10-01

    The GALO basin evolution model described in Makhous et al. is applied to evaluate hydrocarbon generation and migration histories in several Saharan basins. Three basins, the Oued el-Mya, Ghadames, and Illizi, are located in the central and eastern parts of the Saharan platform and are investigated in detail. The Ahnet, Mouydir, Timimoun, Reggane, and other basins located in the southern and western parts of the platform are also studied. The modeling results, combined with geochemical data, are used in a synthesis of the regional framework. The thermal gradients in the Ghadames and Illizi basins are greater than those in the Oued el-Mya basin. This difference is attributed to differences in sedimentation and subsidence rates, to less Hercynian erosion, and to fewer occurrences of evaporates in the Akfadou region of the Ghadames basin and in the Mereksen region of the Illizi basin. In the southern and western parts of the Illizi province, the major subsidence occurred before Hercynian uplift. Very moderate Hercynian uplift in the Ghadames and Illizi basins did not involve a significant decrease of temperatures, and organic matter maturation continued, but at slower rates. As a result, the realization of hydrocarbon potential appears to be higher than would be expected. Favorable traps are located near subsided areas where the source shales (particularly the Devonian) were not subjected to uplift and erosion. In this respect, the eastern Sahara including the Ghadames and Illizi basins is a favored province. Analysis of the distribution of present-day temperatures and paleotemperatures in the Paleozoic sediments of the Triassic province (Oued el-Mya, Ghadames, Trias, and north Illizi basins), combined with effective source rock occurrences, shows that favorable conditions for hydrocarbon generation during the Paleozoic occurred essentially in the southern and southwestern parts of the province.

  17. 2005-2015: Burial of the birth of ftaa chinese soft power in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katu Arkonada

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1944 at a resort in Bretton Woods (New Hampshire, United States and one year of the end of the Second World War, the major powers of the Western world decided to create a new order in the economic, financial and commercial planes, driving the creation of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, and the use of the dollar as an international reference.

  18. Assessment of microbial processes on radionuclide mobility in shallow land burial. [West Valley, NY; Beatty, Nevada; Maxey Flats, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colombo, P.; Tate, R.L. III; Weiss, A.J.

    1982-07-01

    The impact of microbial metabolism of the organic substituents of low level radioactive wastes on radionuclide mobility in disposal sites, the nature of the microbial transformations involved in this metabolism and the effect of the prevailing environmental parameters on the quantities and types of metabolic intermediates accumulated were examined. Since both aerobic and anaerobic periods can occur during trench ecosystem development, oxidation capacities of the microbial community in the presence and absence of oxygen were analyzed. Results of gas studies performed at three commercial low level radioactive waste disposal sites were reviewed. Several deficiencies in available data were determined. Further research needs are suggested. This assessment has demonstrated that the biochemical capabilities expressed within the low level radioactive waste disposal site are common to a wide variety of soil bacteria. Hence, assuming trenches would not be placed in sites with such extreme abiotic conditions that all microbial activity is precluded, the microbial populations needed for colonization and decomposition of the organic waste substances are readily provided from the waste itself and from the soil of existing and any proposed disposal sites. Indeed, considering the ubiquity of occurrence of the microorganisms responsible for waste decomposition and the chemical nature of the organic waste material, long-term prevention of biodecomposition is difficult, if not impossible.

  19. Integrated Access to Cultural Heritage Information Pieces in Iran over Imam Reza's 4th Zarih (Burial Chamber) as a Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhnia, Maliheh; Zarei, Mitra

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to offer an example of how ontology, such as CIDOC, can be turned into a format from the perspective of an object. In fact, it illustrates the possible semantic analysis of an object description into a view neutral machine-interpretable form. The aim is to show that a museum object located in a museum can be…

  20. A source-to-sink perspective on the mobilization, transport, and burial of organic carbon following the 2008 Sichuan earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, A.; Li, G.; Hammond, D. E.; Jin, Z.

    2012-12-01

    The mobilization and fluvial transport of organic carbon is one of the most important geochemical legacies of landslides triggered by extreme events such as major floods or earthquakes. While there is some information about the quantity of carbon carried by rivers under varying flow regimes, and even in the aftermath of single large events, there is little source-to-sink information about the transfer of this carbon through river systems into depositional centers, and about the geochemical transformations following deposition. These processes may be distinct in the aftermath of extreme events because of the association of organic carbon transport with high clastic sediment loads. In this study, we use the legacy of the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake in Sichuan, China, to explore the mobilization, transport, and ultimate fate of organic carbon associated with co-seismic and post-seismic landslides. We focus on Zipingpu Reservoir, which serves as a trap for material carried by the Min Jiang river that drains the epicentral region most dramatically affected by landslides. We use revised landslide and biomass maps to quantify total organic carbon mobilized from hillslopes within the reservoir catchment area. We have collected sediment cores from the reservoir itself, and together with estimates of sedimentation rates constrained by short-lived radionuclide abundances, we construct a budget for the carbon transport into the reservoir based on analyses of sediment solid phase organic C concentrations and isotope ratios. Post-depositional diagenetic alteration is quantified using pore water profiles, including DIC concentration, carbon isotope compositions, and the isotopic composition of methane collected both in-situ from pore waters, and associated with actively bubbling methane seeps.

  1. Predicting the Mobility and Burial of Underwater Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) Using the UXO Mobility Model (ESTCP) 200417

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    the MM, the sites were categorized with respect to the influence of tectonic plate movement on coastal evolution [4]. The sites can be assigned to...coastal topography resulting from collisions between two or more tectonic plates , 2) trailing edge coasts that are on the stable, passive margins of...34 6.2 Analysis of PMRF ( Hawaii ) Field Test Data ...................................................................... 34 6.2.1

  2. Scientist as detective: Luis Alvarez and the pyramid burial chambers, the JFK assassination, and the end of the dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Charles G.

    2007-11-01

    Luis Alvarez (1911-1988) was one of the most brilliant and productive experimental physicists of the twentieth century. His investigations of three mysteries, all of them outside his normal areas of research, show what remarkable things a far-ranging imagination working with an immense store of knowledge can accomplish.

  3. Archaeological and Osteological Analysis of Two Burial Sites Along Harlan County Lake, Nebraska: Chronological and Evolutionary Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    features have been found as far east as the bluffs of the Missouri River in northeastern Kansas (e.g. Wedel 1959:101). Much of the rock art present...distinct pre-auricular sulcus, the characteristic morphology of the sacro -iliac surface of the posterior ilium, and the overall small, gracile...INCLUDING RIGHT SACRO -ILIAC JOINT- 95. 18 AII TA L C YES COMPLETE LEFT TIBIA, ARTICULATES WITH 25HN118-17 AND 25HNIIB-19,20 & 21 96. 9 AI TA R 9 NO DISTAL

  4. Biodegradation of Synthetic Polyesters (BTA and PCL with Natural Flora in Soil Burial and Pure Cultures under Ambient Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona K. Gouda

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to study the biodegradation of two synthetic polyesters, one aliphaticaromatic (1, 4-butanediol, terephthalic-adipic acid, BTA and the other aliphatic (poly (,-caprolactone, PCL, under different soil types (canal shore soil, garden soil, compost and Peat moss, respectively, as well as using locally isolated cultures at ambient temperature. The results showed that the BTA films buried in canal shore and garden soil were degraded faster than that in the other soils. After six weeks about 90, 88 and 80% were degraded in garden, canal shore soil and compost respectively, while only 52% were degraded in Peat moss. On the other hand, 95 and 93% weight loss was obtained for PCL films buried for three weeks in canal shore and garden soil respectively. The Scanning Electron Microscope photos confirm the results of weight loss and revealed the presence of cracks and fungal growth on films buried in different soils. The results with pure cultures, especially with Fusarium solani, also confirmed the biodegradability of two polyesters under ambient temperature. Finally, it could be concluded that both synthetic polyester are degradable under ambient conditions.

  5. Seagrass burial by dredged sediments: benthic community alteration, secondary production loss, biotic index reaction and recovery possibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu Do, V; de Montaudouin, Xavier; Blanchet, Hugues; Lavesque, Nicolas

    2012-11-01

    In 2005, dredging activities in Arcachon Bay (France) led in burying 320,000 m(2) of Zostera noltii intertidal seagrass. Recovery by macrobenthos and seagrass was monitored. Six months after works, seagrass was absent and macrobenthos drastically different from surrounding vegetated stations. Rapidly and due to sediment dispersal, disposal area was divided into a sandflat with a specific benthic community which maintained its difference until the end of the survey (2010), and a mudflat where associated fauna became similar to those in adjacent seagrass. Macrobenthic community needs 3 years to recover while seagrass needs 5 years to recover in the station impacted by mud. The secondary production loss due to works was low. In this naturally carbon enriched system, univariate biotic indices did not perform well to detect seagrass destruction and recovery. Multivariate index MISS gave more relevant conclusions and a simplified version was tested with success, at this local scale.

  6. A BRAVE NEW WORLD OF BURIALS: THE BUSINESS OF IDIOSYNCRATIC BODY DISPOSAL IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David O. Whitten

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Democracy spreads wealth to the masses and allows low-income citizens to enjoy comforts of life denied the elite of past civilizations. And because democracy makes conspicuous consumption available to a multitude of the living, the culture of extravagance extends to after-death rites. The most prosperous generation is dying and in the process is defying tradition in favor of extravagantly personalized funerals.

  7. Mechanical and chemical processes affecting the chalk during burial, insights from combined reflection seismics, well data and field work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, Julien; Boussaha, Myriam; Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph

    2014-01-01

    and cores analyses, respectively.However, few sites allow to combine all the different scale of observation for chalk diagenesis. Onshore and offshore high resolution seismics, two fully cored >350 m wells with wireline logging tools and very high quality exposures from a coastal cliff and a quarry form...... works have been performed with astronomical calibration based on stable isotope stratigraphy, wireline logs as well as several palaeontological proxies and detailed sedimentological analysis. Since a couple of decades, a specific kind of fractures has been described in the Chalk of Denmark, the so......-called hairline fractures. They have recently been interpreted as compaction bands associated with the pore collapse of the chalk. We have observed these fractures on the field and on the cores in specific intervals. At depth, these fractures are in genetic relation with the formation of some stylolithes...

  8. Impact assessment of shallow land burial for low-level waste: modelling of the water flow and transport of radionuclides in the near-field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walravens, J.; Volckaert, G.

    1996-09-18

    The Belgian concept for disposal of low-level waste consists of storage of waste drums into a concrete vault backfilled with a cementitious grout. The vault is placed above the water table and will be covered with a multilayer cap of clay, gravel, and sandy materials. The SCK/CEN is charged with the long-term performance assessment of the disposal site. The main processes and parameters determining the radioactivity release from the site are identified. The principal processes are the infiltration through the top cover and the sorption of waste on the backfill. The release of radionuclides from the site was modelled with the PORFLOW numerical code.

  9. Research Results of the Salme Ship Burials in 2011-2012 / Jüri Peets, Raili Allmäe, Liina Maldre ... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2013-01-01

    Eelviikingiaja lõppu dateeritud matuselaevast. Sõdalased olid maetud väikesele alale ja varustatud rohkete panustega. Väliuuringud Salme muististekompleksil on lõppenud. Käimasolevate uuringute keskseks ülesandeks on muistise võimalikult täpne dateerimine

  10. Evidence of interpersonal violence or a special funeral rite in the Neolithic multiple burial from Koszyce in southern Poland – a forensic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konopka Tomasz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study uses anthropological and forensic medical analyses to determine the cause of fractures found in the remains of 15 individuals buried at a site associated with the Globular Amphora Culture (2875-2670 BC. The intent was to determine the mechanism underlying the injuries and to indicate the types of tools that might have inflicted the blows. The fractures were diversified in their forms, but the majority of the injuries appear to have been inflicted by a flint axe, which is frequently found in graves of the Globular Amphora Culture. Apart from the forearm being severed in one of the victims, all the remaining skeletons showed from 1 to 4 injuries involving solely the skulls. The grave might contain victims attacked by invaders who executed the captives, or else the feature is ritual in character and it reflects the beliefs of the Neolithic community.

  11. St George's Cemetery in Tartu - Medieval Burial Ground of the Leprosarium? / Martin Malve, Anti Lillak, Raido Roog, Mihkel Mäesalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2013-01-01

    Varasemad andmed Püha Jüri hospidalist Tartus pärinevad 1345. aastast. Asutus tegutses 17. sajandi esimese pooleni. Küsimus aga, kas korduvalt uuritud Püha Jüri kalmistu ja keskaegne hospidalikalmistu on üks ja sama objekt, jääb praeguses uurimisseisus kindla vastuseta

  12. Two-stage fluid flow and element transfers in shear zones during collision burial-exhumation cycle: Insights from the Mont Blanc Crystalline Massif (Western Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, Y.; Rossi, M.

    2016-11-01

    The Mont-Blanc Massif was intensely deformed during the Alpine orogenesis: in a first stage of prograde underthrusting at c. 30 Ma and in a second stage of uplift and exhumation at 22-11 Ma. Mid-crustal shear zones of 1 mm-50 m size, neighbouring episyenites (quartz-dissolved altered granite) and alpine veins, have localised intense fluid flow, which produced substantial changes in mineralogy and whole-rock geochemistry. Four main metamorphic zones are oriented parallel to the strike of the massif: (i) epidote, (ii) chlorite, (iii) actinolite-muscovite ± biotite and (iv) muscovite ± biotite. In addition, phlogopite-bearing shear zones occur in the chlorite zone, and calcite-bearing shear zones are locally found in the muscovite zone. The initial chemical composition of the granitic protolith is relatively constant at massif scale, which allows investigating compositional changes related to shear zone activity, and subsequent volume change and elements mobility. The variations of whole-rock composition and mineral chemistry in shear zones reflect variations in fluid/rock ratios and fluid's chemistry, which have produced specific mineral reactions. Estimated time-integrated fluid fluxes are of the order of 106 m3/m2. The mineral assemblages that crystallised upon these fluid-P-T conditions are responsible for specific major and trace element enrichments. The XFe (Fe/Fe + Mg) pattern of shear zone phyllosilicates and the δ13C pattern of vein calcite both show a bell-type pattern across the massif with high values on the massif rims and low values in the centre of the massif. These low XFe and δ13C values are explained by down temperature up-flow of a Fe-Mg-CO2-rich and silica-depleted fluid during stage 1, while the massif was underthrusting. These produced phlogopite, chlorite and actinolite precipitation and quartz hydrolysis, resulting in strong volume losses. In contrast, during stage 2 (uplift), substantial volume gains occurred on the massif rims due to the precipitation of quartz, epidote and muscovite from a local fluid hosted in the Helvetic cover. These two fluids advocate for the presence of an upper-crustal scaled fluid convection cell, with up-going fluids through the lower crust and likely down-going fluids in the 15 km upper crust.

  13. A Liao Dynasty Burial at Dapingtan,Taoyuan,Baojia,Beining,Liaoning%辽宁省北宁市鲍家乡桃园村大平滩辽墓

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辽宁省文物考古研究所

    2002-01-01

    大平滩辽墓位于辽宁省北宁市鲍家乡桃园村东北医巫闾山东麓一阳坡处,早年曾数次被盗.该墓系砖筑单室,由墓道、墓门、主室三部分组成.主室平面呈八角形,每相对两边长相等.出土遗物主要包括玉环、玉带饰、鎏金铜带扣等.根据墓室结构和出土遗物分析其年代当在辽代中晚期.

  14. The importance of catchment vegetation alkalinity, phosphorus burial and macrophytes as revealed by a recent paleolimnological study in a soft water lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klamt, Anna-Maria; Jensen, Henning S.; Mortensen, Morten Fischer;

    2016-01-01

    The land use within a catchment maymarkedly affect the environmental conditions in a lake and the storage capability of its sediments. This study investigated howchanges in the dominant catchment vegetation (fromlocal stands of deciduous trees over extensive heathland with some agriculture tomain...

  15. Role of cold resistance and burial for winter survival and spring initiation of an Ulva spp. (Chlorophyta) bloom in a eutrophic lagoon (Veerse Meer lagoon, The Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamermans, P.; Malta, E.J.; Verschuure, J.M.; Lentz, L.F.; Schrijvers, L.

    1998-01-01

    In the eutrophic Veerse Meer lagoon (The Netherlands) large amounts of free-floating thalli from Ulva spp. are present from May to October. In winter however, no algae seem to occur in the lagoon. Sexual reproduction appears to be negligible, as spore formation and germling growth are observed only

  16. Burial effects of organic coatings on the heterogeneous reactivity of particle-borne benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) toward ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, S; Lee, A K Y; McWhinney, R D; Abbatt, J P D

    2012-07-05

    With an aerosol flow tube coupled to an Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), room temperature (296 ± 3 K) kinetics studies have been performed on the reaction of gas-phase ozone with benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) adsorbed in submonolayer amounts to dry ammonium sulfate (AS) particles. Three organic substances, i.e., bis(2-ethylhexyl)sebacate (BES, liquid), phenylsiloxane oil (PSO, liquid), and eicosane (EC, solid), were used to coat BaP-AS particles to investigate the effects of such organic coatings on the heterogeneous reactivity of PAHs toward ozone. All the reactions of particle-borne BaP with excess ozone exhibit pseudo-first-order kinetics in terms of BaP loss, and reactions with a liquid organic coating proceed by the Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H) mechanism. Liquid organic coatings did not significantly affect the kinetics, consistent with the ability of reactants to rapidly diffuse through the organic coating. In contrast, the heterogeneous reactivity of BaP was reduced substantially by a thin (4-8 nm), solid EC coating and entirely suppressed by thick (10-80 nm) coatings, presumably because of slow diffusion through the organic layer. Although the heterogeneous reactivity of surface-bound PAHs is extremely rapid in the atmosphere, this work is the first to experimentally demonstrate a mechanism by which the lifetime of PAHs may be significantly prolonged, permitting them to undergo long-range transport to remote locations.

  17. Authigenic P formation and reactive P burial in sediments of the Nazaré canyon on the Iberian margin (NE Atlantic)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, C. van der; Slomp, C.P.; Raaphorst, W. van

    2002-01-01

    Profiles of different forms of sedimentary phosphorus were measured at four sites at the Iberian margin (NE Atlantic), which were chosen on the basis of differences in depositional environment: a shelf site (113 m), a mid-slope station (1387 m) and two stations at the head (396 m) and base (3097 m)

  18. Predicting the Mobility and Burial of Underwater Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) using the UXO Mobility Model. Field Test Report (PMRF Barking Sands, Kauai, Hawaii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-20

    Consequently, refusal depth, the depth at which the probe encountered a hard surface and could not be driven any further by the diver’s hammer blows , was... mold to reach ideal center of mass. Pouring the Hapcast 3738/60 into the mold with correct placement of the cast iron core will result in properties...SENSITIVITY: -84 dBV ref 1 uBar. BEAM WIDTH: ±6 degrees at half power points. SHAFT LENGTH: User supplies mounting shaft (1 inch PVC ). OUTPUT

  19. Formation and dissolution of zeolite during burial diagenesis - Examples from glauconitic sandstones in the Palaeogene Siri Canyon, Danish North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazerouni, Afsoon Moatari; Friis, Henrik; Svendsen, Johan B

    The Palaeogene Siri Canyon fill consists of hemipelagic and turbidite marl and claystones interbedded with massive and blocky glauconitic sandstones deposited from sandy mass-flows and sandy turbidites. The Palaeogene sediments in the Danish area are rich in siliceous microfossils as well as late...

  20. Dynamics of Sandwaves under Combined Wave - Current Forcing and Mine Burial Processes, and Instrumentation for Measuring Nearshore Morphologic Change and Hydrodynamic Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    were conducted with a small boat with an ADCP, and motorized kayak with sidescan, echosounder and post-processing kinetic (PPK) GPS system and a REMUS...the motorized kayak shipboard bathymetry and sidescan surveys to document the spatial variability of the bedform field. This system produced...structure and grain size Tidally Resolving, Spring and Neap Surveys CATYAK (Catamaran Kayak ) SURVEY: Sidescan, Echosounder and PPK phase resolving

  1. Burial diagenetic processes of clay mineral and non-clay mineral, quartz cementation and dissolution in sandstones and mudstones of the Siri Canyon, Danish North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazerouni, Afsoon Moatari; Friis, Henrik; Svendsen, Johan Byskov

    reprecipitate as opal, quartz or other mineral phases inside the shale itself. The deep marine sandstones in the Siri Canyon, Danish North Sea, have been reported to import significant amounts of dissolve silica from adjacent Paleocene shales during early diagenesis, and the authigenesis of silica developed...

  2. Phase II Nuclide Partition Laboratory Study Influence of Cellulose Degradation Products on the Transport of Nuclides from SRS Shallow Land Burial Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkiz, S.M.

    1999-10-04

    Degradation products of cellulosic materials (e.g., paper and wood products) can significantly influence the subsurface transport of metals and radionuclides. Codisposal of radionuclides with cellulosic materials in the E-Area slit trenches at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is, therefore, expected to influence nuclide fate and transport in the subsurface. Due to the complexities of these systems and the scarcity of site-specific data, the effects of cellulose waste loading and its subsequent influence on nuclide transport are not well established.

  3. The importance of catchment vegetation for alkalinity, phosphorus burial and macrophytes as revealed by a recent paleolimnological study in a soft water lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klamt, Anna-Marie; Jensen, Henning S.; Mortensen, Morten F.;

    2016-01-01

    The land use within a catchment maymarkedly affect the environmental conditions in a lake and the storage capability of its sediments. This study investigated howchanges in the dominant catchment vegetation (fromlocal stands of deciduous trees over extensive heathland with some agriculture tomain...

  4. Radionuclide distributions and migration mechanisms at shallow land burial sites. 1982 annual report of research investigations on the distribution, migration and containment of radionuclides at Maxey Flats, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, L.J. (ed.)

    1984-02-01

    Subsurface waters at Maxey Flats are anoxic, have a high alkalinity and contain high concentrations of ferrous, sulfide and ammonium ions and organic carbon. The trench leachates are extremely variable in composition. Prominent radionuclides include /sup 3/H, /sup 60/Co, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 238/ /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu and /sup 241/Am. A wide spectrum of dissolved organic compounds is present in the leachates, including EDTA, polar organics and decomposition products from the waste forms. Cobalt-60 and plutonium are present as EDTA complexes and /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs are associated with carboxylic acid type compounds. The chemistry of these waters changes drastically as they become oxic and plutonium becomes less mobile under these new conditions. Water enters the trenches by infiltration through the trench caps, through subsidence areas, and through interfaces between new landfill and the original soil. Lateral flow is very complex and slow, and apparently occurs mainly by fracture flow. The plastic infiltration barrier installed in 1981 to 1982 has been effective in reducing soil moisture if cracks and leaks are eliminated. To date, no direct evidence of radionuclide transport to offsite locations by subsurface flow has been confirmed. The offsite distribution of radionuclides, except for tritium, is comparable to the ambient fallout from nuclear weapons testing. Tritium concentrations in water offsite are orders of magnitude below MPC levels. 24 figures, 31 tables.

  5. Integrated Access to Cultural Heritage Information Pieces in Iran over Imam Reza's 4th Zarih (Burial Chamber) as a Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhnia, Maliheh; Zarei, Mitra

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to offer an example of how ontology, such as CIDOC, can be turned into a format from the perspective of an object. In fact, it illustrates the possible semantic analysis of an object description into a view neutral machine-interpretable form. The aim is to show that a museum object located in a museum can be…

  6. From volcanic plains to glaciated peaks: Burial, uplift and exhumation history of southern East Greenland after opening of the NE Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japsen, Peter; Green, Paul F.; Bonow, Johan M.; Nielsen, Troels F. D.; Chalmers, James A.

    2014-05-01

    In southern East Greenland (68-70°N), voluminous flood basalts erupted onto a largely horizontal lava plain near sea level at the Paleocene-Eocene transition when sea-floor spreading started in the NE Atlantic. Based on synthesis of geological observations, stratigraphic landform analysis and apatite fission-track analysis data in 90 rock samples, we show how three regional phases of uplift and exhumation subsequently shaped the present-day margin and controlled the discontinuous history of the Greenland ice sheet. A late Eocene phase of uplift led to formation of a regional erosion surface near sea level (the Upper Planation Surface, UPS). Uplift of the UPS in the late Miocene led to formation of the Lower Planation Surface (LPS) by incision below the uplifted UPS, and a Pliocene phase led to incision of valleys and fjords below the uplifted LPS, leaving mountain peaks reaching 3.7 km above sea level. Local uplift affected the Kangerlussuaq area (~ 68°N) during early Eocene emplacement of the Kangerlussuaq Intrusion and during late Oligocene block movements, that may be related to the detachment of the Jan Mayen microcontinent from Greenland, while middle Miocene thermal activity, coeval with lava eruptions, heated rocks along a prominent fault within the early Cretaceous to Paleocene Kangerlussuaq Basin. The three regional uplift phases are synchronous with phases in West Greenland, overlap in time with similar events in North America and Europe and also correlate with changes in plate motion. The much higher elevation of East Greenland compared to West Greenland suggests support in the east from the Iceland plume. These observations indicate a connection between mantle convection, changes in plate motion and vertical movements along passive continental margins.

  7. 埋藏深度对萝卜种子萌发的影响%Effect of Different Burial Depths on the Seed Germination of Radish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹奎; 周凡; 张丽辉

    2014-01-01

    以“新选八寸”、“北京大粉”、“王兆萝卜”3个品种种子为试材,采用单因素试验设计,研究了1.5、3.0、4.5、6.0 cm4个不同埋藏深度的处理对萝卜种子萌发特性的影响,并探讨其种子萌发的最佳条件.结果表明:适当的埋藏深度有利于种子的萌发;萝卜种子萌发的最适埋藏深度为1.5~4.5 cm;该试验结果对萝卜种苗培育具有重要的指导意义.

  8. FROM TRADITIONAL PRACTICES TO REDUCTION PRACTICES: RITUALS OF HEALING, GRIEF AND BURIAL AT THE JESUIT-GUARANI REDUCTIONS (JESUIT PROVINCE OF PARAGUAY, 17TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Cristina Deckmann Fleck

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to evince and analyze the impact of the Christian conceptions of sickness and death on the Guarani indian sensibility and its translation in terms of representations and social practices in the Jesuitical reductions. The analysis of the records made by the missionaries, especially the Cartas Ânuas of the Jesuitical Province of Paraguay regarding the period from 1609 to 1675, revealed that, on the one hand, the Guarani kept traditional practices of their religious sensibility – as is evinced in the resignification of the "copious crying" and the funereal laments –, and, on the other hand, that the missionaries, besides incorporating the native pharmacopoeia and many of the indian healing practices, skillfully manipulated the cures and the "bien morir", a strategy that was fundamental to the success of the civilization-conversion project of the Companhia de Jesus alongside the Guarani.

  9. Relevance of biotic pathways to the long-term regulation of nuclear waste disposal. A report on Tasks 1 and 2 of Phase I. [Shallow land burial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenzie, D.H.; Cadwell, L.L.; Cushing, C.E. Jr.; Harty, R.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Simmons, M.A.; Soldat, J.K.; Swartzman, B.

    1982-07-01

    The purpose of the work reported here was to evaluate the relevance of biotic transport to the assessment of impacts and licensing of low-level waste disposal sites. Available computer models and their recent applications at low-level waste disposal sites are considered. Biotic transport mechanisms and processes for both terrestrial and aquatic systems are presented with examples from existing waste disposal sites. Following a proposed system for ranking radionuclides by their potential for biotic transport, recommendations for completing Phase I research are presented. To evaluate the long-term importance of biotic transport at low-level waste sites, scenarios for biotic pathways and mechanisms need to be developed. Scenarios should begin with a description of the waste form and should include a description of biotic processes and mechanisms, approximations of the magnitude of materials transported, and a linkage to processes or mechanisms in existing models. Once these scenarios are in place, existing models could be used to evaluate impacts resulting from biotic transport and to assess the relevance to site selection and licensing of low-level waste disposal sites.

  10. Conceptual Design and Simulation of a Semi-Automatic Cell for the Washing and Preparation of a Corpse Prior to an Islamic Burial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Meghdari

    2012-07-01

    the automatic washing chamber, drying cell and the semi‐automatic shrouding table. This paper covers an introductory concept of the subject in Islam, a conceptual design of various machines and mechanisms to automate the important tasks in accordance with Islamic laws, and the final detailed design, graphic simulation and animation of the PaakShooy machine. In doing so, consultation with Islamic scholars has been a priority from the beginning of the project to the end and a few Fatwa have been issued by some high ranking Ayatollahs in support of the project. With a few modifications, the semi‐automated PaakShooy machine may now be updated to conform to other religions/customs.

  11. Evaluation of isotope migration: land burial. Water chemistry at commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. Progress report No. 7, October--December 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colombo, P.; Weiss, A. J.; Francis, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    Trench water samples from the commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites at Maxey Flats, Kentucky, and West Valley, New York, were collected, and the bacterial populations were enumerated. The range of bacterial populations in six trench water samples were 400 to 24,000 aerobic and 90 to 15,000 anaerobic bacteria/ml. Most of the bacteria isolated from the anaerobic culture plates were facultative anaerobes, although a few strict anaerobes were also present. Mixed bacterial populations isolated from the trench waters were able to grow anaerobically utilizing the carbon and nitrogen sources present in the trench waters. Trench waters supplemented with mineral salts supported only a modest increase in growth of these bacteria. The results of this study indicate that bacteria are active in the trenches, and the radioactivity and organic compounds present in the trenches are not toxic to these bacteria.

  12. Integrated seismic analysis of the Chalk Group in eastern Denmark—Implications for estimates of maximum palaeo-burial in southwest Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars; Boldreel, Lars Ole; Hansen, Thomas Mejer;

    2011-01-01

    The origin of the topography of southwest Scandinavia is subject to discussion. Analysis of borehole seismic velocity has formed the basis for interpretation of several hundred metres of Neogene uplift in parts of Denmark.Here, refraction seismic data constrain a 7.5km long P-wave velocity model...... Group. The sonic velocities are consistent with the overall seismic layering, although they show additional fine-scale layering. Integration of gamma and sonic log with porosity data shows that seismic velocity is sensitive to clay content. In intervals near boundaries of the refraction model, moderate...

  13. Multi-Scale (cm to km) Hydrodynamic and Morphologic Interactions in Tidal Inlets, Dynamics of Sandwaves with Combined Wave - Current Forcing and Mine Burial Processes, and Instrumentation for Measuring Nearshore Morphologic Change and Hydrodynamic Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    resolving differential GPS and sidescan and multibeam sonar system as described in our DURIP proposal (“Instrumentation for Measuring Nearshore Morphologic...elevation is a suitable reference for measuring bedforms under swell. The multibeam will provide digital elevation with a swath width roughly twice the...to several other proposed ONR efforts including an OASIS project with John Trowbridge to measure wave boundary layer stresses in support of optical

  14. The importance of deciduous forest for alkalinity, phosphorus burial and isoetid macrophytes as revealed by a recent paleo study in a soft water Lobelia Lake (Grane Langsø, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klamt, Anna-Marie; Reitzel, Kasper; Mortensen, Morten F.;

    in macrofossils of calcium (Ca)-sensitive species (as reflected in Daphnia ephippia and Cristatella mucedo statoblasts) and followed by increases in acidophilic species (as reflected in Juncus seeds and Sphagnum leaves). 2) The contents of organic material and organic P forms were clearly lower in sediments...... that were deposited during the period of least forest cover. Especially humic bound P seems to be positively related to the presence of deciduous trees which may be linked to a stabilizing effect of calcium. 3) An erosion event (as reflected in Cenococccum geophilum sclerotia) during the open-land period...... of nutrient-poor soft water lakes to changes in their catchments vegetation and their partial irreversible consequences and is therefore of importance for lake management....

  15. Résines et asphaltènes : évolution en fonction des types de matière organique et de leur enfouissement Resins and Asphaltenes: Evolution As a Function of Organic-Matter Type and Burial

    OpenAIRE

    Castex H.

    2006-01-01

    151 résines et 175 asphaltènes d'extraits de roche de plusieurs bassins ont été étudiés par analyse élémentaire. On montre que : - les résines ont des valeurs moyennes en carbone et en hydrogène plus élevées ainsi qu'un rapport C/H plus faible que celui des asphaltènes; elles présentent donc une structure plus aliphatique et/ou plus alicyclique. Par contre, les asphaltènes contiennent plus de soufre, d'oxygène et d'azote ; - le soufre et l'oxygène sont des paramètres permettant de différencie...

  16. Evaluation of isotope migration: land burial. Water chemistry at commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. Progress report No. 6, July--September 1977. [Maxey Flats, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colombo, P.; Weiss, A. J.; Francis, A. J.

    1978-04-01

    A survey of the Maxey Flats, Kentucky, low-level radioactive waste disposal site was conducted to obtain an overview of the radioactivity in the trench waters for the purpose of selecting specific trenches for comprehensive study. Water samples collected from trenches and wells were analyzed for specific conductance, pH, temperature, dissolved organic carbon, tritium, gross alpha, gross beta, and gamma radioactivities. The results indicate that there are large differences in the composition of trench waters at the site. Several trenches, that represent extreme and average values of the major parameters measured, have been tentatively selected for further study. 10 fig, 6 tables.

  17. 中古时期丧葬礼中的魂衣与魂车%The Soul Coat and the Soul Vehicle in the Funeral and Burial Rituals of Medieval China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王铭

    2015-01-01

    在中古时期的丧葬仪式中,出丧时有魂衣置于魂车之上,以代表亡者的灵魂所在.代表死者亡魂的衣服即魂衣,魂车即是运载亡魂的车舆.与代表大凶的柩车不同,魂车代表的是吉祥之车的观念,这与古人对于魂魄的性质区分有关.相对于亡者的遗体和棺柩来说,亡者之魂具有吉的属性,引导魂车的是一系列的吉卤簿,为吉驾、吉仗.吉驾具有鲜明的宇宙象征的特征,魂车即其所围绕的核心.本文将中古时期丧葬礼中的魂衣以及其所凭附、搭载的魂车联系起来,考察其在礼经中的记载以及在汉唐时期的流变,以审视中古时期丧葬礼仪中的亡魂观念.

  18. Analysis of the Influence of Religious Pluralism on Mongolian Family Burial Custom in the Yuan Dynasty%试析多元宗教对元朝蒙古族葬俗的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晓燕

    2011-01-01

    Since Genghis Khan Mongolia Empire was established,with the Mongolia cavalry fight up and down the country,various foreign religions began with the influx of foreign residents to the country,and they mixed with the Chinese native Taoism,Shamanism and Confucianism,then got continuous development.Genghis Khan and his successors adopted inclusive and equitable policies,making use of these religions to strengthen their rule.Along with wide spread and pervasive of religious pluralism in Mongolian society,Mongolia changed,and Mongolian funeral customs changed significantly.Many new funeral styles began in the Mongolian nation and were characterized by the times and the nation.%自成吉思汗建立蒙古汗国始,随着蒙古铁骑的南征北伐,各种外来宗教开始随着外来居民的涌入而传至国内,并与中国土生土长的道教、萨满教和儒学思想相互糅合,不断地发展。成吉思汗和他的继承者对各种宗教皆采取兼容并蓄的政策,利用其来加强自己的统治。随着多元教派在蒙古社会的逐渐渗透和广泛传播,蒙古社会发生了巨变,蒙古族丧葬习俗的变化尤为明显,如火葬、天葬等新的丧葬方式开始在蒙古族实施,并表现出时代和民族特色。

  19. 唐宋墓葬出土陀罗尼经咒及其民间信仰%The Dharani Mantra Scriptures Unearthed from the Burials of the Tang and Song Dynasties and Their Folkloric Worships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍巍

    2011-01-01

    @@ 在中国古代墓葬中出土有相当丰富的反映不同时期民间信仰的遗迹和遗物,这是值得我们认真研究的.在唐、五代、宋辽时期,发现有一类具有佛教密教色彩的陀罗尼经咒往往与死者伴出,出土时往往以特殊的方式佩戴于死者身上,所反映的民间信仰十分引人注目,过去的研究者主要是从我国雕版印刷术的起源这一角度对这类考古材料有所涉及[1],本文在前人研究的基础上,拟从密教与民间信仰的新视角再作进一步的研究探讨.

  20. 围屏石榻的源流和北魏墓葬中的祆教习俗%Origin and Development of the Stone Bed with Folding Screen and the common burial custom of the Zoroastrianism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永平; 周银霞

    2005-01-01

    关于围屏石榻的研究是随着北周安伽墓的发现而开始的,笔者写了拙稿《天水出土围屏石榻及相关问题研究》,之后,在学习的过程中又积累了一些资料,对其中的某些问题有了更深的认识,现加以整理和总结,不足之处请学界师长和同仁予以指正。