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Sample records for burgdorferi bb0426 encodes

  1. A chromosomal Borrelia burgdorferi gene encodes a 22-kilodalton lipoprotein, P22, that is serologically recognized in Lyme disease.

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    Lam, T T; Nguyen, T P; Fikrig, E; Flavell, R A

    1994-04-01

    We describe the isolation of the gene encoding a 22-kDa antigen from Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease. The p22 gene is 582 nucleotides in length and encodes a protein of 194 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 21.8 kDa. The leader signal sequence of P22 consists of a positively charged short amino terminus, a central hydrophobic domain, and at the carboxyl terminus, a cleavage site that is presumably recognized and cleaved by a B. burgdorferi signal peptidase. P22 has 98.5% homology with the recently described B. burgdorferi protein IpLA7. P22 is processed as a lipoprotein, as demonstrated by [3H]palmitate labeling. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that p22, like LA7, is localized to the linear chromosome of B. burgdorferi. Examination of sera from patients with Lyme disease revealed that antibodies to P22 are rarely detected in patients with early-stage disease characterized by erythema migrans (2 of 20), and 35% of the patients with late-stage disease characterized by arthritis (9 of 26) developed antibodies to P22. Sera from patients with syphilis did not react with P22. When patients with late-stage disease were tested for their antibody reactivities to four other outer surface proteins (OspA), OspB, OspE, and OspF), 75% of these patients responded to P22 or to one or more outer surface proteins.

  2. The hook protein of Borrelia burgdorferi, encoded by the flgE gene, is serologically recognized in Lyme disease.

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    Jwang, B; Dewing, P; Fikrig, E; Flavell, R A

    1995-09-01

    The periplasmic flagellum of Borrelia burgdorferi consists of a unipeptide flagellar filament, a hook, and a basal body. Here, we report the cloning and expression of the hook gene, flgE, of B. burgdorferi N40. The flgE gene is 1,119 nucleotides long and is located on the 950-kb linear chromosome of B. burgdorferi. The primary protein sequence of FlgE shows 73% similarity to the FlgE protein of Treponema phagedenis and approximately 50% similarity to the FlgG proteins of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The flgE gene was cloned into an Escherichia coli expression plasmid, pMX, to produce FlgE protein. Subsequently, FlgE murine antiserum was prepared by immunizing mice with the partially purified B. burgdorferi FlgE protein. By Western blot (immunoblot) analysis, the antiserum was found to react with a 40-kDa peptide in the whole-cell lysates, confirming the expression of the flgE gene in B. burgdorferi. Additionally, antibodies to FlgE were found in serum specimens from 19 of 42 patients with Lyme disease. Moreover, when other antigens, including 41G (the immunodominant domain of flagellin), OspE, OspF, and p22, were used to test for the development of corresponding antibodies in these patients, 67% of these patients (28 of 42) reacted to at least one of these five antigens, suggesting that a combination of FlgE with other available B. burgdorferi recombinant proteins is a good candidate for substrates in assays to aid in the diagnosis of Lyme disease.

  3. Molecular cloning and immunological characterization of a novel linear-plasmid-encoded gene, pG, of Borrelia burgdorferi expressed only in vivo.

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    Wallich, R; Brenner, C; Kramer, M D; Simon, M M

    1995-09-01

    Previously we have found that sera from immunocompetent mice infected either naturally by ticks or experimentally with low numbers of Borrelia burgdorferi ZS7 bacteria lack OspA- and OspB-specific antibodies but confer optimal protection on severe combined immunodeficiency mice against challenge with spirochetes (U.E. Schaible, L. Gern, R. Wallich, M. D. Kramer, M. Prester, and M. M. Simon, Immunol. Lett. 36:219-226, 1993). We have now used the latter immune sera to identify new spirochetal structures with relevance for protection from an expression library of the virulent European strain B. burgdorferi ZS7. Here we report the cloning and characterization of a novel lipoprotein, designated pG, the gene for which is located on a 48-kb linear plasmid. Sequence analysis of the pG gene revealed an open reading frame encoding a putative lipoprotein of 196 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 22 kDa and a consensus cleavage sequence (Leu-X-Y-Z-Cys) recognized by signal peptidase II. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of pG derived from independent B. burgdorferi isolates from different geographic areas revealed that the gene is species specific, with, however, extensive genotypic heterogeneity. Comparison of the protein sequence of pG with those of other known B. burgdorferi outer surface lipoproteins (OspA to OspF and P27) demonstrated that pG is most related to OspF. Furthermore, the upstream region of pG exhibited extensive sequence homology (> 94%) with the ospEF promoter region. Mouse immune sera to recombinant pG did not recognize a corresponding molecule in lysates of in vitro-propagated ZS7 spirochetes. However, experimental or natural infection of mice with ZS7 resulted in the induction of antibodies with reactivity for pG and the potential to delay the development of clinical arthritis. Together with the finding that sera from Lyme disease patients also contain antibodies to pG, our data suggest that the pG gene is preferentially

  4. Molecular and evolutionary analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi 297 circular plasmid-encoded lipoproteins with OspE- and OspF-like leader peptides.

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    Akins, D R; Caimano, M J; Yang, X; Cerna, F; Norgard, M V; Radolf, J D

    1999-03-01

    We previously described two OspE and three OspF homologs in Borrelia burgdorferi 297 (D. R. Akins, S. F. Porcella, T. G. Popova, D. Shevchenko, S. I. Baker, M. Li, M. V. Norgard, and J. D. Radolf, Mol. Microbiol. 18:507-520, 1995; D. R. Akins, K. W. Bourell, M. J. Caimano, M. V. Norgard, and J. D. Radolf, J. Clin. Investig. 101:2240-2250, 1998). In this study, we characterized four additional lipoproteins with OspE/F-like leader peptides (Elps) and demonstrated that all are encoded on plasmids homologous to cp32 and cp18 from the B31 and N40 strains, respectively. Statistical analysis of sequence similarities using the binary comparison algorithm revealed that the nine lipoproteins from strain 297, as well as the OspE, OspF, and Erp proteins from the N40 and B31 strains, fall into three distinct families. Based upon the observation that these lipoproteins all contain highly conserved leader peptides, we now propose that the ancestors of each of the three families arose from gene fusion events which joined a common N terminus to unrelated proteins. Additionally, further sequence analysis of the strain 297 circular plasmids revealed that rearrangements appear to have played an important role in generating sequence diversity among the members of these three families and that recombinational events in the downstream flanking regions appear to have occurred independently of those within the lipoprotein-encoding genes. The association of hypervariable regions with genes which are differentially expressed and/or subject to immunological pressures suggests that the Lyme disease spirochete has exploited recombinatorial processes to foster its parasitic strategy and enhance its immunoevasiveness.

  5. Use of the "blue halo" assay in the identification of genes encoding exported proteins with cleavable signal peptides: cloning of a Borrelia burgdorferi plasmid gene with a signal peptide.

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    Giladi, M; Champion, C I; Haake, D A; Blanco, D R; Miller, J F; Miller, J N; Lovett, M A

    1993-07-01

    We have recently reported a phoA expression vector, termed pMG, which, like TnphoA, is useful in identifying genes encoding membrane-spanning sequences or signal peptides. This cloning system has been modified to facilitate the distinction of outer membrane and periplasmic alkaline phosphatase (AP) fusion proteins from inner membrane AP fusion proteins by transforming pMG recombinants into Escherichia coli KS330, the strain utilized in the "blue halo" assay first described by Strauch and Beckwith (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85:1576-1580, 1988). The lipoprotein mutation lpp-5508 of KS330 results in an outer membrane that is leaky to macromolecules, and its degP4 mutation greatly reduces periplasmic proteolytic degradation of AP fusion proteins. pMG AP fusions containing cleavable signal peptides, including the E. coli periplasmic protein beta-lactamase, the E. coli and Chlamydia trachomatis outer membrane proteins OmpA and MOMP, respectively, and Tp 9, a Treponema pallidum AP recombinant, diffused through the leaky outer membrane of KS330 and resulted in blue colonies with blue halos. In contrast, inner membrane AP fusions derived from E. coli proteins, including leader peptidase, SecY, and the tetracycline resistance gene product, as well as Tp 70, a T. pallidum AP recombinant which does not contain a signal peptide, resulted in blue colonies without blue halos. Lipoprotein-AP fusions, including the Borrelia burgdorferi OspA and T. pallidum Tp 75 and TmpA showed halo formation, although there was significantly less halo formation than that produced by either periplasmic or outer membrane AP fusions. In addition, we applied this approach to screen recombinants constructed from a 9.0-kb plasmid isolated from the B31 virulent strain of B. burgdorferi. One of the blue halo colonies identified produced an AP fusion protein which contained a signal peptide with a leader peptidase I cleavage recognition site. The pMG/KS330r- cloning and screening approach can identify

  6. Evaluation of Selected Borrelia burgdorferi lp54 Plasmid-Encoded Gene Products Expressed during Mammalian Infection as Antigens To Improve Serodiagnostic Testing for Early Lyme Disease.

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    Weiner, Zachary P; Crew, Rebecca M; Brandt, Kevin S; Ullmann, Amy J; Schriefer, Martin E; Molins, Claudia R; Gilmore, Robert D

    2015-11-01

    Laboratory testing for the diagnosis of Lyme disease is performed primarily by serologic assays and is accurate for detection beyond the acute stage of the infection. Serodiagnostic assays to detect the early stages of infection, however, are limited in their sensitivity, and improvement is warranted. We analyzed a series of Borrelia burgdorferi proteins known to be induced within feeding ticks and/or during mammalian infection for their utility as serodiagnostic markers against a comprehensive panel of Lyme disease patient serum samples. The antigens were assayed for IgM and IgG reactivity in line immunoblots and separately by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), with a focus on reactivity against early Lyme disease with erythema migrans (EM), early disseminated Lyme neuroborreliosis, and early Lyme carditis patient serum samples. By IgM immunoblotting, we found that recombinant proteins BBA65, BBA70, and BBA73 reacted with early Lyme EM samples at levels comparable to those of the OspC antigen used in the current IgM blotting criteria. Additionally, these proteins reacted with serum samples from patients with early neuroborreliosis and early carditis, suggesting value in detecting early stages of this disease progression. We also found serological reactivity against recombinant proteins BBA69 and BBA73 with early-Lyme-disease samples using IgG immunoblotting and ELISA. Significantly, some samples that had been scored negative by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-recommended 2-tiered testing algorithm demonstrated positive reactivity to one or more of the antigens by IgM/IgG immunoblot and ELISA. These results suggest that incorporating additional in vivo-expressed antigens into the current IgM/IgG immunoblotting tier in a recombinant protein platform assay may improve the performance of early-Lyme-disease serologic testing. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Evaluation of Selected Borrelia burgdorferi lp54 Plasmid-Encoded Gene Products Expressed during Mammalian Infection as Antigens To Improve Serodiagnostic Testing for Early Lyme Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Zachary P.; Crew, Rebecca M.; Brandt, Kevin S.; Ullmann, Amy J.; Schriefer, Martin E.; Molins, Claudia R.

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory testing for the diagnosis of Lyme disease is performed primarily by serologic assays and is accurate for detection beyond the acute stage of the infection. Serodiagnostic assays to detect the early stages of infection, however, are limited in their sensitivity, and improvement is warranted. We analyzed a series of Borrelia burgdorferi proteins known to be induced within feeding ticks and/or during mammalian infection for their utility as serodiagnostic markers against a comprehensive panel of Lyme disease patient serum samples. The antigens were assayed for IgM and IgG reactivity in line immunoblots and separately by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), with a focus on reactivity against early Lyme disease with erythema migrans (EM), early disseminated Lyme neuroborreliosis, and early Lyme carditis patient serum samples. By IgM immunoblotting, we found that recombinant proteins BBA65, BBA70, and BBA73 reacted with early Lyme EM samples at levels comparable to those of the OspC antigen used in the current IgM blotting criteria. Additionally, these proteins reacted with serum samples from patients with early neuroborreliosis and early carditis, suggesting value in detecting early stages of this disease progression. We also found serological reactivity against recombinant proteins BBA69 and BBA73 with early-Lyme-disease samples using IgG immunoblotting and ELISA. Significantly, some samples that had been scored negative by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-recommended 2-tiered testing algorithm demonstrated positive reactivity to one or more of the antigens by IgM/IgG immunoblot and ELISA. These results suggest that incorporating additional in vivo-expressed antigens into the current IgM/IgG immunoblotting tier in a recombinant protein platform assay may improve the performance of early-Lyme-disease serologic testing. PMID:26376927

  8. Inter- and intra-specific pan-genomes of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato: genome stability and adaptive radiation

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    2013-01-01

    Background Lyme disease is caused by spirochete bacteria from the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi s.l.) species complex. To reconstruct the evolution of B. burgdorferi s.l. and identify the genomic basis of its human virulence, we compared the genomes of 23 B. burgdorferi s.l. isolates from Europe and the United States, including B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (B. burgdorferi s.s., 14 isolates), B. afzelii (2), B. garinii (2), B. “bavariensis” (1), B. spielmanii (1), B. valaisiana (1), B. bissettii (1), and B. “finlandensis” (1). Results Robust B. burgdorferi s.s. and B. burgdorferi s.l. phylogenies were obtained using genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms, despite recombination. Phylogeny-based pan-genome analysis showed that the rate of gene acquisition was higher between species than within species, suggesting adaptive speciation. Strong positive natural selection drives the sequence evolution of lipoproteins, including chromosomally-encoded genes 0102 and 0404, cp26-encoded ospC and b08, and lp54-encoded dbpA, a07, a22, a33, a53, a65. Computer simulations predicted rapid adaptive radiation of genomic groups as population size increases. Conclusions Intra- and inter-specific pan-genome sizes of B. burgdorferi s.l. expand linearly with phylogenetic diversity. Yet gene-acquisition rates in B. burgdorferi s.l. are among the lowest in bacterial pathogens, resulting in high genome stability and few lineage-specific genes. Genome adaptation of B. burgdorferi s.l. is driven predominantly by copy-number and sequence variations of lipoprotein genes. New genomic groups are likely to emerge if the current trend of B. burgdorferi s.l. population expansion continues. PMID:24112474

  9. Arguments against the involvement of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Alzheimer's disease.

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    Gutacker, M; Valsangiacomo, C; Balmelli, T; Bernasconi, M V; Bouras, C; Piffaretti, J C

    1998-01-01

    The involvement of spirochaetes, such as the aetiologic agent of Lyme borreliosis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, in Alzheimer's disease (AD), a common neuropathology, has been proposed by several groups in the past. In our laboratory, brains from 10 AD patients were analysed for the presence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato by both standard and nested PCR techniques based on various target regions, such as the hbb gene (encoding the histone-like protein HBb), the fla gene (flagellin), the rrl-rrf ribosomal intergenic spacer region and the rrs gene (encoding 16S rRNA). In addition, ELISA and Western blot tests for the detection of antibodies against spirochaetal antigens were performed on 27 sera from clinical AD patients. Using these methods, we did not obtain any evidence of the involvement of B. burgdorferi in Alzheimer's disease.

  10. Interaction of Borrelia burgdorferi Hbb with the p66 promoter.

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    Medrano, Melisa S; Policastro, Paul F; Schwan, Tom G; Coburn, Jenifer

    2010-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, an agent of Lyme disease, encodes the beta(3)-chain integrin ligand P66. P66 is expressed by B. burgdorferi in the mammal, in laboratory media, and as the bacteria are acquired or transmitted by the tick, but is not expressed by the bacterium in unfed ticks. Attempts to reveal factors influencing expression revealed that P66 was expressed in all in vitro conditions investigated. Candidate regulators identified in a search of the B. burgdorferi genome for homologs to other bacterial transcription factors were cloned and introduced into E. coli carrying a p66 promoter-signal sequence-phoA (alkaline phosphatase, or AP) fusion. Three candidate transcription factors-two that decreased AP activity (Hbb and BB0527), and one that increased AP activity (BBA23)-were identified. BBA23 and BB0527 did not bind to the p66 promoter at physiologically relevant concentrations. In contrast, several promoter fragments, including p66, were bound by Hbb (BB0232), with slightly different affinities. Consistent with results from other laboratories, Hbb appears to recognize multiple DNA sequences. Changes in the expression of p66 and bb0232 in the tick at various points with respect to feeding on mice, along with the results of the reporter experiment in the surrogate host E. coli, are consistent with Hbb/BB0232 being involved in regulating p66 expression.

  11. Erythromycin Resistance in Borrelia burgdorferi

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    Terekhova, Darya; Sartakova, Marina L.; Wormser, Gary P.; Schwartz, Ira; Cabello, Felipe C.

    2002-01-01

    Susceptibility testing of laboratory strains and clinical isolates of Borrelia burgdorferi indicates that resistance to erythromycin is present in them. Evaluation of the MICs, minimal bactericidal concentrations, and kinetics of bacterial killing of erythromycin suggests that this resistance is increased by preexposure to the antibiotic, is dependent on inoculum size, and may be the result of selection of subpopulations of bacterial cells with increased resistance. PMID:12384380

  12. Molecular Typing of Borrelia burgdorferi

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    Wang, Guiqing; Liveris, Dionysios; Mukherjee, Priyanka; Jungnick, Sabrina; Margos, Gabriele; Schwartz, Ira

    2015-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is a group of spirochetes belonging to the genus Borrelia in the family of Spirochaetaceae. The spirochete is transmitted between reservoirs and hosts by ticks of the family Ixodidae. Infection with B. burgdorferi in humans causes Lyme disease or Lyme borreliosis. Currently, 20 Lyme disease-associated Borrelia species and more than 20 relapsing fever-associated Borrelia species have been described. Identification and differentiation of different Borrelia species and strains is largely dependent on analyses of their genetic characteristics. A variety of molecular techniques have been described for Borrelia isolate speciation, molecular epidemiology, and pathogenicity studies. In this unit, we focus on three basic protocols, PCR-RFLP-based typing of the rrs-rrlA and rrfA-rrlB ribosomal spacer, ospC typing, and MLST. These protocols can be employed alone or in combination for characterization of B. burgdorferi isolates or directly on uncultivated organisms in ticks, mammalian host reservoirs, and human clinical specimens. PMID:25082003

  13. Autophagy suppresses host adaptive immune responses toward Borrelia burgdorferi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buffen, Kathrin; Oosting, Marije; Li, Yang; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi; Netea, Mihai G.; Joosten, Leo A. B.

    Inhibition of autophagy increases the severity of murine Lyme arthritis and human adaptive immune responses against B. burgdorferi. We have previously demonstrated that inhibition of autophagy increased the Borrelia burgdorferi induced innate cytokine production in vitro, but little is known

  14. BB0324 and BB0028 are constituents of the Borrelia burgdorferi β-barrel assembly machine (BAM) complex.

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    Lenhart, Tiffany R; Kenedy, Melisha R; Yang, Xiuli; Pal, Utpal; Akins, Darrin R

    2012-04-20

    Similar to Gram-negative bacteria, the outer membrane (OM) of the pathogenic spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, contains integral OM-spanning proteins (OMPs), as well as membrane-anchored lipoproteins. Although the mechanism of OMP biogenesis is still not well-understood, recent studies have indicated that a heterooligomeric OM protein complex, known as BAM (β-barrel assembly machine) is required for proper assembly of OMPs into the bacterial OM. We previously identified and characterized the essential β-barrel OMP component of this complex in B. burgdorferi, which we determined to be a functional BamA ortholog. In the current study, we report on the identification of two additional protein components of the B. burgdorferi BAM complex, which were identified as putative lipoproteins encoded by ORFs BB0324 and BB0028. Biochemical assays with a BamA-depleted B. burgdorferi strain indicate that BB0324 and BB0028 do not readily interact with the BAM complex without the presence of BamA, suggesting that the individual B. burgdorferi BAM components may associate only when forming a functional BAM complex. Cellular localization assays indicate that BB0324 and BB0028 are OM-associated subsurface lipoproteins, and in silico analyses indicate that BB0324 is a putative BamD ortholog. The combined data suggest that the BAM complex of B. burgdorferi contains unique protein constituents which differ from those found in other proteobacterial BAM complexes. The novel findings now allow for the B. burgdorferi BAM complex to be further studied as a model system to better our understanding of spirochetal OM biogenesis in general.

  15. Disruption of bbe02 by Insertion of a Luciferase Gene Increases Transformation Efficiency of Borrelia burgdorferi and Allows Live Imaging in Lyme Disease Susceptible C3H Mice.

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    Kamfai Chan

    Full Text Available Lyme disease is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in North America and Europe. The causative agent, Borrelia burgdorferi persists in the white-footed mouse. Infection with B. burgdorferi can cause acute to persistent multisystemic Lyme disease in humans. Some disease manifestations are also exhibited in the mouse model of Lyme disease. Genetic manipulation of B. burgdorferi remains difficult. First, B. burgdorferi contains a large number of endogenous plasmids with unique sequences encoding unknown functions. The presence of these plasmids needs to be confirmed after each genetic manipulation. Second, the restriction modification defense systems, including that encoded by bbe02 gene lead to low transformation efficiency in B. burgdorferi. Therefore, studying the molecular basis of Lyme pathogenesis is a challenge. Furthermore, investigation of the role of a specific B. burgdorferi protein throughout infection requires a large number of mice, making it labor intensive and expensive. To overcome the problems associated with low transformation efficiency and to reduce the number of mice needed for experiments, we disrupted the bbe02 gene of a highly infectious and pathogenic B. burgdorferi strain, N40 D10/E9 through insertion of a firefly luciferase gene. The bbe02 mutant shows higher transformation efficiency and maintains luciferase activity throughout infection as detected by live imaging of mice. Infectivity and pathogenesis of this mutant were comparable to the wild-type N40 strain. This mutant will serve as an ideal parental strain to examine the roles of various B. burgdorferi proteins in Lyme pathogenesis in the mouse model in the future.

  16. Recombinant constructs of Borrelia burgdorferi

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    Dattwyler, Raymond J. (Setauket, NY); Gomes-Solecki, Maria J. C. (New York, NY); Luft, Benjamin J. (East Setauket, NY); Dunn, John J.(Bellport, NY)

    2007-02-20

    Novel chimeric nucleic acids, encoding chimeric Borrelia proteins comprising OspC or an antigenic fragment thereof and OspA or an antigenic fragment thereof, are disclosed. Chimeric proteins encoded by the nucleic acid sequences are also disclosed. The chimeric proteins are useful as vaccine immunogens against Lyme borreliosis, as well as for immunodiagnostic reagents.

  17. A family of genes located on four separate 32-kilobase circular plasmids in Borrelia burgdorferi B31.

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    Stevenson, B; Tilly, K; Rosa, P A

    1996-06-01

    We have identified four loci in Borrelia burgdorferi B31 that contain open reading frames capable of encoding six proteins that are related to the antigenic proteins OspE and OspF. We have designated these proteins Erp, for OspEF-related protein, and named their respective genes erp. The erpA and erpB genes are linked, as are erpC and erpD, and the pairs probably constitute two operons. The erpG and erpH genes appear to be monocistronic. The ErpA and ErpC proteins are expressed by B. burgdorferi B31 in culture and are recognized by a polyclonal antiserum raised against the OspE protein of B. burgdorferi N40. The four erp loci are each located on different 32-kb circular plasmids that contain additional DNA sequences that are homologous to each other and to an 8.3-kb circular plasmid of B. burgdorferi sensu lato Ip2l. All four 32-kb plasmids can be maintained within a single bacterium, which may provide a model for the study of plasmid replication and segregation in B. burgdorferi.

  18. Effect of levels of acetate on the mevalonate pathway of Borrelia burgdorferi.

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    Tricia A Van Laar

    Full Text Available Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, is a spirochetal pathogen with limited metabolic capabilities that survives under highly disparate host-specific conditions. However, the borrelial genome encodes several proteins of the mevalonate pathway (MP that utilizes acetyl-CoA as a substrate leading to intermediate metabolites critical for biogenesis of peptidoglycan and post-translational modifications of proteins. In this study, we analyzed the MP and contributions of acetate in modulation of adaptive responses in B. burgdorferi. Reverse-transcription PCR revealed that components of the MP are transcribed as individual open reading frames. Immunoblot analysis using monospecific sera confirmed synthesis of members of the MP in B. burgdorferi. The rate-limiting step of the MP is mediated by HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR via conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate. Recombinant borrelial HMGR exhibited a K(m value of 132 µM with a V(max of 1.94 µmol NADPH oxidized minute(-1 (mg protein(-1 and was inhibited by statins. Total protein lysates from two different infectious, clonal isolates of B. burgdorferi grown under conditions that mimicked fed-ticks (pH 6.8/37°C exhibited increased levels of HMGR while other members of the MP were elevated under unfed-tick (pH 7.6/23°C conditions. Increased extra-cellular acetate gave rise to elevated levels of MP proteins along with RpoS, CsrA(Bb and their respective regulons responsible for mediating vertebrate host-specific adaptation. Both lactone and acid forms of two different statins inhibited growth of B. burgdorferi strain B31, while overexpression of HMGR was able to partially overcome that inhibition. In summary, these studies on MP and contributions of acetate to host-specific adaptation have helped identify potential metabolic targets that can be manipulated to reduce the incidence of Lyme disease.

  19. Characterization of the β-barrel assembly machine accessory lipoproteins from Borrelia burgdorferi.

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    Dunn, Joshua P; Kenedy, Melisha R; Iqbal, Henna; Akins, Darrin R

    2015-03-24

    Like all diderm bacteria studied to date, Borrelia burgdorferi possesses a β-barrel assembly machine (BAM) complex. The bacterial BAM complexes characterized thus far consist of an essential integral outer membrane protein designated BamA and one or more accessory proteins. The accessory proteins are typically lipid-modified proteins anchored to the inner leaflet of the outer membrane through their lipid moieties. We previously identified and characterized the B. burgdorferi BamA protein in detail and more recently identified two lipoproteins encoded by open reading frames bb0324 and bb0028 that associate with the borrelial BamA protein. The role(s) of the BAM accessory lipoproteins in B. burgdorferi is currently unknown. Structural modeling of B. burgdorferi BB0028 revealed a distinct β-propeller fold similar to the known structure for the E. coli BAM accessory lipoprotein BamB. Additionally, the structural model for BB0324 was highly similar to the known structure of BamD, which is consistent with the prior finding that BB0324 contains tetratricopeptide repeat regions similar to other BamD orthologs. Consistent with BB0028 and BB0324 being BAM accessory lipoproteins, mutants lacking expression of each protein were found to exhibit altered membrane permeability and enhanced sensitivity to various antimicrobials. Additionally, BB0028 mutants also exhibited significantly impaired in vitro growth. Finally, immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that BB0028 and BB0324 each interact specifically and independently with BamA to form the BAM complex in B. burgdorferi. Combined structural studies, functional assays, and co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed that BB0028 and BB0324 are the respective BamB and BamD orthologs in B. burgdorferi, and are important in membrane integrity and/or outer membrane protein localization. The borrelial BamB and BamD proteins both interact specifically and independently with BamA to form a tripartite BAM complex in B

  20. Polymorphism of 41 kD Flagellin Gene and Its Human B-Cell Epitope in Borrelia burgdorferi Strains of China

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    Huixin Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The 41 kD flagellin of Borrelia burgdorferi (B. burgdorferi is a major component of periplasmic flagellar filament core and a good candidate for serodiagnosis in early stage of Lyme disease. Here, we chose 89 B. burgdorferi strains in China, amplified the gene encoding the 41 kD flagellin, and compared the sequences. The results showed that genetic diversity presented in the 41 kD flagellin genes of all 89 strains among the four genotypes of B. burgdorferi, especially in the genotype of B. garinii. Some specific mutation sites for each genotype of the 41 kD flagellin genes were found, which could be used for genotyping B. burgdorferi strains in China. Human B-cell epitope analysis showed that thirteen of 15 nonsynonymous mutations occurred in the epitope region of 41 kD flagellin and thirty of 42 B-cell epitopes were altered due to all 13 nonsynonymous mutations in the epitope region, which may affect the function of the antigen. Nonsynonymous mutations and changed human B-cell epitopes exist in 41 kD flagellin of B. burgdorferi sensu lato strains; these changes should be considered in serodiagnosis of Lyme disease.

  1. Biofilm formation by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.

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    Timmaraju, Venkata Arun; Theophilus, Priyanka A S; Balasubramanian, Kunthavai; Shakih, Shafiq; Luecke, David F; Sapi, Eva

    2015-08-01

    Bacterial biofilms are microbial communities held together by an extracellular polymeric substance matrix predominantly composed of polysaccharides, proteins and nucleic acids. We had previously shown that Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, the causative organism of Lyme disease in the United States is capable of forming biofilms in vitro. Here, we investigated biofilm formation by B. afzelii and B. garinii, which cause Lyme disease in Europe. Using various histochemistry and microscopy techniques, we show that B. afzelii and B. garinii form biofilms, which resemble biofilms formed by B. burgdorferi sensu stricto. High-resolution atomic force microscopy revealed similarities in the ultrastructural organization of the biofilms form by three Borrelia species. Histochemical experiments revealed a heterogeneous organization of exopolysaccharides among the three Borrelia species. These results suggest that biofilm formation might be a common trait of Borrelia genera physiology. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Interdependence of environmental factors influencing reciprocal patterns of gene expression in virulent Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X; Goldberg, M S; Popova, T G; Schoeler, G B; Wikel, S K; Hagman, K E; Norgard, M V

    2000-09-01

    The paradigm for differential antigen expression in Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, is the reciprocal expression of its outer surface (lipo)proteins (Osp) A and C; as B. burgdorferi transitions from its arthropod vector into mammalian tissue, ospC is upregulated, and ospA is downregulated. In the current study, using B. burgdorferi cultivated under varying conditions in BSK-H medium, we found that a decrease in pH, in conjunction with increases in temperature (e.g. 34 degrees C or 37 degrees C) and cell density, acted interdependently for the reciprocal expression of ospC and ospA. The lower pH (6.8), which induced the reciprocal expression of ospC and ospA in BSK-H medium, correlated with a drop in pH from 7.4 to 6.8 of tick midgut contents during tick feeding. In addition to ospC and ospA, other genes were found to be regulated in reciprocal fashion. Such genes were either ospC-like (e.g. ospF, mlp-8 and rpoS) (group I) or ospA-like (lp6.6 and p22) (group II); changes in expression occurred at the mRNA level. That the expression of rpoS, encoding a putative stress-related alternative sigma factor (sigma(s)), was ospC-like suggested that the expression of some of the group I genes may be controlled through sigma(s). The combined results prompt a model that allows for predicting the regulation of other B. burgdorferi genes that may be involved in spirochaete transmission, virulence or mammalian host immune responses.

  3. Monoinfections caused by Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia burgdorferi / Anaplasma phagocytophilum co-infections in forestry workers and farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Tokarska-Rodak

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of co-infections induced by tick-borne pathogens in humans is an important epidemiological phenomenon. This issue has attracted growing attention of doctors and people working under conditions of an increased risk of being exposed to tick bites. Material and Methods: The research group consisted of 93 individuals with current anti-immunoglobulin M/G (IgM/ IgG Borrelia burgdorferi or IgG anti-Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The respondents were identified during the screening survey in a group of farmers and foresters occupationally exposed to tick bites. The aim of the work was to analyse the frequency of antibodies to specific antigens of B. burgdorferi and the levels of cytokines in forestry workers and farmers with B. burgdorferi monoinfections and B. burgdorferi / A. phagocytophilum co-infections. Statistical analysis was performed using the Chi2, Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results: There is a stronger generation of IgG antibodies to B. burgdorferi antigens in patients with B. burgdorferi / A. phagocytophilum co-infections, such as variable major protein-like sequence expressed (VlsE (p < 0.05, p19 (p < 0.02, p17 (p < 0.05 and complement regulator-acquiring surface protein 3 (CRASP3 (p < 0.02 compared to persons with B. burgdorferi monoinfections. The discrepancies in the synthesis of cytokines interleukin 6 (IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α have not been found in persons with B. burgdorferi monoinfections and B. burgdorferi / A. phagocytophilum co-infection. Conclusions: The immune response directed against B. burgdorferi is stronger in patients co-infected with B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum than in those with monoinfection. Med Pr 2015;66(5:645–651

  4. [Monoinfections caused by Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia burgdorferi / Anaplasma phagocytophilum co-infections in forestry workers and farmers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarska-Rodak, Małgorzata; Pańczuk, Anna; Kozioł-Montewka, Maria; Plewik, Dorota; Szepeluk, Adam

    2015-01-01

    The presence of co-infections induced by tick-borne pathogens in humans is an important epidemiological phenomenon. This issue has attracted growing attention of doctors and people working under conditions of an increased risk of being exposed to tick bites. The research group consisted of 93 individuals with current anti-immunoglobulin M/G (IgM/ IgG) Borrelia burgdorferi or IgG anti-Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The respondents were identified during the screening survey in a group of farmers and foresters occupationally exposed to tick bites. The aim of the work was to analyse the frequency of antibodies to specific antigens of B. burgdorferi and the levels of cytokines in forestry workers and farmers with B. burgdorferi monoinfections and B. burgdorferi / A. phagocytophilum co-infections. Statistical analysis was performed using the Chi2, Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests. There is a stronger generation of IgG antibodies to B. burgdorferi antigens in patients with B. burgdorferi / A. phagocytophilum co-infections, such as variable major protein-like sequence expressed (VlsE) (p < 0.05), p19 (p < 0.02), p17 (p < 0.05) and complement regulator-acquiring surface protein 3 (CRASP3) (p < 0.02) compared to persons with B. burgdorferi monoinfections. The discrepancies in the synthesis of cytokines interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) have not been found in persons with B. burgdorferi monoinfections and B. burgdorferi / A. phagocytophilum co-infection. The immune response directed against B. burgdorferi is stronger in patients co-infected with B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum than in those with monoinfection. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  5. Outer surface proteins E and F of Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, T. T.; Nguyen, T.P.; Montgomery, R R; Kantor, F. S.; Fikrig, E.; Flavell, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    We report the cloning and characterization of two outer surface proteins (Osps), designated OspE and OspF, from strain N40 of Borrelia burgdorferi, the spirochetal agent of Lyme disease. The ospE and ospF genes are structurally arranged in tandem as one transcriptional unit under the control of a common promoter. The ospE gene, located at the 5' end of the operon, is 513 nucleotides in length and encodes a 171-amino-acid protein with a calculated molecular mass of 19.2 kDa. The ospF gene, loc...

  6. Analysis of promoter elements involved in the transcriptional initiation of RpoS-dependent Borrelia burgdorferi genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, Christian H; Caimano, Melissa J; Radolf, Justin D

    2004-11-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, encodes an RpoS ortholog (RpoS(Bb)) that controls the temperature-inducible differential expression of at least some of the spirochete's lipoprotein genes, including ospC and dbpBA. To begin to dissect the determinants of RpoS(Bb) recognition of, and selectivity for, its dependent promoters, we linked a green fluorescent protein reporter to the promoter regions of several B. burgdorferi genes with well-characterized expression patterns. Consistent with the expression patterns of the native genes/proteins in B. burgdorferi strain 297, we found that expression of the ospC, dbpBA, and ospF reporters in the spirochete was RpoS(Bb) dependent, while the ospE and flaB reporters were RpoS(Bb) independent. To compare promoter recognition by RpoS(Bb) with that of the prototype RpoS (RpoS(Ec)), we also introduced our panel of constructs into Escherichia coli. In this surrogate, maximal expression from the ospC, dbpBA, and ospF promoters clearly required RpoS, although in the absence of RpoS(Ec) the ospF promoter was weakly recognized by another E. coli sigma factor. Furthermore, RpoS(Bb) under the control of an inducible promoter was able to complement an E. coli rpoS mutant, although RpoS(Ec) and RpoS(Bb) each initiated greater activity from their own dependent promoters than they did from those of the heterologous sigma factor. Genetic analysis of the ospC promoter demonstrated that (i) the T(-14) in the presumptive -10 region plays an important role in sigma factor recognition in both organisms but is not as critical for transcriptional initiation by RpoS(Bb) as it is for RpoS(Ec); (ii) the nucleotide at the -15 position determines RpoS or sigma(70) selectivity in E. coli but does not serve the same function in B. burgdorferi; and (iii) the 110-bp region upstream of the core promoter is not required for RpoS(Ec)- or RpoS(Bb)-dependent activity in E. coli but is required for maximal expression from this promoter in

  7. Outer surface proteins E and F of Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, T T; Nguyen, T P; Montgomery, R R; Kantor, F S; Fikrig, E; Flavell, R A

    1994-01-01

    We report the cloning and characterization of two outer surface proteins (Osps), designated OspE and OspF, from strain N40 of Borrelia burgdorferi, the spirochetal agent of Lyme disease. The ospE and ospF genes are structurally arranged in tandem as one transcriptional unit under the control of a common promoter. The ospE gene, located at the 5' end of the operon, is 513 nucleotides in length and encodes a 171-amino-acid protein with a calculated molecular mass of 19.2 kDa. The ospF gene, located 27 bp downstream of the stop codon of the ospE gene, consists of 690 nucleotides and encodes a protein of 230 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 26.1 kDa. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that the ospE and ospF genes are located on a 45-kb plasmid. Comparison of the leader sequences of OspE and OspF with those of the four known B. burgdorferi Osps (OspA, OspB, OspC, and OspD) reveals a hydrophobic domain and a consensus cleavage sequence (L-X-Y-C) recognized by signal peptidase II, and [3H]palmitate labeling shows that OspE and OspF are lipoproteins. Immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that both the OspE and OspF proteins are surface exposed. These features are consistent with the finding that OspE and OspF are B. burgdorferi surface lipoproteins.

  8. Outer Membrane Proteins BB0405 and BB0406 Are Immunogenic, but Only BB0405 Is Required for Borrelia burgdorferi Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Binu; Kenedy, Melisha R; Akins, Darrin R

    2017-02-01

    We recently identified the Borrelia burgdorferi outer membrane protein (OMP) BB0406 and found that the gene encoding this OMP was cotranscribed with the gene encoding the OMP BB0405. Interestingly, BB0405 and BB0406 share 59% similarity and are grouped into the same B. burgdorferi paralogous gene family. Given their overall similarity, it is plausible that both OMPs have similar or overlapping functions in this pathogenic spirochete. BB0405 was recently shown to be required for mammalian infection despite the observations that BB0405 is poorly immunogenic and not recognized during mouse or human infection. BB0405 orthologs have also been shown to bind the complement regulator protein factor H. Therefore, to better elucidate the role of BB0405 and its paralog BB0406 during infection and in serum resistance, we examined both proteins in animal infection, factor H binding, and serum sensitivity assays. Our combined results suggest that BB0405- and BB0406-specific antibodies are borreliacidal and that both OMPs are immunogenic during nonhuman primate infection. Additionally, while BB0405 was found to be required for establishing mouse infection, BB0406 was not found to be essential for infectivity. In contrast to data from previous reports, however, neither OMP was found to bind human factor H or to be required for enhancing serum resistance of B. burgdorferi in vitro. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  9. Whole-Genome Sequences of Thirteen Isolates of Borrelia burgdorferi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schutzer S. E.; Dunn J.; Fraser-Liggett, C. M.; Casjens, S. R.; Qiu, W.-G.; Mongodin, E. F.; Luft, B. J.

    2011-02-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi is a causative agent of Lyme disease in North America and Eurasia. The first complete genome sequence of B. burgdorferi strain 31, available for more than a decade, has assisted research on the pathogenesis of Lyme disease. Because a single genome sequence is not sufficient to understand the relationship between genotypic and geographic variation and disease phenotype, we determined the whole-genome sequences of 13 additional B. burgdorferi isolates that span the range of natural variation. These sequences should allow improved understanding of pathogenesis and provide a foundation for novel detection, diagnosis, and prevention strategies.

  10. Characterization of cp18, a naturally truncated member of the cp32 family of Borrelia burgdorferi plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, B; Casjens, S; van Vugt, R; Porcella, S F; Tilly, K; Bono, J L; Rosa, P

    1997-07-01

    We have mapped the genes encoding the antigenic lipoproteins OspE and OspF to an approximately 18-kb circular plasmid in Borrelia burgdorferi N40. Sequencing and restriction mapping have revealed that this plasmid, cp18, is homologous to an 18-kb region of the cp32 circular plasmids found in the Lyme disease spirochetes. Our data show that cp18 may have arisen from an ancestral cp32 plasmid by deletion of a 14-kb region of DNA, indicating that a significant portion of the cp32 plasmid is not essential in cis for plasmid maintenance. These findings suggest that a relatively small recombinant plasmid capable of being stably maintained in B. burgdorferi could be constructed from a cp32 plasmid.

  11. Evidence for in vivo but not in vitro expression of a Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface protein F (OspF) homologue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akins, D R; Porcella, S F; Popova, T G; Shevchenko, D; Baker, S I; Li, M; Norgard, M V; Radolf, J D

    1995-11-01

    Protein export signals from the low-passage 297 strain of Borrelia burgdorferi were cloned as fusions with an Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase (PhoA) reporter lacking a signal sequence. One PhoA+ clone (BbK2.10-PhoA) was derived from a borrelial lipoprotein. Although the polypeptide encoded by the full-length bbk2.10 gene had 76% similarity and 56% identity to outer surface protein F (OspF) from B. burgdorferi strain N40, antibodies directed against recombinant forms of the two proteins revealed that they were not cross-reactive. The nucleotide sequences of bbk2.10 and ospF from the N40 and 297 strains, respectively, were determined to confirm that the N40 and 297 strains each contained both genes. Southern blot analysis revealed that bbk2.10 is a single-copy gene and that the B. burgdorferi strain 297 and N40 genomes appeared to contain one other gene more closely related to ospF than bbk2.10. It was particularly noteworthy that ospF, but not bbk2.10, was expressed in vitro while B. burgdorferi-infected mice generated antibodies reactive with both lipoproteins. To help confirm that the BbK2.10-reactive antibodies produced by the B. burgdorferi-infected mice were specific for that protein, a second gene, bbk2.11, which hybridized with the ospF probe was cloned; the corresponding polypeptide reacted strongly with OspF antisera but failed to react with BbK2.10-specific antisera. Taken together, these data demonstrate that BbK2.10, BbK2.11, and OspF comprise a B. burgdorferi lipoprotein family and that at least one member (BbK2.10) appears to be expressed only during infection.

  12. The Role of Borrelia burgdorferi Outer Surface Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenedy, Melisha R.; Lenhart, Tiffany R.; Akins, Darrin R.

    2012-01-01

    Human pathogenic spirochetes causing Lyme disease belong to the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. B. burgdorferi organisms are extracellular pathogens transmitted to humans through the bite of Ixodes spp. ticks. These spirochetes are unique in that they can cause chronic infection and persist in the infected human, even though a robust humoral and cellular immune response is produced by the infected host. How this extracellular pathogen is able to evade the host immune response for such long periods of time is currently unclear. To gain a better understanding of how this organism persists in the infected human, many laboratories have focused on identifying and characterizing outer surface proteins of B. burgdorferi. Since the interface between B. burgdorferi and its human host is its outer surface, proteins localized to the outer membrane must play an important role in dissemination, virulence, tissue tropism, and, immune evasion. Over the last two decades numerous outer surface proteins from B. burgdorferi have been identified and more recent studies have begun to elucidate the functional role(s) of many borrelial outer surface proteins. This review summarizes the outer surface proteins identified in B. burgdorferi to date and provides detailed insight into the functions of many of these proteins as they relate to the unique parasitic strategy of this spirochetal pathogen. PMID:22540535

  13. Proteome Analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi Response to Environmental Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angel, Thomas E.; Luft, Benjamin J.; Yang, Xiaohua; Nicora, Carrie D.; Camp, David G.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Smith, Richard D.

    2010-11-02

    We examined global changes in protein expression in the B31 strain of Borrelia burgdorferi, in response to two environmental cues (pH and temperature) chosen for their reported similarity to those encountered at different stages of the organism’s life cycle. Multidimensional nano-liquid chromatographic separations coupled with tandem mass spectrometry were used to examine the array of proteins (i.e., the proteome) of B. burgdorferi for different pH and temperature culture conditions. Changes in pH and temperature elicited in vitro adaptations of this spirochete known to cause Lyme disease and led to alterations in protein expression that are associated with increased microbial pathogenesis. We identified 1031 proteins that represent 59% of the annotated genome of B. burgdorferi and elucidated a core proteome of 414 proteins that were present in all environmental conditions investigated. Observed changes in protein abundances indicated varied replicon usage, as well as proteome functional distributions between the in vitro cell culture conditions. Surprisingly, the pH and temperature conditions that mimicked B. burgdorferi residing in the gut of a fed tick showed a marked reduction in protein diversity. Additionally, the results provide us with leading candidates for exploring how B. burgdorferi adapts to and is able to survive in a wide variety of environmental conditions and lay a foundation for planned in situ studies of B. burgdorferi isolated from the tick midgut and infected animals.

  14. Weak Organic Acids Decrease Borrelia burgdorferi Cytoplasmic pH, Eliciting an Acid Stress Response and Impacting RpoN- and RpoS-Dependent Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Dulebohn

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi survives in its tick vector, Ixodes scapularis, or within various hosts. To transition between and survive in these distinct niches, B. burgdorferi changes its gene expression in response to environmental cues, both biochemical and physiological. Exposure of B. burgdorferi to weak monocarboxylic organic acids, including those detected in the blood meal of fed ticks, decreased the cytoplasmic pH of B. burgdorferi in vitro. A decrease in the cytoplasmic pH induced the expression of genes encoding enzymes that have been shown to restore pH homeostasis in other bacteria. These include putative coupled proton/cation exchangers, a putative Na+/H+ antiporter, a neutralizing buffer transporter, an amino acid deaminase and a proton exporting vacuolar-type VoV1 ATPase. Data presented in this report suggested that the acid stress response triggered the expression of RpoN- and RpoS-dependent genes including important virulence factors such as outer surface protein C (OspC, BBA66, and some BosR (Borreliaoxidative stress regulator-dependent genes. Because the expression of virulence factors, like OspC, are so tightly connected by RpoS to general cellular stress responses and cell physiology, it is difficult to separate transmission-promoting conditions in what is clearly a multifactorial and complex regulatory web.

  15. Borrelia burgdorferi adhesins identified using in vivo phage display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonara, Styliani; Chafel, Rebecca M; LaFrance, Michelle; Coburn, Jenifer

    2007-10-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, disseminates from the site of deposition by Ixodes ticks to cause systemic infection. Dissemination occurs through the circulation and through tissue matrices, but the B. burgdorferi molecules that mediate interactions with the endothelium in vivo have not yet been identified. In vivo selection of filamentous phage expressing B. burgdorferi protein fragments on the phage surface identified several new candidate adhesins, and verified the activity of one adhesin that had been previously characterized in vitro. P66, a B. burgdorferi ligand for beta(3)-chain integrins, OspC, a protein that is essential for the establishment of infection in mammals, and Vls, a protein that undergoes antigenic variation in the mammal, were all selected for binding to the murine endothelium in vivo. Additional B. burgdorferi proteins for which no functions have been identified, including all four members of the OspF family and BmpD, were identified as candidate adhesins. The use of in vivo phage display is one approach to the identification of adhesins in pathogenic bacteria that are not easily grown in the laboratory, or for which genetic manipulations are not straightforward.

  16. Characterization of Biofilm Formation by Borrelia burgdorferi In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapi, Eva; Bastian, Scott L.; Mpoy, Cedric M.; Scott, Shernea; Rattelle, Amy; Pabbati, Namrata; Poruri, Akhila; Burugu, Divya; Theophilus, Priyanka A. S.; Pham, Truc V.; Datar, Akshita; Dhaliwal, Navroop K.; MacDonald, Alan; Rossi, Michael J.; Sinha, Saion K.; Luecke, David F.

    2012-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, has long been known to be capable of forming aggregates and colonies. It was recently demonstrated that Borrelia burgdorferi aggregate formation dramatically changes the in vitro response to hostile environments by this pathogen. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that these aggregates are indeed biofilms, structures whose resistance to unfavorable conditions are well documented. We studied Borrelia burgdorferi for several known hallmark features of biofilm, including structural rearrangements in the aggregates, variations in development on various substrate matrices and secretion of a protective extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) matrix using several modes of microscopic, cell and molecular biology techniques. The atomic force microscopic results provided evidence that multilevel rearrangements take place at different stages of aggregate development, producing a complex, continuously rearranging structure. Our results also demonstrated that Borrelia burgdorferi is capable of developing aggregates on different abiotic and biotic substrates, and is also capable of forming floating aggregates. Analyzing the extracellular substance of the aggregates for potential exopolysaccharides revealed the existence of both sulfated and non-sulfated/carboxylated substrates, predominately composed of an alginate with calcium and extracellular DNA present. In summary, we have found substantial evidence that Borrelia burgdorferi is capable of forming biofilm in vitro. Biofilm formation by Borrelia species might play an important role in their survival in diverse environmental conditions by providing refuge to individual cells. PMID:23110225

  17. Characterization of biofilm formation by Borrelia burgdorferi in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Sapi

    Full Text Available Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, has long been known to be capable of forming aggregates and colonies. It was recently demonstrated that Borrelia burgdorferi aggregate formation dramatically changes the in vitro response to hostile environments by this pathogen. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that these aggregates are indeed biofilms, structures whose resistance to unfavorable conditions are well documented. We studied Borrelia burgdorferi for several known hallmark features of biofilm, including structural rearrangements in the aggregates, variations in development on various substrate matrices and secretion of a protective extracellular polymeric substance (EPS matrix using several modes of microscopic, cell and molecular biology techniques. The atomic force microscopic results provided evidence that multilevel rearrangements take place at different stages of aggregate development, producing a complex, continuously rearranging structure. Our results also demonstrated that Borrelia burgdorferi is capable of developing aggregates on different abiotic and biotic substrates, and is also capable of forming floating aggregates. Analyzing the extracellular substance of the aggregates for potential exopolysaccharides revealed the existence of both sulfated and non-sulfated/carboxylated substrates, predominately composed of an alginate with calcium and extracellular DNA present. In summary, we have found substantial evidence that Borrelia burgdorferi is capable of forming biofilm in vitro. Biofilm formation by Borrelia species might play an important role in their survival in diverse environmental conditions by providing refuge to individual cells.

  18. Minimal-Change Disease Secondary to Borrelia burgdorferi Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Kwiatkowska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lyme borreliosis is a chronic illness caused by tick-transmitted spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Borreliosis can be extremely threatening if it is not diagnosed and treated in early stages. Kidneys are not typically involved in the disease. However, in infected dogs, Lyme nephritis is present in 5–10% of cases. It is associated with rapidly progressing renal failure. Histopathological examination shows mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis with diffuse tubular necrosis, (Dambach et al. (1997. In available literature, there were reports of human's glomerulonephritis associated with Borrelia burgdorferi infection. These cases refer to membranous and mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (Kirmizis and Chatzidimitriou (2010, Zachäus (2008, and Kirmizis et al. (2004. In this paper, we present the case of minimal-change disease (MCD as a result of Borrelia burgdorferi infection.

  19. Temperature-related differential expression of antigens in the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, B; Schwan, T G; Rosa, P A

    1995-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that Borrelia burgdorferi in the midguts of infected ticks shows increased expression of the antigenic outer surface protein OspC after the ticks have ingested a blood meal. This differential expression is at least partly due to a change in temperature, as an increase in OspC levels is also observed when cultures are shifted from 23 to 35 degrees C. Immunoblotting of bacterial lysates with sera from infected mice indicated that the levels of several additional antigens were also increased in bacterial cultures shifted to 35 degrees C; we have identified one antigen as OspE. We have also observed differential expression of OspF, which has been proposed to be coexpressed in an operon with the gene encoding OspE.

  20. Autophagy suppresses host adaptive immune responses toward Borrelia burgdorferi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buffen, K.; Oosting, M.; Li, Y.; Kanneganti, T.D.; Netea, M.G.; Joosten, L.A.B.

    2016-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that inhibition of autophagy increased the Borrelia burgdorferi induced innate cytokine production in vitro, but little is known regarding the effect of autophagy on in vivo models of Borrelia infection. Here, we showed that ATG7-deficient mice that were

  1. Complement evasion by Borrelia burgdorferi: it takes three to tango

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Taeye, Steven W.; Kreuk, Lieselotte; van Dam, Alje P.; Hovius, Joppe W.; Schuijt, Tim J.

    2013-01-01

    The complement system is one of the major innate defense mechanisms Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato has to overcome to establish an infection of mammalian hosts and to cause Lyme borreliosis in humans. Borrelia prevents complement-mediated killing during host colonization through (i) recruitment of

  2. Investigating Human Dendritic Cell Immune Responses to Borrelia burgdorferi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mason, Lauren M. K.; Hovius, Joppe W. R.

    2018-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells that recognize and phagocytose pathogens, and help to orchestrate adaptive immune responses to combat them. DCs are abundant in the skin where Borrelia burgdorferi first enters the body during a tick bite, and are thus critical in

  3. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato prevalence in tick populations in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Julia; Nazarova, Lidia; Katargina, Olga; Golovljova, Irina

    2013-07-09

    Estonia is located in a unique area of co-distribution of Ixodes ricinus and I. persulcatus, which are the main tick vectors of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. In the last decade, the incidence rate of Lyme borreliosis in Estonia has increased dramatically up to 115.4 per 100,000 in 2012. Here we present the first survey of the presence, the prevalence and genetic characteristics of B. burgdorferi s.l. complex spirochetes in the tick population in Estonia. During the years 2006-2009, 2833 unfed Ixodes ricinus and I. persulcatus were collected from 43 sites in 7 counties in mainland Estonia as well as in 10 sites on the Saaremaa Island. DNA samples from ticks were analyzed individually using nested PCR of the ribosomal 5S-23S spacer region followed by bidirectional sequencing. The overall estimated prevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l was 9.7% and varied from 4.9% to 24.2% on the mainland and to 10.7% in Saaremaa Island. Ixodes persulcatus ticks showed significantly higher prevalence rates compared to that in I. ricinus-16.3% and 8.2%, respectively. The most prevalent genospecies was B. afzelii which was detected in 53.5% of Borrelia-positive ticks, followed by B. garinii and B. valaisiana with 26.2% and 5.5%, respectively. Also, B. bavariensis and B. burgdorferi s.s. DNA in single I. ricinus ticks were detected. Borrelia afzelii, B. garinii and B. valaisiana were detected in both tick species. Two genetic subgroups of B. garinii (NT29 and 20047) and two genetic subgroups of B. afzelii (NT28 and VS461) were found to be circulating in all studied regions as well as in both tick species, except B. garinii subgroup NT29, which was found only in I. persulcatus ticks. In the current study we detected the circulation of five B. burgdorferi s.l. genospecies and estimated the prevalence in ticks in different regions of Estonia. Detection and genetic characterization of Borrelia genospecies, especially those of public health importance, in the natural foci may help assessing

  4. Surveillance for Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes Ticks and Small Rodents in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morshed, Muhammad G; Lee, Min-Kuang; Man, Stephanie; Fernando, Keerthi; Wong, Quantine; Hojgaard, Andrias; Tang, Patrick; Mak, Sunny; Henry, Bonnie; Patrick, David M

    2015-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in British Columbian ticks, fieldwork was conducted over a 2-year period. In all, 893 ticks (Ixodes pacificus, I. angustus, I. soricis, Ixodes spp., and Dermacentor andersoni) of different life stages were retrieved from 483 small rodents (Peromyscus maniculatus, Perognathus parvus, and Reithrodontomys megalotis). B. burgdorferi DNA was detected in 5 out of 359 tick pools, and 41 out of 483 mice were serologically confirmed to have antibodies against B. burgdorferi. These results were consistent with previous studies, data from passive surveillance in British Columbia, and data from neighboring states in the Pacific Northwest, suggesting a continually low prevalence of B. burgdorferi in British Columbia ticks.

  5. Borrelia burgdorferi-associated lymphocytoma cutis simulating a primary cutaneous large B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, Florent; Wechsler, Janine; Guillaume, Jean-Claude; Tortel, Jacques; Tortel, Marie-Claire; Audhuy, Bruno; Jaulhac, Benoit; Cerroni, Lorenzo

    2002-10-01

    The distinction between primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma and B-cell pseudolymphoma on a histologic basis may be difficult, particularly in some cases of Borrelia burgdorferi-associated lymphoid proliferations. We report two cases of B. burgdorferi-associated pseudolymphoma that showed a dense infiltrate with a predominance of large atypical B cells. Because of this misleading histologic feature, a diagnosis of primary cutaneous large B-cell lymphoma was first suspected in both cases. In one case, successive recurrences led to aggressive therapies before the B. burgdorferi infection was recognized. However, a detailed review of histologic and immunohistochemical features was finally suggestive of a B. burgdorferi-associated pseudolymphoma in both cases. The etiologic role of B. burgdorferi was confirmed by serology, polymerase chain reaction analysis of B. burgdorferi DNA within the lesional skin, and response to antibiotic therapy. Because the distinction between B. burgdorferi-associated pseudolymphoma and primary cutaneous B-cell lymphomas may be difficult and true B. burgdorferi-associated B-cell lymphomas have been described, we suggest that antibiotic therapy should be considered as a first-line treatment in suspected or confirmed cases of primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma in regions with endemic B. burgdorferi infection.

  6. Overview of the Clinical Manifestations of Borrelia burgdorferi Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond J Dattwyler

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Lyme disease, caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, has classically been divided into three stages: erythema migrans; neurological or cardiac involvement; and arthritis. Rather than defining a set disease pattern, however, one should, more logically, conceptualize a progressive infection that may be localized or disseminated, acute or chronic. Erythema migrans, the earliest and most easily recognized manifestation of B burgdorferi infection, is an expanding annular erythematous skin lesion with a central clearing that develops soon after the bite of an infected ixodes tick. Musculoskeletal manifestations are common, with approximately one-half of untreated individuals developing arthritis. Of these, only 10% have chronic arthritis. Invasion of the central nervous system occurs as the infection disseminates hematogenously, with encephalitis, myelitis and meningopolyneuritis being the most severe results. Acute cardiac involvement is recognized in up to 8% of adult patients, and less often in children. Early antibiotic treatment of the infection is highly effective.

  7. Serological Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi among Horses in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Hun; Yun, Sun-Hee; Choi, Eunsang; Park, Yong-Soo; Lee, Sang-Eun; Cho, Gil-Jae; Kwon, Oh-Deog; Kwak, Dongmi

    2016-02-01

    Lyme disease is a tick-borne zoonotic infectious disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi. The present study assessed the infection status of B. burgdorferi among horses reared in Korea using ELISA and PCR. Between 2009 and 2013, blood samples were collected from 727 horses throughout Korea. Data for each animal including age, gender, breed, and region of sample collection were used for epidemiological analysis. Overall, 38 (5.2%; true prevalence: 5.5%) of 727 horses were seropositive by ELISA. There were statistically significant differences according to breed and region (Pglobal warming is likely to increase the abundance of ticks in Korea, continuous monitoring of tick-borne diseases in Korean horses is needed.

  8. Lipid exchange between Borrelia burgdorferi and host cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameson T Crowley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, has cholesterol and cholesterol-glycolipids that are essential for bacterial fitness, are antigenic, and could be important in mediating interactions with cells of the eukaryotic host. We show that the spirochetes can acquire cholesterol from plasma membranes of epithelial cells. In addition, through fluorescent and confocal microscopy combined with biochemical approaches, we demonstrated that B. burgdorferi labeled with the fluorescent cholesterol analog BODIPY-cholesterol or (3H-labeled cholesterol transfer both cholesterol and cholesterol-glycolipids to HeLa cells. The transfer occurs through two different mechanisms, by direct contact between the bacteria and eukaryotic cell and/or through release of outer membrane vesicles. Thus, two-way lipid exchange between spirochetes and host cells can occur. This lipid exchange could be an important process that contributes to the pathogenesis of Lyme disease.

  9. Antibiotic Treatment of Animals Infected with Borrelia burgdorferi

    OpenAIRE

    Wormser, Gary P.; Schwartz, Ira

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Despite resolution of the objective manifestations of Lyme disease after antibiotic treatment, a minority of patients have fatigue, musculoskeletal pain, and/or difficulties with concentration or short-term memory of uncertain etiology; these are called post-Lyme disease symptoms or, in more severe cases, post-Lyme disease syndrome or “chronic Lyme disease.” Several recent studies in which Borrelia burgdorferi-infected animals were treated with antibiotic therapy have demonstrated th...

  10. Borrelia kurtenbachii sp. nov., a widely distributed member of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species complex in North America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Margos, Gabriele; Piesman, Joseph; Lane, Robert S; Ogden, Nicholas H; Sing, Andreas; Straubinger, Reinhard K; Fingerle, Volker

    .... Since Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (hereinafter, B. burgdorferi) was described in the north-eastern USA during the early 1980s, an increasing diversity has been noted within the species complex...

  11. The role of host immune cells and Borrelia burgdorferi antigens in the etiology of Lyme disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaegh, D.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Oosting, M.

    2017-01-01

    Lyme disease is a zoonosis caused by infection with bacteria belonging to the Borrelia burgdorferi species after the bite of an infected tick. Even though an infection by this bacterium can be effectively treated with antibiotics, when the infection stays unnoticed B. burgdorferi can persist and

  12. An Ixodes ricinus Tick Salivary Lectin Pathway Inhibitor Protects Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from Human Complement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagemakers, Alex; Coumou, Jeroen; Schuijt, Tim J.; Oei, Anneke; Nijhof, Ard M.; van 't Veer, Cornelis; van der Poll, Tom; Bins, Adriaan D.; Hovius, Joppe W. R.

    2016-01-01

    We previously identified tick salivary lectin pathway inhibitor (TSLPI) in Ixodes scapularis, a vector for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) in North America. TSLPI is a salivary protein facilitating B. burgdorferi s.s. transmission and acquisition by inhibiting the host lectin complement

  13. The cyclic-di-GMP signaling pathway in the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi

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    Elizabeth A. Novak

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In nature, the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi cycles between the unrelated environments of the Ixodes tick vector and mammalian host. In order to survive transmission between hosts, B. burgdorferi must be able to not only detect changes in its environment, but also rapidly and appropriately respond to these changes. One manner in which this obligate parasite regulates and adapts to its changing environment is through cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP signaling. c-di-GMP has been shown to be instrumental in orchestrating the adaptation of B. burgdorferi to the tick environment. B. burgdorferi possesses only one set of c-di-GMP-metabolizing genes (one diguanylate cyclase and two distinct phosphodiesterases and one c-di-GMP-binding PilZ-domain protein designated as PlzA. While studies in the realm of c-di-GMP signaling in B. burgdorferi have exploded in the last few years, there are still many more questions than answers. Elucidation of the importance of c-di-GMP signaling to B. burgdorferi may lead to the identification of mechanisms that are critical for the survival of B. burgdorferi in the tick phase of the enzootic cycle as well as potentially delineate a role (if any c-di-GMP may play in the transmission and virulence of B. burgdorferi during the enzootic cycle, thereby enabling the development of effective drugs for the prevention and/or treatment of Lyme disease.

  14. Similarities in murine infection and immune response to Borrelia bissettii and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leydet, Brian F; Liang, Fang Ting

    2015-12-01

    In 1982, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (ss) was identified as the aetiological agent of Lyme disease. Since then an increasing number of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl) species have been isolated in the United States. To date, many of these species remain understudied despite mounting evidence associating them with human illness. Borrelia bissettii is a spirochaete closely related to B. burgdorferi that has been loosely associated with human illness. Using an experimental murine infection model, we compared the infectivity and humoral immune response with a North American isolate of B. bissettii and B. burgdorferi using culture, molecular and serological methods. The original B. bissettii cultures were unable to infect immunocompetent mice, but were confirmed to be infectious after adaptation in immunodeficient animals. B. bissettii infection resulted in spirochaete burdens similar to B. burgdorferi in skin, heart and bladder whereas significantly lower burdens were observed in the joint tissues. B. bissettii induced an antibody response similar to B. burgdorferi as measured by both immunoblotting and the C6 ELISA. Additionally, this isolate of B. bissettii was sequenced on the Ion Torrent PGM, which successfully identified many genes orthologous to mammalian virulence factors described in B. burgdorferi. Similarities seen between both infections in this well-characterized murine model contribute to our understanding of the potential pathogenic nature of B. bissettii. Infection dynamics of B. bissettii, and especially the induced humoral response, are similar to B. burgdorferi, suggesting this species may contribute to the epidemiology of human borreliosis.

  15. Reservoir competence of Microtus pennsylvanicus (Rodentia: Cricetidae) for the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowski, D.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Hyland, K.E.; Hu, R.

    1998-01-01

    The reservoir competence of the meadow vole, Microtus pennsylvanicus Ord, for the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt & Brenner was established on Patience Island, RI. Meadow voles were collected from 5 locations throughout Rhode Island. At 4 of the field sites, M. pennsylvanicus represented only 4.0% (n = 141) of the animals captured. However, on Patience Island, M. pennsylvanicus was the sole small mammal collected (n = 48). Of the larval Ixodes scapularis Say obtained from the meadow voles on Patience Island, 62% (n = 78) was infected with B. burgdorferi. Meadow voles from all 5 locations were successfully infected with B. burgdorferi in the laboratory and were capable of passing the infection to xenodiagnostic I. scapularis larvae for 9 wk. We concluded that M. pennsylvanicus was physiologically capable of maintaining B. burgdorferi infection. However, in locations where Peromyscus leucopus (Rafinesque) is abundant, the role of M. pennsylvanicus as a primary reservoir for B. burgdorferi was reduced.

  16. Shaping the Borrelia burgdorferi genome: crystal structure and binding properties of the DNA-bending protein Hbb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouw, Kent W; Rice, Phoebe A

    2007-03-01

    The genome of the Lyme disease-causing spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi encodes only a single polypeptide from the integration host factor (IHF)/HU or 'DNABII' family of nucleoid-associated proteins - Hbb. DNABII proteins induce large bends in DNA and serve as architectural factors in a variety of prokaryotic cellular processes. We have solved the crystal structure of an Hbb-DNA complex in which the DNA is bent by over 180 degrees . We find that like IHF, Hbb relies exclusively on indirect readout to recognize its cognate site. Additional binding studies show that the sequence preferences of Hbb are related to, yet distinct from those of IHF. Defining these binding characteristics may help to uncover additional roles for Hbb in Borrelia DNA metabolism as well as further our understanding of the mechanism of indirect readout.

  17. Borrelia burgdorferi-specific IgA in Lyme Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina D'Arco

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The laboratory diagnosis of Lyme disease is currently dependent on the detection of IgM and IgG antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of the disease. The significance of serum IgA against B. burgdorferi remains unclear. The production of intrathecal IgA has been noted in patients with the late Lyme disease manifestation, neuroborreliosis, but production of antigen-specific IgA during early disease has not been evaluated. In the current study, we assessed serum IgA binding to the B. burgdorferi peptide antigens, C6, the target of the FDA-cleared C6 EIA, and FlaB(211-223-modVlsE(275-291, a peptide containing a Borrelia flagellin epitope linked to a modified VlsE sequence, in patients with early and late Lyme disease. Specific IgA was detected in 59 of 152 serum samples (38.8% from early Lyme disease patients. Approximately 50% of early Lyme disease patients who were seropositive for peptide-specific IgM and/or IgG were also seropositive for peptide-specific IgA. In a subpopulation of patients, high peptide-specific IgA could be correlated with disseminated disease, defined as multiple erythema migrans lesions, and neurological disease complications. These results suggest that there may be an association between elevated levels of antigen-specific IgA and particular disease manifestations in some patients with early Lyme disease.

  18. Borrelia burgdorferi-specific IgA in Lyme Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arco, Christina; Dattwyler, Raymond J; Arnaboldi, Paul M

    2017-05-01

    The laboratory diagnosis of Lyme disease is currently dependent on the detection of IgM and IgG antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of the disease. The significance of serum IgA against B. burgdorferi remains unclear. The production of intrathecal IgA has been noted in patients with the late Lyme disease manifestation, neuroborreliosis, but production of antigen-specific IgA during early disease has not been evaluated. In the current study, we assessed serum IgA binding to the B. burgdorferi peptide antigens, C6, the target of the FDA-cleared C6 EIA, and FlaB(211-223)-modVlsE(275-291), a peptide containing a Borrelia flagellin epitope linked to a modified VlsE sequence, in patients with early and late Lyme disease. Specific IgA was detected in 59 of 152 serum samples (38.8%) from early Lyme disease patients. Approximately 50% of early Lyme disease patients who were seropositive for peptide-specific IgM and/or IgG were also seropositive for peptide-specific IgA. In a subpopulation of patients, high peptide-specific IgA could be correlated with disseminated disease, defined as multiple erythema migrans lesions, and neurological disease complications. These results suggest that there may be an association between elevated levels of antigen-specific IgA and particular disease manifestations in some patients with early Lyme disease. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Occurrence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in different genera of mosquitoes (Culicidae) in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melaun, Christian; Zotzmann, Sina; Santaella, Vanesa Garcia; Werblow, Antje; Zumkowski-Xylander, Helga; Kraiczy, Peter; Klimpel, Sven

    2016-03-01

    Lyme disease or Lyme borreliosis is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. Some stages of the borrelial transmission cycle in ticks (transstadial, feeding and co-feeding) can potentially occur also in insects, particularly in mosquitoes. In the present study, adult as well as larval mosquitoes were collected at 42 different geographical locations throughout Germany. This is the first study, in which German mosquitoes were analyzed for the presence of Borrelia spp. Targeting two specific borrelial genes, flaB and ospA encoding for the subunit B of flagellin and the outer surface protein A, the results show that DNA of Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia bavariensis and Borrelia garinii could be detected in ten Culicidae species comprising four distinct genera (Aedes, Culiseta, Culex, and Ochlerotatus). Positive samples also include adult specimens raised in the laboratory from wild-caught larvae indicating that transstadial and/or transovarial transmission might occur within a given mosquito population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. OspE-related, OspF-related, and Elp lipoproteins are immunogenic in baboons experimentally infected with Borrelia burgdorferi and in human lyme disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefty, P Scott; Brooks, Chad S; Jett, Amy M; White, Gary L; Wikel, Stephen K; Kennedy, Ronald C; Akins, Darrin R

    2002-11-01

    Presently, the rhesus macaque is the only nonhuman primate animal model utilized for the study of Lyme disease. While this animal model closely mimics human disease, rhesus macaques can harbor the herpes B virus, which is often lethal to humans; macaques also do not express the full complement of immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclasses found in humans. Conversely, baboons contain the full complement of IgG subclasses and do not harbor the herpes B virus. For these reasons, baboons have been increasingly utilized as the basis for models of infectious diseases and studies assessing the safety and immunogenicity of new vaccines. Here we analyzed the capability of baboons to become infected with Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease. Combined culture and PCR analyses of tick- and syringe-infected animals indicated that baboons are a sufficient host for B. burgdorferi. Analysis of the antibody responses in infected baboons over a 48-week period revealed that antibodies are generated early during infection against many borrelial antigens, including the various OspE, OspF, and Elp paralogs that are encoded on the ubiquitous 32-kb circular plasmids (cp32s). By using the baboon sera generated by experimental infection it was determined that a combination of two cp32-encoded lipoproteins, OspE and ElpB1, resulted in highly specific and sensitive detection of B. burgdorferi infection. An expanded analysis, which included 39 different human Lyme disease patients, revealed that a combination of the OspE and ElpB1 lipoproteins could be the basis for a new serodiagnostic assay for Lyme disease. Importantly, this novel serodiagnostic test would be useful independent of prior OspA vaccination status.

  1. Antibiotic treatment of animals infected with Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormser, Gary P; Schwartz, Ira

    2009-07-01

    Despite resolution of the objective manifestations of Lyme disease after antibiotic treatment, a minority of patients have fatigue, musculoskeletal pain, and/or difficulties with concentration or short-term memory of uncertain etiology; these are called post-Lyme disease symptoms or, in more severe cases, post-Lyme disease syndrome or "chronic Lyme disease." Several recent studies in which Borrelia burgdorferi-infected animals were treated with antibiotic therapy have demonstrated the presence of PCR positivity for B. burgdorferi DNA in the absence of culture positivity. In mice that were treated with antibiotic therapy, residual spirochetes could be taken up by ticks during a blood meal and could be transmitted to SCID mice. These spirochetes are attenuated; their presence is not associated with either inflammation or disease. In this review the methodology and findings of these studies are critically analyzed, and the significance of the results with regard to human Lyme disease is evaluated, with special emphasis on whether these studies provide useful insights into post-Lyme disease syndrome. A serious methodological concern is the failure to consider the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic properties of the antibiotic in choosing the dosage regimen used. We conclude that there is no scientific evidence to support the hypothesis that such spirochetes, should they exist in humans, are the cause of post-Lyme disease syndrome.

  2. Infezione da Borrelia burgdorferi: descrizione di un caso clinico atipico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gino Ciarrocchi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available La borreliosi o Malattia di Lyme (ML è una malattia infettiva multisistemica causata da una spirocheta, Borrelia burgdorferi, trasmessa dal morso di una zecca del genere Ixodes.Viene descritto il caso clinico di una ragazza di venti anni. In un soggiorno estivo sul Monte Amiata, in Toscana, la giovane notò un arrossamento della pelle al fianco sinistro del corpo. Non osservò presenza della zecca nella zona di presumibile inoculo, da cui si sviluppò un eritema migrante (EM ad andamento centrifugo, fino a raggiungere un diametro di circa 10 centimetri. Nei giorni successivi e durante il follow up non sono mai comparsi sintomi collaterali generali riferibili ad astenia, febbricola, artralgie, malessere, né a carico di organi bersaglio. Dopo circa due settimane, persistendo l’EM, sono stati eseguiti esami sierologici specifici per Borrelia burgdorferi. Al riscontro positivo dei test ELISA e western-blot IgG e IgM, il clnico ha prescritto terapia antibiotica a base di Amoxicillina 2g/die per 20 giorni.Dopo 8-10 giorni di terapia è avvenuta la scomparsa completa dell’eritema. Viene mostrato l’andamento dei test sierologici al momento della diagnosi e durante il follow up, per un periodo di circa cinque mesi.

  3. Polymerase chain reaction in diagnosis of Borrelia burgdorferi infections and studies on taxonomic classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, Anne-Mette

    2002-01-01

    not regarded as a suitable sample source for B. burgdorferi PCR. The reason may be the variable presence of Taq polymerase inhibitors. Based on a semi-quantitative detection system for amplicons, reflecting the input amount of specific DNA and thus the density of spirochetes in the clinical samples high...... a PCR assay for direct detection of B. burgdorferi DNA and to evaluate the diagnostic utility of PCR in clinical specimens from patients with Lyme borreliosis and (ii) to study the taxonomic classification of B. burgdorferi isolates and its implications for epidemiology and clinical presentation...... for PCR amplification and subsequent identification of B. burgdorferi specific sequences were established and used. For all assays the analytical sensitivity was a few genome copies using purified DNA as template. The efficacy of PCR was initially evaluated using tissue samples from experimentally...

  4. Antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in sheep and goats. Alto Adige-South Tyrol, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciceroni, L; Simeoni, J; Pacetti, A I; Ciarrocchi, S; Cacciapuoti, B

    1996-04-01

    A serologic survey for antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi was conducted on sheep and goat serum samples collected in Alto Adige-South Tyrol, Italy, in 1990. Sera were tested by Indirect Immune Fluorescence Assay (IIFA) and Microbial Adherence Immobilization Assay (MAIA). IIFA and/or MAIA anti-B. burgdorferi antibodies were detected in 14.1% of the 269 sheep and 36.8% of the 133 goats examined. IIFA and MAIA were both positive in 4 out of 38 positive sheep sera (10.5%) and 21 out of 49 positive goat sera (42.8%). These discrepancies suggest that MAIA- and IIFA-detected antibodies do differ from each other. The detection by MAIA of antibodies sensitizing B. burgdorferi to the killing effect of complement seems to be a valid parameter to evaluate the acquired immunity of sheep and goats to B. burgdorferi infections.

  5. Borrelia burgdorferi Aggrecanase Activity: More Evidence for Persistent Infection in Lyme Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael B. Stricker

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Lyme disease is the most common tickborne illness in the world today. A recent study describes for the first time an enzyme produced by the spirochetal agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, that cleaves aggrecan, a proteoglycan found in joints and connective tissue. Discovery of the spirochetal aggrecanase raises many questions about the pathogenesis of Lyme arthritis and lends support to the concept of persistent B. burgdorferi infection in patients with chronic Lyme disease symptoms.

  6. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from migratory birds in Southern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skarpaas Tone

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l. are the causative agent for Lyme borreliosis (LB, the most common tick-borne disease in the northern hemisphere. Birds are considered important in the global dispersal of ticks and tick-borne pathogens through their migration. The present study is the first description of B. burgdorferi prevalence and genotypes in Ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on birds during spring and autumn migration in Norway. Methods 6538 migratory birds were captured and examined for ticks at Lista Bird Observatory during the spring and the autumn migration in 2008. 822 immature I. ricinus ticks were collected from 215 infested birds. Ticks were investigated for infection with B. burgdorferi s.l. by real-time PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene, and B. burgdorferi s.l. were thereafter genotyped by melting curve analysis after real-time PCR amplification of the hbb gene, or by direct sequencing of the PCR amplicon generated from the rrs (16S-rrl (23S intergenetic spacer. Results B. burgdorferi s.l. were detected in 4.4% of the ticks. The most prevalent B. burgdorferi genospecies identified were B. garinii (77.8%, followed by B.valaisiana (11.1%, B. afzelii (8.3% and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (2.8%. Conclusion Infection rate in ticks and genospecies composition were similar in spring and autumn migration, however, the prevalence of ticks on birds was higher during spring migration. The study supports the notion that birds are important in the dispersal of ticks, and that they may be partly responsible for the heterogeneous distribution of B. burgdorferi s.l. in Europe.

  7. Activity of Sulfa Drugs and Their Combinations against Stationary Phase B. burgdorferi In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Zhang, Shuo; Shi, Wanliang; Zhang, Ying

    2017-03-22

    Lyme disease is a most common vector-borne disease in the US. Although the majority of Lyme patients can be cured with the standard two- to four-week antibiotic treatment, at least 10%-20% of patients continue to suffer from prolonged post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS). While the cause for this is unclear, one possibility is that persisting organisms are not killed by current Lyme antibiotics. In our previous studies, we screened an FDA drug library and an NCI compound library on B. burgdorferi and found some drug hits including sulfa drugs as having good activity against B. burgdorferi stationary phase cells. In this study, we evaluated the relative activity of three commonly used sulfa drugs, sulfamethoxazole (Smx), dapsone (Dps), sulfachlorpyridazine (Scp), and also trimethoprim (Tmp), and assessed their combinations with the commonly prescribed Lyme antibiotics for activities against B. burgdorferi stationary phase cells. Using the same molarity concentration, dapsone, sulfachlorpyridazine and trimethoprim showed very similar activity against stationary phase B. burgdorferi enriched in persisters; however, sulfamethoxazole was the least active drug among the three sulfa drugs tested. Interestingly, contrary to other bacterial systems, Tmp did not show synergy in drug combinations with the three sulfa drugs at their clinically relevant serum concentrations against B. burgdorferi. We found that sulfa drugs combined with other antibiotics were more active than their respective single drugs and that four-drug combinations were more active than three-drug combinations. Four-drug combinations dapsone + minocycline + cefuroxime + azithromycin and dapsone + minocycline + cefuroxime + rifampin showed the best activity against stationary phase B. burgdorferi in these sulfa drug combinations. However, these four-sulfa-drug-containing combinations still had considerably less activity against B. burgdorferi stationary phase cells than the Daptomycin + cefuroxime

  8. Activity of Sulfa Drugs and Their Combinations against Stationary Phase B. burgdorferi In Vitro

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    Jie Feng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Lyme disease is a most common vector-borne disease in the US. Although the majority of Lyme patients can be cured with the standard two- to four-week antibiotic treatment, at least 10%–20% of patients continue to suffer from prolonged post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS. While the cause for this is unclear, one possibility is that persisting organisms are not killed by current Lyme antibiotics. In our previous studies, we screened an FDA drug library and an NCI compound library on B. burgdorferi and found some drug hits including sulfa drugs as having good activity against B. burgdorferi stationary phase cells. In this study, we evaluated the relative activity of three commonly used sulfa drugs, sulfamethoxazole (Smx, dapsone (Dps, sulfachlorpyridazine (Scp, and also trimethoprim (Tmp, and assessed their combinations with the commonly prescribed Lyme antibiotics for activities against B. burgdorferi stationary phase cells. Using the same molarity concentration, dapsone, sulfachlorpyridazine and trimethoprim showed very similar activity against stationary phase B. burgdorferi enriched in persisters; however, sulfamethoxazole was the least active drug among the three sulfa drugs tested. Interestingly, contrary to other bacterial systems, Tmp did not show synergy in drug combinations with the three sulfa drugs at their clinically relevant serum concentrations against B. burgdorferi. We found that sulfa drugs combined with other antibiotics were more active than their respective single drugs and that four-drug combinations were more active than three-drug combinations. Four-drug combinations dapsone + minocycline + cefuroxime + azithromycin and dapsone + minocycline + cefuroxime + rifampin showed the best activity against stationary phase B. burgdorferi in these sulfa drug combinations. However, these four-sulfa-drug–containing combinations still had considerably less activity against B. burgdorferi stationary phase cells than the

  9. The urokinase receptor (uPAR facilitates clearance of Borrelia burgdorferi.

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    Joppe W R Hovius

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, has been shown to induce expression of the urokinase receptor (uPAR; however, the role of uPAR in the immune response against Borrelia has never been investigated. uPAR not only acts as a proteinase receptor, but can also, dependently or independently of ligation to uPA, directly affect leukocyte function. We here demonstrate that uPAR is upregulated on murine and human leukocytes upon exposure to B. burgdorferi both in vitro as well as in vivo. Notably, B. burgdorferi-inoculated C57BL/6 uPAR knock-out mice harbored significantly higher Borrelia numbers compared to WT controls. This was associated with impaired phagocytotic capacity of B. burgdorferi by uPAR knock-out leukocytes in vitro. B. burgdorferi numbers in vivo, and phagocytotic capacity in vitro, were unaltered in uPA, tPA (low fibrinolytic activity and PAI-1 (high fibrinolytic activity knock-out mice compared to WT controls. Strikingly, in uPAR knock-out mice partially backcrossed to a B. burgdorferi susceptible C3H/HeN background, higher B. burgdorferi numbers were associated with more severe carditis and increased local TLR2 and IL-1beta mRNA expression. In conclusion, in B. burgdorferi infection, uPAR is required for phagocytosis and adequate eradication of the spirochete from the heart by a mechanism that is independent of binding of uPAR to uPA or its role in the fibrinolytic system.

  10. The Urokinase Receptor (uPAR) Facilitates Clearance of Borrelia burgdorferi

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    Hovius, Joppe W. R.; Bijlsma, Maarten F.; van der Windt, Gerritje J. W.; Wiersinga, W. Joost; Boukens, Bastiaan J. D.; Coumou, Jeroen; Oei, Anneke; de Beer, Regina; de Vos, Alex F.; Veer, Cornelis van 't; van Dam, Alje P.; Wang, Penghua; Fikrig, Erol; Levi, Marcel M.; Roelofs, Joris J. T. H.; van der Poll, Tom

    2009-01-01

    The causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, has been shown to induce expression of the urokinase receptor (uPAR); however, the role of uPAR in the immune response against Borrelia has never been investigated. uPAR not only acts as a proteinase receptor, but can also, dependently or independently of ligation to uPA, directly affect leukocyte function. We here demonstrate that uPAR is upregulated on murine and human leukocytes upon exposure to B. burgdorferi both in vitro as well as in vivo. Notably, B. burgdorferi-inoculated C57BL/6 uPAR knock-out mice harbored significantly higher Borrelia numbers compared to WT controls. This was associated with impaired phagocytotic capacity of B. burgdorferi by uPAR knock-out leukocytes in vitro. B. burgdorferi numbers in vivo, and phagocytotic capacity in vitro, were unaltered in uPA, tPA (low fibrinolytic activity) and PAI-1 (high fibrinolytic activity) knock-out mice compared to WT controls. Strikingly, in uPAR knock-out mice partially backcrossed to a B. burgdorferi susceptible C3H/HeN background, higher B. burgdorferi numbers were associated with more severe carditis and increased local TLR2 and IL-1β mRNA expression. In conclusion, in B. burgdorferi infection, uPAR is required for phagocytosis and adequate eradication of the spirochete from the heart by a mechanism that is independent of binding of uPAR to uPA or its role in the fibrinolytic system. PMID:19461880

  11. Whole genome sequence of an unusual Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolate

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    Casjens, S.R.; Dunn, J.; Fraser-Liggett, C. M.; Mongodin, E. F.; Qiu, W. G.; Luft, B. J.; Schutzer, S. E.

    2011-03-01

    Human Lyme disease is caused by a number of related Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species. We report here the complete genome sequence of Borrelia sp. isolate SV1 from Finland. This isolate is to date the closest known relative of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, but it is sufficiently genetically distinct from that species that it and its close relatives warrant its candidacy for new-species status. We suggest that this isolate should be named 'Borrelia finlandensis.'

  12. A Dual Luciferase Reporter System for B. burgdorferi Measures Transcriptional Activity during Tick-Pathogen Interactions

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    Philip P. Adams

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the transcriptional responses of vector-borne pathogens at the vector-pathogen interface is critical for understanding disease transmission. Borrelia (Borreliella burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease in the United States, is transmitted by the bite of infected Ixodes sp. ticks. It is known that B. burgdorferi has altered patterns of gene expression during tick acquisition, persistence and transmission. Recently, we and others have discovered in vitro expression of RNAs found internal, overlapping, and antisense to annotated open reading frames in the B. burgdorferi genome. However, there is a lack of molecular genetic tools for B. burgdorferi for quantitative, strand-specific, comparative analysis of these transcripts in distinct environments such as the arthropod vector. To address this need, we have developed a dual luciferase reporter system to quantify B. burgdorferi promoter activities in a strand-specific manner. We demonstrate that constitutive expression of a B. burgdorferi codon-optimized Renilla reniformis luciferase gene (rlucBb allows normalization of the activity of a promoter of interest when fused to the B. burgdorferi codon-optimized Photinus pyralis luciferase gene (flucBb on the same plasmid. Using the well characterized, differentially regulated, promoters for flagellin (flaBp, outer surface protein A (ospAp and outer surface protein C (ospCp, we document the efficacy of the dual luciferase system for quantitation of promoter activities during in vitro growth and in infected ticks. Cumulatively, the dual luciferase method outlined herein is the first dual reporter system for B. burgdorferi, providing a novel and highly versatile approach for strand-specific molecular genetic analyses.

  13. A Novel Isothermal Assay of Borrelia burgdorferi by Recombinase Polymerase Amplification with Lateral Flow Detection.

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    Liu, Wei; Liu, Hui-Xin; Zhang, Lin; Hou, Xue-Xia; Wan, Kang-Lin; Hao, Qin

    2016-08-03

    A novel isothermal detection for recombinase polymerase amplification with lateral flow (LF-RPA) was established for Borrelia burgdorferi (B. burgdorferi) detection in this study. This assay with high sensitivity and specificity can get a visible result without any additional equipment in 30 min. We designed a pair of primers according to recA gene of B. burgdorferi strains and a methodology evaluation was performed. The results showed that the RPA assay based on the recA gene was successfully applied in B. burgdorferi detection, and its specific amplification was only achieved from the genomic DNA of B. burgdorferi. The detection limit of the new assay was about 25 copies of the B. burgdorferi genomic DNA. Twenty Lyme borreliosis patients' serum samples were detected by LF-RPA assay, real-time qPCR and nested-PCR. Results showed the LF-RPA assay is more effective than nested-PCR for its shorter reaction time and considerably higher detection rate. This method is of great value in clinical rapid detection for Lyme borreliosis. Using the RPA assay might be a megatrend for DNA detection in clinics and endemic regions.

  14. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of DNA from Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Ixodes ricinus ticks

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    Muntean, Cristina M.; Stefan, Razvan; Bindea, Maria; Cozma, Vasile

    2013-06-01

    In this work we present a method for detection of motile and immotile Borrelia burgdorferi genomic DNA, in relation with infectious and noninfectious spirochetes. An FT-IR study of DNA isolated from B. burgdorferi sensu lato strains and from positive and negative Ixodes ricinus ticks, respectively, is reported. Motile bacterial cells from the species B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii and Borrelia afzelii were of interest. Also, FT-IR absorbance spectra of DNA from immotile spirochetes of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, in the absence and presence of different antibiotics (doxycycline, erythromycin, gentamicin, penicillin V or phenoxymethylpenicillin, tetracycline, respectively) were investigated. FT-IR spectra, providing a high molecular structural information, have been analyzed in the wavenumber range 400-1800 cm-1. FT-IR signatures, spectroscopic band assignments and structural interpretations of these DNAs are reported. Spectral differences between FT-IR absorbances of DNAs from motile bacterial cells and immotile spirochetes, respectively, have been found. Particularly, alterations of the sugar-phosphate B-form chain in the case of DNA from Borrelia immotile cells, as compared with DNA from B. burgdorferi sensu lato motile cells have been observed. Based on this work, specific B. burgdorferi sensu lato and I. ricinus DNA-ligand interactions, respectively, might be further investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  15. Outer surface protein B is critical for Borrelia burgdorferi adherence and survival within Ixodes ticks.

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    Girish Neelakanta

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Survival of Borrelia burgdorferi in ticks and mammals is facilitated, at least in part, by the selective expression of lipoproteins. Outer surface protein (Osp A participates in spirochete adherence to the tick gut. As ospB is expressed on a bicistronic operon with ospA, we have now investigated the role of OspB by generating an OspB-deficient B. burgdorferi and examining its phenotype throughout the spirochete life cycle. Similar to wild-type isolates, the OspB-deficient B. burgdorferi were able to readily infect and persist in mice. OspB-deficient B. burgdorferi were capable of migrating to the feeding ticks but had an impaired ability to adhere to the tick gut and survive within the vector. Furthermore, the OspB-deficient B. burgdorferi bound poorly to tick gut extracts. The complementation of the OspB-deficient spirochete in trans, with a wild-type copy of ospB gene, restored its ability to bind tick gut. Taken together, these data suggest that OspB has an important role within Ixodes scapularis and that B. burgdorferi relies upon multiple genes to efficiently persist in ticks.

  16. The TamB ortholog of Borrelia burgdorferi interacts with the β-barrel assembly machine (BAM) complex protein BamA.

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    Iqbal, Henna; Kenedy, Melisha R; Lybecker, Meghan; Akins, Darrin R

    2016-12-01

    Two outer membrane protein (OMP) transport systems in diderm bacteria assist in assembly and export of OMPs. These two systems are the β-barrel assembly machine (BAM) complex and the translocation and assembly module (TAM). The BAM complex consists of the OMP component BamA along with several outer membrane associated proteins. The TAM also consists of an OMP, designated TamA, and a single inner membrane (IM) protein, TamB. Together TamA and TamB aid in the secretion of virulence-associated OMPs. In this study we characterized the hypothetical protein BB0794 in Borrelia burgdorferi. BB0794 contains a conserved DUF490 domain, which is a motif found in all TamB proteins. All spirochetes lack a TamA ortholog, but computational and physicochemical characterization of BB0794 revealed it is a TamB ortholog. Interestingly, BB0794 was observed to interact with BamA and a BB0794 regulatable mutant displayed altered cellular morphology and antibiotic sensitivity. The observation that B. burgdorferi contains a TamB ortholog that interacts with BamA and is required for proper outer membrane biogenesis not only identifies a novel role for TamB-like proteins, but also may explain why most diderms harbor a TamB-like protein while only a select group encodes TamA. © 2016 The Authors. Molecular Microbiology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. A Manganese-rich Environment Supports Superoxide Dismutase Activity in a Lyme Disease Pathogen, Borrelia burgdorferi*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, J. Dafhne; Clark, Hillary M.; McIlvin, Matthew; Vazquez, Christine; Palmere, Shaina L.; Grab, Dennis J.; Seshu, J.; Hart, P. John; Saito, Mak; Culotta, Valeria C.

    2013-01-01

    The Lyme disease pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi represents a novel organism in which to study metalloprotein biology in that this spirochete has uniquely evolved with no requirement for iron. Not only is iron low, but we show here that B. burgdorferi has the capacity to accumulate remarkably high levels of manganese. This high manganese is necessary to activate the SodA superoxide dismutase (SOD) essential for virulence. Using a metalloproteomic approach, we demonstrate that a bulk of B. burgdorferi SodA directly associates with manganese, and a smaller pool of inactive enzyme accumulates as apoprotein. Other metalloproteins may have similarly adapted to using manganese as co-factor, including the BB0366 aminopeptidase. Whereas B. burgdorferi SodA has evolved in a manganese-rich, iron-poor environment, the opposite is true for Mn-SODs of organisms such as Escherichia coli and bakers' yeast. These Mn-SODs still capture manganese in an iron-rich cell, and we tested whether the same is true for Borrelia SodA. When expressed in the iron-rich mitochondria of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, B. burgdorferi SodA was inactive. Activity was only possible when cells accumulated extremely high levels of manganese that exceeded cellular iron. Moreover, there was no evidence for iron inactivation of the SOD. B. burgdorferi SodA shows strong overall homology with other members of the Mn-SOD family, but computer-assisted modeling revealed some unusual features of the hydrogen bonding network near the enzyme's active site. The unique properties of B. burgdorferi SodA may represent adaptation to expression in the manganese-rich and iron-poor environment of the spirochete. PMID:23376276

  18. Resurgence of persisting non-cultivable Borrelia burgdorferi following antibiotic treatment in mice.

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    Emir Hodzic

    Full Text Available The agent of Lyme borreliosis, Borrelia burgdorferi, evades host immunity and establishes persistent infections in its varied mammalian hosts. This persistent biology may pose challenges to effective antibiotic treatment. Experimental studies in dogs, mice, and non-human primates have found persistence of B. burgdorferi DNA following treatment with a variety of antibiotics, but persisting spirochetes are non-cultivable. Persistence of B. burgdorferi DNA has been documented in humans following treatment, but the significance remains unknown. The present study utilized a ceftriaxone treatment regimen in the C3H mouse model that resulted in persistence of non-cultivable B. burgdorferi in order to determine their long-term fate, and to examine their effects on the host. Results confirmed previous studies, in which B. burgdorferi could not be cultured from tissues, but low copy numbers of B. burgdorferi flaB DNA were detectable in tissues at 2, 4 and 8 months after completion of treatment, and the rate of PCR-positive tissues appeared to progressively decline over time. However, there was resurgence of spirochete flaB DNA in multiple tissues at 12 months, with flaB DNA copy levels nearly equivalent to those found in saline-treated mice. Despite the continued non-cultivable state, RNA transcription of multiple B. burgdorferi genes was detected in host tissues, flaB DNA was acquired by xenodiagnostic ticks, and spirochetal forms could be visualized within ticks and mouse tissues by immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry, respectively. A number of host cytokines were up- or down-regulated in tissues of both saline- and antibiotic-treated mice in the absence of histopathology, indicating host response to the presence of non-cultivable, despite the lack of inflammation in tissues.

  19. Acquisition of Borrelia burgdorferi infection by larval Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) associated with engorgement measures

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    Couret, Janelle; Dyer, M.C.; Mather, T.N.; Han, S.; Tsao, J.I.; LeBrun, R.A.; Ginsberg, Howard

    2017-01-01

    Measuring rates of acquisition of the Lyme disease pathogen, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt & Brenner, by the larval stage of Ixodes scapularis Say is a useful tool for xenodiagnoses of B. burgdorferi in vertebrate hosts. In the nymphal and adult stages of I. scapularis, the duration of attachment to hosts has been shown to predict both body engorgement during blood feeding and the timing of infection with B. burgdorferi. However, these relationships have not been established for the larval stage of I. scapularis. We sought to establish the relationship between body size during engorgement of larval I. scapularis placed on B. burgdorferi-infected, white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus Rafinesque) and the presence or absence of infection in larvae sampled from hosts over time. Body size, time, and their interaction were the best predictors of larval infection with B. burgdorferi. We found that infected larvae showed significantly greater engorgement than uninfected larvae as early as 24 h after placement on a host. These findings may suggest that infection with B. burgdorferi affects the larval feeding process. Alternatively, larvae that engorge more rapidly on hosts may acquire infections faster. Knowledge of these relationships can be applied to improve effective xenodiagnosis of B. burgdorferi in white-footed mice. Further, these findings shed light on vector–pathogen–host interactions during an understudied part of the Lyme disease transmission cycle.

  20. Suppression of Long-Lived Humoral Immunity Following Borrelia burgdorferi Infection.

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    Rebecca A Elsner

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lyme Disease caused by infection with Borrelia burgdorferi is an emerging infectious disease and already by far the most common vector-borne disease in the U.S. Similar to many other infections, infection with B. burgdorferi results in strong antibody response induction, which can be used clinically as a diagnostic measure of prior exposure. However, clinical studies have shown a sometimes-precipitous decline of such antibodies shortly following antibiotic treatment, revealing a potential deficit in the host's ability to induce and/or maintain long-term protective antibodies. This is further supported by reports of frequent repeat infections with B. burgdorferi in endemic areas. The mechanisms underlying such a lack of long-term humoral immunity, however, remain unknown. We show here that B. burgdorferi infected mice show a similar rapid disappearance of Borrelia-specific antibodies after infection and subsequent antibiotic treatment. This failure was associated with development of only short-lived germinal centers, micro-anatomical locations from which long-lived immunity originates. These showed structural abnormalities and failed to induce memory B cells and long-lived plasma cells for months after the infection, rendering the mice susceptible to reinfection with the same strain of B. burgdorferi. The inability to induce long-lived immune responses was not due to the particular nature of the immunogenic antigens of B. burgdorferi, as antibodies to both T-dependent and T-independent Borrelia antigens lacked longevity and B cell memory induction. Furthermore, influenza immunization administered at the time of Borrelia infection also failed to induce robust antibody responses, dramatically reducing the protective antiviral capacity of the humoral response. Collectively, these studies show that B. burgdorferi-infection results in targeted and temporary immunosuppression of the host and bring new insight into the mechanisms underlying the failure

  1. Evidence for Host-Genotype Associations of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Stricto.

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    Samir Mechai

    Full Text Available Different genotypes of the agent of Lyme disease in North America, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, show varying degrees of pathogenicity in humans. This variation in pathogenicity correlates with phylogeny and we have hypothesized that the different phylogenetic lineages in North America reflect adaptation to different host species. In this study, evidence for host species associations of B. burgdorferi genotypes was investigated using 41 B. burgdorferi-positive samples from five mammal species and 50 samples from host-seeking ticks collected during the course of field studies in four regions of Canada: Manitoba, northwestern Ontario, Quebec, and the Maritimes. The B. burgdorferi genotypes in the samples were characterized using three established molecular markers (multi-locus sequence typing [MLST], 16S-23S rrs-rrlA intergenic spacer, and outer surface protein C sequence [ospC] major groups. Correspondence analysis and generalized linear mixed effect models revealed significant associations between B. burgdorferi genotypes and host species (in particular chipmunks, and white-footed mice and deer mice, supporting the hypotheses that host adaptation contributes to the phylogenetic structure and possibly the observed variation in pathogenicity in humans.

  2. Molecular and Pathogenic Characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Isolates from Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Raquel; Barral, Marta; Pérez, Azucena; Vitutia, M. Mar; García-Pérez, Ana L.; Jiménez, Santos; Sellek, Ricela E.; Anda, Pedro

    2000-01-01

    Fifteen Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates from questing ticks and skin biopsy specimens from erythema migrans patients in three different areas of Spain were characterized. Four different genospecies were found (nine Borrelia garinii, including the two human isolates, three B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, two B. valaisiana, and one B. lusitaniae), showing a diverse spectrum of B. burgdorferi sensu lato species. B. garinii isolates were highly variable in terms of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern and OspA serotype, with four of the seven serotypes described. One of the human isolates was OspA serotype 5, the same found in four of seven tick isolates. The second human isolate was OspA serotype 3, which was not present in ticks from the same area. Seven B. garinii isolates were able to disseminate through the skin of C3H/HeN mice and to cause severe inflammation of joints. One of the two B. valaisiana isolates also caused disease in mice. Only one B. burgdorferi sensu stricto isolate was recovered from the urinary bladder. One isolate each of B. valaisiana and B. lusitaniae were not able to disseminate through the skin of mice or to infect internal organs. In summary, there is substantial diversity in the species and in the pathogenicity of B. burgdorferi sensu lato in areas in northern Spain where Lyme disease is endemic. PMID:11060064

  3. Borrelia burgdorferi in ticks and dogs in the province of Vojvodina, Serbia*

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    Savić S.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Lyme disease is a tick borne zoonotic infection, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. bacteria. For the transmission of the disease, the presence of ticks is a prerequisite. Lyme borreliosis mostly occurs in people and dogs, but it may occur in other animals. Ticks which carry B. burgdorferi s.l. in Serbia are of the Ixodes ricinus specis. In Serbia, Lyme disease was detected for the first time in the late ‘80-es. In dogs, clinical symptoms may occur even months after a tick bite, and include weakness, lymphadenopathy, fever, lameness, arthritis, etc. In our survey, we have observed tick and dog populations in the province of Vojvodina (northern part of Serbia. I. ricinus ticks were collected and examined for the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. in several chosen locations. In addition, blood samples were collected from house dogs and pets from the same locations, and analyzed for the presence of antibodies specific for B. burgdorferi s.l. The results showed a mean infection of ticks of 22.12 %, and a mean seroprevalence of Lyme disease in dogs of 25.81 %. We conclude that in Vojvodina there is an actual risk of Lyme borreliosis for other animals and humans, because of the persistence of B. burgdorferi s.l. in both tick and dog populations.

  4. Evidence for Host-Genotype Associations of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Stricto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechai, Samir; Margos, Gabriele; Feil, Edward J.; Barairo, Nicole; Lindsay, L. Robbin; Michel, Pascal; Ogden, Nicholas H.

    2016-01-01

    Different genotypes of the agent of Lyme disease in North America, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, show varying degrees of pathogenicity in humans. This variation in pathogenicity correlates with phylogeny and we have hypothesized that the different phylogenetic lineages in North America reflect adaptation to different host species. In this study, evidence for host species associations of B. burgdorferi genotypes was investigated using 41 B. burgdorferi-positive samples from five mammal species and 50 samples from host-seeking ticks collected during the course of field studies in four regions of Canada: Manitoba, northwestern Ontario, Quebec, and the Maritimes. The B. burgdorferi genotypes in the samples were characterized using three established molecular markers (multi-locus sequence typing [MLST], 16S-23S rrs-rrlA intergenic spacer, and outer surface protein C sequence [ospC] major groups). Correspondence analysis and generalized linear mixed effect models revealed significant associations between B. burgdorferi genotypes and host species (in particular chipmunks, and white-footed mice and deer mice), supporting the hypotheses that host adaptation contributes to the phylogenetic structure and possibly the observed variation in pathogenicity in humans. PMID:26901761

  5. Multilocus Sequence Typing of Borrelia burgdorferi Suggests Existence of Lineages with Differential Pathogenic Properties in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanincova, Klara; Mukherjee, Priyanka; Ogden, Nicholas H.; Margos, Gabriele; Wormser, Gary P.; Reed, Kurt D.; Meece, Jennifer K.; Vandermause, Mary F.; Schwartz, Ira

    2013-01-01

    The clinical manifestations of Lyme disease, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, vary considerably in different patients, possibly due to infection by strains with varying pathogenicity. Both rRNA intergenic spacer and ospC typing methods have proven to be useful tools for categorizing B. burgdorferi strains that vary in their tendency to disseminate in humans. Neither method, however, is suitable for inferring intraspecific relationships among strains that are important for understanding the evolution of pathogenicity and the geographic spread of disease. In this study, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was employed to investigate the population structure of B. burgdorferi recovered from human Lyme disease patients. A total of 146 clinical isolates from patients in New York and Wisconsin were divided into 53 sequence types (STs). A goeBURST analysis, that also included previously published STs from the northeastern and upper Midwestern US and adjoining areas of Canada, identified 11 major and 3 minor clonal complexes, as well as 14 singletons. The data revealed that patients from New York and Wisconsin were infected with two distinct, but genetically and phylogenetically closely related, populations of B. burgdorferi. Importantly, the data suggest the existence of B. burgdorferi lineages with differential capabilities for dissemination in humans. Interestingly, the data also indicate that MLST is better able to predict the outcome of localized or disseminated infection than is ospC typing. PMID:24069170

  6. First detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato DNA in king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus halli).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Frédéric; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Fournier, Jean-Charles; McCoy, Karen D; Barthel, Cathy; Postic, Danièle; Handrich, Yves; Le Maho, Yvon; Jaulhac, Benoît

    2014-10-01

    The hard tick Ixodes uriae parasitises a wide range of seabird species in the circumpolar areas of both Northern and Southern hemispheres and has been shown to be infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the bacterial agents of Lyme borreliosis. Although it is assumed that seabirds represent viable reservoir hosts, direct demonstrations of infection are limited to a single study from the Northern hemisphere. Here, the blood of 50 tick-infested adult king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus halli) breeding in the Crozet Archipelago (Southern Indian Ocean) was examined for B. burgdorferi sl exposure by serology and for spirochetemia by in vitro DNA amplification. Four birds were found positive by serology, whereas B. burgdorferi sl DNA was detected in two other birds. Our data therefore provide the first direct proof of Borrelia burgdorferi sl spirochetes in seabirds of the Southern hemisphere and indicate a possible reservoir role for king penguins in the natural maintenance of this bacterium. Although the bacterial genetic diversity present in these hosts and the infectious period for tick vectors remain to be elucidated, our results add to a growing body of knowledge on the contribution of seabirds to the complex epizootiology of Lyme disease and the global dissemination of B. burgdorferi sl spirochetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Borrelia burgdorferi: Carbon Metabolism and the Tick-Mammal Enzootic Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, Arianna; Schwartz, Ira

    2015-06-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the spirochetal agent of Lyme disease, is a zoonotic pathogen that is maintained in a natural cycle that typically involves mammalian reservoir hosts and a tick vector of the Ixodes species. During each stage of the enzootic cycle, B. burgdorferi is exposed to environments that differ in temperature, pH, small molecules, and most important, nutrient sources. B. burgdorferi has a highly restricted metabolic capacity because it does not contain a tricarboxylic acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, or any pathways for de novo biosynthesis of carbohydrates, amino acids, or lipids. Thus, B. burgdorferi relies solely on glycolysis for ATP production and is completely dependent on the transport of nutrients and cofactors from extracellular sources. Herein, pathways for carbohydrate uptake and utilization in B. burgdorferi are described. Regulation of these pathways during the different phases of the enzootic cycle is discussed. In addition, a model for differential control of nutrient flux through the glycolytic pathway as the spirochete transits through the enzootic cycle is presented.

  8. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of a novel Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolate from a patient with lyme borreliosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, G.; van Dam, A. P.; Dankert, J.

    1999-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato A14S was cultured from a skin biopsy specimen of a patient with erythema migrans in The Netherlands. This isolate had a unique DNA fingerprint pattern compared to 135 other B. burgdorferi sensu lato isolates. In this study, the isolate A14S was further characterized

  9. A novel duplex real-time PCR permits simultaneous detection and differentiation of Borrelia miyamotoi and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venczel, R; Knoke, L; Pavlovic, M; Dzaferovic, E; Vaculova, T; Silaghi, C; Overzier, E; Konrad, R; Kolenčík, S; Derdakova, M; Sing, A; Schaub, G A; Margos, G; Fingerle, V

    2016-02-01

    For simultaneous detection of Borrelia miyamotoi (relapsing fever spirochete) and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, we have developed a duplex real-time PCR targeting the flagellin gene (flaB; p41), a locus frequently used in routine diagnostic PCR for B. burgdorferi s.l. detection. Primers and probes were designed using multiple alignments of flaB sequences of B. miyamotoi and B. burgdorferi s.l. species. The sensitivity and specificity of primers and probes were determined using serial dilutions (ranging from 10(4) to 10(-1)) of B. miyamotoi and B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA and of several species of relapsing fever spirochetes. Conventional PCR on recG and glpQ and sequencing of p41 PCR products were used to confirm the species assignment. The detection limit of both singleplex and duplex PCR was 10 genome equivalents except for B. spielmanii and two B. garinii genotypes which showed a detection limit of 10(2) genome equivalents. There was no cross reactivity of the B. miyamotoi primers/probes with B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA, while the B. burgdorferi s.l. primer/probe generated a signal with B. hermsii DNA. Out of 2341 Ixodes ricinus ticks from Germany and Slovakia that were screened simultaneously for the presence of B. miyamotoi and B. burgdorferi s.l., 52 were positive for B. miyamotoi and 276 for B. burgdorferi s.l., denoting an average prevalence of 2.2% for B. miyamotoi and 11.8% for B. burgdorferi s.l., and B. miyamotoi DNA was also detectable by PCR using artificial clinical samples. The duplex real-time PCR developed here represents a method that permits simultaneous detection and differentiation of B. burgdorferi s.l. and B. miyamotoi in environmental and potentially clinical samples.

  10. Identification of novel activity against Borrelia burgdorferi persisters using an FDA approved drug library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Wang, Ting; Shi, Wanliang; Zhang, Shuo; Sullivan, David; Auwaerter, Paul G; Zhang, Ying

    2014-07-01

    Although antibiotic treatment for Lyme disease is effective in the majority of cases, especially during the early phase of the disease, a minority of patients suffer from post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS). It is unclear what mechanisms drive this problem, and although slow or ineffective killing of Borrelia burgdorferi has been suggested as an explanation, there is a lack of evidence that viable organisms are present in PTLDS. Although not a clinical surrogate, insight may be gained by examining stationary-phase in vitro Borrelia burgdorferi persisters that survive treatment with the antibiotics doxycycline and amoxicillin. To identify drug candidates that can eliminate B. burgdorferi persisters more effectively, we screened an Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug library consisting of 1524 compounds against stationary-phase B. burgdorferi by using a newly developed high throughput SYBR Green I/propidium iodide (PI) assay. We identified 165 agents approved for use in other disease conditions that had more activity than doxycycline and amoxicillin against B. burgdorferi persisters. The top 27 drug candidates from the 165 hits were confirmed to have higher anti-persister activity than the current frontline antibiotics. Among the top 27 confirmed drug candidates from the 165 hits, daptomycin, clofazimine, carbomycin, sulfa drugs (e.g., sulfamethoxazole), and certain cephalosporins (e.g. cefoperazone) had the highest anti-persister activity. In addition, some drug candidates, such as daptomycin and clofazimine (which had the highest activity against non-growing persisters), had relatively poor activity or a high minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) against growing B. burgdorferi. Our findings may have implications for the development of a more effective treatment for Lyme disease and for the relief of long-term symptoms that afflict some Lyme disease patients.

  11. Geographical and genospecies distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato DNA detected in humans in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kerry L; Leydet, Brian F; Threlkeld, Clifford

    2014-05-01

    The present study investigated the cause of illness in human patients primarily in the southern USA with suspected Lyme disease based on erythema migrans-like skin lesions and/or symptoms consistent with early localized or late disseminated Lyme borreliosis. The study also included some patients from other states throughout the USA. Several PCR assays specific for either members of the genus Borrelia or only for Lyme group Borrelia spp. (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato), and DNA sequence analysis, were used to identify Borrelia spp. DNA in blood and skin biopsy samples from human patients. B. burgdorferi sensu lato DNA was found in both blood and skin biopsy samples from patients residing in the southern states and elsewhere in the USA, but no evidence of DNA from other Borrelia spp. was detected. Based on phylogenetic analysis of partial flagellin (flaB) gene sequences, strains that clustered separately with B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia americana or Borrelia andersonii were associated with Lyme disease-like signs and symptoms in patients from the southern states, as well as from some other areas of the country. Strains most similar to B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and B. americana were found most commonly and appeared to be widely distributed among patients residing throughout the USA. The study findings suggest that human cases of Lyme disease in the southern USA may be more common than previously recognized and may also be caused by more than one species of B. burgdorferi sensu lato. This study provides further evidence that B. burgdorferi sensu stricto is not the only species associated with signs and/or symptoms consistent with Lyme borreliosis in the USA.

  12. An Ixodes ricinus Tick Salivary Lectin Pathway Inhibitor Protects Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from Human Complement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagemakers, Alex; Coumou, Jeroen; Schuijt, Tim J; Oei, Anneke; Nijhof, Ard M; van 't Veer, Cornelis; van der Poll, Tom; Bins, Adriaan D; Hovius, Joppe W R

    2016-04-01

    We previously identified tick salivary lectin pathway inhibitor (TSLPI) in Ixodes scapularis, a vector for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) in North America. TSLPI is a salivary protein facilitating B. burgdorferi s.s. transmission and acquisition by inhibiting the host lectin complement pathway through interference with mannose binding lectin (MBL) activity. Since Ixodes ricinus is the predominant vector for Lyme borreliosis in Europe and transmits several complement sensitive B. burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) strains, we aimed to identify, describe, and characterize the I. ricinus ortholog of TSLPI. We performed (q)PCRs on I. ricinus salivary gland cDNA to identify a TSLPI ortholog. Next, we generated recombinant (r)TSLPI in a Drosophila expression system and examined inhibition of the MBL complement pathway and complement-mediated killing of B. burgdorferi s.l. in vitro. We identified a TSLPI ortholog in I. ricinus salivary glands with 93% homology at the RNA and 89% at the protein level compared to I. scapularis TSLPI, which was upregulated during tick feeding. In silico analysis revealed that TSLPI appears to be part of a larger family of Ixodes salivary proteins among which I. persulcatus basic tail salivary proteins and I. scapularis TSLPI and Salp14. I. ricinus rTSLPI inhibited the MBL complement pathway and protected B. burgdorferi s.s. and Borrelia garinii from complement-mediated killing. We have identified a TSLPI ortholog, which protects B. burgdorferi s.l. from complement-mediated killing in I. ricinus, the major vector for tick-borne diseases in Europe.

  13. Regulation of OspE-related, OspF-related, and Elp lipoproteins of Borrelia burgdorferi strain 297 by mammalian host-specific signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefty, P S; Jolliff, S E; Caimano, M J; Wikel, S K; Radolf, J D; Akins, D R

    2001-06-01

    In previous studies we have characterized the cp32/18 loci in Borrelia burgdorferi 297 which encode OspE and OspF orthologs and a third group of lipoproteins which possess OspE/F-like leader peptides (Elps). To further these studies, we have comprehensively analyzed their patterns of expression throughout the borrelial enzootic cycle. Serial dilution reverse transcription-PCR analysis indicated that although a shift in temperature from 23 to 37 degrees C induced transcription for all nine genes analyzed, this effect was often markedly enhanced in mammalian host-adapted organisms cultivated within dialysis membrane chambers (DMCs) implanted within the peritoneal cavities of rats. Indirect immunofluorescence assays performed on temperature-shifted, in vitro-cultivated spirochetes and organisms in the midguts of unfed and fed ticks revealed distinct expression profiles for many of the OspE-related, OspF-related, and Elp proteins. Other than BbK2.10 and ElpA1, all were expressed by temperature-shifted organisms, while only OspE, ElpB1, OspF, and BbK2.11 were expressed in the midguts of fed ticks. Additionally, although mRNA was detected for all nine lipoprotein-encoding genes, two of these proteins (BbK2.10 and ElpA1) were not expressed by spirochetes cultivated in vitro, within DMCs, or by spirochetes within tick midguts. However, the observation that B. burgdorferi-infected mice generated specific antibodies against BbK2.10 and ElpA1 indicated that these antigens are expressed only in the mammalian host and that a form of posttranscriptional regulation is involved. Analysis of the upstream regions of these genes revealed several differences between their promoter regions, the majority of which were found in the -10 and -35 hexamers and the spacer regions between them. Also, rather than undergoing simultaneous upregulation during tick feeding, these genes and the corresponding lipoproteins appear to be subject to progressive recruitment or enhancement of expression as

  14. Intravital Imaging of Vascular Transmigration by the Lyme Spirochete: Requirement for the Integrin Binding Residues of the B. burgdorferi P66 Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devender Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vascular extravasation, a key step in systemic infection by hematogenous microbial pathogens, is poorly understood, but has been postulated to encompass features similar to vascular transmigration by leukocytes. The Lyme disease spirochete can cause a variety of clinical manifestations, including arthritis, upon hematogenous dissemination. This pathogen encodes numerous surface adhesive proteins (adhesins that may promote extravasation, but none have yet been implicated in this process. In this work we report the novel use of intravital microscopy of the peripheral knee vasculature to study transmigration of the Lyme spirochete in living Cd1d-/-mice. In the absence of iNKT cells, major immune modulators in the mouse joint, spirochetes that have extravasated into joint-proximal tissue remain in the local milieu and can be enumerated accurately. We show that BBK32, a fibronectin and glycosaminoglycan adhesin of B. burgdorferi involved in early steps of endothelial adhesion, is not required for extravasation from the peripheral knee vasculature. In contrast, almost no transmigration occurs in the absence of P66, an outer membrane protein that has porin and integrin adhesin functions. Importantly, P66 mutants specifically defective in integrin binding were incapable of promoting extravasation. P66 itself does not promote detectable microvascular interactions, suggesting that vascular adhesion of B. burgdorferi mediated by other adhesins, sets the stage for P66-integrin interactions leading to transmigration. Although integrin-binding proteins with diverse functions are encoded by a variety of bacterial pathogens, P66 is the first to have a documented and direct role in vascular transmigration. The emerging picture of vascular escape by the Lyme spirochete shows similarities, but distinct differences from leukocyte transmigration.

  15. The urokinase receptor (uPAR) facilitates clearance of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    OpenAIRE

    Hovius, Joppe W. R; Bijlsma, Maarten F.; van der Windt, Gerritje J.W.; W Joost Wiersinga; Bastiaan J D Boukens; Jeroen Coumou; Anneke Oei; Regina de Beer; de Vos, Alex F; Veer, Cornelis van 't; van Dam, Alje P.; Penghua Wang; Erol Fikrig; Levi, Marcel M; Roelofs, Joris J. T. H.

    2009-01-01

    The causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, has been shown to induce expression of the urokinase receptor (uPAR); however, the role of uPAR in the immune response against Borrelia has never been investigated. uPAR not only acts as a proteinase receptor, but can also, dependently or independently of ligation to uPA, directly affect leukocyte function. We here demonstrate that uPAR is upregulated on murine and human leukocytes upon exposure to B. burgdorferi bo...

  16. Culturing selects for specific genotypes of Borrelia burgdorferi in an enzootic cycle in Colorado.

    OpenAIRE

    Norris, D E; Johnson, B J; Piesman, J; Maupin, G O; Clark, J L; Black, W C

    1997-01-01

    In Colorado, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, is maintained in an enzootic cycle between Ixodes spinipalpis ticks and Neotoma mexicana rats (27). The frequencies of flagellin (fla), 66-kDa protein (p66), and outer surface protein A (ospA) alleles were examined in 71 B. burgdorferi isolates from samples from Colorado. Approximately two-thirds of these samples were isolates from I. spinipalpis ticks that had been cultured in BSK-H medium prior to DNA extr...

  17. Infection of Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhioua, E.; Bouattour, A.; Hu, C.M.; Gharbi, M.; Aeschliman, A.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Gern, L.

    1999-01-01

    Free-living adult Ixodes ricinus L. were collected in Amdoun, situated in the Kroumiry mountains in northwestern Tunisia (North Africa). Using direct fluorescence antibody assay, the infection rate of field-collected I. ricinus by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was 30.5% (n = 72). No difference in infection rate was observed between male and female ticks. Spirochetes that had been isolated from I. ricinus from Ain Drahim (Kroumiry Mountains) in 1988 were identified as Borrelia lusitaniae (formerly genospecies PotiB2). This is the first identification of a genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from the continent of Africa.

  18. Borrelia burgdorferi Keeps Moving and Carries on: A Review of Borrelial Dissemination and Invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Jenny A

    2017-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi is the etiological agent of Lyme disease, a multisystemic, multistage, inflammatory infection resulting in patients experiencing cardiac, neurological, and arthritic complications when not treated with antibiotics shortly after exposure. The spirochetal bacterium transmits through the Ixodes vector colonizing the dermis of a mammalian host prior to hematogenous dissemination and invasion of distal tissues all the while combating the immune response as it traverses through its pathogenic lifecycle. The innate immune response controls the borrelial burden in the dermis, but is unable to clear the infection and thereby prevent progression of disease. Dissemination in the mammalian host requires temporal regulation of virulence determinants to allow for vascular interactions, invasion, and colonization of distal tissues. Virulence determinants and/or adhesins are highly heterogenetic among environmental B. burgdorferi strains with particular genotypes being associated with the ability to disseminate to specific tissues and the severity of disease, but fail to generate cross-protective immunity between borrelial strains. The unique motility of B. burgdorferi rendered by the endoflagella serves a vital function for dissemination and protection from immune recognition. Progress has been made toward understanding the chemotactic regulation coordinating the activity of the two polar localized flagellar motors and their role in borrelial virulence, but this regulation is not yet fully understood. Distinct states of motility allow for dynamic interactions between several B. burgdorferi adhesins and host targets that play roles in transendothelial migration. Transmigration across endothelial and blood-brain barriers allows for the invasion of tissues and elicits localized immune responses. The invasive nature of B. burgdorferi is lacking in proactive mechanisms to modulate disease, such as secretion systems and toxins, but recent work has shown degradation

  19. Population dynamics of Borrelia burgdorferi in Lyme disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Christoph Binder

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Many chronic inflammatory diseases are known to be caused by persistent bacterial or viral infections. A well-studied example is the tick-borne infection by the gram-negative Spirochaetes of the genus Borrelia in humans and other mammals, causing severe symptoms of chronic inflammation and subsequent tissue damage (Lyme Disease, particularly in large joints and the central nervous system, but also in the heart and other tissues of untreated patients. Although killed efficiently by human phagocytic cells in vitro, Borrelia exhibits a remarkably high infectivity in mice and men. In experimentally infected mice, the first immune response almost clears the infection. However, approximately one week post infection, the bacterial population recovers and reaches an even larger size before entering the chronic phase. We developed a mathematical model describing the bacterial growth and the immune response against Borrelia burgdorferi in the C3H mouse strain that has been established as an experimental model for Lyme disease. The peculiar dynamics of the infection exclude two possible mechanistic explanations for the regrowth of the almost cleared bacteria. Neither the hypothesis of bacterial dissemination to different tissue nor a limitation of phagocytic capacity were compatible with experiment. The mathematical model predicts that Borrelia recovers from the strong initial immune response by the regrowth of an immune-resistant sub-population of the bacteria. The chronic phase appears as an equilibration of bacterial growth and adaptive immunity. This result has major implications for the development of the chronic phase of Borrelia infections as well as on potential protective clinical interventions.

  20. Cinética do crescimento de Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochaetaceae em diferentes meios de cultivo Cinetic growth of Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochaetacease in different culture media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela de Oliveira

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a cinética de crescimento de Borrelia burgdorferi, por um período de 3 meses, utilizando os seguintes oito meios de cultivo : (1 BSK adicionado de soro de coelho, (2 BSK adicionado de soro de suíno, (3 BSK adicionado de soro de suíno + 5 fluorouracil, (4 PMR, (5 CTB, (6 Dubos, (7 Caldo Brucella e (8 BHI. Todos os meios foram preparados assepticamente e mantidos em tubos de ensaio com capacidade para 10 ml. Para cada meio, o inoculo foi padronizado para conter no início 10² espiroquetas para cada 0,1 ml de cultivo. O monitoramento do crescimento foi feito contando-se o total de espiroquetas em 0,1 ml do meio entre lâmina de microscopia e lamínula com dimen sões de 10x30mm, tendo sido utilizado microscópio de campo escuro. A contagem foi realizada durante 14 semanas, tendo sido diária nos primeiros 12 dias e semanal a partir desta data. Houve crescimento de B. burgdorferi em todos meios testados, com melhor performance para três deles: BSK adicionado de soro de coelho, BSK adicionado de soro de suíno + 5 fluorouracil e meio CTB. Observou-se crescimento de B. burgdorferi a partir da 4ª semana, atingindo o platô de crescimento entre a 8ª e 12ª semanas, quando começou a exaustão do meio de cultivo. Formas císticas de B. burgdorferi foram observadas em todos os meios testados.The cinetic of growth of Borrelia burgdorferi was studied during a 3-month period, using the following 8 culture media: (1 rabbit serum BSK, (2 swine serum BSK, (3 swine serum BSK+5 fluorouracil, (4 PMR, (5 CTB, (6 Dubos, (7 Brucella broth and (8 BHI. All media were prepared aseptically and were maintained in culture tubes of 10 ml capacity. For each medium, the inoculum was standardized to contain initially 10² spirochetes for each 0.1 ml of culture. The growth was monitorized by counting the total number of spirochetes in 0.1ml of medium in a dark field microscope, using a 10x30 mm cover slip. For the first 12 days, counting was done each 24

  1. Borrelia burgdorferi complement regulator-acquiring surface protein 2 does not contribute to complement resistance or host infectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam S Coleman

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Borrelia burgdorferi, the pathogen of Lyme disease, cycles in nature through Ixodes ticks and mammalian hosts. At least five Complement Regulator-Acquiring Surface Proteins (BbCRASPs are produced by B. burgdorferi, which are thought to assist spirochetes in host immune evasion. Recent studies established that BbCRASP-2 is preferentially expressed in mammals, and elicits robust antibody response in infected hosts, including humans. We show that BbCRASP-2 is ubiquitously expressed in diverse murine tissues, but not in ticks, reinforcing a role of BbCRASP-2 in conferring B. burgdorferi defense against persistent host immune threats, such as complement. BbCRASP-2 immunization, however, fails to protect mice from B. burgdorferi infection and does not modify disease, as reflected by the development of arthritis. An infectious BbCRASP-2 mutant was generated, therefore, to examine the precise role of the gene product in spirochete infectivity. Similar to wild type B. burgdorferi, BbCRASP-2 mutants remain insensitive to complement-mediated killing in vitro, retain full murine infectivity and induce arthritis. Quantitative RT-PCR assessment indicates that survivability of BbCRASP-2-deficient B. burgdorferi is not due to altered expression of other BbCRASPs. Together, these results suggest that the function of a selectively expressed B. burgdorferi gene, BbCRASP-2, is not essential for complement resistance or infectivity in the murine host.

  2. Geographical distribution and prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies in questing Ixodes ricinus from Romania: a countrywide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Mihalca, Andrei D; Dumitrache, Mirabela O; Gherman, Călin M; Magdaş, Cristian; Mircean, Viorica; Oltean, Miruna; Domşa, Cristian; Matei, Ioana A; Mărcuţan, Daniel I; Sándor, Attila D; D'Amico, Gianluca; Paştiu, Anamaria; Györke, Adriana; Gavrea, Raluca; Marosi, Béla; Ionică, Angela; Burkhardt, Etelka; Toriay, Hortenzia; Cozma, Vasile

    2013-09-01

    The paper reports the prevalence and geographical distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) and its genospecies in 12,221 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks collected at 183 locations from all the 41 counties of Romania. The unfed ticks were examined for the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. by PCR targeting the intergenic spacer 5S-23S. Reverse line blot hybridization (RLB) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis were performed for identification of B. burgdorferi genospecies. The overall prevalence of infection was 1.4%, with an average local prevalence between 0.75% and 18.8%. B. burgdorferi s.l. was found in ticks of 55 of the 183 localities. The overall prevalence B. burgdorferi s.l. in ticks in the infected localities was 3.8%. The total infection prevalence was higher in female ticks than in other developmental stages. Three Borrelia genospecies were detected. The most widely distributed genospecies was B. afzelii, followed by B. garinii and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.). The study is the first countrywide study and the first report of B. burgdorferi s.s. in Romania. The distribution maps show that higher prevalences were recorded in hilly areas, but Lyme borreliosis spirochetes were also present in forested lowlands, albeit with a lower prevalence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Polysynovitis in a horse due to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection – Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Passamonti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lyme borreliosis (LB is a multi-systemic tick-borne disease affecting both humans and animals, including horses, and is caused by a group of interrelated spirochetes classified within the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l. complex. Despite the high reported seroprevalence in the European equine population for B. burgdorferi s.l., to-date no documented clinical cases have been described. A 6-year-old Paint gelding was referred with a history of three weeks of fever, intermittent lameness and digital flexor tendon sheath effusion of the right hind limb. Based on a strict diagnostic protocol, which included serological tests for infectious diseases and molecular investigations, a final diagnosis was made of polysynovitis due to B. burgdorferi s.l. infection. An unreported aspect observed in this case was the absence of the pathogen DNA in two of the affected joints. To the authors’ knowledge, the case described represents the first documented clinical case of equine LB in Italy. Moreover, the absence of pathogen DNA in two of the affected joints observed in this case revealed a possible similarity with the same condition described in humans, where an immunomediated pathogenesis for arthropathy due to B. burgdorferi s.l. infection is suspected. Since humans and horses share the same habitat, this report supports the role of the horse as potential sentinel for human biological risk.

  4. Autophagy Modulates Borrelia burgdorferi-induced Production of Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buffen, K.; Oosting, M.; Mennens, S.; Anand, P.K.; Plantinga, T.S.; Sturm, P.D.J.; Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Meer, J.W. van der; Xavier, R.J.; Kanneganti, T.D.; Netea, M.G.; Joosten, L.A.B.

    2013-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is the causative agent of Lyme disease. Recent studies have shown that recognition of the spirochete is mediated by TLR2 and NOD2. The latter receptor has been associated with the induction of the intracellular degradation process called autophagy. The present study

  5. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi infection in a series of 98 primary cutaneous lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzoni, Maurilio; Ferreri, Andrés J M; Mappa, Silvia; Pasini, Elisa; Govi, Silvia; Facchetti, Fabio; Fanoni, Daniele; Tucci, Alessandra; Vino, Arianna; Doglioni, Claudio; Berti, Emilio; Dolcetti, Riccardo

    2011-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi has been variably associated with different forms of primary cutaneous lymphoma. Differences in prevalence rates among reported studies could be a result of geographic variability or heterogeneity in the molecular approaches that have been employed. In the present study, we investigated the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato DNA in diagnostic tissue samples from fresh cutaneous biopsies of 98 primary cutaneous lymphomas and 19 normal skin controls. Three different polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocols targeting the hbb, flagellin, and Osp-A genes were used. Direct sequencing of both sense and antisense strands of purified PCR products confirmed the specificity of the amplified fragments. Sequence specificity was assessed using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool, and MultAlin software was used to investigate the heterogeneity of target gene sequences across the different samples. Borrelia DNA was not detected in 19 controls, 23 cases of follicular lymphoma, 31 cases of extranodal marginal zone lymphoma, or 30 cases of mycosis fungoides. A single case of 14 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cases was positive for B. burgdorferi. This study does not support a pathogenic role of B. burgdorferi in primary cutaneous B- and T-cell lymphomas from areas nonendemic for this microorganism and the consequent rationale for the adoption of antibiotic therapy in these patients.

  6. False positive seroreactivity to Borrelia burgdorferi in systemic lupus erythematosus: the value of immunoblot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, N L; Sadock, V A; Sigal, L H; Phillips, M; Merryman, P F; Abramson, S B

    1995-04-01

    The object of this study was to determine the incidence of seropositivity to B. burgdorferi by the commonly available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in patients with SLE and other rheumatic diseases and to evaluate immunoblot analysis as a tool to differentiate true from false positive ELISA. Sera were obtained from patients with SLE (n = 35), rheumatoid arthritis (n = 26), seronegative arthritis (n = 28) and Lyme disease (n = 18). Reactivity to B. burgdorferi antigens was analysed by two available diagnostic techniques: ELISA and immunoblot. Correlations were made between seroreactivity to B. burgdorferi and standard serological tests of autoimmunity: antibodies to nuclear antigens, dsDNA, cardiolipin, SSA and SSB. Seroreactivity to B. burgdorferi antigens by the ELISA system was detected in 40% of patients with SLE, 8% of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and 4% with seronegative arthritis. Among patients seropositive by ELISA, immunoblots were negative in all cases. However, eight of 14 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (57%) showed cross-reactivity to multiple borreli antigens. No significant correlations were found between Lyme seropositivity by ELISA and other autoantibodies except IgM rheumatoid factor (r = 0.61, P < 0.01) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. a positive ELISA for Lyme disease was found in up to 40% of patients with established SLE and also in other rheumatic diseases. However, specific serum antibodies to Borrelia were not confirmed by the more specific immunoblot technique.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. The role of host immune cells and Borrelia burgdorferi antigens in the etiology of Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaegh, Dennis; Joosten, Leo A B; Oosting, Marije

    2017-06-01

    Lyme disease is a zoonosis caused by infection with bacteria belonging to the Borrelia burgdorferi species after the bite of an infected tick. Even though an infection by this bacterium can be effectively treated with antibiotics, when the infection stays unnoticed B. burgdorferi can persist and chronic post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome is able to develop. Although a cellular and humoral response is observed after an infection with the Borrelia bacteria, these pathogens are still capable to stay alive. Several immune evasive mechanisms have been revealed and explained and much work has been put into the understanding of the contribution of the innate and adaptive immune response. This review provides an overview with the latest findings regarding the cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems, how they recognize contribute and mediate in the killing of the B. burgdorferi spirochete. Moreover, this review also elaborates on the antigens that are expressed by on the spirochete. Since antigens drive the adaptive and, indirectly, the innate response, this review will discuss briefly the most important antigens that are described to date. Finally, there will be a brief elaboration on the escape mechanisms of B. burgdorferi with a focus on tick salivary proteins and spirochete antigens.

  8. Human Coinfection with Borrelia burgdorferi and Babesia microti in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen L. Knapp

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, and Babesia microti, a causative agent of babesiosis, are increasingly implicated in the growing tick-borne disease burden in the northeastern United States. These pathogens are transmitted via the bite of an infected tick vector, Ixodes scapularis, which is capable of harboring and inoculating a host with multiple pathogens simultaneously. Clinical presentation of the diseases is heterogeneous and ranges from mild flu-like symptoms to near-fatal cardiac arrhythmias. While the reason for the variability is not known, the possibility exists that concomitant infection with both B. burgdorferi and B. microti may synergistically increase disease severity. In an effort to clarify the current state of understanding regarding coinfection with B. burgdorferi and B. microti, in this review, we discuss the geographical distribution and pathogenesis of Lyme disease and babesiosis in the United States, the immunological response of humans to B. burgdorferi or B. microti infection, the existing knowledge regarding coinfection disease pathology, and critical factors that have led to ambiguity in the literature regarding coinfection, in order to eliminate confusion in future experimental design and investigation.

  9. The Urokinase Receptor (uPAR) Facilitates Clearance of Borrelia burgdorferi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovius, Joppe W. R.; Bijlsma, Maarten F.; van der Windt, Gerritje J. W.; Wiersinga, W. Joost; Boukens, Bastiaan J. D.; Coumou, Jeroen; Oei, Anneke; de Beer, Regina; de Vos, Alex F.; van 't Veer, Cornelis; van Dam, Alje P.; Wang, Penghua; Fikrig, Erol; Levi, Marcel M.; Roelofs, Joris J. T. H.; van der Poll, Tom

    2009-01-01

    The causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, has been shown to induce expression of the urokinase receptor (uPAR); however, the role of uPAR in the immune response against Borrelia has never been investigated. uPAR not only acts as a proteinase receptor, but can

  10. Culturing selects for specific genotypes of Borrelia burgdorferi in an enzootic cycle in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, D E; Johnson, B J; Piesman, J; Maupin, G O; Clark, J L; Black, W C

    1997-01-01

    In Colorado, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, is maintained in an enzootic cycle between Ixodes spinipalpis ticks and Neotoma mexicana rats (27). The frequencies of flagellin (fla), 66-kDa protein (p66), and outer surface protein A (ospA) alleles were examined in 71 B. burgdorferi isolates from samples from Colorado. Approximately two-thirds of these samples were isolates from I. spinipalpis ticks that had been cultured in BSK-H medium prior to DNA extraction. The remaining samples were from total DNA extracted directly from infected I. spinipalpis ticks. A portion of each gene was amplified by PCR and screened for genetic variability by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. We identified three alleles in the fla gene, seven in the p66 gene, and seven in the ospA gene. Sequencing verified that the amplified products originated from B. burgdorferi template DNA and indicated 100% sensitivity and specificity of the SSCP analysis. The frequencies of the p66 and ospA alleles were significantly different between cultured and uncultured spirochetes. The number of three-locus genotypes and the genetic diversity of alleles at all loci were consistently lower in cultured spirochetes, suggesting that culturing of B. burgdorferi in BSK-H medium may select for specific genotypes. PMID:9276416

  11. Lectin-binding characteristics of a Lyme borreliosis spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vancová, M.; Nebesářová, J.; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 3 (2005), s. 229-238 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/1323; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi * electron microscopy * lectin binding Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.918, year: 2005

  12. Heterogeneity of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and their reflection on immune response

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stefančíková, A.; Derdáková, M.; Tresová, Gabriela; Peťko, B.; Szestáková, E.; Škardová, I.; Čisláková, L.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 2 (2005), s. 211-216 ISSN 1232-1966 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : horses * ELISA * SDS-PAGE * IgG * seroprevalence * Borrelia burgdorferi * Borrelia garinii * Borrelia afzelii Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 1.051, year: 2005

  13. Polymerase chain reaction in diagnosis of Borrelia burgdorferi infections and studies on taxonomic classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, Anne-Mette

    2002-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi is now the most common vectorborne disease in North America, Europe and Asia. It is a multisystemic infection which may cause skin, neurological, cardiac or rheumatologic disorders. The aims of the present thesis were: (i) to develop...

  14. Molecular typing of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato: taxonomic, epidemiological, and clinical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, G.; van Dam, A. P.; Schwartz, I.; Dankert, J.

    1999-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the spirochete that causes human Lyme borreliosis (LB), is a genetically and phenotypically divergent species. In the past several years, various molecular approaches have been developed and used to determine the phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity within the

  15. Coinfection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and Borrelia garinii alters the course of murine Lyme borreliosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovius, Joppe W. R.; Li, Xin; Ramamoorthi, Nandhini; van Dam, Alje P.; Barthold, Stephen W.; van der Poll, Tom; Speelman, Peter; Fikrig, Erol

    2007-01-01

    Ixodes ricinus ticks and mice can be infected with both Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and Borrelia garinii. The effect of coinfection with these two Borrelia species on the development of murine Lyme borreliosis is unknown. Therefore, we investigated whether coinfection with the

  16. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in humans in a rural area of Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Dib Gonçalves

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the detection of Borrelia garinii and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s. in Brazilian individuals using PCR and DNA sequencing. Our results suggest that these species are emerging pathogens in this country, and additional studies are necessary to determine the epidemiological characteristics of this disease in Brazil.

  17. Occurrence of multiple infections with different Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies in Danish Ixodes ricinus nymphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jean Vennestrøm; Egholm, H.; Mikkelsen, Per Jensen

    2008-01-01

    The pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi causes Lyme Borreliosis in human and animals world-wide. In Europe the pathogen is transmitted to the host by the vector Ixodes ricinus. The nymph is the primary instar for transmission to humans. We here study the infection rate of five Borrelia genospecies: B...

  18. Molecular typing of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, G.; van Dam, A. P.; Spanjaard, L.; Dankert, J.

    1998-01-01

    To study whether pathogenic clusters of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains occur, we typed 136 isolates, cultured from specimens from patients (n = 49) with various clinical entities and from ticks (n = 83) or dogs (n = 4) from different geographic regions, by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA

  19. No association between Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A E; Verduyn Lunel, F M; Veldink, J H; van den Berg, L H

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Previous studies, mostly case reports and uncontrolled studies, provide a low level of evidence for the hypothesized link between Lyme disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In order to make evidence-based recommendations regarding testing for Borrelia burgdorferi

  20. Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in white-tailed deer from Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakirat A. Adetunji

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Lyme Disease is caused by the bacterial pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi, and is transmitted by the tick-vector Ixodes scapularis. It is the most prevalent arthropod-borne disease in the United States. To determine the seroprevalence of B. burgdorferi antibodies in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus from Texas, we analyzed serum samples (n = 1493 collected during the 2001–2015 hunting seasons, using indirect ELISA. Samples with higher sero-reactivity (0.803 and above than the negative control group (0.662 were further tested using a more specific standardized western immunoblot assay to rule out false positives. Using ELISA, 4.7% of the samples were sero-reactive against B. burgdorferi, and these originated in two eco-regions in Texas (Edwards Plateau and South Texas Plains. However, only 0.5% of the total samples were sero-reactive by standardized western immunoblot assay. Additionally, both ELISA and standardized western immunoblot assay results correlated with an increased incidence in human Lyme Disease cases reported in Texas. This is the first longitudinal study to demonstrate fluctuation in sero-reactivity of white-tailed deer to B. burgdorferi sensu stricto antigens in southern United States. Future ecological and geographical studies are needed to assess the environmental factors governing the prevalence of Lyme Disease in non-endemic areas of the southern United States.

  1. Functional and Genomic Architecture of Borrelia burgdorferi-Induced Cytokine Responses in Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosting, Marije; Kerstholt, Mariska; ter Horst, Rob; Li, Yang; Deelen, Patrick; Smeekens, Sanne; Jaeger, Martin; Lachmandas, Ekta; Vrijmoeth, Hedwig; Lupse, Mihaela; Flonta, Mirela; Cramer, Robert A.; Kullberg, Bart Jan; Kumar, Vinod; Xavier, Ramnik; Wijmenga, Cisca; Netea, Mihai G.; Joosten, Leo A. B.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of immune variation for the symptoms and outcome of Lyme disease, the factors influencing cytokine production during infection with the causal pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi remain poorly understood. Borrelia infection-induced monocyte- and T cell-derived cytokines were

  2. No Value for Routine Serologic Screening for Borrelia burgdorferi in Patients with Uveitis in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kazi, Hawkar; de Groot-Mijnes, Jolanda D F|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304817562; ten Dam-van Loon, Ninette H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304816957; Ossewaarde-van Norel, Jeannette; Oosterheert, Jan Jelrik|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/234602236; de Boer, Joke H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/140201890

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether routine serologic screening for Borrelia burgdorferi and subsequent aqueous or vitreous humor analysis is useful in patients with uveitis. Design Cross-sectional study. Methods All patients referred to our tertiary uveitis referral clinic in the period of from January 1,

  3. The ecology of Lyme borreliosis risk : interactions between lxodes ricinus, rodents and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijvendijk, van Gilian

    2016-01-01

    The sheep tick (Ixodes ricinus) is widespread throughout Europe and can transmit Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), which can cause Lyme borreliosis and B. miyamotoi, the agent of Borrelia miyamotoi disease in humans. Borrelia afzelii is the most common

  4. The role of host diversity in Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeester, T.R.

    2016-01-01

    There has been substantial debate about the influence of vertebrate host diversity on Lyme borreliosis risk. In North America, studies investigating Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. and the Black-legged tick (Ixodes scapularis) have shown that on a large spatial scale there seems to be a negative

  5. Analysis of the lipidated recombinant outer surface protein A from Borrelia burgdorferi by mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouchon, B.; Klein, Michele; Bischoff, Rainer; Van Dorsselaer, A.; Roitsch, C.

    1997-01-01

    The outer surface protein A, OspA, from the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi is a lipoprotein of 25 kDa. The recombinant OspA (rOspA) expressed in Escherichia coli has been purified and analyzed by electrospray mass spectrometry (ESMS). A heterogenous spectrum gave a measured mass of 28,462 +/- 9 Da

  6. Few vertebrate species dominate the Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. life cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeester, T. R.; Coipan, E. C.; van Wieren, S. E.; Prins, H. H. T.; Takken, W.; Sprong, H.

    2016-04-01

    Background. In the northern hemisphere, ticks of the Ixodidae family are vectors of diseases such as Lyme borreliosis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever and tick-borne encephalitis. Most of these ticks are generalists and have a three-host life cycle for which they are dependent on three different hosts for their blood meal. Finding out which host species contribute most in maintaining ticks and the pathogens they transmit, is imperative in understanding the drivers behind the dynamics of a disease. Methods. We performed a systematic review to identify the most important vertebrate host species for Ixodes ricinus and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. as a well-studied model system for tick-borne diseases. We analyzed data from 66 publications and quantified the relative contribution for 15 host species. Review results. We found a positive correlation between host body mass and tick burdens for the different stages of I. ricinus. We show that nymphal burdens of host species are positively correlated with infection prevalence with B. burgdorferi s.l., which is again positively correlated with the realized reservoir competence of a host species for B. burgdorferi s.l. Our quantification method suggests that only a few host species, which are amongst the most widespread species in the environment (rodents, thrushes and deer), feed the majority of I. ricinus individuals and that rodents infect the majority of I. ricinus larvae with B. burgdorferi s.l. Discussion. We argue that small mammal-transmitted Borrelia spp. are maintained due to the high density of their reservoir hosts, while bird-transmitted Borrelia spp. are maintained due to the high infection prevalence of their reservoir hosts. Our findings suggest that Ixodes ricinus and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. populations are maintained by a few widespread host species. The increase in distribution and abundance of these species, could be the cause for the increase in Lyme borreliosis incidence in Europe in recent decades.

  7. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in lizards and their ticks from Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Földvári, Gábor; Rigó, Krisztina; Majláthová, Viktória; Majláth, Igor; Farkas, Róbert; Pet'ko, Branislav

    2009-06-01

    To investigate the involvement of lizard species in the natural cycle of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) in Hungary, a total of 186 reptiles belonging to three species--126 green lizards (Lacerta viridis), 40 Balkan wall lizards (Podarcis taurica), and 20 sand lizards (Lacerta agilis)--were captured in 2007 and 2008. All ticks removed from the lizards were Ixodes ricinus, either larvae (324/472; 68.6%) or nymphs (148/472; 31.4%). More than half (66/126; 52.4%) of L. viridis individuals were infested, and the prevalence of tick infestation on both the other two species was 35% each. All 472 I. ricinus ticks and tissue samples collected from 134 collar scales and 62 toe clips of lizards were further analyzed for the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. with polymerase chain reaction. The amplification of B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA was successful in 8% (n = 92) of L. viridis, 9% (n = 32) of P. taurica, and 10% (n = 10) of L. agilis tissue samples. Restriction fragment length polymorphism genotyping identified the species Borrelia lusitaniae in all tested lizard samples. Prevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. in ticks collected from L. viridis, P. taurica, and L. agilis was 8%, 2%, and 0%, respectively. Most of the infected ticks carried B. lusitaniae (74% of genotyped positives); however, Borrelia afzelii (5%) and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (21%) were detected in ticks removed from green lizards and Balkan wall lizards, respectively. We conclude that lizards, particularly L. viridis, can be important hosts for I. ricinus larvae and nymphs; thus, they can be regarded as reservoirs of these important pathogen vectors. The role of green lizards has been confirmed, and the implication of Balkan wall lizards is suggested in the natural cycle of B. lusitaniae at our study site.

  8. Protein-losing nephropathy associated with Borrelia burgdorferi seropositivity in a soft-coated wheaten terrier: response to therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horney, Barbara S; Stojanovic, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    A soft-coated wheaten terrier was examined for lameness with subsequent identification of protein-losing nephropathy, hypoalbuminemia, hyperglobulinemia, and seroconversion to Borrelia burgdorferi. Following doxycycline therapy, the urine protein loss decreased significantly and serum albumin concentration remained close to or within the reference interval for over 3 years, contrary to the reported poor prognosis for renal disease associated with B. burgdorferi or protein-losing nephropathy of soft-coated wheaten terriers.

  9. Microglia are mediators of Borrelia burgdorferi-induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereance A Myers

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation has long been implicated as a contributor to pathogenesis in many CNS illnesses, including Lyme neuroborreliosis. Borrelia burgdorferi is the spirochete that causes Lyme disease and it is known to potently induce the production of inflammatory mediators in a variety of cells. In experiments where B. burgdorferi was co-cultured in vitro with primary microglia, we observed robust expression and release of IL-6 and IL-8, CCL2 (MCP-1, CCL3 (MIP-1alpha, CCL4 (MIP-1beta and CCL5 (RANTES, but we detected no induction of microglial apoptosis. In contrast, SH-SY5Y (SY neuroblastoma cells co-cultured with B. burgdorferi expressed negligible amounts of inflammatory mediators and also remained resistant to apoptosis. When SY cells were co-cultured with microglia and B. burgdorferi, significant neuronal apoptosis consistently occurred. Confocal microscopy imaging of these cell cultures stained for apoptosis and with cell type-specific markers confirmed that it was predominantly the SY cells that were dying. Microarray analysis demonstrated an intense microglia-mediated inflammatory response to B. burgdorferi including up-regulation in gene transcripts for TLR-2 and NFkappabeta. Surprisingly, a pathway that exhibited profound changes in regard to inflammatory signaling was triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM1. Significant transcript alterations in essential p53 pathway genes also occurred in SY cells cultured in the presence of microglia and B. burgdorferi, which indicated a shift from cell survival to preparation for apoptosis when compared to SY cells cultured in the presence of B. burgdorferi alone. Taken together, these findings indicate that B. burgdorferi is not directly toxic to SY cells; rather, these cells become distressed and die in the inflammatory surroundings generated by microglia through a bystander effect. If, as we hypothesized, neuronal apoptosis is the key pathogenic event in Lyme neuroborreliosis, then

  10. Persistent bacterial infections : identification of immunogenic structures of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Chlamydophila pneumoniae by phage surface display

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Markus

    2004-01-01

    In dieser Arbeit wurden die immunogenen (Antikörper induzierenden) Eigenschaften von Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. und Chlamydophila pneumoniae, beides Pathogene, die in Menschen über Jahre persistieren können, wurden untersucht.B. burgdorferi s.l. ist der Verursacher der Lyme Borreliose (LB) und Persistenz kann in Menschen zu Spätmanifestationen wie Acrodermatitis chronica atropicans, Arthritis und Neuroborreliose führen.C. pneumoniae stellt ein weit verbreiteter Atemwegserreger dar, der zu Lung...

  11. The OspE-Related Proteins Inhibit Complement Deposition and Enhance Serum Resistance of Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme Disease Spirochete ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Kenedy, Melisha R.; Akins, Darrin R.

    2011-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease spirochete, binds the host complement inhibitors factor H (FH) and FH-like protein 1 (FHL-1). Binding of FH/FHL-1 by the B. burgdorferi proteins CspA and the OspE-related proteins is thought to enhance resistance to serum-mediated killing. While previous reports have shown that CspA confers serum resistance in B. burgdorferi, it is unclear whether the OspE-related proteins are relevant in B. burgdorferi serum resistance when OspE is expressed on the borr...

  12. Non-viable Borrelia burgdorferi induce inflammatory mediators and apoptosis in human oligodendrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Geetha; Fevrier, Helene B; Philipp, Mario T

    2013-11-27

    In previous studies, exposure to live Borrelia burgdorferi was shown to induce inflammation and apoptosis of human oligodendrocytes. In this study we assessed the ability of non-viable bacteria (heat killed or sonicated) to induce inflammatory mediators and cell death. Both heat-killed and sonicated bacteria induced release of CCL2, IL-6, and CXCL8 from oligodendrocytes in a dose dependent manner. In addition, non-viable B. burgdorferi also induced cell death as evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and another cell viability assay. These results suggest that spirochetal residues left after bacterial demise, due to treatment or otherwise, may continue to be pathogenic to the central nervous system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Increasing RpoS expression causes cell death in Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linxu Chen

    Full Text Available RpoS, one of the two alternative σ factors in Borrelia burgdorferi, is tightly controlled by multiple regulators and, in turn, determines expression of many critical virulence factors. Here we show that increasing RpoS expression causes cell death. The immediate effect of increasing RpoS expression was to promote bacterial division and as a consequence result in a rapid increase in cell number before causing bacterial death. No DNA fragmentation or degradation was observed during this induced cell death. Cryo-electron microscopy showed induced cells first formed blebs, which were eventually released from dying cells. Apparently blebbing initiated cell disintegration leading to cell death. These findings led us to hypothesize that increasing RpoS expression triggers intracellular programs and/or pathways that cause spirochete death. The potential biological significance of induced cell death may help B. burgdorferi regulate its population to maintain its life cycle in nature.

  14. Detection and identification of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Rickettsia helvetica in Danish Ixodes ricinus ticks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skarphédinsson, Sigurdur; Lyholm, Birgitte Fjendbo; Ljungberg, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    Borreliosis is an endemic infection in Denmark. Recent serosurveys have indicated that human anaplasmosis may be equally common. The aim of this study was to look for Anaplasma phagocytophilum and related pathogens in Ixodes ricinus ticks and estimate their prevalence, compared to Borrelia, using...... Jutland and Funen, while 11% were positive for Borrelia burgdorferi. The Borrelia genotype B. afzelii was most prevalent, followed by B. valaisiana, B. burgdorferi s.s. and B. garinii.A. phagocytophilum was found in 14.5% of nymphs and 40.5% of adult ticks, while Borrelia was found in 13% of nymphs and 8......% of adult ticks. The difference in prevalence between Anaplasma and Borrelia in adult ticks supports the idea that their maintenance cycles in nature may be different. Ticks were also infected with Rickettsia helvetica. Our study indicates that A. phagocytophilum prevalence in ticks in Denmark is as high...

  15. Identification of new drug candidates against Borrelia burgdorferi using high-throughput screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothineni, Venkata Raveendra; Wagh, Dhananjay; Babar, Mustafeez Mujtaba; Inayathullah, Mohammed; Solow-Cordero, David; Kim, Kwang-Min; Samineni, Aneesh V; Parekh, Mansi B; Tayebi, Lobat; Rajadas, Jayakumar

    2016-01-01

    Lyme disease is the most common zoonotic bacterial disease in North America. It is estimated that >300,000 cases per annum are reported in USA alone. A total of 10%-20% of patients who have been treated with antibiotic therapy report the recrudescence of symptoms, such as muscle and joint pain, psychosocial and cognitive difficulties, and generalized fatigue. This condition is referred to as posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome. While there is no evidence for the presence of viable infectious organisms in individuals with posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome, some researchers found surviving Borrelia burgdorferi population in rodents and primates even after antibiotic treatment. Although such observations need more ratification, there is unmet need for developing the therapeutic agents that focus on removing the persisting bacterial form of B. burgdorferi in rodent and nonhuman primates. For this purpose, high-throughput screening was done using BacTiter-Glo assay for four compound libraries to identify candidates that stop the growth of B. burgdorferi in vitro. The four chemical libraries containing 4,366 compounds (80% Food and Drug Administration [FDA] approved) that were screened are Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC1280), the National Institutes of Health Clinical Collection, the Microsource Spectrum, and the Biomol FDA. We subsequently identified 150 unique compounds, which inhibited >90% of B. burgdorferi growth at a concentration of <25 µM. These 150 unique compounds comprise many safe antibiotics, chemical compounds, and also small molecules from plant sources. Of the 150 unique compounds, 101 compounds are FDA approved. We selected the top 20 FDA-approved molecules based on safety and potency and studied their minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration. The promising safe FDA-approved candidates that show low minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values can be chosen as lead

  16. Probable late lyme disease: a variant manifestation of untreated Borrelia burgdorferi infection

    OpenAIRE

    Aucott John N; Seifter Ari; Rebman Alison W

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Lyme disease, a bacterial infection with the tick-borne spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, can cause early and late manifestations. The category of probable Lyme disease was recently added to the CDC surveillance case definition to describe patients with serologic evidence of exposure and physician-diagnosed disease in the absence of objective signs. We present a retrospective case series of 13 untreated patients with persistent symptoms of greater than 12 weeks duration who...

  17. Drug combinations against Borrelia burgdorferi persisters in vitro: eradication achieved by using daptomycin, cefoperazone and doxycycline.

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    Jie Feng

    Full Text Available Although most Lyme disease patients can be cured with antibiotics doxycycline or amoxicillin using 2-4 week treatment durations, some patients suffer from persistent arthritis or post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome. Why these phenomena occur is unclear, but possibilities include host responses, antigenic debris, or B. burgdorferi organisms remaining despite antibiotic therapy. In vitro, B. burgdorferi developed increasing antibiotic tolerance as morphology changed from typical spirochetal form in log phase growth to variant round body and microcolony forms in stationary phase. B. burgdorferi appeared to have higher persister frequencies than E. coli as a control as measured by SYBR Green I/propidium iodide (PI viability stain and microscope counting. To more effectively eradicate the different persister forms tolerant to doxycycline or amoxicillin, drug combinations were studied using previously identified drugs from an FDA-approved drug library with high activity against such persisters. Using a SYBR Green/PI viability assay, daptomycin-containing drug combinations were the most effective. Of studied drugs, daptomycin was the common element in the most active regimens when combined with doxycycline plus either beta-lactams (cefoperazone or carbenicillin or an energy inhibitor (clofazimine. Daptomycin plus doxycycline and cefoperazone eradicated the most resistant microcolony form of B. burgdorferi persisters and did not yield viable spirochetes upon subculturing, suggesting durable killing that was not achieved by any other two or three drug combinations. These findings may have implications for improved treatment of Lyme disease, if persistent organisms or detritus are responsible for symptoms that do not resolve with conventional therapy. Further studies are needed to validate whether such combination antimicrobial approaches are useful in animal models and human infection.

  18. Drug combinations against Borrelia burgdorferi persisters in vitro: eradication achieved by using daptomycin, cefoperazone and doxycycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Auwaerter, Paul G; Zhang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Although most Lyme disease patients can be cured with antibiotics doxycycline or amoxicillin using 2-4 week treatment durations, some patients suffer from persistent arthritis or post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome. Why these phenomena occur is unclear, but possibilities include host responses, antigenic debris, or B. burgdorferi organisms remaining despite antibiotic therapy. In vitro, B. burgdorferi developed increasing antibiotic tolerance as morphology changed from typical spirochetal form in log phase growth to variant round body and microcolony forms in stationary phase. B. burgdorferi appeared to have higher persister frequencies than E. coli as a control as measured by SYBR Green I/propidium iodide (PI) viability stain and microscope counting. To more effectively eradicate the different persister forms tolerant to doxycycline or amoxicillin, drug combinations were studied using previously identified drugs from an FDA-approved drug library with high activity against such persisters. Using a SYBR Green/PI viability assay, daptomycin-containing drug combinations were the most effective. Of studied drugs, daptomycin was the common element in the most active regimens when combined with doxycycline plus either beta-lactams (cefoperazone or carbenicillin) or an energy inhibitor (clofazimine). Daptomycin plus doxycycline and cefoperazone eradicated the most resistant microcolony form of B. burgdorferi persisters and did not yield viable spirochetes upon subculturing, suggesting durable killing that was not achieved by any other two or three drug combinations. These findings may have implications for improved treatment of Lyme disease, if persistent organisms or detritus are responsible for symptoms that do not resolve with conventional therapy. Further studies are needed to validate whether such combination antimicrobial approaches are useful in animal models and human infection.

  19. Blocking Pathogen Transmission at the Source: Reservoir Targeted OspA-Based Vaccines Against Borrelia burgdorferi

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    Maria eGomes-Solecki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Control strategies are especially challenging for microbial diseases caused by pathogens that persist in wildlife reservoirs and use arthropod vectors to cycle amongst those species. One of the most relevant illnesses that pose a direct human health risk is Lyme disease; in the US, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC recently revised the probable number of cases by 10 fold, to 300,000 cases per year. Caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, Lyme disease can affect the nervous system, joints and heart. No human vaccine is approved by the Food and Drug Administration. In addition to novel human vaccines, new strategies for prevention of Lyme disease consist of pest management interventions, vector-targeted vaccines and reservoir-targeted vaccines. However, even the most efficacious human vaccines can not prevent Lyme disease expansion into other geographical areas. The other strategies aim indirectly at reducing tick density and at disrupting the transmission of B. burgdorferi by targeting one or more key elements that maintain the enzootic cycle: the reservoir host and/or the tick vector. Here, I provide a brief overview of the application of an OspA-based wildlife reservoir targeted vaccine aimed at reducing transmission of B. burgdorferi and present it as a strategy for reducing Lyme disease risk to humans.

  20. Antibody responses to Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface proteins C and F in experimentally infected Beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callister, Steven M; LaFleur, Rhonda L; Jobe, Dean A; Lovrich, Steven D; Wasmoen, Terri L

    2015-07-01

    Antibody levels to outer surface proteins C and F (OspC and OspF, respectively) in sera collected from laboratory Beagle dogs at 1, 2, and 4 months after challenge with infected black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis) were determined. Each dog was confirmed by culture to harbor Borrelia burgdorferi in the skin (n = 10) or the skin and joints (n = 14). Significant levels of immunoglobulin M (Ig)M or IgG anti-OspC antibodies were detected in single serum samples from only 3 (13%) dogs. Similarly, IgM anti-OspF antibodies were detected in only 1 (4%) serum sample collected from a dog with B. burgdorferi in the skin and joints. In contrast, 4 (29%) dogs with skin and joint infections produced IgG anti-OspF antibodies after 2 months, and the response expanded to include 2 (20%) dogs with skin infection and 4 additional dogs with skin and joint infections (overall sensitivity = 62%) after 4 months. The findings failed to support the utility of OspC-based antibody tests for diagnosing canine Lyme disease, but demonstrated that dogs with B. burgdorferi colonizing joint tissue most often produced significant levels of IgG anti-OspF antibodies. Therefore, additional studies to more thoroughly evaluate the clinical utility of OspF-based antibody tests are warranted. © 2015 The Author(s).

  1. Positive IgG Western Blot for Borrelia burgdorferi in Colombia

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    Palacios Ricardo

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the presence of specific IgG antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in patients with clinical manifestations associated with Lyme borreliosis in Cali, Colombia, 20 serum samples from patients with dermatologic signs, one cerebrospinal fluid (CSF sample from a patient with chronic neurologic and arthritic manifestations, and twelve serum samples from individuals without clinical signs associated with Lyme borreliosis were analyzed by IgG Western blot. The results were interpreted following the recommendations of the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC for IgG Western blots. Four samples fulfilled the CDC criteria: two serum specimens from patients with morphea (localized scleroderma, the CSF from the patient with neurologic and arthritic manifestations, and one of the controls. Interpretation of positive serology for Lyme disease in non-endemic countries must be cautious. However these results suggest that the putative "Lyme-like" disease may correlate with positivity on Western blots, thus raising the possibility that a spirochete genospecies distinct from B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, or a Borrelia species other than B. burgdorferi sensu lato is the causative agent. Future work will focus on a survey of the local tick and rodent population for evidence of spirochete species that could be incriminated as the etiologic agent.

  2. Why are there several species of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato detected in dogs and humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotarczak, Bogumiła

    2014-04-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is a group of spirochete bacteria species some of which cause borreliosis in humans and dogs. Humans and dogs are susceptible to illness from many of the same tick-borne pathogens, including B. burgdorferi s.l. (Bbsl). Little is known about the pathogenic role of the species of Bbsl in canines. The molecular methods which detect and amplify the DNA of borreliae and allow differentiating borreliae species or strains have not been used in canine diagnostics yet. Until now, it has been believed that in European dogs, like in humans, at least three pathogenic species occur but the most frequently described symptoms may be associated with the infection caused by B. burgdorferi sensu stricto species. A dog as well as a human is a host for many species of Bbsl, because borreliacidal ability of serum of dogs and humans is evident only in certain genospecies of Bbsl. Therefore both a dog and a human harbor more species than in case of some wild animal species which create older phylogenetic Bbsl species-host systems and these animals may act even as a non-competent reservoir host. Apart from many genospecies of Bbsl, a dog harbors other tick-borne agents and dual or triple infections may occur. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Functional analysis of the Borrelia burgdorferi bba64 gene product in murine infection via tick infestation.

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    Toni G Patton

    Full Text Available Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, is transmitted to humans from the bite of Ixodes spp. ticks. During the borrelial tick-to-mammal life cycle, B. burgdorferi must adapt to many environmental changes by regulating several genes, including bba64. Our laboratory recently demonstrated that the bba64 gene product is necessary for mouse infectivity when B. burgdorferi is transmitted by an infected tick bite, but not via needle inoculation. In this study we investigated the phenotypic properties of a bba64 mutant strain, including 1 replication during tick engorgement, 2 migration into the nymphal salivary glands, 3 host transmission, and 4 susceptibility to the MyD88-dependent innate immune response. Results revealed that the bba64 mutant's attenuated infectivity by tick bite was not due to a growth defect inside an actively feeding nymphal tick, or failure to invade the salivary glands. These findings suggested there was either a lack of spirochete transmission to the host dermis or increased susceptibility to the host's innate immune response. Further experiments showed the bba64 mutant was not culturable from mouse skin taken at the nymphal bite site and was unable to establish infection in MyD88-deficient mice via tick infestation. Collectively, the results of this study indicate that BBA64 functions at the salivary gland-to-host delivery interface of vector transmission and is not involved in resistance to MyD88-mediated innate immunity.

  4. Increased sensitivity and specificity of Borrelia burgdorferi 16S ribosomal DNA detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sin Hang; Vigliotti, Veronica S; Vigliotti, Jessica S; Jones, William; Pappu, Suri

    2010-04-01

    The DNA of Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes extracted by ammonium hydroxide was used as the template for nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the species-specific 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA). The primers were those well known to be specific for signature sequence amplification of the B burgdorferi sensu lato 16S ribosomal RNA gene. The positive 293-base-pair nested PCR amplicon was subjected to routine direct automated Sanger sequencing. A 50-base sequence excised randomly from the sequencing electrophoretogram between the 2 nested PCR primer binding sites was sufficient for the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) analysis to validate the B burgdorferi sensu lato 16S rDNA without a reasonable doubt. Nested PCR increased the sensitivity of DNA detection by 100- to 1,000-fold. DNA sequence validation based on BLAST algorithms using the GenBank database practically eliminates any possibility of false-positive results due to molecular misidentification. This technology may be a valuable supplement to the current serologic tests for Lyme disease.

  5. Lyme disease and the detection of Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies in Ixodes ricinus ticks from central Italy

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    Ilaria Pascucci

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Province of Pesaro-Urbino, situated in the Marche Region of central Italy, can be considered to be an area at risk for Lyme disease because of its ecological features. Field data are not yet available although the disease is known to be present in neighbouring areas. During a field study lasting twelve months, ticks were collected from the vegetation, from wild cervids and also from humans who reported a tick bite at the local hospital. All ticks were identified and Ixodes ricinus specimens were tested using three different polymerase chain reaction tests for the detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl. To identify the genospecies of B. burgdorferi sl, a fragment of the 5S-23S ribosomal rRNA intergenic spacer of the positive samples was amplified and then sequenced. Sequencing of the 5S-23S intergenic spacer led to the identification of two different genospecies, namely: B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and B. lusitaniae, both of which are involved in cases of human infection. Findings on the host-tick relationships and on the genospecies involved in the cycle of borreliosis confirm the suitable conditions for Lyme disease in the study area. The results concur with previous findings reported in the Mediterranean region.

  6. Decorin binding proteins of Borrelia burgdorferi promote arthritis development and joint specific post-treatment DNA persistence in mice.

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    Jemiina Salo

    Full Text Available Decorin binding proteins A and B (DbpA and B of Borrelia burgdorferi are of critical importance for the virulence of the spirochete. The objective of the present study was to further clarify the contribution of DbpA and B to development of arthritis and persistence of B. burgdorferi after antibiotic treatment in a murine model of Lyme borreliosis. With that goal, mice were infected with B. burgdorferi strains expressing either DbpA or DbpB, or both DbpA and B, or with a strain lacking the adhesins. Arthritis development was monitored up to 15 weeks after infection, and bacterial persistence was studied after ceftriaxone and immunosuppressive treatments. Mice infected with the B. burgdorferi strain expressing both DbpA and B developed an early and prominent joint swelling. In contrast, while strains that expressed DbpA or B alone, or the strain that was DbpA and B deficient, were able to colonize mouse joints, they caused only negligible joint manifestations. Ceftriaxone treatment at two or six weeks of infection totally abolished joint swelling, and all ceftriaxone treated mice were B. burgdorferi culture negative. Antibiotic treated mice, which were immunosuppressed by anti-TNF-alpha, remained culture negative. Importantly, among ceftriaxone treated mice, B. burgdorferi DNA was detected by PCR uniformly in joint samples of mice infected with DbpA and B expressing bacteria, while this was not observed in mice infected with the DbpA and B deficient strain. In conclusion, these results show that both DbpA and B adhesins are crucial for early and prominent arthritis development in mice. Also, post-treatment borrelial DNA persistence appears to be dependent on the expression of DbpA and B on B. burgdorferi surface. Results of the immunosuppression studies suggest that the persisting material in the joints of antibiotic treated mice is DNA or DNA containing remnants rather than live bacteria.

  7. Decorin binding proteins of Borrelia burgdorferi promote arthritis development and joint specific post-treatment DNA persistence in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Jemiina; Jaatinen, Annukka; Söderström, Mirva; Viljanen, Matti K; Hytönen, Jukka

    2015-01-01

    Decorin binding proteins A and B (DbpA and B) of Borrelia burgdorferi are of critical importance for the virulence of the spirochete. The objective of the present study was to further clarify the contribution of DbpA and B to development of arthritis and persistence of B. burgdorferi after antibiotic treatment in a murine model of Lyme borreliosis. With that goal, mice were infected with B. burgdorferi strains expressing either DbpA or DbpB, or both DbpA and B, or with a strain lacking the adhesins. Arthritis development was monitored up to 15 weeks after infection, and bacterial persistence was studied after ceftriaxone and immunosuppressive treatments. Mice infected with the B. burgdorferi strain expressing both DbpA and B developed an early and prominent joint swelling. In contrast, while strains that expressed DbpA or B alone, or the strain that was DbpA and B deficient, were able to colonize mouse joints, they caused only negligible joint manifestations. Ceftriaxone treatment at two or six weeks of infection totally abolished joint swelling, and all ceftriaxone treated mice were B. burgdorferi culture negative. Antibiotic treated mice, which were immunosuppressed by anti-TNF-alpha, remained culture negative. Importantly, among ceftriaxone treated mice, B. burgdorferi DNA was detected by PCR uniformly in joint samples of mice infected with DbpA and B expressing bacteria, while this was not observed in mice infected with the DbpA and B deficient strain. In conclusion, these results show that both DbpA and B adhesins are crucial for early and prominent arthritis development in mice. Also, post-treatment borrelial DNA persistence appears to be dependent on the expression of DbpA and B on B. burgdorferi surface. Results of the immunosuppression studies suggest that the persisting material in the joints of antibiotic treated mice is DNA or DNA containing remnants rather than live bacteria.

  8. A possible role for inflammation in mediating apoptosis of oligodendrocytes as induced by the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi

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    Ramesh Geeta

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation caused by the Lyme disease spirochete B. burgdorferi is an important factor in the pathogenesis of Lyme neuroborreliosis. Our central hypothesis is that B. burgdorferi can cause disease via the induction of inflammatory mediators such as cytokines and chemokines in glial and neuronal cells. Earlier we demonstrated that interaction of B. burgdorferi with brain parenchyma induces inflammatory mediators in glial cells as well as glial (oligodendrocyte and neuronal apoptosis using ex vivo and in vivo models of experimentation. Methods In this study we evaluated the ability of live B. burgdorferi to elicit inflammation in vitro in differentiated human MO3.13 oligodendrocytes and in differentiated primary human oligodendrocytes, by measuring the concentration of immune mediators in culture supernatants using Multiplex ELISA assays. Concomitant apoptosis was quantified in these cultures by the in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated UTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assay and by quantifying active caspase-3 by flow cytometry. The above phenomena were also evaluated after 48 h of stimulation with B. burgdorferi in the presence and absence of various concentrations of the anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone. Results B. burgdorferi induced enhanced levels of the cytokine IL-6 and the chemokines IL-8 and CCL2 in MO3.13 cells as compared to basal levels, and IL-8 and CCL2 in primary human oligodendrocytes, in a dose-dependent manner. These cultures also showed significantly elevated levels of apoptosis when compared with medium controls. Dexamethasone reduced both the levels of immune mediators and apoptosis, also in a manner that was dose dependent. Conclusions This finding supports our hypothesis that the inflammatory response elicited by the Lyme disease spirochete in glial cells contributes to neural cell damage. As oligodendrocytes are vital for the functioning and survival of neurons, the inflammation and

  9. Large scale spatial risk and comparative prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes pacificus.

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    Kerry Padgett

    Full Text Available Borrelia miyamotoi is a newly described emerging pathogen transmitted to people by Ixodes species ticks and found in temperate regions of North America, Europe, and Asia. There is limited understanding of large scale entomological risk patterns of B. miyamotoi and of Borreila burgdorferi sensu stricto (ss, the agent of Lyme disease, in western North America. In this study, B. miyamotoi, a relapsing fever spirochete, was detected in adult (n=70 and nymphal (n=36 Ixodes pacificus ticks collected from 24 of 48 California counties that were surveyed over a 13 year period. Statewide prevalence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato (sl, which includes B. burgdorferi ss, and B. miyamotoi were similar in adult I. pacificus (0.6% and 0.8%, respectively. In contrast, the prevalence of B. burgdorferi sl was almost 2.5 times higher than B. miyamotoi in nymphal I. pacificus (3.2% versus 1.4%. These results suggest similar risk of exposure to B. burgdorferi sl and B. miyamotoi from adult I. pacificus tick bites in California, but a higher risk of contracting B. burgdorferi sl than B. miyamotoi from nymphal tick bites. While regional risk of exposure to these two spirochetes varies, the highest risk for both species is found in north and central coastal California and the Sierra Nevada foothill region, and the lowest risk is in southern California; nevertheless, tick-bite avoidance measures should be implemented in all regions of California. This is the first study to comprehensively evaluate entomologic risk for B. miyamotoi and B. burgdorferi for both adult and nymphal I. pacificus, an important human biting tick in western North America.

  10. Clinical and serological one-year follow-up of patients after the bite of Ixodes ricinus ticks infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briciu, Violeta T; Flonta, Mirela; Ţăţulescu, Doina F; Meyer, Fabian; Sebah, Daniela; Cârstina, Dumitru; Mihalca, Andrei D; Gherman, Călin M; Hizo-Teufel, Cecilia; Huber, Ingrid; Fingerle, Volker; Lupșe, Mihaela

    2017-04-01

    The risk of developing Lyme borreliosis (LB) after the bite of a Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) infected tick in Romania is unknown. The present prospective study, performed in 2010-2011 in a hospital in Romania, has followed-up clinical and serological outcome of patients that presented with B. burgdorferi positive Ixodes (I.) ricinus bite. A second group of patients, including age, sex and residence-matched individuals bitten by B. burgdorferi negative ticks, was followed-up as a control group. The subjects' outcome was evaluated one year after the tick bite. Forty-three out of 389 ticks detached from patients were positive by hbb Real-Time PCR (RT-PCR) for B. burgdorferi s.l. (mainly B. afzelii, but also B. garinii, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. spielmanii/B. valaisiana and B. lusitaniae). Twenty patients bitten by B. burgdorferi positive ticks and twenty matched control patients returned for the one year follow-up. Two patients from the B. burgdorferi positive group developed clinical manifestations of acute LB (erythema migrans) and 5 patients seroconverted (two from the B. burgdorferi positive group and three from the B. burgdorferi negative group). Borrelia afzelii was identified in ticks collected from persons that developed erythema migrans (EM). Comparing the two groups of patients, no statistical significant differences were found regarding presence of clinical symptoms or seroconversion. No outcome differences were found between the group of patients bitten by B. burgdorferi positive ticks and the group of patients bitten by B. burgdorferi negative ticks.

  11. Identification of new drug candidates against Borrelia burgdorferi using high-throughput screening

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    Pothineni VR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Venkata Raveendra Pothineni,1 Dhananjay Wagh,1 Mustafeez Mujtaba Babar,1 Mohammed Inayathullah,1 David Solow-Cordero,2 Kwang-Min Kim,1 Aneesh V Samineni,1 Mansi B Parekh,1 Lobat Tayebi,3 Jayakumar Rajadas1 1Biomaterials and Advanced Drug Delivery Laboratory, Stanford Cardiovascular Pharmacology Division, Cardiovascular Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, 2Chemical & Systems Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, 3Department of Developmental Sciences, Marquette University School of Dentistry, Milwaukee, WI, USA Abstract: Lyme disease is the most common zoonotic bacterial disease in North America. It is estimated that >300,000 cases per annum are reported in USA alone. A total of 10%–20% of patients who have been treated with antibiotic therapy report the recrudescence of symptoms, such as muscle and joint pain, psychosocial and cognitive difficulties, and generalized fatigue. This condition is referred to as posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome. While there is no evidence for the presence of viable infectious organisms in individuals with posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome, some researchers found surviving Borrelia burgdorferi population in rodents and primates even after antibiotic treatment. Although such observations need more ratification, there is unmet need for developing the therapeutic agents that focus on removing the persisting bacterial form of B. burgdorferi in rodent and nonhuman primates. For this purpose, high-throughput screening was done using BacTiter-Glo assay for four compound libraries to identify candidates that stop the growth of B. burgdorferi in vitro. The four chemical libraries containing 4,366 compounds (80% Food and Drug Administration [FDA] approved that were screened are Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC1280, the National Institutes of Health Clinical Collection, the Microsource Spectrum, and the Biomol FDA. We subsequently identified 150

  12. Leptospira spp. vaccinal antibodies do not react with Borrelia burgdorferi peptides used in the AccuPlex 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caress, Amber L; Moroff, Scott; Lappin, Michael R

    2017-11-01

    We attempted to determine if Leptospira spp. antibodies induced by vaccination would cross-react with Borrelia burgdorferi antigens used in a commercial automated immunofluorescent assay (AccuPlex 4 BioCD; Antech). Staff- and student-owned dogs ( n = 31) were recruited at a veterinary teaching hospital in a B. burgdorferi nonendemic area. The dogs were randomized and administered 1 of 4 commercial Leptospira spp. vaccines that contained serovars Canicola, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, and Pomona, then booster vaccinated 3 wk later. Blood was collected on weeks 0, 3, 4, 8, and 12. After confirming that maximal Leptospira spp. titers occurred on week 4, aliquots of sera from week 4 were shipped frozen for analysis of B. burgdorferi antibodies against OspA, OspC, OspF, P39, and SLP with the AccuPlex system. Week 4 sera from all 31 dogs had a titer of 1:100 for at least 1 Leptospira spp. serovar. Titers of 1:800 or greater were detected against multiple serovars in 27 dogs. None of the samples contained antibodies against the B. burgdorferi OspA, OspC, OspF, P39, and SLP peptides used in the commercial assay. The B. burgdorferi peptides used in the AccuPlex system do not recognize naturally occurring Leptospira spp. antibodies or those induced by the commercial Leptospira spp. vaccines administered in our study.

  13. First record of Borrelia burgdorferi B31 strain in Dermacentor nitens ticks in the northern region of Parana (Brazil

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    Daniela Dib Gonçalves

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of DNA of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l. in ticks that feed on horses used for animal traction in rural Jataizinho, Parana, Brazil. Between February and June 2008, a total of 224 ticks was collected of which 75% were identified as Dermacentor nitens and 25% as Amblyomma cajenense. To amplify B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA, the intergenic space region (ISR between the 5S (rrf 23S (rrl rRNA genes was used as targets for nested-PCR. Two ticks of the D. nitens species were positive for B. burgdorferi s.l. Both species showed a fragment of 184 bp, but the sequencing revealed 99.9% homology with the B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s. strain B31. These results showed, for the first time, the presence of spirochete DNA infecting ticks that parasitize horses used for animal traction, in the rural municipality mentioned. In conclusion, this study opens up promising prospects for determining the infection rate of B. burgdorferi s.s. genospecies or other species in the equine population, as well as the impact of the infection rate on Lyme disease in the state of Parana.

  14. Comprehensive surveillance of the antibody response to Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in small ruminants in China

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    Jifei Yang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the etiological agent of Lyme disease, is tick transmitted and has a wide range of mammalian reservoirs in nature, including both wild and domestic animals. To understand the seroprevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. in small ruminants will add value to the risk analysis of Lyme disease. The current study was intended to map the potential endemic regions of Lyme disease by large-scale investigation of sera from sheep and goats. In this study, a total of 2,758 serum samples from sheep and goats in 21 provinces located in 40 different districts of China were tested for antibodies against B. burgdorferi s.l. by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results of this survey indicated that the overall prevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. infection ranges from 5.3 to 63.5 % (mean: 26.3%, and the infection was found in all provinces investigated. Generally, the positive rate declined from the south (34.7% in south and 32.4% in southwest towards the north of China (18.4% in north, 16.5% in northeast and 17.2% in northwest. A significant difference was also observed in the infection rate between south and north (33.2% versus 17.4%, PB. burgdorferi s.l. in small ruminants in China.

  15. Effectiveness of Stevia Rebaudiana Whole Leaf Extract Against the Various Morphological Forms of Borrelia Burgdorferi in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theophilus, P. A. S.; Victoria, M. J.; Socarras, K. M.; Filush, K. R.; Gupta, K.; Luecke, D. F.; Sapi, E.

    2015-01-01

    Lyme disease is a tick-borne multisystemic disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi. Administering antibiotics is the primary treatment for this disease; however, relapse often occurs when antibiotic treatment is discontinued. The reason for relapse remains unknown, but recent studies suggested the possibilities of the presence of antibiotic resistant Borrelia persister cells and biofilms. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of whole leaf Stevia extract against B. burgdorferi spirochetes, persisters, and biofilm forms in vitro. The susceptibility of the different forms was evaluated by various quantitative techniques in addition to different microscopy methods. The effectiveness of Stevia was compared to doxycycline, cefoperazone, daptomycin, and their combinations. Our results demonstrated that Stevia had significant effect in eliminating B. burgdorferi spirochetes and persisters. Subculture experiments with Stevia and antibiotics treated cells were established for 7 and 14 days yielding, no and 10% viable cells, respectively compared to the above-mentioned antibiotics and antibiotic combination. When Stevia and the three antibiotics were tested against attached biofilms, Stevia significantly reduced B. burgdorferi forms. Results from this study suggest that a natural product such as Stevia leaf extract could be considered as an effective agent against B. burgdorferi. PMID:26716015

  16. The Multifaceted Responses of Primary Human Astrocytes and Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells to the Lyme Disease Spirochete, Borrelia Burgdorferi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A. Brissette

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The vector-borne pathogen, Borrelia burgdorferi, causes a multi-system disorder including neurological complications. These neurological disorders, collectively termed neuroborreliosis, can occur in up to 15% of untreated patients. The neurological symptoms are probably a result of a glial-driven, host inflammatory response to the bacterium. However, the specific contributions of individual glial and other support cell types to the pathogenesis of neuroborreliosis are relatively unexplored. The goal of this project was to characterize specific astrocyte and endothelial cell responses to B. burgdorferi. Primary human astrocytes and primary HBMEC (human brain microvascular endothelial cells were incubated with B. burgdorferi over a 72-h period and the transcriptional responses to the bacterium were analyzed by real-time PCR arrays. There was a robust increase in several surveyed chemokine and related genes, including IL (interleukin-8, for both primary astrocytes and HBMEC. Array results were confirmed with individual sets of PCR primers. The production of specific chemokines by both astrocytes and HBMEC in response to B. burgdorferi, including IL-8, CXCL-1, and CXCL-10, were confirmed by ELISA. These results demonstrate that primary astrocytes and HBMEC respond to virulent B. burgdorferi by producing a number of chemokines. These data suggest that infiltrating phagocytic cells, particularly neutrophils, attracted by chemokines expressed at the BBB (blood–brain barrier may be important contributors to the early inflammatory events associated with neuroborreliosis.

  17. Immunochemical characterization of and isolation of the gene for a Borrelia burgdorferi immunodominant 60-kilodalton antigen common to a wide range of bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K; Bangsborg, Jette Marie; Fjordvang, H

    1988-01-01

    By crossed immunoelectrophoresis and Western blotting (immunoblotting), it was shown that Borrelia burgdorferi expresses the 60-kilodalton Common Antigen (CA) that is cross-reactive with an equivalent antigen in a wide range of remotely related bacteria. B. burgdorferi CA is strongly immunogenic....

  18. Eucaryotic cells protect Borrelia burgdorferi from the action of penicillin and ceftriaxone but not from the action of doxycycline and erythromycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouqui, P; Badiaga, S; Raoult, D

    1996-06-01

    Despite appropriate antibiotic treatment, Lyme disease patients may have relapses or may develop chronic manifestations. The intracellular location of Borrelia burgdorferi suggests that antibiotics that penetrate cells will have greater efficiency. Doxycycline or erythromycin was more effective than penicillin or ceftriaxone in killing B. burgdorferi when the organism was grown in the presence of eucaryotic cells.

  19. An encoding device and a method of encoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to an encoding device, such as an optical position encoder, for encoding input from an object, and a method for encoding input from an object, for determining a position of an object that interferes with light of the device. The encoding device comprises a light source...... in the area in the space and may interfere with the light, which interference may be encoded into a position or activation....

  20. That’s my story, and I’m sticking to it- an update on B. burgdorferi adhesins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Ayn Brissette

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Adhesion is the initial event in the establishment of any infection. Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiological agent of Lyme disease, possesses myriad proteins termed adhesins that facilitate contact with its vertebrate hosts. B. burgdorferi adheres to host tissues through interactions with host cells and extracellular matrix, as well as other molecules present in serum and extracellular fluids. These interactions, both general and specific, are critical in the establishment of infection. Modulation of borrelial adhesion to host tissues affects the microorganisms ’s ability to colonize, disseminate, and persist. In this review, we update the current knowledge on structure, function, and role in pathogenesis of these sticky B. burgdorferi infection-associated proteins.

  1. Synthesis of Th17 cytokines in the culture of peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambor Grygorczuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction and objective. [/b]Th17 lymphocytes and their cytokines, interleukin 17A (IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-22, participate in the response to extracellular bacteria and in the autoimmunity and may be engaged in the pathogenesis of Lyme borreliosis. Concentrations were measured of IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-22 in the supernatant of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC culture stimulated with [i]Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato[/i] ([i]B. burgdorferi[/i]. [b]Materials and method.[/b] The study group consisted of 13 patients with early disseminated and late Lyme borreliosis and a control group of 7 healthy persons. PBMC cultures were stimulated for 48 hours with [i]B. burgdorferi [/i]spirochetes of three pathogenic species: [i]B. burgdorferi[/i] sensu stricto, B. afzelii or B. garinii, in the multiplicity of infection 10:1. Concentrations of Th17 cytokines IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-22, as well as Th2/immunoregulatory cytokine IL-10 were measured with ELISA assays. [b]Results. [/b]Expression of IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-22 increased under stimulation, simultaneously with the increased IL-10 expression. Concentration of IL-17F tended to be lower in early neuroborreliosis than in late Lyme borreliosis and than in controls. [i]B. afzelii[/i] elicited higher expression of IL-17A than the other two species. [b]Conclusions.[/b] IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-22 are synthesized simultaneously by PBMC stimulated with [i]B. burgdorferi[/i]. There is no antagonism between Th17 response and IL-10 expression. The role of Th17 cytokines seems to differ depending on the clinical stage of Lyme borreliosis and on the [i]B. burgdorferi[/i] species.

  2. A systematic review of Borrelia burgdorferi morphologic variants does not support a role in chronic Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantos, Paul M; Auwaerter, Paul G; Wormser, Gary P

    2014-03-01

     Much of the controversy that surrounds Lyme disease pertains to whether it produces prolonged, treatment-refractory infection, usually referred to as chronic Lyme disease. Some have proposed that round morphologic variants of Borrelia burgdorferi, known variably as "cyst forms" and "L-forms," are responsible for the pathogenesis of chronic Lyme disease. We have undertaken a systematic review of the literature to determine if there is a documented role of these variants in Lyme disease pathogenesis or in syndromes compatible with chronic Lyme disease.  Two systematic literature searches were performed to identify studies in which round morphologic variants of B. burgdorferi have been described in situ in human specimens.  Our primary literature search identified 6 studies that reported round morphologic variants of B. burgdorferi in specimens obtained from 32 total patients. No study described these forms in patients who had purely subjective symptom complexes (eg, fatigue or pain). No study investigated a causal relationship between morphologic variants and clinical disease or evaluated treatment of morphologic variants in vivo. Of 29 additional studies that described the morphology of B. burgdorferi from patients with Lyme disease, the organism was invariably described as having spirochetal morphology.  In the context of the broader medical literature, it is not currently possible to ascribe a pathogenic role to morphologic variants of B. burgdorferi in either typical manifestations of Lyme disease or in other chronic disease states that are often labeled chronic Lyme disease. There is no clinical literature to justify specific treatment of B. burgdorferi morphologic variants.

  3. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes in wild birds in northwestern California: associations with ecological factors, bird behavior and tick infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Erica A; Eisen, Lars; Eisen, Rebecca J; Fedorova, Natalia; Hasty, Jeomhee M; Vaughn, Charles; Lane, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    Although Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) are found in a great diversity of vertebrates, most studies in North America have focused on the role of mammals as spirochete reservoir hosts. We investigated the roles of birds as hosts for subadult Ixodes pacificus ticks and potential reservoirs of the Lyme disease spirochete B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) in northwestern California. Overall, 623 birds representing 53 species yielded 284 I. pacificus larvae and nymphs. We used generalized linear models and zero-inflated negative binomial models to determine associations of bird behaviors, taxonomic relationships and infestation by I. pacificus with borrelial infection in the birds. Infection status in birds was best explained by taxonomic order, number of infesting nymphs, sampling year, and log-transformed average body weight. Presence and counts of larvae and nymphs could be predicted by ground- or bark-foraging behavior and contact with dense oak woodland. Molecular analysis yielded the first reported detection of Borrelia bissettii in birds. Moreover, our data suggest that the Golden-crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichia atricapilla), a non-resident species, could be an important reservoir for B. burgdorferi s.s. Of 12 individual birds (9 species) that carried B. burgdorferi s.l.-infected larvae, no birds carried the same genospecies of B. burgdorferi s.l. in their blood as were present in the infected larvae removed from them. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. Our study is the first to explicitly incorporate both taxonomic relationships and behaviors as predictor variables to identify putative avian reservoirs of B. burgdorferi s.l. Our findings underscore the importance of bird behavior to explain local tick infestation and Borrelia infection in these animals, and suggest the potential for bird-mediated geographic spread of vector ticks and spirochetes in the far-western United States.

  4. Partial destruction of Borrelia burgdorferi within ticks that engorged on OspE- or OspF-immunized mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, T.P.; Lam, T. T.; Barthold, S W; Telford, S R; Flavell, R.A.; Fikrig, E.

    1994-01-01

    We determined whether Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface proteins (Osps) E and F could elicit immune responses useful for a Lyme disease vaccine. Thirty days after challenge with B. burgdorferi, mice produced antibodies to OspE but not OspF, whereas antibodies to OspF were present in sera of mice obtained 90 days after infection. Examination of sera from patients with Lyme disease revealed antibodies to OspF in a small number (14%) of early-stage disease patients but in a majority (58%) of pa...

  5. Dual role of Fcγ receptors in host defense and disease in Borrelia burgdorferi-infected mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexia Anne Belperron

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Arthritis in mice infected with the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, results from the influx of innate immune cells responding to the pathogen in the joint and is influenced in part by mouse genetics. Production of inflammatory cytokines by innate immune cells in vitro is largely mediated by Toll-like receptor (TLR interaction with Borrelia lipoproteins, yet surprisingly mice deficient in TLR2 or the TLR signaling molecule MyD88 still develop arthritis comparable to that seen in wild type mice after B. burgdorferi infection. These findings suggest that other, MyD88-independent inflammatory pathways can contribute to arthritis expression. Clearance of B. burgdorferi is dependent on the production of specific antibody and phagocytosis of the organism. As Fc receptors (FcγR are important for IgG-mediated clearance of immune complexes and opsonized particles by phagocytes, we examined the role that FcγR play in host defense and disease in B. burgdorferi-infected mice. B. burgdorferi-infected mice deficient in the Fc receptor common gamma chain (FcεRγ-/- mice harbored ~10 fold more spirochetes than similarly infected wild type mice, and this was associated with a transient increase in arthritis severity. While the elevated pathogen burdens seen in B. burgdorferi-infected MyD88-/- mice were not affected by concomitant deficiency in FcγR, arthritis was reduced in FcεRγ-/-MyD88-/- mice in comparison to wild type or single knockout mice. Gene expression analysis from infected joints demonstrated that absence of both MyD88 and FcγR lowers mRNA levels of proteins involved in inflammation, including Cxcl1 (KC, Xcr1 (Gpr5, IL-1beta, and C reactive protein. Taken together, our results demonstrate a role for FcγR-mediated immunity in limiting pathogen burden and arthritis in mice during the acute phase of B. burgdorferi infection, and further suggest that this pathway contributes to the arthritis that develops in B. burgdorferi

  6. MicroRNA-146a provides feedback regulation of lyme arthritis but not carditis during infection with Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B Lochhead

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs have been shown to be important regulators of inflammatory and immune responses and are implicated in several immune disorders including systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis, but their role in Lyme borreliosis remains unknown. We performed a microarray screen for expression of miRNAs in joint tissue from three mouse strains infected with Borrelia burgdorferi. This screen identified upregulation of miR-146a, a key negative regulator of NF-κB signaling, in all three strains, suggesting it plays an important role in the in vivo response to B. burgdorferi. Infection of B6 miR-146a-/- mice with B. burgdorferi revealed a critical nonredundant role of miR-146a in modulating Lyme arthritis without compromising host immune response or heart inflammation. The impact of miR-146a was specifically localized to the joint, and did not impact lesion development or inflammation in the heart. Furthermore, B6 miR-146a-/- mice had elevated levels of NF-κB-regulated products in joint tissue and serum late in infection. Flow cytometry analysis of various lineages isolated from infected joint tissue of mice showed that myeloid cell infiltration was significantly greater in B6 miR-146a-/- mice, compared to B6, during B. burgdorferi infection. Using bone marrow-derived macrophages, we found that TRAF6, a known target of miR-146a involved in NF-κB activation, was dysregulated in resting and B. burgdorferi-stimulated B6 miR-146a-/- macrophages, and corresponded to elevated IL-1β, IL-6 and CXCL1 production. This dysregulated protein production was also observed in macrophages treated with IL-10 prior to B. burgdorferi stimulation. Peritoneal macrophages from B6 miR-146a-/- mice also showed enhanced phagocytosis of B. burgdorferi. Together, these data show that miR-146a-mediated regulation of TRAF6 and NF-κB, and downstream targets such as IL-1β, IL-6 and CXCL1, are critical for modulation of Lyme arthritis during chronic infection with B

  7. Development of real time PCR to detect Toxoplasma gondii and Borrelia burgdorferi infections in postal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joss, A W L; Evans, R; Mavin, S; Chatterton, J; Ho-Yen, D O

    2008-02-01

    Most of the samples sent to reference laboratories are delivered by post. Thus, diagnostic PCR tests on blood samples have to be performed using methods which are optimised and validated for such conditions. There is a low probability that the organisms Toxoplasma gondii and Borrelia burgdorferi will be present. To confirm that robotic extraction methods followed by real time PCR will detect as little as one organism/test sample in postal specimens. Human blood samples spiked with decreasing numbers of each organism (range 10(5)-1/per extract) were extracted using two commercial kits on a Qiagen BioRobot EZ1 Workstation. Extracts of whole blood and blood fractions were tested by real time PCR. The effect of storage of blood for 1-6 days at room temperature was also investigated. Maximum sensitivity (1 organism/test sample) was achieved for T gondii with either extraction method; the sensitivity for B burgdorferi was between 1 and 10 organisms/test. Whole blood was the most suitable sample to extract, as both organisms were as likely to be detectable in the red cell as the white cell fraction. Sensitivity was not reduced by storing spiked samples at room temperature for up to 6 days. Inhibitory effects on PCR were not a significant problem provided that samples were extracted using the blood extraction kit. Using appropriate robotic extraction methods, both T gondii and B burgdorferi can be detected by real time PCR with near maximum possible sensitivity in whole blood samples. Blood samples can be transferred to reference laboratories by post without loss of sensitivity over the likely transit period.

  8. Use of recombinant antigens of Borrelia burgdorferi in serologic tests for diagnosis of lyme borreliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnarelli, L A; Fikrig, E; Padula, S J; Anderson, J F; Flavell, R A

    1996-02-01

    Recombinant antigens of outer surface proteins (Osps) OspA, OspB, OspC, OspE, and OspF of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and of p41-G, an antigenic region of flagellin of this spirochete, were tested with human sera in class-specific and polyvalent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). In analyses for immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies, 18 (85.7%) of 21 serum samples from persons who had been diagnosed as having Lyme borreliosis on the basis of the presence of erythema migrans reacted positively in ELISAs with one or more Osp antigens or the p41-G antigen. Eleven serum samples contained antibodies to OspC antigen, and of these, six also reacted to the p41-G antigen and to one or more of the other recombinant antigens. The remaining five serum samples reacted solely to OspC (n = 4) or to OspC plus OspA and OspE without reactivity to p41-G (n = 1). In analyses for IgG antibodies, seropositivity was comparable to that of IgM analyses and was marked by predominant reactivity to p41-G, OspC, and OspF. Similarly, all 21 serum samples were positive in polyvalent and class-specific ELISAs with whole-cell B. burgdorferi. Minor cross-reactivity was noted when sera from persons who had syphilis, periodontitis or other oral infections, or rheumatoid arthritis were tested with OspC, OspE, OspF, and p41-G. With relatively high degrees of specificity, ELISAs with recombinant antigens, particularly OspC and p41-G, can help to confirm B. burgdorferi infections.

  9. Identification of Additional Anti-Persister Activity against Borrelia burgdorferi from an FDA Drug Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Weitner, Megan; Shi, Wanliang; Zhang, Shuo; Sullivan, David; Zhang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Lyme disease is a leading vector-borne disease in the United States. Although the majority of Lyme patients can be cured with standard 2–4 week antibiotic treatment, 10%–20% of patients continue to suffer from prolonged post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS). While the cause for this is unclear, persisting organisms not killed by current Lyme antibiotics may be involved. In our previous study, we screened an FDA drug library and reported 27 top hits that showed high activity against Borrelia persisters. In this study, we present the results of an additional 113 active hits that have higher activity against the stationary phase B. burgdorferi than the currently used Lyme antibiotics. Many antimicrobial agents (antibiotics, antivirals, antifungals, anthelmintics or antiparasitics) used for treating other infections were found to have better activity than the current Lyme antibiotics. These include antibacterials such as rifamycins (3-formal-rifamycin, rifaximin, rifamycin SV), thiostrepton, quinolone drugs (sarafloxacin, clinafloxacin, tosufloxacin), and cell wall inhibitors carbenicillin, tazobactam, aztreonam; antifungal agents such as fluconazole, mepartricin, bifonazole, climbazole, oxiconazole, nystatin; antiviral agents zanamivir, nevirapine, tilorone; antimalarial agents artemisinin, methylene blue, and quidaldine blue; antihelmintic and antiparasitic agents toltrazuril, tartar emetic, potassium antimonyl tartrate trihydrate, oxantel, closantel, hycanthone, pyrimethamine, and tetramisole. Interestingly, drugs used for treating other non-infectious conditions including verteporfin, oltipraz, pyroglutamic acid, pidolic acid, and dextrorphan tartrate, that act on the glutathione/γ-glutamyl pathway involved in protection against free radical damage, and also the antidepressant drug indatraline, were found to have high activity against stationary phase B. burgdorferi. Among the active hits, agents that affect cell membranes, energy production, and

  10. Identification of Additional Anti-Persister Activity against Borrelia burgdorferi from an FDA Drug Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Weitner, Megan; Shi, Wanliang; Zhang, Shuo; Sullivan, David; Zhang, Ying

    2015-09-16

    Lyme disease is a leading vector-borne disease in the United States. Although the majority of Lyme patients can be cured with standard 2-4 week antibiotic treatment, 10%-20% of patients continue to suffer from prolonged post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS). While the cause for this is unclear, persisting organisms not killed by current Lyme antibiotics may be involved. In our previous study, we screened an FDA drug library and reported 27 top hits that showed high activity against Borrelia persisters. In this study, we present the results of an additional 113 active hits that have higher activity against the stationary phase B. burgdorferi than the currently used Lyme antibiotics. Many antimicrobial agents (antibiotics, antivirals, antifungals, anthelmintics or antiparasitics) used for treating other infections were found to have better activity than the current Lyme antibiotics. These include antibacterials such as rifamycins (3-formal-rifamycin, rifaximin, rifamycin SV), thiostrepton, quinolone drugs (sarafloxacin, clinafloxacin, tosufloxacin), and cell wall inhibitors carbenicillin, tazobactam, aztreonam; antifungal agents such as fluconazole, mepartricin, bifonazole, climbazole, oxiconazole, nystatin; antiviral agents zanamivir, nevirapine, tilorone; antimalarial agents artemisinin, methylene blue, and quidaldine blue; antihelmintic and antiparasitic agents toltrazuril, tartar emetic, potassium antimonyl tartrate trihydrate, oxantel, closantel, hycanthone, pyrimethamine, and tetramisole. Interestingly, drugs used for treating other non-infectious conditions including verteporfin, oltipraz, pyroglutamic acid, pidolic acid, and dextrorphan tartrate, that act on the glutathione/γ-glutamyl pathway involved in protection against free radical damage, and also the antidepressant drug indatraline, were found to have high activity against stationary phase B. burgdorferi. Among the active hits, agents that affect cell membranes, energy production, and reactive

  11. Genome Stability of Lyme Disease Spirochetes: Comparative Genomics of Borrelia burgdorferi Plasmids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casjens S. R.; Dunn J.; Mongodin, E. F.; Qiu, W.-G.; Luft, B. J.; Schutzer, S. E.; Gilcrease, E. B.; Huang, W. M.; Vujadinovic, M.; Aron, J. K.; Vargas, L. C.; Freeman, S.; Radune, D.; Weidman, J. F.; Dimitrov, G. I.; Khouri, H. M.; Sosa, J. E.; Halpin, R. A.; Fraser, C. M.

    2012-03-14

    Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne human illness in North America. In order to understand the molecular pathogenesis, natural diversity, population structure and epizootic spread of the North American Lyme agent, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, a much better understanding of the natural diversity of its genome will be required. Towards this end we present a comparative analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the numerous plasmids of B. burgdorferi isolates B31, N40, JD1 and 297. These strains were chosen because they include the three most commonly studied laboratory strains, and because they represent different major genetic lineages and so are informative regarding the genetic diversity and evolution of this organism. A unique feature of Borrelia genomes is that they carry a large number of linear and circular plasmids, and this work shows that strains N40, JD1, 297 and B31 carry related but non-identical sets of 16, 20, 19 and 21 plasmids, respectively, that comprise 33-40% of their genomes. We deduce that there are at least 28 plasmid compatibility types among the four strains. The B. burgdorferi {approx}900 Kbp linear chromosomes are evolutionarily exceptionally stable, except for a short {le}20 Kbp plasmid-like section at the right end. A few of the plasmids, including the linear lp54 and circular cp26, are also very stable. We show here that the other plasmids, especially the linear ones, are considerably more variable. Nearly all of the linear plasmids have undergone one or more substantial inter-plasmid rearrangements since their last common ancestor. In spite of these rearrangements and differences in plasmid contents, the overall gene complement of the different isolates has remained relatively constant.

  12. Genome Stability of Lyme Disease Spirochetes: Comparative Genomics of Borrelia burgdorferi Plasmids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casjens, Sherwood R.; Mongodin, Emmanuel F.; Qiu, Wei-Gang; Luft, Benjamin J.; Schutzer, Steven E.; Gilcrease, Eddie B.; Huang, Wai Mun; Vujadinovic, Marija; Aron, John K.; Vargas, Levy C.; Freeman, Sam; Radune, Diana; Weidman, Janice F.; Dimitrov, George I.; Khouri, Hoda M.; Sosa, Julia E.; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Dunn, John J.; Fraser, Claire M.

    2012-01-01

    Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne human illness in North America. In order to understand the molecular pathogenesis, natural diversity, population structure and epizootic spread of the North American Lyme agent, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, a much better understanding of the natural diversity of its genome will be required. Towards this end we present a comparative analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the numerous plasmids of B. burgdorferi isolates B31, N40, JD1 and 297. These strains were chosen because they include the three most commonly studied laboratory strains, and because they represent different major genetic lineages and so are informative regarding the genetic diversity and evolution of this organism. A unique feature of Borrelia genomes is that they carry a large number of linear and circular plasmids, and this work shows that strains N40, JD1, 297 and B31 carry related but non-identical sets of 16, 20, 19 and 21 plasmids, respectively, that comprise 33–40% of their genomes. We deduce that there are at least 28 plasmid compatibility types among the four strains. The B. burgdorferi ∼900 Kbp linear chromosomes are evolutionarily exceptionally stable, except for a short ≤20 Kbp plasmid-like section at the right end. A few of the plasmids, including the linear lp54 and circular cp26, are also very stable. We show here that the other plasmids, especially the linear ones, are considerably more variable. Nearly all of the linear plasmids have undergone one or more substantial inter-plasmid rearrangements since their last common ancestor. In spite of these rearrangements and differences in plasmid contents, the overall gene complement of the different isolates has remained relatively constant. PMID:22432010

  13. Identification of Additional Anti-Persister Activity against Borrelia burgdorferi from an FDA Drug Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Feng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lyme disease is a leading vector-borne disease in the United States. Although the majority of Lyme patients can be cured with standard 2–4 week antibiotic treatment, 10%–20% of patients continue to suffer from prolonged post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS. While the cause for this is unclear, persisting organisms not killed by current Lyme antibiotics may be involved. In our previous study, we screened an FDA drug library and reported 27 top hits that showed high activity against Borrelia persisters. In this study, we present the results of an additional 113 active hits that have higher activity against the stationary phase B. burgdorferi than the currently used Lyme antibiotics. Many antimicrobial agents (antibiotics, antivirals, antifungals, anthelmintics or antiparasitics used for treating other infections were found to have better activity than the current Lyme antibiotics. These include antibacterials such as rifamycins (3-formal-rifamycin, rifaximin, rifamycin SV, thiostrepton, quinolone drugs (sarafloxacin, clinafloxacin, tosufloxacin, and cell wall inhibitors carbenicillin, tazobactam, aztreonam; antifungal agents such as fluconazole, mepartricin, bifonazole, climbazole, oxiconazole, nystatin; antiviral agents zanamivir, nevirapine, tilorone; antimalarial agents artemisinin, methylene blue, and quidaldine blue; antihelmintic and antiparasitic agents toltrazuril, tartar emetic, potassium antimonyl tartrate trihydrate, oxantel, closantel, hycanthone, pyrimethamine, and tetramisole. Interestingly, drugs used for treating other non-infectious conditions including verteporfin, oltipraz, pyroglutamic acid, pidolic acid, and dextrorphan tartrate, that act on the glutathione/γ-glutamyl pathway involved in protection against free radical damage, and also the antidepressant drug indatraline, were found to have high activity against stationary phase B. burgdorferi. Among the active hits, agents that affect cell membranes, energy

  14. Genome stability of Lyme disease spirochetes: comparative genomics of Borrelia burgdorferi plasmids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherwood R Casjens

    Full Text Available Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne human illness in North America. In order to understand the molecular pathogenesis, natural diversity, population structure and epizootic spread of the North American Lyme agent, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, a much better understanding of the natural diversity of its genome will be required. Towards this end we present a comparative analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the numerous plasmids of B. burgdorferi isolates B31, N40, JD1 and 297. These strains were chosen because they include the three most commonly studied laboratory strains, and because they represent different major genetic lineages and so are informative regarding the genetic diversity and evolution of this organism. A unique feature of Borrelia genomes is that they carry a large number of linear and circular plasmids, and this work shows that strains N40, JD1, 297 and B31 carry related but non-identical sets of 16, 20, 19 and 21 plasmids, respectively, that comprise 33-40% of their genomes. We deduce that there are at least 28 plasmid compatibility types among the four strains. The B. burgdorferi ∼900 Kbp linear chromosomes are evolutionarily exceptionally stable, except for a short ≤20 Kbp plasmid-like section at the right end. A few of the plasmids, including the linear lp54 and circular cp26, are also very stable. We show here that the other plasmids, especially the linear ones, are considerably more variable. Nearly all of the linear plasmids have undergone one or more substantial inter-plasmid rearrangements since their last common ancestor. In spite of these rearrangements and differences in plasmid contents, the overall gene complement of the different isolates has remained relatively constant.

  15. Persisting atypical and cystic forms of Borrelia burgdorferi and local inflammation in Lyme neuroborreliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Sheng

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The long latent stage seen in syphilis, followed by chronic central nervous system infection and inflammation, can be explained by the persistence of atypical cystic and granular forms of Treponema pallidum. We investigated whether a similar situation may occur in Lyme neuroborreliosis. Method Atypical forms of Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes were induced exposing cultures of Borrelia burgdorferi (strains B31 and ADB1 to such unfavorable conditions as osmotic and heat shock, and exposure to the binding agents Thioflavin S and Congo red. We also analyzed whether these forms may be induced in vitro, following infection of primary chicken and rat neurons, as well as rat and human astrocytes. We further analyzed whether atypical forms similar to those induced in vitro may also occur in vivo, in brains of three patients with Lyme neuroborreliosis. We used immunohistochemical methods to detect evidence of neuroinflammation in the form of reactive microglia and astrocytes. Results Under these conditions we observed atypical cystic, rolled and granular forms of these spirochetes. We characterized these abnormal forms by histochemical, immunohistochemical, dark field and atomic force microscopy (AFM methods. The atypical and cystic forms found in the brains of three patients with neuropathologically confirmed Lyme neuroborreliosis were identical to those induced in vitro. We also observed nuclear fragmentation of the infected astrocytes using the TUNEL method. Abundant HLA-DR positive microglia and GFAP positive reactive astrocytes were present in the cerebral cortex. Conclusion The results indicate that atypical extra- and intracellular pleomorphic and cystic forms of Borrelia burgdorferi and local neuroinflammation occur in the brain in chronic Lyme neuroborreliosis. The persistence of these more resistant spirochete forms, and their intracellular location in neurons and glial cells, may explain the long latent stage and

  16. Video time encoding machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Aurel A; Pnevmatikakis, Eftychios A

    2011-03-01

    We investigate architectures for time encoding and time decoding of visual stimuli such as natural and synthetic video streams (movies, animation). The architecture for time encoding is akin to models of the early visual system. It consists of a bank of filters in cascade with single-input multi-output neural circuits. Neuron firing is based on either a threshold-and-fire or an integrate-and-fire spiking mechanism with feedback. We show that analog information is represented by the neural circuits as projections on a set of band-limited functions determined by the spike sequence. Under Nyquist-type and frame conditions, the encoded signal can be recovered from these projections with arbitrary precision. For the video time encoding machine architecture, we demonstrate that band-limited video streams of finite energy can be faithfully recovered from the spike trains and provide a stable algorithm for perfect recovery. The key condition for recovery calls for the number of neurons in the population to be above a threshold value.

  17. IDENTIFICATION OF ENCODED BEADS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention is relates to methods for the identification of spatially encoded beaded or granulated matrices comprising a plurality of immobilised particles. The identification is based on a distance matrix determination or based on a set of geometrical figures, such a triangles...

  18. Clinical Features of 705 Borrelia burgdorferi Seropositive Patients in an Endemic Area of Northern Italy

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    Giuseppe Stinco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lyme Borreliosis is a multisystemic infection caused by spirochetes of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. The features of Lyme Borreliosis may differ in the various geographical areas, primarily between the manifestations found in America and those found in Europe and Asia. Objective. to describe the clinical features of Lyme Borreliosis in an endemic geographic area such as Friuli-Venezia Giulia in the Northeastern part of Italy. Methods. The medical records of patients resulted seropositive for Borrelia burgdorferi have been retrospectively recorded and analyzed. Results. Seven hundred and five patients met the inclusion criteria, 363 males and 342 females. Erythema migrans was the most common manifestation, detected in 437 patients. Other classical cutaneous manifestations included 58 cases of multiple erythema migrans, 7 lymphadenosis benigna cutis, and 18 acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. The musculoskeletal system was involved in 511 patients. Four hundred and sixty patients presented a neurological involvement. Flu-like symptoms preceded or accompanied or were the only clinical feature in 119 patients. Comments. The manifestations of Lyme borreliosis recorded in this study are similar to the ones of other endemic areas in Europe, even if there are some peculiar features which are different from those reported in Northern Europe and in the USA.

  19. Reservoir targeted vaccine against Borrelia burgdorferi: a new strategy to prevent Lyme disease transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richer, Luciana Meirelles; Brisson, Dustin; Melo, Rita; Ostfeld, Richard S; Zeidner, Nordin; Gomes-Solecki, Maria

    2014-06-15

    A high prevalence of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi in ixodid ticks is correlated with a high incidence of Lyme disease. The transmission of B. burgdorferi to humans can be disrupted by targeting 2 key elements in its enzootic cycle: the reservoir host and the tick vector. In a prospective 5-year field trial, we show that oral vaccination of wild white-footed mice resulted in outer surface protein A-specific seropositivity that led to reductions of 23% and 76% in the nymphal infection prevalence in a cumulative, time-dependent manner (2 and 5 years, respectively), whereas the proportion of infected ticks recovered from control plots varied randomly over time. Significant decreases in tick infection prevalence were observed within 3 years of vaccine deployment. Implementation of such a long-term public health measure could substantially reduce the risk of human exposure to Lyme disease. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Proteomic Analysis of Lyme Disease: Global Protein Comparison of Three Strains of Borrelia burgdorferi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, Jon M.; Yang, Xiaohua; Luft, Benjamin J.; Dunn, John J.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.

    2005-04-01

    The Borrelia burgdorferi spirochete is the causative agent of Lyme disease, the most common tick-borne disease in the United States. It has been studied extensively to help understand its pathogenicity of infection and how it can persist in different mammalian hosts. We report the proteomic analysis of the archetype B. burgdorferi B31 strain and two other strains (ND40, and JD-1) having different Borrelia pathotypes using strong cation exchange fractionation of proteolytic peptides followed by high-resolution, reversed phase capillary liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Protein identification was facilitated by the availability of the complete B31 genome sequence. A total of 665 Borrelia proteins were identified representing ~38 % coverage of the theoretical B31 proteome. A significant overlap was observed between the identified proteins in direct comparisons between any two strains (>72%), but distinct differences were observed among identified hypothetical and outer membrane proteins of the three strains. Such a concurrent proteomic overview of three Borrelia strains based upon only the B31 genome sequence is shown to provide significant insights into the presence or absence of specific proteins and a broad overall comparison among strains.

  1. Development of a Multiantigen Panel for Improved Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi Infection in Early Lyme Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahey, Lauren J; Panas, Michael W; Mao, Rong; Delanoy, Michelle; Flanagan, John J; Binder, Steven R; Rebman, Alison W; Montoya, Jose G; Soloski, Mark J; Steere, Allen C; Dattwyler, Raymond J; Arnaboldi, Paul M; Aucott, John N; Robinson, William H

    2015-12-01

    The current standard for laboratory diagnosis of Lyme disease in the United States is serologic detection of antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends a two-tiered testing algorithm; however, this scheme has limited sensitivity for detecting early Lyme disease. Thus, there is a need to improve diagnostics for Lyme disease at the early stage, when antibiotic treatment is highly efficacious. We examined novel and established antigen markers to develop a multiplex panel that identifies early infection using the combined sensitivity of multiple markers while simultaneously maintaining high specificity by requiring positive results for two markers to designate a positive test. Ten markers were selected from our initial analysis of 62 B. burgdorferi surface proteins and synthetic peptides by assessing binding of IgG and IgM to each in a training set of Lyme disease patient samples and controls. In a validation set, this 10-antigen panel identified a higher proportion of early-Lyme-disease patients as positive at the baseline or posttreatment visit than two-tiered testing (87.5% and 67.5%, respectively; P Lyme disease. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Polysynovitis in a horse due to [i]Borrelia burgdorferi[/i] sensu lato infection – Case study

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    Fabrizio Passamonti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lyme borreliosis (LB is a multi-systemic tick-borne disease affecting both humans and animals, including horses, and is caused by a group of interrelated spirochetes classified within the[i] Borrelia burgdorferi [/i]sensu lato (s.l. complex. Despite the high reported seroprevalence in the European equine population for [i]B. burgdorferi[/i] s.l., to-date no documented clinical cases have been described. A 6-year-old Paint gelding was referred with a history of three weeks of fever, intermittent lameness and digital flexor tendon sheath effusion of the right hind limb. Based on a strict diagnostic protocol, which included serological tests for infectious diseases and molecular investigations, a final diagnosis was made of polysynovitis due to [i]B. burgdorferi [/i]s.l. infection. An unreported aspect observed in this case was the absence of the pathogen DNA in two of the affected joints. To the authors’ knowledge, the case described represents the first documented clinical case of equine LB in Italy. Moreover, the absence of pathogen DNA in two of the affected joints observed in this case revealed a possible similarity with the same condition described in humans, where an immunomediated pathogenesis for arthropathy due to [i]B. burgdorferi[/i] s.l. infection is suspected. Since humans and horses share the same habitat, this report supports the role of the horse as potential sentinel for human biological risk.

  3. Partial destruction of Borrelia burgdorferi within ticks that engorged on OspE- or OspF-immunized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T P; Lam, T T; Barthold, S W; Telford, S R; Flavell, R A; Fikrig, E

    1994-05-01

    We determined whether Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface proteins (Osps) E and F could elicit immune responses useful for a Lyme disease vaccine. Thirty days after challenge with B. burgdorferi, mice produced antibodies to OspE but not OspF, whereas antibodies to OspF were present in sera of mice obtained 90 days after infection. Examination of sera from patients with Lyme disease revealed antibodies to OspF in a small number (14%) of early-stage disease patients but in a majority (58%) of patients with late-stage disease, while antibodies to OspE were rarely detected in patients. Mice immunized with recombinant OspE or OspF produced high titers of antibodies to OspE or OspF, respectively. OspF-immunized mice were partially protected from both intradermal syringe challenge and tick-mediated transmission of B. burgdorferi while vaccination with OspE did not confer immunity. B. burgdorferi organisms were, however, substantially destroyed within ticks that engorged on either OspE- (75% reduction in the number of spirochetes within the ticks, compared with controls) or OspF (90% reduction in the number of spirochetes within the ticks)-immunized mice.

  4. A Seventeen-Year Epidemiological Surveillance Study of Borrelia burgdorferi Infections in Two Provinces of Northern Spain

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    Lourdes Lledó

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a 17-year seroepidemiological surveillance study of Borrelia burgdorferi infection, performed with the aim of improving our knowledge of the epidemiology of this pathogen. Serum samples (1,179 from patients (623, stratified with respect to age, sex, season, area of residence and occupation bitten by ticks in two regions of northern Spain were IFA-tested for B. burgdorferi antibodies. Positive results were confirmed by western blotting. Antibodies specific for B. burgdorferi were found in 13.3% of the patients; 7.8% were IgM positive, 9.6% were IgG positive, and 4.33% were both IgM and IgG positive. Five species of ticks were identified in the seropositive patients: Dermacentor marginatus (41.17% of such patients Dermacentor reticulatus (11.76%, Rhiphicephalus sanguineus (17.64%, Rhiphicephalus turanicus (5.88% and Ixodes ricinus (23.52%. B. burgdorferi DNA was sought by PCR in ticks when available. One tick, a D. reticulatus male, was found carrying the pathogen. The seroprevalence found was similar to the previously demonstrated in similar studies in Spain and other European countries.

  5. Evaluation of the importance of VlsE antigenic variation for the enzootic cycle of borrelia burgdorferi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efficient acquisition and transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi by the tick vector, and the ability to persistently infect both vector and host, are important elements for the life cycle of the Lyme disease pathogen. Previous work has provided strong evidence implicating the significance of the vls l...

  6. First detection of Borrelia burgdorferi-antibodies in free-living birds of prey from Eastern Westphalia, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büker, M; Picozzi, K; Kolb, S; Hatt, J-M

    2013-07-01

    Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi sensu lato, the causative agent of Lyme disease, is the most important arthropod-borne zoonosis-pathogen in the Northern hemisphere. Besides small mammals, birds, primarily Passeriformes and sea birds, play an important role in the transmission, distribution and maintenance of this disease. Previous studies on birds have focused mainly on the detection of Borrelia-infected ticks. However, the presence or absence of an infected tick cannot be taken as an indicator of the infective status of the avian host; to date this area of research has not been explored. In this study, serological analyses of blood collected from free-living birds of prey (n = 29) at the rehabilitation centre in Eastern Westphalia, Germany, highlights that birds of prey are also susceptible to B. burgdorferi and react immunologically to an infection. Increased antibody-levels could be found by using a modified Indirect Immunofluorescent-testing in two common buzzards, Buteo buteo, and two eagle owls, Bubo bubo. Further research regarding the serological diagnostics of B. burgdorferi within the avian host is required. In the future, it should be taken into account that birds of prey can be reservoirs for B. burgdorferi, as well as carriers of infected ticks; although at present their epidemiological importance is still to be confirmed.

  7. Are the specialized bird ticks, Ixodes arboricola and I. frontalis, competent vectors for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heylen, D.; Sprong, H.; Oers, van K.; Fonville, M.; Leirs, H.; Matthysen, E.

    2014-01-01

    Our study tested whether two European bird-specialized ticks, Ixodes arboricola and I. frontalis, can act as vectors in the transmission cycles of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. The ticks have contrasting ecologies but share songbird hosts (such as the great tit, Parus major) with the generalist I.

  8. Are the specialized bird ticks, Ixodes arboricola and I. frontalis, competent vectors for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heylen, D.; Sprong, H.; Van Oers, K.; Fonville, M.; Matthysen, E.

    2014-01-01

    Our study tested whether two European bird-specialized ticks, Ixodes arboricola and I. frontalis, can act as vectors in the transmission cycles of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. The ticks have contrasting ecologies but share songbird hosts (such as the great tit, Parus major) with the generalist

  9. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) inhibits Borrelia burgdorferi-induced IL-17 production and attenuates IL-17-mediated Lyme arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Emily S; Medić, Velinka; Kuo, Joseph; Warner, Thomas F; Schell, Ronald F; Nardelli, Dean T

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that cells and cytokines associated with interleukin-17 (IL-17)-driven inflammation are involved in the arthritic response to Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Here, we report that IL-17 is a contributing factor in the development of Lyme arthritis and show that its production and histopathological effects are regulated by interleukin-10 (IL-10). Spleen cells obtained from B. burgdorferi-infected, "arthritis-resistant" wild-type C57BL/6 mice produced low levels of IL-17 following stimulation with the spirochete. In contrast, spleen cells obtained from infected, IL-10-deficient C57BL/6 mice produced a significant amount of IL-17 following stimulation with B. burgdorferi. These mice developed significant arthritis, including erosion of the bones in the ankle joints. We further show that treatment with antibody to IL-17 partially inhibited the significant hind paw swelling and histopathological changes observed in B. burgdorferi-infected, IL-10-deficient mice. Taken together, these findings provide additional evidence of a role for IL-17 in Lyme arthritis and reveal an additional regulatory target of IL-10 following borrelial infection.

  10. Heterogeneity in the abundance and distribution of Ixodes ricinus and Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato) in Scotland: implications for risk prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millins, Caroline; Gilbert, Lucy; Johnson, Paul; James, Marianne; Kilbride, Elizabeth; Birtles, Richard; Biek, Roman

    2016-11-22

    Cases of Lyme borreliosis, a vector-borne zoonosis caused by bacteria in the Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato) species group, have increased in recent years in Europe. Knowledge of environmental factors associated with abundance of the tick vector Ixodes ricinus and the pathogen B. burgdorferi (s.l.) is of interest to understand responses to environmental changes, predict variation in risk and to inform management interventions. Nineteen woodland sites across Scotland were surveyed in 2012 for B. burgdorferi (s.l.) infection in questing I. ricinus nymphs (n = 200 per site), deer abundance and vegetation. Climatic factors were extracted for each site. Six additional sites were surveyed for questing nymphs in both 2012 and 2013 (n = 200 per site and year) to test for variation in B. burgdorferi (s.l.) prevalence between years. The mean prevalence of B. burgdorferi (s.l.) across 19 sites was 1.7% (95% CI: 1.4-2.2%; range 0-6%), all four genospecies known to be present in the UK were detected: B. garinii, B. afzelii, B. burgdorferi (sensu stricto) and B. valaisiana. A higher prevalence of B. burgdorferi (s.l.), higher densities of nymphs and higher densities of infected nymphs were found at sites with warmer climates, estimated with growing degree-days. No association between infection prevalence in nymphs and woodland type (semi-natural mixed vs coniferous) or deer density was found. At six sites sampled in 2012 and 2013, there was a significant increase in B. afzelli prevalence at two sites and a decrease in B. garinii prevalence at one site. This study highlights challenges for the prediction of risk of Lyme borreliosis, reflecting the sensitivity of both pathogen and vector ecology to habitat, host and climatic factors. Significant changes in the prevalence of individual genospecies at sites monitored across time are likely to be due to variability in the host community composition between years. Our results indicate the importance of monitoring dynamic

  11. Reactivity of dog sera to whole-cell or recombinant antigens of Borrelia burgdorferi by ELISA and immunoblot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnarelli, L A; Levy, S A; Ijdo, J W; Wu, C; Padula, S J; Fikrig, E

    2001-10-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) with separate preparations of 10 purified recombinant antigens of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto were used to test sera from 36 dogs not vaccinated with whole cells of this agent and from five dogs vaccinated with whole-cell B. burgdorferi bacteria. All dogs lived in tick-infested areas of Connecticut and south-eastern New York state, USA. The non-vaccinated dogs had limb or joint disorder, lameness and fever during the period 1984-1991 and had antibodies to B. burgdorferi, as determined by a polyvalent ELISA with whole-cell antigen. In re-analyses of sera for total immunoglobulins in ELISAs with recombinant antigens, reactions were most frequently recorded when outer-surface protein (Osp) F, protein (p)35, p37, p39 and p-41G (a flagellin component) were tested separately. Western immunoblots of a subset of 16 sera, positive by ELISA with whole-cell antigen and representing a range of antibody titres (640-40960), verified immune responses to these or other lysed whole-cell antigens. Sera from vaccinated dogs contained antibodies to OspA, OspB, p22, p37 and p41-G. Therefore, serological reactions to OspF, p35 and p39 were the most important indicators of natural exposure to B. burgdorferi. Serum reactivities to these recombinant antigens in ELISAs can be used to help identify possible natural infections of canine borreliosis in dogs not vaccinated with whole-cell B. burgdorferi and to provide information on the geographic distribution of this bacterium.

  12. Selective Essential Oils from Spice or Culinary Herbs Have High Activity against Stationary Phase and BiofilmBorrelia burgdorferi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Zhang, Shuo; Shi, Wanliang; Zubcevik, Nevena; Miklossy, Judith; Zhang, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Although the majority of patients with acute Lyme disease can be cured with the standard 2-4 week antibiotic treatment, about 10-20% of patients continue suffering from chronic symptoms described as posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome. While the cause for this is debated, one possibility is that persister bacteria are not killed by the current Lyme antibiotics and remain active in the system. It has been reported that essential oils have antimicrobial activities and some have been used by patients with persisting Lyme disease symptoms. However, the activity of essential oils against the causative agent Borrelia burgdorferi ( B. burgdorferi ) has not been well studied. Here, we evaluated the activity of 34 essential oils against B. burgdorferi stationary phase culture as a model for persister bacteria. We found that not all essential oils had activity against the B. burgdorferi stationary phase culture, with top five essential oils (oregano, cinnamon bark, clove bud, citronella, and wintergreen) at a low concentration of 0.25% showing high anti-persister activity that is more active than the known persister drug daptomycin. Interestingly, some highly active essential oils were found to have excellent anti-biofilm ability as shown by their ability to dissolve the aggregated biofilm-like structures. The top three hits, oregano, cinnamon bark, and clove bud completely eradicated all viable cells without any regrowth in subculture in fresh medium, whereas but not citronella and wintergreen did not have this effect. Carvacrol was found to be the most active ingredient of oregano oil showing excellent activity against B. burgdorferi stationary phase cells, while other ingredients of oregano oil p-cymene and α-terpinene had no apparent activity. Future studies are needed to characterize and optimize the active essential oils in drug combination studies in vitro and in vivo and to address their safety and pharmacokinetic properties before they can be considered as a

  13. Ability of an oral formulation of afoxolaner to protect dogs from Borrelia burgdorferi infection transmitted by wild Ixodes scapularis ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, C F; McCall, J W; McCall, S D; Drag, M D; Mitchell, E B; Chester, S T; Larsen, D

    2016-12-01

    A randomized, blinded, negative controlled study was conducted to determine whether treatment with afoxolaner (NexGard(®), Merial, Inc.) would prevent the transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi to dogs by wild caught Ixodes scapularis ticks. Twenty healthy dogs were randomly assigned to two groups of ten dogs each. Ten dogs were treated orally on Day 0 at a dose near the minimum recommended dose of afoxolaner of 2.5mg/kg (actual doses 2.5-3.1mg/kg) and ten control dogs were not treated. On Day 28, each dog was infested with approximately 50 adult unfed wild caught I. scapularis that had a 67% B. burgdorferi infection rate (determined by polymerase chain reaction). On Day 33, live ticks were counted and removed. No ticks were found on treated dogs while control dogs had an average of 21.4 ticks. To detect infection, the B. burgdorferi-specific C6 antibody SNAP(®) 4Dx(®) test (IDEXX) was performed on serum collected before infestation (all dogs seronegative on Days -6 and 27) and on Days 48, 63, 77 and 92. The ten treated dogs remained seronegative through the end of the study (Day 92), while nine out of the ten control dogs were infected, as demonstrated by their seroconversion to being positive for the presence of the B. burgdorferi-specific C6 antibody starting on Day 48. In this study, all dogs treated with NexGard(®) 28days prior to challenge with wild caught I. scapularis ticks were protected from B. burgdorferi infection, while nine out of the ten untreated control dogs were infected. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Lyme disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi with two homeologous 16S rRNA genes: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee SH

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sin Hang Lee,1,21Pathology Department, Milford Hospital, Milford, CT, USA; 2Milford Molecular Diagnostics, Milford, CT, USA Abstract: Lyme disease (LD, the most common tick-borne disease in North America, is believed to be caused exclusively by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and is usually diagnosed by clinical evaluation and serologic assays. As reported previously in a peer-reviewed article, a 13-year-old boy living in the Northeast of the USA was initially diagnosed with LD based on evaluation of his clinical presentations and on serologic test results. The patient was treated with a course of oral doxycycline for 28 days, and the symptoms resolved. A year later, the boy developed a series of unusual symptoms and did not attend school for 1 year. A LD specialist reviewed the case and found the serologic test band patterns nondiagnostic of LD. The boy was admitted to a psychiatric hospital. After discharge from the psychiatric hospital, a polymerase chain reaction test performed in a winter month when the boy was 16 years old showed a low density of B. burgdorferi sensu lato in the blood of the patient, confirmed by partial 16S rRNA (ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. Subsequent DNA sequencing analysis presented in this report demonstrated that the spirochete isolate was a novel strain of B. burgdorferi with two homeologous 16S rRNA genes, which has never been reported in the world literature. This case report shows that direct DNA sequencing is a valuable tool for reliable molecular diagnosis of Lyme and related borrelioses, as well as for studies of the diversity of the causative agents of LD because LD patients infected by a rare or novel borrelial variant may produce an antibody pattern that can be different from the pattern characteristic of an infection caused by a typical B. burgdorferi sensu stricto strain. Keywords: Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, homeologous 16S rRNA genes, DNA sequencing

  15. Selective Essential Oils from Spice or Culinary Herbs Have High Activity against Stationary Phase and Biofilm Borrelia burgdorferi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Feng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the majority of patients with acute Lyme disease can be cured with the standard 2–4 week antibiotic treatment, about 10–20% of patients continue suffering from chronic symptoms described as posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome. While the cause for this is debated, one possibility is that persister bacteria are not killed by the current Lyme antibiotics and remain active in the system. It has been reported that essential oils have antimicrobial activities and some have been used by patients with persisting Lyme disease symptoms. However, the activity of essential oils against the causative agent Borrelia burgdorferi (B. burgdorferi has not been well studied. Here, we evaluated the activity of 34 essential oils against B. burgdorferi stationary phase culture as a model for persister bacteria. We found that not all essential oils had activity against the B. burgdorferi stationary phase culture, with top five essential oils (oregano, cinnamon bark, clove bud, citronella, and wintergreen at a low concentration of 0.25% showing high anti-persister activity that is more active than the known persister drug daptomycin. Interestingly, some highly active essential oils were found to have excellent anti-biofilm ability as shown by their ability to dissolve the aggregated biofilm-like structures. The top three hits, oregano, cinnamon bark, and clove bud completely eradicated all viable cells without any regrowth in subculture in fresh medium, whereas but not citronella and wintergreen did not have this effect. Carvacrol was found to be the most active ingredient of oregano oil showing excellent activity against B. burgdorferi stationary phase cells, while other ingredients of oregano oil p-cymene and α-terpinene had no apparent activity. Future studies are needed to characterize and optimize the active essential oils in drug combination studies in vitro and in vivo and to address their safety and pharmacokinetic properties before they can be

  16. Proving lipid rafts exist: membrane domains in the prokaryote Borrelia burgdorferi have the same properties as eukaryotic lipid rafts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J LaRocca

    Full Text Available Lipid rafts in eukaryotic cells are sphingolipid and cholesterol-rich, ordered membrane regions that have been postulated to play roles in many membrane functions, including infection. We previously demonstrated the existence of cholesterol-lipid-rich domains in membranes of the prokaryote, B. burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease [LaRocca et al. (2010 Cell Host & Microbe 8, 331-342]. Here, we show that these prokaryote membrane domains have the hallmarks of eukaryotic lipid rafts, despite lacking sphingolipids. Substitution experiments replacing cholesterol lipids with a set of sterols, ranging from strongly raft-promoting to raft-inhibiting when mixed with eukaryotic sphingolipids, showed that sterols that can support ordered domain formation are both necessary and sufficient for formation of B. burgdorferi membrane domains that can be detected by transmission electron microscopy or in living organisms by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET. Raft-supporting sterols were also necessary and sufficient for formation of high amounts of detergent resistant membranes from B. burgdorferi. Furthermore, having saturated acyl chains was required for a biotinylated lipid to associate with the cholesterol-lipid-rich domains in B. burgdorferi, another characteristic identical to that of eukaryotic lipid rafts. Sterols supporting ordered domain formation were also necessary and sufficient to maintain B. burgdorferi membrane integrity, and thus critical to the life of the organism. These findings provide compelling evidence for the existence of lipid rafts and show that the same principles of lipid raft formation apply to prokaryotes and eukaryotes despite marked differences in their lipid compositions.

  17. Neural Semantic Encoders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkhdalai, Tsendsuren; Yu, Hong

    2017-04-01

    We present a memory augmented neural network for natural language understanding: Neural Semantic Encoders. NSE is equipped with a novel memory update rule and has a variable sized encoding memory that evolves over time and maintains the understanding of input sequences through read, compose and write operations. NSE can also access multiple and shared memories. In this paper, we demonstrated the effectiveness and the flexibility of NSE on five different natural language tasks: natural language inference, question answering, sentence classification, document sentiment analysis and machine translation where NSE achieved state-of-the-art performance when evaluated on publically available benchmarks. For example, our shared-memory model showed an encouraging result on neural machine translation, improving an attention-based baseline by approximately 1.0 BLEU.

  18. Borrelia burgdorferi RNA Induces Type I and III Interferons via Toll-Like Receptor 7 and Contributes to Production of NF-κB-Dependent Cytokines

    OpenAIRE

    Love, Andrea C.; Schwartz, Ira; Petzke, Mary M.

    2014-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi elicits a potent cytokine response through activation of multiple signaling receptors on innate immune cells. Spirochetal lipoproteins initiate expression of NF-κB-dependent cytokines primarily via TLR2, whereas type I interferon (IFN) production is induced through the endosomal receptors TLR7 and TLR9 in human dendritic cells and TLR8 in monocytes. We demonstrate that DNA and RNA are the B. burgdorferi components that initiate a type I IFN response by human peripheral bl...

  19. Prevalence of Babesia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in hard ticks collected from meadows of Lubelskie Voivodship (eastern Poland)

    OpenAIRE

    Dzięgiel Beata; Kubrak Tomasz; Adaszek Łukasz; Dębiak Piotr; Wyłupek Dagmara; Bogucka-Kocka Anna; Lechowski Jerzy; Winiarczyk Stanisław

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the distribution of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and Babesia canis in adult females and males of Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks, inhabiting meadows near large forest complexes throughout the Lubelskie Voivodship (eastern region of Poland). Ticks were collected using the flagging method. Among 720 ticks collected, 506 were identified as D. reticulatus, and 214 as I. ricinus. DNA of B. canis and B. burgdorferi s...

  20. A monoclonal antibody to Borrelia burgdorferi flagellin modifies neuroblastoma cell neuritogenesis in vitro: a possible role for autoimmunity in the neuropathy of Lyme disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Sigal, L. H.; Williams, S

    1997-01-01

    Although Borrelia burgdorferi is found at the site of many manifestations of Lyme disease, local infection may not explain all features of the disease. Previous work has demonstrated that the organism's flagellin cross-reacts with a component of human peripheral nerve axon, heat shock protein 60. The cross-reacting epitope is identified by a single anti-B. burgdorferi flagellin monoclonal antibody, H9724. We now report that the spontaneous and peptide growth factor-stimulated in vitro neurito...

  1. The OspE-Related Proteins Inhibit Complement Deposition and Enhance Serum Resistance of Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme Disease Spirochete ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenedy, Melisha R.; Akins, Darrin R.

    2011-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease spirochete, binds the host complement inhibitors factor H (FH) and FH-like protein 1 (FHL-1). Binding of FH/FHL-1 by the B. burgdorferi proteins CspA and the OspE-related proteins is thought to enhance resistance to serum-mediated killing. While previous reports have shown that CspA confers serum resistance in B. burgdorferi, it is unclear whether the OspE-related proteins are relevant in B. burgdorferi serum resistance when OspE is expressed on the borrelial surface. To assess the role of the OspE-related proteins, we overexpressed them in a serum-sensitive CspA mutant strain. OspE overexpression enhanced serum resistance of the CspA-deficient organisms. Furthermore, FH was more efficiently bound to the B. burgdorferi surface when OspE was overexpressed. Deposition of complement components C3 and C5b-9 (the membrane attack complex), however, was reduced on the surface of the OspE-overexpressing strain compared to that on the CspA mutant strain. These data demonstrate that OspE proteins expressed on the surface of B. burgdorferi bind FH and protect the organism from complement deposition and subsequent serum-mediated destruction. PMID:21282413

  2. Borrelia burgdorferi RevA Antigen Is a Surface-Exposed Outer Membrane Protein Whose Expression Is Regulated in Response to Environmental Temperature and pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, James A.; El-Hage, Nazira; Miller, Jennifer C.; Babb, Kelly; Stevenson, Brian

    2001-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, produces RevA protein during the early stages of mammalian infection. B. burgdorferi apparently uses temperature as a cue to its location, producing proteins required for infection of warm-blooded animals at temperatures corresponding to host body temperature, but does not produce such virulence factors at cooler, ambient temperatures. We have observed that B. burgdorferi regulates expression of RevA in response to temperature, with the protein being synthesized by bacteria cultivated at 34°C but not by those grown at 23°C. Tissues encountered by B. burgdorferi during its infectious cycle vary in their pH values, and the level of RevA expression was also found to be dependent upon pH of the culture medium. The cellular localization of RevA was also analyzed. Borrelial inner and outer membranes were purified by isopycnic centrifugation, and membrane fractions were conclusively identified by immunoblot analysis using antibodies raised against the integral inner membrane protein MotB and outer membrane-associated Erp lipoproteins. Immunoblot analyses indicated that RevA is located in the B. burgdorferi outer membrane. These analyses also demonstrated that an earlier report (H. A. Bledsoe et al., Infect. Immun. 176:7447–7455, 1994) had misidentified such B. burgdorferi membrane fractions. RevA was further demonstrated to be exposed to the external environment, where it could facilitate interactions with host tissues. PMID:11500397

  3. Selective association of outer surface lipoproteins with the lipid rafts of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Alvaro; Crowley, Jameson T; Coleman, James L; LaRocca, Timothy J; Chiantia, Salvatore; London, Erwin; Benach, Jorge L

    2014-03-11

    Borrelia burgdorferi contains unique cholesterol-glycolipid-rich lipid rafts that are associated with lipoproteins. These complexes suggest the existence of macromolecular structures that have not been reported for prokaryotes. Outer surface lipoproteins OspA, OspB, and OspC were studied for their participation in the formation of lipid rafts. Single-gene deletion mutants with deletions of ospA, ospB, and ospC and a spontaneous gene mutant, strain B313, which does not express OspA and OspB, were used to establish their structural roles in the lipid rafts. All mutant strains used in this study produced detergent-resistant membranes, a common characteristic of lipid rafts, and had similar lipid and protein slot blot profiles. Lipoproteins OspA and OspB but not OspC were shown to be associated with lipid rafts by transmission electron microscopy. When the ability to form lipid rafts in live B. burgdorferi spirochetes was measured by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), strain B313 showed a statistically significant lower level of segregation into ordered and disordered membrane domains than did the wild-type and the other single-deletion mutants. The transformation of a B313 strain with a shuttle plasmid containing ospA restored the phenotype shared by the wild type and the single-deletion mutants, demonstrating that OspA and OspB have redundant functions. In contrast, a transformed B313 overexpressing OspC neither rescued the FRET nor colocalized with the lipid rafts. Because these lipoproteins are expressed at different stages of the life cycle of B. burgdorferi, their selective association is likely to have an important role in the structure of prokaryotic lipid rafts and in the organism's adaptation to changing environments. IMPORTANCE Lipid rafts are cholesterol-rich clusters within the membranes of cells. Lipid rafts contain proteins that have functions in sensing the cell environment and transmitting signals. Although selective proteins are present in

  4. Prevalence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto in humans from a Cuban village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islay Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Lyme disease has not been officially reported in Cuba. However, clinical cases have been serologically reported. Seroprevalence survey of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto antibodies in humans in the country has not been conducted. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of borrelial antibodies in inhabitants of a village with historically high level of tick infestation. METHODS: Serum specimens from 247 persons randomly selected from the population of the village were examined by IgG Western blot using B31 strain for estimating the prevalence of antibodies profile. RESULTS: A seroprevalence value interval (95% CI of 0.6%-7.2% was estimated for the studied population. The prevalent borrelial protein bands on immunoblots were 41, 72, 90/93, 34, 47, 60, 58, 56, 65/66 and 31 kDa in a decreasing order of significance. CONCLUSION: These results support the previous serological findings, suggesting the presence of this borreliosis in Cuba.

  5. Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in dogs from Cotia county, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOPPERT Adriana Marques

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Dogs sera samples collected from Cotia County, São Paulo were tested using indirect immunoenzymatic test (ELISA in order to study Lyme disease serology in dogs. ELISA method was standardized and G39/40 North American strain of Borrelia burgdorferi was used as antigen. Positive results were confirmed employing the Western blotting technique. Because of the possibility of cross-reactions, sera were also tested for different serological strains of Leptospira interrogans and L. biflexa using microscopic sera agglutination test. Twenty-three of 237 (9.7% serum samples were positive in the ELISA; 20 of them (86.9% were confirmed by the Western blotting, what suggests that Cotia may be a risk area for Lyme disease. Although 4 samples (1.7% were positive for Lyme disease and leptospirosis, no correlation was found between the results (X² = 0.725; p = 0.394 what suggests absence of serological cross reactivity.

  6. Flagellin and outer surface proteins from Borrelia burgdorferi are not glycosylated

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štěrba, J.; Vancová, Marie; Rudenko, Natalia; Golovchenko, Maryna; Tremblay, T.-L.; Kelly, J. F.; MacKenzie, R. C.; Logan, S. M.; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 190, č. 7 (2008), s. 2619-2623 ISSN 0021-9193 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009; GA ČR GD524/03/H133 Grant - others:Grantová agentura Jihočeské univerzity v Českých Budějovicích(CZ) GAJU 45/2006/P-BF; Grantová agentura Jihočeské univerzity v Českých Budějovicích(CZ) GAJU 30/2005/P-BF Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi * glycosylation * flagellin Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.636, year: 2008

  7. Risk of occupational infections caused by Borrelia burgdorferi among forestry workers and farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Tokarska-Rodak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the work was to analyze the incidence of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi in forestry workers and farmers, major groups occupationally exposed to tick bites. Material and Methods: The study group included 275 workers (171 foresters and 104 farmers. The control group consisted of 45 people, who have not been occupationally exposed to tick bites. The screening Elisa and Wb tests for the presence of anti-Borrelia IgM/IgG antibodies were performed in all subjects of the study and control groups. Statistical analysis was performed using the Chi2 test. Results: The positive results denoting the presence of anti-Borrelia IgM/IgG antibodies were found in 55% of farmers and 28% of foresters occupationally exposed to Lyme borreliosis and coming from the area of South Podlasie Lowland and Lublin Polesie. The differences between the forestry workers and the control group (p ≤ 0.00001 and between farmers and the control group (p ≤ 0.001 were statistically significant. The species, such as B. spielmanii and B. bavariensis, which have not yet been reported in Poland, are significant etiologic agents of Lyme disease. Conclusion: The risk of occupational exposure to the B. burgdorferi infection is high for foresters and farmers, and the infection with spirochetes is frequently confirmed on the basis of positive results of the Wb test. The presence of specific antibodies against protein antigens of B. spielmanii and B. bavariensis suggest that these bacteria can cause Lyme disease both independently and in participation with other Borrelia species, which influences the development of the clinical manifestations of infection. Med Pr 2014;65(1:109–117

  8. Individual and environmental factors associated with the seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in Belgian farmers and veterinarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde De Keukeleire

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lyme disease (LD is a common tick-borne disease in Europe. Diverse factors at various scales determine the spatial distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi infection risk and a better understanding of those factors in a spatially explicit framework is needed for disease management and prevention. While the ecology of ticks and the landscape favoring their abundance have been extensively studied, the environmental conditions favoring an intense contact with susceptible humans, including groups at risk, are sparse. The aim of this study is to assess which individual and environmental factors can favor B. burgdorferi infection in a Belgian group professionally at risk. Methods: Serological results of 127 veterinarians and farmers enrolled in this study were analyzed, taking into account their municipality of residence. Using binary logistic regression and considering interaction terms, the joint effects of landscape composition and configuration, and forest and wildlife management were examined. Results: Seven of the 127 workers were seropositive for LD, leading to a seroprevalence of 5.51%. Seropositivity was higher in older persons. The proportion of forest and semi-natural habitats and wetland had a positive impact on LD seroprevalence while arable land–grassland ecotones had a negative one. Our results confirmed the need to consider complex interactions between landscape variables in order to model risk. Conclusions: Our data show that LD has to be considered as a risk for farmers and veterinarians. Rather than focusing either on ecological aspects of tick and pathogen distribution or on purely epidemiological aspects such as individual risk factors, our model highlights the role of human–environment interactions in LD risk assessment.

  9. [Risk of occupational infections caused by Borrelia burgdorferi among forestry workers and farmers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarska-Rodak, Małgorzata; Plewik, Dorota; Kozioł-Montewka, Maria; Szepeluk, Adam; Paszkiewicz, Justyna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the work was to analyze the incidence of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi in forestry workers and farmers, major groups occupationally exposed to tick bites. The study group included 275 workers (171 foresters and 104 farmers). The control group consisted of 45 people, who have not been occupationally exposed to tick bites. The screening Elisa and Wb tests for the presence of anti-Borrelia IgM/IgG antibodies were performed in all subjects of the study and control groups. Statistical analysis was performed using the Chi2 test. The positive results denoting the presence of anti-Borrelia IgM/IgG antibodies were found in 55% of farmers and 28% of foresters occupationally exposed to Lyme borreliosis and coming from the area of South Podlasie Lowland and Lublin Polesie. The differences between the forestry workers and the control group (p < or = 0.00001) and between farmers and the control group (p < or = 0.001) were statistically significant. The species, such as B. spielmanii and B. bavariensis, which have not yet been reported in Poland, are significant etiologic agents of Lyme disease. The risk of occupational exposure to the B. burgdorferi infection is high for foresters and farmers, and the infection with spirochetes is frequently confirmed on the basis of positive results of the Wb test. The presence of specific antibodies against protein antigens of B. spielmanii and B. bavariensis suggest that these bacteria can cause Lyme disease both independently and in participation with other Borrelia species, which influences the development of the clinical manifestations of infection.

  10. Antibody responses to Borrelia burgdorferi detected by western blot vary geographically in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Nicholas H; Arsenault, Julie; Hatchette, Todd F; Mechai, Samir; Lindsay, L Robbin

    2017-01-01

    Lyme disease is emerging in eastern and central Canada, and most cases are diagnosed using the two-tier serological test (Enzyme Immuno Assay [EIA] followed by Western blot [WB]). Simplification of this algorithm would be advantageous unless it impacts test performance. In this study, accuracy of individual proteins of the IgG WB algorithm in predicting the overall test result in samples from Canadians was assessed. Because Borrelia burgdorferi strains vary geographically in Canada, geographic variations in serological responses were also explored. Metrics of relative sensitivity, specificity and the kappa statistic measure of concordance were used to assess the capacity of responses to individual proteins to predict the overall IgG WB result of 2524 EIA (C6)-positive samples from across Canada. Geographic and interannual variations in proportions of samples testing positive were explored by logistic regression. No one protein was highly concordant with the IgG WB result. Significant variations were found amongst years and geographic regions in the prevalence of samples testing positive using the overall IgG WB algorithm, and for individual proteins of the algorithm. In most cases the prevalence of samples testing positive were highest in Nova Scotia, and lower in samples from Manitoba westwards. These findings suggest that the current two tier test may not be simplified and continued use of the current two-tier test method and interpretation is recommended. Geographic and interannual variations in the prevalence of samples testing positive may be consistent with B. burgdorferi strain variation in Canada, and further studies are needed to explore this.

  11. Novel methods for surveying reservoir hosts and vectors of Borrelia burgdorferi in Northern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Veronica Aili

    Lyme disease is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in North America and presents challenges to clinicians, researchers and the public in diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Lyme disease is caused by the spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, which is a zoonotic pathogen obligate upon hematophagous arthropod vectors and propagates in small mammal reservoir hosts. Identifying factors governing zoonotic diseases within regions of high-risk provides local health and agricultural agencies with necessary information to formulate public policy and implement treatment protocols to abate the rise and expansion of infectious disease outbreaks. In the United States, the documented primary reservoir host of Lyme disease is the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus, and the arthropod vector is the deer tick, Ixodes scapularis. Reducing the impact of Lyme disease will need novel methods for identifying both the reservoir host and the tick vector. The reservoir host, Peromyscus leucopus is difficult to distinguish from the virtually identical Peromyscus maniculatus that also is present in Northern Minnesota, a region where Lyme disease is endemic. Collection of the Ixodes tick, the Lyme disease vector, is difficult as this is season dependent and differs from year to year. This study develops new strategies to assess the extent of Borrelia burgdorferi in the local environment of Northern Minnesota. A selective and precise method to identify Peromyscus species was developed. This assay provides a reliable and definitive method to identify the reservoir host, Peromyscus leucopus from a physically identical and sympatric Peromyscus species, Peromyscus maniculatus. A new strategy to collect ticks for measuring the disbursement of Borrelia was employed. Students from local high schools were recruited to collect ticks. This strategy increased the available manpower to cover greater terrain, provided students with valuable experience in research methodology, and highlighted the

  12. Co-feeding transmission facilitates strain coexistence in Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. States

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Coexistence of multiple tick-borne pathogens or strains is common in natural hosts and can be facilitated by resource partitioning of the host species, within-host localization, or by different transmission pathways. Most vector-borne pathogens are transmitted horizontally via systemic host infection, but transmission may occur in the absence of systemic infection between two vectors feeding in close proximity, enabling pathogens to minimize competition and escape the host immune response. In a laboratory study, we demonstrated that co-feeding transmission can occur for a rapidly-cleared strain of Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease agent, between two stages of the tick vector Ixodes scapularis while feeding on their dominant host, Peromyscus leucopus. In contrast, infections rapidly became systemic for the persistently infecting strain. In a field study, we assessed opportunities for co-feeding transmission by measuring co-occurrence of two tick stages on ears of small mammals over two years at multiple sites. Finally, in a modeling study, we assessed the importance of co-feeding on R0, the basic reproductive number. The model indicated that co-feeding increases the fitness of rapidly-cleared strains in regions with synchronous immature tick feeding. Our results are consistent with increased diversity of B. burgdorferi in areas of higher synchrony in immature feeding – such as the midwestern United States. A higher relative proportion of rapidly-cleared strains, which are less human pathogenic, would also explain lower Lyme disease incidence in this region. Finally, if co-feeding transmission also occurs on refractory hosts, it may facilitate the emergence and persistence of new pathogens with a more limited host range.

  13. Assessment of MALDI-TOF MS biotyping for Borrelia burgdorferi sl detection in Ixodes ricinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Pierre H; Boulanger, Nathalie; Nebbak, Amira; Collin, Elodie; Jaulhac, Benoit; Almeras, Lionel

    2017-01-01

    Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been demonstrated to be useful for tick identification at the species level. More recently, this tool has been successfully applied for the detection of bacterial pathogens directly in tick vectors. The present work has assessed the detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus tick vector by MALDI-TOF MS. To this aim, experimental infection model of I. ricinus ticks by B. afzelii was carried out and specimens collected in the field were also included in the study. Borrelia infectious status of I. ricinus ticks was molecularly controlled using half-idiosome to classify specimens. Among the 39 ticks engorged on infected mice, 14 were confirmed to be infected by B. afzelii. For field collection, 14.8% (n = 12/81) I. ricinus ticks were validated molecularly as infected by B. burgdorferi sl. To determine the body part allowing the detection of MS protein profile changes between non-infected and B. afzelii infected specimens, ticks were dissected in three compartments (i.e. 4 legs, capitulum and half-idiosome) prior to MS analysis. Highly reproducible MS spectra were obtained for I. ricinus ticks according to the compartment tested and their infectious status. However, no MS profile change was found when paired body part comparison between non-infected and B. afzelii infected specimens was made. Statistical analyses did not succeed to discover, per body part, specific MS peaks distinguishing Borrelia-infected from non-infected ticks whatever their origins, laboratory reared or field collected. Despite the unsuccessful of MALDI-TOF MS to classify tick specimens according to their B. afzelii infectious status, this proteomic tool remains a promising method for rapid, economic and accurate identification of tick species. Moreover, the singularity of MS spectra between legs and half-idiosome of I. ricinus could be used to reinforce this proteomic identification

  14. A fluorescent bead-based multiplex assay for the simultaneous detection of antibodies to B. burgdorferi outer surface proteins in canine serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, B; Freer, H; Rollins, A; Erb, H N

    2011-04-15

    Lyme disease is a zoonotic, vector-borne disease affecting humans, dogs, horses and other species. It is caused by infection with spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato group which are transmitted to the mammalian host by infected ticks (Ixodes). Exposure to B. burgdorferi is commonly diagnosed by serological testing. The gold standard for the detection of antibodies to B. burgdorferi is a two-step procedure of an ELISA followed by confirmatory Western blotting (WB). Here, we developed and validated a new bead-based multiplex assay for the detection of antibodies to B. burgdorferi in canine serum which combined the testing by ELISA and WB in a single quantitative test. B. burgdorferi outer surface protein A (OspA), OspC and OspF were expressed in E. coli. The recombinant proteins were coupled to fluorescent beads providing the matrix of the assay. Two sets of canine sera were used for validation of the multiplex assay. First, sera from 79 dogs with known ELISA and WB results were used to establish the conditions of the assay. These samples were selected to provide similar numbers of pre-tested sera ranging from negative to high positive results and included sera from vaccinated and/or naturally infected dogs. A high correlation was observed for detection of antibodies to B. burgdorferi in the single and multiplex assays (n=79). Spearman's rank correlations were 0.93, 0.88 and 0.96 for OspA, OspC and OspF, respectively. Second, a total of 188 canine serum samples that were not tested previously were used for further multiplex assay validation. All samples were also blindly analyzed for antibodies to B. burgdorferi antigens by WB. The WB results provided a 'relative gold standard' for each antigen and were used to perform a receiver operating curve analysis. The areas under the curves were 0.93 for OspA, 0.82 for OspC, and 0.89 for OspF. Multiplex assay interpretation ranges for antibodies to all three B. burgdorferi antigens in canine serum were

  15. Efficacy of sarolaner in the prevention of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum transmission from infected Ixodes scapularis to dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honsberger, Nicole A; Six, Robert H; Heinz, Thomas J; Weber, Angela; Mahabir, Sean P; Berg, Thomas C

    2016-05-30

    The efficacy of sarolaner (Simparica™, Zoetis) to prevent transmission primarily of Borrelia burgdorferi and secondarily of Anaplasma phagocytophilum from infected wild-caught Ixodes scapularis to dogs was evaluated in a placebo-controlled laboratory study. Twenty-four purpose-bred laboratory Beagles seronegative for B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum antibodies were allocated randomly to one of three treatment groups: placebo administered orally on Days 0 and 7, or sarolaner at 2mg/kg administered orally on Day 0 (28 days prior to tick infestation) or on Day 7 (21 days prior to tick infestation). On Day 28, each dog was infested with approximately 25 female and 25 male wild caught adult I. scapularis that were determined to have prevalence of 57% for B. burgdorferi and 6.7% for A. phagocytophilum by PCR. In situ tick counts were conducted on Days 29 and 30. On Day 33, all ticks were counted and removed. Acaricidal efficacy was calculated based on the reduction of geometric mean live tick counts in the sarolaner-treated groups compared to the placebo-treated group for each tick count. Blood samples collected from each dog on Days 27, 49, 63, 77, 91 and 104 were tested for the presence of B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum antibodies using the SNAP(®) 4Dx(®) Plus Test, and quantitatively assayed for B. burgdorferi antibodies using an ELISA test. Skin biopsies collected on Day 104 were tested for the presence of B. burgdorferi by bacterial culture and PCR. Geometric mean live tick counts for placebo-treated dogs were 14.8, 12.8, and 19.1 on Days 29, 30, and 33, respectively. The percent reductions in mean live tick counts at 1, 2, and 5 days after infestation were 86.3%, 100%, and 100% for the group treated with sarolaner 21 days prior to infestation, and 90.9%, 97.1%, and 100% for the group treated with sarolaner 28 days prior to infestation. Geometric mean live tick counts for both sarolaner-treated groups were significantly lower than those for the

  16. Mechanisms of infection by pathogens transmitted by ticks on the example of bacteria: Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Wróblewska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tick-borne diseases are transmission diseases belonging to the group of zoonoses but carried by ticks. These diseases are a major public health problem but also a problem for groups occupationally exposed to tick bites. Ixodes ricinus is a species of ticks which is the most common reservoir and the vector of a large number of microorganisms pathogenic to humans. It transfers, among others, bacteria of the species: Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi. The article discusses the mechanisms of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum for both ticks as well as for animals and humans. The two microorganisms discussed have developed many characteristics and mechanisms of adaptation to the environment, as well as defense mechanisms against the body's immune response. Understanding the biology of ticks and the function of proteins produced by ticks and pathogenic microorganisms is the key in the development of effective treatments and prevention of Lyme disease and anaplasmosis.

  17. Detection of Lyme Disease Bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, in Blacklegged Ticks Collected in the Grand River Valley, Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, John D.; Foley, Janet E.; Anderson, John F.; Clark, Kerry L.; Durden, Lance A.

    2017-01-01

    We document the presence of blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis, in the Grand River valley, Centre Wellington, Ontario. Overall, 15 (36%) of 42 I. scapularis adults collected from 41 mammalian hosts (dogs, cats, humans) were positive for the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.). Using real-time PCR testing and DNA sequencing of the flagellin (fla) gene, we determined that Borrelia amplicons extracted from I. scapularis adults belonged to B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.), which is pathogenic to humans and certain domestic animals. Based on the distribution of I. scapularis adults within the river basin, it appears likely that migratory birds provide an annual influx of I. scapularis immatures during northward spring migration. Health-care providers need to be aware that local residents can present with Lyme disease symptoms anytime during the year. PMID:28260991

  18. Encoding the Factorisation Calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuben N. S. Rowe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Jay and Given-Wilson have recently introduced the Factorisation (or SF- calculus as a minimal fundamental model of intensional computation. It is a combinatory calculus containing a special combinator, F, which is able to examine the internal structure of its first argument. The calculus is significant in that as well as being combinatorially complete it also exhibits the property of structural completeness, i.e. it is able to represent any function on terms definable using pattern matching on arbitrary normal forms. In particular, it admits a term that can decide the structural equality of any two arbitrary normal forms. Since SF-calculus is combinatorially complete, it is clearly at least as powerful as the more familiar and paradigmatic Turing-powerful computational models of Lambda Calculus and Combinatory Logic. Its relationship to these models in the converse direction is less obvious, however. Jay and Given-Wilson have suggested that SF-calculus is strictly more powerful than the aforementioned models, but a detailed study of the connections between these models is yet to be undertaken. This paper begins to bridge that gap by presenting a faithful encoding of the Factorisation Calculus into the Lambda Calculus preserving both reduction and strong normalisation. The existence of such an encoding is a new result. It also suggests that there is, in some sense, an equivalence between the former model and the latter. We discuss to what extent our result constitutes an equivalence by considering it in the context of some previously defined frameworks for comparing computational power and expressiveness.

  19. Role of small mammals in the ecology of Borrelia burgdorferi in a peri-urban park in north coastal California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peavy, C A; Lane, R S; Kleinjan, J E

    1997-08-01

    The role of small mammals other than woodrats in the enzootiology of the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgorferi, was assessed in the peri-urban park. Mammals were collected monthly from September through to April. Following tick removal, the animals were tested for B. burgdorferi by culture of ear-punch biopsies. Larvae and nymphs that were intermediate in morphology between Ixodes spinipalpis and Ixodes neotomae occurred on several species of rodents (Peromyscus truei, Peromyscus californicus, Microtus californicus, Rattus rattus and Reithrodontomys megalotis) and the brush rabbit (Sylvilagus bachmani). Morphometric analyses of these I. spinipalpis-like ticks and the offspring from two I. neotomae females from the site suggest that I. neotomae may bo conspecific with I. spinipalpis. Borrelia burgdorferi was isolated from eight out of 109 (7.3%), three out of 16 (18.8%), two out of 38 (5.3%) and two out of six (33.3%) P. truei, P. maniculatus, M. californicus and R. rattus, respectively. One bush rabbit yielded the first isolate of B. burgdorferi from a lagomorph in western North America. This isolate and three others derived from unfed I. spinipalpis-like nymphs failed to produce infection when inoculated intradermally into 11-12 P. maniculatus each. Likewise, no spirochetes were detected in 420 Ixodes pacificus nymphs derived from larvae fed on animals inoculated with these isolates. An additional isolate, derived from an I. spinipalpis-like nymph, was recovered by ear-punch biopsies from five our of 12 (42%) needle-inoculated P. maniculatus. However, spirochetes were not detected in 20 I. pacificus nymphs fed as larvae on each of five mice (two infected and three uninfected) inoculated with this isolate. We conclude that brush rabbits and several species of rodents besides woodrats may contribute to the maintenance of B. burgdorferi because they harbour the spirochete and are fed upon by competent enzootic vectors.

  20. Europe-Wide Meta-Analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Prevalence in Questing Ixodes ricinus Ticks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strnad, Martin; Hönig, Václav; Růžek, Daniel; Grubhoffer, Libor; Rego, Ryan O. M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 15 (2017), č. článku e00609-17. ISSN 0099-2240 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278976 - ANTIGONE; European Commission(XE) 602272 - ANTIDotE Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato * tick * Ixodes ricinus * genospecies * meta-analysis * Lyme borreliosis * Lyme disease Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.807, year: 2016

  1. Coexistence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. genospecies within Ixodes ricinus ticks from central and eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert; Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Chorostowska-Wynimko, Joanna; Szpechciński, Adam; Supergan-Marwicz, Marta; Horbowicz, Marcin; Szwed, Magdalena; Czerniewicz, Paweł; Sprawka, Iwona

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the prevalence and coinfection rates of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genotypes in Ixodes ricinus (L.) ticks sampled from diverse localities in central and eastern regions of Poland. In years 2009-2011, questing nymphs and adults of I. ricinus were collected using a flagging method at 18 localities representing distinct ecosystem types: urban green areas, suburban forests and rural woodlands. Molecular detection of B. burgdorferi s.l. genospecies was based on amplification of a fla gene using nested PCR technique, subsequent PCR-RFLP analysis and bidirectional sequencing. It was revealed that 45 samples (2.1%) harboured two different B. burgdorferi s.l. genospecies, whereas triple infections with various spirochetes was found in 11 (0.5%) individuals. Generally, the highest average coinfection rates were evidenced in arachnids gathered at rural woodlands, intermediate at suburban forests, while the lowest were recorded at urban green areas. Overall, single spirochete infections were noted in 16.3% (n = 352/2,153) ticks. Importantly, it is the first report evidencing the occurrence of Borrelia miyamotoi (0.3%, n = 7/2153) in I. ricinus populations within central Poland. Circumstantial variability of B. burgdorferi s.l. genospecies in the common tick individuals sampled at various habitat types in central and eastern Poland was displayed. The coexistence of two or three different spirochete genospecies in single adult ticks, as well as the presence of B. miyamotoi were demonstrated. Therefore, further studies uncovering the co-circulation of the tested bacteria and other human pathogens in I. ricinus ticks are required.

  2. Patterns of tick infestation and their Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. infection in wild birds in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norte, A C; da Silva, L P; Tenreiro, P J Q; Felgueiras, M S; Araújo, P M; Lopes, P B; Matos, C; Rosa, A; Ferreira, P J S G; Encarnação, P; Rocha, A; Escudero, R; Anda, P; Núncio, M S; Lopes de Carvalho, I

    2015-09-01

    Wild birds may act as reservoirs for zoonotic pathogens and may be mechanical carriers of pathogen infected vector ticks through long distances during migration. The aim of this study was to assess tick infestation patterns in birds in Portugal and the prevalence of tick infection by Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. using PCR techniques. Seven tick species were collected from birds including Haemaphysalis punctata, Hyalomma spp., Ixodes acuminatus, Ixodes arboricola, Ixodes frontalis, Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes ventalloi. We found that I. frontalis and Hyalomma spp. were the most common ticks infesting birds of several species and that they were widespread in Portugal. Turdus merula was the bird species that presented the highest diversity of infesting ticks and had one of the highest infestation intensities. B. burgdorferi s.l. was detected in 7.3% (37/505) of Ixodidae ticks derived from birds. The most common genospecies was Borrelia turdi (6.9%), detected in ticks collected from Parus major, T. merula and Turdus philomelos, but Borrelia valaisiana (0.2%) and one Borrelia sp. (0.2%) similar to Borrelia bissettii (96% of similarity of the flaB gene in Blastn) were also detected. This study contributed to a better knowledge of the Ixodidae tick fauna parasitizing birds in Western Europe and to the assessment of the prevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. associated with birds and their ticks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of Borrelia burgdorferi BbHtrA Protease as a Vaccine Candidate for Lyme Borreliosis in Mice.

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    Amy J Ullmann

    Full Text Available Borrelia burgdorferi synthesizes an HtrA protease (BbHtrA which is a surface-exposed, conserved protein within Lyme disease spirochetes with activity toward CheX and BmpD of Borrelia spp, as well as aggrecan, fibronectin and proteoglycans found in skin, joints and neural tissues of vertebrates. An antibody response against BbHtrA is observed in Lyme disease patients and in experimentally infected laboratory mice and rabbits. Given the surface location of BbHtrA on B. burgdorferi and its ability to elicit an antibody response in infected hosts, we explored recombinant BbHtrA as a potential vaccine candidate in a mouse model of tick-transmitted Lyme disease. We immunized mice with two forms of BbHtrA: the proteolytically active native form and BbHtrA ablated of activity by a serine to alanine mutation at amino acid 226 (BbHtrA(S226A. Although inoculation with either BbHtrA or BbHtrA(S226A produced high-titer antibody responses in C3H/HeJ mice, neither antigen was successful in protecting mice from B. burgdorferi challenge. These results indicate that the search for novel vaccine candidates against Lyme borreliosis remains a challenge.

  4. Epitope mapping of antibodies to VlsE protein of Borrelia burgdorferi in post-Lyme disease syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Abhishek; Latov, Norman; Wormser, Gary P; Marques, Adriana R; Alaedini, Armin

    2011-10-01

    The VlsE lipoprotein of Borrelia burgdorferi elicits a strong immune response during the course of Lyme disease. The present study was aimed at characterization of the epitopes of VlsE targeted by the antibody response in patients with post-Lyme disease syndrome, a condition characterized by persisting symptoms of pain, fatigue, and/or neurocognitive impairment despite antibiotic treatment of B. burgdorferi infection. Epitope mapping was carried out using microarrays that contained synthesized overlapping peptides covering the full sequence of VlsE from B. burgdorferi B31. In addition to the previously characterized IR6 region in the variable domain, specific sequences in the N- and C-terminal invariable domains of VlsE were found to be major B cell epitopes in affected patients. The crystal structure of VlsE indicated that the newly described epitopes form a contiguous region in the surface-exposed membrane-proximal part of the monomeric form of the protein. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. DNA Sequencing Diagnosis of Off-Season Spirochetemia with Low Bacterial Density in Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia miyamotoi Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sin Hang Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A highly conserved 357-bp segment of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene (16S rDNA of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and the correspondent 358-bp segment of the Borrelia miyamotoi gene were amplified by a single pair of nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR primers for detection, and the amplicons were used as the templates for direct Sanger DNA sequencing. Reliable molecular diagnosis of these borreliae was confirmed by sequence alignment analysis of the hypervariable regions of the PCR amplicon, using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST provided by the GenBank. This methodology can detect and confirm B. burgdorferi and B. miyamotoi in blood samples of patients with off-season spirochetemia of low bacterial density. We found four B. miyamotoi infections among 14 patients with spirochetemia, including one patient co-infected by both B. miyamotoi and B. burgdorferi in a winter month when human exposure to tick bites is very limited in the Northeast of the U.S.A. We conclude that sensitive and reliable tests for these two Borrelia species should be implemented in the microbiology laboratory of hospitals located in the disease-endemic areas, for timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment of the patients at an early stage of the infection to prevent potential tissue damages.

  6. Songbirds as general transmitters but selective amplifiers of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genotypes in Ixodes rinicus ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heylen, Dieter; Matthysen, Erik; Fonville, Manoj; Sprong, Hein

    2014-09-01

    We investigated to what extent a European songbird (Parus major) selectively transmits and amplifies Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. bacteria. Borrelia-naïve birds were recurrently exposed to Ixodes ricinus nymphs carrying a community of more than 34 5S-23S genotypes belonging to five genospecies (Borrelia garinii, Borrelia valaisiana, Borrelia afzelii, B. burgdorferi s.s. and Borrelia spielmanii). Fed ticks were screened for Borrelia after moulting. We found evidence for co-feeding transmission of avian and possibly also mammalian genotypes. Throughout the course of infestations, the infection rate of B. garinii and B. valaisiana increased, indicating successful amplification and transmission, while the infection rate for B. afzelii, B. burgdorferi s.s and B. spielmanii tended to decrease. Within the B. garinii and B. valaisiana genotype communities, certain genotypes were transmitted more than others. Moreover, birds were able to host mixed infections of B. garinii and B. valaisiana, as well as mixed infections of genotypes of the same genospecies. We experimentally show that resident songbirds transmit a broad range of Borrelia genotypes, but selectively amplify certain genotypes, and that one bird can transmit simultaneously several genotypes. Our results highlight the need to explicitly consider the association between genotypes and hosts, which may offer opportunities to point out which hosts are most responsible for the Borrelia presence in questing ticks. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Borrelia burgdorferi persists in the brain in chronic lyme neuroborreliosis and may be associated with Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklossy, Judith; Khalili, Kamel; Gern, Lise; Ericson, Rebecca L; Darekar, Pushpa; Bolle, Lorie; Hurlimann, Jean; Paster, Bruce J

    2004-12-01

    The cause, or causes, of the vast majority of Alzheimer's disease cases are unknown. A number of contributing factors have been postulated, including infection. It has long been known that the spirochete Treponema pallidum, which is the infective agent for syphilis, can in its late stages cause dementia, chronic inflammation, cortical atrophy and amyloid deposition. Spirochetes of unidentified types and strains have previously been observed in the blood, CSF and brain of 14 AD patients tested and absent in 13 controls. In three of these AD cases spirochetes were grown in a medium selective for Borrelia burgdorferi. In the present study, the phylogenetic analysis of these spirochetes was made. Positive identification of the agent as Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto was based on genetic and molecular analyses. Borrelia antigens and genes were co-localized with beta-amyloid deposits in these AD cases. The data indicate that Borrelia burgdorferi may persist in the brain and be associated with amyloid plaques in AD. They suggest that these spirochetes, perhaps in an analogous fashion to Treponema pallidum, may contribute to dementia, cortical atrophy and amyloid deposition. Further in vitro and in vivo studies may bring more insight into the potential role of spirochetes in AD.

  8. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and co-infections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia spp. in Ixodes ricinus in Hamburg, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, K; Jordan, D; Fingerle, V; Strube, C

    2015-12-01

    To obtain initial data on Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae) in Ixodes ricinus (Ixodida: Ixodidae) ticks in Hamburg, Germany, 1400 questing ticks were collected by flagging at 10 different public recreation areas in 2011 and analysed using probe-based quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The overall rate of infection with B. burgdorferi s.l. was 34.1%; 30.0% of adults were infected (36.7% of females and 26.0% of males), as were 34.5% of nymphs. Significant differences in tick infection rates were observed between the spring and summer/autumn months, as well as among sampling locations. Borrelia genospecies identification by reverse line blotting was successful in 43.6% of positive tick samples. The most frequent genospecies was Borrelia garinii/Borrelia bavariensis, followed by Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia valaisiana, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia spielmanii, Borrelia bissettii and Borrelia lusitaniae. Based on previously published data, co-infection of Borrelia and Rickettsiales spp. was determined in 25.8% of ticks. Overall, 22.9% of ticks were co-infected with Rickettsia spp. (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), 1.7% with Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae), and 1.2% with both pathogens. Study results show a high prevalence of Borrelia-positive ticks in recreation areas in the northern German city of Hamburg and the potential health risk to humans in these areas should not be underestimated. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.

  9. Competitive advantage of Borrelia burgdorferi with outer surface protein BBA03 during tick-mediated infection of the mammalian host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestor, Aaron; Rego, Ryan O M; Tilly, Kit; Rosa, Patricia A

    2012-10-01

    Linear plasmid lp54 is one of the most highly conserved and differentially expressed elements of the segmented genome of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. We previously reported that deletion of a 4.1-kb region of lp54 (bba01 to bba07 [bba01-bba07]) led to a slight attenuation of tick-transmitted infection in mice following challenge with a large number of infected ticks. In the current study, we reduced the number of ticks in the challenge to more closely mimic the natural dose and found a profound defect in tick-transmitted infection of the bba01-bba07 mutant relative to wild-type B. burgdorferi. We next focused on deletion of bba03 as the most likely cause of this mutant phenotype, as previous studies have shown that expression of bba03 is increased by culture conditions that simulate tick feeding. Consistent with this hypothesis, we demonstrated increased expression of bba03 by spirochetes in fed relative to unfed ticks. We also observed that a bba03 deletion mutant, although fully competent by itself, did not efficiently infect mice when transmitted by ticks that were simultaneously coinfected with wild-type B. burgdorferi. These results suggest that BBA03 provides a competitive advantage to spirochetes carrying this protein during tick transmission to a mammalian host in the natural infectious cycle.

  10. Przegląd metod służących do wykrycia zakażenia Borrelia burgdorferi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Czubasiewicz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Borelioza jest chorobą zakaźną wywoływaną przez krętki Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Do zakażenia tą bak‑ terią dochodzi zwykle podczas ukąszenia przez zarażonego kleszcza z rodziny Ixodidae, m.in. Ixodes ricinus, Ixodes scapularis, Ixodes persulcatus. Za czynniki etiologiczne boreliozy uznawane są następujące genogatunki: B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. afzelii, B. garinii, B. bissettii oraz B. spielmanii. Bakteria ta w organizmie czło‑ wieka może atakować różne narządy: skórę, stawy, ośrodkowy układ nerwowy, serce. Poszczególne szczepy wiązane są z rozwojem różnych obrazów choroby: Borrelia afzelii powoduje zazwyczaj rozwój przewlekłego zanikowego zapalenia skóry, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto jest najczęściej odpowiedzialna za rozwój zapa‑ lenia stawów, neuroboreliozę może powodować zarówno B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. afzelii, jak i B. garinii. Boreliozę diagnozuje się na podstawie objawów klinicznych, wywiadu epidemiologicznego oraz testów labo‑ ratoryjnych, takich jak testy serologiczne w surowicy, a także badania metodą PCR tkanek pacjenta lub orga‑ nizmu kleszcza odpowiedzialnego za ukąszenie. Najczęściej praktykowanym postępowaniem diagnostycznym jest rekomendowana przez Instytut Roberta Kocha w Berlinie tzw. diagnostyka dwuetapowa boreliozy, pole‑ gająca na wykonaniu czułego testu przesiewowego w pierwszym etapie (testy EIA, IIFA, ELISA oraz weryfi‑ kacji dodatnich i wątpliwych wyników w drugim etapie (test Western blot. Ze względu na możliwości zmiany swojej struktury antygenowej krętki Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato mają zdolność do unikania mechanizmów obronnych zainfekowanego organizmu. Jest to główna przyczyna problemów w interpretacji objawów klinicznych, wyników badań laboratoryjnych, a także leczenia zakażenia tą bakterią.

  11. Assessment of MALDI-TOF MS biotyping for Borrelia burgdorferi sl detection in Ixodes ricinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Pierre H.; Boulanger, Nathalie; Nebbak, Amira; Collin, Elodie; Jaulhac, Benoit; Almeras, Lionel

    2017-01-01

    Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been demonstrated to be useful for tick identification at the species level. More recently, this tool has been successfully applied for the detection of bacterial pathogens directly in tick vectors. The present work has assessed the detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus tick vector by MALDI-TOF MS. To this aim, experimental infection model of I. ricinus ticks by B. afzelii was carried out and specimens collected in the field were also included in the study. Borrelia infectious status of I. ricinus ticks was molecularly controlled using half-idiosome to classify specimens. Among the 39 ticks engorged on infected mice, 14 were confirmed to be infected by B. afzelii. For field collection, 14.8% (n = 12/81) I. ricinus ticks were validated molecularly as infected by B. burgdorferi sl. To determine the body part allowing the detection of MS protein profile changes between non-infected and B. afzelii infected specimens, ticks were dissected in three compartments (i.e. 4 legs, capitulum and half-idiosome) prior to MS analysis. Highly reproducible MS spectra were obtained for I. ricinus ticks according to the compartment tested and their infectious status. However, no MS profile change was found when paired body part comparison between non-infected and B. afzelii infected specimens was made. Statistical analyses did not succeed to discover, per body part, specific MS peaks distinguishing Borrelia-infected from non-infected ticks whatever their origins, laboratory reared or field collected. Despite the unsuccessful of MALDI-TOF MS to classify tick specimens according to their B. afzelii infectious status, this proteomic tool remains a promising method for rapid, economic and accurate identification of tick species. Moreover, the singularity of MS spectra between legs and half-idiosome of I. ricinus could be used to reinforce this proteomic identification

  12. Plaques of Alzheimer's disease originate from cysts of Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease spirochete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Alan B

    2006-01-01

    Here is hypothesized a truly revolutionary notion that rounded cystic forms of Borrelia burgdorferi are the root cause of the rounded structures called plaques in the Alzheimer brain. Rounded "plaques' in high density in brain tissue are emblematic of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Plaques may be conceptualized as rounded "pock mark-like" areas of brain tissue injury. In this century, in brain tissue of AD, plaques are Amyloid Plaques according to the most up to date textbooks. In the last century, however, Dr. Alois Alzheimer did not require amyloid as the pathogenesis for either the disease or for the origin of its plaques. Surely, amyloid is an event in AD, but it may not be the primal cause of AD. Indeed in plaques, amyloid is regularly represented by the "congophilic core" structure which is so named because the waxy amyloid material binds the congo red stain and is congophilic. However an accepted subset of plaques in AD is devoid of a congophilic amyloid core region (these plaques "cotton wool" type plaques, lack a central congophilic core structure). Furthermore, there is "plaque diversity" in Alzheimer's; small, medium and large plaques parallel variable cystic diameters for Borrelia burgdorferi. Perturbations of AD plaque structure (i.e. young plaques devoid of a central core and older plaques with or without a central core structure) offer room for an alternate pathway for explanation of ontogeny of the plaque structures. If amyloid is not required to initiate all of the possible plaques in Alzheimer's, is it possible that amyloid just a by product of a more fundamental primal path to dementia? If a byproduct status is assigned to amyloid in the realm of plaque formation, then is amyloid also an epiphenomenon rather than a primary pathogenesis for Alzheimer's disease. In the "anatomy is destiny" model, cysts of borrelia are always round. Why then not accept roundness as a fundamental "structure determines function" argument for the answer to the mystery of

  13. Detecting Faults from Encoded Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persis, Claudio De

    2003-01-01

    The problem of fault detection for linear continuous-time systems via encoded information is considered. The encoded information is received at a remote location by the monitoring deiice and assessed to infer the occurrence of the fault. A class of faults is considered which allows to use a simple

  14. Reservoir competence of native North American birds for the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Howard S.; Buckley, P.A.; Balmforth, Maxon G.; Zhioua, Elyes; Mitra, Shaibal; Buckley, Francine G.

    2005-01-01

    Reservoir competence for the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, was tested for six species of native North American birds: American robin, gray catbird, brown thrasher, eastern towhee, song sparrow, and northern cardinal. Wild birds collected by mist netting on Fire Island, NY, were held in a field laboratory in cages over water and locally collected larval ticks were placed on the birds, harvested from the water after engorgement, and tested for infection by direct fluorescent-antibody staining after molting to the nymphal stage. American robins were competent reservoirs, infecting 16.1% of larvae applied to wild-caught birds, compared with 0% of control ticks placed on uninfected laboratory mice. Robins that were previously infected in the laboratory by nymphal feeding infected 81.8% of applied larvae. Wild-caught song sparrows infected 4.8% of applied larvae and 21.1% when infected by nymphal feeding. Results suggest moderate levels of reservoir competence for northern cardinals, lower levels for gray catbirds, and little evidence of reservoir competence for eastern towhees or brown thrashers. Lower infection rates in larvae applied to wild-caught birds compared with birds infected in the laboratory suggest that infected birds display temporal variability in infectiousness to larval ticks. Engorged larvae drop from birds abundantly during daylight, so the abundance of these bird species in the peridomestic environment suggests that they might contribute infected ticks to lawns and gardens.

  15. Evaluation of a modified culture medium for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islay Rodríguez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the possible use of a modified medium, prepared in the laboratory using the constituents of Barbour-Stonner-Kelly (BSK medium and medium 199 as base, for the culture of Borrelia strains, comparing the growth of individual strains in this medium and in the BSK-H medium, and the protein profile and antigenic characteristics of Borrelia proteins expressed in these media. A qualitative evaluation of growth of Borrelia species was made with acceptable results (morphology and motility, but during a quantitative evaluation using the three main genospecies of Borrelia, the better results were obtained with a B. burgdorferi sensu stricto strain. The modified medium did not enable the growth of a B. afzelii strain. The protein profile and antigenic characteristic of the expressed proteins in the modified medium were studied with satisfactory results. These results suggest the modified medium as an alternative for the cultivation of Borrelia strains, with some limitations, in poorly-resourced laboratories.

  16. Granuloma Annulare and Morphea: Correlation with Borrelia burgdorferi Infections and Chlamydia-related Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolkki, Lauri; Hokynar, Kati; Meri, Seppo; Panelius, Jaana; Puolakkainen, Mirja; Ranki, Annamari

    2017-11-07

    A retrospective study of 109 skin biopsies with granuloma annulare (GA) or morphea histology from patients with suspected tick bite was performed. Biopsies were tested for cutaneous Borrelia burgdorferi DNA using PCR. The same biopsies were analysed for tick-borne novel agents, Chlamydia-related bacteria (members of the Chlamydiales order), using a PCR-based method. Borrelia DNA was detected in 7/73 (9.6%) biopsies with GA and in 1/36 (2.8 %) biopsies with morphea, while Chlamydiales DNA was found in 53/73 (72.6%) biopsies with GA and 25/34 (73.4%) biopsies with morphea. All Borrelia DNA-positive GA samples were also positive for Chlamydiales DNA. The Chlamydiales sequences detected in GA were heterogeneous and contained Waddliaceae and Rhabdochlamydiaceae bacteria, which are also present in Ixodes ricinus ticks, while the Chlamydiales sequences detected in morphea closely resembled those found in healthy skin. In conclusion, tick-mediated infections can trigger GA in some cases, while correlation of either Borrelia or Chlamydiales with morphea is unlikely.

  17. Anti-Borrelia burgdorferi antibody profile in post-Lyme disease syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Abhishek; Wormser, Gary P; Marques, Adriana R; Latov, Norman; Alaedini, Armin

    2011-05-01

    Patients with post-Lyme disease syndrome (PLDS) report persistent symptoms of pain, fatigue, and/or concentration and memory disturbances despite antibiotic treatment for Lyme borreliosis. The etiopathogenesis of these symptoms remains unknown and no effective therapies have been identified. We sought to examine the antiborrelia antibody profile in affected patients with the aim of finding clues to the mechanism of the syndrome and its relationship to the original spirochetal infection. Serum specimens from 54 borrelia-seropositive PLDS patients were examined for antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi proteins p18, p25, p28, p30, p31, p34, p39, p41, p45, p58, p66, p93, and VlsE by automated immunoblotting and software-assisted band analysis. The presence of serum antibodies to the 31-kDa band was further investigated by examination of reactivity against purified recombinant OspA protein. Control specimens included sera from 14 borrelia-seropositive individuals with a history of early localized or disseminated Lyme disease who were symptom free (post-Lyme healthy group), as well as 20 healthy individuals without serologic evidence or history of Lyme disease. In comparison to the post-Lyme healthy group, higher frequencies of antibodies to p28 (P disease.

  18. In vitro evaluation of antibacterial activity of phytochemicals and micronutrients against Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia garinii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goc, A; Niedzwiecki, A; Rath, M

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about the effects of phytochemicals against Borrelia sp. causing Lyme disease. Current therapeutic approach to this disease is limited to antibiotics. This study examined the anti-borreliae efficacy of several plant-derived compounds and micronutrients. We tested the efficacy of 15 phytochemicals and micronutrients against three morphological forms of Borrelia burgdoferi and Borrelia garinii: spirochetes, latent rounded forms and biofilm. The results showed that the most potent substances against the spirochete and rounded forms of B. burgdorferi and B. garinii were cis-2-decenoic acid, baicalein, monolaurin and kelp (iodine); whereas, only baicalein and monolaurin revealed significant activity against the biofilm. Moreover, cis-2-decenoic acid, baicalein and monolaurin did not cause statistically significant cytotoxicity to human HepG2 cells up to 125 μg ml(-1) and kelp up to 20 μg ml(-1) . The most effective antimicrobial compounds against all morphological forms of the two tested Borrelia sp. were baicalein and monolaurin. This might indicate that the presence of fatty acid and phenyl groups is important for comprehensive antibacterial activity. This study reveals the potential of phytochemicals as an important tool in the fight against the species of Borrelia causing Lyme disease. © 2015 The Authors published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. The search for Ixodes dammini and Borrelia burgdorferi in Nova Scotia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Colin R; Specht, Harold B; Coombs, B Ann

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-four Ixodes dammini ticks (23 adults and one nymph) have been recovered in Nova Scotia since 1984. There has not been a systematic search for larvae and none has been identified. The recovery of the nymph from a road-killed yellow throat bird, Geothypis trichas, in late May 1990 supports the contention that migrating birds are bringing deer ticks into the province every spring. In March and April 1991, four adult deer ticks were identified, suggesting that these ticks had overwintered. These deer tick specimens indicate that it is possible that I dammini is becoming established in Nova Scotia, if it is not already established. There has been no evidence for the existence of Borrelia burgdorferi in the province. The spirochete was not cultured from 650 Dermacentor variabilis ticks, nor were antibodies detected in a small sample of feral rodents using an indirect fluorescent antibody test. A survey of 137 dog sera samples, analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, also proved negative. There has been no confirmed indigenous case of Lyme disease in Nova Scotia to date. PMID:22416195

  20. Species Identification and Phylogenetic Analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Using Molecular Biological Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margos, Gabriele; Notter, Isabell; Fingerle, Volker

    2018-01-01

    Bacterial species identification is required in different disciplines and-depending on the purpose-levels of specificity or resolution of typing may vary. Nowadays, molecular methods are the mainstay for bacterial identification and sequence-based analyses are of ever-growing importance. For diagnostics, immediate results are needed and often real-time PCR of one or two loci is the method of choice while for epidemiological or evolutionary studies sequence data of several loci improve phylogenetic resolution to required levels. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and multilocus sequence analyses (MLSA) utilize sequences information of several housekeeping loci (eight for Borrelia) to distinguish between species. This method has been widely used for bacterial species and strain identification and will be described in this chapter.As more and more diversity is being detected in the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species complex, the importance of accurate species and strain typing has come to the fore. This is particularly significant with a view of differentiating human pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains or species and understanding the epidemiology, ecology, population structure, and evolution of species.

  1. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato-infected Ixodes ricinus collected from vegetation near the Arctic Circle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvidsten, Dag; Stordal, Frode; Lager, Malin; Rognerud, Bjørg; Kristiansen, Bjørn-Erik; Matussek, Andreas; Gray, Jeremy; Stuen, Snorre

    2015-09-01

    This is the first study to determine the density of questing Ixodes ricinus in northern Norway. It was performed at two sites in Brønnøy, which has been known for its tick permissive habitats for decades and is one of the northernmost habitats with an abundant I. ricinus population in the world. From April to November 2011, all stages of host-seeking I. ricinus were collected from the two sites. The overall prevalence of nymphs infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was 21% and that of adult ticks 46%. The rates of the genospecies Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia valaisiana were similar to findings in most other studies in Scandinavia, with B. afzelii by far the most prevalent at 76%. The high Borrelia-infection prevalence in ticks from Brønnøy may explain the high incidence rate of reported Lyme borreliosis in the municipality. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  2. Antibodies to OspC, OspF and C6 antigens as indicators for infection with Borrelia burgdorferi in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, B; Goodman, L B; Rollins, A; Freer, H S

    2013-09-01

    Lyme disease is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, which is transmitted by infected ticks (Ixodes spp.). Reports on Lyme disease in horses have increased in recent years. Nevertheless, the diagnosis of Lyme disease in horses is still challenging owing to its vague clinical presentation and the limitations of diagnostic tests. This study used a new serological Lyme multiplex assay to examine antibody responses to 3 antigens of B. burgdorferi, outer surface protein (Osp) C, OspF and C6, and to verify their use as markers for early and late infection stages in horses. Multiplex analysis of antibodies to OspC, OspF and C6 in equine patient sera (n = 191) was performed. A subset of the sera (n = 90) was also tested using a commercial C6-based Lyme test. Antibodies to OspF and C6 highly correlate as reliable markers of infection with B. burgdorferi in horses. Antibodies to OspC, which have been confirmed as early infection markers in man and dogs, were only detected in some patient sera, suggesting that OspC antibodies are indicators of early infection in horses. Commercial C6 testing identified most infected horses but also resulted in false positive and false negative interpretations. Serological multiplex testing is a rapid and quantitative diagnostic method to confirm infection with B. burgdorferi and to identify the stage of infection. In horses with risk of exposure and clinical signs, multiplex testing supports the diagnosis of Lyme disease. Antimicrobial treatment of B. burgdorferi is time sensitive. Treatment success decreases with time of persistent infection, while the risk of developing chronic disease increases. The ability to identify early infection with B. burgdorferi provides practitioners and clinicians with a tool to improve the diagnosis of equine Lyme disease and make treatment decisions. © 2012 EVJ Ltd.

  3. A Drug Combination Screen Identifies Drugs Active against Amoxicillin-Induced Round Bodies of In Vitro Borrelia burgdorferi Persisters from an FDA Drug Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Shi, Wanliang; Zhang, Shuo; Sullivan, David; Auwaerter, Paul G; Zhang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Although currently recommended antibiotics for Lyme disease such as doxycycline or amoxicillin cure the majority of the patients, about 10-20% of patients treated for Lyme disease may experience lingering symptoms including fatigue, pain, or joint and muscle aches. Under experimental stress conditions such as starvation or antibiotic exposure, Borrelia burgdorferi can develop round body forms, which are a type of persister bacteria that appear resistant in vitro to customary first-line antibiotics for Lyme disease. To identify more effective drugs with activity against the round body form of B. burgdorferi, we established a round body persister model induced by exposure to amoxicillin (50 μg/ml) and then screened the Food and Drug Administration drug library consisting of 1581 drug compounds and also 22 drug combinations using the SYBR Green I/propidium iodide viability assay. We identified 23 drug candidates that have higher activity against the round bodies of B. burgdorferi than either amoxicillin or doxycycline. Eleven individual drugs scored better than metronidazole and tinidazole which have been previously described to be active against round bodies. In this amoxicillin-induced round body model, some drug candidates such as daptomycin and clofazimine also displayed enhanced activity which was similar to a previous screen against stationary phase B. burgdorferi persisters not exposure to amoxicillin. Additional candidate drugs active against round bodies identified include artemisinin, ciprofloxacin, nifuroxime, fosfomycin, chlortetracycline, sulfacetamide, sulfamethoxypyridazine and sulfathiozole. Two triple drug combinations had the highest activity against amoxicillin-induced round bodies and stationary phase B. burgdorferi persisters: artemisinin/cefoperazone/doxycycline and sulfachlorpyridazine/daptomycin/doxycycline. These findings confirm and extend previous findings that certain drug combinations have superior activity against B. burgdorferi

  4. Antibody profile to Borrelia burgdorferi in veterinarians from Nuevo León, Mexico, a non-endemic area of this zoonosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner-Taylor, Cassandra M; Flores, Maria S; Salinas, José A; Arevalo-Niño, Katiushka; Galán-Wong, Luis J; Maldonado, Guadalupe; Garza-Elizondo, Mario A

    2016-01-01

    Lyme disease is a tick-borne disease caused by infections with Borrelia. Persons infected with Borrelia can be asymptomatic or can develop disseminated disease. Diagnosis and recognition of groups at risk of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi is of great interest to contemporary rheumatology. There are a few reports about Borrelia infection in Mexico, including lymphocytoma cases positive to B. burgdorferi sensu stricto by PCR and a patient with acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. Veterinarians have an occupational risk due to high rates of tick contact. The aim of this work was to investigate antibodies to Borrelia in students at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Zootechnics, at Nuevo León, Mexico, and determine the antibody profile to B. burgdorferi antigens. Sera were screened using a C6 ELISA, IgG and IgM ELISA using recombinant proteins from B. burgdorferi, B. garinii and B. afzelii. Sera with positive or grey-zone values were tested by IgG Western blot to B. burgdorferi sensu stricto. All volunteers reported tick exposures and 72.5% remembered tick bites. Only nine persons described mild Lyme disease related symptoms, including headaches, paresthesias, myalgias and arthralgias. None of the volunteers reported erythema migrans. Nine samples were confirmed by IgG Western blot. The profile showed 89% reactivity to OspA, 67% to p83, and 45% to BmpA. Positive sera samples shared antibody reactivity to the markers of late immune response p83 and BmpA, even if individuals did not present symptoms of Lyme arthritis or post-Lyme disease. The best criterion to diagnose Lyme disease in our country remains to be established, because it is probable that different strains coexist in Mexico. This is the first report of antibodies to B. burgdorferi in Latin American veterinarians. Veterinarians and high-risk people should be alert to take precautionary measures to prevent tick-borne diseases.

  5. A Bayesian spatio-temporal model for forecasting the prevalence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi, causative agent of Lyme disease, in domestic dogs within the contiguous United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella C Watson

    Full Text Available This paper models the prevalence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in domestic dogs in the United States using climate, geographic, and societal factors. We then use this model to forecast the prevalence of antibodies to B. burgdorferi in dogs for 2016. The data available for this study consists of 11,937,925 B. burgdorferi serologic test results collected at the county level within the 48 contiguous United States from 2011-2015. Using the serologic data, a baseline B. burgdorferi antibody prevalence map was constructed through the use of spatial smoothing techniques after temporal aggregation; i.e., head-banging and Kriging. In addition, several covariates purported to be associated with B. burgdorferi prevalence were collected on the same spatio-temporal granularity, and include forestation, elevation, water coverage, temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, population density, and median household income. A Bayesian spatio-temporal conditional autoregressive (CAR model was used to analyze these data, for the purposes of identifying significant risk factors and for constructing disease forecasts. The fidelity of the forecasting technique was assessed using historical data, and a Lyme disease forecast for dogs in 2016 was constructed. The correlation between the county level model and baseline B. burgdorferi antibody prevalence estimates from 2011 to 2015 is 0.894, illustrating that the Bayesian spatio-temporal CAR model provides a good fit to these data. The fidelity of the forecasting technique was assessed in the usual fashion; i.e., the 2011-2014 data was used to forecast the 2015 county level prevalence, with comparisons between observed and predicted being made. The weighted (to acknowledge sample size correlation between 2015 county level observed prevalence and 2015 forecasted prevalence is 0.978. A forecast for the prevalence of B. burgdorferi antibodies in domestic dogs in 2016 is also provided. The forecast presented from

  6. First report of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in two threatened carnivores: the Marbled polecat, Vormela peregusna and the European mink, Mustela lutreola (Mammalia: Mustelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gherman Călin M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lyme disease is a widespread cosmopolitan zoonosis caused by species belonging to the genus Borrelia. It is transmitted from animal reservoir hosts to humans through hard - ticks of genus Ixodes which are vectors of the disease. Case presentation Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection was identified in a marbled polecat, Vormela peregusna, and two European minks, Mustela lutreola, from Romania, by PCR. RFLP revealed the presence of a single genospecies, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. Conclusions This is the first report of the Lyme disease spirochetes in the two mentioned hosts.

  7. First report of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in two threatened carnivores: the marbled polecat, Vormela peregusna and the European mink, Mustela lutreola (Mammalia: Mustelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherman, Călin M; Sándor, Attila D; Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Marinov, Mihai; Mihalca, Andrei D

    2012-08-18

    Lyme disease is a widespread cosmopolitan zoonosis caused by species belonging to the genus Borrelia. It is transmitted from animal reservoir hosts to humans through hard - ticks of genus Ixodes which are vectors of the disease. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection was identified in a marbled polecat, Vormela peregusna, and two European minks, Mustela lutreola, from Romania, by PCR. RFLP revealed the presence of a single genospecies, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. This is the first report of the Lyme disease spirochetes in the two mentioned hosts.

  8. Study of a Cohort of 1,886 Persons To Determine Changes in Antibody Reactivity to Borrelia burgdorferi 3 Months after a Tick Bite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dessau, Ram B; Fryland, Linda; Wilhelmsson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis is a tick-borne disease caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. The most frequent clinical manifestation is a rash called erythema migrans. Changes in antibody reactivity to B. burgdorferi 3 months after a tick bite are measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays...... antigen and the C6 antigen, respectively. Graphical methods to display the antibody response and to choose thresholds for a rise in relative antibody reactivity are shown and discussed. In conclusion, 5.4% of people with tick bites showed a rise in Borrelia-specific antibodies above the 2.5% threshold...

  9. A Bayesian spatio-temporal model for forecasting the prevalence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi, causative agent of Lyme disease, in domestic dogs within the contiguous United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Stella C; Liu, Yan; Lund, Robert B; Gettings, Jenna R; Nordone, Shila K; McMahan, Christopher S; Yabsley, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    This paper models the prevalence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in domestic dogs in the United States using climate, geographic, and societal factors. We then use this model to forecast the prevalence of antibodies to B. burgdorferi in dogs for 2016. The data available for this study consists of 11,937,925 B. burgdorferi serologic test results collected at the county level within the 48 contiguous United States from 2011-2015. Using the serologic data, a baseline B. burgdorferi antibody prevalence map was constructed through the use of spatial smoothing techniques after temporal aggregation; i.e., head-banging and Kriging. In addition, several covariates purported to be associated with B. burgdorferi prevalence were collected on the same spatio-temporal granularity, and include forestation, elevation, water coverage, temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, population density, and median household income. A Bayesian spatio-temporal conditional autoregressive (CAR) model was used to analyze these data, for the purposes of identifying significant risk factors and for constructing disease forecasts. The fidelity of the forecasting technique was assessed using historical data, and a Lyme disease forecast for dogs in 2016 was constructed. The correlation between the county level model and baseline B. burgdorferi antibody prevalence estimates from 2011 to 2015 is 0.894, illustrating that the Bayesian spatio-temporal CAR model provides a good fit to these data. The fidelity of the forecasting technique was assessed in the usual fashion; i.e., the 2011-2014 data was used to forecast the 2015 county level prevalence, with comparisons between observed and predicted being made. The weighted (to acknowledge sample size) correlation between 2015 county level observed prevalence and 2015 forecasted prevalence is 0.978. A forecast for the prevalence of B. burgdorferi antibodies in domestic dogs in 2016 is also provided. The forecast presented from this model can be

  10. Europe-Wide Meta-Analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Prevalence in Questing Ixodes ricinus Ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strnad, Martin; Hönig, Václav; Růžek, Daniel; Grubhoffer, Libor; Rego, Ryan O M

    2017-08-01

    Lyme borreliosis is the most common zoonotic disease transmitted by ticks in Europe and North America. Despite having multiple tick vectors, the causative agent, Borrelia burgdorferisensu lato, is vectored mainly by Ixodes ricinus in Europe. In the present study, we aimed to review and summarize the existing data published from 2010 to 2016 concerning the prevalence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes in questing I. ricinus ticks. The primary focus was to evaluate the infection rate of these bacteria in ticks, accounting for tick stage, adult tick gender, region, and detection method, as well as to investigate any changes in prevalence over time. The data obtained were compared to the findings of a previous metastudy. The literature search identified data from 23 countries, with 115,028 ticks, in total, inspected for infection with B. burgdorferi sensu lato We showed that the infection rate was significantly higher in adults than in nymphs and in females than in males. We found significant differences between European regions, with the highest infection rates in Central Europe. The most common genospecies were B. afzelii and B. garinii, despite a negative correlation of their prevalence rates. No statistically significant differences were found among the prevalence rates determined by conventional PCR, nested PCR, and real-time PCR.IMPORTANCEBorrelia burgdorferisensu lato is a pathogenic bacterium whose clinical manifestations are associated with Lyme borreliosis. This vector-borne disease is a major public health concern in Europe and North America and may lead to severe arthritic, cardiovascular, and neurological complications if left untreated. Although pathogen prevalence is considered an important predictor of infection risk, solitary isolated data have only limited value. Here we provide summarized information about the prevalence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes among host-seeking Ixodes ricinus ticks, the principal tick vector of borreliae in

  11. Analysis of an ordered, comprehensive STM mutant library in infectious Borrelia burgdorferi: insights into the genes required for mouse infectivity.

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    Tao Lin

    Full Text Available The identification of genes important in the pathogenesis of Lyme disease Borrelia has been hampered by exceedingly low transformation rates in low-passage, infectious organisms. Using the infectious, moderately transformable B. burgdorferi derivative 5A18NP1 and signature-tagged versions of the Himar1 transposon vector pGKT, we have constructed a defined transposon library for the efficient genome-wide investigation of genes required for wild-type pathogenesis, in vitro growth, physiology, morphology, and plasmid replication. To facilitate analysis, the insertion sites of 4,479 transposon mutants were determined by sequencing. The transposon insertions were widely distributed across the entire B. burgdorferi genome, with an average of 2.68 unique insertion sites per kb DNA. The 10 linear plasmids and 9 circular plasmids had insertions in 33 to 100 percent of their predicted genes. In contrast, only 35% of genes in the 910 kb linear chromosome had incapacitating insertions; therefore, the remaining 601 chromosomal genes may represent essential gene candidates. In initial signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM analyses, 434 mutants were examined at multiple tissue sites for infectivity in mice using a semi-quantitative, Luminex-based DNA detection method. Examples of genes found to be important in mouse infectivity included those involved in motility, chemotaxis, the phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system, and other transporters, as well as putative plasmid maintenance genes. Availability of this ordered STM library and a high-throughput screening method is expected to lead to efficient assessment of the roles of B. burgdorferi genes in the infectious cycle and pathogenesis of Lyme disease.

  12. New concepts in PCM encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Paul M.

    The Pulse Coded Modulation (PCM) Encoder Systems used in telemetry have gained enormous flexibility for various applications because the input data channels and frame sync codes are programmable via the EEPROMs or UVEPROMs. The firmware in the current PCM Encoder Systems can be readily tailored for a specific application to monitor numerous types of analog channels, as well as digital channels. However, the current PCM Encoder Systems require several types of strap options which dictate not only a limited choice of gains and offsets, but also a fixed choice of the premodulation filter characteristics. The brain of the 1000 PCM Encoder is the Digital Signal Processor (DSP) which eliminates the fixed premodulation filter characteristics via digital filter functions, and also eliminates strap options via general purpose microprocessor functions.

  13. Detection and differentiation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in ticks collected from sheep and cattle in China

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    Jorgensen Wayne

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lyme disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex is an important endemic zoonosis whose distribution is closely related to the main ixodid tick vectors. In China, isolated cases of Lyme disease infection of humans have been reported in 29 provinces. Ticks, especially ixodid ticks are abundant and a wide arrange of Borrelia natural reservoirs are present. In this study, we developed a reverse line blot (RLB to identify Borrelia spp. in ticks collected from sheep and cattle in 7 Provinces covering the main extensive livestock regions in China. Results Four species-specific RLB oligonucleotide probes were deduced from the spacer region between the 5S-23S rRNA gene, along with an oligonucleotide probe which was common to all. The species specific probes were shown to discriminate between four genomic groups of B. burgdorferi sensu lato i.e. B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii, B. afzelii, and B. valaisiana, and to bind only to their respective target sequences, with no cross reaction to non target DNA. Furthermore, the RLB could detect between 0.1 pg and 1 pg of Borrelia DNA. A total of 723 tick samples (Haemaphysalis, Boophilus, Rhipicephalus and Dermacentor from sheep and cattle were examined with RLB, and a subset of 667 corresponding samples were examined with PCR as a comparison. The overall infection rate detected with RLB was higher than that of the PCR test. The infection rate of B. burgdoreri sensu stricto was 40% in south areas; while the B. garinii infection rate was 40% in north areas. The highest detection rates of B. afzelii and B. valaisiana were 28% and 22%, respectively. Mixed infections were also found in 7% of the ticks analyzed, mainly in the North. The proportion of B. garinii genotype in ticks was overall highest at 34% in the whole investigation area. Conclusion In this study, the RLB assay was used to detect B. burgdorferi sensu lato in ticks collected from sheep and cattle in China. The

  14. Direct morphological identification of Borrelia burgdorferi in the muscle biopsies: the possibility of association of the neuromuscular abnormalities with Borreliosis

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    A. V. Sakharova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors examined 40 muscle biopsy specimens taken from patients with neuromuscular symptoms when the diagnosis was unestablished or presumptive. Eighteen of them exhibited foci of muscle fiber damage with the presence of spirochete-like structures in the semithin tissue sections. Electron microscopy of these areas detected Borrelia as vegetative and diverse L-forms. Immunocytochemical techniques usingantibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi antigens confirmed that the spirochetes belonged to this species. This allows one to consider borreliosis as an etiological or complicating factor of neuromuscular pathology and to recommend the above morphological methods for the diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases of unknown origin.

  15. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks and assessment of entomological risk index at localities in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Milena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The first case of human Lyme borreliosis (LB in Serbia was recorded in 1987. The number of reported LB cases has increased in the past decade. The aim of this study was to estimate the density of Ixodes ricinus (I. ricinus ticks, the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi in them, and entomological risk index (ERI at 19 Belgrade localities which were grouped into three categories (forests, parkforests, parks. The values of ERI were compared with the number of tick bites in humans. Methods. Ticks were collected monthly by using the flag hours method and the infection rate was determined by using dark field microscopy. The ERI value was calculated for each locality where the ticks were collected. The related data about tick bites was obtained from the patient protocol of the Institute of Epidemiology, Military Medical Academy, Belgrade. Results. The total number of collected ticks, the number of nymphs and the infection rates of the nymphs were significantly higher in forests (p < 0.05 than park-forests and parks. Statistically, the ERI value was significantly higher in forests than parks of Belgrade (χ2 = 7.78, p < 0.01. In March and July, the ERI value was also significantly higher in forests, than park-forests (p < 0.01 and parks (p < 0.01. May was the month with the highest ERI value in each ecological category (forests p < 0.05; park-forests p < 0.01; parks p < 0.001. However, the number of tick bites in humans did not correlate with ERI values. Conclusion. The obtained results indicate that the risk of tick bite and human exposure to B. burgdorferi sensu lato is present at all selected localities in Belgrade. For a more comprehensive Lyme disease risk assessment the method of entomological risk index assessment should be combined with other methods, taking into consideration all tick stages and the behaviour and habits of people who may get infected B. burgdorferi sensu lato.

  16. Acetyl-Phosphate Is Not a Global Regulatory Bridge between Virulence and Central Metabolism in Borrelia burgdorferi.

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    Crystal L Richards

    Full Text Available In B. burgdorferi, the Rrp2-RpoN-RpoS signaling cascade is a distinctive system that coordinates the expression of virulence factors required for successful transition between its arthropod vector and mammalian hosts. Rrp2 (BB0763, an RpoN specific response regulator, is essential to activate this regulatory pathway. Previous investigations have attempted to identify the phosphate donor of Rrp2, including the cognate histidine kinase, Hk2 (BB0764, non-cognate histidine kinases such as Hk1, CheA1, and CheA2, and small molecular weight P-donors such as carbamoyl-phosphate and acetyl-phosphate (AcP. In a report by Xu et al., exogenous sodium acetate led to increased expression of RpoS and OspC and it was hypothesized this effect was due to increased levels of AcP via the enzyme AckA (BB0622. Genome analyses identified only one pathway that could generate AcP in B. burgdorferi: the acetate/mevalonate pathway that synthesizes the lipid, undecaprenyl phosphate (C55-P, lipid I, which is essential for cell wall biogenesis. To assess the role of AcP in Rrp2-dependent regulation of RpoS and OspC, we used a unique selection strategy to generate mutants that lacked ackA (bb0622: acetate to AcP or pta (bb0589: AcP to acetyl-CoA. These mutants have an absolute requirement for mevalonate and demonstrate that ackA and pta are required for cell viability. When the ΔackA or Δpta mutant was exposed to conditions (i.e., increased temperature or cell density that up-regulate the expression of RpoS and OspC, normal induction of those proteins was observed. In addition, adding 20mM acetate or 20mM benzoate to the growth media of B. burgdorferi strain B31 ΔackA induced the expression of RpoS and OspC. These data suggest that AcP (generated by AckA is not directly involved in modulating the Rrp2-RpoN-RpoS regulatory pathway and that exogenous acetate or benzoate are triggering an acid stress response in B. burgdorferi.

  17. Differential expression of Ixodes ricinus salivary gland proteins in the presence of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotté, Violaine; Sabatier, Laurence; Schnell, Gilles; Carmi-Leroy, Annick; Rousselle, Jean-Claude; Arsène-Ploetze, Florence; Malandrin, Laurence; Sertour, Natacha; Namane, Abdelkader; Ferquel, Elisabeth; Choumet, Valérie

    2014-01-16

    In Europe, Ixodes ricinus is the main vector of Lyme borreliosis. Their salivary glands play a critical role in the biological success of ticks. To better understand the cross-talk between Borrelia burgdorferi and tick salivary glands, we analyzed protein expression in the salivary glands of I. ricinus adult ticks that were infected by various strains of the B. burgdorferi sl complex. iTRAQ allowed the identification of more than 120 proteins, providing the first proteomic data pertaining to I. ricinus salivary glands. Among these proteins, only 12 were modulated in the presence of various Borrelia strains. Most of them are up-regulated and are involved in cell defense and protein synthesis and processing. Down-regulated proteins are mostly implicated in the cytoskeleton. The DIGE analysis allowed us to identify 35 proteins and showed the down-regulation of 4 proteins. All 15 proteins were not modulated by all strains. Overall, these observations showed that the presence of Borrelia in tick salivary glands is a factor of stress for the protein machinery, and also that some Borrelia strains produce a dysregulation of cytoskeletal proteins. Interestingly, a protein from Borrelia, OspA, was found in infected salivary glands. The consequence of its presence in salivary glands is discussed. Lyme borreliosis is still the most prevalent arthropod-borne disease in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere. The geographical distribution of Lyme borreliosis is expanding, especially towards higher altitudes and latitudes. Human pathogenic spirochetes causing Lyme borreliosis belong to the B. burgdorferi sensu lato complex. They are extracellular pathogens transmitted to humans through the bite of Ixodes spp. ticks. The bioactive molecules present in tick saliva not only promote tick feeding, but also create an advantageous microenvironment at the tick bite site for survival and replication of Borrelia bacteria. Investigation of the tick-host-pathogen interface would

  18. Infection of Ixodes ricinus by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in peri-urban forests of France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axelle Marchant

    Full Text Available Lyme borreliosis is the most common tick-borne disease in the northern hemisphere. In Europe, it is transmitted by Ixodes ticks that carry bacteria belonging to the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. The objective of this work was to explore eco-epidemiological factors of Lyme borreliosis in peri-urban forests of France (Sénart, Notre-Dame and Rambouillet. We investigated whether the introduction of Tamias sibiricus in Sénart could alter the density of infected ticks. Moreover, the density and tick infection were investigated according to the tree species found in various patches of Sénart forest. For this purpose, ticks were sampled during 3 years. In the Sénart forest, the density of nymph and adult ticks showed no significant difference between 2008, 2009 and 2011. The nymph density varied significantly as a function of the month of collection. Regarding the nymphs, a higher rate of infection and infected density were found in 2009. Plots with chipmunks (C presented a lower density of both nymphs and adult ticks than plots without chipmunks (NC did. A higher rate of infection of nymphs with Borrelia was seen in C plots. The prevalence of the various species of Borrelia was also found to vary between C and NC plots with the year of the collect. The presence of chestnut trees positively influenced the density of both nymphs and adults. The infected nymph density showed a significant difference depending on the peri-urban forest studied, Sénart being higher than Rambouillet. The prevalence of Borrelia species also differed between the various forests studied. Concerning the putative role that Tamias sibiricus may play in the transmission of Borrelia, our results suggest that its presence is correlated with a higher rate of infection of questing ticks by Borrelia genospecies and if its population increases, it could play a significant role in the risk of transmission of Lyme borreliosis.

  19. Occurrence and transmission efficiencies of Borrelia burgdorferi ospC types in avian and mammalian wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Holly B; Canham, Charles D; Fonseca, Dina M; Brisson, Dustin; Morin, Peter J; Smouse, Peter E; Ostfeld, Richard S

    2014-10-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi s.s., the bacterium that causes Lyme disease in North America, circulates among a suite of vertebrate hosts and their tick vector. The bacterium can be differentiated at the outer surface protein C (ospC) locus into 25 genotypes. Wildlife hosts can be infected with a suite of ospC types but knowledge on the transmission efficiencies of these naturally infected hosts to ticks is still lacking. To evaluate the occupancy and detection of ospC types in wildlife hosts, we adapted a likelihood-based species patch occupancy model to test for the occurrence probabilities (ψ - "occupancy") and transmission efficiencies (ε - "detection") of each ospC type. We detected differences in ospC occurrence and transmission efficiencies from the null models with HIS (human invasive strains) types A and K having the highest occurrence estimates, but both HIS and non-HIS types having high transmission efficiencies. We also examined ospC frequency patterns with respect to strains known to be invasive in humans across the host species and phylogenetic groups. We found that shrews and to a lesser extent, birds, were important host groups supporting relatively greater frequencies of HIS to non-HIS types. This novel method of simultaneously assessing occurrence and transmission of ospC types provides a powerful tool in assessing disease risk at the genotypic level in naturally infected wildlife hosts and offers the opportunity to examine disease risk at the community level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Infection of Ixodes ricinus by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in peri-urban forests of France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perthame, Emeline; Sertour, Natacha; Garnier, Martine; Godard, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis is the most common tick-borne disease in the northern hemisphere. In Europe, it is transmitted by Ixodes ticks that carry bacteria belonging to the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. The objective of this work was to explore eco-epidemiological factors of Lyme borreliosis in peri-urban forests of France (Sénart, Notre-Dame and Rambouillet). We investigated whether the introduction of Tamias sibiricus in Sénart could alter the density of infected ticks. Moreover, the density and tick infection were investigated according to the tree species found in various patches of Sénart forest. For this purpose, ticks were sampled during 3 years. In the Sénart forest, the density of nymph and adult ticks showed no significant difference between 2008, 2009 and 2011. The nymph density varied significantly as a function of the month of collection. Regarding the nymphs, a higher rate of infection and infected density were found in 2009. Plots with chipmunks (C) presented a lower density of both nymphs and adult ticks than plots without chipmunks (NC) did. A higher rate of infection of nymphs with Borrelia was seen in C plots. The prevalence of the various species of Borrelia was also found to vary between C and NC plots with the year of the collect. The presence of chestnut trees positively influenced the density of both nymphs and adults. The infected nymph density showed a significant difference depending on the peri-urban forest studied, Sénart being higher than Rambouillet. The prevalence of Borrelia species also differed between the various forests studied. Concerning the putative role that Tamias sibiricus may play in the transmission of Borrelia, our results suggest that its presence is correlated with a higher rate of infection of questing ticks by Borrelia genospecies and if its population increases, it could play a significant role in the risk of transmission of Lyme borreliosis. PMID:28846709

  1. Infection of Ixodes ricinus by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in peri-urban forests of France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Axelle; Le Coupanec, Alain; Joly, Claire; Perthame, Emeline; Sertour, Natacha; Garnier, Martine; Godard, Vincent; Ferquel, Elisabeth; Choumet, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis is the most common tick-borne disease in the northern hemisphere. In Europe, it is transmitted by Ixodes ticks that carry bacteria belonging to the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. The objective of this work was to explore eco-epidemiological factors of Lyme borreliosis in peri-urban forests of France (Sénart, Notre-Dame and Rambouillet). We investigated whether the introduction of Tamias sibiricus in Sénart could alter the density of infected ticks. Moreover, the density and tick infection were investigated according to the tree species found in various patches of Sénart forest. For this purpose, ticks were sampled during 3 years. In the Sénart forest, the density of nymph and adult ticks showed no significant difference between 2008, 2009 and 2011. The nymph density varied significantly as a function of the month of collection. Regarding the nymphs, a higher rate of infection and infected density were found in 2009. Plots with chipmunks (C) presented a lower density of both nymphs and adult ticks than plots without chipmunks (NC) did. A higher rate of infection of nymphs with Borrelia was seen in C plots. The prevalence of the various species of Borrelia was also found to vary between C and NC plots with the year of the collect. The presence of chestnut trees positively influenced the density of both nymphs and adults. The infected nymph density showed a significant difference depending on the peri-urban forest studied, Sénart being higher than Rambouillet. The prevalence of Borrelia species also differed between the various forests studied. Concerning the putative role that Tamias sibiricus may play in the transmission of Borrelia, our results suggest that its presence is correlated with a higher rate of infection of questing ticks by Borrelia genospecies and if its population increases, it could play a significant role in the risk of transmission of Lyme borreliosis.

  2. Blood feeding on large grazers affects the transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato by Ixodes ricinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacilly, F C A; Benning, M E; Jacobs, F; Leidekker, J; Sprong, H; Van Wieren, S E; Takken, W

    2014-10-01

    The presence of Ixodes ricinus and their associated Borrelia infections on large grazers was investigated. Carcases of freshly shot red deer, mouflon and wild boar were examined for the presence of any stage of I. ricinus. Questing ticks were collected from locations where red deer and wild boar are known to occur. Presence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. DNA was examined in a fraction of the collected ticks. Larvae, nymphs and adult ticks were found on the three large grazers. Red deer had the highest tick burden, with many of the nymphs and adult females attached for engorgement. Most larvae had not attached. The mean number of ticks on the animals varied from 13 to 67. Ticks were highly aggregated amongst the animals: some animals had no ticks, while others had high numbers. Larvae and nymphs were mostly found on the ears, while adult ticks were attached to the axillae. The Borrelia infection rate of questing nymphs was 8.5%. Unengorged wandering nymphs on deer had a Borrelia infection rate of 12.5%, while only 0.9% of feeding nymphs carried a Borrelia infection. The infection rate of unengorged adult male ticks was 4.5%, and that of feeding female ticks was 0.7%. The data suggest that ticks feeding on red deer and wild boar lose their Borrelia infections. The implications of the results are discussed with respect to Borrelia epidemiology and maintenance of a Borrelia reservoir as well as the role of reproductive hosts for Ixodes ricinus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Multidimensionally encoded magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fa-Hsuan

    2013-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) typically achieves spatial encoding by measuring the projection of a q-dimensional object over q-dimensional spatial bases created by linear spatial encoding magnetic fields (SEMs). Recently, imaging strategies using nonlinear SEMs have demonstrated potential advantages for reconstructing images with higher spatiotemporal resolution and reducing peripheral nerve stimulation. In practice, nonlinear SEMs and linear SEMs can be used jointly to further improve the image reconstruction performance. Here, we propose the multidimensionally encoded (MDE) MRI to map a q-dimensional object onto a p-dimensional encoding space where p > q. MDE MRI is a theoretical framework linking imaging strategies using linear and nonlinear SEMs. Using a system of eight surface SEM coils with an eight-channel radiofrequency coil array, we demonstrate the five-dimensional MDE MRI for a two-dimensional object as a further generalization of PatLoc imaging and O-space imaging. We also present a method of optimizing spatial bases in MDE MRI. Results show that MDE MRI with a higher dimensional encoding space can reconstruct images more efficiently and with a smaller reconstruction error when the k-space sampling distribution and the number of samples are controlled. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Minimal role of eastern fence lizards in Borrelia burgdorferi transmission in central New Jersey oak/pine woodlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulison, Eric L; Kerr, Kaetlyn T; Dyer, Megan C; Han, Seungeun; Burke, Russell L; Tsao, Jean I; Ginsberg, Howard S

    2014-10-01

    The eastern fence lizard, Sceloporus undulatus , is widely distributed in eastern and central North America, ranging through areas with high levels of Lyme disease, as well as areas where Lyme disease is rare or absent. We studied the potential role of S. undulatus in transmission dynamics of Lyme spirochetes by sampling ticks from a variety of natural hosts at field sites in central New Jersey, and by testing the reservoir competence of S. undulatus for Borrelia burgdorferi in the laboratory. The infestation rate of ticks on fence lizards was extremely low (prevalence = 0.087, n = 23) compared to that on white-footed mice and other small mammals (prevalence = 0.53, n = 140). Of 159 nymphs that had fed as larvae on lizards that had previously been exposed to infected nymphs, none was infected with B. burgdorferi , compared with 79.9% of 209 nymphs that had fed as larvae on infected control mice. Simulations suggest that changes in the numbers of fence lizards in a natural habitat would have little effect on the infection rate of nymphal ticks with Lyme spirochetes. We conclude that in central New Jersey, S. undulatus plays a minimal role in the enzootic transmission cycle of Lyme spirochetes.

  5. Treponema pallidum Lipoprotein TP0435 Expressed in Borrelia burgdorferi Produces Multiple Surface/Periplasmic Isoforms and mediates Adherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kamfai; Nasereddin, Thayer; Alter, Laura; Centurion-Lara, Arturo; Giacani, Lorenzo; Parveen, Nikhat

    2016-01-01

    The ability of Treponema pallidum, the syphilis spirochete to colonize various tissues requires the presence of surface-exposed adhesins that have been difficult to identify due to the inability to culture and genetically manipulate T. pallidum. Using a Borrelia burgdorferi-based heterologous system and gain-in-function approach, we show for the first time that a highly immunogenic lipoprotein TP0435 can be differentially processed into multiple isoforms with one variant stochastically displayed on the spirochete surface. TP0435 was previously believed to be exclusively located in T. pallidum periplasm. Furthermore, non-adherent B. burgdorferi strain expressing TP0435 acquires the ability to bind to a variety of host cells including placental cells and exhibits slow opsonophagocytosis in vitro similar to poor ex vivo phagocytosis of T. pallidum by host macrophages reported previously. This phenomenon of production of both surface and periplasmic immunogenic lipoprotein isoforms has possible implications in immune evasion of the obligate pathogen T. pallidum during infection. PMID:27161310

  6. Cerebrospinal fluid PCR and antibody concentrations against Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in dogs with neurological signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäderlund, K H; Bergström, K; Egenvall, A; Hedhammar, A

    2009-01-01

    The tick-borne bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl) and Anaplasma phagocytophilum have been suspected to cause neurological signs in dogs. Diagnosis often has been made based on positive antibody titers in serum of dogs with neurological signs, but a high seroprevalence in dogs in at-risk populations makes diagnosis difficult. To determine if the neurological signs in dogs examined were caused by any of these bacteria. Fifty-four dogs presented to a board-certified neurologist. Prospective study. We divided dogs into 2 groups: those with inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) and those with neurological signs from other diseases. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from all dogs were analyzed. Dogs with inflammatory CNS diseases showed no serum antibodies against any of the agents. Among dogs with neurological signs from other diseases, 10.3% had serum antibodies for B. burgdorferi sl and 20.5% for A. phagocytophilum. All blood samples analyzed for bacterial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and all CSF analyzed for antibodies and bacterial DNA for the 2 agents were negative. Based on this study, these bacteria are unlikely causes of neurologic disease in dogs and the presence of serum antibodies alone does not document or establish a definitive diagnosis of CNS disease caused by these organisms. Dogs that have neurologic disease and corresponding serum antibodies against these agents should have additional tests performed to assess for other potential etiologies of the signs.

  7. Prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia canis, and Borrelia burgdorferi in pet dogs, racing greyhounds, and shelter dogs in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzipory, Nirit; Crawford, P Cynda; Levy, Julie K

    2010-07-15

    Arthropod vectors of canine infectious diseases are present throughout Florida. Since crowded housing has the potential to bring vectors and infected dogs into close proximity, it is possible that prevalence of infection is higher in intensely housed dogs. In this study, the seroprevalence of Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia canis, and Borrelia burgdorferi in dogs residing in two types of intensive housing, greyhound kennels and animal shelters, was compared to dogs residing in low-intensity housing, private homes. Serum was collected from a cross-section of 1500 adult dogs from Florida, including 500 pet dogs referred to the Veterinary Medical Center of the College of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Florida, 500 racing greyhounds, and 500 dogs residing in animal shelters. Serum was tested for D. immitis antigen, E. canis antibodies, and B. burgdorferi antibodies by ELISA. Seroprevalence of D. immitis was significantly higher (14.6%) in shelter dogs and in pet dogs (1.4%) than in racing greyhounds (0.2%) (Pdogs were more than twice as likely to be infected than other breeds (P=0.003). Evidence for vector-borne infections, particularly D. immitis, was found in dogs throughout the state. The prevalence was greatest for D. immitis infection in shelter dogs, likely due to lack of preventive medications prior to impoundment. Although heartworm infection is considered to be a treatable condition, insufficient resources in shelters may lead to euthanasia of infected dogs that would otherwise be considered adoptable. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Minimal role of eastern fence lizards in Borrelia burgdorferi transmission in central New Jersey oak/pine woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulison, Eric L.; Kerr, Kaetlyn T; Dyer, Megan C; Han, Seungeun; Burke, Russell L.; Tsao, Jean I.; Ginsberg, Howard S.

    2014-01-01

    The Eastern fence lizard, Sceloporus undulatus, is widely distributed in eastern and central North America, ranging through areas with high levels of Lyme disease, as well as areas where Lyme disease is rare or absent. We studied the potential role of S. undulatus in transmission dynamics of Lyme spirochetes by sampling ticks from a variety of natural hosts at field sites in central New Jersey, and by testing the reservoir competence of S. undulatus for Borrelia burgdorferi in the laboratory. The infestation rate of ticks on fence lizards was extremely low (proportion infested = 0.087, n = 23) compared to that on white footed mice and other small mammals (proportion infested = 0.53, n = 140). Of 159 nymphs that had fed as larvae on lizards that had previously been exposed to infected nymphs, none was infected with B. burgdorferi, compared with 79.9% of 209 nymphs that had fed as larvae on infected control mice. Simulations suggest that changes in the numbers of fence lizards in a natural habitat would have little effect on the infection rate of nymphal ticks with Lyme spirochetes. We conclude that in central New Jersey S. undulatus plays a minimal role in the enzootic transmission cycle of Lyme spirochetes.

  9. Detection of Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in a tick population from Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatz, Martin; Müllegger, Robert R; Maurer, Florian; Fingerle, Volker; Achermann, Yvonne; Wilske, Bettina; Bloemberg, Guido V

    2014-03-01

    Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis DNA was discovered in Ixodes ricinus ticks in 1999 and is referred to as an emerging human pathogen since its first detection in patients with febrile illness reported in 2010. In recent years, Ca. Neoehrlichia mikurensis has been detected in ticks from several European, Asian, and African countries. However, no epidemiological data exist for Austria, which is a highly endemic region for tick-transmitted diseases. To assess the geographic spread and prevalence of Ca. Neoehrlichia mikurensis sympatric with other tick-transmitted pathogens, we analysed 518 I. ricinus ticks collected in 2002 and 2003 in Graz, Austria. The prevalence of Ca. Neoehrlichia mikurensis was 4.2%, that of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato 25.7%, and that of Anaplasma phagocytophilum 1%. Coinfections with Ca. Neoehrlichia mikurensis and B. burgdorferi sensu lato were found in 2.3% of all ticks. Thus, the results show a relatively high prevalence of Ca. Neoehrlichia mikurensis in Austrian ticks suggesting a high probability for the occurrence of undiagnosed human infections in Austria. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Presence of host-seeking Ixodes ricinus and their infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in the Northern Apennines, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragagli, Charlotte; Mannelli, Alessandro; Ambrogi, Cecilia; Bisanzio, Donal; Ceballos, Leonardo A; Grego, Elena; Martello, Elisa; Selmi, Marco; Tomassone, Laura

    2016-06-01

    Host-seeking ticks were collected in the Northern Apennines, Italy, by dragging at 35 sites, at altitudes ranging from 680 and 1670 m above sea level (asl), from April to November, in 2010 and 2011. Ixodes ricinus (4431 larvae, 597 nymphs and 12 adults) and Haemaphysalis punctata (11,209 larvae, 313 nymphs, and 25 adults) were the most abundant species, followed by Haemaphysalis sulcata (20 larvae, five nymphs, and 13 adults), Dermacentor marginatus (42 larvae and two adults) and Ixodes hexagonus (one nymph). Greatest numbers of ticks were collected at locations characterised by southern exposure and limestone substratum, at altitudes ricinus was most abundant in Turkey oak (Quercus cerris) wood, whereas H. punctata was mostly collected in hop hornbeam (Ostrya carpinifolia) wood and on exposed rocks. Ixodes ricinus was also found up to 1670 m asl, in high stand beech (Fagus sylvatica) wood. The overall prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl) in 294 host-seeking I. ricinus nymphs was 8.5 %. Borrelia garinii was the most frequently identified genospecies (64.0 % of positive nymphs), followed by B. valaisiana, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. afzelii, and B. lusitaniae. Based upon the comparison with the results of previous studies at the same location, these research findings suggest the recent invasion of the study area by the tick vector and the agents of Lyme borreliosis.

  11. A comparison of serologic tests for the detection of serum antibodies to whole-cell and recombinant Borrelia burgdorferi antigens in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnarelli, Louis A; Bushmich, Sandra L; Sherman, Bruce A; Fikrig, Erol

    2004-08-01

    Serum samples from healthy dairy and beef cattle, living in tick-infested areas of Connecticut, USA, were analyzed by polyvalent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) staining methods, or Western blot procedures to detect antibodies to tick-borne agents. Of the 80 sera tested by ELISA with whole-cell or 10 separate recombinant antigens (fusion proteins) of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, 57 (71%) were positive to 1 or more antigens, while 36 (45%) reacted to whole-cell antigens by IFA staining methods. Three (4%) of 80 samples had antibodies to Anaplasma phagocytophilum. There were antibodies to outer surface protein (Osp) A, OspB, OspC, OspE, OspF, protein (p) 41-G, p35, p37, and VlsE antigens of B. burgdorferi, but there was no reactivity to the p39 antigen by ELISA. Western immunoblots of a subset of 9 sera verified antibody presence in all samples and showed distinct reactivities to multiple proteins having molecular masses of about 31 kilodaltons (kDa), 34 kDa, 35 kDa, 41 kDa, and 83/93 kDa. High specificity (97%) was noted when 16 cattle sera containing antibodies to Leptospira interrogans serovars, Brucella sp., Anaplasma marginale, or A. phagocytophilum were tested by ELISA with separate whole-cell or recombinant B. burgdorferi antigens. An ELISA and Western blot analyses can be used to confirm the exposure of cattle to B. burgdorferi.

  12. An invasive mammal (the gray squirrel, Sciurus carolinensis) commonly hosts diverse and atypical genotypes of the zoonotic pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Millins, Caroline; Magierecka, Agnieszka; Gilbert, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    Invasive vertebrate species can act as hosts for endemic pathogens and may alter pathogen community composition and dynamics. For the zoonotic pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the agent of Lyme borreliosis, recent work shows invasive rodent species can be of high epidemiological importance...

  13. Climate change and habitat fragmentation drive the occurrence of Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, at the northeastern limit of its distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Julie A; Marrotte, Robby R; Desrosiers, Nathalie; Fiset, Jessica; Gaitan, Jorge; Gonzalez, Andrew; Koffi, Jules K; Lapointe, Francois-Joseph; Leighton, Patrick A; Lindsay, Lindsay R; Logan, Travis; Milord, Francois; Ogden, Nicholas H; Rogic, Anita; Roy-Dufresne, Emilie; Suter, Daniel; Tessier, Nathalie; Millien, Virginie

    2014-08-01

    Lyme borreliosis is rapidly emerging in Canada, and climate change is likely a key driver of the northern spread of the disease in North America. We used field and modeling approaches to predict the risk of occurrence of Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacteria causing Lyme disease in North America. We combined climatic and landscape variables to model the current and future (2050) potential distribution of the black-legged tick and the white-footed mouse at the northeastern range limit of Lyme disease and estimated a risk index for B. burgdorferi from these distributions. The risk index was mostly constrained by the distribution of the white-footed mouse, driven by winter climatic conditions. The next factor contributing to the risk index was the distribution of the black-legged tick, estimated from the temperature. Landscape variables such as forest habitat and connectivity contributed little to the risk index. We predict a further northern expansion of B. burgdorferi of approximately 250-500 km by 2050 - a rate of 3.5-11 km per year - and identify areas of rapid rise in the risk of occurrence of B. burgdorferi. Our results will improve understanding of the spread of Lyme disease and inform management strategies at the most northern limit of its distribution.

  14. Linkages of Weather and Climate With Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae), Enzootic Transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi, and Lyme Disease in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Rebecca J.; Eisen, Lars; Ogden, Nicholas H.; Beard, Charles B.

    2016-01-01

    Lyme disease has increased both in incidence and geographic extent in the United States and Canada over the past two decades. One of the underlying causes is changes during the same time period in the distribution and abundance of the primary vectors: Ixodes scapularis Say and Ixodes pacificus Cooley and Kohls in eastern and western North America, respectively. Aside from short periods of time when they are feeding on hosts, these ticks exist in the environment where temperature and relative humidity directly affect their development, survival, and host-seeking behavior. Other important factors that strongly influence tick abundance as well as the proportion of ticks infected with the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, include the abundance of hosts for the ticks and the capacity of tick hosts to serve as B. burgdorferi reservoirs. Here, we explore the linkages between climate variation and: 1) duration of the seasonal period and the timing of peak activity; 2) geographic tick distributions and local abundance; 3) enzootic B. burgdorferi transmission cycles; and 4) Lyme disease cases. We conclude that meteorological variables are most influential in determining host-seeking phenology and development, but, while remaining important cofactors, additional variables become critical when exploring geographic distribution and local abundance of ticks, enzootic transmission of B. burgdorferi, and Lyme disease case occurrence. Finally, we review climate change-driven projections for future impact on vector ticks and Lyme disease and discuss knowledge gaps and research needs. PMID:26681789

  15. Epitope mapping of the outer surface protein A (OspA) of the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi using a panel of monoclonal antibodies and lanthanide competition fluoroimmunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharitonenkov, I G; Pomelova, V G; Bucher, D J; Cozzolino, A; Bichenkova, T A; Sadykbekova, R K; Osin, N S

    2002-06-01

    A panel of fourteen different monoclonal antibodies was used for detection and analysis of antigenic determinants located on the outer surface protein A (OspA) of the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, which is a causative agent of tick-borne borreliosis (Lyme disease). Two main and several minor partially overlapping antigenic determinants have been found on the surface of the OspA protein of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (strain 297) by lanthanide competition fluoroimmunoassay. One of the main antigenic determinants is located in the N- and the other in the C-half of the OspA molecule. The involvement of the OspA protein in intact Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (four bacterial strains have been analyzed: 297, B31, FR90-594, and CA90-742) is associated with retention of the above-mentioned two major antigenic determinants, but unlike the case of the isolated OspA they are partially overlapping with each other and with other antigenic determinants. The protein of the spirochete Borrelia afzelii (two bacterial strains have been analyzed: Ip-21 and Pko) contains only one antigenic determinant, which is the same as the main determinant of the OspA protein of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto located in the N-half of the OspA molecule.

  16. Prevalencia de Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato en roedores sinantrópicos de dos comunidades rurales de Yucatán, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analilia Solís-Hernández

    2016-04-01

    Conclusiones. Los roedores presentaron una alta prevalencia de infección con B. burgdorferi s.l.; las especies M. musculus y R. rattus podrían jugar un papel importante en la continuidad de la presencia de esta bacteria en comunidades rurales de Yucatán, México.

  17. Antigenic and genomic analysis of a Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto strain isolated from Ixodes ricinus ticks in Alto Adige-South Tyrol, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciceroni, L; Ciarrocchi, S; Simeoni, J

    1998-07-01

    A Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strain isolated from IXodes ricinus ticks in Alto Adige-South Tyrol (Northern Italy) was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of whole cell proteins, Western immunoblotting analysis (WBA) with polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The isolate named BZ6 was identified as belonging to the genospecies B. burgdorferi sensu stricto on the basis of its protein profile and its reactivity with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. The PFGE study performed with the two rare-cutting restriction enzymes MluI and SmaI confirmed the SDS-PAGE and WBA characterizations, but showed a genetic diversity between the isolate and two out of the three B. burgdorferi sensu stricto strains used in this study as controls, the American type strain B31 and the locally isolated strain BZ1. No difference in the PFGE patterns between the isolate BZ6 and the Swiss strain IRS was noted. Our findings show the value of PFGE analysis for classifying B. burgdorferi sensu lato isolates and for revealing their genetic diversity, and its usefulness for epidemiological investigations.

  18. Linkages of Weather and Climate With Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae), Enzootic Transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi, and Lyme Disease in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Rebecca J; Eisen, Lars; Ogden, Nicholas H; Beard, Charles B

    2016-03-01

    Lyme disease has increased both in incidence and geographic extent in the United States and Canada over the past two decades. One of the underlying causes is changes during the same time period in the distribution and abundance of the primary vectors: Ixodes scapularis Say and Ixodes pacificus Cooley and Kohls in eastern and western North America, respectively. Aside from short periods of time when they are feeding on hosts, these ticks exist in the environment where temperature and relative humidity directly affect their development, survival, and host-seeking behavior. Other important factors that strongly influence tick abundance as well as the proportion of ticks infected with the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, include the abundance of hosts for the ticks and the capacity of tick hosts to serve as B. burgdorferi reservoirs. Here, we explore the linkages between climate variation and: 1) duration of the seasonal period and the timing of peak activity; 2) geographic tick distributions and local abundance; 3) enzootic B. burgdorferi transmission cycles; and 4) Lyme disease cases. We conclude that meteorological variables are most influential in determining host-seeking phenology and development, but, while remaining important cofactors, additional variables become critical when exploring geographic distribution and local abundance of ticks, enzootic transmission of B. burgdorferi, and Lyme disease case occurrence. Finally, we review climate change-driven projections for future impact on vector ticks and Lyme disease and discuss knowledge gaps and research needs.

  19. Prevalence of Babesia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in hard ticks collected from meadows of Lubelskie Voivodship (eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzięgiel Beata

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the distribution of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and Babesia canis in adult females and males of Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks, inhabiting meadows near large forest complexes throughout the Lubelskie Voivodship (eastern region of Poland. Ticks were collected using the flagging method. Among 720 ticks collected, 506 were identified as D. reticulatus, and 214 as I. ricinus. DNA of B. canis and B. burgdorferi s.l. was detected in 21.3% and 0.6% of D. reticulatus ticks, respectively. In I. ricinus ticks, DNA specific to B. burgdorferi s.l. and A. phagocytophilum was detected in 5.6% and 10.3%, respectively. Co-infections of B. burgdorferi s.l. and A. phagocytophilum were found in two I. ricinus ticks. These results indicate that the Lublin region is an area at risk of tick-borne diseases of humans and animals, which must be considered in clinical practice.

  20. Fly Photoreceptors Encode Phase Congruency.

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    Uwe Friederich

    Full Text Available More than five decades ago it was postulated that sensory neurons detect and selectively enhance behaviourally relevant features of natural signals. Although we now know that sensory neurons are tuned to efficiently encode natural stimuli, until now it was not clear what statistical features of the stimuli they encode and how. Here we reverse-engineer the neural code of Drosophila photoreceptors and show for the first time that photoreceptors exploit nonlinear dynamics to selectively enhance and encode phase-related features of temporal stimuli, such as local phase congruency, which are invariant to changes in illumination and contrast. We demonstrate that to mitigate for the inherent sensitivity to noise of the local phase congruency measure, the nonlinear coding mechanisms of the fly photoreceptors are tuned to suppress random phase signals, which explains why photoreceptor responses to naturalistic stimuli are significantly different from their responses to white noise stimuli.

  1. Sigma factor selectivity in Borrelia burgdorferi: RpoS recognition of the ospE/ospF/elp promoters is dependent on the sequence of the -10 region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, Christian H; Caimano, Melissa J; Radolf, Justin D

    2006-03-01

    Members of the ospE/ospF/elp lipoprotein gene families of Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease agent, are transcriptionally upregulated in response to the influx of blood into the midgut of an infected tick. We recently have demonstrated that despite the high degree of similarity between the promoters of the ospF (P(ospF)) and ospE (P(ospE)) genes of B. burgdorferi strain 297, the differential expression of ospF is RpoS-dependent, while ospE is controlled by sigma(70). Herein we used wild-type and RpoS-deficient strains of B. burgdorferi and Escherichia coli to analyse transcriptional reporters consisting of a green fluorescent protein (gfp) gene fused to P(ospF), P(ospE), or two hybrid promoters in which the -10 regions of P(ospF) and P(ospE) were switched [P(ospF ) ((E - 10)) and P(ospE) ((F - 10)) respectively]. We found that the P(ospF)-10 region is both necessary and sufficient for RpoS-dependent recognition in B. burgdorferi, while sigma(70) specificity for P(ospE) is dependent on elements outside of the -10 region. In E. coli, sigma factor selectivity for these promoters was much more permissive, with expression of each being primarily due to sigma(70). Alignment of the sequences upstream of each of the ospE/ospF/elp genes from B. burgdorferi strains 297 and B31 revealed that two B31 ospF paralogues [erpK (BBM38) and erpL (BBO39)] have -10 regions virtually identical to that of P(ospF). Correspondingly, expression of gfp reporters based on the erpK and erpL promoters was RpoS-dependent. Thus, the sequence of the P(ospF)-10 region appears to serve as a motif for RpoS recognition, the first described for any B. burgdorferi promoter. Taken together, our data support the notion that B. burgdorferi utilizes sequence differences at the -10 region as one mechanism for maintaining the transcriptional integrity of RpoS-dependent and -independent genes activated at the onset of tick feeding.

  2. Genetically Encoded Fluorescent Redox Probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Wang Ai

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Redox processes are involved in almost every cell of the body as a consequence of aerobic life. In the past decades, redox biology has been increasingly recognized as one of the key themes in cell signaling. The progress has been accelerated by development of fluorescent probes that can monitor redox conditions and dynamics in cells and cell compartments. This short paper focuses on fluorescent redox probes that are genetically encoded, and discusses their properties, molecular mechanism, advantages and pitfalls. Our recent work on reaction-based encoded probes that are responsive to particular redox signaling molecules is also reviewed. Future challenges and directions are also commented.

  3. Genetically encoded fluorescent redox probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wei; Ai, Hui-Wang

    2013-11-11

    Redox processes are involved in almost every cell of the body as a consequence of aerobic life. In the past decades, redox biology has been increasingly recognized as one of the key themes in cell signaling. The progress has been accelerated by development of fluorescent probes that can monitor redox conditions and dynamics in cells and cell compartments. This short paper focuses on fluorescent redox probes that are genetically encoded, and discusses their properties, molecular mechanism, advantages and pitfalls. Our recent work on reaction-based encoded probes that are responsive to particular redox signaling molecules is also reviewed. Future challenges and directions are also commented.

  4. Multiple antigen target approach using the Accuplex4 BioCD system to detect Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in experimentally infected and vaccinated dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroff, Scott; Woodruff, Colby; Woodring, Todd; Sokolchik, Irene; Lappin, Michael R

    2015-09-01

    The primary objective of our study was to optimize detection of serum antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi using a new commercial automated fluorescence system (Accuplex4 BioCD system, Antech Diagnostics, Lake Success, New York). The system used multiple natural and artificial peptides-outer surface proteins (OspA, OspC, OspF), an outer membrane protein (P39), and a proprietary synthetic peptide (small Lyme peptide [SLP])-and the results were compared with a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that uses a proprietary peptide (C6). Sera from 4 groups were evaluated: dogs vaccinated with 1 of 3 commercially available vaccines (n = 18); dogs infested with adult Ixodes scapularis (black-legged tick; n = 18); dogs previously vaccinated and then infested with I. scapularis (n = 18); and dogs with B. burgdorferi infection that were then vaccinated (n = 14). All of the vaccines evaluated induced OspA responses. However, antibodies against OspF or C6 were not induced in any of the vaccinated dogs. Additionally, the OspF antibodies had 100% sensitivity and specificity when compared to antibodies against C6 peptide. In B. burgdorferi-infected dogs, antibodies against OspC and SLP were detected in serum sooner than antibodies against the other targets. Low levels of antibodies against OspA developed in 6 of 14 B. burgdorferi-infected, unvaccinated dogs and had the shortest duration compared to the other antibodies. Detection of antibody responses to multiple B. burgdorferi targets with this system can be used to help differentiate vaccinated dogs from exposed dogs as well as acute infection from chronic infection. © 2015 The Author(s).

  5. Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies detection by RLB hybridization in Ixodes cinus ticks from different sites of North-Eastern Poland

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    Justyna Dunaj

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. RLB (Reverse Line Blot Hybridization is a molecular biology technique that might be used for [i]Borrelia burgdorferi [/i]sensu lato (sl DNA detection with genospecies specification. Among[i] B. burgdorferi[/i] sl genospecies at least 7 are regarded as pathogenic in Europe. objective. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of different [i]Borrelia[/i] genospecies DNA detection in Ixodes ricinus ticks in the endemic area of North-Eastern Poland by using RLB. materials and method. Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected in May – June, from 6 different sites in North-Eastern Poland (Jakubin, Kolno, Grajewo, Suwałki, Siemiatycze, Białowieża by flagging. Extracted DNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting the intergenic spacer 5S 23S of [i]B. burgdorferi sl.[/i] PCR products were hybridised to 15 different oligonucleotide probes for 9 different [i]Borrelia [/i]genospecies ([i]B. burgdorferi sl, B. burgdorferi ss, B. garinii, B. afzelii, B. valaisiana, B. lusitaniae, B. spielmanii, B. bissettii and B. relapsing[/i] fever-like spirochetes (B. myamotoi by RLB. results. [i]Borrelia [/i]genospecies DNA was detected in 205 Ixodes ricinus ticks. Among 14 infected with [i]Borrelia[/i] ticks, 4 were identified as B. garinii and 10 as B. afzelii. Higher numbers of infected ticks were noticed in the eastern part of the research area, where large forest complexes dominate. Nymphs appeared to be the most frequently infected tick stage, which has an epidemiological meaning in the incidence of Lyme borreliosis. conclusions. The study demonstrated that RLB might be easily used in [i]Borrelia[/i] DNA detection with genospecies-identification, and indicated the domination of [i]B. afzelii and B. garinii [/i]in ticks from North-Eastern Poland.

  6. Assessment of decorin-binding protein A to the infectivity of Borrelia burgdorferi in the murine models of needle and tick infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagman Kayla E

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decorin-binding proteins (Dbps A and B of Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, are surface-exposed lipoproteins that presumably bind to the extracellular matrix proteoglycan, decorin. B. burgdorferi infects various tissues including the bladder, heart, joints, skin and the central nervous system, and the ability of B. burgdorferi to bind decorin has been hypothesized to be important for this disseminatory pathogenic strategy. Results To determine the role of DbpBA in the infectious lifecycle of B. burgdorferi, we created a DbpBA-deficient mutant of B. burgdorferi strain 297 and compared the infectious phenotype of the mutant to the wild-type strain in the experimental murine model of Lyme borreliosis. The mutant strain exhibited a 4-log decrease in infectivity, relative to the wild-type strain, when needle inoculated into mice. Upon complementation of the DbpBA-mutant strain with DbpA, the wild-type level of infectivity was restored. In addition, we demonstrated that the DbpBA-deficient mutant was able to colonize Ixodes scapularis larval ticks after feeding on infected mice and persist within the ticks during the molt to the nymphal state. Moreover, surprisingly, the DbpBA-mutant strain was capable of being transmitted to naïve mice via tick bite, giving rise to infected mice. Conclusion These results suggest that DbpBA is not required for the natural tick-transmission process to mammals, despite inferences from needle-inoculation experiments implying a requirement for DbpBA during mammalian infection. The combined findings also send a cautionary note regarding how results from needle-inoculation experiments with mice should be interpreted.

  7. Serological detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Ehrlichia canis antibodies and Dirofilaria immitis antigen in a countrywide survey in dogs in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, Friederike; Schaper, Roland; Schunack, Bettina; Połozowski, Andrzej; Piekarska, Jolanta; Szwedko, Aleksandra; Jodies, Robert; Kowalska, Dagmara; Schüpbach, Dörte; Pantchev, Nikola

    2014-09-01

    Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) have increasingly become a focus of attention in the past few years. Nevertheless, in many parts of Europe information on their occurrence is still scarce. In a large study in Poland 3,094 serum samples taken from dogs throughout all 16 Polish provinces were tested using a commercial kit for the detection of circulating antibodies against Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Ehrlichia canis and of Dirofilaria immitis antigen. A total of 12.31% (381/3,094; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.18-13.52%) and 3.75% (116/3,094; 95% CI: 3.11-4.48%) of the dogs were positive for A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. antibodies, respectively. Furthermore, 0.26% (8/3,094; 95% CI: 0.11-0.51%) were positive for E. canis antibodies and 0.16% (5/3,094; 95% CI: 0.05-0.38%) for D. immitis antigen. The highest percentages of A. phagocytophilum-positive dogs were noted in Lesser Poland, Silesia and Łódź Provinces. For B. burgdorferi s.l., the highest prevalence was recorded in Łódź Province. Co-infections with A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. were recorded in 1.71% of all examined dogs (53/3,094; 95% CI: 1.29-2.23%). One dog even had a triple infection, testing positive for E. canis too. Both A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. have previously been reported in Poland and were confirmed in the present study by positive samples from all 16 provinces. Concerning E. canis and D. immitis travel history or importation cannot be excluded as factors which may have determined the occurrence of these pathogens in the relevant animals. Practitioners in Poland should be aware of the above mentioned CVBDs and of prophylactic measures to protect dogs and their owners.

  8. Serological survey of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Ehrlichia canis infections in rural and urban dogs in Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebani, Valentina Virginia; Bertelloni, Fabrizio; Torracca, Beatrice; Cerri, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) and Anaplasma phagocytophilum are well known zoonotic pathogens, whereas Ehrlichia canis is usually considered to be of veterinary concern, although on the basis of recent reports it also seems to be able to infect humans. The aim of the study was to determine the seroprevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l., A. phagocytophilum and E. canis in an Italian canine population, and to verify if there are differences between dogs living in urban areas and those from a rural environment. Blood sera of 1,965 dogs, 1,235 from cities and 730 from rural areas, were tested by indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFAT). The overall seroprevalence was highest for E. canis (7.07%), followed by A. phagocytophilum (4.68%), and B. burgdorferi s.l. (1.47%). Rural dogs showed the highest seroprevalence to B. burgdorferi s.l. and A. phagocytophilum. No significant differences were observed between rural and urban E. canis-positive dogs. A low percentage (1.32%) of dogs with dual seropositivity was detected, and no triple positive reactions were observed. No significant differences were detected in the seroprevalence of the three agents in relationship to the age and gender of the dogs. Seroprevalence in the five years considered were not statistically different, except for the lowest rate for E. canis observed in 2012. The results confirm the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l., A. phagocytophilum and E. canis in Italian dogs in both urban and rural areas. Monitoring pet dogs, which share the same environment with their owners, is useful for identifying the presence of tick-borne disease agents of both veterinary and public health significance.

  9. Probable late lyme disease: a variant manifestation of untreated Borrelia burgdorferi infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucott, John N; Seifter, Ari; Rebman, Alison W

    2012-08-01

    Lyme disease, a bacterial infection with the tick-borne spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, can cause early and late manifestations. The category of probable Lyme disease was recently added to the CDC surveillance case definition to describe patients with serologic evidence of exposure and physician-diagnosed disease in the absence of objective signs. We present a retrospective case series of 13 untreated patients with persistent symptoms of greater than 12 weeks duration who meet these criteria and suggest a label of 'probable late Lyme disease' for this presentation. The sample for this analysis draws from a retrospective chart review of consecutive, adult patients presenting between August 2002 and August 2007 to the author (JA), an infectious disease specialist. Patients were included in the analysis if their current illness had lasted greater than or equal to 12 weeks duration at the time of evaluation. Probable late Lyme patients with positive IgG serology but no history of previous physician-documented Lyme disease or appropriate Lyme treatment were found to represent 6% of our heterogeneous sample presenting with ≥ 12 weeks of symptom duration. Patients experienced a range of symptoms including fatigue, widespread pain, and cognitive complaints. Approximately one-third of this subset reported a patient-observed rash at illness onset, with a similar proportion having been exposed to non-recommended antibiotics or glucocorticosteroid treatment for their initial disease. A clinically significant response to antibiotics treatment was noted in the majority of patients with probable late Lyme disease, although post-treatment symptom recurrence was common. We suggest that patients with probable late Lyme disease share features with both confirmed late Lyme disease and post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome. Physicians should consider the recent inclusion of probable Lyme disease in the CDC Lyme disease surveillance criteria when evaluating patients, especially in

  10. Probable late lyme disease: a variant manifestation of untreated Borrelia burgdorferi infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aucott John N

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lyme disease, a bacterial infection with the tick-borne spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, can cause early and late manifestations. The category of probable Lyme disease was recently added to the CDC surveillance case definition to describe patients with serologic evidence of exposure and physician-diagnosed disease in the absence of objective signs. We present a retrospective case series of 13 untreated patients with persistent symptoms of greater than 12 weeks duration who meet these criteria and suggest a label of ‘probable late Lyme disease’ for this presentation. Methods The sample for this analysis draws from a retrospective chart review of consecutive, adult patients presenting between August 2002 and August 2007 to the author (JA, an infectious disease specialist. Patients were included in the analysis if their current illness had lasted greater than or equal to 12 weeks duration at the time of evaluation. Results Probable late Lyme patients with positive IgG serology but no history of previous physician-documented Lyme disease or appropriate Lyme treatment were found to represent 6% of our heterogeneous sample presenting with ≥ 12 weeks of symptom duration. Patients experienced a range of symptoms including fatigue, widespread pain, and cognitive complaints. Approximately one-third of this subset reported a patient-observed rash at illness onset, with a similar proportion having been exposed to non-recommended antibiotics or glucocorticosteroid treatment for their initial disease. A clinically significant response to antibiotics treatment was noted in the majority of patients with probable late Lyme disease, although post-treatment symptom recurrence was common. Conclusions We suggest that patients with probable late Lyme disease share features with both confirmed late Lyme disease and post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome. Physicians should consider the recent inclusion of probable Lyme disease in the

  11. Probable late lyme disease: a variant manifestation of untreated Borrelia burgdorferi infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Lyme disease, a bacterial infection with the tick-borne spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, can cause early and late manifestations. The category of probable Lyme disease was recently added to the CDC surveillance case definition to describe patients with serologic evidence of exposure and physician-diagnosed disease in the absence of objective signs. We present a retrospective case series of 13 untreated patients with persistent symptoms of greater than 12 weeks duration who meet these criteria and suggest a label of ‘probable late Lyme disease’ for this presentation. Methods The sample for this analysis draws from a retrospective chart review of consecutive, adult patients presenting between August 2002 and August 2007 to the author (JA), an infectious disease specialist. Patients were included in the analysis if their current illness had lasted greater than or equal to 12 weeks duration at the time of evaluation. Results Probable late Lyme patients with positive IgG serology but no history of previous physician-documented Lyme disease or appropriate Lyme treatment were found to represent 6% of our heterogeneous sample presenting with ≥ 12 weeks of symptom duration. Patients experienced a range of symptoms including fatigue, widespread pain, and cognitive complaints. Approximately one-third of this subset reported a patient-observed rash at illness onset, with a similar proportion having been exposed to non-recommended antibiotics or glucocorticosteroid treatment for their initial disease. A clinically significant response to antibiotics treatment was noted in the majority of patients with probable late Lyme disease, although post-treatment symptom recurrence was common. Conclusions We suggest that patients with probable late Lyme disease share features with both confirmed late Lyme disease and post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome. Physicians should consider the recent inclusion of probable Lyme disease in the CDC Lyme disease surveillance

  12. Early Decoding and Encoding Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwater-Rozensher, Susan; Hebard, Amy J.

    A combination of case study observation and mini-experimentation techniques were used to examine a number of issues of relevance in the study of the acquisition of beginning reading skills. Six children were divided equally among three instructional modes: phonics, whole word, and mixed. They were asked to decode and encode words, and their…

  13. Sigma factor selectivity in Borrelia burgdorferi: RpoS recognition of the ospE/ospF/elp promoters is dependent on the sequence of the −10 region

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eggers, Christian H; Caimano, Melissa J; Radolf, Justin D

    2006-01-01

    Members of the ospE/ospF/elp lipoprotein gene families of Borrelia burgdorferi , the Lyme disease agent, are transcriptionally upregulated in response to the influx of blood into the midgut of an infected tick...

  14. Central role of the Holliday junction helicase RuvAB in vlsE recombination and infectivity of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Lin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Antigenic variation plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of many infectious bacteria and protozoa including Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease. VlsE, a 35 kDa surface-exposed lipoprotein, undergoes antigenic variation during B. burgdorferi infection of mammalian hosts, and is believed to be a critical mechanism by which the spirochetes evade immune clearance. Random, segmental recombination between the expressed vlsE gene and adjacent vls silent cassettes generates a large number of different VlsE variants within the infected host. Although the occurrence and importance of vlsE sequence variation is well established, little is known about the biological mechanism of vlsE recombination. To identify factors important in antigenic variation and vlsE recombination, we screened transposon mutants of genes known to be involved in DNA recombination and repair for their effects on infectivity and vlsE recombination. Several mutants, including those in BB0023 (ruvA, BB0022 (ruvB, BB0797 (mutS, and BB0098 (mutS-II, showed reduced infectivity in immunocompetent C3H/HeN mice. Mutants in ruvA and ruvB exhibited greatly reduced rates of vlsE recombination in C3H/HeN mice, as determined by restriction fragment polymorphism (RFLP screening and DNA sequence analysis. In severe combined immunodeficiency (C3H/scid mice, the ruvA mutant retained full infectivity; however, all recovered clones retained the 'parental' vlsE sequence, consistent with low rates of vlsE recombination. These results suggest that the reduced infectivity of ruvA and ruvB mutants is the result of ineffective vlsE recombination and underscores the important role that vlsE recombination plays in immune evasion. Based on functional studies in other organisms, the RuvAB complex of B. burgdorferi may promote branch migration of Holliday junctions during vlsE recombination. Our findings are consistent with those in the accompanying article by Dresser et al., and together

  15. Countrywide serological evaluation of canine prevalence for Anaplasma spp., Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato), Dirofilaria immitis and Ehrlichia canis in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movilla, Rebeca; García, Carlos; Siebert, Susanne; Roura, Xavier

    2016-07-29

    Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBD) have become a major concern for canine and human public health. The aim of the study described here is to add epidemiological data regarding four pathogens responsible for CVBD, namely anaplasmosis, borreliosis, dirofilariosis and ehrlichiosis in a national survey conducted in Mexico. Seventy-four veterinary centres located in 21 federal Mexican states were asked to test dogs with clinical signs suspect for CVBD and healthy dogs, for detection of Dirofilaria immitis antigen and antibodies against Anaplasma spp., Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato) and Ehrlichia canis using the SNAP® 4DX® from IDEXX® Laboratories. A total of 1706 dogs were tested, including 943 apparently healthy and 722 CVBD-suspect dogs. Infected dogs were 36.7 %. The highest percentages of infection with E. canis (51.0 %) and Anaplasma spp. (16.4 %) were obtained in the northwestern region, while D. immitis was most frequently found in the northeastern region of the country (8.9 %). Four dogs from the northwestern, northeastern, eastern and southeastern regions, respectively, were positive for B. burgdorferi (sensu lato). Northcentral regions showed lowest overall prevalence of infection (2.4 %). Co-infections were detected in 8.8 % of the dogs tested. Statistically significant lower positivity was found among dogs aged less than one year (23.2 %) and small-sized dogs (27.6 %), while higher prevalence of infection was found in dogs living outdoors (42.0 %), dogs with detectable tick infestation (43.3 %) and dogs that received treatment for tick-transmitted infections (58.8 %). Seropositivity was a risk factor for the presence of clinical signs as follows: Anaplasma spp. (OR = 2.63; 95 % CI: 1.88-3.67; P immitis (OR = 2.52; 95 % CI: 1.61-3.95; P immitis and/or E. canis, while B. burgdorferi (sensu lato) transmission is minimal in the country. Practitioners play a fundamental role in the detection and control of these diseases to protect

  16. Freqüência de anticorpos contra Borrelia burgdorferi em cães na região metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro Frequency of antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi in dogs from the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra de Lacerda Alves

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Borreliose de Lyme é uma zoonose cosmopolita causada pelo espiroquetídeo Borrelia burgdorferi e tem como vetores carrapatos ixodídeos. Esta espiroqueta acomete diversas espécies de animais domésticos e silvestres, sendo o cão um importante reservatório no ambiente domiciliar. O quadro clínico da doença envolve as articulações, além de causar alterações em vários sistemas do organismo. Foram analisados 143 soros de cães provenientes dos municípios de Seropédica, Itaguaí e do Rio de Janeiro, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, quanto à ocorrência de anticorpos contra B. burgdorferi latu sensu, através de teste de ELISA indireto. Foram encontrados 48,25% de animais soropositivos, sendo 41,9% em Seropédica, 4,9% em Itaguaí e 1,4% no Rio de Janeiro. Os títulos variaram de 1:400 a 1:6400. Cães com menos de um ano apresentaram menor índice de títulos positivos, sendo a diferença significativa. Entre machos e fêmeas, não houve diferença significativa entre os títulos positivos. O resultado encontrado deve servir como alerta para ocorrência de Borrelia sp nas regiões estudadas, considerando a importância da borreliose de Lyme como zoonose emergente.Lyme disease is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochaetae and transmitted through ticks (Ixodidae. Many species of domestic and wild animals are affected. The dog is an important reservoir in the domiciliary environment. The disease affects the joints and causes alterations in other organs. Blood serum samples from 143 dogs, living in the counties of Seropédica, Itaguaí and Rio de Janeiro, were analyzed with the indirect ELISA test, to search for antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi latu sensu. Average positive results were 48.25%, 41.9% in Seropédica, 4.9% in Itaguaí and 1.4% in Rio de Janeiro. The titres varied from 1:400 to 1:6400. The prevalence was lower (p< 0.05 in dogs up to one year of age than in older dogs, with significant difference. Between

  17. Genetically Encoded Fluorescent Redox Probes

    OpenAIRE

    Hui-Wang Ai; Wei Ren

    2013-01-01

    Redox processes are involved in almost every cell of the body as a consequence of aerobic life. In the past decades, redox biology has been increasingly recognized as one of the key themes in cell signaling. The progress has been accelerated by development of fluorescent probes that can monitor redox conditions and dynamics in cells and cell compartments. This short paper focuses on fluorescent redox probes that are genetically encoded, and discusses their properties, molecular mechanism, adv...

  18. Eradication of Biofilm-Like Microcolony Structures of Borrelia burgdorferi by Daunomycin and Daptomycin but not Mitomycin C in Combination with Doxycycline and Cefuroxime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Weitner, Megan; Shi, Wanliang; Zhang, Shuo; Zhang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Lyme disease, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States and Europe. While the majority of Lyme disease patients can resolve their symptoms if treated promptly, 10-20% of patients suffer from prolonged symptoms called post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS). Although the cause for PTLDS is unclear, one possibility is the presence of bacterial persisters not effectively cleared by the current Lyme antibiotics. Recent studies identified several drug candidates including daptomycin, daunomycin, doxorubicin, and mitomycin C that had good activity against B. burgdorferi persisters. However, their relative activities against B. burgdorferi persisters have not been evaluated under the same conditions. In this study, we tested the anti-persister activities of these drugs against both 7-day and 15-day old stationary phase cultures of B. burgdorferi individually as well as in combination with Lyme antibiotics doxycycline and cefuroxime (Ceftin). Our findings demonstrate daunomycin and daptomycin were more active than mitomycin C in single drug comparison at 10 and 20 μM, as well as in drug combinations with doxycycline and cefuroxime. In addition, daunomycin was more active than doxorubicin which correlated with their ability to stain and accumulate in B. burgdorferi. The two drug combination of doxycycline and cefuroxime was unable to eradicate biofilm-like microcolonies of B. burgdorferi persisters. However, the addition of either daunomycin or daptomycin to the doxycycline + cefuroxime combination completely eradicated the biofilm-like structures and produced no visible bacterial regrowth after 7 and 21 days, while the addition of doxorubicin was unable to prevent regrowth at either 7 or 21 day subculture. Mitomycin C in combination with doxycycline and cefuroxime caused no regrowth at 7 days but visible spirochetal regrowth occurred after 21 day subculture. Furthermore, we found that cefuroxime (Ceftin), the third

  19. Eradication of Biofilm-like Microcolony Structures of Borrelia burgdorferi by Daunomycin and Daptomycin but not Mitomycin C in Combination with Doxycycline and Cefuroxime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie eFeng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Lyme disease, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States and Europe. While the majority of Lyme disease patients can resolve their symptoms if treated promptly, 10-20% of patients suffer from prolonged symptoms called post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS. Although the cause for PTLDS is unclear, one possibility is the presence of bacterial persisters not effectively cleared by the current Lyme antibiotics. Recent studies identified several drug candidates including daptomycin, daunomycin, doxorubicin, and mitomycin C that had good activity against B. burgdorferi persisters. However, their relative activities against B. burgdorferi persisters have not been evaluated under the same conditions. In this study, we tested the anti-persister activities of these drugs against both 7-day and 15-day old stationary phase cultures of B. burgdorferi individually as well as in combination with Lyme antibiotics doxycycline and cefuroxime (Ceftin. Our findings demonstrate daunomycin and daptomycin were more active than mitomycin C in single drug comparison at 10 and 20 µM, as well as in drug combinations with doxycycline and cefuroxime. In addition, daunomycin was more active than doxorubicin which correlated with their ability to stain and accumulate in B. burgdorferi. The two drug combination of doxycycline and cefuroxime was unable to eradicate biofilm-like microcolonies of B. burgdorferi persisters. However, the addition of either daunomycin or daptomycin to the doxycycline + cefuroxime combination completely eradicated the biofilm-like structures and produced no visible bacterial regrowth after 7 days and 21 days, while the addition of doxorubicin was unable to prevent regrowth at either 7 day or 21 day subculture. Mitomycin C in combination with doxycycline and cefuroxime caused no regrowth at 7 days but visible spirochetal regrowth occurred after 21 day subculture. Furthermore, we found that

  20. Surveillance for Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Dirofilaria immitis in Dogs From Three Cities in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCown, Michael E; Monterroso, Victor H; Cardona, Wilder

    2014-01-01

    Emerging infectious and zoonotic diseases are made up in large proportion by vector-borne diseases (VBD). Dogs are parasitized by disease vectors such as ticks and mosquitoes, making dogs adequate reservoirs for zoonoses. Risk of exposure to VBD exists for the U.S. military personnel and Military Working Dogs (MWD) when deployed globally. The importance of canine VBD surveillance relates to veterinary and public health significance for the host nations as well as for the U.S. troops and MWDs. The objective of this work was to survey dogs from the cities of Medellin, Barranquilla, and Cartagena in Colombia to determine the prevalence of heartworm disease (Dirofilaria immitis), ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis), Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi), and anaplasmosis (Anaplasma phagocytophilum). Canine (n=498) blood samples (1? 3 mL) were collected during July 2011 from Medellin (n=175), Barranquilla (n=223), and Cartagena (n=100) and were tested on-site using IDEXX SNAP? 4Dx? Test Kits. The overall combined sample prevalence of E. canis, A. phagocytophilum, D. immitis, and B. burgdorferi was 62%, 33%, 1.6%, and 0%, respectively. In Medellin, 26% of the samples were positive for E. canis, 12% for A. phagocytophilum, and 0% for D. immitis. In Barranquilla, sample prevalence for E. canis, A. phagocytophilum, and D. immitis was 83%, 40%, and 2%, respectively. In Cartagena, E. canis, A. phagocytophilum, and D. immitis prevalence was 80%, 51%, and 3%, respectively. E. canis and A. phagocytophilum are present in all three surveyed cities. There is a higher sample prevalence for E. canis and A. phagocytophilum than for D. immitis. In addition, the prevalence for these organisms is higher in Barranquilla and Cartagena than in Medellin. Overall, this study emphasizes the value of surveillance for VBDs in order to determine disease prevalence, develop risk assessments, and implement control measures. 2014.

  1. Comparison of isolation rate of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in two different culture media, MKP and BSK-H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ružić-Sabljić, E; Maraspin, V; Cimperman, J; Strle, F; Lotrič-Furlan, S; Stupica, D; Cerar, T

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate two culture media for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolation from a 5 × 2 × 2 mm skin biopsy that was dissected into two pieces and inoculated into modified Kelly-Pettenkofer (MKP) and Barbour-Stoenner-Kelly-H (BSK-H) medium. Samples were incubated at 33°C for up to 9 weeks. Borrelia species was determined by MluI-restriction of whole genome or by MseI-restriction of PCR product. We determined the proportion of isolation rate, 'slow-growers', contaminated specimens and Borrelia species in the two media. In each of the two media 235 skin specimens were cultivated. We found 90/470 (19.1%) contaminated cultures (BSK-H 67/235, 28.5%; MKP 23/235, 9.8%; p cultures (p cultures were 59/168 (35.1%) and 102/212 (48.1%); (p 0.003). Fourteen specimens were positive only in BSK-H, 57 solely in MKP, and 43 in both culture media. Slow growth was present in 8/59 (13.6%) BSK-H and in 4/98 (4.1%) MKP positive cultures (p 0.019). Borrelia afzelii was identified in 44/51 (86.3%) BSK-H and in 88/98 (89.8%) MKP culture-positive samples; the corresponding findings for Boreelia garinii and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto were 6/51 (11.8%) and 9/98 (9.2%), and 1/51 (1.9%) and 1/98 (1.0%), for BSK-H and MKP, respectively. Comparison of MKP and BSK-H medium for Borrelia culturing from skin specimens of European patients with erythema migrans revealed the advantage of MKP over BSK-H. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  2. Freqüência de anticorpos anti-Erhlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi e antígenos de Dirofilaria immitis em cães na microrregião Ilhéus-Itabuna, Bahia, Brasil Frequency of antibodies anti-Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi and Dirofilaria immitis antigens in dogs from microrregion Ilhéus-Itabuna, State of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata S.A. Carlos

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliação de positividade para antígenos de Dirofilaria immitis, anticorpos anti-Borrelia burgdorferi e anti-Ehrlichia canis foram coletadas 200 amostras de sangue de cães, 100 no município de Ilhéus e 100 no de Itabuna. Foi utilizado o "kit" Snap 3DX (IDEXX Laboratories para realização das sorologias. Não se observou nenhum animal positivo para antígenos de D. immitis. Apenas dois dos cães estavam positivos para anticorpos anti-B. burgdorferi. Do total de amostras analisadas, 72 (36% estavam positivas para anticorpos anti-E. canis, sendo 43 em Ilhéus e 29 em Itabuna (p=0,027.In order to detect the positivity to antigens of Dirofilaria immitis, antibodies anti-Borrelia burgdorferi and anti-Ehrlichia canis, 200 canine blood samples were collected as followed: 100 from the municipality of Ilhéus and 100 from Itabuna, State of Bahia. The kit Snap 3DX (IDEXX Laboratories was used to performe serology. None of the tested animals were positive for antigens of D. immitis. Only two dogs of them were positive for antibodies anti-B. burgdorferi. From all the samples analyzed, 72 (36% were positive for antibodies anti-E. canis, 43 from Ilhéus and 29 from Itabuna (p=0,027.

  3. Hall effect encoding of brushless dc motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berard, C. A.; Furia, T. J.; Goldberg, E. A.; Greene, R. C.

    1970-01-01

    Encoding mechanism integral to the motor and using the permanent magnets embedded in the rotor eliminates the need for external devices to encode information relating the position and velocity of the rotating member.

  4. BB0347, from the lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, is surface exposed and interacts with the CS1 heparin-binding domain of human fibronectin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Gaultney

    Full Text Available The causative agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, codes for several known fibronectin-binding proteins. Fibronectin a common the target of diverse bacterial pathogens, and has been shown to be essential in allowing for the development of certain disease states. Another borrelial protein, BB0347, has sequence similarity with these other known fibronectin-binding proteins, and may be important in Lyme disease pathogenesis. Herein, we perform an initial characterization of BB0347 via the use of molecular and biochemical techniques. We found that BB0347 is expressed, produced, and presented on the outer surface of intact B. burgdorferi. We also demonstrate that BB0347 has the potential to be important in Lyme disease progression, and have begun to characterize the nature of the interaction between human fibronectin and this bacterial protein. Further work is needed to define the role of this protein in the borrelial infection process.

  5. Cutaneous manifestations of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia associated with Borrelia burgdorferi infection showing a marginal zone B-cell lymphoma-like infiltrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kash, Natalie; Fink-Puches, Regina; Cerroni, Lorenzo

    2011-10-01

    We report on a 69-year-old female patient with specific cutaneous manifestations of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia that arose at the site of erythema chronicum migrans due to Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Histological examination revealed the presence of dense infiltrates of small hyperchromatic lymphocytes admixed with clusters of plasma cells. Immunohistology showed a CD5+/CD20+ phenotype of the lymphocytes and monoclonal expression of kappa immunoglobulin light chain by the plasma cells. Presence of Borrelia DNA was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction studies. The unusual histopathological and phenotypic findings described in this case of cutaneous manifestations of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia associated with Borrelia burgdorferi infection may lead to the misdiagnosis of cutaneous marginal zone B-cell lymphoma.

  6. Study of a Cohort of 1,886 Persons To Determine Changes in Antibody Reactivity to Borrelia burgdorferi 3 Months after a Tick Bite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dessau, Ram B; Fryland, Linda; Wilhelmsson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis is a tick-borne disease caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. The most frequent clinical manifestation is a rash called erythema migrans. Changes in antibody reactivity to B. burgdorferi 3 months after a tick bite are measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays...... (ELISAs). One assay is based on native purified flagellum antigen (IgG), and the other assay is based on a recombinant antigen called C6 (IgG or IgM). Paired samples were taken at the time of a tick bite and 3 months later from 1,886 persons in Sweden and the Åland Islands, Finland. The seroconversion...... antigen and the C6 antigen, respectively. Graphical methods to display the antibody response and to choose thresholds for a rise in relative antibody reactivity are shown and discussed. In conclusion, 5.4% of people with tick bites showed a rise in Borrelia-specific antibodies above the 2.5% threshold...

  7. Genetically encoded fluorescent redox sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukyanov, Konstantin A; Belousov, Vsevolod V

    2014-02-01

    Life is a constant flow of electrons via redox couples. Redox reactions determine many if not all major cellular functions. Until recently, redox processes remained hidden from direct observation in living systems due to the lack of adequate methodology. Over the last years, imaging tools including small molecule probes and genetically encoded sensors appeared, which provided, for the first time, an opportunity to visualize and, in some cases, quantify redox reactions in live cells. Genetically encoded fluorescent redox probes, such as HyPer, rxYFP and roGFPs, have been used in several models, ranging from cultured cells to transgenic animals, and now enough information has been collected to highlight advantages and pitfalls of these probes. In this review, we describe the main types of genetically encoded redox probes, their essential properties, advantages and disadvantages. We also provide an overview of the most important, in our opinion, results obtained using these probes. Finally, we discuss redox-dependent photoconversions of GFP and other prospective directions in redox probe development. Fluorescent protein-based redox probes have important advantages such as high specificity, possibility of transgenesis and fine subcellular targeting. For proper selection of a redox sensor for a particular model, it is important to understand that HyPer and roGFP2-Orp1 are the probes for H2O2, whereas roGFP1/2, rxYFP and roGFP2-Grx1 are the probes for GSH/GSSG redox state. Possible pH changes should be carefully controlled in experiments with HyPer and rxYFP. Genetically encoded redox probes are the only instruments allowing real-time monitoring of reactive oxygen species and thiol redox state in living cells and tissues. We believe that in the near future the palette of FP-based redox probes will be expanded to red and far-red parts of the spectrum and to other important reactive species such as NO, O2 and superoxide. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled

  8. Holographically Encoded Volume Phase Masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-13

    optics ,” Nat. Photonics 4, 188–193 (2010). 26. H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick volume holograms ,” Bell System Tech. J. 45(9), 2909–2944...phase masks Marc SeGall, Ivan Divliansky,* Clémence Jollivet, Axel Schülzgen, and Leonid B. Glebov University of Central Florida, College of Optics and...satisfying the Bragg condition of the hologram . Moreover, this approach enables the capability to encode and multiplex several phase masks into a single

  9. A Drug Combination Screen Identifies Drugs Active against Amoxicillin-induced Round Bodies of Borrelia burgdorferi Persisters from an FDA Drug Library

    OpenAIRE

    Jie eFeng; Wanliang eShi; Shuo eZhang; David eSullivan; Paul eAuwaerter; Ying eZhang

    2016-01-01

    Although currently recommended antibiotics for Lyme disease such as doxycycline or amoxicillin cure the majority of the patients, about 10-20% of patients treated for Lyme disease may experience lingering symptoms including fatigue, pain, or joint and muscle aches. Under stress conditions such as starvation or antibiotic exposure, Borrelia burgdorferi can develop round body forms, which are a type of persister bacteria that are not killed by current Lyme antibiotics. To identify more effectiv...

  10. Population-based passive tick surveillance and detection of expanding foci of blacklegged ticks Ixodes scapularis and the Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelder, Mark P; Russell, Curtis; Lindsay, L Robbin; Dhar, Badal; Patel, Samir N; Johnson, Steven; Moore, Stephen; Kristjanson, Erik; Li, Ye; Ralevski, Filip

    2014-01-01

    We identified ticks submitted by the public from 2008 through 2012 in Ontario, Canada, and tested blacklegged ticks Ixodes scapularis for Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Among the 18 species of ticks identified, I. scapularis, Dermacentor variabilis, Ixodes cookei and Amblyomma americanum represented 98.1% of the 14,369 ticks submitted. Rates of blacklegged tick submission per 100,000 population were highest in Ontario's Eastern region; D. variabilis in Central West and Eastern regions; I. cookei in Eastern and South West regions; and A. americanum had a scattered distribution. Rates of blacklegged tick submission per 100,000 population were highest from children (0-9 years old) and older adults (55-74 years old). In two health units in the Eastern region (i.e., Leeds, Grenville & Lanark District and Kingston-Frontenac and Lennox & Addington), the rate of submission for engorged and B. burgdorferi-positive blacklegged ticks was 47× higher than the rest of Ontario. Rate of spread for blacklegged ticks was relatively faster and across a larger geographic area along the northern shore of Lake Ontario/St. Lawrence River, compared with slower spread from isolated populations along the northern shore of Lake Erie. The infection prevalence of B. burgdorferi in blacklegged ticks increased in Ontario over the study period from 8.4% in 2008 to 19.1% in 2012. The prevalence of B. burgdorferi-positive blacklegged ticks increased yearly during the surveillance period and, while increases were not uniform across all regions, increases were greatest in the Central West region, followed by Eastern and South West regions. The overall infection prevalence of A. phagocytophilum in blacklegged ticks was 0.3%. This study provides essential information on ticks of medical importance in Ontario, and identifies demographic and geographic areas for focused public education on the prevention of tick bites and tick-borne diseases.

  11. Complement factor H-related proteins CFHR2 and CFHR5 represent novel ligands for the infection-associated CRASP proteins of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Siegel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available One virulence property of Borrelia burgdorferi is its resistance to innate immunity, in particular to complement-mediated killing. Serum-resistant B. burgdorferi express up to five distinct complement regulator-acquiring surface proteins (CRASP which interact with complement regulator factor H (CFH and factor H-like protein 1 (FHL1 or factor H-related protein 1 (CFHR1. In the present study we elucidate the role of the infection-associated CRASP-3 and CRASP-5 protein to serve as ligands for additional complement regulatory proteins as well as for complement resistance of B. burgdorferi.To elucidate whether CRASP-5 and CRASP-3 interact with various human proteins, both borrelial proteins were immobilized on magnetic beads. Following incubation with human serum, bound proteins were eluted and separated by Glycine-SDS-PAGE. In addition to CFH and CFHR1, complement regulators CFHR2 and CFHR5 were identified as novel ligands for both borrelial proteins by employing MALDI-TOF. To further assess the contributions of CRASP-3 and CRASP-5 to complement resistance, a serum-sensitive B. garinii strain G1 which lacks all CFH-binding proteins was used as a valuable model for functional analyses. Both CRASPs expressed on the B. garinii outer surface bound CFH as well as CFHR1 and CFHR2 in ELISA. In contrast, live B. garinii bound CFHR1, CFHR2, and CFHR5 and only miniscute amounts of CFH as demonstrated by serum adsorption assays and FACS analyses. Further functional analysis revealed that upon NHS incubation, CRASP-3 or CRASP-5 expressing borreliae were killed by complement.In the absence of CFH and the presence of CFHR1, CFHR2 and CFHR5, assembly and integration of the membrane attack complex was not efficiently inhibited indicating that CFH in co-operation with CFHR1, CFHR2 and CFHR5 supports complement evasion of B. burgdorferi.

  12. Automated purification of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. PCR products with KingFisher{sup TM} magnetic particle processor prior to genome sequencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekinen, Johanna E-mail: johanna.makinen@utu.fi; Marttila, Harri; Viljanen, Matti K

    2001-07-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies were differentiated by PCR-based sequencing of the borrelial flagellin gene. To evaluate the usefulness of KingFisher{sup TM} magnetic particle processor in PCR product purification, borrelia PCR products were purified with KingFisher{sup TM} magnetic particle processor prior to cycle sequencing and the quality of the sequence data received was analyzed. KingFisher was found to offer a rapid and reliable alternative for borrelial PCR product purification.

  13. Automated purification of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. PCR products with KingFisher™ magnetic particle processor prior to genome sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Johanna; Marttila, Harri; Viljanen, Matti K.

    2001-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies were differentiated by PCR-based sequencing of the borrelial flagellin gene. To evaluate the usefulness of KingFisher™ magnetic particle processor in PCR product purification, borrelia PCR products were purified with KingFisher™ magnetic particle processor prior to cycle sequencing and the quality of the sequence data received was analyzed. KingFisher was found to offer a rapid and reliable alternative for borrelial PCR product purification.

  14. Heterogeneity of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Stricto Population and Its Involvement in Borrelia Pathogenicity: Study on Murine Model with Specific Emphasis on the Skin Interface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Kern

    Full Text Available Lyme disease is a multisystemic disorder caused by B. burgdorferi sl. The molecular basis for specific organ involvement is poorly understood. The skin plays a central role in the development of Lyme disease as the entry site of B. burgdorferi in which specific clones are selected before dissemination. We compared the skin inflammatory response (antimicrobial peptides, cytokines and chemokines elicited by spirochete populations recovered from patients presenting different clinical manifestations. Remarkably, these spirochete populations induced different inflammatory profiles in the skin of C3H/HeN mice. As spirochete population transmitted into the host skin is heterogeneous, we isolated one bacterial clone from a population recovered from a patient with neuroborreliosis and compared its virulence to the parental population. This clone elicited a strong cutaneous inflammatory response characterized by MCP-1, IL-6 and antimicrobial peptides induction. Mass spectrometry of this clone revealed 110 overexpressed proteins when compared with the parental population. We further focused on the expression of nine bacterial surface proteins. bb0347 coding for a protein that interacts with host fibronectin, allowing bacterial adhesion to vascular endothelium and extracellular matrix, was found to be induced in host skin with another gene bb0213 coding for a hypothetical protein. These findings demonstrate the heterogeneity of the B. burgdorferi ss population and the complexity of the interaction involved early in the skin.

  15. Ixodes ricinus ticks (Acari, Ixodidae) as a vector of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Borrelia miyamotoi in Lower Silesia, Poland--preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiewra, Dorota; Stańczak, Joanna; Richter, Magdalena

    2014-10-01

    Ixodes ricinus is the primary vector of Borrelia spirochetes in Europe, including both the Lyme borreliosis (LB) group and the relapsing fever (RF) group. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of different genospecies from the B. burgdorferi s.l. complex and B. miyamotoi in questing I. ricinus collected in chosen areas in Lower Silesia, SW Poland. A total of 599 I. ricinus ticks were investigated using the PCR-RFLP method. The calculated overall minimum infection rate of ticks with Borrelia spirochetes in Lower Silesia was 15.5%. Five different restriction patterns, characteristic of B. afzelii, B. garinii, B. burgdoreri s.s., B. valaisiana, and B. miyamotoi, were obtained and confirmed by DNA sequencing. At least 14% of ticks were infected with B. burgdorferi s.l. while B.afzelii was the dominant genospecies (68.5%). The MIR for B. miyamotoi was calculated at 2%. Four co-infections in single adult ticks were found: B. miyamotoi/B. afzelii, B. miyamotoi/B. burdorferi s.s., B. miyamotoi/B. garinii, and B. afzelii/B. burgdorferi s.s. The results of this study confirm the risk of LB and RF occuring in both urban and protected areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Homogeneous Inflammatory Gene Profiles Induced in Human Dermal Fibroblasts in Response to the Three Main Species of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meddeb, Mariam; Carpentier, Wassila; Cagnard, Nicolas; Nadaud, Sophie; Grillon, Antoine; Barthel, Cathy; De Martino, Sylvie Josiane; Jaulhac, Benoît; Boulanger, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    In Lyme borreliosis, the skin is the key site for bacterial inoculation by the infected tick and for cutaneous manifestations. We previously showed that different strains of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto isolated from tick and from different clinical stages of the Lyme borreliosis (erythema migrans, and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans) elicited a very similar transcriptional response in normal human dermal fibroblasts. In this study, using whole transcriptome microarray chips, we aimed to compare the transcriptional response of normal human dermal fibroblasts stimulated by 3 Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains belonging to 3 main pathogenic species (B. afzelii, B. garinii and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto) in order to determine whether “species-related” inflammatory pathways could be identified. The three Borrelia strains tested exhibited similar transcriptional profiles, and no species-specific fingerprint of transcriptional changes in fibroblasts was observed. Conversely, a common core of chemokines/cytokines (CCL2, CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL6, CXCL10, IL-6, IL-8) and interferon-related genes was stimulated by all the 3 strains. Dermal fibroblasts appear to play a key role in the cutaneous infection with Borrelia, inducing a homogeneous inflammatory response, whichever Borrelia species was involved. PMID:27706261

  17. Immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR as diagnostic tools for detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in ticks collected from humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briciu, Violeta T; Sebah, Daniela; Coroiu, Georgiana; Lupşe, Mihaela; Cârstina, Dumitru; Ţăţulescu, Doina F; Mihalca, Andrei D; Gherman, Călin M; Leucuţa, Daniel; Meyer, Fabian; Hizo-Teufel, Cecilia; Fingerle, Volker; Huber, Ingrid

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate different methods used for detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) in ticks: immunohistochemistry followed by focus floating microscopy (FFM) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) targeting the ospA and hbb genes. Additionally, an optimized ospA real-time PCR assay was developed with an integrated internal amplification control (IAC) for the detection of inhibition in the PCR assay and was validated as an improved screening tool for B. burgdorferi. One hundred and thirty-six ticks collected from humans in a hospital from Cluj-Napoca, Romania, were investigated regarding genus, stage of development and sex, and then tested by all three assays. A poor quality of agreement was found between FFM and each of the two real-time PCR assays, as assessed by concordance analysis (Cohen's kappa), whereas the agreement between the two real-time PCR assays was moderate. The present study argues for a low sensitivity of FFM and underlines that discordant results of different assays used for detection of B. burgdorferi in ticks are frequent.

  18. Production of reactive oxygen species and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in rat isolated Kupffer cells stimulated by Leptospira interrogans and Borrelia burgdorferi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Antonella Marangoni; Silvia Accardo; Rita Aldini; Massimo Guardigli; Francesca Cavrini; Vittorio Sambri; Marco Montagnani; Aldo Roda; Roberto Cevenini

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the expression of indudble nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in rat isolated Kupffer cells (KCs) stimulated by Leptospira interrogans and Borrelia burgdorferi.METHODS: Rat Kupffer cells were separated by perfusion of the liver with 0.05% collagenase, and purified by Percoll gradients. Purified Kupffer cells were tested in vitro with alive L.interogans and B. burgdorferi preparations. The production of ROS was determined by chemiluminescence, whereas iNOS protein expression was evaluated by Western blot assay using anti-iNOS antibodies.RESULTS: B. burgdorferi and to a less extent L. interrogans induced ROS production with a peak 35 min after infection. The chemiluminescence signal progressively diminished and was undetectable by 180 min of incubation. Leptospirae and borreliae induced an increased iNOS expression in Kupffer cells that peaked at 6 hours and was still evident 22 h after infection.CONCLUSION: Both genera of spirochetes induced ROS and iNOS production in rat Kupffer cells. Since the cause of liver damage both in leptospiral as well as in borrelial infections are still unknown, we suggest that leptospira and borrelia damage of the liver can be initially mediated by oxygen radicals, and is then maintained at least in part by nitric oxide.

  19. Molecular mechanisms for protein-encoded inheritance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltzius, Jed J.W.; Landau, Meytal; Nelson, Rebecca; Sawaya, Michael R.; Apostol, Marcin I.; Goldschmidt, Lukasz; Soriaga, Angela B.; Cascio, Duilio; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta; Eisenberg, David; (Cornell); (HHMI)

    2009-12-01

    In prion inheritance and transmission, strains are phenotypic variants encoded by protein 'conformations'. However, it is unclear how a protein conformation can be stable enough to endure transmission between cells or organisms. Here we describe new polymorphic crystal structures of segments of prion and other amyloid proteins, which offer two structural mechanisms for the encoding of prion strains. In packing polymorphism, prion strains are encoded by alternative packing arrangements (polymorphs) of {beta}-sheets formed by the same segment of a protein; in segmental polymorphism, prion strains are encoded by distinct {beta}-sheets built from different segments of a protein. Both forms of polymorphism can produce enduring conformations capable of encoding strains. These molecular mechanisms for transfer of protein-encoded information into prion strains share features with the familiar mechanism for transfer of nucleic acid-encoded information into microbial strains, including sequence specificity and recognition by noncovalent bonds.

  20. Dynamical encoding of cursive handwriting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Y; Tishby, N

    1994-01-01

    A model-based approach to on-line cursive handwriting analysis and recognition is presented and evaluated. In this model, on-line handwriting is considered as a modulation of a simple cycloidal pen motion, described by two coupled oscillations with a constant linear drift along the line of the writing. By slow modulations of the amplitudes and phase lags of the two oscillators, a general pen trajectory can be efficiently encoded. These parameters are then quantized into a small number of values without altering the writing intelligibility. A general procedure for the estimation and quantization of these cycloidal motion parameters for arbitrary handwriting is presented. The result is a discrete motor control representation of the continuous pen motion, via the quantized levels of the model parameters. This motor control representation enables successful word spotting and matching of cursive scripts. Our experiments clearly indicate the potential of this dynamic representation for complete cursive handwriting recognition.

  1. Engineering Genetically Encoded FRET Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenburg, Laurens; Merkx, Maarten

    2014-01-01

    Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) between two fluorescent proteins can be exploited to create fully genetically encoded and thus subcellularly targetable sensors. FRET sensors report changes in energy transfer between a donor and an acceptor fluorescent protein that occur when an attached sensor domain undergoes a change in conformation in response to ligand binding. The design of sensitive FRET sensors remains challenging as there are few generally applicable design rules and each sensor must be optimized anew. In this review we discuss various strategies that address this shortcoming, including rational design approaches that exploit self-associating fluorescent domains and the directed evolution of FRET sensors using high-throughput screening. PMID:24991940

  2. Nested-PCR real time as alternative molecular tool for detection of Borrelia burgdorferi compared to the classical serological diagnosis of the blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroka-Oleksiak, Agnieszka; Ufir, Krzysztof; Salamon, Dominika; Bulanda, Malgorzata; Gosiewski, Tomasz

    Lyme disease, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, is a multisystem disease that often makes difficulties to recognize caused by their genetic heterogenity. Currently, the gold standard for the detection of Lyme disease (LD) is serologic diagnostics based mainly on tests: ELISA and Western blot (WB). These methods, however, are subject to consider- able defect, especially in the initial phase of infection due to the occurrence of so-called serological window period and low specificity. For this reason, they might be replaced by molecular methods, for example polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which should be more sensitivity and specificity. In the present study we attempt to optimize the PCR reaction conditions and enhance existing test sensitivity by applying the equivalent of real time PCR - nested PCR for detection B. burgdorferi DNA in the patient's blood. The study involved 94 blood samples of patients with suspected LD. From each sample, 1.5 ml of blood was used for the isolation of bacterial DNA and PCR real time am- plification and its equivalent, in nested version. The remaining part earmarked for serologi- cal testing. Optimization of the reaction conditions made experimentally, using gradient of the temperature and gradient of the magnesium ions concentration for reaction real time in nested-PCR and PCR version. The results show that the nested-PCR real time, has a much higher sensitivity 45 (47.8%) of positive results for the detection of B. burgdorferi compared to the single- variety, without a preceding pre-amplification 2 (2.1%). Serological methods allowed the detection of infection in 41 (43.6%) samples. These results support of the nested PCR method as a better molecular tool for the detection of B. burgdorferi infection than classical PCR real time reaction. The nested-PCR real time method may be considered as a complement to ELISA and WB mainly in the early stages of infection, when in the blood circulating B. burgdorferi cells. By contrast, the

  3. Prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in questing ticks from a recreational coniferous forest of East Saxony, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekeres, Sándor; Lügner, Jenny; Fingerle, Volker; Margos, Gabriele; Földvári, Gábor

    2017-10-01

    The hard tick Ixodes ricinus is the most important vector of tick-transmitted pathogens in Europe, frequently occurring in urban parks and greenbelts utilized for recreational activities. This species is the most common vector of the causative agents of Lyme borreliosis in Europe. Similarly, the species spreads Borrelia miyamotoi, causing a relapsing-fever like illness. A total of 1774 Ixodes ricinus (50 females, 68 males, 840 nymphs and 818 larvae) were collected with flagging between March and September 2014 in a coniferous forest patch in Niederkaina near the town of Bautzen in Saxony, Germany. To measure questing tick density a time-based density estimating method was utilized. From each month, a total of 100 adults and nymphal ticks and all larvae (pools of 10 individuals per tube/month) were selected for the molecular analyses. For simultaneous detection of B. burgdorferi s.l. and B. miyamotoi a duplex real-time PCR targeting the flaB locus was performed. Prevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. was 9.4% (female: 6%, male: 2.9%, nymph: 12.2%, larva: 0%) and minimum prevalence of B. miyamotoi was 1.2% (female: 0%, male: 4.3%, nymph: 2.8%, larva: 0.1%) in the 714 samples with real-time polymerase chain reaction. A real-time PCR reaction was utilized first to target the histone-like protein gene (hbb) of B. burgdorferi s.l., a hemi-nested outer surface protein (ospA) gene conventional PCR was then performed followed by a restriction enzyme analysis to distinguish B. burgdorferi s.l. genospecies. Seven B. afzelii, one B. burgdorferi s.s., one B. bavariensis and four B. miyamotoi infections were confirmed. Prevalence of Lyme borreliosis spirochetes was significantly higher in nymphs than in adults (p<0.01, Fisher exact test) probably due to the diluting effect of the local roe deer population. Our data highlight the potential risk of human infection with the emerging pathogen B. miyamotoi within the study area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Serological survey of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Ehrlichia canis infections in rural and urban dogs in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Virginia Ebani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction[i][/i][/b][i]. Borrelia burgdorferi [/i]sensu lato (s.l. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum are well known zoonotic pathogens, whereas[i] Ehrlichia canis[/i] is usually considered to be of veterinary concern, although on the basis of recent reports it also seems to be able to infect humans. [b]objective[/b]. The aim of the study was to determine the seroprevalence of [i]B. burgdorferi [/i]s.l., A. phagocytophilum and [i]E. canis[/i] in an Italian canine population, and to verify if there are differences between dogs living in urban areas and those from a rural environment. [b]materials and method.[/b] Blood sera of 1,965 dogs, 1,235 from cities and 730 from rural areas, were tested by indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFAT. [b]results[/b]. The overall seroprevalence was highest for E. canis (7.07%, followed by [i]A. phagocytophilum[/i] (4.68%, and [i]B. burgdorferi[/i] s.l. (1.47%. Rural dogs showed the highest seroprevalence to [i]B. burgdorferi[/i] s.l. and [i]A. phagocytophilum[/i]. No significant differences were observed between rural and urban [i]E. canis[/i]-positive dogs. A low percentage (1.32% of dogs with dual seropositivity was detected, and no triple positive reactions were observed. No significant differences were detected in the seroprevalence of the three agents in relationship to the age and gender of the dogs. Seroprevalence in the five years considered were not statistically different, except for the lowest rate for [i]E. canis[/i] observed in 2012. [b]conclusions[/b]. The results confirm the presence of [i]B. burgdorferi[/i] s.l., [i]A. phagocytophilum[/i] and [i]E. canis[/i] in Italian dogs in both urban and rural areas. Monitoring pet dogs, which share the same environment with their owners, is useful for identifying the presence of tick-borne disease agents of both veterinary and public health significance

  5. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks in relation to the density of wild cervids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulauskas Algimantas

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Anaplasma phagocytophilum have been considered as pathogens in animals and humans. The role of wild cervids in the epidemiology is not clear. We analyzed questing Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in spring for these pathogens from sites with high (Fjelløyvær and Strøm and low density (Tjore, Hinnebu and Jomfruland of wild cervids to study the spread of the pathogens in questing ticks. Methods For detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum a 77-bp fragment in the msp2 gene was used. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was performed using the FL6 and FL7 primers according to sequences of conserved regions of the fla gene. The OspA gene located on the linear 49-kb plasmid was used as target in multiplex PCR for genotyping. Genospecies-specific primers were used in the PCR for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. afzelii and B. garinii. Results Infection rates with Borrelia spp. were significantly lower at Fjelløyvær and Strøm compared to Tjore and Hinnebu; Fjelløyvær vs. Tjore (χ2 = 20.27, p 2 = 24.04, p 2 = 11.47, p = 0.0007 and Strøm vs. Hinnebu (χ2 = 16.63, p Borrelia genospecies were dominated by. B. afzelii (82% followed by B. garinii (9.7% and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (6.9%. B. burgdorferi s.s. was only found on the island of Jomfruland. The infection rate of Anaplasma phagocytophilum showed the following figures; Fjelløyvær vs Hinnebu (χ2 = 16.27, p = 0.0001; Strøm vs. Tjore (χ2 = 13.16, p = 0.0003; Strøm vs. Hinnebu (χ2 = 34.71, p 2 = 3.19, p = 0.0742 and Fjelløyvær vs. Støm (χ2 = 5.06, p = 0.0245. Wild cervids may serve as a reservoir for A. phagocytophilum. Jomfruland, with no wild cervids but high levels of migrating birds and rodents, harboured both B. burgdorferi s.l. and A. phagocytophilum in questing I. ricinus ticks. Birds and rodents may play an important role in maintaining the pathogens on Jomfruland. Conclusion The high abundance of roe deer

  6. SnoVault and encodeD: A novel object-based storage system and applications to ENCODE metadata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitz, Benjamin C; Rowe, Laurence D; Podduturi, Nikhil R; Glick, David I; Baymuradov, Ulugbek K; Malladi, Venkat S; Chan, Esther T; Davidson, Jean M; Gabdank, Idan; Narayana, Aditi K; Onate, Kathrina C; Hilton, Jason; Ho, Marcus C; Lee, Brian T; Miyasato, Stuart R; Dreszer, Timothy R; Sloan, Cricket A; Strattan, J Seth; Tanaka, Forrest Y; Hong, Eurie L; Cherry, J Michael

    2017-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of DNA elements (ENCODE) project is an ongoing collaborative effort to create a comprehensive catalog of functional elements initiated shortly after the completion of the Human Genome Project. The current database exceeds 6500 experiments across more than 450 cell lines and tissues using a wide array of experimental techniques to study the chromatin structure, regulatory and transcriptional landscape of the H. sapiens and M. musculus genomes. All ENCODE experimental data, metadata, and associated computational analyses are submitted to the ENCODE Data Coordination Center (DCC) for validation, tracking, storage, unified processing, and distribution to community resources and the scientific community. As the volume of data increases, the identification and organization of experimental details becomes increasingly intricate and demands careful curation. The ENCODE DCC has created a general purpose software system, known as SnoVault, that supports metadata and file submission, a database used for metadata storage, web pages for displaying the metadata and a robust API for querying the metadata. The software is fully open-source, code and installation instructions can be found at: http://github.com/ENCODE-DCC/snovault/ (for the generic database) and http://github.com/ENCODE-DCC/encoded/ to store genomic data in the manner of ENCODE. The core database engine, SnoVault (which is completely independent of ENCODE, genomic data, or bioinformatic data) has been released as a separate Python package.

  7. An RND-type efflux system in Borrelia burgdorferi is involved in virulence and resistance to antimicrobial compounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignas Bunikis

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Borrelia burgdorferi is remarkable for its ability to thrive in widely different environments due to its ability to infect various organisms. In comparison to enteric Gram-negative bacteria, these spirochetes have only a few transmembrane proteins some of which are thought to play a role in solute and nutrient uptake and excretion of toxic substances. Here, we have identified an outer membrane protein, BesC, which is part of a putative export system comprising the components BesA, BesB and BesC. We show that BesC, a TolC homolog, forms channels in planar lipid bilayers and is involved in antibiotic resistance. A besC knockout was unable to establish infection in mice, signifying the importance of this outer membrane channel in the mammalian host. The biophysical properties of BesC could be explained by a model based on the channel-tunnel structure. We have also generated a structural model of the efflux apparatus showing the putative spatial orientation of BesC with respect to the AcrAB homologs BesAB. We believe that our findings will be helpful in unraveling the pathogenic mechanisms of borreliae as well as in developing novel therapeutic agents aiming to block the function of this secretion apparatus.

  8. MicroRNA and mRNA Transcriptome Profiling in Primary Human Astrocytes Infected with Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Casselli

    Full Text Available Lyme disease is caused by infection with the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb, which is transmitted to humans by deer ticks. The infection manifests usually as a rash and minor systemic symptoms; however, the bacteria can spread to other tissues, causing joint pain, carditis, and neurological symptoms. Lyme neuroborreliosis presents itself in several ways, such as Bell's palsy, meningitis, and encephalitis. The molecular basis for neuroborreliosis is poorly understood. Analysis of the changes in the expression levels of messenger RNAs and non-coding RNAs, including microRNAs, following Bb infection could therefore provide vital information on the pathogenesis and clinical symptoms of neuroborreliosis. To this end, we used cultured primary human astrocytes, key responders to CNS infection and important components of the blood-brain barrier, as a model system to study RNA and microRNA changes in the CNS caused by Bb. Using whole transcriptome RNA-seq, we found significant changes in 38 microRNAs and 275 mRNAs at 24 and 48 hours following Bb infection. Several of the RNA changes affect pathways involved in immune response, development, chromatin assembly (including histones and cell adhesion. Further, several of the microRNA predicted target mRNAs were also differentially regulated. Overall, our results indicate that exposure to Bb causes significant changes to the transcriptome and microRNA profile of astrocytes, which has implications in the pathogenesis, and hence potential treatment strategies to combat this disease.

  9. Novelty's effect on memory encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Gomez, Mauricio; Janenaite, Sigita; Meeter, Martijn

    2015-07-01

    It is often thought that novelty benefits memory formation. However, support for this idea mostly comes from paradigms that are open to alternative explanations. In the present study we manipulated novelty in a word-learning task through task-irrelevant background images. These background images were either standard (presented repeatedly), or novel (presented only once). Two types of background images were used: Landscape pictures and fractals. EEG was also recorded during encoding. Contrary to the idea that novelty aids memory formation, memory performance was not affected by the novelty of the background. In the evoked response potentials, we found evidence of distracting effects of novelty: both the N1 and P3b components were smaller to words studied with novel backgrounds, and the amplitude of the N2b component correlated negatively with subsequent retrieval. We conclude that although evidence from other studies does suggest benefits on a longer time scale, novelty has no instantaneous benefits for learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Universal dynamic goniometer for rotary encoders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Nikolai V.; Latyev, Svjatoslav M.; Naumova, Anastasiia I.

    2017-06-01

    A novel dynamic goniometer for the accuracy of rotary encoders has been developed on the base of the method of comparison with the reference encoder. The set-up of the goniometer considers all constructive and informative characteristics of measured encoders. The novel goniometer construction uses the new compensating method of instrumental errors in automatic working process. The advantages of the dynamic goniometer in combination with an optical rotary encoder at the reduction of the measuring time and a simultaneous increase of the accuracy.

  11. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato prevalence and diversity in ticks and small mammals in a Lyme borreliosis endemic Nature Reserve in North-Western Spain. Incidence in surrounding human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espí, Alberto; Del Cerro, Ana; Somoano, Aitor; García, Verónica; M Prieto, José; Barandika, José F; García-Pérez, Ana L

    2017-11-01

    To determine the prevalence and diversity of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) in an endemic Nature Reserve (Sierra del Sueve) in North-Western Spain, and the risk of human exposure to infected ticks in Asturias, 1013 questing ticks and 70 small mammals were collected between 2012 and 2014. A retrospective descriptive analysis was also carried out on human Lyme borreliosis (LB) cases reported to the local hospital (Cabueñes). Samples were screened for B. burgdorferi s.l. presence by a nested PCR assay, and genospecies were confirmed by sequencing. B. burgdorferi s.l. was detected in 1.4% (12/845) of I. ricinus questing nymphs, 9.1% (2/33) of questing adults, and 12.9% (9/70) of small mammals, as well as in the other tick species. PCR positive samples of 17 questing tick and 6 small mammals were sequenced. Four genospecies were identified: B. afzelii, B. garinii, B. lusitaniae, and B. valaisiana. Phylogenetic analyses based on the flaB gene showed the heterogeneity of B. afzelii in this area. The detection of B. burgdorferi s.l. among questing ticks and small mammals in the study area, as well as the abundance of ticks and of large wild and domestic mammals, indicate a high risk of infection by B. burgdorferi s.l. in the area. Reporting of LB cases to the local hospital support this, and shows the need of thorough monitoring of B. burgdorferi infection in ticks and hosts in the area. More investigations are needed to assess the role of different wildlife species and the risk of transmission to humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative Population Genomics of the Borrelia burgdorferi Species Complex Reveals High Degree of Genetic Isolation among Species and Underscores Benefits and Constraints to Studying Intra-Specific Epidemiological Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquot, Maude; Gonnet, Mathieu; Ferquel, Elisabeth; Abrial, David; Claude, Alexandre; Gasqui, Patrick; Choumet, Valérie; Charras-Garrido, Myriam; Garnier, Martine; Faure, Benjamin; Sertour, Natacha; Dorr, Nelly; De Goër, Jocelyn; Vourc'h, Gwenaël; Bailly, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis, one of the most frequently contracted zoonotic diseases in the Northern Hemisphere, is caused by bacteria belonging to different genetic groups within the Borrelia burgdorferi species complex, which are transmitted by ticks among various wildlife reservoirs, such as small mammals and birds. These features make the Borrelia burgdorferi species complex an attractive biological model that can be used to study the diversification and the epidemiology of endemic bacterial pathogens. We investigated the potential of population genomic approaches to study these processes. Sixty-three strains belonging to three species within the Borrelia burgdorferi complex were isolated from questing ticks in Alsace (France), a region where Lyme disease is highly endemic. We first aimed to characterize the degree of genetic isolation among the species sampled. Phylogenetic and coalescent-based analyses revealed clear delineations: there was a ∼50 fold difference between intra-specific and inter-specific recombination rates. We then investigated whether the population genomic data contained information of epidemiological relevance. In phylogenies inferred using most of the genome, conspecific strains did not cluster in clades. These results raise questions about the relevance of different strategies when investigating pathogen epidemiology. For instance, here, both classical analytic approaches and phylodynamic simulations suggested that population sizes and migration rates were higher in B. garinii populations, which are normally associated with birds, than in B. burgdorferi s.s. populations. The phylogenetic analyses of the infection-related ospC gene and its flanking region provided additional support for this finding. Traces of recombination among the B. burgdorferi s.s. lineages and lineages associated with small mammals were found, suggesting that they shared the same hosts. Altogether, these results provide baseline evidence that can be used to formulate

  13. 47 CFR 11.32 - EAS Encoder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... must additionally provide the following minimum specifications: (1) Encoder programming. Access to encoder programming shall be protected by a lock or other security measures and be configured so that... fundamental frequencies of 853 and 960 Hz and not vary over ±0.5 Hz. (ii) Harmonic Distortion. The total...

  14. Effects of diazepam on encoding processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorissen, M.; Eling, P.; Luijtelaar, G. van; Coenen, A.

    1995-01-01

    Benzodiazepines are known to induce amnesic effects. To specify these effects more precisely, 40 healthy volunteers were given 15 mg diazepam or placebo. Effects on a chain of encoding operations were investigated: activation of memory representations, spreading of activation, semantic encoding and

  15. Regularity-Preserving but not Reflecting Encodings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endrullis, J.; Grabmayer, C.A.; Hendriks, R.D.A.; Palamidessi, C.

    2015-01-01

    Encodings, that is, injective functions from words to words, have been studied extensively in several settings. In computability theory the notion of encoding is crucial for defining computability on arbitrary domains, as well as for comparing the power of models of computation. In language theory

  16. Cellular encoding for interactive evolutionary robotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.C. Gruau; K. Quatramaran

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThis work reports experiments in interactive evolutionary robotics. The goal is to evolve an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to control the locomotion of an 8-legged robot. The ANNs are encoded using a cellular developmental process called cellular encoding. In a previous work similar

  17. Encoding information using Laguerre Gaussian modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichili, Abderrahmen; Dudley, Angela; Ben Salem, Amine; Ndagano, Bienvenu; Zghal, Mourad; Forbes, Andrew

    2015-08-01

    We experimentally demonstrate an information encoding protocol using the two degrees of freedom of Laguerre Gaussian modes having different radial and azimuthal components. A novel method, based on digital holography, for information encoding and decoding using different data transmission scenarios is presented. The effects of the atmospheric turbulence introduced in free space communication is discussed as well.

  18. Self-perpetuating development of encoding biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicki, P; Hill, T; Sasaki, I

    1989-12-01

    The process of encoding new information involves the imposition of preexisting interpretive categories on newly encountered stimuli, even if the categories do not match perfectly those stimuli. We hypothesized that such encoding of stimuli as supportive of preexisting encoding dispositions may become a source of a perceiver's subjective experiences that support these dispositions. Through this nonconsciously operating mechanism, encoding rules may gradually develop in a self-perpetuating manner, even in the absence of any objectively supportive evidence. Results demonstrated this self-perpetuating process in three studies involving different stimulus materials and experimental tasks (matrix-scanning paradigm and two "intuitive judgment" tasks). The self-perpetuating development of encoding biases is discussed as one of the elementary mechanisms involved in the development of interpretive categories and other individually differentiated cognitive dispositions.

  19. The Arabic Diatessaron Project: Digitalizing, Encoding, Lemmatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Lancioni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Arabic Diatessaron Project (henceforth ADP is an international research project in Digital Humanities that aims to collect, digitalise and encode all known manuscripts of the Arabic Diatessaron (henceforth AD, a text that has been relatively neglected in scholarly research. ADP’s final goal is to provide a number of tools that can enable scholars to effectively query, compare and investigate all known variants of the text that will be encoded as far as possible in compliance with the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI guidelines. The paper addresses a number of issues involved in the process of digitalising manuscripts included in the two existing editions (Ciasca 1888 and Marmardji 1935, adding variants in unedited manuscripts, encoding and lemmatising the text. Issues involved in the design of the ADP include presentation of variants, choice of the standard text, applicability of TEI guidelines, automatic translation between different encodings, cross-edition concordances and principles of lemmatisation.

  20. Synthesis of extended nanoscale optical encoders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickersham, Charles E; Kerr, Daniel H S; Lipman, Everett A

    2010-12-15

    An optical encoder is a device that uses an interrupted light source-sensor pair to map linear or rotational motion onto a periodic signal. Simple, inexpensive optical encoders are used for precise positioning in machines such as desktop printers, disk drives, and astronomical telescopes. A strand of DNA labeled with a series of Förster resonance energy transfer acceptor dyes can perform the same function at the nanometer scale, producing a periodic fluorescence signal that encodes the movement of a single donor-labeled molecular motor with high spatial and temporal resolution. Previous measurements of this type have employed encoders limited to five acceptor dyes, and hence five signal periods, restricting the range of motion that could be followed. Here we describe two methods for synthesizing double-stranded DNA containing several to hundreds of regularly spaced dyes on one strand. Distinct functional groups incorporated at the encoder ends enable tethering for single-molecule measurements.

  1. Two Different Virulence-Related Regulatory Pathways in Borrelia burgdorferi Are Directly Affected by Osmotic Fluxes in the Blood Meal of Feeding Ixodes Ticks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Bontemps-Gallo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Lyme disease, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, is a vector-borne illness that requires the bacteria to adapt to distinctly different environments in its tick vector and various mammalian hosts. Effective colonization (acquisition phase of a tick requires the bacteria to adapt to tick midgut physiology. Successful transmission (transmission phase to a mammal requires the bacteria to sense and respond to the midgut environmental cues and up-regulate key virulence factors before transmission to a new host. Data presented here suggest that one environmental signal that appears to affect both phases of the infective cycle is osmolarity. While constant in the blood, interstitial fluid and tissue of a mammalian host (300 mOsm, osmolarity fluctuates in the midgut of feeding Ixodes scapularis. Measured osmolarity of the blood meal isolated from the midgut of a feeding tick fluctuates from an initial osmolarity of 600 mOsm to blood-like osmolarity of 300 mOsm. After feeding, the midgut osmolarity rebounded to 600 mOsm. Remarkably, these changes affect the two independent regulatory networks that promote acquisition (Hk1-Rrp1 and transmission (Rrp2-RpoN-RpoS of B. burgdorferi. Increased osmolarity affected morphology and motility of wild-type strains, and lysed Hk1 and Rrp1 mutant strains. At low osmolarity, Borrelia cells express increased levels of RpoN-RpoS-dependent virulence factors (OspC, DbpA required for the mammalian infection. Our results strongly suggest that osmolarity is an important part of the recognized signals that allow the bacteria to adjust gene expression during the acquisition and transmission phases of the infective cycle of B. burgdorferi.

  2. Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in Horses Presented for Coggins Testing in Southwest Virginia and Change in Positive Test Results Approximately 1 Year Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, R A; Pleasant, R S; Witonsky, S G; Reeder, D S; Werre, S R; Hodgson, D R

    2016-07-01

    Lyme disease can affect people, dogs, and horses, but it remains poorly understood, especially in the horse. Determining the seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in horses in different geographic areas will enable better understanding of the epidemiology of the disease, thus improving diagnosis and treatment of affected animals. To determine the seroprevalence of B. burgdorferi in horses in southwest Virginia. Horses presented for routine Coggins testing from January 2013 to January 2014 had additional blood drawn for Lyme Multiplex Assay testing. Of 492 samples collected, 250 samples were analyzed using the Lyme Multiplex Assay. Of the 83 horses that had positive test results to at least 1 outer surface protein (Osp), 63 were available for follow-up testing 5-17 months later (June 2014). Thirty-three percent of horses had positive results for antibodies to at least 1 Osp. Horses with a positive outer surface protein F (OspF) result were older (14.5 ± 0.79) than horses with a negative OspF result (11.6 ± 0.53). Of the horses available for follow-up testing, 63% had the same result as that of the initial test. There was no difference in test result between initial and follow-up testing. Horses seropositive to B. burgdorferi are common in Virginia, and older horses are more likely to have a positive test result for OspF than younger horses. Follow-up testing indicated that the majority of horses that were positive on initial testing did not have a different test result 5-17 months later. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  3. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia valaisiana in Ixodes ricinus ticks from the northwest of Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tveten, Ann-Kristin

    2013-09-01

    Over a 3-y period, Ixodes ricinus ticks were randomly collected to study the prevalence of 4 Borrelia species: B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. afzelii, B. garinii and B. valaisiana. While B. burgdorferi s. s., B. afzelii, and B. garinii have been associated with human borreliosis in Norway for several years, B. valaisiana was reported in a Norwegian tick for the first time in 2010. A real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was developed as an easy-to-use method, with high sensitivity and specificity, to detect and genospecies-type B. burgdorferi s. s., B. afzelii, B. garinii, and B. valaisiana in I. ricinus ticks. A combination of species-specific primers and TaqMan MGB probes labelled with fluorescents with different emission spectra, ensured a highly specific method with the potential to detect more than 1 genospecies in 1 run. Sequencing of the housekeeping gene recG from 48 Borrelia-positive samples was used to confirm specificity. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiling of tick-borne bacteria was used to help optimize the assay sensitivity. The qPCR assay was applied to analyze 1808 I. ricinus ticks collected in the field, which resulted in an overall infection rate of 14.8%, 18.7%, and 14.3% in 2010, 2011, and 2012, respectively. The majority of the Borrelia-infected ticks were infected with B. afzelii. The overall infection rate is somewhat lower than that reported in the most recent study of the infection rate in southern Norway in 2010, and this study indicates that the infection rate varies from one year to another.

  4. A model for visual memory encoding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolphe Nenert

    Full Text Available Memory encoding engages multiple concurrent and sequential processes. While the individual processes involved in successful encoding have been examined in many studies, a sequence of events and the importance of modules associated with memory encoding has not been established. For this reason, we sought to perform a comprehensive examination of the network for memory encoding using data driven methods and to determine the directionality of the information flow in order to build a viable model of visual memory encoding. Forty healthy controls ages 19-59 performed a visual scene encoding task. FMRI data were preprocessed using SPM8 and then processed using independent component analysis (ICA with the reliability of the identified components confirmed using ICASSO as implemented in GIFT. The directionality of the information flow was examined using Granger causality analyses (GCA. All participants performed the fMRI task well above the chance level (>90% correct on both active and control conditions and the post-fMRI testing recall revealed correct memory encoding at 86.33 ± 5.83%. ICA identified involvement of components of five different networks in the process of memory encoding, and the GCA allowed for the directionality of the information flow to be assessed, from visual cortex via ventral stream to the attention network and then to the default mode network (DMN. Two additional networks involved in this process were the cerebellar and the auditory-insular network. This study provides evidence that successful visual memory encoding is dependent on multiple modules that are part of other networks that are only indirectly related to the main process. This model may help to identify the node(s of the network that are affected by a specific disease processes and explain the presence of memory encoding difficulties in patients in whom focal or global network dysfunction exists.

  5. A model for visual memory encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenert, Rodolphe; Allendorfer, Jane B; Szaflarski, Jerzy P

    2014-01-01

    Memory encoding engages multiple concurrent and sequential processes. While the individual processes involved in successful encoding have been examined in many studies, a sequence of events and the importance of modules associated with memory encoding has not been established. For this reason, we sought to perform a comprehensive examination of the network for memory encoding using data driven methods and to determine the directionality of the information flow in order to build a viable model of visual memory encoding. Forty healthy controls ages 19-59 performed a visual scene encoding task. FMRI data were preprocessed using SPM8 and then processed using independent component analysis (ICA) with the reliability of the identified components confirmed using ICASSO as implemented in GIFT. The directionality of the information flow was examined using Granger causality analyses (GCA). All participants performed the fMRI task well above the chance level (>90% correct on both active and control conditions) and the post-fMRI testing recall revealed correct memory encoding at 86.33 ± 5.83%. ICA identified involvement of components of five different networks in the process of memory encoding, and the GCA allowed for the directionality of the information flow to be assessed, from visual cortex via ventral stream to the attention network and then to the default mode network (DMN). Two additional networks involved in this process were the cerebellar and the auditory-insular network. This study provides evidence that successful visual memory encoding is dependent on multiple modules that are part of other networks that are only indirectly related to the main process. This model may help to identify the node(s) of the network that are affected by a specific disease processes and explain the presence of memory encoding difficulties in patients in whom focal or global network dysfunction exists.

  6. Comparison of a rapid immunoassay for antibodies to the C6 antigen with conventional tests for antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in dogs in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, B; Haug, K; Eichenberger, S; Reusch, C E; Wittenbrink, M M

    2009-11-14

    A commercial immunoassay for antibodies to the C6 antigen of Borrelia burgdorferi was evaluated against an IgG in-house ELISA in combination with a Western blot assay to examine 104 samples of serum from 53 healthy Bernese mountain dogs, which were suspected to have a breed predisposition to Lyme borreliosis, and 55 samples from 30 healthy large-breed longhair dogs. The two test methods correlated in 125 (79 per cent) of the samples with an agreement of kappa=0.571 (Pdogs (k=0.681) than with the samples from the control dogs (k=0.347).

  7. Exploring the association between Morgellons disease and Lyme disease: identification of Borrelia burgdorferi in Morgellons disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelveen, Marianne J; Bandoski, Cheryl; Burke, Jennie; Sapi, Eva; Filush, Katherine R; Wang, Yean; Franco, Agustin; Mayne, Peter J; Stricker, Raphael B

    2015-02-12

    Morgellons disease (MD) is a complex skin disorder characterized by ulcerating lesions that have protruding or embedded filaments. Many clinicians refer to this condition as delusional parasitosis or delusional infestation and consider the filaments to be introduced textile fibers. In contrast, recent studies indicate that MD is a true somatic illness associated with tickborne infection, that the filaments are keratin and collagen in composition and that they result from proliferation and activation of keratinocytes and fibroblasts in the skin. Previously, spirochetes have been detected in the dermatological specimens from four MD patients, thus providing evidence of an infectious process. Based on culture, histology, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy and molecular testing, we present corroborating evidence of spirochetal infection in a larger group of 25 MD patients. Irrespective of Lyme serological reactivity, all patients in our study group demonstrated histological evidence of epithelial spirochetal infection. Strength of evidence based on other testing varied among patients. Spirochetes identified as Borrelia strains by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or in-situ DNA hybridization were detected in 24/25 of our study patients. Skin cultures containing Borrelia spirochetes were obtained from four patients, thus demonstrating that the organisms present in dermatological specimens were viable. Spirochetes identified by PCR as Borrelia burgdorferi were cultured from blood in seven patients and from vaginal secretions in three patients, demonstrating systemic infection. Based on these observations, a clinical classification system for MD is proposed. Our study using multiple detection methods confirms that MD is a true somatic illness associated with Borrelia spirochetes that cause Lyme disease. Further studies are needed to determine the optimal treatment for this spirochete-associated dermopathy.

  8. Use of nonelectrolytes reveals the channel size and oligomeric constitution of the Borrelia burgdorferi P66 porin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Bárcena-Uribarri

    Full Text Available In the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, the outer membrane protein P66 is capable of pore formation with an atypical high single-channel conductance of 11 nS in 1 M KCl, which suggested that it could have a larger diameter than 'normal' Gram-negative bacterial porins. We studied the diameter of the P66 channel by analyzing its single-channel conductance in black lipid bilayers in the presence of different nonelectrolytes with known hydrodynamic radii. We calculated the filling of the channel with these nonelectrolytes and the results suggested that nonelectrolytes (NEs with hydrodynamic radii of 0.34 nm or smaller pass through the pore, whereas neutral molecules with greater radii only partially filled the channel or were not able to enter it at all. The diameter of the entrance of the P66 channel was determined to be ≤1.9 nm and the channel has a central constriction of about 0.8 nm. The size of the channel appeared to be symmetrical as judged from one-sidedness of addition of NEs. Furthermore, the P66-induced membrane conductance could be blocked by 80-90% by the addition of the nonelectrolytes PEG 400, PEG 600 and maltohexaose to the aqueous phase in the low millimolar range. The analysis of the power density spectra of ion current through P66 after blockage with these NEs revealed no chemical reaction responsible for channel block. Interestingly, the blockage of the single-channel conductance of P66 by these NEs occurred in about eight subconductance states, indicating that the P66 channel could be an oligomer of about eight individual channels. The organization of P66 as a possible octamer was confirmed by Blue Native PAGE and immunoblot analysis, which both demonstrated that P66 forms a complex with a mass of approximately 460 kDa. Two dimension SDS PAGE revealed that P66 is the only polypeptide in the complex.

  9. Comparison of MKP and BSK-H media for the cultivation and isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ružić-Sabljić

    Full Text Available The isolation of B. burgdorferi sensu lato requires the use of complex cultivation media. The aim of the study was to compare the usefulness of BSK-H (a commercial medium produced by HiMedia, India and MKP medium. MKP and BSK-H media were prepared in accordance with the relevant protocols. Borrelia strains and skin culture biopsies were simultaneously inoculated into both media, incubated and checked for growth. Borrelial growth characteristics, isolation rates and characteristics of the isolated borreliae were analysed and compared. Initially, numbers of spirochaetes were higher in BSK-H than in MKP; however, in comparison with MKP, the strains subcultured in BSK-H medium were more frequently irregular, thin and non-motile, and rapidly died. In addition, the borrelial isolation rate from erythema migrans skin samples was higher in MKP than in BSK-H medium (108/171, 63.2% versus 70/171, 40.9%; p<0.0001. The far most frequently isolated species was Borrelia afzelii (92.9% and 97.2% strains isolated from BSK-H and MKP, respectively. Comparison of strains cultured from individual patients in both media showed differences in plasmid contents in 9/46 (19.6% strain pairs, and protein profiles differed in 30/43 (69.8% strain pairs, most often in the expression of OspC (in 27/28 patients OspC was expressed only in strains growing in MKP. BSK-H medium supports the growth of borrelial strains but MKP is superior with regard to the isolation rate, morphology and motility of strains. BSK-H medium supports fast initial growth of borreliae but this is followed by rapid deformation and death of the spirochaetes.

  10. Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Francisella tularensis Infections in Belgium: Results of Three Population-Based Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Keukeleire, Mathilde; Vanwambeke, Sophie O; Cochez, Christel; Heyman, Paul; Fretin, David; Deneys, Véronique; Luyasu, Victor; Kabamba, Benoît; Robert, Annie

    2017-02-01

    To estimate the seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Ap), and Francisella tularensis (Ft) in Belgium, we tested sera from three population-based samples in which exposure to pathogen is assumed to vary: 148 samples from workers professionally exposed, 209 samples from rural blood donors, and 193 samples from urban blood donors. Sera were tested using ELISA or the immunofluorescence assay test. The seroprevalence of Bb was 5.4% in workers professionally exposed, 2.9% in rural blood donors, and 2.6% in urban blood donors, which is similar to other studies. The fraction of negative results decreases significantly from urban blood donors and rural blood donors to workers. Regarding the seroprevalence of Ap, the cutoff titer of 1:64 recommended by the manufacturer may be set too low and produces artificially high seroprevalence rates. Using a cutoff titer of 1:128, the seroprevalence of Ap was estimated at 8.1% for workers professionally exposed, 6.2% for rural blood donors, and 5.7% for urban blood donors. Tularemia sera confirmed the presence of the pathogen in Belgium at 2.0% for workers and 0.5% for rural and urban blood donors. Our study is one of the few providing an estimation of the seroprevalences of Bb, Ap, and Ft in three different populations in Belgium, filling the gap in seroprevalence data among those groups. Our findings provide evidence that the entire Belgian population is exposed to Bb, Ap, and Ft infections, but a higher exposure is noticed for professionals at risk. Education on the risk factors for tick bites and preventive measures for both professionals exposed and the general population is needed.

  11. Comparison of MKP and BSK-H media for the cultivation and isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ružić-Sabljić, Eva; Maraspin, Vera; Stupica, Daša; Rojko, Tereza; Bogovič, Petra; Strle, Franc; Cerar, Tjaša

    2017-01-01

    The isolation of B. burgdorferi sensu lato requires the use of complex cultivation media. The aim of the study was to compare the usefulness of BSK-H (a commercial medium produced by HiMedia, India) and MKP medium. MKP and BSK-H media were prepared in accordance with the relevant protocols. Borrelia strains and skin culture biopsies were simultaneously inoculated into both media, incubated and checked for growth. Borrelial growth characteristics, isolation rates and characteristics of the isolated borreliae were analysed and compared. Initially, numbers of spirochaetes were higher in BSK-H than in MKP; however, in comparison with MKP, the strains subcultured in BSK-H medium were more frequently irregular, thin and non-motile, and rapidly died. In addition, the borrelial isolation rate from erythema migrans skin samples was higher in MKP than in BSK-H medium (108/171, 63.2% versus 70/171, 40.9%; pmedia showed differences in plasmid contents in 9/46 (19.6%) strain pairs, and protein profiles differed in 30/43 (69.8%) strain pairs, most often in the expression of OspC (in 27/28 patients OspC was expressed only in strains growing in MKP). BSK-H medium supports the growth of borrelial strains but MKP is superior with regard to the isolation rate, morphology and motility of strains. BSK-H medium supports fast initial growth of borreliae but this is followed by rapid deformation and death of the spirochaetes.

  12. Comparison of MKP and BSK-H media for the cultivation and isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ružić-Sabljić, Eva; Maraspin, Vera; Stupica, Daša; Rojko, Tereza; Bogovič, Petra; Strle, Franc; Cerar, Tjaša

    2017-01-01

    The isolation of B. burgdorferi sensu lato requires the use of complex cultivation media. The aim of the study was to compare the usefulness of BSK-H (a commercial medium produced by HiMedia, India) and MKP medium. MKP and BSK-H media were prepared in accordance with the relevant protocols. Borrelia strains and skin culture biopsies were simultaneously inoculated into both media, incubated and checked for growth. Borrelial growth characteristics, isolation rates and characteristics of the isolated borreliae were analysed and compared. Initially, numbers of spirochaetes were higher in BSK-H than in MKP; however, in comparison with MKP, the strains subcultured in BSK-H medium were more frequently irregular, thin and non-motile, and rapidly died. In addition, the borrelial isolation rate from erythema migrans skin samples was higher in MKP than in BSK-H medium (108/171, 63.2% versus 70/171, 40.9%; pmedia showed differences in plasmid contents in 9/46 (19.6%) strain pairs, and protein profiles differed in 30/43 (69.8%) strain pairs, most often in the expression of OspC (in 27/28 patients OspC was expressed only in strains growing in MKP). BSK-H medium supports the growth of borrelial strains but MKP is superior with regard to the isolation rate, morphology and motility of strains. BSK-H medium supports fast initial growth of borreliae but this is followed by rapid deformation and death of the spirochaetes. PMID:28170447

  13. Encoding of coordination complexes with XML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinoth, P; Sankar, P

    2017-09-01

    An in-silico system to encode structure, bonding and properties of coordination complexes is developed. The encoding is achieved through a semantic XML markup frame. Composition of the coordination complexes is captured in terms of central atom and ligands. Structural information of central atom is detailed in terms of electron status of valence electron orbitals. The ligands are encoded with specific reference to the electron environment of ligand centre atoms. Behaviour of ligands to form low or high spin complexes is accomplished by assigning a Ligand Centre Value to every ligand based on the electronic environment of ligand centre atom. Chemical ontologies are used for categorization purpose and to control different hybridization schemes. Complexes formed by the central atoms of transition metal, non-transition elements belonging to s-block, p-block and f-block are encoded with a generic encoding platform. Complexes of homoleptic, heteroleptic and bridged types are also covered by this encoding system. Utility of the encoded system to predict redox electron transfer reaction in the coordination complexes is demonstrated with a simple application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Encoding information using laguerre gaussian modes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Trichili, A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The authors experimentally demonstrate an information encoding protocol using the two degrees of freedom of Laguerre Gaussian modes having different radial and azimuthal components. A novel method, based on digital holography, for information...

  15. Use of T7 RNA polymerase to direct expression of outer Surface Protein A (OspA) from the Lyme disease Spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, John J.; Lade, Barbara N.

    1991-01-01

    The OspA gene from a North American strain of the Lyme disease Spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, was cloned under the control of transciption and translation signals from bacteriophage T7. Full-length OspA protein, a 273 amino acid (31kD) lipoprotein, is expressed poorly in Escherichia coli and is associated with the insoluble membrane fraction. In contrast, a truncated form of OspA lacking the amino-terminal signal sequence which normally would direct localization of the protein to the outer membrane is expressed at very high levels (less than or equal to 100 mg/liter) and is soluble. The truncated protein was purified to homogeneity and is being tested to see if it will be useful as an immunogen in a vaccine against Lyme disease. Circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy was used to characterize the secondary structure and study conformational changes in the protein. Studies underway with other surface proteins from B burgdorferi and a related spirochete, B. hermsii, which causes relapsing fever, leads us to conclude that a strategy similar to that used to express the truncated OspA can provide a facile method for producing variations of Borrelia lipoproteins which are highly expressed in E. coli and soluble without exposure to detergents.

  16. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface protein antibodies in wild white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in New York and Pennsylvania, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchgessner, Megan S; Freer, Heather; Whipps, Christopher M; Wagner, Bettina

    2013-05-15

    Borrelia burgdorferi differentially exhibits outer surface proteins (Osp) on its outer membrane, and detection of particular Osp antibodies in mammals is suggestive of the infection stage. For example, OspF is typically associated with chronic infection, whereas OspC suggests early infection. A fluorescent bead-based multiplex assay was used to test sera from New York and Pennsylvania white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) for the presence of antibodies to OspA, OspC, and OspF. OspF seroprevalence was significantly greater than both OspA and OspC seroprevalence for all study sites. OspA, OspC, and OspF seroprevalences were significantly greater in Pennsylvania deer than New York deer. The regional differences in seroprevalence are believed to be attributable to a heterogeneous Ixodes scapularis distribution. While most seropositive deer were solely OspF seropositive, deer concurrently OspC and OspF seropositive were the second most commonly encountered individuals. Simultaneous detection of OspF and OspC antibodies may occur when non-infected or chronically infected deer are bitten by an infected tick within a few months of blood collection, thereby inducing production of antibodies associated with the early stages of infection with B. burgdorferi. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Lack of IgG antibody seropositivity to Borrelia burgdorferi in patients with Parry-Romberg syndrome and linear morphea en coup de sabre in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Gómez, Claudia; Godínez-Hana, Ana L; García-Hernández, Marisela; Suárez-Roa, María de Lourdes; Toussaint-Caire, Sonia; Vega-Memije, Elisa; Gutiérrez-Mendoza, Daniela; Pérez-Dosal, Marcia; Medina-De la Garza, Carlos E

    2014-08-01

    Progressive hemifacial atrophy or Parry-Romberg Syndrome (PRS) is a rare, acquired, progressive dysplasia of subcutaneous tissue and bone characterized by unilateral facial involvement. Its etiology is unknown, but theories about its pathogenesis include infectious, degenerative, autoimmune, and traumatic causes among others. The causal relationship of PRS and linear morphea en coup de sabre (LMCS) with Borrelia burgdorferi infection remains controversial. Our goal was to serologically determine anti-B. burgdorferi antibodies in patients diagnosed with PRS and LMCS to establish a possible association as a causative agent. We conducted a serology study with patients belonging to a group of 21 individuals diagnosed with PRS, six with LMCS, and 21 matched controls. Anti-Borrelia IgG antibodies were determined by ELISA. A descriptive statistical analysis and Fischer's exact test were done. In serological tests, only two cases had borderline values and were further analyzed by Western blot with non-confirmatory results. For both the PRS and LMCS group, the association test was not significant, suggesting a lack of association between PRS or LMCS and the presence of anti-Borrelia antibodies. In Mexico there are no previous studies on Borrelia infection and its relationship between PRS or LMCS. Our result showed a lack of association of either clinical entities with anti-Borrelia-antibodies. Former reports of this association may suggest coincidental findings without causal relationship. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  18. Human seroprevalence against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in two comparable regions of the eastern Alps is not correlated to vector infection rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnleitner, S T; Margos, G; Wex, F; Simeoni, J; Zelger, R; Schmutzhard, E; Lass-Flörl, C; Walder, G

    2015-04-01

    Seroprevalences were determined by testing sera of 1607 blood donors from North, East, and South Tyrol. In the Tyrols, the continental divide delimitates areas with high seroprevalences of IgG antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in the North (7.2%) from areas with low seroprevalences in the South (1.5%). To determine Borrelia prevalences in unfed Ixodes ricinus ticks, 755 questing ticks were tested by PCR. Prevalences in nymphal and adult ticks were found to be 19.7% (n=132) and 21.5% (n=205) in North Tyrol and 23% (n=43) and 23.7% (n=376) in South Tyrol, respectively. Sequencing of 46 Borrelia-positive ticks yielded 74% Borrelia (B.) afzelii, 11% B. garinii, 7% B. lusitaniae, 7% B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, and 2% B. valaisiana infections. Distinct genetic clusters could not be delimitated on either side of the continental divide. This study describes occurrence and geographic dispersion of Borrelia spp. in the Tyrols, discusses possible reasons for significant differences in human seroprevalence, and indicates that prevalence of Borrelia in vector ticks is not a direct predictive factor for the local seroprevalence in humans. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  19. Using XML to encode TMA DES metadata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Lyttleton

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Tissue Microarray Data Exchange Specification (TMA DES is an XML specification for encoding TMA experiment data. While TMA DES data is encoded in XML, the files that describe its syntax, structure, and semantics are not. The DTD format is used to describe the syntax and structure of TMA DES, and the ISO 11179 format is used to define the semantics of TMA DES. However, XML Schema can be used in place of DTDs, and another XML encoded format, RDF, can be used in place of ISO 11179. Encoding all TMA DES data and metadata in XML would simplify the development and usage of programs which validate and parse TMA DES data. XML Schema has advantages over DTDs such as support for data types, and a more powerful means of specifying constraints on data values. An advantage of RDF encoded in XML over ISO 11179 is that XML defines rules for encoding data, whereas ISO 11179 does not. Materials and Methods: We created an XML Schema version of the TMA DES DTD. We wrote a program that converted ISO 11179 definitions to RDF encoded in XML, and used it to convert the TMA DES ISO 11179 definitions to RDF. Results: We validated a sample TMA DES XML file that was supplied with the publication that originally specified TMA DES using our XML Schema. We successfully validated the RDF produced by our ISO 11179 converter with the W3C RDF validation service. Conclusions: All TMA DES data could be encoded using XML, which simplifies its processing. XML Schema allows datatypes and valid value ranges to be specified for CDEs, which enables a wider range of error checking to be performed using XML Schemas than could be performed using DTDs.

  20. Using XML to encode TMA DES metadata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyttleton, Oliver; Wright, Alexander; Treanor, Darren; Lewis, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The Tissue Microarray Data Exchange Specification (TMA DES) is an XML specification for encoding TMA experiment data. While TMA DES data is encoded in XML, the files that describe its syntax, structure, and semantics are not. The DTD format is used to describe the syntax and structure of TMA DES, and the ISO 11179 format is used to define the semantics of TMA DES. However, XML Schema can be used in place of DTDs, and another XML encoded format, RDF, can be used in place of ISO 11179. Encoding all TMA DES data and metadata in XML would simplify the development and usage of programs which validate and parse TMA DES data. XML Schema has advantages over DTDs such as support for data types, and a more powerful means of specifying constraints on data values. An advantage of RDF encoded in XML over ISO 11179 is that XML defines rules for encoding data, whereas ISO 11179 does not. We created an XML Schema version of the TMA DES DTD. We wrote a program that converted ISO 11179 definitions to RDF encoded in XML, and used it to convert the TMA DES ISO 11179 definitions to RDF. We validated a sample TMA DES XML file that was supplied with the publication that originally specified TMA DES using our XML Schema. We successfully validated the RDF produced by our ISO 11179 converter with the W3C RDF validation service. All TMA DES data could be encoded using XML, which simplifies its processing. XML Schema allows datatypes and valid value ranges to be specified for CDEs, which enables a wider range of error checking to be performed using XML Schemas than could be performed using DTDs.

  1. Reading Neural Encodings using Phase Space Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Abarbanel, Henry D. I.; Tumer, Evren C.

    2003-01-01

    Environmental signals sensed by nervous systems are often represented in spike trains carried from sensory neurons to higher neural functions where decisions and functional actions occur. Information about the environmental stimulus is contained (encoded) in the train of spikes. We show how to "read" the encoding using state space methods of nonlinear dynamics. We create a mapping from spike signals which are output from the neural processing system back to an estimate of the analog input sig...

  2. Multiplex assay (Mikrogen recomBead) for detection of serum IgG and IgM antibodies to 13 recombinant antigens of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in patients with neuroborreliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dessau, Ram Benny; Møller, Jens K.; Kolmos, Birte

    2015-01-01

    A multiplex-bead-based assay for the detection of serum antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was evaluated. The assay contained 13 different antigens in both the IgG and the IgM assay; thus, a total of 26 measurement results were available from each sample. A total of 49 Danish patients...

  3. Development of a multiplex assay for the detection of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in horses and its validation using Bayesian and conventional statistical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Bettina; Freer, Heather; Rollins, Alicia; Erb, Hollis N; Lu, Zhao; Gröhn, Yrjo

    2011-12-15

    Lyme disease is a zoonotic, vector-borne disease and occurs in mammals including horses. The disease is induced by infection with spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato group. Infection of mammalian hosts requires transmission of spirochetes by infected ticks during tick bites. Lyme disease diagnosis is based on clinical signs, possible exposure to infected ticks, and antibody testing which is traditionally performed by ELISA and Western blotting (WB). This report describes the development and validation of a new fluorescent bead-based multiplex assay for the detection of antibodies to B. burgdorferi outer surface protein A (OspA), OspC and OspF antigens in horse serum. Testing of 562 equine sera was performed blindly and in parallel by using WB and the new multiplex assay. Because a true gold standard is missing for Lyme antibody testing, we performed and compared different statistical approaches to validate the new Lyme multiplex assay. One approach was to use WB results as a 'relative gold standard' in ROC-curve and likelihood-ratio analyses of the new test. Cut-off values and interpretation ranges of the multiplex assay were established by the analysis. The second statistical approach used a Bayesian model for the calculation of diagnostic sensitivities and specificities of the multiplex assay. The Bayesian analysis takes into consideration that no true gold standard exists for detecting antibodies to B. burgdorferi and estimated sensitivities and specificities of both tests that were compared. Therefore, the Bayesian analysis also resulted in an evaluation of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of WB. Overall, the new assay was characterized by low background values and a wide dynamic quantification range for the detection of antibodies to OspA, OspC and OspF antigens of B. burgdorferi. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for the OspA bead-based assay were calculated as 49% and 85%, respectively, and by a standard ROC curve analysis only

  4. Infections and mixed infections with the selected species of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in eastern Poland: a significant increase in the course of 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina; Zając, Violetta; Sawczyn, Anna; Sroka, Jacek; Cisak, Ewa; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2016-02-01

    In the years 2008-2009 and 2013-2014, 1620 and 1500 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks, respectively, were examined on the territory of the Lublin province (eastern Poland). The presence of three pathogenic species causing Lyme disease was investigated: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. afzelii and B. garinii. The proportion of I. ricinus ticks infected with B. burgdorferi sensu lato showed a highly significant increase between 2008-2009 and 2013-2014, from 6.0 to 15.3%. A significant increase was noted with regard to all types of infections with individual species: single (4.7-7.8%), dual (1.2-6.6%), and triple (0.1-0.9%). When expressed as the percent of all infections, the frequency of mixed infections increased from 21.4 to 49.2%. Statistical analysis performed with two methods (by calculating of odds ratios and by Fisher's exact test) showed that the frequencies of mixed infections in most cases proved to be significantly greater than expected. The strongest associations were found between B. burgdorferi s. s. and B. afzelii, and between B. burgdorferi s. s. and B. garinii. They appeared to be highly significant (P < 0.0001) when assessed by two methods for 2013-2014, and for the sum of findings for both time periods. The proportions of the individual species detected in the mixed infections in 2008-2009 and 2013-2014 revealed highly significant increases for B. burgdorferi s. s. and B. garinii (from 33.9 to 71.1% and from 18.2 to 82.9%, respectively), and an insignificant decrease for B. afzelii (from 51.4 to 41.6%). The proportions of the species B. burgdorferi s. s., B. afzelii and B. garinii (with combined single and mixed infections) for 2008-2009 and 2013-2014 were: 51.2/44.0 %, 30.6/24.9% and 18.2/31.1%, respectively. In conclusion, our results seem to indicate the detrimental trend of the increasing infection rate of I. ricinus ticks with B. burgdorferi s. l. in eastern Poland, and dramatic enhancement of mixed infections with individual species, which

  5. The enzootic life-cycle of Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato) and tick-borne rickettsiae: an epidemiological study on wild-living small mammals and their ticks from Saxony, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiegala, Anna; Król, Nina; Oltersdorf, Carolin; Nader, Julian; Pfeffer, Martin

    2017-03-13

    Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato) and rickettsiae of the spotted fever group are zoonotic tick-borne pathogens. While small mammals are confirmed reservoirs for certain Borrelia spp., little is known about the reservoirs for tick-borne rickettsiae. Between 2012 and 2014, ticks were collected from the vegetation and small mammals which were trapped in Saxony, Germany. DNA extracted from ticks and the small mammals' skin was analyzed for the presence of Rickettsia spp. and B. burgdorferi (s.l.) by qPCR targeting the gltA and p41 genes, respectively. Partial sequencing of the rickettsial ompB gene and an MLST of B. burgdorferi (s.l.) were conducted for species determination. In total, 673 small mammals belonging to eight species (Apodemus agrarius, n = 7; A. flavicollis, n = 214; Microtus arvalis, n = 8; Microtus agrestis, n = 1; Mustela nivalis, n = 2; Myodes glareolus, n = 435; Sorex araneus, n = 5; and Talpa europaea, n = 1) were collected and examined. In total, 916 questing ticks belonging to three species (Ixodes ricinus, n = 741; Dermacentor reticulatus, n = 174; and I. trianguliceps, n = 1) were collected. Of these, 474 ticks were further investigated. The prevalence for Rickettsia spp. and B. burgdorferi (s.l.) in the investigated small mammals was 25.3 and 31.2%, respectively. The chance of encountering Rickettsia spp. in M. glareolus was seven times higher for specimens infested with D. reticulatus than for those which were free of D. reticulatus (OR: 7.0; 95% CI: 3.3-14.7; P < 0.001). In total, 11.4% of questing I. ricinus and 70.5% of D. reticulatus were positive for Rickettsia spp. DNA of B. burgdorferi (s.l.) was detected only in I. ricinus (5.5%). Sequence analysis revealed 9 R. helvetica, 5 R. raoultii, and 1 R. felis obtained from 15 small mammal samples. Small mammals may serve as reservoirs for Rickettsia spp. and B. burgdorferi (s.l.). While the prevalence for Rickettsia spp. in M. glareolus is most

  6. Encoder: a connectionist model of how learning to visually encode fixated text images improves reading fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gale L

    2004-07-01

    This article proposes that visual encoding learning improves reading fluency by widening the span over which letters are recognized from a fixated text image so that fewer fixations are needed to cover a text line. Encoder is a connectionist model that learns to convert images like the fixated text images human readers encode into the corresponding letter sequences. The computational theory of classification learning predicts that fixated text-image size makes this learning difficult but that reducing image variability and biasing learning should help. Encoder confirms these predictions. It fails to learn as image size increases but achieves humanlike visual encoding accuracy when image variability is reduced by regularities in fixation positions and letter sequences and when learning is biased to discover mapping functions based on the sequential, componential structure of text. After training, Encoder exhibits many humanlike text familiarity effects. ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)

  7. Method of implementing frequency-encoded NOT, OR and NOR ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this context, polarization encoding technique, intensity-based encoding technique, tristate and quaternary logic operation, multivalued logic operations, symbolic substitution techniques etc. may be mentioned. Very recently, frequency encoding/decoding technique has drawn interest from the scientific community.

  8. An information theoretic characterisation of auditory encoding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Overath

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The entropy metric derived from information theory provides a means to quantify the amount of information transmitted in acoustic streams like speech or music. By systematically varying the entropy of pitch sequences, we sought brain areas where neural activity and energetic demands increase as a function of entropy. Such a relationship is predicted to occur in an efficient encoding mechanism that uses less computational resource when less information is present in the signal: we specifically tested the hypothesis that such a relationship is present in the planum temporale (PT. In two convergent functional MRI studies, we demonstrated this relationship in PT for encoding, while furthermore showing that a distributed fronto-parietal network for retrieval of acoustic information is independent of entropy. The results establish PT as an efficient neural engine that demands less computational resource to encode redundant signals than those with high information content.

  9. Encoding Microreactors with Droplet Chains in Microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenya; Lin, Gungun; Ge, Jin; Fassbender, Jürgen; Makarov, Denys

    2017-12-13

    Droplet-based high throughput biomolecular screening and combinatorial synthesis entail a viable indexing strategy to be developed for the identification of each microreactor. Here, we propose a novel indexing scheme based on the generation of droplet sequences on demand to form unique encoding droplet chains in fluidic networks. These codes are represented by multiunit and multilevel droplets packages, with each code unit possessing several distinct signal levels, potentially allowing large encoding capacity. For proof of concept, we use magnetic nanoparticles as the encoding material and a giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensor-based active sorting system supplemented with an optical detector to generate and decode the sequence of one exemplar sample droplet reactor and a 4-unit quaternary magnetic code. The indexing capacity offered by 4-unit multilevel codes with this indexing strategy is estimated to exceed 104, which holds great promise for large-scale droplet-based screening and synthesis.

  10. Serological detection of antibodies to Anaplasma spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Ehrlichia canis and of Dirofilaria immitis antigen in dogs from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Víctor M; Bonilla, Marta C; Kaminsky, Darwin; Romero-Zúñiga, Juan José; Siebert, Susanne; Krämer, Friederike

    2017-03-15

    In a study in Costa Rica 314 serum samples from dogs throughout all seven provinces were tested using a commercial kit for the detection of circulating antibodies against Anaplasma spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Ehrlichia canis, and of circulating antigen of Dirofilaria immitis. A total of 6.4% (20/314) and 38.2% (120/314) were positive for Anaplasma spp. (An) and E. canis (Ec) antibodies. Overall, 8.0% (25/314) were positive for D. immitis (Di) antigen. One single dog reacted positive with B. burgdorferi s.l. (Bb) antigen (0.3%, 1/314). E. canis positive dogs were detected in all provinces (highest percentages in Guanacaste, Puntarenas [both significantly different compared to the overall] and Limón). Guanacaste and Puntarenas also showed the highest prevalences of Anaplasma spp. (both significantly different compared to the overall). The highest prevalence of D. immitis was detected in Puntarenas (significantly different compared to the overall). Double pathogen exposure (Ec plus An; Ec plus Di; Ec plus Bb) were recorded in 8.9% (28/314). Two dogs showed a triple pathogen exposure (0.6%, 2/314; An, Ec and Di). There was a significant difference between male (11.5%, 18/156) and female (4.4%, 7/158) animals for D. immitis positive results. There was also a significant difference between breed and no breed dogs regarding the characteristics of a general positive test, as well as seropositivity to the single pathogens of Anaplasma spp., E. canis and D. immitis. Finally there was a significant difference in the presence of clinical signs again regarding the characteristics of a general positive test, as well as seropositivity to Anaplasma spp., E. canis and D. immitis. Practitioners in Costa Rica should be aware of the canine vector-borne diseases mentioned as dogs are at risk of becoming infected. Concerning the positive B. burgdorferi s.l. dog, an autochthonous occurrence cannot be confirmed due to a history of adoption and an unusual tattoo number

  11. Divergence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes could be driven by the host: diversity of Borrelia strains isolated from ticks feeding on a single bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The controversy surrounding the potential impact of birds in spirochete transmission dynamics and their capacity to serve as a reservoir has existed for a long time. The majority of analyzed bird species are able to infect larval ticks with Borrelia. Dispersal of infected ticks due to bird migration is a key to the establishment of new foci of Lyme borreliosis. The dynamics of infection in birds supports the mixing of different species, the horizontal exchange of genetic information, and appearance of recombinant genotypes. Methods Four Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains were cultured from Ixodes minor larvae and four strains were isolated from Ixodes minor nymphs collected from a single Carolina Wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus). A multilocus sequence analysis that included 16S rRNA, a 5S-23S intergenic spacer region, a 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer, flagellin, p66, and ospC separated 8 strains into 3 distinct groups. Additional multilocus sequence typing of 8 housekeeping genes, clpA, clpX, nifS, pepX, pyrG, recG, rplB, and uvrA was used to resolve the taxonomic status of bird-associated strains. Results Results of analysis of 14 genes confirmed that the level of divergence among strains is significantly higher than what would be expected for strains within a single species. The presence of cross-species recombination was revealed: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto housekeeping gene nifS was incorporated into homologous locus of strain, previously assigned to B. americana. Conclusions Genetically diverse Borrelia strains are often found within the same tick or same vertebrate host, presenting a wide opportunity for genetic exchange. We report the cross-species recombination that led to incorporation of a housekeeping gene from the B. burgdorferi sensu stricto strain into a homologous locus of another bird-associated strain. Our results support the hypothesis that recombination maintains a majority of sequence polymorphism within Borrelia

  12. Seasonality of Ixodes ricinus Ticks on Vegetation and on Rodents and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato Genospecies Diversity in Two Lyme Borreliosis–Endemic Areas in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, David; Kneubühler, Yvan; Rais, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We compared Ixodes ricinus questing density, the infestation of rodents by immature stages, and the diversity of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl) in questing ticks and ticks collected from rodents in two Lyme borreliosis (LB)-endemic areas in Switzerland (Portes-Rouges [PR] and Staatswald [SW]) from 2003 to 2005. There were variations in the seasonal pattern of questing tick densities among years. Questing nymphs were globally more abundant at PR than at SW, but the proportion of rodents infested by immature ticks was similar (59.4% and 61%, respectively). Questing tick activity lasted from February to November with a strong decline in June. The seasonal pattern of ticks infesting rodents was different. Ticks infested rodents without decline in summer, suggesting that the risk of being bitten by ticks remains high during the summer. Rodents from SW showed the highest infestation levels (10±21.6 for larvae and 0.54±1.65 for nymphs). The proportion of rodents infested simultaneously by larvae and nymphs (co-feeding ticks) was higher at SW (28%) than at PR (11%). Apodemus flavicollis was the species the most frequently infested by co-feeding ticks, and Myodes glareolus was the most infective rodent species as measured by xenodiagnosis. At PR, the prevalence of B. burgdorferi sl in questing ticks was higher (17.8% for nymphs and 32.4% for adults) than at SW (10.4% for nymphs and 24.8% for adults), with B. afzelii as the dominant species, but B. garinii, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, and B. valaisiana were also detected. Rodents transmitted only B. afzelii (at PR and at SW) and B. bavariensis (at SW) to ticks, and no mixed infection by additional genospecies was observed in co-feeding ticks. This implies that co-feeding transmission does not contribute to genospecies diversity. However, persistent infections in rodents and co-feeding transmission contribute to the perpetuation of B. afzelii in nature. PMID:22607074

  13. Occurrence of homologous anti-Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in equines in the metropolitan mesorregion of Belém, State of Para, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Galo,Katiany R.; Adivaldo H. Fonseca; Renata C. Madureira; José D. Barbosa Neto

    2009-01-01

    Espiroquetas transmitidas por carrapatos são microrganismos de ampla distribuição geográfica e acometem animais silvestres, domésticos e seres humanos. Procedeu-se a análise sorológica de 300 soros de eqüinos onde 58 animais eram do município Ananideua, 61 eram de Belém, 131 de Castanhal e 50 eram do município de Santa Izabel do Pará para Borrelia burgdorferi através do teste ELISA indireto. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas (P < 0,05) entre os municípios, nem quanto à raça, sexo...

  14. Pleomorphism and Viability of the Lyme Disease Pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi Exposed to Physiological Stress Conditions: A Correlative Cryo-Fluorescence and Cryo-Scanning Electron Microscopy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancová, Marie; Rudenko, Nataliia; Vaněček, Jiří; Golovchenko, Maryna; Strnad, Martin; Rego, Ryan O M; Tichá, Lucie; Grubhoffer, Libor; Nebesářová, Jana

    2017-01-01

    To understand the response of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi exposed to stress conditions and assess the viability of this spirochete, we used a correlative cryo-fluorescence and cryo-scanning microscopy approach. This approach enables simple exposition of bacteria to various experimental conditions that can be stopped at certain time intervals by cryo-immobilization, examination of cell viability without necessity to maintain suitable culture conditions during viability assays, and visualization of structures in their native state at high magnification. We focused on rare and transient events e.g., the formation of round bodies and the presence of membranous blebs in spirochetes exposed to culture medium, host sera either without or with the bacteriolytic effect and water. We described all crucial steps of the workflow, particularly the influence of freeze-etching and accelerating voltage on the visualization of topography. With the help of newly designed cryo-transport device, we achieved greater reproducibility.

  15. NMR studies of Borrelia burgdorferi OspA, a 28 kDa protein containing a single-layer {beta}-sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Thuy-Nga; Koide, Shohei

    1998-05-15

    The crystal structure of outer surface protein A (OspA) from Borrelia burgdorferi contains a single-layer {beta}-sheet connecting the N- and C-terminal globular domains. The central {beta}-sheet consists largely of polar amino acids and it is solvent-exposed on both faces, which so far appears to be unique among known protein structures. We have accomplished nearly complete backbone H, C and N and C{sup ;}/H{sup {beta}} assignments of OspA (28 kDa) using standard triple resonance techniques without perdeuteration. This was made possible by recording spectra at a high temperature (45 {sup o}C ). The chemical shift index and {sup 15}N T{sub 1}/T{sub 2} ratios show that both the secondary structure and the global conformation of OspA in solution are similar to the crystal structure, suggesting that the unique central {beta}-sheet is fairly rigid.

  16. Encoding and Decoding Procedures for Arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Babaev

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses an algorithm based on the encoding procedure for representing a set of arrangement elements as a single number. Also the author provides the procedure for the inverse transformation of the code into arrangement elements. In addition the Article includes recommendations on the use of the above procedures in combinatorial algorithms of optimization.

  17. Encoders for block-circulant LDPC codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Abbasfar, Aliazam (Inventor); Jones, Christopher R. (Inventor); Dolinar, Samuel J. (Inventor); Thorpe, Jeremy C. (Inventor); Andrews, Kenneth S. (Inventor); Yao, Kung (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Methods and apparatus to encode message input symbols in accordance with an accumulate-repeat-accumulate code with repetition three or four are disclosed. Block circulant matrices are used. A first method and apparatus make use of the block-circulant structure of the parity check matrix. A second method and apparatus use block-circulant generator matrices.

  18. Optimal Achievable Encoding for Brain Machine Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-22

    Brain - Machine Interface Eduardo Chichilnisky Leland Stanford Junior...Oct 2016 – 30 Sep 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Optimal Achievable Encoding for Brain - Machine Interface 5b...Stanford Artificial Retina 15. SUBJECT TERMS Artificial retina, Retinal prosthesis, Brain - machine interface , Brain -computer interface ,

  19. Evaluative and Taxonomic Encoding in Children's Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kail, Robert V., Jr.; Schroll, John T.

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the development of evaluative and taxonomic encoding in children's memory. The task used was a modification of the Wickens short-term memory task in which subjects' recall of words is tested following a distraction task. The first experiment found that 11-year-old children, but not 8-year-old children,…

  20. Visual Memory : The Price of Encoding Details

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenstein, Mark; Kromm, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Studies on visual long-term memory have shown that we have a tremendous capacity for remembering pictures of objects, even at a highly detailed level. What remains unclear, however, is whether encoding objects at such a detailed level comes at any cost. In the current study, we examined how the

  1. Letter-Position Encoding and Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Carol; Cornelissen, Piers

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses on applying the SERIOL model of orthographic processing to dyslexia. The model is extended to include a phonological route and reading acquisition. We propose that the temporal alignment of serial orthographic and phonological representations is a key aspect of learning to read, driving the formation of a phonemic encoding.…

  2. Phenotypic and Molecular Characterization of Plasmid- Encoded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the distribution of plasmid-encoded extended spectrum beta-lacatamases (ESBLs) in Lahore, Pakistan using different phenotypic and molecular methods. Methods: Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp were obtained over a period of nineteen months (June 2007 to December 2008). Both were tested ...

  3. How Attention Modulates Encoding of Dynamic Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noga Oren

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available When encoding a real-life, continuous stimulus, the same neural circuits support processing and integration of prior as well as new incoming information. This ongoing interplay is modulated by attention, which is evident in the prefrontal cortex sections of the task positive network (TPN, and in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC, a hub of the default mode network (DMN. Yet the exact nature of such modulation is still unclear. To investigate this issue, we utilized an fMRI task that employed movies as the encoded stimuli and manipulated attentional load via an easy or hard secondary task that was performed simultaneously with encoding. Results showed increased intersubject correlation (inter-SC levels when encoding movies in a condition of high, as compared to low attentional load. This was evident in bilateral ventrolateral and dorsomedial prefrontal cortices and the dorsal PCC (dPCC. These regions became more attuned to the combination of the movie and the secondary task as the attentional demand of the task increased. Activation analyses revealed that at higher load the frontal TPN regions were more activated, whereas the dPCC was more deactivated. Attentional load also influenced connectivity within and between the networks. At high load the dPCC was anti-correlated to the frontal regions, which were more functionally coherent amongst themselves. Finally and critically, greater inter-SC in the dPCC at high load during encoding predicted lower memory strength when that information was retrieved. This association between inter-SC levels and memory strength suggest that as attentional demands increased, the dPCC was more attuned to the secondary task at the expense of the encoded stimulus, thus weakening memory for the encoded stimulus. Together, our findings show that attentional load modulated the function of core TPN and DMN regions. Furthermore, the observed correlation between memory strength and the modulation of the dPCC points to this

  4. Establishment of a minor groove binder-probe based quantitative real time PCR to detect Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and differentiation of Borrelia spielmanii by ospA-specific conventional PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strube Christina

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl, the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, is transmitted by ticks of the genus Ixodes as vector. For identification of Borrelia infections in ticks a TaqMan™ minor groove binder (MGB probe-based quantitative real time PCR (qPCR was established targeting the 5S-23S intergenic spacer. Extension to a duplex qPCR included an Ixodes spp. positive control to verify successful DNA isolation. Besides qPCR, an ospA-specific conventional PCR for species-specific identification of B. spielmanii was established. Afterwards 1000 I. ricinus flagged in the city of Hanover, Germany, were investigated for B. burgdorferi sl infections followed by species identification. Furthermore, I. hexagonus ticks were investigated to proof applicability of the PCRs. Results Quantitative real time PCR (qPCR identifying B. burgdorferi sl in ticks was able to detect 1-10 copies per reaction. B. spielmanii ospA-specific conventional PCR was also highly specific and showed no cross reactions with the other tested Borrelia species. From 1000 hanoveranian ticks 24.3% were positive compared to only 7.4% positives by dark-field microscopy. Related to tick stage 1.7% larvae, 18.1% nymphs, and 34.6% adults were positive. The most frequent species was B. garinii, followed by B. afzelii, B. spielmanii, B. valaisiana and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (ss. 70.6% of I. ricinus were mono-infected, whereas 28.0% and 1.4% were infected with two and three Borrelia species, respectively. From 232 I. hexagonus collected from hedgehogs in different sites of Germany, qPCR detected 5.7% to be infected with B. burgdorferi sl, which were identified as B. afzelii, B. garinii and B. spielmanii. Conclusions The evaluated qPCR to detect B. burgdorferi sl in Ixodes spp. is highly specific and sensitive. As a duplex qPCR including detection of Ixodes spp. DNA it is the first DNA based technique incorporating a control for successful DNA isolation from

  5. Analysis of the OspE determinants involved in binding of factor H and OspE-targeting antibodies elicited during Borrelia burgdorferi infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metts, Michael S; McDowell, John V; Theisen, Michael; Hansen, Paul Robert; Marconi, Richard Thomas

    2003-06-01

    Immune evasion by Lyme spirochetes is a multifactorial process involving numerous mechanisms. The OspE protein family undergoes antigenic variation during infection and binds factor H (fH) and possibly FHL-1/reconectin. In Borrelia burgdorferi B31MI, the OspE family consists of three paralogs: BBL39 (ErpA), BBP38, and BBN38 (ErpP). BBL39 and BBP38 are identical and therefore are referred to here as BBL39. The goals of this study were to assess the specificity of the antibody (Ab) response to the OspE paralogs and to identify the domains or determinants of OspE that are required for the binding of fH and OspE-targeting Abs that develop during infection. Here we demonstrate that at least some of the anti-OspE Abs produced during infection are paralog specific and that Ab binding requires conformational determinants whose formation requires both the N- and C-terminal domains of OspE. The binding of fH to OspE was also found to be dependent on conformational determinants. It is also demonstrated here that all of the OspE paralogs expressed by B. burgdorferi B31MI are capable of binding fH. The binding of fH to members of the OspF protein family was also assessed. In contrast to an earlier report, no binding of BBO39 or BBR42 to human fH was detected. Lastly, a series of competitive binding enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analyses, designed to determine if fH and infection serum Abs bind to the same sites on OspE, revealed that these ligands interact with different regions of OspE.

  6. Comparative reactivity of human sera to recombinant VlsE and other Borrelia burgdorferi antigens in class-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for Lyme borreliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnarelli, Louis A; Lawrenz, Matthew; Norris, Steven J; Fikrig, Erol

    2002-08-01

    A comparative study of human sera was conducted to determine which purified preparations of 11 recombinant antigens of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto were diagnostically most important in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). To assess sensitivity, 20 serum samples obtained 1-6 weeks after onset of illness from 20 persons who had physician-diagnosed erythema migrans (EM) were tested for IgM and IgG antibodies. In tests for IgM antibody, seropositivity of > or = 25% was recorded when ELISAs had separate preparations of protein (p) 37, p41-G, outer-surface protein (Osp) C, OspE, OspF or VlsE antigens. Sera reacted most frequently (80% positive) with VlsE antigen in analyses for IgG antibodies. When results of both class-specific assays were considered for VlsE, OspC or OspF, 90% of the EM cases were serologically confirmed. Results of specificity testing with a further 59 sera from persons who had syphilis, louse-borne relapsing fever, oral infections, rheumatoid arthritis or human granulocytic ehrlichiosis and 28 normal sera indicated no false positive reactions when VlsE antigen was used in tests for IgM antibody. One of the 11 louse-borne relapsing fever sera cross-reacted with VlsE antigen in tests for IgG antibodies. Minor cross-reactivity also occurred when p37, OspC, OspE or OspF antigens were used. Overall, VlsE was the most suitable antigen for laboratory diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis during the early weeks of B. burgdorferi infection because of its high sensitivity and specificity.

  7. Antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi OspA, OspC, OspF, and C6 antigens as markers for early and late infection in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Bettina; Freer, Heather; Rollins, Alicia; Garcia-Tapia, David; Erb, Hollis N; Earnhart, Christopher; Marconi, Richard; Meeus, Patrick

    2012-04-01

    Lyme disease in the United States is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, which is transmitted to mammals by infected ticks. Borrelia spirochetes differentially express immunogenic outer surface proteins (Osp). Our aim was to evaluate antibody responses to Osp antigens to aid the diagnosis of early infection and the management of Lyme disease. We analyzed antibody responses during the first 3 months after the experimental infection of dogs using a novel multiplex assay. Results were compared to those obtained with two commercial assays detecting C6 antigen. Multiplex analysis identified antibodies to OspC and C6 as early as 3 weeks postinfection (p.i.) and those to OspF by 5 weeks p.i. Antibodies to C6 and OspF increased throughout the study, while antibodies to OspC peaked between 7 and 11 weeks p.i. and declined thereafter. A short-term antibody response to OspA was observed in 3/8 experimentally infected dogs on day 21 p.i. Quant C6 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) results matched multiplex results during the first 7 weeks p.i.; however, antibody levels subsequently declined by up to 29%. Immune responses then were analyzed in sera from 125 client-owned dogs and revealed high agreement between antibodies to OspF and C6 as robust markers for infection. Results from canine patient sera supported that OspC is an early infection marker and antibodies to OspC decline over time. The onset and decline of antibody responses to B. burgdorferi Osp antigens and C6 reflect their differential expression during infection. They provide valuable tools to determine the stage of infection, treatment outcomes, and vaccination status in dogs.

  8. Standardised in vitro susceptibility testing of Borrelia burgdorferi against well-known and newly developed antimicrobial agents--possible implications for new therapeutic approaches to Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunfeld, Klaus-Peter; Kraiczy, Peter; Kekoukh, Elena; Schäfer, Volker; Brade, Volker

    2002-06-01

    Lyme disease represents a disorder of potentially chronic proportions, and relatively little is known about the in vivo pharmacodynamic interactions of antimicrobial agents with borreliae. So far, evidence-based drug regimens for the effective treatment of Lyme disease have not been definitively established. Moreover, therapeutic failures have been reported for almost every suitable antimicrobial agent currently available. Resistance to treatment and a protracted course of the disease, therefore, continue to pose problems for clinicians in the management of patients suffering from chronic Lyme disease. Further characterisation of the antibiotic susceptibility pattern and a better understanding of the interactions of B. burgdorferi with antimicrobial agents are urgently needed and continue to be crucial owing to considerable differences in the experimental conditions and test methods applied. The development of easily performed, new techniques for the sensitivity testing of B. burgdorferi provides the opportunity to study factors affecting the bacteriostatic and bactericidal action of recently introduced chemotherapeutic agents under more standardised conditions. For the first time, these studies provide direct evidence that, in addition to beta-lactams, macrolides, and tetracyclines which are recommended for stage-dependent treatment of Lyme borreliosis, other recently introduced substances, such as fluoroquinolones, everninomycins, and the ketolide family of antimicrobial agents, also show enhanced in vitro activity against borreliae. Some of these compounds, if effective in vivo as well, may prove to be useful agents in the treatment of certain manifestations of Lyme disease. As such, their potential role should be evaluated further by in vivo experiments and clinical trials. Finally, these antimicrobial agents may turn out to be very effective therapeutic alternatives on account of their oral availability, favourable pharmacodynamic profiles, and high tissue

  9. Analysis of nanomechanical properties of Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes under the influence of lytic factors in an in vitro model using atomic force microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Tokarska-Rodak

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atomic force microscopy (AFM is an experimental technique which recently has been used in biology, microbiology, and medicine to investigate the topography of surfaces and in the evaluation of mechanical properties of cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the complement system and specific anti-Borrelia antibodies in in vitro conditions on the modification of nanomechanical features of B. burgdorferi B31 cells. Material and methods: In order to assess the influence of the complement system and anti-Borrelia antibodies on B. burgdorferi s.s. B31 spirochetes, the bacteria were incubated together with plasma of identified status. The samples were applied on the surface of mica disks. Young’s modulus and adhesive forces were analyzed with a NanoScope V, MultiMode 8 AFM microscope (Bruker by the PeakForce QNM technique in air using NanoScope Analysis 1.40 software (Bruker.Results/Conclusion: The average value of flexibility of spirochetes’ surface expressed by Young’s modulus was 10185.32 MPa, whereas the adhesion force was 3.68 nN. AFM is a modern tool with a broad spectrum of observational and measurement abilities. Young’s modulus and the adhesion force can be treated as parameters in the evaluation of intensity and changes which take place in pathogenic microorganisms under the influence of various lytic factors. The visualization of the changes in association with nanomechanical features provides a realistic portrayal of the lytic abilities of the elements of the innate and adaptive human immune system.

  10. Antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi OspA, OspC, OspF, and C6 Antigens as Markers for Early and Late Infection in Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freer, Heather; Rollins, Alicia; Garcia-Tapia, David; Erb, Hollis N.; Earnhart, Christopher; Marconi, Richard; Meeus, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Lyme disease in the United States is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, which is transmitted to mammals by infected ticks. Borrelia spirochetes differentially express immunogenic outer surface proteins (Osp). Our aim was to evaluate antibody responses to Osp antigens to aid the diagnosis of early infection and the management of Lyme disease. We analyzed antibody responses during the first 3 months after the experimental infection of dogs using a novel multiplex assay. Results were compared to those obtained with two commercial assays detecting C6 antigen. Multiplex analysis identified antibodies to OspC and C6 as early as 3 weeks postinfection (p.i.) and those to OspF by 5 weeks p.i. Antibodies to C6 and OspF increased throughout the study, while antibodies to OspC peaked between 7 and 11 weeks p.i. and declined thereafter. A short-term antibody response to OspA was observed in 3/8 experimentally infected dogs on day 21 p.i. Quant C6 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) results matched multiplex results during the first 7 weeks p.i.; however, antibody levels subsequently declined by up to 29%. Immune responses then were analyzed in sera from 125 client-owned dogs and revealed high agreement between antibodies to OspF and C6 as robust markers for infection. Results from canine patient sera supported that OspC is an early infection marker and antibodies to OspC decline over time. The onset and decline of antibody responses to B. burgdorferi Osp antigens and C6 reflect their differential expression during infection. They provide valuable tools to determine the stage of infection, treatment outcomes, and vaccination status in dogs. PMID:22336289

  11. Long-term study of the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. infection in ticks (Ixodes ricinus) feeding on blackbirds (Turdus merula) in NE Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryczyńska, Alicja; Welc-Falęciak, Renata

    2016-11-01

    Seeking evidence to confirm that blackbirds (Turdus merula) may be involved in environmental maintenance of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. (the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis), we conducted a long-term study over three separate 2-year periods, together embracing a span of almost 20 years, all in the same area in northeastern Poland. We examined a total of 78 blackbirds and collected 623 Ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on them. The tick infestation prevalence was found to be very high (89.7 %). Among all ticks collected, 9.8 % individuals were infected with B. burgdorferi s.l. spirochetes. We found statistically significant growth in the prevalence of infected ticks as well as an increasing proportion of blackbirds hosting them in subsequent years of study. Ticks feeding on blackbirds were infected mainly with B. garinii (45.7 %), a genospecies commonly encountered in birds, and with B. afzelii (28.6 %), until recently considered rodent-associated. We also identified B. turdi (22.9 %), frequently found in recent years in ticks feeding on birds, and B. spielmanii (2.8 %), which had previously not been found in infected ticks feeding on blackbirds. We also found that ticks infected with genospecies associated with avian reservoir groups (B. garinii and B. turdi) were not randomly distributed on blackbirds, but instead focused on certain bird specimens. We therefore conjecture that this is a result of ticks becoming infected either from the host blackbird itself, or from other infected ticks feeding on the same host blackbird. We did not find any similar dependency for the rodent specialist B. afzelii.

  12. DNA-Encoded Dynamic Combinatorial Chemical Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddavide, Francesco V; Lin, Weilin; Lehnert, Sarah; Zhang, Yixin

    2015-06-26

    Dynamic combinatorial chemistry (DCC) explores the thermodynamic equilibrium of reversible reactions. Its application in the discovery of protein binders is largely limited by difficulties in the analysis of complex reaction mixtures. DNA-encoded chemical library (DECL) technology allows the selection of binders from a mixture of up to billions of different compounds; however, experimental results often show low a signal-to-noise ratio and poor correlation between enrichment factor and binding affinity. Herein we describe the design and application of DNA-encoded dynamic combinatorial chemical libraries (EDCCLs). Our experiments have shown that the EDCCL approach can be used not only to convert monovalent binders into high-affinity bivalent binders, but also to cause remarkably enhanced enrichment of potent bivalent binders by driving their in situ synthesis. We also demonstrate the application of EDCCLs in DNA-templated chemical reactions. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Nucleic acid compositions and the encoding proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, III, James F.; Chow, Virginia; Nong, Guang; Rice, John D.; St. John, Franz J.

    2014-09-02

    The subject invention provides at least one nucleic acid sequence encoding an aldouronate-utilization regulon isolated from Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, a bacterium which efficiently utilizes xylan and metabolizes aldouronates (methylglucuronoxylosaccharides). The subject invention also provides a means for providing a coordinately regulated process in which xylan depolymerization and product assimilation are coupled in Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2 to provide a favorable system for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biobased products. Additionally, the nucleic acid sequences encoding the aldouronate-utilization regulon can be used to transform other bacteria to form organisms capable of producing a desired product (e.g., ethanol, 1-butanol, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, 1,3-propanediol, succinate, lactate, acetate, malate or alanine) from lignocellulosic biomass.

  14. Parameter Estimation of Turbo Code Encoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Teimouri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of reconstruction of a channel code consists of finding out its design parameters solely based on its output. This paper investigates the problem of reconstruction of parallel turbo codes. Reconstruction of a turbo code has been addressed in the literature assuming that some of the parameters of the turbo encoder, such as the number of input and output bits of the constituent encoders and puncturing pattern, are known. However in practical noncooperative situations, these parameters are unknown and should be estimated before applying reconstruction process. Considering such practical situations, this paper proposes a novel method to estimate the above-mentioned code parameters. The proposed algorithm increases the efficiency of the reconstruction process significantly by judiciously reducing the size of search space based on an analysis of the observed channel code output. Moreover, simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is highly robust against channel errors when it is fed with noisy observations.

  15. An Encoding of XQuery in Prolog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almendros-Jiménez, Jesús M.

    In this paper we describe the implementation of (a subset of) the XQuery language using logic programming (in particular, by means of Prolog). Such implementation has been developed using the Prolog interpreter SWI-Prolog. XML files are handled by means of the XML Library of SWI-Prolog. XPath/XQuery are encoded by means of Prolog rules. Such Prolog rules are executed in order to obtain the answer of the query.

  16. Toward Chemical Implementation of Encoded Combinatorial Libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John; Janda, Kim D.

    1994-01-01

    The recent application of "combinatorial libraries" to supplement existing drug screening processes might simplify and accelerate the search for new lead compounds or drugs. Recently, a scheme for encoded combinatorial chemistry was put forward to surmount a number of the limitations possessed...... by existing methodologies. Here we detail the synthesis of several matrices and the necessary chemistry to implement the conceptual scheme. In addition, we disclose how this novel technology permits a controlled ′dendritic" display of the chemical libraries....

  17. An Intensional Concurrent Faithful Encoding of Turing Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Given-Wilson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The benchmark for computation is typically given as Turing computability; the ability for a computation to be performed by a Turing Machine. Many languages exploit (indirect encodings of Turing Machines to demonstrate their ability to support arbitrary computation. However, these encodings are usually by simulating the entire Turing Machine within the language, or by encoding a language that does an encoding or simulation itself. This second category is typical for process calculi that show an encoding of lambda-calculus (often with restrictions that in turn simulates a Turing Machine. Such approaches lead to indirect encodings of Turing Machines that are complex, unclear, and only weakly equivalent after computation. This paper presents an approach to encoding Turing Machines into intensional process calculi that is faithful, reduction preserving, and structurally equivalent. The encoding is demonstrated in a simple asymmetric concurrent pattern calculus before generalised to simplify infinite terms, and to show encodings into Concurrent Pattern Calculus and Psi Calculi.

  18. Encoded libraries of chemically modified peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinis, Christian; Winter, Greg

    2015-06-01

    The use of powerful technologies for generating and screening DNA-encoded protein libraries has helped drive the development of proteins as pharmaceutical ligands. However the development of peptides as pharmaceutical ligands has been more limited. Although encoded peptide libraries are typically several orders of magnitude larger than classical chemical libraries, can be more readily screened, and can give rise to higher affinity ligands, their use as pharmaceutical ligands is limited by their intrinsic properties. Two of the intrinsic limitations include the rotational flexibility of the peptide backbone and the limited number (20) of natural amino acids. However these limitations can be overcome by use of chemical modification. For example, the libraries can be modified to introduce topological constraints such as cyclization linkers, or to introduce new chemical entities such as small molecule ligands, fluorophores and photo-switchable compounds. This article reviews the chemistry involved, the properties of the peptide ligands, and the new opportunities offered by chemical modification of DNA-encoded peptide libraries. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Blind Identification of Convolutional Encoder Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaojing Su

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a solution to the blind parameter identification of a convolutional encoder. The problem can be addressed in the context of the noncooperative communications or adaptive coding and modulations (ACM for cognitive radio networks. We consider an intelligent communication receiver which can blindly recognize the coding parameters of the received data stream. The only knowledge is that the stream is encoded using binary convolutional codes, while the coding parameters are unknown. Some previous literatures have significant contributions for the recognition of convolutional encoder parameters in hard-decision situations. However, soft-decision systems are applied more and more as the improvement of signal processing techniques. In this paper we propose a method to utilize the soft information to improve the recognition performances in soft-decision communication systems. Besides, we propose a new recognition method based on correlation attack to meet low signal-to-noise ratio situations. Finally we give the simulation results to show the efficiency of the proposed methods.

  20. Shift-encoded optically multiplexed imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Vinay; Rachlin, Yaron; Shepard, R. Hamilton; Shih, Tina

    2017-04-01

    In a multiplexed image, multiple fields-of-view (FoVs) are superimposed onto a common focal plane. The attendant gain in sensor FoV provides a new degree of freedom in the design of an imaging system, allowing for performance tradeoffs not available in traditional optical designs. We explore design choices relating to a shift-encoded optically multiplexed imaging system and discuss their performance implications. Unlike in a traditional imaging system, a single multiplexed image has a fundamental ambiguity regarding the location of objects in the image. We present a system that can shift each FoV independently to break this ambiguity and compare it to other potential disambiguation techniques. We then discuss the optical, mechanical, and encoding design choices of a shift-encoding midwave infrared imaging system that multiplexes six 15×15 deg FoVs onto a single one megapixel focal plane. Using this sensor, we demonstrate a computationally demultiplexed wide FoV video.

  1. ChIP-seq guidelines and practices of the ENCODE and modENCODE consortia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landt, Stephen G.; Marinov, Georgi K.; Kundaje, Anshul; Kheradpour, Pouya; Pauli, Florencia; Batzoglou, Serafim; Bernstein, Bradley E.; Bickel, Peter; Brown, James B.; Cayting, Philip; Chen, Yiwen; DeSalvo, Gilberto; Epstein, Charles; Fisher-Aylor, Katherine I.; Euskirchen, Ghia; Gerstein, Mark; Gertz, Jason; Hartemink, Alexander J.; Hoffman, Michael M.; Iyer, Vishwanath R.; Jung, Youngsook L.; Karmakar, Subhradip; Kellis, Manolis; Kharchenko, Peter V.; Li, Qunhua; Liu, Tao; Liu, X. Shirley; Ma, Lijia; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; Myers, Richard M.; Park, Peter J.; Pazin, Michael J.; Perry, Marc D.; Raha, Debasish; Reddy, Timothy E.; Rozowsky, Joel; Shoresh, Noam; Sidow, Arend; Slattery, Matthew; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A.; Tolstorukov, Michael Y.; White, Kevin P.; Xi, Simon; Farnham, Peggy J.; Lieb, Jason D.; Wold, Barbara J.; Snyder, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by high-throughput DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq) has become a valuable and widely used approach for mapping the genomic location of transcription-factor binding and histone modifications in living cells. Despite its widespread use, there are considerable differences in how these experiments are conducted, how the results are scored and evaluated for quality, and how the data and metadata are archived for public use. These practices affect the quality and utility of any global ChIP experiment. Through our experience in performing ChIP-seq experiments, the ENCODE and modENCODE consortia have developed a set of working standards and guidelines for ChIP experiments that are updated routinely. The current guidelines address antibody validation, experimental replication, sequencing depth, data and metadata reporting, and data quality assessment. We discuss how ChIP quality, assessed in these ways, affects different uses of ChIP-seq data. All data sets used in the analysis have been deposited for public viewing and downloading at the ENCODE (http://encodeproject.org/ENCODE/) and modENCODE (http://www.modencode.org/) portals. PMID:22955991

  2. Convolutional over Recurrent Encoder for Neural Machine Translation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Praveen Dakwale; Christof Monz

    2017-01-01

    ...) called encoder and the target words are predicted using another RNN known as decoder. Recently, various models have been proposed which replace the RNN encoder with a convolutional neural network (CNN...

  3. Evaluating standard terminologies for encoding allergy information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Foster R; Zhou, Li; Plasek, Joseph M; Broverman, Carol; Robinson, George; Middleton, Blackford; Rocha, Roberto A

    2013-01-01

    Allergy documentation and exchange are vital to ensuring patient safety. This study aims to analyze and compare various existing standard terminologies for representing allergy information. Five terminologies were identified, including the Systemized Nomenclature of Medical Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT), National Drug File-Reference Terminology (NDF-RT), Medication Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA), Unique Ingredient Identifier (UNII), and RxNorm. A qualitative analysis was conducted to compare desirable characteristics of each terminology, including content coverage, concept orientation, formal definitions, multiple granularities, vocabulary structure, subset capability, and maintainability. A quantitative analysis was also performed to compare the content coverage of each terminology for (1) common food, drug, and environmental allergens and (2) descriptive concepts for common drug allergies, adverse reactions (AR), and no known allergies. Our qualitative results show that SNOMED CT fulfilled the greatest number of desirable characteristics, followed by NDF-RT, RxNorm, UNII, and MedDRA. Our quantitative results demonstrate that RxNorm had the highest concept coverage for representing drug allergens, followed by UNII, SNOMED CT, NDF-RT, and MedDRA. For food and environmental allergens, UNII demonstrated the highest concept coverage, followed by SNOMED CT. For representing descriptive allergy concepts and adverse reactions, SNOMED CT and NDF-RT showed the highest coverage. Only SNOMED CT was capable of representing unique concepts for encoding no known allergies. The proper terminology for encoding a patient's allergy is complex, as multiple elements need to be captured to form a fully structured clinical finding. Our results suggest that while gaps still exist, a combination of SNOMED CT and RxNorm can satisfy most criteria for encoding common allergies and provide sufficient content coverage.

  4. Horses and Borrelia: immunoblot patterns with five Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains and sera from horses of various stud farms in Austria and from the Spanish Riding School in Vienna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Iris; Khanakah, Gelas; Kundi, Michael; Stanek, Gerold

    2002-06-01

    Grazing animals are continuously exposed to tick bites. Consequently, one may expect that horses will become infected with the various pathogens carried by ticks including Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Whether horses may develop clinical disease due to this pathogen is controversially discussed. We were interested to learn about the infection of horses with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato within one season by studying the dynamics of the humoral immune response in paired blood samples. The majority of horses examined were Lipizzaner from the stud farm in Piber/Steiermark, and from the Spanish Riding School in Vienna. Smaller groups of animals of different breeds were from stud farms in Kärnten, Niederösterreich, Salzburg and Steiermark. Clinical status and medical history were obtained and blood was drawn at the beginning of the highest tick activity and nine months later in 1998. Immunoblot technique (Western blot) was used in order to determine the dynamics in the immune response patterns. As antigens served the genospecies Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii, Borrelia lusitaniae, and Borrelia valaisiana. 309 horses (age median 7 years, range 1/12 to 33 years) were seen at the first round. 186 of these animals (60.2%; median age 6 years, range 4/12 to 33 years) were re-examined in the second round. All animals were in normal health condition during both rounds of examination and blood sampling. Analysis of the immunoblot patterns was based on in-house-, Pko-, Pka2-, Pbi-, and European Union Concerted Action on Lyme Borreliosis (EUCALB) 2 & 3-criteria; analyses revealed a variety of positive results with different strains and criteria. Positive immunoblot results with 186 paired samples and B. afzelii as antigen, for example, ranged from 52 to about 91% in the first, and 53 to 93% in the second round. The age dependency analyses showed that the first infection with B. burgdorferi sensu lato occurs in the first year. Re

  5. 2D Barcode for DNA Encoding

    CERN Document Server

    Purcaru, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a solution for endcoding/decoding DNA information in 2D barcodes. First part focuses on the existing techniques and symbologies in 2D barcodes field. The 2D barcode PDF417 is presented as starting point. The adaptations and optimizations on PDF417 and on DataMatrix lead to the solution - DNA2DBC - DeoxyriboNucleic Acid Two Dimensional Barcode. The second part shows the DNA2DBC encoding/decoding process step by step. In conclusions are enumerated the most important features of 2D barcode implementation for DNA.

  6. Rapidly-Indexing Incremental-Angle Encoder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christon, Philip R.; Meyer, Wallace W.

    1989-01-01

    Optoelectronic system measures relative angular position of shaft or other device to be turned, also measures absolute angular position after device turned through small angle. Relative angular position measured with fine resolution by optoelectronically counting finely- and uniformly-spaced light and dark areas on encoder disk as disk turns past position-sensing device. Also includes track containing coarsely- and nonuniformly-spaced light and dark areas, angular widths varying in proportion to absolute angular position. This second track provides gating and indexing signal.

  7. Abundance of Ixodes ricinus and prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in the nature reserve Siebengebirge, Germany, in comparison to three former studies from 1978 onwards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Alexandra; Hönig, Václav; Vavrušková, Zuzana; Grubhoffer, Libor; Balczun, Carsten; Albring, Antje; Schaub, Günter A

    2012-11-21

    During the last decades, population densities of Ixodes ricinus and prevalences of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. have increased in different regions in Europe. In the present study, we determined tick abundance and the prevalence of different Borrelia genospecies in ticks from three sites in the Siebengebirge, Germany, which were already examined in the years 1987, 1989, 2001 and 2003. Data from all investigations were compared. In 2007 and 2008, host-seeking I. ricinus were collected by monthly blanket dragging at three distinct vegetation sites in the Siebengebirge, a nature reserve and a well visited local recreation area near Bonn, Germany. In both years, 702 ticks were tested for B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA by nested PCR, and 249 tick samples positive for Borrelia were further genotyped by reverse line blotting. A total of 1046 and 1591 I. ricinus were collected in 2007 and 2008, respectively. In comparison to previous studies at these sites, the densities at all sites increased from 1987/89 and/or from 2003 until 2008. Tick densities and Borrelia prevalences in 2007 and 2008, respectively, were not correlated for all sites and both years. Overall, Borrelia prevalence of all ticks decreased significantly from 2007 (19.5%) to 2008 (16.5%), thus reaching the same level as in 2001 two times higher than in 1987/89 (7.6%). Since 2001, single infections with a Borrelia genospecies predominated in all collections, but the number of multiple infections increased, and in 2007, for the first time, triple Borrelia infections occurred. Prevalences of Borrelia genospecies differed considerably between the three sites, but B. garinii or B. afzelii were always the most dominant genospecies. B. lusitaniae was detected for the first time in the Siebengebirge, also in co-infections with B. garinii or B. valaisiana. Over the last two centuries tick densities have changed in the Siebengebirge at sites that remained unchanged by human activity since they belong to a nature reserve

  8. Abundance of Ixodes ricinus and prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in the nature reserve Siebengebirge, Germany, in comparison to three former studies from 1978 onwards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background During the last decades, population densities of Ixodes ricinus and prevalences of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. have increased in different regions in Europe. In the present study, we determined tick abundance and the prevalence of different Borrelia genospecies in ticks from three sites in the Siebengebirge, Germany, which were already examined in the years 1987, 1989, 2001 and 2003. Data from all investigations were compared. Methods In 2007 and 2008, host-seeking I. ricinus were collected by monthly blanket dragging at three distinct vegetation sites in the Siebengebirge, a nature reserve and a well visited local recreation area near Bonn, Germany. In both years, 702 ticks were tested for B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA by nested PCR, and 249 tick samples positive for Borrelia were further genotyped by reverse line blotting. Results A total of 1046 and 1591 I. ricinus were collected in 2007 and 2008, respectively. In comparison to previous studies at these sites, the densities at all sites increased from 1987/89 and/or from 2003 until 2008. Tick densities and Borrelia prevalences in 2007 and 2008, respectively, were not correlated for all sites and both years. Overall, Borrelia prevalence of all ticks decreased significantly from 2007 (19.5%) to 2008 (16.5%), thus reaching the same level as in 2001 two times higher than in 1987/89 (7.6%). Since 2001, single infections with a Borrelia genospecies predominated in all collections, but the number of multiple infections increased, and in 2007, for the first time, triple Borrelia infections occurred. Prevalences of Borrelia genospecies differed considerably between the three sites, but B. garinii or B. afzelii were always the most dominant genospecies. B. lusitaniae was detected for the first time in the Siebengebirge, also in co-infections with B. garinii or B. valaisiana. Conclusions Over the last two centuries tick densities have changed in the Siebengebirge at sites that remained unchanged by human activity since

  9. Dual beam encoded extended fractional Fourier transform security ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Nov 27, 2015 ... This paper describes a simple method for making dual beam encoded extended fractional Fourier transform (EFRT) security holograms. The hologram possesses different stages of encoding so that security features are concealed and remain invisible to the counterfeiter. These concealed and encoded ...

  10. Linear encoder based low frequency inertial sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collette Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For many applications, there is an increasing demand for low cost, high-resolution inertial sensors, which are capable of operating in harsh environments. Recently, a prototype of small optical inertial sensor has been built, using a Michelson interferometer. A resolution of 3 pm/√Hz has been obtained above 4 Hz using only low cost components. Compared to most state-of-the-art devices, this prototype did not contain any coil, which offers several important advantages, including a low thermal noise in the suspension and a full compatibility with magnetic environments (like particle collider. On the other hand, the Michelson is known to be tricky to tune, especially when one attempts to miniaturize the sensor. In this paper, we will propose a novel concept of inertial sensor, based on a linear encoder. Compared to the Michelson, the encoder is much more easy to mount, and the calibration more stable. The price to pay is a reduced resolution. In order to overcome this limitation, we amplify mechanically the relative motion between the support and the inertial mass. First results obtained with the new sensor will be discussed, and compared with the Michelson inertial sensor.

  11. Negative base encoding in optical linear algebra processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlee, C.; Casasent, D.

    1986-01-01

    In the digital multiplication by analog convolution algorithm, the bits of two encoded numbers are convolved to form the product of the two numbers in mixed binary representation; this output can be easily converted to binary. Attention is presently given to negative base encoding, treating base -2 initially, and then showing that the negative base system can be readily extended to any radix. In general, negative base encoding in optical linear algebra processors represents a more efficient technique than either sign magnitude or 2's complement encoding, when the additions of digitally encoded products are performed in parallel.

  12. Absence of Borrelia burgdorferi in the myocardium of subjects with normal left ventricular systolic function: a study using PCR and electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchynka, Petr; Palecek, Tomas; Grus, Tomas; Lindner, Jaroslav; Berenova, Dagmar; Kurzova, Zuzana; Balatova, Pavla; Krsek, Daniel; Vitkova, Ivana; Nemecek, Eduard; Podzimkova, Jana; Danek, Anna Barbara; Linhart, Ales

    2016-03-01

    Several studies have demonstrated the presence of the Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) genome in the myocardium of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). To further support a causal relationship between the presence of Bb in the heart muscle and the development of DCM, demonstration of the absence of Bb in the myocardium of subjects with normal left ventricular (LV) systolic function is needed. To determine the prevalence of Bb by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and electron microscopy (EM) in individuals with normal LV systolic function and no history suggestive of myocarditis. We investigated 50 patients (67 ± 9 years, 15 women) with normal LV ejection fraction (EF) ≥ 50% undergoing cardiac surgery. During surgery, four samples from the right atrial appendage were obtained and subsequently examined by PCR and EM for the presence of Bb, and by immunohistochemistry to detect inflammatory cells. Serological testing of antibodies against Bb was also performed. Neither PCR nor EM detected Bb in any of the subjects. Immunohistological examination revealed myocardial inflammation in 2 individuals (4%). Serological analysis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated IgM antibodies against Bb in 4% and IgG antibodies in 12% of the study cohort; Western blot revealed IgM as well as IgG positivity in 14% of patients. The absence of Bb in the myocardium of individuals who undergo cardiac surgery and have normal LV systolic function supports the idea of Bb pathogenicity in the development of DCM.

  13. ER-Coordinated Activities of Rab22a and Rab5a Drive Phagosomal Compaction and Intracellular Processing of Borrelia burgdorferi by Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xenia Naj

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Borrelia burgdorferi is the causative agent of Lyme disease, a multisystemic disorder affecting the skin, joints, and nervous system. Macrophages and dendritic cells counteract Borrelia dissemination through internalization and degradation of spirochetes. We now show that Borrelia internalization by primary human macrophages involves uptake and compaction into Rab22a-positive phagosomes that are in close contact with Rab5a-positive vesicles. Compaction of borreliae involves membrane extrusion from phagosomes, is driven by Rab22a and Rab5a activity, and is coordinated by ER tubules forming contact sites of Rab22a phagosomes with Rab5a vesicles. Importantly, Rab22a and Rab5a depletion leads to reduced localization to lysosomes and to increased intracellular survival of spirochetes. These data show that Rab22a- and Rab5a-driven phagosomal uptake is a crucial step in the vesicular cascade that leads to elimination of spirochetes by macrophages. Rab22a and Rab5a thus present as potential molecular targets for the modulation of intracellular processing of borreliae in human immune cells.

  14. Case Report: Bilateral diaphragmatic dysfunction due to Borrelia Burgdorferi [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4fe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhail Basunaid

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary: In this case report we describe a rare case of bilateral diaphragmatic dysfunction due to Lyme disease. Case report: A 62-years-old male presented to the hospital because of flu-like symptoms. During initial evaluation a bilateral diaphragmatic weakness with orthopnea and nocturnal hypoventilation was observed, without a known aetiology. Bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis was confirmed by fluoroscopy with a positive sniff test. The patient was referred to our centre for chronic non-invasive nocturnal ventilation (cNPPV. Subsequent investigations revealed evidence of anti-Borrelia seroactivity in EIA-IgG and IgG-blot, suggesting a recent infection with Lyme disease, and resulted in a 4-week treatment with oral doxycycline. The symptoms of nocturnal hypoventilation were successfully improved with cNPPV. However, our patient still shows impaired diaphragmatic function but he is no longer fully dependent on nocturnal ventilatory support.     Conclusion: Lyme disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of diaphragmatic dysfunction. It is a tick-borne illness caused by one of the three pathogenic species of the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, present in Europe. A delay in recognizing the symptoms can negatively affect the success of treatment. Non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIV is considered a treatment option for patients with diaphragmatic paralysis.

  15. Parallelisms and Contrasts in the Diverse Ecologies of the Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi Complexes of Bacteria in the Far Western United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Stephenson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi are two tick-borne bacteria that cause disease in people and animals. For each of these bacteria, there is a complex of closely related genospecies and/or strains that are genetically distinct and have been shown through both observational and experimental studies to have different host tropisms. In this review we compare the known ecologies of these two bacterial complexes in the far western USA and find remarkable similarities, which will help us understand evolutionary histories and coadaptation among vertebrate host, tick vector, and bacteria. For both complexes, sensu stricto genospecies (those that infect humans share a similar geographic range, are vectored mainly by ticks in the Ixodes ricinus-complex, utilize mainly white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus as a reservoir in the eastern USA and tree squirrels in the far west, and tend to be generalists, infecting a wider variety of vertebrate host species. Other sensu lato genospecies within each complex are generally more specialized, occurring often in local enzootic cycles within a narrow range of vertebrate hosts and specialized vector species. We suggest that these similar ecologies may have arisen through utilization of a generalist tick species as a vector, resulting in a potentially more virulent generalist pathogen that spills over into humans, vs. utilization of a specialized tick vector on a particular vertebrate host species, promoting microbe specialization. Such tight host-vector-pathogen coupling could also facilitate high enzootic prevalence and the evolution of host immune-tolerance and bacterial avirulence.

  16. Occurrence of ticks and prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in three types of urban biotopes: forests, parks and cemeteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornok, Sándor; Meli, Marina L; Gönczi, Enikő; Halász, Edina; Takács, Nóra; Farkas, Róbert; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare different urban biotopes for the occurrence of ixodid tick species, for the population density of Ixodes ricinus and for the prevalence rates of two emerging, zoonotic pathogens. Altogether 2455 ticks were collected from the vegetation on 30 places (forests, parks, cemeteries) of Budapest, Hungary. I. ricinus and Haemaphysalis concinna were collected in all three biotope types, but Dermacentor reticulatus only in parks and forests, and D. marginatus only in a forest. Highest population density of I. ricinus was observed in neglected parts of cemeteries. In females of this tick species the prevalence rates of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. were significantly lower in cemeteries, than in parks or forests. In conclusion, risks associated with the presence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens may be high in a city, but this depends on biotope types, due to habitat-related differences in the vegetation, as well as in the availability of tick hosts and pathogen reservoirs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative analysis of the infectivity rate of both Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in humans and dogs in a New Jersey community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaito A

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Andrea Gaito,1 Vedrana Gjivoje,2 Sebastian Lutz,1 Ben Baxter2 1Private medical practice, Somerset County, NJ, USA; 2Bernardsville Animal Hospital, Somerset County, NJ, USA Abstract: Ticks are important vectors of disease and transmit an extensive array of bacterial, viral and protozoan diseases to both humans and dogs within a community. Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, has been extensively studied within both the human and veterinary population. Anaplasma phagocytophilum, an intracellular rickettsial pathogen also transmitted by ixodid ticks, has emerged as an important zoonotic infection with significant veterinary and medical implications, and is responsible for both canine granulocytic anaplasmosis and human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Multiple surveys exist in the international literature referencing infectivity rates of both of these diseases separately in both the dog and human populations. This is the first study to simultaneously examine the infectivity rate of both anaplasmosis and Lyme disease in humans and dogs in a community endemic for tick-borne diseases. Keywords: Lyme disease, anaplasmosis, dogs, humans 

  18. DNA-Encoded Solid-Phase Synthesis: Encoding Language Design and Complex Oligomer Library Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacConnell, Andrew B; McEnaney, Patrick J; Cavett, Valerie J; Paegel, Brian M

    2015-09-14

    The promise of exploiting combinatorial synthesis for small molecule discovery remains unfulfilled due primarily to the "structure elucidation problem": the back-end mass spectrometric analysis that significantly restricts one-bead-one-compound (OBOC) library complexity. The very molecular features that confer binding potency and specificity, such as stereochemistry, regiochemistry, and scaffold rigidity, are conspicuously absent from most libraries because isomerism introduces mass redundancy and diverse scaffolds yield uninterpretable MS fragmentation. Here we present DNA-encoded solid-phase synthesis (DESPS), comprising parallel compound synthesis in organic solvent and aqueous enzymatic ligation of unprotected encoding dsDNA oligonucleotides. Computational encoding language design yielded 148 thermodynamically optimized sequences with Hamming string distance ≥ 3 and total read length bases for facile sequencing. Ligation is efficient (70% yield), specific, and directional over 6 encoding positions. A series of isomers served as a testbed for DESPS's utility in split-and-pool diversification. Single-bead quantitative PCR detected 9 × 10(4) molecules/bead and sequencing allowed for elucidation of each compound's synthetic history. We applied DESPS to the combinatorial synthesis of a 75,645-member OBOC library containing scaffold, stereochemical and regiochemical diversity using mixed-scale resin (160-μm quality control beads and 10-μm screening beads). Tandem DNA sequencing/MALDI-TOF MS analysis of 19 quality control beads showed excellent agreement (ppt) between DNA sequence-predicted mass and the observed mass. DESPS synergistically unites the advantages of solid-phase synthesis and DNA encoding, enabling single-bead structural elucidation of complex compounds and synthesis using reactions normally considered incompatible with unprotected DNA. The widespread availability of inexpensive oligonucleotide synthesis, enzymes, DNA sequencing, and PCR make

  19. Premotor and Motor Cortices Encode Reward.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavan Ramkumar

    Full Text Available Rewards associated with actions are critical for motivation and learning about the consequences of one's actions on the world. The motor cortices are involved in planning and executing movements, but it is unclear whether they encode reward over and above limb kinematics and dynamics. Here, we report a categorical reward signal in dorsal premotor (PMd and primary motor (M1 neurons that corresponds to an increase in firing rates when a trial was not rewarded regardless of whether or not a reward was expected. We show that this signal is unrelated to error magnitude, reward prediction error, or other task confounds such as reward consumption, return reach plan, or kinematic differences across rewarded and unrewarded trials. The availability of reward information in motor cortex is crucial for theories of reward-based learning and motivational influences on actions.

  20. Radiofrequency encoded angular-resolved light scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buckley, Brandon W.; Akbari, Najva; Diebold, Eric D.

    2015-01-01

    The sensitive, specific, and label-free classification of microscopic cells and organisms is one of the outstanding problems in biology. Today, instruments such as the flow cytometer use a combination of light scatter measurements at two distinct angles to infer the size and internal complexity...... of cells at rates of more than 10,000 per second. However, by examining the entire angular light scattering spectrum it is possible to classify cells with higher resolution and specificity. Current approaches to performing these angular spectrum measurements all have significant throughput limitations...... Encoded Angular-resolved Light Scattering (REALS), this technique multiplexes angular light scattering in the radiofrequency domain, such that a single photodetector captures the entire scattering spectrum from a particle over approximately 100 discrete incident angles on a single shot basis. As a proof...

  1. Effortful retrieval reduces hippocampal activity and impairs incidental encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reas, Emilie T; Brewer, James B

    2013-05-01

    Functional imaging studies frequently report that the hippocampus is engaged by successful episodic memory retrieval. However, considering that concurrent encoding of the background environment occurs during retrieval and influences medial temporal lobe activity, it is plausible that hippocampal encoding functions are reduced with increased attentional engagement during effortful retrieval. Expanding upon evidence that retrieval efforts suppress activity in hippocampal regions implicated in encoding, this study examines the influence of retrieval effort on encoding performance and the interactive effects of encoding and retrieval on hippocampal and neocortical activity. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was conducted while subjects performed a word recognition task with incidental picture encoding. Both lower memory strength and increased search duration were associated with encoding failure and reduced hippocampal and default network activity. Activity in the anterior hippocampus tracked encoding, which was more strongly deactivated when incidental encoding was unsuccessful. These findings highlight potential contributions from background encoding processes to hippocampal activations during neuroimaging studies of episodic memory retrieval. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Serological survey of Bartonella spp., Borrelia burgdorferi, Brucella spp., Coxiella burnetii, Francisella tularensis, Leptospira spp., Echinococcus, Hanta-, TBE- and XMR-virus infection in employees of two forestry enterprises in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurke, Annette; Bannert, N; Brehm, K; Fingerle, V; Kempf, V A J; Kömpf, D; Lunemann, M; Mayer-Scholl, A; Niedrig, M; Nöckler, K; Scholz, H; Splettstoesser, W; Tappe, D; Fischer, Silke F

    2015-10-01

    We initiated a survey to collect basic data on the frequency and regional distribution of various zoonoses in 722 employees of forestry enterprises in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) from 2011 to 2013. Exposures associated with seropositivity were identified to give insight into the possible risk factors for infection with each pathogen. 41.2% of participants were found to be seropositive for anti-Bartonella IgG, 30.6% for anti-Borrelia burgdorferi IgG, 14.2% for anti-Leptospira IgG, 6.5% for anti-Coxiella burnetii IgG, 6.0% for anti-Hantavirus IgG, 4.0% for anti-Francisella tularensis IgG, 3.4% for anti-TBE-virus IgG, 1.7% for anti-Echinococcus IgG, 0.0% for anti-Brucella IgG and anti-XMRV IgG. Participants seropositive for B. burgdorferi were 3.96 times more likely to be professional forestry workers (univariable analysis: OR 3.96; 95% CI 2.60-6.04; pforestry workers nor office workers represent a risk population and that NRW is not a typical endemic area. Forestry workers appear to have higher risk for contact with B. burgdorferi-infected ticks and a regionally diverse risk for acquiring Hantavirus-infection. The regional epidemiology of zoonoses is without question of great importance for public health. Knowledge of the regional risk factors facilitates the development of efficient prevention strategies and the implementation of such prevention measures in a sustainable manner. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  3. Neural correlates of the episodic encoding of pictures and words

    OpenAIRE

    Grady, Cheryl L.; Anthony R. Mcintosh; Rajah, M. Natasha; Craik, Fergus I.M.

    1998-01-01

    A striking characteristic of human memory is that pictures are remembered better than words. We examined the neural correlates of memory for pictures and words in the context of episodic memory encoding to determine material-specific differences in brain activity patterns. To do this, we used positron emission tomography to map the brain regions active during encoding of words and pictures of objects. Encoding was carried out by using three different strategies to explore possible interaction...

  4. A New Methodology for Vibration Error Compensation of Optical Encoders

    OpenAIRE

    Mariano Artes; Jesus Lopez

    2012-01-01

    Optical encoders are sensors based on grating interference patterns. Tolerances inherent to the manufacturing process can induce errors in the position accuracy as the measurement signals stand apart from the ideal conditions. In case the encoder is working under vibrations, the oscillating movement of the scanning head is registered by the encoder system as a displacement, introducing an error into the counter to be added up to graduation, system and installation errors. Behavior improvement...

  5. Selective binding of Borrelia burgdorferi OspE paralogs to factor H and serum proteins from diverse animals: possible expansion of the role of OspE in Lyme disease pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovis, Kelley M; Tran, Emily; Sundy, Christina M; Buckles, Eric; McDowell, John V; Marconi, Richard T

    2006-03-01

    The binding of Borrelia burgdorferi OspE, OspF, and family 163 (Elp) proteins to factor H/factor H-like protein 1 (FHL-1) and other serum proteins from different animals was assessed. OspE paralogs bound factor H and unidentified serum proteins from a subset of animals, while OspF and Elp proteins did not. These data advance our understanding of factor H binding, the host range of the Lyme spirochetes, and the expanding role of OspE in pathogenesis.

  6. Enhancement of immune response towards non-lipidized Borrelia burgdorferi recombinant OspC antigen by binding onto the surface of metallochelating nanoliposomes with entrapped lipophilic derivatives of norAbuMDP

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křupka, M.; Mašek, J.; Bartheldyová, E.; Turánek Knotigová, P.; Plocková, J.; Korvasová, Z.; Škrabalová, M.; Koudelka, Š.; Kulich, P.; Zachová, K.; Czerneková, L.; Strouhal, O.; Horynová, M.; Šebela, M.; Miller, A. D.; Ledvina, Miroslav; Raška, M.; Turánek, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 160, č. 2 (2012), s. 374-381 ISSN 0168-3659 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/10/1951; GA TA ČR TA01011165; GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN200520703; GA AV ČR KAN200100801 Grant - others:GA UP(CZ) LF-2010-014; GA UP(CZ) LF-2011-002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi * OspC * metallochelating liposomes * MDP Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 7.633, year: 2012

  7. Dynamical encoding of looming, receding, and focussing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longtin, Andre; Clarke, Stephen Elisha; Maler, Leonard; CenterNeural Dynamics Collaboration

    This talk will discuss a non-conventional neural coding task that may apply more broadly to many senses in higher vertebrates. We ask whether and how a non-visual sensory system can focus on an object. We present recent experimental and modeling work that shows how the early sensory circuitry of electric sense can perform such neuronal focusing that is manifested behaviorally. This sense is the main one used by weakly electric fish to navigate, locate prey and communicate in the murky waters of their natural habitat. We show that there is a distance at which the Fisher information of a neuron's response to a looming and receding object is maximized, and that this distance corresponds to a behaviorally relevant one chosen by these animals. Strikingly, this maximum occurs at a bifurcation between tonic firing and bursting. We further discuss how the invariance of this distance to signal attributes can arise, a process that first involves power-law spike frequency adaptation. The talk will also highlight the importance of expanding the classic dual neural encoding of contrast using ON and OFF cells in the context of looming and receding stimuli. The authors acknowledge support from CIHR and NSERC.

  8. Coherence potentials encode simple human sensorimotor behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanya Parameshwaran

    Full Text Available Recent work has shown that large amplitude negative periods in the local field potential (nLFPs are able to spread in saltatory manner across large distances in the cortex without distortion in their temporal structure forming 'coherence potentials'. Here we analysed subdural electrocorticographic (ECoG signals recorded at 59 sites in the sensorimotor cortex in the left hemisphere of a human subject performing a simple visuomotor task (fist clenching and foot dorsiflexion to understand how coherence potentials arising in the recordings relate to sensorimotor behavior. In all behaviors we found a particular coherence potential (i.e. a cascade of a particular nLFP wave pattern arose consistently across all trials with temporal specificity. During contrateral fist clenching, but not the foot dorsiflexion or ipsilateral fist clenching, the coherence potential most frequently originated in the hand representation area in the somatosensory cortex during the anticipation and planning periods of the trial, moving to other regions during the actual motor behavior. While these 'expert' sites participated more consistently, other sites participated only a small fraction of the time. Furthermore, the timing of the coherence potential at the hand representation area after onset of the cue predicted the timing of motor behavior. We present the hypothesis that coherence potentials encode information relevant for behavior and are generated by the 'expert' sites that subsequently broadcast to other sites as a means of 'sharing knowledge'.

  9. Encoding pitch contours using current steering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xin; Landsberger, David M; Padilla, Monica; Srinivasan, Arthi G

    2010-09-01

    This study investigated cochlear implant (CI) users' ability to perceive pitch cues from time-varying virtual channels (VCs) to identify pitch contours. Seven CI users were tested on apical, medial, and basal electrode pairs with stimulus durations from 100 to 1000 ms. In one stimulus set, 9 pitch contours were created by steering current between the component electrodes and the VC halfway between the electrodes. Another stimulus set only contained 3 pitch contours (flat, falling, and rising). VC discrimination was also tested on the same electrodes. The total current level of dual-electrode stimuli was linearly interpolated between those of single-electrode stimuli to minimize loudness changes. The results showed that pitch contour identification (PCI) scores were similar across electrode locations, and significantly improved at longer durations. For durations longer than 300 ms, 2 subjects had nearly perfect 9-contour identification, and 5 subjects perfectly identified the 3 basic contours. Both PCI and VC discrimination varied greatly across subjects. Cumulative d(') values for VC discrimination were significantly correlated with 100-, 200-, and 500-ms PCI scores. These results verify the feasibility of encoding pitch contours using current steering, and suggest that identification of such pitch contours strongly relies on CI users' sensitivity to VCs.

  10. Aging affects neural precision of speech encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Samira; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; White-Schwoch, Travis; Kraus, Nina

    2012-10-10

    Older adults frequently report they can hear what is said but cannot understand the meaning, especially in noise. This difficulty may arise from the inability to process rapidly changing elements of speech. Aging is accompanied by a general slowing of neural processing and decreased neural inhibition, both of which likely interfere with temporal processing in auditory and other sensory domains. Age-related reductions in inhibitory neurotransmitter levels and delayed neural recovery can contribute to decreases in the temporal precision of the auditory system. Decreased precision may lead to neural timing delays, reductions in neural response magnitude, and a disadvantage in processing the rapid acoustic changes in speech. The auditory brainstem response (ABR), a scalp-recorded electrical potential, is known for its ability to capture precise neural synchrony within subcortical auditory nuclei; therefore, we hypothesized that a loss of temporal precision results in subcortical timing delays and decreases in response consistency and magnitude. To assess this hypothesis, we recorded ABRs to the speech syllable /da/ in normal hearing younger (18-30 years old) and older (60-67 years old) adult humans. Older adults had delayed ABRs, especially in response to the rapidly changing formant transition, and greater response variability. We also found that older adults had decreased phase locking and smaller response magnitudes than younger adults. Together, our results support the theory that older adults have a loss of temporal precision in the subcortical encoding of sound, which may account, at least in part, for their difficulties with speech perception.

  11. Temporal encoding in a nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zane N Aldworth

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We examined the extent to which temporal encoding may be implemented by single neurons in the cercal sensory system of the house cricket Acheta domesticus. We found that these neurons exhibit a greater-than-expected coding capacity, due in part to an increased precision in brief patterns of action potentials. We developed linear and non-linear models for decoding the activity of these neurons. We found that the stimuli associated with short-interval patterns of spikes (ISIs of 8 ms or less could be predicted better by second-order models as compared to linear models. Finally, we characterized the difference between these linear and second-order models in a low-dimensional subspace, and showed that modification of the linear models along only a few dimensions improved their predictive power to parity with the second order models. Together these results show that single neurons are capable of using temporal patterns of spikes as fundamental symbols in their neural code, and that they communicate specific stimulus distributions to subsequent neural structures.

  12. Auditory-motor coupling affects phonetic encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Kassow, Maren; Thöne, Katharina; Kaiser, Jochen

    2017-11-27

    Recent studies have shown that moving in synchrony with auditory stimuli boosts attention allocation and verbal learning. Furthermore rhythmic tones are processed more efficiently than temporally random tones ('timing effect'), and this effect is increased when participants actively synchronize their motor performance with the rhythm of the tones, resulting in auditory-motor synchronization. Here, we investigated whether this applies also to sequences of linguistic stimuli (syllables). We compared temporally irregular syllable sequences with two temporally regular conditions where either the interval between syllable onsets (stimulus onset asynchrony, SOA) or the interval between the syllables' vowel onsets was kept constant. Entrainment to the stimulus presentation frequency (1 Hz) and event-related potentials were assessed in 24 adults who were instructed to detect pre-defined deviant syllables while they either pedaled or sat still on a stationary exercise bike. We found larger 1 Hz entrainment and P300 amplitudes for the SOA presentation during motor activity. Furthermore, the magnitude of the P300 component correlated with the motor variability in the SOA condition and 1 Hz entrainment, while in turn 1 Hz entrainment correlated with auditory-motor synchronization performance. These findings demonstrate that acute auditory-motor coupling facilitates phonetic encoding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative genomics of Shiga toxin encoding bacteriophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Darren L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stx bacteriophages are responsible for driving the dissemination of Stx toxin genes (stx across their bacterial host range. Lysogens carrying Stx phages can cause severe, life-threatening disease and Stx toxin is an integral virulence factor. The Stx-bacteriophage vB_EcoP-24B, commonly referred to as Ф24B, is capable of multiply infecting a single bacterial host cell at a high frequency, with secondary infection increasing the rate at which subsequent bacteriophage infections can occur. This is biologically unusual, therefore determining the genomic content and context of Ф24B compared to other lambdoid Stx phages is important to understanding the factors controlling this phenomenon and determining whether they occur in other Stx phages. Results The genome of the Stx2 encoding phage, Ф24B was sequenced and annotated. The genomic organisation and general features are similar to other sequenced Stx bacteriophages induced from Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC, however Ф24B possesses significant regions of heterogeneity, with implications for phage biology and behaviour. The Ф24B genome was compared to other sequenced Stx phages and the archetypal lambdoid phage, lambda, using the Circos genome comparison tool and a PCR-based multi-loci comparison system. Conclusions The data support the hypothesis that Stx phages are mosaic, and recombination events between the host, phages and their remnants within the same infected bacterial cell will continue to drive the evolution of Stx phage variants and the subsequent dissemination of shigatoxigenic potential.

  14. Two-layer contractive encodings for learning stable nonlinear features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Hannes; Cho, Kyunghyun; Raiko, Tapani; Behnke, Sven

    2015-04-01

    Unsupervised learning of feature hierarchies is often a good strategy to initialize deep architectures for supervised learning. Most existing deep learning methods build these feature hierarchies layer by layer in a greedy fashion using either auto-encoders or restricted Boltzmann machines. Both yield encoders which compute linear projections of input followed by a smooth thresholding function. In this work, we demonstrate that these encoders fail to find stable features when the required computation is in the exclusive-or class. To overcome this limitation, we propose a two-layer encoder which is less restricted in the type of features it can learn. The proposed encoder is regularized by an extension of previous work on contractive regularization. This proposed two-layer contractive encoder potentially poses a more difficult optimization problem, and we further propose to linearly transform hidden neurons of the encoder to make learning easier. We demonstrate the advantages of the two-layer encoders qualitatively on artificially constructed datasets as well as commonly used benchmark datasets. We also conduct experiments on a semi-supervised learning task and show the benefits of the proposed two-layer encoders trained with the linear transformation of perceptrons. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Three-dimensional MRI with independent slab excitation and encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissa, Amir; Wilman, Alan H

    2012-02-01

    Three-dimensional MRI is typically performed with the same orientation for radiofrequency slab excitation and slab select phase encoding. We introduce independent slab excitation and encoding to create a new degree of freedom in three-dimensional MRI, which is the angular relationship between the prescribed excitation volume and the voxel encoding grid. By separating the directions of slab excitation and slab phase encoding, the independent slab excitation and encoding method allows choice of optimal voxel orientation, while maintaining volume excitation based on anatomic landmarks. The method requires simple pulse sequence modifications and uses standard image reconstruction followed by removal of aliasing and image reformatting. The independent slab excitation and encoding method enables arbitrary oblique angle imaging using fixed voxel encoding gradients to maintain similar eddy current, concomitant field, or magnetic dipole effects independent of the oblique angle of excitation. We apply independent slab excitation and encoding to phase and susceptibility-weighted imaging using fixed voxel encoding aligned with the main magnetic field to demonstrate its value in both standardizing and improving image contrast, when using arbitrary oblique imaging volumes. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Method for high-speed Manchester encoded optical signal generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jianfeng; Chi, Nan; Holm-Nielsen, Pablo Villanueva

    2004-01-01

    A method for high-speed Manchester encoded optical signal generation is proposed and demonstrated with a specially configured electro-optical modulator. A 10 Gb/s Manchester encoded optical signal was generated, and its bit-error-ratio (BER) performance was evaluated.......A method for high-speed Manchester encoded optical signal generation is proposed and demonstrated with a specially configured electro-optical modulator. A 10 Gb/s Manchester encoded optical signal was generated, and its bit-error-ratio (BER) performance was evaluated....

  17. Exploring the influence of encoding format on subsequent memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Indira C; Dennis, Nancy A; Maillet, David; Rajah, M Natasha

    2017-05-01

    Distinctive encoding is greatly influenced by gist-based processes and has been shown to suffer when highly similar items are presented in close succession. Thus, elucidating the mechanisms underlying how presentation format affects gist processing is essential in determining the factors that influence these encoding processes. The current study utilised multivariate partial least squares (PLS) analysis to identify encoding networks directly associated with retrieval performance in a blocked and intermixed presentation condition. Subsequent memory analysis for successfully encoded items indicated no significant differences between reaction time and retrieval performance and presentation format. Despite no significant behavioural differences, behaviour PLS revealed differences in brain-behaviour correlations and mean condition activity in brain regions associated with gist-based vs. distinctive encoding. Specifically, the intermixed format encouraged more distinctive encoding, showing increased activation of regions associated with strategy use and visual processing (e.g., frontal and visual cortices, respectively). Alternatively, the blocked format exhibited increased gist-based processes, accompanied by increased activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus. Together, results suggest that the sequence that information is presented during encoding affects the degree to which distinctive encoding is engaged. These findings extend our understanding of the Fuzzy Trace Theory and the role of presentation format on encoding processes.

  18. Source-constrained retrieval influences the encoding of new information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danckert, Stacey L; MacLeod, Colin M; Fernandes, Myra A

    2011-11-01

    Jacoby, Shimizu, Daniels, and Rhodes (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 12, 852-857, 2005) showed that new words presented as foils among a list of old words that had been deeply encoded were themselves subsequently better recognized than new words presented as foils among a list of old words that had been shallowly encoded. In Experiment 1, by substituting a deep-versus-shallow imagery manipulation for the levels-of-processing manipulation, we demonstrated that the effect is robust and that it generalizes, also occurring with a different type of encoding. In Experiment 2, we provided more direct evidence for context-related encoding during tests of deeply encoded words, showing enhanced priming for foils presented among deeply encoded targets when participants made the same deep-encoding judgments on those items as had been made on the targets during study. In Experiment 3, we established that the findings from Experiment 2 are restricted to this specific deep judgment task and are not a general consequence of these foils being associated with deeply encoded items. These findings provide support for the source-constrained retrieval hypothesis of Jacoby, Shimizu, Daniels, and Rhodes: New information can be influenced by how surrounding items are encoded and retrieved, as long as the surrounding items recruit a coherent mode of processing.

  19. What is a "good" encoding of guarded choice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nestmann, Uwe

    2000-01-01

    into the latter that preserves divergence-freedom and symmetries. This paper argues that there are nevertheless "good" encodings between these calculi. In detail, we present a series of encodings for languages with (1) input-guarded choice, (2) both input and output-guarded choice, and (3) mixed-guarded choice......, and investigate them with respect to compositionality and divergence-freedom. The first and second encoding satisfy all of the above criteria, but various "good" candidates for the third encoding-inspired by an existing distributed implementation-invalidate one or the other criterion, While essentially confirming...

  20. Does more favourable handling of the cerebrospinal fluid increase the diagnostic sensitivity of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato-specific PCR in Lyme neuroborreliosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forselv, Kristine J N; Lorentzen, Åslaug R; Ljøstad, Unn; Mygland, Åse; Eikeland, Randi; Kjelland, Vivian; Noraas, Sølvi; Quarsten, Hanne

    2017-11-10

    Tests for direct detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bb) in Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) are needed. Detection of Bb DNA using PCR is promising, but clinical utility is hampered by low diagnostic sensitivity. We aimed to examine whether diagnostic sensitivity can be improved by the use of larger cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volumes and faster handling of samples. Patients who underwent CSF examination for LNB were included. We collected two millilitres of CSF for PCR analysis, extracted DNA from the pellets within 24 h and analysed the eluate by two real-time PCR protocols (16S rRNA and OspA). Patients who fulfilled diagnostic criteria for LNB were classified as LNB cases and the rest as controls. Bb DNA in CSF was detected by PCR in seven of 28 adults with LNB. Two were Bb antibody negative. No Bb DNA was detected in CSF from 137 controls. Diagnostic sensitivity was 25% and specificity 100%. There was a non-significant trend towards larger CSF sample volume, faster handling of the sample, shorter duration of symptoms, and higher CSF cell count in the PCR-positive cases. We did not find that optimized handling of CSF increased diagnostic sensitivity of PCR in adults with LNB. However, our case series is small and we hypothesize that the importance of these factors will be clarified in further studies with larger case series and altered study design. PCR for diagnosis of LNB may be useful in cases without Bb antibodies due to short duration of symptoms.

  1. Activation of human monocytes by live Borrelia burgdorferi generates TLR2-dependent and -independent responses which include induction of IFN-beta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C Salazar

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available It is widely believed that innate immune responses to Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb are primarily triggered by the spirochete's outer membrane lipoproteins signaling through cell surface TLR1/2. We recently challenged this notion by demonstrating that phagocytosis of live Bb by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs elicited greater production of proinflammatory cytokines than did equivalent bacterial lysates. Using whole genome microarrays, we show herein that, compared to lysates, live spirochetes elicited a more intense and much broader transcriptional response involving genes associated with diverse cellular processes; among these were IFN-beta and a number of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs, which are not known to result from TLR2 signaling. Using isolated monocytes, we demonstrated that cell activation signals elicited by live Bb result from cell surface interactions and uptake and degradation of organisms within phagosomes. As with PBCMs, live Bb induced markedly greater transcription and secretion of TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-1beta in monocytes than did lysates. Secreted IL-18, which, like IL-1beta, also requires cleavage by activated caspase-1, was generated only in response to live Bb. Pro-inflammatory cytokine production by TLR2-deficient murine macrophages was only moderately diminished in response to live Bb but was drastically impaired against lysates; TLR2 deficiency had no significant effect on uptake and degradation of spirochetes. As with PBMCs, live Bb was a much more potent inducer of IFN-beta and ISGs in isolated monocytes than were lysates or a synthetic TLR2 agonist. Collectively, our results indicate that the enhanced innate immune responses of monocytes following phagocytosis of live Bb have both TLR2-dependent and -independent components and that the latter induce transcription of type I IFNs and ISGs.

  2. Seropositivity of Borrelia burgdorferi in a cohort of symptomatic cats from Europe based on a C6-peptide assay with discussion of implications in disease aetiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantchev, Nikola; Vrhovec, Majda Globokar; Pluta, Silvia; Straubinger, Reinhard K

    2016-01-01

    There are only few reports on Lyme borreliosis (LB) in cats. The reasons might be a different tick infestation in cats compared to dogs, a low susceptibility for tick-borne infections or a low awareness of veterinarians for tick-borne diseases in feline patients. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bbsl) in feline sera, to compare the significance of feline versus canine LB, as well as to evaluate possible implications on disease occurrence. Specific antibodies against the C6-peptide of Bbsl in cats were detected by a rapid test based on enzyme immunoassay technique. The serum samples were sent to a diagnostic laboratory by veterinarians from Germany and other European countries with request for Borrelia serology in the years 2009-2011. Veterinarians were asked for information regarding the cats' location, age, gender, clinical signs, treatment and follow-up. In six of 271 (2.2%; 95% CI: 0.8-4.8%) cat sera, antibodies against the C6-peptide of Bbsl were detected. Proportion of Borrelia antibody-positive cat sera was significantly lower than the one determined for dogs during the same time period. All positive cats lived in countries endemic for LB (Germany, Sweden and Belgium), and all C6-antibody positive cats with the exception of one cat showed clinical signs. Possible implications on disease occurrence are discussed. Data presented here demonstrate a lower prevalence of Borrelia specific C6-antibodies in European cats when compared to dogs residing in the same regions. The absence of antibodies against Bbsl in 97.8% (95% CI: 95.2-99.2%) of the submitted samples indicate that diagnosis "feline LB"is rare in cats. Nevertheless, LB should be considered in cats with compatible clinical signs (e.g. shifting leg lameness, to less extent neurological signs) when other differential diagnoses are ruled out.

  3. Stress as a mnemonic filter: Interactions between medial temporal lobe encoding processes and post-encoding stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchey, Maureen; McCullough, Andrew M; Ranganath, Charan; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2017-01-01

    Acute stress has been shown to modulate memory for recently learned information, an effect attributed to the influence of stress hormones on medial temporal lobe (MTL) consolidation processes. However, little is known about which memories will be affected when stress follows encoding. One possibility is that stress interacts with encoding processes to selectively protect memories that had elicited responses in the hippocampus and amygdala, two MTL structures important for memory formation. There is limited evidence for interactions between encoding processes and consolidation effects in humans, but recent studies of consolidation in rodents have emphasized the importance of encoding "tags" for determining the impact of consolidation manipulations on memory. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging in humans to test the hypothesis that the effects of post-encoding stress depend on MTL processes observed during encoding. We found that changes in stress hormone levels were associated with an increase in the contingency of memory outcomes on hippocampal and amygdala encoding responses. That is, for participants showing high cortisol reactivity, memories became more dependent on MTL activity observed during encoding, thereby shifting the distribution of recollected events toward those that had elicited relatively high activation. Surprisingly, this effect was generally larger for neutral, compared to emotionally negative, memories. The results suggest that stress does not uniformly enhance memory, but instead selectively preserves memories tagged during encoding, effectively acting as mnemonic filter. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. What physics is encoded in Maxwell's equations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosyakov, B. P.

    2005-08-01

    We reconstruct Maxwell's equations showing that a major part of the information encoded in them is taken from topological properties of spacetime, and the residual information, divorced from geometry, which represents the physical contents of electrodynamics, %these equations, translates into four assumptions:(i) locality; (ii) linearity; %of the dynamical law; (iii) identity of the charge-source and the charge-coupling; and (iv) lack of magnetic monopoles. However, a closer inspection of symmetries peculiar to electrodynamics shows that these assumptions may have much to do with geometry. Maxwell's equations tell us that we live in a three-dimensional space with trivial (Euclidean) topology; time is a one-dimensional unidirectional and noncompact continuum; and spacetime is endowed with a light cone structure readable in the conformal invariance of electrodynamics. Our geometric feelings relate to the fact that Maxwell's equations are built in our brain, hence our space and time orientation, our visualization and imagination capabilities are ensured by perpetual instinctive processes of solving Maxwell's equations. People are usually agree in their observations of angle relations, for example, a right angle is never confused with an angle slightly different from right. By contrast, we may disagree in metric issues, say, a colour-blind person finds the light wave lengths quite different from those found by a man with normal vision. This lends support to the view that conformal invariance of Maxwell's equations is responsible for producing our notion of space. Assuming that our geometric intuition is guided by our innate realization of electrodynamical laws, some abnormal mental phenomena, such as clairvoyance, may have a rational explanation.

  5. Olfactory bulb encoding during learning under anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alister U Nicol

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neural plasticity changes within the olfactory bulb are important for olfactory learning, although how neural encoding changes support new associations with specific odours and whether they can be investigated under anaesthesia, remain unclear. Using the social transmission of food preference olfactory learning paradigm in mice in conjunction with in vivo microdialysis sampling we have shown firstly that a learned preference for a scented food odour smelled on the breath of a demonstrator animal occurs under isofluorane anaesthesia. Furthermore, subsequent exposure to this cued odour under anaesthesia promotes the same pattern of increased release of glutamate and GABA in the olfactory bulb as previously found in conscious animals following olfactory learning, and evoked GABA release was positively correlated with the amount of scented food eaten. In a second experiment, multiarray (24 electrodes electrophysiological recordings were made from olfactory bulb mitral cells under isofluorane anaesthesia before, during and after a novel scented food odour was paired with carbon disulfide. Results showed significant increases in overall firing frequency to the cued-odour during and after learning and decreases in response to an uncued odour. Analysis of patterns of changes in individual neurons revealed that a substantial proportion (>50% of them significantly changed their response profiles during and after learning with most of those previously inhibited becoming excited. A large number of cells exhibiting no response to the odours prior to learning were either excited or inhibited afterwards. With the uncued odour many previously responsive cells became unresponsive or inhibited. Learning associated changes only occurred in the posterior part of the olfactory bulb. Thus olfactory learning under anaesthesia promotes extensive, but spatially distinct, changes in mitral cell networks to both cued and uncued odours as well as in evoked glutamate and

  6. Encoding and Decoding Models in Cognitive Electrophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Holdgraf

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive neuroscience has seen rapid growth in the size and complexity of data recorded from the human brain as well as in the computational tools available to analyze this data. This data explosion has resulted in an increased use of multivariate, model-based methods for asking neuroscience questions, allowing scientists to investigate multiple hypotheses with a single dataset, to use complex, time-varying stimuli, and to study the human brain under more naturalistic conditions. These tools come in the form of “Encoding” models, in which stimulus features are used to model brain activity, and “Decoding” models, in which neural features are used to generated a stimulus output. Here we review the current state of encoding and decoding models in cognitive electrophysiology and provide a practical guide toward conducting experiments and analyses in this emerging field. Our examples focus on using linear models in the study of human language and audition. We show how to calculate auditory receptive fields from natural sounds as well as how to decode neural recordings to predict speech. The paper aims to be a useful tutorial to these approaches, and a practical introduction to using machine learning and applied statistics to build models of neural activity. The data analytic approaches we discuss may also be applied to other sensory modalities, motor systems, and cognitive systems, and we cover some examples in these areas. In addition, a collection of Jupyter notebooks is publicly available as a complement to the material covered in this paper, providing code examples and tutorials for predictive modeling in python. The aim is to provide a practical understanding of predictive modeling of human brain data and to propose best-practices in conducting these analyses.

  7. Encoding Cortical Dynamics in Sparse Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheraz eKhan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Distributed cortical solutions of magnetoencephalography (MEG and electroencephalography (EEG exhibit complex spatial and temporal dynamics. The extraction of patterns of interest and dynamic features from these cortical signals has so far relied on the expertise of investigators. There is a definite need in both clinical and neuroscience research for a method that will extract critical features from high-dimensional neuroimaging data in an automatic fashion. We have previously demonstrated the use of optical flow techniques for evaluating the kinematic properties of motion field projected on non-flat manifolds like in a cortical surface. We have further extended this framework to automatically detect features in the optical flow vector field by using the modified and extended 2-Riemannian Helmholtz Hodge Decomposition (HHD. Here, we applied these mathematical models on simulation and MEG data recorded from a healthy individual during a somatosensory experiment and an epilepsy pediatric patient during sleep. We tested whether our technique can automatically extract salient dynamical features of cortical activity. Simulation results indicated that we can precisely reproduce the simulated cortical dynamics with HHD; encode them in sparse features and represent the propagation of brain activity between distinct cortical areas. Using HHD, we decoded the somatosensory N20 component into two HHD features and represented the dynamics of brain activity as a traveling source between two primary somatosensory regions. In the epilepsy patient, we displayed the propagation of the epileptiform activity around the margins of a brain lesion. Our findings indicate that HHD measures computed from cortical dynamics can: (i quantitatively access the cortical dynamics in both healthy and disease brain in terms of sparse features and dynamic brain activity propagation between distinct cortical areas, and (ii facilitate a reproducible, automated analysis of MEG

  8. Encoding and Decoding Models in Cognitive Electrophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdgraf, Christopher R.; Rieger, Jochem W.; Micheli, Cristiano; Martin, Stephanie; Knight, Robert T.; Theunissen, Frederic E.

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience has seen rapid growth in the size and complexity of data recorded from the human brain as well as in the computational tools available to analyze this data. This data explosion has resulted in an increased use of multivariate, model-based methods for asking neuroscience questions, allowing scientists to investigate multiple hypotheses with a single dataset, to use complex, time-varying stimuli, and to study the human brain under more naturalistic conditions. These tools come in the form of “Encoding” models, in which stimulus features are used to model brain activity, and “Decoding” models, in which neural features are used to generated a stimulus output. Here we review the current state of encoding and decoding models in cognitive electrophysiology and provide a practical guide toward conducting experiments and analyses in this emerging field. Our examples focus on using linear models in the study of human language and audition. We show how to calculate auditory receptive fields from natural sounds as well as how to decode neural recordings to predict speech. The paper aims to be a useful tutorial to these approaches, and a practical introduction to using machine learning and applied statistics to build models of neural activity. The data analytic approaches we discuss may also be applied to other sensory modalities, motor systems, and cognitive systems, and we cover some examples in these areas. In addition, a collection of Jupyter notebooks is publicly available as a complement to the material covered in this paper, providing code examples and tutorials for predictive modeling in python. The aim is to provide a practical understanding of predictive modeling of human brain data and to propose best-practices in conducting these analyses. PMID:29018336

  9. Effortful Retrieval Reduces Hippocampal Activity and Impairs Incidental Encoding

    OpenAIRE

    Reas, Emilie T.; Brewer, James B.

    2013-01-01

    Functional imaging studies frequently report that the hippocampus is engaged by successful episodic memory retrieval. However, considering that concurrent encoding of the background environment occurs during retrieval and influences medial temporal lobe activity, it is plausible that hippocampal encoding functions are reduced with increased attentional engagement during effortful retrieval. Expanding upon evidence that retrieval efforts suppress activity in hippocampal regions implicated in e...

  10. Variation in the strength of lexical encoding across dialects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clapper, Cynthia G.; Tamati, Terrin N.; Pierrehumbert, Janet B.

    Lexical processing is slower and less accurate for unfamiliar dialects than familiar dialects. The goal of the current study was to test the hypothesis that dialect differences in lexical processing reflect differences in lexical encoding strength across dialects. Lexical encoding (i.e., updating

  11. On The Designed And Constructed Feedback Shift-Register Encoder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information transmission in noisy channels can be achieved with vanishingly small probability of error by proper coding of the information as long as the encoding rate is less than the channel capacity. An encoder capable of cyclical shifting of data, and which can therefore be used for Bose-Chaudhuri and Hocquenghem ...

  12. Data-driven encoding for quantitative genetic trait prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dan; Wang, Zhanyong; Parida, Laxmi

    2015-01-01

    Given a set of biallelic molecular markers, such as SNPs, with genotype values on a collection of plant, animal or human samples, the goal of quantitative genetic trait prediction is to predict the quantitative trait values by simultaneously modeling all marker effects. Quantitative genetic trait prediction is usually represented as linear regression models which require quantitative encodings for the genotypes: the three distinct genotype values, corresponding to one heterozygous and two homozygous alleles, are usually coded as integers, and manipulated algebraically in the model. Further, epistasis between multiple markers is modeled as multiplication between the markers: it is unclear that the regression model continues to be effective under this. In this work we investigate the effects of encodings to the quantitative genetic trait prediction problem. We first showed that different encodings lead to different prediction accuracies, in many test cases. We then proposed a data-driven encoding strategy, where we encode the genotypes according to their distribution in the phenotypes and we allow each marker to have different encodings. We show in our experiments that this encoding strategy is able to improve the performance of the genetic trait prediction method and it is more helpful for the oligogenic traits, whose values rely on a relatively small set of markers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper that discusses the effects of encodings to the genetic trait prediction problem.

  13. Hierarchical Encoding of Behavior: Translating Perception into Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hard, Bridgette Martin; Lozano, Sandra C.; Tversky, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    People encode goal-directed behaviors, such as assembling an object, by segmenting them into discrete actions, organized as goal-subgoal hierarchies. Does hierarchical encoding contribute to observational learning? Participants in 3 experiments segmented an object assembly task into coarse and fine units of action and later performed it…

  14. Practical encoders for controlling nonlinear systems under communication constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persis, Claudio De; Nešić, Dragan

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a new class of dynamic encoders for continuous-time nonlinear control systems which update their parameters only at discrete times. We prove that the information reconstructed from the encoded feedback can be used to deliver a piece-wise constant control law which yields semi-global

  15. Multiple channel secure communication using chaotic system encoding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, S.L.

    1996-12-31

    fA new method to encrypt signals using chaotic systems has been developed that offers benefits over conventional chaotic encryption methods. The method simultaneously encodes multiple plaintext streams using a chaotic system; a key is required to extract the plaintext from the chaotic cipertext. A working prototype demonstrates feasibility of the method by simultaneously encoding and decoding multiple audio signals using electrical circuits.

  16. Polypeptides having laccase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ye; Tang, Lan; Duan, Junxin; Zhang, Yu

    2017-08-22

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having laccase activity and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  17. Convolutional over Recurrent Encoder for Neural Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakwale Praveen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Neural machine translation is a recently proposed approach which has shown competitive results to traditional MT approaches. Standard neural MT is an end-to-end neural network where the source sentence is encoded by a recurrent neural network (RNN called encoder and the target words are predicted using another RNN known as decoder. Recently, various models have been proposed which replace the RNN encoder with a convolutional neural network (CNN. In this paper, we propose to augment the standard RNN encoder in NMT with additional convolutional layers in order to capture wider context in the encoder output. Experiments on English to German translation demonstrate that our approach can achieve significant improvements over a standard RNN-based baseline.

  18. Review of Random Phase Encoding in Volume Holographic Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chia Su

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Random phase encoding is a unique technique for volume hologram which can be applied to various applications such as holographic multiplexing storage, image encryption, and optical sensing. In this review article, we first review and discuss diffraction selectivity of random phase encoding in volume holograms, which is the most important parameter related to multiplexing capacity of volume holographic storage. We then review an image encryption system based on random phase encoding. The alignment of phase key for decryption of the encoded image stored in holographic memory is analyzed and discussed. In the latter part of the review, an all-optical sensing system implemented by random phase encoding and holographic interconnection is presented.

  19. Principles of metadata organization at the ENCODE data coordination center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Eurie L; Sloan, Cricket A; Chan, Esther T; Davidson, Jean M; Malladi, Venkat S; Strattan, J Seth; Hitz, Benjamin C; Gabdank, Idan; Narayanan, Aditi K; Ho, Marcus; Lee, Brian T; Rowe, Laurence D; Dreszer, Timothy R; Roe, Greg R; Podduturi, Nikhil R; Tanaka, Forrest; Hilton, Jason A; Cherry, J Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Data Coordinating Center (DCC) is responsible for organizing, describing and providing access to the diverse data generated by the ENCODE project. The description of these data, known as metadata, includes the biological sample used as input, the protocols and assays performed on these samples, the data files generated from the results and the computational methods used to analyze the data. Here, we outline the principles and philosophy used to define the ENCODE metadata in order to create a metadata standard that can be applied to diverse assays and multiple genomic projects. In addition, we present how the data are validated and used by the ENCODE DCC in creating the ENCODE Portal (https://www.encodeproject.org/). Database URL: www.encodeproject.org. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  20. Characteristic and intermingled neocortical circuits encode different visual object discriminations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guo-Rong; Zhao, Hua; Cook, Nathan; Svestka, Michael; Choi, Eui M; Jan, Mary; Cook, Robert G; Geller, Alfred I

    2017-07-28

    Synaptic plasticity and neural network theories hypothesize that the essential information for advanced cognitive tasks is encoded in specific circuits and neurons within distributed neocortical networks. However, these circuits are incompletely characterized, and we do not know if a specific discrimination is encoded in characteristic circuits among multiple animals. Here, we determined the spatial distribution of active neurons for a circuit that encodes some of the essential information for a cognitive task. We genetically activated protein kinase C pathways in several hundred spatially-grouped glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons in rat postrhinal cortex, a multimodal associative area that is part of a distributed circuit that encodes visual object discriminations. We previously established that this intervention enhances accuracy for specific discriminations. Moreover, the genetically-modified, local circuit in POR cortex encodes some of the essential information, and this local circuit is preferentially activated during performance, as shown by activity-dependent gene imaging. Here, we mapped the positions of the active neurons, which revealed that two image sets are encoded in characteristic and different circuits. While characteristic circuits are known to process sensory information, in sensory areas, this is the first demonstration that characteristic circuits encode specific discriminations, in a multimodal associative area. Further, the circuits encoding the two image sets are intermingled, and likely overlapping, enabling efficient encoding. Consistent with reconsolidation theories, intermingled and overlapping encoding could facilitate formation of associations between related discriminations, including visually similar discriminations or discriminations learned at the same time or place. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Role of sleep for encoding of emotional memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaida, Kosuke; Niki, Kazuhisa; Born, Jan

    2015-05-01

    Total sleep deprivation (TSD) has been consistently found to impair encoding of information during ensuing wakefulness, probably through suppressing NonREM (non-rapid eye movement) sleep. However, a possible contribution of missing REM sleep to this encoding impairment after TSD has so far not been systematically examined in humans, although such contribution might be suspected in particular for emotional information. Here, in two separate experiments in young healthy men, we compared effects of TSD and of selective REM sleep deprivation (REMD), relative to respective control conditions of undisturbed sleep, on the subsequent encoding of neutral and emotional pictures. The pictures were presented in conjunction with colored frames to also assess related source memory. REMD was achieved by tones presented contingently upon initial signs of REM sleep. Encoding capabilities were examined in the evening (18:00h) after the experimental nights, by a picture recognition test right after encoding. TSD significantly decreased both the rate of correctly recognized pictures and of recalled frames associated with the pictures. The TSD effect was robust and translated into an impaired long term memory formation, as it was likewise observed on a second recognition testing one week after the encoding phase. Contrary to our expectation, REMD did not affect encoding in general, or particularly of emotional pictures. Also, REMD did not affect valence ratings of the encoded pictures. However, like TSD, REMD distinctly impaired vigilance at the time of encoding. Altogether, these findings indicate an importance of NonREM rather than REM sleep for the encoding of information that is independent of the emotionality of the materials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The crystal structures of two salivary cystatins from the tick Ixodes scapularis and the effect of these inhibitors on the establishment of Borrelia burgdorferi infection in a murine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Horka, Helena; Salat, Jiri; Andersen, John F. (South Bohemia); (ASCR-ICP); (NIAID)

    2010-11-17

    We have previously demonstrated that two salivary cysteine protease inhibitors from the Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease) vector Ixodes scapularis - namely sialostatins L and L2 - play an important role in tick biology, as demonstrated by the fact that silencing of both sialostatins in tandem results in severe feeding defects. Here we show that sialostatin L2 - but not sialostatin L - facilitates the growth of B. burgdorferi in murine skin. To examine the structural basis underlying these differential effects of the two sialostatins, we have determined the crystal structures of both sialostatin L and L2. This is the first structural analysis of cystatins from an invertebrate source. Sialostatin L2 crystallizes as a monomer with an 'unusual' conformation of the N-terminus, while sialostatin L crystallizes as a domain-swapped dimer with an N-terminal conformation similar to other cystatins. Deletion of the 'unusual' N-terminal five residues of sialostatin L2 results in marked changes in its selectivity, suggesting that this region is a particularly important determinant of the biochemical activity of sialostatin L2. Collectively, our results reveal the structure of two tick salivary components that facilitate vector blood feeding and that one of them also supports pathogen transmission to the vertebrate host.

  3. Beyond Initial Encoding: Measures of the Post-Encoding Status of Memory Traces Predict Long-Term Recall during Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathman, Thanujeni; Bauer, Patricia J.

    2013-01-01

    The first years of life are witness to rapid changes in long-term recall ability. In the current research we contributed to an explanation of the changes by testing the absolute and relative contributions to long-term recall of encoding and post-encoding processes. Using elicited imitation, we sampled the status of 16-, 20-, and 24-month-old…

  4. Propozycja nowego podejścia metodycznego i interpretacji wyników oznaczeń przeciwciał przeciwko Borrelia burgdorferi – analiza składu przeciwciałowego krążących kompleksów immunologicznych

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Miąskiewicz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Borelioza z Lyme ma bogatą symptomatologię i w znacznym odsetkuprzypadków może przypominać wczesne stadia układowej chorobytkanki łącznej. Część pacjentów trafia po wizycie u lekarza POZdo reumatologa. Reumatolog może zlecić badania autoprzeciwciał„markerowych” oraz na obecność przeciwciał bakteryjnych (przeciwkoBorrelia burgdorferi. Odsetek wyników dodatnich w kierunku B. burgdorferijest znikomy (14,7%, istnieje zatem problem wiarygodnościtych wyników.Seronegatywność pod względem obecności swoistych przeciwciałdla B. burgdorferi dotyczy ok. 30���40% surowic pacjentów z podejrzeniemboreliozy, łącznie z pacjentami z potwierdzonymi w wywiadzieukąszeniami przez kleszcza i wystąpieniem objawu patognomonicznego(rumienia wędrującego. Mimo że dysponujemy licznymitestami bakteriologicznymi, serologicznymi czy molekularnymi(PCR, diagnostyka boreliozy nastręcza trudności i może prowadzić do uzyskiwania wyników fałszywie ujemnych lub fałszywie dodatnich.Autorzy pracy skupili się na surowicach pacjentów seronegatywnychpod względem przeciwciał dla B. burgdorferi, w których wolneprzeciwciała przeciwko B. burgdorferi zostały związane przezantygeny krętka i utworzyły krążące kompleksy immunologiczne (KKI.Celem pracy była analiza KKI pod kątem obecności przeciwciał przeciwkoB. burgdorferi w trudnych diagnostycznie surowicach pacjentów,u których obraz kliniczny wskazywał na obecność zakażenia krętkiemz rodzaju B. burgdorferi (ryc. 1–7. Badania przeprowadzono nasurowicach 54 chorych z wywiadem wskazującym na boreliozę. Zastosowanonowe metodyczne podejście do analizy obecności swoistychprzeciwciał dla B. burgdorferi – wytrącanie i dysocjację KKI, a następnieoznaczanie w uzyskanej frakcji γ z osadu PEG przeciwciał swoistychdla B. burgdorferi. W 41 surowicach ujemnych w teście ELISAwytrącono frakcję γ z osadu PEG i powtórnie oznaczono przeciwciaładla B. burgdorferi. W 82

  5. Development of a reflective optical encoder with submicron accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Guoyong; Liu, Hongzhong; Ban, Yaowen; Shi, Yongsheng; Yin, Lei; Lu, Bingheng

    2018-03-01

    Signal distortion is a key issue that limits the measurement resolution and accuracy of optical encoders. In this paper, an optical encoder based on generalized grating imaging using a two-dimensional index grating is presented. The general expression of intensity distribution for generalized grating imaging including the relative displacement between the scale grating and the reading head is derived, and the formation of the signal distortion of the optical encoder is analyzed. Then, a two-dimensional index grating, which consists of multiple grating tracks with defined offsets, is proposed to suppress the dominant third and fifth order harmonic signals. The operating principle of the two-dimensional index grating is explained in detail and a reflective optical encoder is developed. In the experiment, approximately ideal Lissajous figure of the encoder signals is obtained. Fourier analysis of the encoder signals shows that both the third and fifth order harmonic distortions are below 0.6%. Experimental results show that the interpolation error of the optical encoder is within ± 0 . 18 μm, and the accuracy is better than ± 0 . 3 μm over 255 mm travel range with a maximum variation of 0.136 μm.

  6. High-Efficient Parallel CAVLC Encoders on Heterogeneous Multicore Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Y. Su

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents two high-efficient parallel realizations of the context-based adaptive variable length coding (CAVLC based on heterogeneous multicore processors. By optimizing the architecture of the CAVLC encoder, three kinds of dependences are eliminated or weaken, including the context-based data dependence, the memory accessing dependence and the control dependence. The CAVLC pipeline is divided into three stages: two scans, coding, and lag packing, and be implemented on two typical heterogeneous multicore architectures. One is a block-based SIMD parallel CAVLC encoder on multicore stream processor STORM. The other is a component-oriented SIMT parallel encoder on massively parallel architecture GPU. Both of them exploited rich data-level parallelism. Experiments results show that compared with the CPU version, more than 70 times of speedup can be obtained for STORM and over 50 times for GPU. The implementation of encoder on STORM can make a real-time processing for 1080p @30fps and GPU-based version can satisfy the requirements for 720p real-time encoding. The throughput of the presented CAVLC encoders is more than 10 times higher than that of published software encoders on DSP and multicore platforms.

  7. Datacube Interoperability, Encoding Independence, and Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Peter; Hirschorn, Eric; Maso, Joan

    2017-04-01

    representations. Further, CIS 1.1 offers a unified model for any kind of regular and irregular grids, also allowing sensor models as per SensorML. Encodings include ASCII formats like GML, JSON, RDF as well as binary formats like GeoTIFF, NetCDF, JPEG2000, and GRIB2; further, a container concept allows mixed representations within one coverage file utilizing zip or other convenient package formats. Through the tight integration with the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE), a lossless "transport" from sensor into coverage world is ensured. The corresponding service model of WCS supports datacube operations ranging from simple data extraction to complex ad-hoc analytics with WPCS. Notably, W3C is working has set out on a coverage model as well; it has been designed relatively independently from the abovementioned standards, but there is informal agreement to link it into the CIS universe (which allows for different, yet interchangeable representations). Particularly interesting in the W3C proposal is the detailed semantic modeling of metadata; as CIS 1.1 supports RDF, a tight coupling seems feasible.

  8. DMD-based spatially Fourier-encoded photoacoustic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jinyang; Gao, Liang; Li, Chiye; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-03-01

    We present spatially Fourier-encoded photoacoustic microscopy using a digital micromirror device (DMD). The spatial fluence distribution of laser pulses is Fourier-encoded by the DMD, and a series of such encoded photoacoustic (PA) measurements enables decoding of the spatial distribution of optical absorption. By imaging a chromium target, we demonstrated the throughput and Fellgett advantages, which increased the PA signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) compared to raster scanning. The system was used to image two biological targets, a monolayer of red blood cells, and melanoma cells. The enhanced SNR benefited PA images by increasing the image's contrast-to-noise ratio and target identifiability.

  9. pENCODE: a plant encyclopedia of DNA elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Amanda K; Niederhuth, Chad E; Ji, Lexiang; Schmitz, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    ENCODE projects exist for many eukaryotes, including humans, but as of yet no defined project exists for plants. A plant ENCODE would be invaluable to the research community and could be more readily produced than its metazoan equivalents by capitalizing on the preexisting infrastructure provided from similar projects. Collecting and normalizing plant epigenomic data for a range of species will facilitate hypothesis generation, cross-species comparisons, annotation of genomes, and an understanding of epigenomic functions throughout plant evolution. Here, we discuss the need for such a project, outline the challenges it faces, and suggest ways forward to build a plant ENCODE.

  10. pENCODE: A Plant Encyclopedia of DNA Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Amanda K.; Niederhuth, Chad E.; Ji, Lexiang; Schmitz, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    ENCODE projects exist for many eukaryotes, including humans, but as of yet no defined project exists for plants. A plant ENCODE would be invaluable to the research community and could be more readily produced than its metazoan equivalents by capitalizing on the preexisting infrastructure provided from similar projects. Collecting and normalizing plant epigenomic data for a range of species will facilitate hypothesis generation, cross-species comparisons, annotation of genomes, and an understanding of epigenomic functions throughout plant evolution. Here, we discuss the need for such a project, outline the challenges it faces, and suggest ways forward to build a plant ENCODE. PMID:25149370

  11. Method and apparatus for optical encoding with compressible imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviton, Douglas B. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The present invention presents an optical encoder with increased conversion rates. Improvement in the conversion rate is a result of combining changes in the pattern recognition encoder's scale pattern with an image sensor readout technique which takes full advantage of those changes, and lends itself to operation by modern, high-speed, ultra-compact microprocessors and digital signal processors (DSP) or field programmable gate array (FPGA) logic elements which can process encoder scale images at the highest speeds. Through these improvements, all three components of conversion time (reciprocal conversion rate)--namely exposure time, image readout time, and image processing time--are minimized.

  12. Effects of dexamethasone and meloxicam on Borrelia burgdorferi-induced inflammation in glial and neuronal cells of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Geeta; Martinez, Alejandra N; Martin, Dale S; Philipp, Mario T

    2017-02-02

    Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB), caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb), affects both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Previously, we reported that in a model of acute LNB in rhesus monkeys, treatment with the anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone significantly reduced both pleocytosis and levels of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) immune mediators that were induced by Bb. Dexamethasone also inhibited the formation of inflammatory, neurodegenerative, and demyelinating lesions in the brain and spinal cord of these animals. In contrast, these signs were evident in the infected animals that were left untreated or in those that were treated with meloxicam, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. To address the differential anti-inflammatory effects of dexamethasone and meloxicam in the central nervous system (CNS), we evaluated the potential of these drugs to alter the levels of Bb-induced inflammatory mediators in culture supernatants of rhesus frontal cortex (FC) explants, primary rhesus astrocytes and microglia, and human oligodendrocytes. We also ascertained the potential of dexamethasone to modulate Bb-induced apoptosis in rhesus FC explants. As meloxicam is a known COX-2 inhibitor, we evaluated whether meloxicam altered the levels of COX-2 as induced by live Bb in cell lysates of primary rhesus astrocytes and microglia. Dexamethasone but not meloxicam significantly reduced the levels of several Bb-induced immune mediators in culture supernatants of FC explants, astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes. Dexamethasone also had a protective effect on Bb-induced neuronal and oligodendrocyte apoptosis in rhesus FC explants. Further, meloxicam significantly reduced the levels of Bb-induced COX-2 in microglia, while both Bb and meloxicam were unable to alter the constitutive levels of COX-2 in astrocytes. These data indicate that dexamethasone and meloxicam have differential anti-inflammatory effects on Bb-induced inflammation in glial and neuronal cells

  13. Exposure to ticks and seroprevalence of [i]Borrelia burgdorferi [/i]among a healthy young population living in the area of southern Podlasie, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pańczuk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available [b]Objectives[/b]. The objective of the study was assessment of risk of infection with [i]Borrelia burgdorferi[/i] in the area of southern Podlasie in Poland, near the border with Belarus, by analysis of post-exposure procedure, and evaluation of asymptomatic infection in adolescents bitten by a tick, confirmed by serologic tests. [b]Material and methods[/b]. The study was conducted among 128 healthy individuals aged 16–20 who declared being bitten by a tick. The level of IgM and IgG class antibodies was determined using the immunoenzymatic test (Borrelia 14 kD + OspC IgM ELISA and Borrelia IgG + VlsE ELISA, DRG Diagnostics. Positive and doubtful results were confirmed using the Western blot method (EUROLINE-WB, EUROIMMUN. [b]Results[/b]. In the study group, the largest number of respondents (59.4% declared tick bite in the region of the lower extremities, most often in the knee pit. Among the methods for removing the tick the largest number of respondents indicated removing it with the use of tweezers, with a simple, swift steady movement (29.7%, and pulling it out with the fingers (22.7%. In the ELISA test, a positive or doubtful result in at least one class was observed in 25.0% of respondents (n=32/128: in IgM class – 23.4% (n=30/128, and in IgG class – 4.7% (n=6/128. After verification with the Western blot test, infection was confirmed in 5.5% of respondents (n=7/128: in IgM class – 1.6% (n=2/128, in IgG class – 3.9% (n=5/128. In IgM class antibodies, the Western blot test confirmed positive or doubtful results of the ELISA test in 6.7%, while in IgG class antibodies in 83.3%. [b]Conclusion[/b]. Evaluation of the actual infection with [i]Borrelia spp.[/i] using serologic tests is difficult due to a certain non-specificity of the ELISA test, especially in IgM class antibodies, and difficulties with performance of a wide scope of specific Western blot tests. The variety of methods of tick removal declared by adolescents suggests

  14. Self-perpetuating development of encoding biases in person perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, T; Lewicki, P; Czyzewska, M; Boss, A

    1989-09-01

    It was hypothesized that encoding (interpretive) biases may develop in a self-perpetuating manner through biased, self-supportive encoding (even in the absence of any objectively supportive evidence). This process was investigated in 3 experiments with different stimulus materials (matrices of digits, silhouettes of persons, descriptions of personal problems). In the learning phase of each study, Ss nonconsciously acquired some encoding bias. In the testing phase, Ss' encoding of new material was predictably biased, and, consistent with the self-perpetuation hypothesis, the strength of the bias gradually increased over the segments of the material, even though the material did not contain any evidence supportive of the bias. Given the ambiguity of many (particularly social) stimuli, the self-perpetuation process may play a ubiquitous role in the development of interpretive categories and other individually differentiated cognitive dispositions.

  15. Universal Quantum Computing with Arbitrary Continuous-Variable Encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Hoi-Kwan; Plenio, Martin B

    2016-09-02

    Implementing a qubit quantum computer in continuous-variable systems conventionally requires the engineering of specific interactions according to the encoding basis states. In this work, we present a unified formalism to conduct universal quantum computation with a fixed set of operations but arbitrary encoding. By storing a qubit in the parity of two or four qumodes, all computing processes can be implemented by basis state preparations, continuous-variable exponential-swap operations, and swap tests. Our formalism inherits the advantages that the quantum information is decoupled from collective noise, and logical qubits with different encodings can be brought to interact without decoding. We also propose a possible implementation of the required operations by using interactions that are available in a variety of continuous-variable systems. Our work separates the "hardware" problem of engineering quantum-computing-universal interactions, from the "software" problem of designing encodings for specific purposes. The development of quantum computer architecture could hence be simplified.

  16. Supervised Learning in Spiking Neural Networks for Precise Temporal Encoding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gardner, Brian; Grüning, André

    2016-01-01

    Precise spike timing as a means to encode information in neural networks is biologically supported, and is advantageous over frequency-based codes by processing input features on a much shorter time-scale...

  17. Precision goniometer equipped with a 22-bit absolute rotary encoder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaowei, Z; Ando, M; Jidong, W

    1998-05-01

    The calibration of a compact precision goniometer equipped with a 22-bit absolute rotary encoder is presented. The goniometer is a modified Huber 410 goniometer: the diffraction angles can be coarsely generated by a stepping-motor-driven worm gear and precisely interpolated by a piezoactuator-driven tangent arm. The angular accuracy of the precision rotary stage was evaluated with an autocollimator. It was shown that the deviation from circularity of the rolling bearing utilized in the precision rotary stage restricts the angular positioning accuracy of the goniometer, and results in an angular accuracy ten times larger than the angular resolution of 0.01 arcsec. The 22-bit encoder was calibrated by an incremental rotary encoder. It became evident that the accuracy of the absolute encoder is approximately 18 bit due to systematic errors.

  18. Polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spodsberg, Nikolaj

    2017-11-21

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  19. Statistical Characterization of MP3 Encoders for Steganalysis: 'CHAMP3'

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Westfeld, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    ...). As detailed in the technical proposal the research consists of three parts. The first task is to survey the discipline to identify the available MP3 encoders and generate a data pool for analysis...

  20. Polypeptides having xylanase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spodsberg, Nikolaj

    2018-02-06

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having xylanase activity and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  1. Toward a Better Compression for DNA Sequences Using Huffman Encoding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Al-Okaily, Anas; Almarri, Badar; Al Yami, Sultan; Huang, Chun-Hsi

    ... to compress such data to a less space and a faster transmission. Different implementations of Huffman encoding incorporating the characteristics of DNA sequences prove to better compress DNA data...

  2. Polypeptides having catalase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ye; Duan, Junxin; Zhang, Yu; Tang, Lan

    2017-05-02

    Provided are isolated polypeptides having catalase activity and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. Also provided are nucleic acid constructs, vectors and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  3. Encoding Speed and Memory Span in Dyslexic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Carl

    1976-01-01

    Evaluated with 14 dyslexic and 14 normal boys (all 6-12 years old) was the relationship between slow speech-motor encoding to the transfer of information from short-term to long-term memory. (Author/DB)

  4. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ye; Duan, Junxin; Zhang, Yu; Tang, Lan

    2017-09-26

    Provided are isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. Also provided are nucleic acid constructs, vectors and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  5. Theta and Gamma Oscillations during Encoding Predict Subsequent Recall

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sederberg, Per B; Kahana, Michael J; Howard, Marc W; Donner, Elizabeth J; Madsen, Joseph R

    2003-01-01

    ... to 64 Hz as participants studied lists of common nouns. Significant increases in oscillatory power during encoding predicted subsequent recall, with this effect predominantly in the 4-8 Hz (theta) and 28-64 Hz (gamma) frequency bands...

  6. Two Genes Encoding Uracil Phosphoribosyltransferase Are Present in Bacillus subtilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Jan; Glaser, Philippe; Andersen, Paal S.

    1995-01-01

    Uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRTase) catalyzes the key reaction in the salvage of uracil in many microorganisms. Surprisingly, two genes encoding UPRTase activity were cloned from Bacillus subtilis by complementation of an Escherichia coli mutant. The genes were sequenced, and the putative...

  7. An Improved Linearization Circuit Used for Optical Rotary Encoders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jelena Jovanović; Dragan Denić; Uglješa Jovanović

    2017-01-01

    .... To improve the optical encoder sensitivity and to increase its accuracy, an improved linearization circuit based on pseudo-linear signal generation and its further linearization with the two-stage...

  8. A new methodology for vibration error compensation of optical encoders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Jesus; Artes, Mariano

    2012-01-01

    Optical encoders are sensors based on grating interference patterns. Tolerances inherent to the manufacturing process can induce errors in the position accuracy as the measurement signals stand apart from the ideal conditions. In case the encoder is working under vibrations, the oscillating movement of the scanning head is registered by the encoder system as a displacement, introducing an error into the counter to be added up to graduation, system and installation errors. Behavior improvement can be based on different techniques trying to compensate the error from measurement signals processing. In this work a new "ad hoc" methodology is presented to compensate the error of the encoder when is working under the influence of vibration. The methodology is based on fitting techniques to the Lissajous figure of the deteriorated measurement signals and the use of a look up table, giving as a result a compensation procedure in which a higher accuracy of the sensor is obtained.