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Sample records for burgdorferi bb0426 encodes

  1. Characterization of the β-barrel assembly machine accessory lipoproteins from Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Joshua P; Kenedy, Melisha R; Iqbal, Henna; Akins, Darrin R

    2015-03-24

    Like all diderm bacteria studied to date, Borrelia burgdorferi possesses a β-barrel assembly machine (BAM) complex. The bacterial BAM complexes characterized thus far consist of an essential integral outer membrane protein designated BamA and one or more accessory proteins. The accessory proteins are typically lipid-modified proteins anchored to the inner leaflet of the outer membrane through their lipid moieties. We previously identified and characterized the B. burgdorferi BamA protein in detail and more recently identified two lipoproteins encoded by open reading frames bb0324 and bb0028 that associate with the borrelial BamA protein. The role(s) of the BAM accessory lipoproteins in B. burgdorferi is currently unknown. Structural modeling of B. burgdorferi BB0028 revealed a distinct β-propeller fold similar to the known structure for the E. coli BAM accessory lipoprotein BamB. Additionally, the structural model for BB0324 was highly similar to the known structure of BamD, which is consistent with the prior finding that BB0324 contains tetratricopeptide repeat regions similar to other BamD orthologs. Consistent with BB0028 and BB0324 being BAM accessory lipoproteins, mutants lacking expression of each protein were found to exhibit altered membrane permeability and enhanced sensitivity to various antimicrobials. Additionally, BB0028 mutants also exhibited significantly impaired in vitro growth. Finally, immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that BB0028 and BB0324 each interact specifically and independently with BamA to form the BAM complex in B. burgdorferi. Combined structural studies, functional assays, and co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed that BB0028 and BB0324 are the respective BamB and BamD orthologs in B. burgdorferi, and are important in membrane integrity and/or outer membrane protein localization. The borrelial BamB and BamD proteins both interact specifically and independently with BamA to form a tripartite BAM complex in B

  2. Coordinated Expression of Borrelia burgdorferi Complement Regulator-Acquiring Surface Proteins during the Lyme Disease Spirochete's Mammal-Tick Infection Cycle▿

    OpenAIRE

    Bykowski, Tomasz; Woodman, Michael E.; Cooley, Anne E.; Brissette, Catherine A.; Brade, Volker; Wallich, Reinhard; Kraiczy, Peter; Stevenson, Brian

    2007-01-01

    The Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, is largely resistant to being killed by its hosts’ alternative complement activation pathway. One possible resistance mechanism of these bacteria is to coat their surfaces with host complement regulators, such as factor H. Five different B. burgdorferi outer surface proteins having affinities for factor H have been identified: complement regulator-acquiring surface protein 1 (BbCRASP-1), encoded by cspA; BbCRASP-2, encoded by cspZ; and three ...

  3. Structure-function mapping of BbCRASP-1, the key complement factor H and FHL-1 binding protein of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, Frank S; Kraiczy, Peter; Roversi, Pietro; Simon, Markus M; Brade, Volker; Jahraus, Oliver; Wallis, Russell; Goodstadt, Leo; Ponting, Chris P; Skerka, Christine; Zipfel, Peter F; Wallich, Reinhard; Lea, Susan M

    2006-05-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, a spirochaete transmitted to human hosts during feeding of infected Ixodes ticks, is the causative agent of Lyme disease, the most frequent vector-borne disease in Eurasia and North America. Sporadically Lyme disease develops into a chronic, multisystemic disorder. Serum-resistant B. burgdorferi strains bind complement factor H (FH) and FH-like protein 1 (FHL-1) on the spirochaete surface. This binding is dependent on the expression of proteins termed complement-regulator acquiring surface proteins (CRASPs). The atomic structure of BbCRASP-1, the key FHL-1/FH-binding protein of B. burgdorferi, has recently been determined. Our analysis indicates that its protein topology apparently evolved to provide a high affinity interaction site for FH/FHL-1 and leads to an atomic-level hypothesis for the functioning of BbCRASP-1. This work demonstrates that pathogens interact with complement regulators in ways that are distinct from the mechanisms used by the host and are thus obvious targets for drug design.

  4. BB0347, from the lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, is surface exposed and interacts with the CS1 heparin-binding domain of human fibronectin.

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    Robert A Gaultney

    Full Text Available The causative agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, codes for several known fibronectin-binding proteins. Fibronectin a common the target of diverse bacterial pathogens, and has been shown to be essential in allowing for the development of certain disease states. Another borrelial protein, BB0347, has sequence similarity with these other known fibronectin-binding proteins, and may be important in Lyme disease pathogenesis. Herein, we perform an initial characterization of BB0347 via the use of molecular and biochemical techniques. We found that BB0347 is expressed, produced, and presented on the outer surface of intact B. burgdorferi. We also demonstrate that BB0347 has the potential to be important in Lyme disease progression, and have begun to characterize the nature of the interaction between human fibronectin and this bacterial protein. Further work is needed to define the role of this protein in the borrelial infection process.

  5. Security of BB84 with weak randomness and imperfect qubit encoding

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    Zhao, Liang-Yuan; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Li, Hong-Wei; Chen, Wei; Fang, Xi; Han, Zheng-Fu; Huang, Wei

    2018-03-01

    The main threats for the well-known Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) practical quantum key distribution (QKD) systems are that its encoding is inaccurate and measurement device may be vulnerable to particular attacks. Thus, a general physical model or security proof to tackle these loopholes simultaneously and quantitatively is highly desired. Here we give a framework on the security of BB84 when imperfect qubit encoding and vulnerability of measurement device are both considered. In our analysis, the potential attacks to measurement device are generalized by the recently proposed weak randomness model which assumes the input random numbers are partially biased depending on a hidden variable planted by an eavesdropper. And the inevitable encoding inaccuracy is also introduced here. From a fundamental view, our work reveals the potential information leakage due to encoding inaccuracy and weak randomness input. For applications, our result can be viewed as a useful tool to quantitatively evaluate the security of a practical QKD system.

  6. A plasmid-encoded nicotinamidase (PncA) is essential for infectivity of Borrelia burgdorferi in a mammalian host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purser, Joye E; Lawrenz, Matthew B; Caimano, Melissa J; Howell, Jerrilyn K; Radolf, Justin D; Norris, Steven J

    2003-05-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, a spirochaete that causes Lyme borreliosis, contains 21 linear and circular plasmids thought to be important for survival in mammals or ticks. Our results demonstrate that the gene BBE22 encoding a nicotinamidase is capable of replacing the requirement for the 25 kb linear plasmid lp25 during mammalian infection. Transformation of B. burgdorferi lacking lp25 with a shuttle vector containing the lp25 gene BBE22 (pBBE22) restored infectivity in mice to a level comparable to that of wild-type Borrelia. This complementation also restored the growth and host adaptation of lp25-B. burgdorferi in dialysis membrane chambers (DMCs) implanted in rats. A single Cys to Ala conversion at the putative active site of BBE22 abrogated the ability of pBBE22 to re-establish infectivity or growth in DMCs. Additional Salmonella typhimurium complementation studies and enzymatic analysis demonstrated that the BBE22 gene product has nicotinamidase activity and is most probably required for the biosynthesis of NAD. These results indicate that some plasmid-encoded products fulfil physiological functions required in the enzootic cycle of pathogenic Borrelia.

  7. A Dual Luciferase Reporter System for B. burgdorferi Measures Transcriptional Activity during Tick-Pathogen Interactions

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    Philip P. Adams

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the transcriptional responses of vector-borne pathogens at the vector-pathogen interface is critical for understanding disease transmission. Borrelia (Borreliella burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease in the United States, is transmitted by the bite of infected Ixodes sp. ticks. It is known that B. burgdorferi has altered patterns of gene expression during tick acquisition, persistence and transmission. Recently, we and others have discovered in vitro expression of RNAs found internal, overlapping, and antisense to annotated open reading frames in the B. burgdorferi genome. However, there is a lack of molecular genetic tools for B. burgdorferi for quantitative, strand-specific, comparative analysis of these transcripts in distinct environments such as the arthropod vector. To address this need, we have developed a dual luciferase reporter system to quantify B. burgdorferi promoter activities in a strand-specific manner. We demonstrate that constitutive expression of a B. burgdorferi codon-optimized Renilla reniformis luciferase gene (rlucBb allows normalization of the activity of a promoter of interest when fused to the B. burgdorferi codon-optimized Photinus pyralis luciferase gene (flucBb on the same plasmid. Using the well characterized, differentially regulated, promoters for flagellin (flaBp, outer surface protein A (ospAp and outer surface protein C (ospCp, we document the efficacy of the dual luciferase system for quantitation of promoter activities during in vitro growth and in infected ticks. Cumulatively, the dual luciferase method outlined herein is the first dual reporter system for B. burgdorferi, providing a novel and highly versatile approach for strand-specific molecular genetic analyses.

  8. Inter- and intra-specific pan-genomes of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato: genome stability and adaptive radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Lyme disease is caused by spirochete bacteria from the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi s.l.) species complex. To reconstruct the evolution of B. burgdorferi s.l. and identify the genomic basis of its human virulence, we compared the genomes of 23 B. burgdorferi s.l. isolates from Europe and the United States, including B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (B. burgdorferi s.s., 14 isolates), B. afzelii (2), B. garinii (2), B. “bavariensis” (1), B. spielmanii (1), B. valaisiana (1), B. bissettii (1), and B. “finlandensis” (1). Results Robust B. burgdorferi s.s. and B. burgdorferi s.l. phylogenies were obtained using genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms, despite recombination. Phylogeny-based pan-genome analysis showed that the rate of gene acquisition was higher between species than within species, suggesting adaptive speciation. Strong positive natural selection drives the sequence evolution of lipoproteins, including chromosomally-encoded genes 0102 and 0404, cp26-encoded ospC and b08, and lp54-encoded dbpA, a07, a22, a33, a53, a65. Computer simulations predicted rapid adaptive radiation of genomic groups as population size increases. Conclusions Intra- and inter-specific pan-genome sizes of B. burgdorferi s.l. expand linearly with phylogenetic diversity. Yet gene-acquisition rates in B. burgdorferi s.l. are among the lowest in bacterial pathogens, resulting in high genome stability and few lineage-specific genes. Genome adaptation of B. burgdorferi s.l. is driven predominantly by copy-number and sequence variations of lipoprotein genes. New genomic groups are likely to emerge if the current trend of B. burgdorferi s.l. population expansion continues. PMID:24112474

  9. Absence of sodA Increases the Levels of Oxidation of Key Metabolic Determinants of Borrelia burgdorferi.

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    Maria D Esteve-Gassent

    Full Text Available Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, alters its gene expression in response to environmental signals unique to its tick vector or vertebrate hosts. B. burgdorferi carries one superoxide dismutase gene (sodA capable of controlling intracellular superoxide levels. Previously, sodA was shown to be essential for infection of B. burgdorferi in the C3H/HeN model of Lyme disease. We employed two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE and immunoblot analysis with antibodies specific to carbonylated proteins to identify targets that were differentially oxidized in the soluble fractions of the sodA mutant compared to its isogenic parental control strain following treatment with an endogenous superoxide generator, methyl viologen (MV, paraquat. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of oxidized proteins revealed that several proteins of the glycolytic pathway (BB0057, BB0020, BB0348 exhibited increased carbonylation in the sodA mutant treated with MV. Levels of ATP and NAD/NADH were reduced in the sodA mutant compared with the parental strain following treatment with MV and could be attributed to increased levels of oxidation of proteins of the glycolytic pathway. In addition, a chaperone, HtpG (BB0560, and outer surface protein A (OspA, BBA15 were also observed to be oxidized in the sodA mutant. Immunoblot analysis revealed reduced levels of Outer surface protein C (OspC, Decorin binding protein A (DbpA, fibronectin binding protein (BBK32, RpoS and BosR in the sodA mutant compared to the control strains. Viable sodA mutant spirochetes could not be recovered from both gp91/phox-⁄- and iNOS deficient mice while borrelial DNA was detected in multiple tissues samples from infected mice at significantly lower levels compared to the parental strain. Taken together, these observations indicate that the increased oxidation of select borrelial determinants and reduced levels of critical pathogenesis-associated lipoproteins contribute to the in vivo deficit of

  10. Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface protein C (OspC) binds complement component C4b and confers bloodstream survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Jennifer A; Lin, Yi-Pin; Kessler, Julie R; Sato, Hiromi; Leong, John M; Coburn, Jenifer

    2017-12-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) is the causative agent of Lyme disease in the United States, a disease that can result in carditis, and chronic and debilitating arthritis and/or neurologic symptoms if left untreated. Bb survives in the midgut of the Ixodes scapularis tick, or within tissues of immunocompetent hosts. In the early stages of infection, the bacteria are present in the bloodstream where they must resist clearance by the innate immune system of the host. We have found a novel role for outer surface protein C (OspC) from B. burgdorferi and B. garinii in interactions with the complement component C4b and bloodstream survival in vivo. Our data show that OspC inhibits the classical and lectin complement pathways and competes with complement protein C2 for C4b binding. Resistance to complement is important for maintenance of the lifecycle of Bb, enabling survival of the pathogen within the host as well as in the midgut of a feeding tick when ospC expression is induced. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Central role of the Holliday junction helicase RuvAB in vlsE recombination and infectivity of Borrelia burgdorferi.

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    Tao Lin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Antigenic variation plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of many infectious bacteria and protozoa including Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease. VlsE, a 35 kDa surface-exposed lipoprotein, undergoes antigenic variation during B. burgdorferi infection of mammalian hosts, and is believed to be a critical mechanism by which the spirochetes evade immune clearance. Random, segmental recombination between the expressed vlsE gene and adjacent vls silent cassettes generates a large number of different VlsE variants within the infected host. Although the occurrence and importance of vlsE sequence variation is well established, little is known about the biological mechanism of vlsE recombination. To identify factors important in antigenic variation and vlsE recombination, we screened transposon mutants of genes known to be involved in DNA recombination and repair for their effects on infectivity and vlsE recombination. Several mutants, including those in BB0023 (ruvA, BB0022 (ruvB, BB0797 (mutS, and BB0098 (mutS-II, showed reduced infectivity in immunocompetent C3H/HeN mice. Mutants in ruvA and ruvB exhibited greatly reduced rates of vlsE recombination in C3H/HeN mice, as determined by restriction fragment polymorphism (RFLP screening and DNA sequence analysis. In severe combined immunodeficiency (C3H/scid mice, the ruvA mutant retained full infectivity; however, all recovered clones retained the 'parental' vlsE sequence, consistent with low rates of vlsE recombination. These results suggest that the reduced infectivity of ruvA and ruvB mutants is the result of ineffective vlsE recombination and underscores the important role that vlsE recombination plays in immune evasion. Based on functional studies in other organisms, the RuvAB complex of B. burgdorferi may promote branch migration of Holliday junctions during vlsE recombination. Our findings are consistent with those in the accompanying article by Dresser et al., and together

  12. Zinc is the metal cofactor of Borrelia burgdorferi peptide deformylase.

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    Nguyen, Kiet T; Wu, Jen-Chieh; Boylan, Julie A; Gherardini, Frank C; Pei, Dehua

    2007-12-15

    Peptide deformylase (PDF, E.C. 3.5.1.88) catalyzes the removal of N-terminal formyl groups from nascent ribosome-synthesized polypeptides. PDF contains a catalytically essential divalent metal ion, which is tetrahedrally coordinated by three protein ligands (His, His, and Cys) and a water molecule. Previous studies revealed that the metal cofactor is a Fe2+ ion in Escherichia coli and many other bacterial PDFs. In this work, we found that PDFs from two iron-deficient bacteria, Borrelia burgdorferi and Lactobacillus plantarum, are stable and highly active under aerobic conditions. The native B. burgdorferi PDF (BbPDF) was purified 1200-fold and metal analysis revealed that it contains approximately 1.1 Zn2+ ion/polypeptide but no iron. Our studies suggest that PDF utilizes different metal ions in different organisms. These data have important implications in designing PDF inhibitors and should help address some of the unresolved issues regarding PDF structure and catalytic function.

  13. Expression of spoT in Borrelia burgdorferi during Serum Starvation

    OpenAIRE

    Concepcion, Marc B.; Nelson, David R.

    2003-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, is transmitted by the tick Ixodes scapularis. A 2.9-kb fragment containing a putative spoT gene was isolated from B. burgdorferi genomic DNA by PCR amplification and cloned into a pBAD24 vector. The cloned gene complemented Escherichia coli mutant strain CF1693, which contains deletions of both the relA and spoT genes. The spoT gene in E. coli encodes a bifunctional enzyme capable of synthesizing and degrading (p)ppGpp, which mediates...

  14. Borrelia burgdorferi requires glycerol for maximum fitness during the tick phase of the enzootic cycle.

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    Christopher J Pappas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Borrelia burgdorferi, the spirochetal agent of Lyme disease, is a vector-borne pathogen that cycles between a mammalian host and tick vector. This complex life cycle requires that the spirochete modulate its gene expression program to facilitate growth and maintenance in these diverse milieus. B. burgdorferi contains an operon that is predicted to encode proteins that would mediate the uptake and conversion of glycerol to dihydroxyacetone phosphate. Previous studies indicated that expression of the operon is elevated at 23°C and is repressed in the presence of the alternative sigma factor RpoS, suggesting that glycerol utilization may play an important role during the tick phase. This possibility was further explored in the current study by expression analysis and mutagenesis of glpD, a gene predicted to encode glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Transcript levels for glpD were significantly lower in mouse joints relative to their levels in ticks. Expression of GlpD protein was repressed in an RpoS-dependent manner during growth of spirochetes within dialysis membrane chambers implanted in rat peritoneal cavities. In medium supplemented with glycerol as the principal carbohydrate, wild-type B. burgdorferi grew to a significantly higher cell density than glpD mutant spirochetes during growth in vitro at 25°C. glpD mutant spirochetes were fully infectious in mice by either needle or tick inoculation. In contrast, glpD mutants grew to significantly lower densities than wild-type B. burgdorferi in nymphal ticks and displayed a replication defect in feeding nymphs. The findings suggest that B. burgdorferi undergoes a switch in carbohydrate utilization during the mammal to tick transition. Further, the results demonstrate that the ability to utilize glycerol as a carbohydrate source for glycolysis during the tick phase of the infectious cycle is critical for maximal B. burgdorferi fitness.

  15. Genome-Wide Mutagenesis in Borrelia burgdorferi.

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    Lin, Tao; Gao, Lihui

    2018-01-01

    population of mutants with different tags, after recovered from different tissues of infected mice and ticks, mutants from output pool and input pool are detected using high-throughput, semi-quantitative Luminex ® FLEXMAP™ or next-generation sequencing (Tn-seq) technologies. Thus far, we have created a high-density, sequence-defined transposon library of over 6600 STM mutants for the efficient genome-wide investigation of genes and gene products required for wild-type pathogenesis, host-pathogen interactions, in vitro growth, in vivo survival, physiology, morphology, chemotaxis, motility, structure, metabolism, gene regulation, plasmid maintenance and replication, etc. The insertion sites of 4480 transposon mutants have been determined. About 800 predicted protein-encoding genes in the genome were disrupted in the STM transposon library. The infectivity and some functions of 800 mutants in 500 genes have been determined. Analysis of these transposon mutants has yielded valuable information regarding the genes and gene products important in the pathogenesis and biology of B. burgdorferi and its tick vectors.

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-EEUR-01-0426 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-EEUR-01-0426 ref|YP_069190.1| hypothetical protein YPTB0648 [Yersinia pseudotuberculosis... IP 32953] emb|CAH19888.1| conserved hypothetical protein [Yersinia pseudotuberculosis IP 32953] YP_069190.1 3e-11 31% ...

  17. Further structural insights into the binding of complement factor H by complement regulator-acquiring surface protein 1 (CspA) of Borrelia burgdorferi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caesar, Joseph J. E.; Wallich, Reinhard; Kraiczy, Peter; Zipfel, Peter F.; Lea, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    B. burgdorferi binds complement factor H using a dimeric surface protein, CspA (BbCRASP-1). Presented here is a new structure of CspA that suggests that there is a degree of flexibility between subunits which may have implications for complement regulator binding. Borrelia burgdorferi has evolved many mechanisms of evading the different immune systems across its range of reservoir hosts, including the capture and presentation of host complement regulators factor H and factor H-like protein-1 (FHL-1). Acquisition is mediated by a family of complement regulator-acquiring surface proteins (CRASPs), of which the atomic structure of CspA (BbCRASP-1) is known and shows the formation of a homodimeric species which is required for binding. Mutagenesis studies have mapped a putative factor H binding site to a cleft between the two subunits. Presented here is a new atomic structure of CspA which shows a degree of flexibility between the subunits which may be critical for factor H scavenging by increasing access to the binding interface and allows the possibility that the assembly can clamp around the bound complement regulators

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-EEUR-01-0426 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-EEUR-01-0426 ref|YP_001402384.1| Rhs element Vgr protein [Yersinia pseudotuberculosis... IP 31758] gb|ABS46470.1| Rhs element Vgr protein [Yersinia pseudotuberculosis IP 31758] YP_001402384.1 3e-12 31% ...

  19. Cyclic di-GMP is essential for the survival of the lyme disease spirochete in ticks.

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    Ming He

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP is a bacterial second messenger that modulates many biological processes. Although its role in bacterial pathogenesis during mammalian infection has been documented, the role of c-di-GMP in a pathogen's life cycle within a vector host is less understood. The enzootic cycle of the Lyme disease pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi involves both a mammalian host and an Ixodes tick vector. The B. burgdorferi genome encodes a single copy of the diguanylate cyclase gene (rrp1, which is responsible for c-di-GMP synthesis. To determine the role of c-di-GMP in the life cycle of B. burgdorferi, an Rrp1-deficient B. burgdorferi strain was generated. The rrp1 mutant remains infectious in the mammalian host but cannot survive in the tick vector. Microarray analyses revealed that expression of a four-gene operon involved in glycerol transport and metabolism, bb0240-bb0243, was significantly downregulated by abrogation of Rrp1. In vitro, the rrp1 mutant is impaired in growth in the media containing glycerol as the carbon source (BSK-glycerol. To determine the contribution of the glycerol metabolic pathway to the rrp1 mutant phenotype, a glp mutant, in which the entire bb0240-bb0243 operon is not expressed, was generated. Similar to the rrp1 mutant, the glp mutant has a growth defect in BSK-glycerol medium. In vivo, the glp mutant is also infectious in mice but has reduced survival in ticks. Constitutive expression of the bb0240-bb0243 operon in the rrp1 mutant fully rescues the growth defect in BSK-glycerol medium and partially restores survival of the rrp1 mutant in ticks. Thus, c-di-GMP appears to govern a catabolic switch in B. burgdorferi and plays a vital role in the tick part of the spirochetal enzootic cycle. This work provides the first evidence that c-di-GMP is essential for a pathogen's survival in its vector host.

  20. Monoinfections caused by Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia burgdorferi / Anaplasma phagocytophilum co-infections in forestry workers and farmers

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    Małgorzata Tokarska-Rodak

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of co-infections induced by tick-borne pathogens in humans is an important epidemiological phenomenon. This issue has attracted growing attention of doctors and people working under conditions of an increased risk of being exposed to tick bites. Material and Methods: The research group consisted of 93 individuals with current anti-immunoglobulin M/G (IgM/ IgG Borrelia burgdorferi or IgG anti-Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The respondents were identified during the screening survey in a group of farmers and foresters occupationally exposed to tick bites. The aim of the work was to analyse the frequency of antibodies to specific antigens of B. burgdorferi and the levels of cytokines in forestry workers and farmers with B. burgdorferi monoinfections and B. burgdorferi / A. phagocytophilum co-infections. Statistical analysis was performed using the Chi2, Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results: There is a stronger generation of IgG antibodies to B. burgdorferi antigens in patients with B. burgdorferi / A. phagocytophilum co-infections, such as variable major protein-like sequence expressed (VlsE (p < 0.05, p19 (p < 0.02, p17 (p < 0.05 and complement regulator-acquiring surface protein 3 (CRASP3 (p < 0.02 compared to persons with B. burgdorferi monoinfections. The discrepancies in the synthesis of cytokines interleukin 6 (IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α have not been found in persons with B. burgdorferi monoinfections and B. burgdorferi / A. phagocytophilum co-infection. Conclusions: The immune response directed against B. burgdorferi is stronger in patients co-infected with B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum than in those with monoinfection. Med Pr 2015;66(5:645–651

  1. Identification of two Th1 cell epitopes on the Babesia bovis-encoded 77-kilodalton merozoite protein (Bb-1) by use of truncated recombinant fusion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W C; Zhao, S; Woods, V M; Tripp, C A; Tetzlaff, C L; Heussler, V T; Dobbelaere, D A; Rice-Ficht, A C

    1993-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the serologic and T-cell immunogenicity for cattle of a recombinant form of the apical complex-associated 77-kDa merozite protein of Babesia bovis, designated Bb-1. The present study characterizes the immunogenic epitopes of the Bb-1 protein. A series of recombinant truncated fusion proteins spanning the majority of the Bb-1 protein were expressed in Escherichia coli, and their reactivities with bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells and T-cell clones derived from B. bovis-immune cattle and with rabbit antibodies were determined. Lymphocytes from two immune cattle were preferentially stimulated by the N-terminal half of the Bb-1 protein (amino acids 23 to 266, termed Bb-1A), localizing the T-cell epitopes to the Bb-1A portion of the molecule. CD4+ T-cell clones derived by stimulation with the intact Bb-1 fusion protein were used to identify two T-cell epitopes in the Bb-1A protein, consisting of amino acids SVVLLSAFSGN VWANEAEVSQVVK and FSDVDKTKSTEKT (residues 23 to 46 and 82 to 94). In contrast, rabbit antiserum raised against the intact fusion protein reacted only with the C-terminal half of the protein (amino acids 267 to 499, termed Bb-1B), which contained 28 tandem repeats of the tetrapeptide PAEK or PAET. Biological assays and Northern (RNA) blot analyses for cytokines revealed that following activation with concanavalin A, T-cell clones reactive against the two Bb-1A epitopes produced interleukin-2, gamma interferon, and tumor necrosis factors beta and alpha, but not interleukin-4, suggesting that the Bb-1 antigen preferentially stimulates the Th1 subset of CD4+ T cells in cattle. The studies described here report for the first time the characterization, by cytokine production, of the Th1 subset of bovine T cells and show that, as in mice, protozoal antigens can induce Th1 cells in ruminants. This first demonstration of B. bovis-encoded Th1 cell epitopes provides a rationale for incorporation of all or part of the Bb-1

  2. Disruption of bbe02 by Insertion of a Luciferase Gene Increases Transformation Efficiency of Borrelia burgdorferi and Allows Live Imaging in Lyme Disease Susceptible C3H Mice.

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    Kamfai Chan

    Full Text Available Lyme disease is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in North America and Europe. The causative agent, Borrelia burgdorferi persists in the white-footed mouse. Infection with B. burgdorferi can cause acute to persistent multisystemic Lyme disease in humans. Some disease manifestations are also exhibited in the mouse model of Lyme disease. Genetic manipulation of B. burgdorferi remains difficult. First, B. burgdorferi contains a large number of endogenous plasmids with unique sequences encoding unknown functions. The presence of these plasmids needs to be confirmed after each genetic manipulation. Second, the restriction modification defense systems, including that encoded by bbe02 gene lead to low transformation efficiency in B. burgdorferi. Therefore, studying the molecular basis of Lyme pathogenesis is a challenge. Furthermore, investigation of the role of a specific B. burgdorferi protein throughout infection requires a large number of mice, making it labor intensive and expensive. To overcome the problems associated with low transformation efficiency and to reduce the number of mice needed for experiments, we disrupted the bbe02 gene of a highly infectious and pathogenic B. burgdorferi strain, N40 D10/E9 through insertion of a firefly luciferase gene. The bbe02 mutant shows higher transformation efficiency and maintains luciferase activity throughout infection as detected by live imaging of mice. Infectivity and pathogenesis of this mutant were comparable to the wild-type N40 strain. This mutant will serve as an ideal parental strain to examine the roles of various B. burgdorferi proteins in Lyme pathogenesis in the mouse model in the future.

  3. Polymorphism of 41 kD Flagellin Gene and Its Human B-Cell Epitope in Borrelia burgdorferi Strains of China

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    Huixin Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The 41 kD flagellin of Borrelia burgdorferi (B. burgdorferi is a major component of periplasmic flagellar filament core and a good candidate for serodiagnosis in early stage of Lyme disease. Here, we chose 89 B. burgdorferi strains in China, amplified the gene encoding the 41 kD flagellin, and compared the sequences. The results showed that genetic diversity presented in the 41 kD flagellin genes of all 89 strains among the four genotypes of B. burgdorferi, especially in the genotype of B. garinii. Some specific mutation sites for each genotype of the 41 kD flagellin genes were found, which could be used for genotyping B. burgdorferi strains in China. Human B-cell epitope analysis showed that thirteen of 15 nonsynonymous mutations occurred in the epitope region of 41 kD flagellin and thirty of 42 B-cell epitopes were altered due to all 13 nonsynonymous mutations in the epitope region, which may affect the function of the antigen. Nonsynonymous mutations and changed human B-cell epitopes exist in 41 kD flagellin of B. burgdorferi sensu lato strains; these changes should be considered in serodiagnosis of Lyme disease.

  4. Does more favourable handling of the cerebrospinal fluid increase the diagnostic sensitivity of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato-specific PCR in Lyme neuroborreliosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forselv, Kristine J N; Lorentzen, Åslaug R; Ljøstad, Unn; Mygland, Åse; Eikeland, Randi; Kjelland, Vivian; Noraas, Sølvi; Quarsten, Hanne

    2018-04-01

    Tests for direct detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bb) in Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) are needed. Detection of Bb DNA using PCR is promising, but clinical utility is hampered by low diagnostic sensitivity. We aimed to examine whether diagnostic sensitivity can be improved by the use of larger cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volumes and faster handling of samples. Patients who underwent CSF examination for LNB were included. We collected two millilitres of CSF for PCR analysis, extracted DNA from the pellets within 24 h and analysed the eluate by two real-time PCR protocols (16S rRNA and OspA). Patients who fulfilled diagnostic criteria for LNB were classified as LNB cases and the rest as controls. Bb DNA in CSF was detected by PCR in seven of 28 adults with LNB. Two were Bb antibody negative. No Bb DNA was detected in CSF from 137 controls. Diagnostic sensitivity was 25% and specificity 100%. There was a non-significant trend towards larger CSF sample volume, faster handling of the sample, shorter duration of symptoms, and higher CSF cell count in the PCR-positive cases. We did not find that optimized handling of CSF increased diagnostic sensitivity of PCR in adults with LNB. However, our case series is small and we hypothesize that the importance of these factors will be clarified in further studies with larger case series and altered study design. PCR for diagnosis of LNB may be useful in cases without Bb antibodies due to short duration of symptoms.

  5. Molecular characterization of the Borrelia burgdorferi in vivo-essential protein PncA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, Mollie W; Jain, Sunny; Linowski, Angelika K; Sarkar, Amit; Rosa, Patricia A

    2011-10-01

    The conversion of nicotinamide to nicotinic acid by nicotinamidase enzymes is a critical step in maintaining NAD(+) homeostasis and contributes to numerous important biological processes in diverse organisms. In Borrelia burgdorferi, the nicotinamidase enzyme, PncA, is required for spirochaete survival throughout the infectious cycle. Mammals lack nicotinamidases and therefore PncA may serve as a therapeutic target for Lyme disease. Contrary to the in vivo importance of PncA, the current annotation for the pncA ORF suggests that the encoded protein may be inactive due to the absence of an N-terminal aspartic acid residue that is a conserved member of the catalytic triad of characterized PncA proteins. Herein, we have used genetic and biochemical strategies to determine the N-terminal sequence of B. burgdorferi PncA. Our data demonstrate that the PncA protein is 24 aa longer than the currently annotated sequence and that pncA translation is initiated from the rare, non-canonical initiation codon AUU. These findings are an important first step in understanding the catalytic function of this in vivo-essential protein.

  6. Induction of type I and type III interferons by Borrelia burgdorferi correlates with pathogenesis and requires linear plasmid 36.

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    Michelle A Krupna-Gaylord

    Full Text Available The capacity for Borrelia burgdorferi to cause disseminated infection in humans or mice is associated with the genotype of the infecting strain. The cytokine profiles elicited by B. burgdorferi clinical isolates of different genotype (ribosomal spacer type groups were assessed in a human PBMC co-incubation model. RST1 isolates, which are more frequently associated with disseminated Lyme disease in humans and mice, induced significantly higher levels of IFN-α and IFN-λ1/IL29 relative to RST3 isolates, which are less frequently associated with disseminated infection. No differences in the protein concentrations of IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 or TNF-α were observed between isolates of differing genotype. The ability of B. burgdorferi to induce type I and type III IFNs was completely dependent on the presence of linear plasmid (lp 36. An lp36-deficient B. burgdorferi mutant adhered to, and was internalized by, PBMCs and specific dendritic cell (DC subsets less efficiently than its isogenic B31 parent strain. The association defect with mDC1s and pDCs could be restored by complementation of the mutant with the complete lp36. The RST1 clinical isolates studied were found to contain a 2.5-kB region, located in the distal one-third of lp36, which was not present in any of the RST3 isolates tested. This divergent region of lp36 may encode one or more factors required for optimal spirochetal recognition and the production of type I and type III IFNs by human DCs, thus suggesting a potential role for DCs in the pathogenesis of B. burgdorferi infection.

  7. Proteome Analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi Response to Environmental Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angel, Thomas E.; Luft, Benjamin J.; Yang, Xiaohua; Nicora, Carrie D.; Camp, David G.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Smith, Richard D.

    2010-11-02

    We examined global changes in protein expression in the B31 strain of Borrelia burgdorferi, in response to two environmental cues (pH and temperature) chosen for their reported similarity to those encountered at different stages of the organism’s life cycle. Multidimensional nano-liquid chromatographic separations coupled with tandem mass spectrometry were used to examine the array of proteins (i.e., the proteome) of B. burgdorferi for different pH and temperature culture conditions. Changes in pH and temperature elicited in vitro adaptations of this spirochete known to cause Lyme disease and led to alterations in protein expression that are associated with increased microbial pathogenesis. We identified 1031 proteins that represent 59% of the annotated genome of B. burgdorferi and elucidated a core proteome of 414 proteins that were present in all environmental conditions investigated. Observed changes in protein abundances indicated varied replicon usage, as well as proteome functional distributions between the in vitro cell culture conditions. Surprisingly, the pH and temperature conditions that mimicked B. burgdorferi residing in the gut of a fed tick showed a marked reduction in protein diversity. Additionally, the results provide us with leading candidates for exploring how B. burgdorferi adapts to and is able to survive in a wide variety of environmental conditions and lay a foundation for planned in situ studies of B. burgdorferi isolated from the tick midgut and infected animals.

  8. Measuring Borrelia burgdorferi Motility and Chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Li, Chunhao

    2018-01-01

    Swimming plate, cell motion tracking, and capillary tube assays are very useful tools to quantitatively measure bacterial motility and chemotaxis. These methods were modified and applied to study Borrelia burgdorferi motility and chemotaxis. By using these methods, numerous motility and chemotaxis mutants have been characterized and several chemoattractants were identified. With the assistance of these tools, the role of motility and chemotaxis in the pathogenicity of B. burgdorferi has been established. In addition, these tools also facilitate the study of motility and chemotaxis in other spirochetes.

  9. Molecular characterization of a new Babesia bovis thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (BbTRAP2.

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    Mohamad Alaa Terkawi

    Full Text Available A gene encoding a Babesia bovis protein that shares significant degree of similarity to other apicomplexan thrombospondin-related anonymous proteins (TRAPs was found in the genomic database and designated as BbTRAP2. Recombinant protein containing a conserved region of BbTRAP2 was produced in E. coli. A high antigenicity of recombinant BbTRAP2 (rBbTRAP2 was observed with field B. bovis-infected bovine sera collected from geographically different regions of the world. Moreover, antiserum against rBbTRAP2 specifically reacted with the authentic protein by Western blot analysis and an indirect fluorescent antibody test. Three bands corresponding to 104-, 76-, and 44-kDa proteins were identified in the parasite lysates and two bands of 76- and 44-kDa proteins were detected in the supernatant of cultivated parasites, indicating that BbTRAP2 was proteolytically processed and shed into the culture. Apical and surface localizations of BbTRAP2 were observed in the intracellular and extracellular parasites, respectively, by confocal laser microscopic examination. Moreover, native BbTRAP2 was precipitated by bovine erythrocytes, suggesting its role in the attachment to erythrocytes. Furthermore, the specific antibody to rBbTRAP2 inhibited the growth of B. bovis in a concentration-dependent manner. Consistently, pre-incubation of the free merozoites with the antibody to rBbTRAP2 resulted in an inhibition of the parasite invasion into host erythrocytes. Interestingly, the antibody to rBbTRAP2 was the most inhibitive for the parasite's growth as compared to those of a set of antisera produced against different recombinant proteins, including merozoite surface antigen 2c (BbMSA-2c, rhoptry-associated protein 1 C-terminal (BbRAP-1CT, and spherical body protein 1 (BbSBP-1. These results suggest that BbTRAP2 might be a potential candidate for development of a subunit vaccine against B. bovis infection.

  10. Whole-Genome Sequences of Thirteen Isolates of Borrelia burgdorferi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schutzer S. E.; Dunn J.; Fraser-Liggett, C. M.; Casjens, S. R.; Qiu, W.-G.; Mongodin, E. F.; Luft, B. J.

    2011-02-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi is a causative agent of Lyme disease in North America and Eurasia. The first complete genome sequence of B. burgdorferi strain 31, available for more than a decade, has assisted research on the pathogenesis of Lyme disease. Because a single genome sequence is not sufficient to understand the relationship between genotypic and geographic variation and disease phenotype, we determined the whole-genome sequences of 13 additional B. burgdorferi isolates that span the range of natural variation. These sequences should allow improved understanding of pathogenesis and provide a foundation for novel detection, diagnosis, and prevention strategies.

  11. Suppression of Long-Lived Humoral Immunity Following Borrelia burgdorferi Infection.

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    Rebecca A Elsner

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lyme Disease caused by infection with Borrelia burgdorferi is an emerging infectious disease and already by far the most common vector-borne disease in the U.S. Similar to many other infections, infection with B. burgdorferi results in strong antibody response induction, which can be used clinically as a diagnostic measure of prior exposure. However, clinical studies have shown a sometimes-precipitous decline of such antibodies shortly following antibiotic treatment, revealing a potential deficit in the host's ability to induce and/or maintain long-term protective antibodies. This is further supported by reports of frequent repeat infections with B. burgdorferi in endemic areas. The mechanisms underlying such a lack of long-term humoral immunity, however, remain unknown. We show here that B. burgdorferi infected mice show a similar rapid disappearance of Borrelia-specific antibodies after infection and subsequent antibiotic treatment. This failure was associated with development of only short-lived germinal centers, micro-anatomical locations from which long-lived immunity originates. These showed structural abnormalities and failed to induce memory B cells and long-lived plasma cells for months after the infection, rendering the mice susceptible to reinfection with the same strain of B. burgdorferi. The inability to induce long-lived immune responses was not due to the particular nature of the immunogenic antigens of B. burgdorferi, as antibodies to both T-dependent and T-independent Borrelia antigens lacked longevity and B cell memory induction. Furthermore, influenza immunization administered at the time of Borrelia infection also failed to induce robust antibody responses, dramatically reducing the protective antiviral capacity of the humoral response. Collectively, these studies show that B. burgdorferi-infection results in targeted and temporary immunosuppression of the host and bring new insight into the mechanisms underlying the failure

  12. Weak Organic Acids Decrease Borrelia burgdorferi Cytoplasmic pH, Eliciting an Acid Stress Response and Impacting RpoN- and RpoS-Dependent Gene Expression

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    Daniel P. Dulebohn

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi survives in its tick vector, Ixodes scapularis, or within various hosts. To transition between and survive in these distinct niches, B. burgdorferi changes its gene expression in response to environmental cues, both biochemical and physiological. Exposure of B. burgdorferi to weak monocarboxylic organic acids, including those detected in the blood meal of fed ticks, decreased the cytoplasmic pH of B. burgdorferi in vitro. A decrease in the cytoplasmic pH induced the expression of genes encoding enzymes that have been shown to restore pH homeostasis in other bacteria. These include putative coupled proton/cation exchangers, a putative Na+/H+ antiporter, a neutralizing buffer transporter, an amino acid deaminase and a proton exporting vacuolar-type VoV1 ATPase. Data presented in this report suggested that the acid stress response triggered the expression of RpoN- and RpoS-dependent genes including important virulence factors such as outer surface protein C (OspC, BBA66, and some BosR (Borreliaoxidative stress regulator-dependent genes. Because the expression of virulence factors, like OspC, are so tightly connected by RpoS to general cellular stress responses and cell physiology, it is difficult to separate transmission-promoting conditions in what is clearly a multifactorial and complex regulatory web.

  13. The cyclic-di-GMP signaling pathway in the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi

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    Elizabeth A. Novak

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In nature, the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi cycles between the unrelated environments of the Ixodes tick vector and mammalian host. In order to survive transmission between hosts, B. burgdorferi must be able to not only detect changes in its environment, but also rapidly and appropriately respond to these changes. One manner in which this obligate parasite regulates and adapts to its changing environment is through cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP signaling. c-di-GMP has been shown to be instrumental in orchestrating the adaptation of B. burgdorferi to the tick environment. B. burgdorferi possesses only one set of c-di-GMP-metabolizing genes (one diguanylate cyclase and two distinct phosphodiesterases and one c-di-GMP-binding PilZ-domain protein designated as PlzA. While studies in the realm of c-di-GMP signaling in B. burgdorferi have exploded in the last few years, there are still many more questions than answers. Elucidation of the importance of c-di-GMP signaling to B. burgdorferi may lead to the identification of mechanisms that are critical for the survival of B. burgdorferi in the tick phase of the enzootic cycle as well as potentially delineate a role (if any c-di-GMP may play in the transmission and virulence of B. burgdorferi during the enzootic cycle, thereby enabling the development of effective drugs for the prevention and/or treatment of Lyme disease.

  14. Characterization of biofilm formation by Borrelia burgdorferi in vitro.

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    Eva Sapi

    Full Text Available Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, has long been known to be capable of forming aggregates and colonies. It was recently demonstrated that Borrelia burgdorferi aggregate formation dramatically changes the in vitro response to hostile environments by this pathogen. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that these aggregates are indeed biofilms, structures whose resistance to unfavorable conditions are well documented. We studied Borrelia burgdorferi for several known hallmark features of biofilm, including structural rearrangements in the aggregates, variations in development on various substrate matrices and secretion of a protective extracellular polymeric substance (EPS matrix using several modes of microscopic, cell and molecular biology techniques. The atomic force microscopic results provided evidence that multilevel rearrangements take place at different stages of aggregate development, producing a complex, continuously rearranging structure. Our results also demonstrated that Borrelia burgdorferi is capable of developing aggregates on different abiotic and biotic substrates, and is also capable of forming floating aggregates. Analyzing the extracellular substance of the aggregates for potential exopolysaccharides revealed the existence of both sulfated and non-sulfated/carboxylated substrates, predominately composed of an alginate with calcium and extracellular DNA present. In summary, we have found substantial evidence that Borrelia burgdorferi is capable of forming biofilm in vitro. Biofilm formation by Borrelia species might play an important role in their survival in diverse environmental conditions by providing refuge to individual cells.

  15. Resurgence of persisting non-cultivable Borrelia burgdorferi following antibiotic treatment in mice.

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    Emir Hodzic

    Full Text Available The agent of Lyme borreliosis, Borrelia burgdorferi, evades host immunity and establishes persistent infections in its varied mammalian hosts. This persistent biology may pose challenges to effective antibiotic treatment. Experimental studies in dogs, mice, and non-human primates have found persistence of B. burgdorferi DNA following treatment with a variety of antibiotics, but persisting spirochetes are non-cultivable. Persistence of B. burgdorferi DNA has been documented in humans following treatment, but the significance remains unknown. The present study utilized a ceftriaxone treatment regimen in the C3H mouse model that resulted in persistence of non-cultivable B. burgdorferi in order to determine their long-term fate, and to examine their effects on the host. Results confirmed previous studies, in which B. burgdorferi could not be cultured from tissues, but low copy numbers of B. burgdorferi flaB DNA were detectable in tissues at 2, 4 and 8 months after completion of treatment, and the rate of PCR-positive tissues appeared to progressively decline over time. However, there was resurgence of spirochete flaB DNA in multiple tissues at 12 months, with flaB DNA copy levels nearly equivalent to those found in saline-treated mice. Despite the continued non-cultivable state, RNA transcription of multiple B. burgdorferi genes was detected in host tissues, flaB DNA was acquired by xenodiagnostic ticks, and spirochetal forms could be visualized within ticks and mouse tissues by immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry, respectively. A number of host cytokines were up- or down-regulated in tissues of both saline- and antibiotic-treated mice in the absence of histopathology, indicating host response to the presence of non-cultivable, despite the lack of inflammation in tissues.

  16. Cinética do crescimento de Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochaetaceae em diferentes meios de cultivo Cinetic growth of Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochaetacease in different culture media

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    Angela de Oliveira

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a cinética de crescimento de Borrelia burgdorferi, por um período de 3 meses, utilizando os seguintes oito meios de cultivo : (1 BSK adicionado de soro de coelho, (2 BSK adicionado de soro de suíno, (3 BSK adicionado de soro de suíno + 5 fluorouracil, (4 PMR, (5 CTB, (6 Dubos, (7 Caldo Brucella e (8 BHI. Todos os meios foram preparados assepticamente e mantidos em tubos de ensaio com capacidade para 10 ml. Para cada meio, o inoculo foi padronizado para conter no início 10² espiroquetas para cada 0,1 ml de cultivo. O monitoramento do crescimento foi feito contando-se o total de espiroquetas em 0,1 ml do meio entre lâmina de microscopia e lamínula com dimen sões de 10x30mm, tendo sido utilizado microscópio de campo escuro. A contagem foi realizada durante 14 semanas, tendo sido diária nos primeiros 12 dias e semanal a partir desta data. Houve crescimento de B. burgdorferi em todos meios testados, com melhor performance para três deles: BSK adicionado de soro de coelho, BSK adicionado de soro de suíno + 5 fluorouracil e meio CTB. Observou-se crescimento de B. burgdorferi a partir da 4ª semana, atingindo o platô de crescimento entre a 8ª e 12ª semanas, quando começou a exaustão do meio de cultivo. Formas císticas de B. burgdorferi foram observadas em todos os meios testados.The cinetic of growth of Borrelia burgdorferi was studied during a 3-month period, using the following 8 culture media: (1 rabbit serum BSK, (2 swine serum BSK, (3 swine serum BSK+5 fluorouracil, (4 PMR, (5 CTB, (6 Dubos, (7 Brucella broth and (8 BHI. All media were prepared aseptically and were maintained in culture tubes of 10 ml capacity. For each medium, the inoculum was standardized to contain initially 10² spirochetes for each 0.1 ml of culture. The growth was monitorized by counting the total number of spirochetes in 0.1ml of medium in a dark field microscope, using a 10x30 mm cover slip. For the first 12 days, counting was done each 24

  17. Borrelia burgdorferi requires the alternative sigma factor RpoS for dissemination within the vector during tick-to-mammal transmission.

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    Star M Dunham-Ems

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available While the roles of rpoS(Bb and RpoS-dependent genes have been studied extensively within the mammal, the contribution of the RpoS regulon to the tick-phase of the Borrelia burgdorferi enzootic cycle has not been examined. Herein, we demonstrate that RpoS-dependent gene expression is prerequisite for the transmission of spirochetes by feeding nymphs. RpoS-deficient organisms are confined to the midgut lumen where they transform into an unusual morphotype (round bodies during the later stages of the blood meal. We show that round body formation is rapidly reversible, and in vitro appears to be attributable, in part, to reduced levels of Coenzyme A disulfide reductase, which among other functions, provides NAD+ for glycolysis. Our data suggest that spirochetes default to an RpoS-independent program for round body formation upon sensing that the energetics for transmission are unfavorable.

  18. Borrelia burgdorferi infection and immunity in mice deficient in the fifth component of complement.

    OpenAIRE

    Bockenstedt, L K; Barthold, S; Deponte, K; Marcantonio, N; Kantor, F S

    1993-01-01

    When immunocompetent mice are inoculated with Borrelia burgdorferi, they develop acute arthritis and carditis that undergo spontaneous regression despite the persistence of infection. Specific T- and/or B-cell immunity appears to be necessary for resolution of disease manifestations. Humoral immune responses to B. burgdorferi are also important in prevention of B. burgdorferi infection, in that passive transfer of immune sera or protective monoclonal antibodies prevents the spirochete from es...

  19. Preferential protection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto by a Salp15 homologue in Ixodes ricinus saliva

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovius, J. W.; Schuijt, T. J.; de Groot, K. A.; Roelofs, J. J. T. H.; Oei, G. A.; Marquart, J. A.; de Beer, R.; van 't Veer, C.; van der Poll, T.; Ramamoorthi, N.; Fikrig, E.; van Dam, A. P.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ixodes ticks are the main vectors for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. In the United States, B. burgdorferi is the sole causative agent of Lyme borreliosis and is transmitted by Ixodes scapularis. In Europe, 3 Borrelia species-B. burgdorferi, B. garinii, and B. afzelii-are prevalent,

  20. Radioimmunoassay of creatine kinase BB isoenzyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Jianguo

    1988-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay of creatine kinase BB isoenzyme (CK-BB) was developed by using CK-BB purified from human brain. The CK-BB antiserum was raised by immunizing rabbite and 125 I-CK-BB iodinated with Bolton-Hunter reagent. The affinity constant was 3.0 x 10 9 mol/L. No cross reactions with creatine kinase MM isoenzyme and neuron-specific enolase were found. The measuring range was 3.5 x 10 -8 ∼ 1.2 x 10 -5 mmol/L, the average recovery rate 97.5%, with the inter and intrassay CV 3.1% and 12%, respectively. The average serum CK-BB concentration in 83 normal persons was 1.5 x 10 -7 +- 8.1 x 10 -8 mmol/L, quite different from the values of acute myocardial infarction (5.2 x 10 -6 +- 1.2 x 10 -4 mmol/L, n = 28) and cerebral vascular accident (8.4 x 10 -4 +- 5.0 x 10 -4 mmol/L, n = 10)

  1. Outer surface protein B is critical for Borrelia burgdorferi adherence and survival within Ixodes ticks.

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    Girish Neelakanta

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Survival of Borrelia burgdorferi in ticks and mammals is facilitated, at least in part, by the selective expression of lipoproteins. Outer surface protein (Osp A participates in spirochete adherence to the tick gut. As ospB is expressed on a bicistronic operon with ospA, we have now investigated the role of OspB by generating an OspB-deficient B. burgdorferi and examining its phenotype throughout the spirochete life cycle. Similar to wild-type isolates, the OspB-deficient B. burgdorferi were able to readily infect and persist in mice. OspB-deficient B. burgdorferi were capable of migrating to the feeding ticks but had an impaired ability to adhere to the tick gut and survive within the vector. Furthermore, the OspB-deficient B. burgdorferi bound poorly to tick gut extracts. The complementation of the OspB-deficient spirochete in trans, with a wild-type copy of ospB gene, restored its ability to bind tick gut. Taken together, these data suggest that OspB has an important role within Ixodes scapularis and that B. burgdorferi relies upon multiple genes to efficiently persist in ticks.

  2. Selective method for identification and quantification of Bifidobacterium animalis subspecies lactis BB-12 (BB-12) from the gastrointestinal tract of healthy volunteers ingesting a combination probiotic of BB-12 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poutsiaka, D D; Mahoney, I J; McDermott, L A; Stern, L L; Thorpe, C M; Kane, A V; Baez-Giangreco, C; McKinney, J; Davidson, L E; Leyva, R; Goldin, B; Snydman, D R

    2017-05-01

    To develop a novel validated method for the isolation of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12 (BB-12) from faecal specimens and apply it to studies of BB-12 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) recovered from the healthy human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. A novel method for isolating and enumerating BB-12 was developed based on its morphologic features of growth on tetracycline-containing agar. The method identified BB-12 correctly from spiked stool close to 100% of the time as validated by PCR confirmation of identity, and resulted in 97-104% recovery of BB-12. The method was then applied in a study of the recovery of BB-12 and LGG from the GI tract of healthy humans consuming ProNutrients ® Probiotic powder sachet containing BB-12 and LGG. Viable BB-12 and LGG were recovered from stool after 21 days of probiotic ingestion compared to baseline. In contrast, no organisms were recovered 21 days after baseline in the nonsupplemented control group. We demonstrated recovery of viable BB-12, using a validated novel method specific for the isolation of BB-12, and LGG from the GI tract of healthy humans who consumed the probiotic supplement. This method will enable more detailed and specific studies of BB-12 in probiotic supplements, including when in combination with LGG. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Borrelia burgdorferi in ticks and dogs in the province of Vojvodina, Serbia*

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    Savić S.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Lyme disease is a tick borne zoonotic infection, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. bacteria. For the transmission of the disease, the presence of ticks is a prerequisite. Lyme borreliosis mostly occurs in people and dogs, but it may occur in other animals. Ticks which carry B. burgdorferi s.l. in Serbia are of the Ixodes ricinus specis. In Serbia, Lyme disease was detected for the first time in the late ‘80-es. In dogs, clinical symptoms may occur even months after a tick bite, and include weakness, lymphadenopathy, fever, lameness, arthritis, etc. In our survey, we have observed tick and dog populations in the province of Vojvodina (northern part of Serbia. I. ricinus ticks were collected and examined for the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. in several chosen locations. In addition, blood samples were collected from house dogs and pets from the same locations, and analyzed for the presence of antibodies specific for B. burgdorferi s.l. The results showed a mean infection of ticks of 22.12 %, and a mean seroprevalence of Lyme disease in dogs of 25.81 %. We conclude that in Vojvodina there is an actual risk of Lyme borreliosis for other animals and humans, because of the persistence of B. burgdorferi s.l. in both tick and dog populations.

  4. Stable Transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Stricto on the Outer Banks of North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, J F; Apperson, C S; Levin, M; Kelly, T R; Kakumanu, M L; Ponnusamy, L; Sutton, H; Salger, S A; Caldwell, J M; Szempruch, A J

    2017-08-01

    The spirochaete (Borrelia burgdorferi) associated with Lyme disease was detected in questing ticks and rodents during a period of 18 years, 1991-2009, at five locations on the Outer Banks of North Carolina. The black-legged tick (Ixodes scapularis) was collected at varied intervals between 1991 and 2009 and examined for B. burgdorferi. The white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus), house mouse (Mus musculus) marsh rice rat (Oryzomys palustris), marsh rabbit (Sylvilagus palustris), eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) and six-lined racerunner (Cnemidophorus sexlineatus) were live-trapped, and their tissues cultured to isolate spirochaetes. Borrelia burgdorferi isolates were obtained from questing adult I. scapularis and engorged I. scapularis removed from P. leucopus, O. palustris and S. floridanus. The prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection was variable at different times and sites ranging from 7 to 14% of examined questing I. scapularis. Mitochondrial (16S) rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis from 65 adult I. scapularis identified 12 haplotypes in two major clades. Nine haplotypes were associated with northern/Midwestern I. scapularis populations and three with southern I. scapularis populations. Sixteen isolates obtained from tick hosts in 2005 were confirmed to be B. burgdorferi by amplifying and sequencing of 16S rRNA and 5S-23S intergenic spacer fragments. The sequences had 98-99% identity to B. burgdorferi sensu stricto strains B31, JD1 and M11p. Taken together, these studies indicate that B. burgdorferi sensu stricto is endemic in questing I. scapularis and mammalian tick hosts on the Outer Banks of North Carolina. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Borrelia burgdorferi Infection and Lyme Disease in North American Horses: A Consensus Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, R.B.; Madigan, J.E.; Witonsky, S.G.; Bertone, J.J.; Swinebroad, E.L.; Schutzer, S.E.; Johnson, A.L.

    2018-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi infection is common in horses living in Lyme endemic areas and the geographic range for exposure is increasing. Morbidity after B. burgdorferi infection in horses is unknown. Documented, naturally occurring syndromes attributed to B. burgdorferi infection in horses include neuroborreliosis, uveitis, and cutaneous pseudolymphoma. Although other clinical signs such as lameness and stiffness are reported in horses, these are often not well documented. Diagnosis of Lyme disease is based on exposure to B. burgdorferi, cytology or histopathology of infected fluid or tissue and antigen detection. Treatment of Lyme disease in horses is similar to treatment of humans or small animals but treatment success might not be the same because of species differences in antimicrobial bioavailability and duration of infection before initiation of treatment. There are no approved equine label Lyme vaccines but there is strong evidence that proper vaccination could prevent infection in horses. PMID:29469222

  6. Antibodies to Rickettsia spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi in Spanish Wild Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lledó, Lourdes; Serrano, José Luis; Isabel Gegúndez, María; Giménez-Pardo, Consuelo; Saz, José Vicente

    2016-01-01

    We examined 314 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from the province of Soria, Spain, for Rickettsia typhi, Rickettsia slovaca, and Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Immunofluorescence assays showed 1.9% had antibodies to R. typhi, 6.7% had antibodies to R. slovaca, and 8.3% had antibodies to B. burgdorferi. Serostatus was not correlated with sex or age. Because red foxes can be infected by Rickettsiae and B. burgdorferi, presence of red foxes may be and indicator for the presence of these pathogens.

  7. Radioimmunoassay of creatine kinase BB isoenzyme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jianguo, Geng [Shanghai Medical Univ. (China). Zhongshan Hospital; and others

    1988-11-01

    A radioimmunoassay of creatine kinase BB isoenzyme (CK-BB) was developed by using CK-BB purified from human brain. The CK-BB antiserum was raised by immunizing rabbite and {sup 125}I-CK-BB iodinated with Bolton-Hunter reagent. The affinity constant was 3.0 x 10{sup 9} mol/L. No cross reactions with creatine kinase MM isoenzyme and neuron-specific enolase were found. The measuring range was 3.5 x 10{sup -8} {approx} 1.2 x 10{sup -5} mmol/L, the average recovery rate 97.5%, with the inter and intrassay CV 3.1% and 12%, respectively. The average serum CK-BB concentration in 83 normal persons was 1.5 x 10{sup -7} +- 8.1 x 10{sup -8} mmol/L, quite different from the values of acute myocardial infarction (5.2 x 10{sup -6} +- 1.2 x 10{sup -4} mmol/L, n = 28) and cerebral vascular accident (8.4 x 10{sup -4} +- 5.0 x 10{sup -4} mmol/L, n = 10).

  8. Complement-mediated killing of Borrelia burgdorferi by nonimmune sera from sika deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, D R; Rooney, S; Miller, N J; Mather, T N

    2000-12-01

    Various species of cervid deer are the preferred hosts for adult, black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus) in the United States. Although frequently exposed to the agent of Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi), these animals, for the most part, are incompetent as transmission reservoirs. We examined the borreliacidal activity of normal and B. burgdorferi-immune sera from sika deer (Cervus nippon) maintained in a laboratory setting and compared it to that of similar sera from reservoir-competent mice and rabbits. All normal deer sera (NDS) tested killed > 90% of B. burgdorferi cells. In contrast, normal mouse and rabbit sera killed feeding exhibited IFA titers of 1:256, whereas sera from mice and rabbits similarly exposed had titers of > 1:1,024. Heat treatment (56 C, 30 min) of NDS reduced borreliacidal activity, with complement-mediated killing. The chelators EGTA and EDTA were used to block the classical or both the classical and alternative complement pathways, respectively. Addition of 10 mM EGTA to NDS had a negligible effect on borreliacidal activity, with > 90% of the cells killed. Addition of 10 mM EDTA reduced the killing to approximately 30%, whereas the addition of Mg2+ (10 mM) restored borreliacidal activity to NDS. The addition of zymosan A, an activator of the alternative pathway, increased the survival of B. burgdorferi cells to approximately 80% in NDS. These data suggest that the alternative complement activation pathway plays a major role in the borreliacidal activity of NDS. Additionally, 10 mM EGTA had almost no effect on the killing activity of B. burgdorferi-exposed deer sera, suggesting that the classical pathway is not involved in Borrelia killing, even in sera from B. burgdorferi-exposed deer.

  9. Polymerase chain reaction in diagnosis of Borrelia burgdorferi infections and studies on taxonomic classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, Anne-Mette

    2002-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi is now the most common vectorborne disease in North America, Europe and Asia. It is a multisystemic infection which may cause skin, neurological, cardiac or rheumatologic disorders. The aims of the present thesis were: (i) to develop...... and different clinical presentations (dermatoborreliosis versus neuroborreliosis) and courses (self-limiting versus chronic disease). Furthermore, strain differences were of importance for selection of suitable antigens for diagnostic assays and for vaccine development. Since then, B. burgdorferi isolates have...... a histological B. burgdorferi specific immunophosphatase-staining method. The utility of the PCR was then tested for identification of B. burgdorferi DNA in skin biopsies from 31 patients with erythema migrans. The sensitivity of PCR was 71%, which was superior to culture and serology. Based on own and otherwise...

  10. Polymerase chain reaction in diagnosis of Borrelia burgdorferi infections and studies on taxonomic classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, Anne-Mette

    2002-01-01

    been studied by phenotypic and genotypic traits and have been shown to be highly heterogeneous. Our first approach was to genotype a panel of human B. burgdorferi isolates by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of three genes. Thereafter, sequencing and dideoxy fingerprinting of osp...... for PCR amplification and subsequent identification of B. burgdorferi specific sequences were established and used. For all assays the analytical sensitivity was a few genome copies using purified DNA as template. The efficacy of PCR was initially evaluated using tissue samples from experimentally...... classification by Baranton et al., According to this the term B. burgdorferi sensu lato comprises three different human pathogenic genospecies B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii and B. afzelii. All three genospecies have been isolated among Danish patients with Lyme borreliosis and are thus prevalent...

  11. Antimicrobial Activity of Bee Venom and Melittin against Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socarras, Kayla M; Theophilus, Priyanka A S; Torres, Jason P; Gupta, Khusali; Sapi, Eva

    2017-11-29

    Lyme disease is a tick-borne, multi-systemic disease, caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. Though antibiotics are used as a primary treatment, relapse often occurs after the discontinuation of antimicrobial agents. The reason for relapse remains unknown, however previous studies suggest the possible presence of antibiotic resistant Borrelia round bodies, persisters and attached biofilm forms. Thus, there is an urgent need to find antimicrobial agents suitable to eliminate all known forms of B. burgdorferi . In this study, natural antimicrobial agents such as Apis mellifera venom and a known component, melittin, were tested using SYBR Green I/PI, direct cell counting, biofilm assays combined with LIVE/DEAD and atomic force microscopy methods. The obtained results were compared to standalone and combinations of antibiotics such as Doxycycline, Cefoperazone, Daptomycin, which were recently found to be effective against Borrelia persisters. Our findings showed that both bee venom and melittin had significant effects on all the tested forms of B. burgdorferi. In contrast, the control antibiotics when used individually or even in combinations had limited effects on the attached biofilm form. These findings strongly suggest that whole bee venom or melittin could be effective antimicrobial agents for B. burgdorferi; however, further research is necessary to evaluate their effectiveness in vivo, as well as their safe and effective delivery method for their therapeutic use.

  12. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA in Lizards from Southern Maryland

    OpenAIRE

    SWANSON, KATHERINE I.; NORRIS, DOUGLAS E.

    2007-01-01

    Lizards serve as hosts for Ixodes ticks in the western and southeastern United States and may affect the transmission cycles of Borrelia burgdorferi in these regions. In Maryland, the role of lizards in the maintenance and transmission cycle of this pathogen has not been examined. We tested 29 lizards (Sceloporus undulatus and Eumeces spp.) and 21 ticks from these lizards for the presence of B. burgdorferi. Eight lizards were positive by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for at least one B. bur...

  13. The autophagy-related genes BbATG1 and BbATG8 have different functions in differentiation, stress resistance and virulence of mycopathogen Beauveria bassiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Sheng-Hua; Liu, Jing; Chu, Xin-Ling; Xie, Xue-Qin; Feng, Ming-Guang

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy-related proteins play significantly different roles in eukaryotes. In the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana, autophagy is associated with fungal growth and development. BbATG1 (a serine/threonine protein kinase) and BbATG8 (a ubiquitin-like protein) have similar roles in autophagy, but different roles in other processes. Disruption mutants of BbATG1 and BbATG8 had impaired conidial germination under starvation stress. The mutant ΔBbATG8 exhibited enhanced sensitivity to oxidative stress, while a ΔBbATG1 mutant did not. BbATG1 and BbATG8 showed different roles in spore differentiation. The blastospore yield was reduced by 70% and 92% in ΔBbATG1 and ΔBbATG8 mutants, respectively, and the double mutant had a reduction of 95%. Conidial yield was reduced by approximately 90% and 50% in ΔBbATG1 and ΔBbATG8 mutants, respectively. A double mutant had a reduction similar to ΔBbATG1. Additionally, both BbATG1 and BbATG8 affected the levels of conidial protein BbCP15p required for conidiation. The virulence of each autophagy-deficient mutant was considerably weakened as indicated in topical and intrahemocoel injection assays, and showed a greater reduction in topical infection. However, BbATG1 and BbATG8 had different effects on fungal virulence. Our data indicate that these autophagy-related proteins have different functions in fungal stress response, asexual development and virulence. PMID:27197558

  14. Whole genome sequence of an unusual Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casjens, S.R.; Dunn, J.; Fraser-Liggett, C. M.; Mongodin, E. F.; Qiu, W. G.; Luft, B. J.; Schutzer, S. E.

    2011-03-01

    Human Lyme disease is caused by a number of related Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species. We report here the complete genome sequence of Borrelia sp. isolate SV1 from Finland. This isolate is to date the closest known relative of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, but it is sufficiently genetically distinct from that species that it and its close relatives warrant its candidacy for new-species status. We suggest that this isolate should be named 'Borrelia finlandensis.'

  15. First detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato DNA in king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus halli).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Frédéric; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Fournier, Jean-Charles; McCoy, Karen D; Barthel, Cathy; Postic, Danièle; Handrich, Yves; Le Maho, Yvon; Jaulhac, Benoît

    2014-10-01

    The hard tick Ixodes uriae parasitises a wide range of seabird species in the circumpolar areas of both Northern and Southern hemispheres and has been shown to be infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the bacterial agents of Lyme borreliosis. Although it is assumed that seabirds represent viable reservoir hosts, direct demonstrations of infection are limited to a single study from the Northern hemisphere. Here, the blood of 50 tick-infested adult king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus halli) breeding in the Crozet Archipelago (Southern Indian Ocean) was examined for B. burgdorferi sl exposure by serology and for spirochetemia by in vitro DNA amplification. Four birds were found positive by serology, whereas B. burgdorferi sl DNA was detected in two other birds. Our data therefore provide the first direct proof of Borrelia burgdorferi sl spirochetes in seabirds of the Southern hemisphere and indicate a possible reservoir role for king penguins in the natural maintenance of this bacterium. Although the bacterial genetic diversity present in these hosts and the infectious period for tick vectors remain to be elucidated, our results add to a growing body of knowledge on the contribution of seabirds to the complex epizootiology of Lyme disease and the global dissemination of B. burgdorferi sl spirochetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in white-tailed deer from Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakirat A. Adetunji

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Lyme Disease is caused by the bacterial pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi, and is transmitted by the tick-vector Ixodes scapularis. It is the most prevalent arthropod-borne disease in the United States. To determine the seroprevalence of B. burgdorferi antibodies in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus from Texas, we analyzed serum samples (n = 1493 collected during the 2001–2015 hunting seasons, using indirect ELISA. Samples with higher sero-reactivity (0.803 and above than the negative control group (0.662 were further tested using a more specific standardized western immunoblot assay to rule out false positives. Using ELISA, 4.7% of the samples were sero-reactive against B. burgdorferi, and these originated in two eco-regions in Texas (Edwards Plateau and South Texas Plains. However, only 0.5% of the total samples were sero-reactive by standardized western immunoblot assay. Additionally, both ELISA and standardized western immunoblot assay results correlated with an increased incidence in human Lyme Disease cases reported in Texas. This is the first longitudinal study to demonstrate fluctuation in sero-reactivity of white-tailed deer to B. burgdorferi sensu stricto antigens in southern United States. Future ecological and geographical studies are needed to assess the environmental factors governing the prevalence of Lyme Disease in non-endemic areas of the southern United States.

  17. [Using the polymerase chain reaction to Borrelia burgdorferi infection in localized scleroderma injure (morphea), in Venezuelan patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza-León, Fabiola; Arocha, Francisco; Hassanhi, Manzur; Arévalo, Julio

    2010-09-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi is the causative agent of Lyme Borreliosis, an infectious multisystemic disease transmitted to humans by the Ixodes ticks bite. A possible association of Borrelia burgdorferi with localized scleroderma has been postulated. However, published data do not provide unequivocal results. Previous serologic analysis of patients with localized scleroderma in South American countries (including Venezuela), have been reported as yielding some reactivity. The present study looked for evidence of Borrelia burgdorferi infection in venezuelan patients with localized scleroderma, using the polymerase chain reaction to analyze 21 skin samples of patients with this skin condition. The results were negative in all the samples studied. Our data do not support an association of Borrelia burgdorferi infection and the sclerotic lesions of localized scleroderma; but do not rule out the possibility of a relationship between localized scleroderma and an unknown geno-specie of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, a different Borrelia specie or a different spirochetal organism, as the etiological agents of the skin lesions in this area.

  18. Dual role of Fcγ receptors in host defense and disease in Borrelia burgdorferi-infected mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexia Anne Belperron

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Arthritis in mice infected with the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, results from the influx of innate immune cells responding to the pathogen in the joint and is influenced in part by mouse genetics. Production of inflammatory cytokines by innate immune cells in vitro is largely mediated by Toll-like receptor (TLR interaction with Borrelia lipoproteins, yet surprisingly mice deficient in TLR2 or the TLR signaling molecule MyD88 still develop arthritis comparable to that seen in wild type mice after B. burgdorferi infection. These findings suggest that other, MyD88-independent inflammatory pathways can contribute to arthritis expression. Clearance of B. burgdorferi is dependent on the production of specific antibody and phagocytosis of the organism. As Fc receptors (FcγR are important for IgG-mediated clearance of immune complexes and opsonized particles by phagocytes, we examined the role that FcγR play in host defense and disease in B. burgdorferi-infected mice. B. burgdorferi-infected mice deficient in the Fc receptor common gamma chain (FcεRγ-/- mice harbored ~10 fold more spirochetes than similarly infected wild type mice, and this was associated with a transient increase in arthritis severity. While the elevated pathogen burdens seen in B. burgdorferi-infected MyD88-/- mice were not affected by concomitant deficiency in FcγR, arthritis was reduced in FcεRγ-/-MyD88-/- mice in comparison to wild type or single knockout mice. Gene expression analysis from infected joints demonstrated that absence of both MyD88 and FcγR lowers mRNA levels of proteins involved in inflammation, including Cxcl1 (KC, Xcr1 (Gpr5, IL-1beta, and C reactive protein. Taken together, our results demonstrate a role for FcγR-mediated immunity in limiting pathogen burden and arthritis in mice during the acute phase of B. burgdorferi infection, and further suggest that this pathway contributes to the arthritis that develops in B. burgdorferi

  19. Enzyme activities of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heroldová, M.; Němec, M.; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Halouzka, Jiří

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 3 (2001), s. 179-182 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/00/1204 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi * Lyme disease Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.776, year: 2001

  20. Borrelia burgdorferi-specific IgA in Lyme Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina D'Arco

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The laboratory diagnosis of Lyme disease is currently dependent on the detection of IgM and IgG antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of the disease. The significance of serum IgA against B. burgdorferi remains unclear. The production of intrathecal IgA has been noted in patients with the late Lyme disease manifestation, neuroborreliosis, but production of antigen-specific IgA during early disease has not been evaluated. In the current study, we assessed serum IgA binding to the B. burgdorferi peptide antigens, C6, the target of the FDA-cleared C6 EIA, and FlaB(211-223-modVlsE(275-291, a peptide containing a Borrelia flagellin epitope linked to a modified VlsE sequence, in patients with early and late Lyme disease. Specific IgA was detected in 59 of 152 serum samples (38.8% from early Lyme disease patients. Approximately 50% of early Lyme disease patients who were seropositive for peptide-specific IgM and/or IgG were also seropositive for peptide-specific IgA. In a subpopulation of patients, high peptide-specific IgA could be correlated with disseminated disease, defined as multiple erythema migrans lesions, and neurological disease complications. These results suggest that there may be an association between elevated levels of antigen-specific IgA and particular disease manifestations in some patients with early Lyme disease.

  1. Borrelia burgdorferi-specific IgA in Lyme Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arco, Christina; Dattwyler, Raymond J; Arnaboldi, Paul M

    2017-05-01

    The laboratory diagnosis of Lyme disease is currently dependent on the detection of IgM and IgG antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of the disease. The significance of serum IgA against B. burgdorferi remains unclear. The production of intrathecal IgA has been noted in patients with the late Lyme disease manifestation, neuroborreliosis, but production of antigen-specific IgA during early disease has not been evaluated. In the current study, we assessed serum IgA binding to the B. burgdorferi peptide antigens, C6, the target of the FDA-cleared C6 EIA, and FlaB(211-223)-modVlsE(275-291), a peptide containing a Borrelia flagellin epitope linked to a modified VlsE sequence, in patients with early and late Lyme disease. Specific IgA was detected in 59 of 152 serum samples (38.8%) from early Lyme disease patients. Approximately 50% of early Lyme disease patients who were seropositive for peptide-specific IgM and/or IgG were also seropositive for peptide-specific IgA. In a subpopulation of patients, high peptide-specific IgA could be correlated with disseminated disease, defined as multiple erythema migrans lesions, and neurological disease complications. These results suggest that there may be an association between elevated levels of antigen-specific IgA and particular disease manifestations in some patients with early Lyme disease. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Intra-articular co-infection by Borrelia burgdorferi and Chlamydia trachomatis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putschky, N; Schnarr, S; Wollenhaupt, J; Zeidler, H; Kuipers, J

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Chlamydia trachomatis and Borrelia burgdorferi infections are frequently the cause of unexplained oligoarthritis, as shown by identification of bacteria specific DNA in joint material from patients with reactive arthritis, Lyme arthritis, and undifferentiated oligoarthritis. The aim of this study was to determine whether the two organisms occur simultaneously in joint material from patients with arthritis.
METHODS—Seventy six patients with unexplained arthritis were prospectively studied. Synovial fluid was obtained from all patients and examined for DNA from C trachomatis and B burgdorferi using specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocols. Data concerning prior genitourinary infection or a history of tick bite were recorded and serum antibodies to C trachomatis and B burgdorferi were determined.
RESULTS—Six patients (8%) had DNA from both C trachomatis and B burgdorferi in the same synovial fluid specimen (mean leucocyte count 11.925/mm3, 65% granulocytes). These patients (four men, two women; mean age 33.7 years) all had oligoarthritis of the knee, ankle, or both (mean disease duration 11.3 months). From the history and serological examination, four patients had some evidence of actual or previous infection with one or other of the bacteria, while the other two patients had a positive serological test for Chlamydia only.
CONCLUSIONS—DNA from two different microorganisms which are known to be triggering agents for arthritis may be present simultaneously in joint material from patients with unexplained oligoarthritis. This finding raises the question as to whether, in such cases, one or both bacteria contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease or whether they are only innocent bystanders.

 PMID:11350854

  3. Lipid exchange between Borrelia burgdorferi and host cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameson T Crowley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, has cholesterol and cholesterol-glycolipids that are essential for bacterial fitness, are antigenic, and could be important in mediating interactions with cells of the eukaryotic host. We show that the spirochetes can acquire cholesterol from plasma membranes of epithelial cells. In addition, through fluorescent and confocal microscopy combined with biochemical approaches, we demonstrated that B. burgdorferi labeled with the fluorescent cholesterol analog BODIPY-cholesterol or (3H-labeled cholesterol transfer both cholesterol and cholesterol-glycolipids to HeLa cells. The transfer occurs through two different mechanisms, by direct contact between the bacteria and eukaryotic cell and/or through release of outer membrane vesicles. Thus, two-way lipid exchange between spirochetes and host cells can occur. This lipid exchange could be an important process that contributes to the pathogenesis of Lyme disease.

  4. Few vertebrate species dominate the Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. life cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeester, T. R.; Coipan, E. C.; van Wieren, S. E.; Prins, H. H. T.; Takken, W.; Sprong, H.

    2016-04-01

    Background. In the northern hemisphere, ticks of the Ixodidae family are vectors of diseases such as Lyme borreliosis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever and tick-borne encephalitis. Most of these ticks are generalists and have a three-host life cycle for which they are dependent on three different hosts for their blood meal. Finding out which host species contribute most in maintaining ticks and the pathogens they transmit, is imperative in understanding the drivers behind the dynamics of a disease. Methods. We performed a systematic review to identify the most important vertebrate host species for Ixodes ricinus and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. as a well-studied model system for tick-borne diseases. We analyzed data from 66 publications and quantified the relative contribution for 15 host species. Review results. We found a positive correlation between host body mass and tick burdens for the different stages of I. ricinus. We show that nymphal burdens of host species are positively correlated with infection prevalence with B. burgdorferi s.l., which is again positively correlated with the realized reservoir competence of a host species for B. burgdorferi s.l. Our quantification method suggests that only a few host species, which are amongst the most widespread species in the environment (rodents, thrushes and deer), feed the majority of I. ricinus individuals and that rodents infect the majority of I. ricinus larvae with B. burgdorferi s.l. Discussion. We argue that small mammal-transmitted Borrelia spp. are maintained due to the high density of their reservoir hosts, while bird-transmitted Borrelia spp. are maintained due to the high infection prevalence of their reservoir hosts. Our findings suggest that Ixodes ricinus and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. populations are maintained by a few widespread host species. The increase in distribution and abundance of these species, could be the cause for the increase in Lyme borreliosis incidence in Europe in recent decades.

  5. Borrelia burgdorferi in small mammal reservoirs in Kentucky, a traditionally non-endemic state for Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Matthew J; Davis, Cheryl; Rowland, Naomi S; Dick, Carl W

    2018-04-01

    The incidence of tick-borne zoonoses such as Lyme disease has steadily increased in the southeastern United States. Southeastern states accounted for 1500 of over 28,000 confirmed cases of Lyme disease reported in the United States during 2015. Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, is maintained in small mammal reservoirs and vectored to new hosts by ixodid ticks. This study examined ecological relationships of the B. burgdorferi/vector/reservoir system in order to understand the dynamics of Lyme disease risk in Kentucky. Small mammals were captured using live traps from November 2014 to October 2015. Ticks were removed and blood and tissue collected from small mammals were screened for B. burgdorferi DNA by PCR with primers specific to the OspA gene. Prevalence of B. burgdorferi (21.8%) in Kentucky small mammals was comparable to the lowest recorded prevalence in regions where Lyme disease is endemic. Moreover, infestation of small mammals by Ixodes scapularis, the primary vector of B. burgdorferi, was rare, while Dermacentor variabilis comprised the majority of ticks collected. These findings provide ecological insight into the relative paucity of Lyme disease in Kentucky.

  6. The Tick Salivary Protein Salp15 Inhibits the Killing of Serum-Sensitive Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Isolates▿

    OpenAIRE

    Schuijt, Tim J.; Hovius, Joppe W. R.; van Burgel, Nathalie D.; Ramamoorthi, Nandhini; Fikrig, Erol; van Dam, Alje P.

    2008-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, is transmitted by ticks. During transmission from the tick to the host, spirochetes are delivered with tick saliva, which contains the salivary protein Salp15. Salp15 has been shown to protect spirochetes against B. burgdorferi-specific antibodies. We now show that Salp15 from both Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes scapularis protects serum-sensitive isolates of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato against complement-mediated killing. I. ricinus Salp15 show...

  7. An Ixodes ricinus Tick Salivary Lectin Pathway Inhibitor Protects Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from Human Complement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagemakers, Alex; Coumou, Jeroen; Schuijt, Tim J.; Oei, Anneke; Nijhof, Ard M.; van 't Veer, Cornelis; van der Poll, Tom; Bins, Adriaan D.; Hovius, Joppe W. R.

    2016-01-01

    We previously identified tick salivary lectin pathway inhibitor (TSLPI) in Ixodes scapularis, a vector for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) in North America. TSLPI is a salivary protein facilitating B. burgdorferi s.s. transmission and acquisition by inhibiting the host lectin complement

  8. An Ixodes ricinus Tick Salivary Lectin Pathway Inhibitor Protects Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from Human Complement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagemakers, Alex; Coumou, Jeroen; Schuijt, Tim J; Oei, Anneke; Nijhof, Ard M; van 't Veer, Cornelis; van der Poll, Tom; Bins, Adriaan D; Hovius, Joppe W R

    2016-04-01

    We previously identified tick salivary lectin pathway inhibitor (TSLPI) in Ixodes scapularis, a vector for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) in North America. TSLPI is a salivary protein facilitating B. burgdorferi s.s. transmission and acquisition by inhibiting the host lectin complement pathway through interference with mannose binding lectin (MBL) activity. Since Ixodes ricinus is the predominant vector for Lyme borreliosis in Europe and transmits several complement sensitive B. burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) strains, we aimed to identify, describe, and characterize the I. ricinus ortholog of TSLPI. We performed (q)PCRs on I. ricinus salivary gland cDNA to identify a TSLPI ortholog. Next, we generated recombinant (r)TSLPI in a Drosophila expression system and examined inhibition of the MBL complement pathway and complement-mediated killing of B. burgdorferi s.l. in vitro. We identified a TSLPI ortholog in I. ricinus salivary glands with 93% homology at the RNA and 89% at the protein level compared to I. scapularis TSLPI, which was upregulated during tick feeding. In silico analysis revealed that TSLPI appears to be part of a larger family of Ixodes salivary proteins among which I. persulcatus basic tail salivary proteins and I. scapularis TSLPI and Salp14. I. ricinus rTSLPI inhibited the MBL complement pathway and protected B. burgdorferi s.s. and Borrelia garinii from complement-mediated killing. We have identified a TSLPI ortholog, which protects B. burgdorferi s.l. from complement-mediated killing in I. ricinus, the major vector for tick-borne diseases in Europe.

  9. Comprehensive surveillance of the antibody response to Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in small ruminants in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jifei Yang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the etiological agent of Lyme disease, is tick transmitted and has a wide range of mammalian reservoirs in nature, including both wild and domestic animals. To understand the seroprevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. in small ruminants will add value to the risk analysis of Lyme disease. The current study was intended to map the potential endemic regions of Lyme disease by large-scale investigation of sera from sheep and goats. In this study, a total of 2,758 serum samples from sheep and goats in 21 provinces located in 40 different districts of China were tested for antibodies against B. burgdorferi s.l. by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results of this survey indicated that the overall prevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. infection ranges from 5.3 to 63.5 % (mean: 26.3%, and the infection was found in all provinces investigated. Generally, the positive rate declined from the south (34.7% in south and 32.4% in southwest towards the north of China (18.4% in north, 16.5% in northeast and 17.2% in northwest. A significant difference was also observed in the infection rate between south and north (33.2% versus 17.4%, PB. burgdorferi s.l. in small ruminants in China.

  10. Positive IgG Western Blot for Borrelia burgdorferi in Colombia

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    Palacios Ricardo

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the presence of specific IgG antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in patients with clinical manifestations associated with Lyme borreliosis in Cali, Colombia, 20 serum samples from patients with dermatologic signs, one cerebrospinal fluid (CSF sample from a patient with chronic neurologic and arthritic manifestations, and twelve serum samples from individuals without clinical signs associated with Lyme borreliosis were analyzed by IgG Western blot. The results were interpreted following the recommendations of the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC for IgG Western blots. Four samples fulfilled the CDC criteria: two serum specimens from patients with morphea (localized scleroderma, the CSF from the patient with neurologic and arthritic manifestations, and one of the controls. Interpretation of positive serology for Lyme disease in non-endemic countries must be cautious. However these results suggest that the putative "Lyme-like" disease may correlate with positivity on Western blots, thus raising the possibility that a spirochete genospecies distinct from B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, or a Borrelia species other than B. burgdorferi sensu lato is the causative agent. Future work will focus on a survey of the local tick and rodent population for evidence of spirochete species that could be incriminated as the etiologic agent.

  11. Effectiveness of Stevia Rebaudiana Whole Leaf Extract Against the Various Morphological Forms of Borrelia Burgdorferi in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theophilus, P. A. S.; Victoria, M. J.; Socarras, K. M.; Filush, K. R.; Gupta, K.; Luecke, D. F.; Sapi, E.

    2015-01-01

    Lyme disease is a tick-borne multisystemic disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi. Administering antibiotics is the primary treatment for this disease; however, relapse often occurs when antibiotic treatment is discontinued. The reason for relapse remains unknown, but recent studies suggested the possibilities of the presence of antibiotic resistant Borrelia persister cells and biofilms. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of whole leaf Stevia extract against B. burgdorferi spirochetes, persisters, and biofilm forms in vitro. The susceptibility of the different forms was evaluated by various quantitative techniques in addition to different microscopy methods. The effectiveness of Stevia was compared to doxycycline, cefoperazone, daptomycin, and their combinations. Our results demonstrated that Stevia had significant effect in eliminating B. burgdorferi spirochetes and persisters. Subculture experiments with Stevia and antibiotics treated cells were established for 7 and 14 days yielding, no and 10% viable cells, respectively compared to the above-mentioned antibiotics and antibiotic combination. When Stevia and the three antibiotics were tested against attached biofilms, Stevia significantly reduced B. burgdorferi forms. Results from this study suggest that a natural product such as Stevia leaf extract could be considered as an effective agent against B. burgdorferi. PMID:26716015

  12. Specificity of EIA immunoassay for complement factor Bb testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Igor Y; De Forest, Nikol; Delgado, Julio C

    2011-01-01

    During the alternative complement pathway activation, factor B is cleaved in two fragments, Ba and Bb. Concentration of those fragments is about 2 logs lower than of factor B present in the blood, which makes fragment detection challenging because of potential cross-reactivity. Lack of information on Bb assay cross-reactivity stimulated the authors to investigate this issue. We ran 109 healthy donor EDTA plasmas and 80 sera samples with both factor B immunodiffusion (The Binding Site) and Quidel Bb EIA assays. During the study it was shown that physiological concentrations of gently purified factor B demonstrated approximately 0.15% cross-reactivity in the Quidel Bb EIA assay. We also observed that Bb concentration in serum is higher than in plasma due to complement activation during clot formation which let us use sera as samples representing complement activated state. Our study demonstrated that despite the potential 0.15% cross-reactivity between endogenous factor B and cleaved Bb molecule, measuring plasma concentrations of factor Bb is adequate to evaluate the activation of the alternative complement pathway.

  13. Geographical and genospecies distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato DNA detected in humans in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kerry L; Leydet, Brian F; Threlkeld, Clifford

    2014-05-01

    The present study investigated the cause of illness in human patients primarily in the southern USA with suspected Lyme disease based on erythema migrans-like skin lesions and/or symptoms consistent with early localized or late disseminated Lyme borreliosis. The study also included some patients from other states throughout the USA. Several PCR assays specific for either members of the genus Borrelia or only for Lyme group Borrelia spp. (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato), and DNA sequence analysis, were used to identify Borrelia spp. DNA in blood and skin biopsy samples from human patients. B. burgdorferi sensu lato DNA was found in both blood and skin biopsy samples from patients residing in the southern states and elsewhere in the USA, but no evidence of DNA from other Borrelia spp. was detected. Based on phylogenetic analysis of partial flagellin (flaB) gene sequences, strains that clustered separately with B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia americana or Borrelia andersonii were associated with Lyme disease-like signs and symptoms in patients from the southern states, as well as from some other areas of the country. Strains most similar to B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and B. americana were found most commonly and appeared to be widely distributed among patients residing throughout the USA. The study findings suggest that human cases of Lyme disease in the southern USA may be more common than previously recognized and may also be caused by more than one species of B. burgdorferi sensu lato. This study provides further evidence that B. burgdorferi sensu stricto is not the only species associated with signs and/or symptoms consistent with Lyme borreliosis in the USA.

  14. Large scale spatial risk and comparative prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes pacificus.

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    Kerry Padgett

    Full Text Available Borrelia miyamotoi is a newly described emerging pathogen transmitted to people by Ixodes species ticks and found in temperate regions of North America, Europe, and Asia. There is limited understanding of large scale entomological risk patterns of B. miyamotoi and of Borreila burgdorferi sensu stricto (ss, the agent of Lyme disease, in western North America. In this study, B. miyamotoi, a relapsing fever spirochete, was detected in adult (n=70 and nymphal (n=36 Ixodes pacificus ticks collected from 24 of 48 California counties that were surveyed over a 13 year period. Statewide prevalence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato (sl, which includes B. burgdorferi ss, and B. miyamotoi were similar in adult I. pacificus (0.6% and 0.8%, respectively. In contrast, the prevalence of B. burgdorferi sl was almost 2.5 times higher than B. miyamotoi in nymphal I. pacificus (3.2% versus 1.4%. These results suggest similar risk of exposure to B. burgdorferi sl and B. miyamotoi from adult I. pacificus tick bites in California, but a higher risk of contracting B. burgdorferi sl than B. miyamotoi from nymphal tick bites. While regional risk of exposure to these two spirochetes varies, the highest risk for both species is found in north and central coastal California and the Sierra Nevada foothill region, and the lowest risk is in southern California; nevertheless, tick-bite avoidance measures should be implemented in all regions of California. This is the first study to comprehensively evaluate entomologic risk for B. miyamotoi and B. burgdorferi for both adult and nymphal I. pacificus, an important human biting tick in western North America.

  15. MicroRNA-146a provides feedback regulation of lyme arthritis but not carditis during infection with Borrelia burgdorferi.

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    Robert B Lochhead

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs have been shown to be important regulators of inflammatory and immune responses and are implicated in several immune disorders including systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis, but their role in Lyme borreliosis remains unknown. We performed a microarray screen for expression of miRNAs in joint tissue from three mouse strains infected with Borrelia burgdorferi. This screen identified upregulation of miR-146a, a key negative regulator of NF-κB signaling, in all three strains, suggesting it plays an important role in the in vivo response to B. burgdorferi. Infection of B6 miR-146a-/- mice with B. burgdorferi revealed a critical nonredundant role of miR-146a in modulating Lyme arthritis without compromising host immune response or heart inflammation. The impact of miR-146a was specifically localized to the joint, and did not impact lesion development or inflammation in the heart. Furthermore, B6 miR-146a-/- mice had elevated levels of NF-κB-regulated products in joint tissue and serum late in infection. Flow cytometry analysis of various lineages isolated from infected joint tissue of mice showed that myeloid cell infiltration was significantly greater in B6 miR-146a-/- mice, compared to B6, during B. burgdorferi infection. Using bone marrow-derived macrophages, we found that TRAF6, a known target of miR-146a involved in NF-κB activation, was dysregulated in resting and B. burgdorferi-stimulated B6 miR-146a-/- macrophages, and corresponded to elevated IL-1β, IL-6 and CXCL1 production. This dysregulated protein production was also observed in macrophages treated with IL-10 prior to B. burgdorferi stimulation. Peritoneal macrophages from B6 miR-146a-/- mice also showed enhanced phagocytosis of B. burgdorferi. Together, these data show that miR-146a-mediated regulation of TRAF6 and NF-κB, and downstream targets such as IL-1β, IL-6 and CXCL1, are critical for modulation of Lyme arthritis during chronic infection with B

  16. Host association of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato--the key role of host complement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtenbach, Klaus; De Michelis, Simona; Etti, Susanne; Schäfer, Stefanie M; Sewell, Henna-Sisko; Brade, Volker; Kraiczy, Peter

    2002-02-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), the tick-borne agent of Lyme borreliosis, is a bacterial species complex comprising 11 genospecies. Here, we discuss whether the delineation of genospecies is ecologically relevant. We provide evidence that B. burgdorferi s.l. is structured ecologically into distinct clusters that are host specific. An immunological model for niche adaptation is proposed that suggests the operation of complement-mediated selection in the midgut of the feeding tick. We conclude that vertebrate hosts rather than tick species are the key to Lyme borreliosis spirochaete diversity.

  17. Leptospira spp. vaccinal antibodies do not react with Borrelia burgdorferi peptides used in the AccuPlex 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caress, Amber L; Moroff, Scott; Lappin, Michael R

    2017-11-01

    We attempted to determine if Leptospira spp. antibodies induced by vaccination would cross-react with Borrelia burgdorferi antigens used in a commercial automated immunofluorescent assay (AccuPlex 4 BioCD; Antech). Staff- and student-owned dogs ( n = 31) were recruited at a veterinary teaching hospital in a B. burgdorferi nonendemic area. The dogs were randomized and administered 1 of 4 commercial Leptospira spp. vaccines that contained serovars Canicola, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, and Pomona, then booster vaccinated 3 wk later. Blood was collected on weeks 0, 3, 4, 8, and 12. After confirming that maximal Leptospira spp. titers occurred on week 4, aliquots of sera from week 4 were shipped frozen for analysis of B. burgdorferi antibodies against OspA, OspC, OspF, P39, and SLP with the AccuPlex system. Week 4 sera from all 31 dogs had a titer of 1:100 for at least 1 Leptospira spp. serovar. Titers of 1:800 or greater were detected against multiple serovars in 27 dogs. None of the samples contained antibodies against the B. burgdorferi OspA, OspC, OspF, P39, and SLP peptides used in the commercial assay. The B. burgdorferi peptides used in the AccuPlex system do not recognize naturally occurring Leptospira spp. antibodies or those induced by the commercial Leptospira spp. vaccines administered in our study.

  18. Direct Molecular Detection and Genotyping of Borrelia burgdorferi from Whole Blood of Patients with Early Lyme Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshoo, Mark W.; Crowder, Christopher C.; Rebman, Alison W.; Rounds, Megan A.; Matthews, Heather E.; Picuri, John M.; Soloski, Mark J.; Ecker, David J.; Schutzer, Steven E.; Aucott, John N.

    2012-01-01

    Direct molecular tests in blood for early Lyme disease can be insensitive due to low amount of circulating Borrelia burgdorferi DNA. To address this challenge, we have developed a sensitive strategy to both detect and genotype B. burgdorferi directly from whole blood collected during the initial patient visit. This strategy improved sensitivity by employing 1.25 mL of whole blood, a novel pre-enrichment of the entire specimen extract for Borrelia DNA prior to a multi-locus PCR and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry detection assay. We evaluated the assay on blood collected at the initial presentation from 21 endemic area patients who had both physician-diagnosed erythema migrans (EM) and positive two-tiered serology either at the initial visit or at a follow-up visit after three weeks of antibiotic therapy. Results of this DNA analysis showed detection of B. burgdorferi in 13 of 21 patients (62%). In most cases the new assay also provided the B. burgdorferi genotype. The combined results of our direct detection assay with initial physician visit serology resulted in the detection of early Lyme disease in 19 of 21 (90%) of patients at the initial visit. In 5 of 21 cases we demonstrate the ability to detect B. burgdorferi in early Lyme disease directly from whole blood specimens prior to seroconversion. PMID:22590620

  19. Genetic variation of the Borrelia burgdorferi gene vlsE involves cassette-specific, segmental gene conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J R; Norris, S J

    1998-08-01

    The Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi possesses 15 silent vls cassettes and a vls expression site (vlsE) encoding a surface-exposed lipoprotein. Segments of the silent vls cassettes have been shown to recombine with the vlsE cassette region in the mammalian host, resulting in combinatorial antigenic variation. Despite promiscuous recombination within the vlsE cassette region, the 5' and 3' coding sequences of vlsE that flank the cassette region are not subject to sequence variation during these recombination events. The segments of the silent vls cassettes recombine in the vlsE cassette region through a unidirectional process such that the sequence and organization of the silent vls loci are not affected. As a result of recombination, the previously expressed segments are replaced by incoming segments and apparently degraded. These results provide evidence for a gene conversion mechanism in VlsE antigenic variation.

  20. Isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi from the blood of seven patients with Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadelman, R B; Pavia, C S; Magnarelli, L A; Wormser, G P

    1990-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, has rarely been successfully cultured from blood. We report on seven patients from Westchester County, New York, with B. burgdorferi bacteremia diagnosed between April 1987 and August 1987. One hundred thirty-two attempts to isolate spirochetes were made on blood specimens obtained from 104 patients. Twenty-two of these specimens were obtained from nine patients who had recently been bitten by Ixodes ticks but who were asymptomatic. Heparinized blood or serum specimens (0.2 to 0.4 mL) were inoculated onto 6 mL of modified Barbour-Stoenner-Kelly medium. Lyme serology was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent polyvalent, IgM, and IgG assays, fluorescent immunoassay, and microhemagglutination. Four of the seven patients had erythema migrans, two had facial nerve palsy, and one had a flu-like syndrome without rash. These patients represented 21% (four of 19) of all patients with the characteristic skin lesion who had blood cultures for B. burgdorferi, and 40% (two of five) of all those with facial nerve palsy. Serologic testing was frequently nonreactive; two patients had no detectable antibody on multiple sera by five different assays. All patients improved with antibiotic treatment, and had negative subsequent blood cultures, but five of seven had persistent complaints after completion of therapy. Culturing blood for B. burgdorferi may be useful in confirming the diagnosis of Lyme disease in selected patients. Use of spirochete blood cultures may facilitate a better understanding of the pathogenesis and natural history of Lyme disease.

  1. Spirochetes, including Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, in mosquitoes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sanogo, Yibayiri Osée; Halouzka, Jiří; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 62, 3 Suppl. (2000), s. 288-289 ISSN 0002-9637. [Annual meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene /49./. Houston, 29.10.2000-02.11.2000] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/00/1234 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.765, year: 2000

  2. The Western progression of lyme disease: infectious and Nonclonal Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato populations in Grand Forks County, North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Brandee L; Russart, Nathan M; Gaultney, Robert A; Floden, Angela M; Vaughan, Jefferson A; Brissette, Catherine A

    2015-01-01

    Scant attention has been paid to Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, Ixodes scapularis, or reservoirs in eastern North Dakota despite the fact that it borders high-risk counties in Minnesota. Recent reports of B. burgdorferi and I. scapularis in North Dakota, however, prompted a more detailed examination. Spirochetes cultured from the hearts of five rodents trapped in Grand Forks County, ND, were identified as B. burgdorferi sensu lato through sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA gene, the 16S rRNA gene-ileT intergenic spacer region, flaB, ospA, ospC, and p66. OspC typing revealed the presence of groups A, B, E, F, L, and I. Two rodents were concurrently carrying multiple OspC types. Multilocus sequence typing suggested the eastern North Dakota strains are most closely related to those found in neighboring regions of the upper Midwest and Canada. BALB/c mice were infected with B. burgdorferi isolate M3 (OspC group B) by needle inoculation or tick bite. Tibiotarsal joints and ear pinnae were culture positive, and B. burgdorferi M3 was detected by quantitative PCR (qPCR) in the tibiotarsal joints, hearts, and ear pinnae of infected mice. Uninfected larval I. scapularis ticks were able to acquire B. burgdorferi M3 from infected mice; M3 was maintained in I. scapularis during the molt from larva to nymph; and further, M3 was transmitted from infected I. scapularis nymphs to naive mice, as evidenced by cultures and qPCR analyses. These results demonstrate that isolate M3 is capable of disseminated infection by both artificial and natural routes of infection. This study confirms the presence of unique (nonclonal) and infectious B. burgdorferi populations in eastern North Dakota. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Transcriptional regulation of the Borrelia burgdorferi antigenically variable VlsE surface protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykowski, Tomasz; Babb, Kelly; von Lackum, Kate; Riley, Sean P; Norris, Steven J; Stevenson, Brian

    2006-07-01

    The Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi can persistently infect humans and other animals despite host active immune responses. This is facilitated, in part, by the vls locus, a complex system consisting of the vlsE expression site and an adjacent set of 11 to 15 silent vls cassettes. Segments of nonexpressed cassettes recombine with the vlsE region during infection of mammalian hosts, resulting in combinatorial antigenic variation of the VlsE outer surface protein. We now demonstrate that synthesis of VlsE is regulated during the natural mammal-tick infectious cycle, being activated in mammals but repressed during tick colonization. Examination of cultured B. burgdorferi cells indicated that the spirochete controls vlsE transcription levels in response to environmental cues. Analysis of PvlsE::gfp fusions in B. burgdorferi indicated that VlsE production is controlled at the level of transcriptional initiation, and regions of 5' DNA involved in the regulation were identified. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays detected qualitative and quantitative changes in patterns of protein-DNA complexes formed between the vlsE promoter and cytoplasmic proteins, suggesting the involvement of DNA-binding proteins in the regulation of vlsE, with at least one protein acting as a transcriptional activator.

  4. Increasing RpoS expression causes cell death in Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linxu Chen

    Full Text Available RpoS, one of the two alternative σ factors in Borrelia burgdorferi, is tightly controlled by multiple regulators and, in turn, determines expression of many critical virulence factors. Here we show that increasing RpoS expression causes cell death. The immediate effect of increasing RpoS expression was to promote bacterial division and as a consequence result in a rapid increase in cell number before causing bacterial death. No DNA fragmentation or degradation was observed during this induced cell death. Cryo-electron microscopy showed induced cells first formed blebs, which were eventually released from dying cells. Apparently blebbing initiated cell disintegration leading to cell death. These findings led us to hypothesize that increasing RpoS expression triggers intracellular programs and/or pathways that cause spirochete death. The potential biological significance of induced cell death may help B. burgdorferi regulate its population to maintain its life cycle in nature.

  5. Identification of new drug candidates against Borrelia burgdorferi using high-throughput screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pothineni VR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Venkata Raveendra Pothineni,1 Dhananjay Wagh,1 Mustafeez Mujtaba Babar,1 Mohammed Inayathullah,1 David Solow-Cordero,2 Kwang-Min Kim,1 Aneesh V Samineni,1 Mansi B Parekh,1 Lobat Tayebi,3 Jayakumar Rajadas1 1Biomaterials and Advanced Drug Delivery Laboratory, Stanford Cardiovascular Pharmacology Division, Cardiovascular Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, 2Chemical & Systems Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, 3Department of Developmental Sciences, Marquette University School of Dentistry, Milwaukee, WI, USA Abstract: Lyme disease is the most common zoonotic bacterial disease in North America. It is estimated that >300,000 cases per annum are reported in USA alone. A total of 10%–20% of patients who have been treated with antibiotic therapy report the recrudescence of symptoms, such as muscle and joint pain, psychosocial and cognitive difficulties, and generalized fatigue. This condition is referred to as posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome. While there is no evidence for the presence of viable infectious organisms in individuals with posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome, some researchers found surviving Borrelia burgdorferi population in rodents and primates even after antibiotic treatment. Although such observations need more ratification, there is unmet need for developing the therapeutic agents that focus on removing the persisting bacterial form of B. burgdorferi in rodent and nonhuman primates. For this purpose, high-throughput screening was done using BacTiter-Glo assay for four compound libraries to identify candidates that stop the growth of B. burgdorferi in vitro. The four chemical libraries containing 4,366 compounds (80% Food and Drug Administration [FDA] approved that were screened are Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC1280, the National Institutes of Health Clinical Collection, the Microsource Spectrum, and the Biomol FDA. We subsequently identified 150

  6. Evidence that two ATP-dependent (Lon proteases in Borrelia burgdorferi serve different functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L Coleman

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The canonical ATP-dependent protease Lon participates in an assortment of biological processes in bacteria, including the catalysis of damaged or senescent proteins and short-lived regulatory proteins. Borrelia spirochetes are unusual in that they code for two putative ATP-dependent Lon homologs, Lon-1 and Lon-2. Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, is transmitted through the blood feeding of Ixodes ticks. Previous work in our laboratory reported that B. burgdorferi lon-1 is upregulated transcriptionally by exposure to blood in vitro, while lon-2 is not. Because blood induction of Lon-1 may be of importance in the regulation of virulence factors critical for spirochete transmission, the clarification of functional roles for these two proteases in B. burgdorferi was the object of this study. On the chromosome, lon-2 is immediately downstream of ATP-dependent proteases clpP and clpX, an arrangement identical to that of lon of Escherichia coli. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Lon-1 and Lon-2 cluster separately due to differences in the NH(2-terminal substrate binding domains that may reflect differences in substrate specificity. Recombinant Lon-1 manifested properties of an ATP-dependent chaperone-protease in vitro but did not complement an E. coli Lon mutant, while Lon-2 corrected two characteristic Lon-mutant phenotypes. We conclude that B. burgdorferi Lons -1 and -2 have distinct functional roles. Lon-2 functions in a manner consistent with canonical Lon, engaged in cellular homeostasis. Lon-1, by virtue of its blood induction, and as a unique feature of the Borreliae, may be important in host adaptation from the arthropod to a warm-blooded host.

  7. EST Table: BB991540 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BB991540 E_ET_MSV3_15F09_R_0 10/09/28 37 %/160 aa ref|NP_001129360.1| osiris 9 [Bom...byx mori] gb|ACI23620.1| osiris 9 [Bombyx mori] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/28 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h BB992168 MSV3 ...

  8. The role of Ixodes scapularis, Borrelia burgdorferi and wildlife hosts in Lyme disease prevalence: A quantitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, Samniqueka J; Allan, Brian F; Miller, James R

    2018-04-16

    Due to the ongoing expansion of Ixodes scapularis (blacklegged tick) throughout the northeastern and midwestern United States, there is need to identify the role wildlife hosts play in the establishment and maintenance of tick populations. To quantify and synthesize the patterns of I. scapularis and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and sensu lato prevalence relative to wildlife hosts, we reviewed the findings of independent studies conducted throughout the United States. We performed a comprehensive literature search from 1970 to 2017 using the ISS Web of Science Core Collection and the keywords "Ixodes scapularis," "Ixodes dammini" and "Borrelia burgdorferi." We identified 116 studies for inclusion in our meta-analysis, with 187,414 individual wildlife hosts captured and examined for I. scapularis and either the host or ticks collected subsequently tested for B. burgdorferi. We found that only 13% of the wildlife mammals sampled comprised species other than Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer) and Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mouse). To examine whether there were regional differences between the Northeast, Midwest and the Southeast U.S. in I. scapularis infestation rates on wildlife hosts, we used general linear models (glm), with post hoc pairwise comparisons. In most cases, detection of I. scapularis and B. burgdorferi was significantly higher in the Northeast than the Midwest. Using data on host-specific I. scapularis infestation prevalence, B. burgdorferi prevalence in feeding larvae, and host permissiveness, we developed an epizootiological model to determine the relative contributions of individual hosts to B. burgdorferi-infected nymphs. Our model provides additional evidence that wildlife hosts other than P. leucopus may contribute more to Lyme disease risk than commonly thought. To aid in understanding the ecology of Lyme disease, we propose that additional studies sample non-Peromyscus spp. hosts to obtain more detailed tick and pathogen

  9. Rotavirus shedding following administration of RV3-BB human neonatal rotavirus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Daniel; Boniface, Karen; Bogdanovic-Sakran, Nada; Kirkwood, Carl D; Bines, Julie E

    2017-08-03

    The RV3-BB human neonatal rotavirus vaccine aims to provide protection from severe rotavirus disease from birth. A phase IIa safety and immunogenicity trial was undertaken in Dunedin, New Zealand between January 2012 and April 2014. Healthy, full-term (≥ 36 weeks gestation) babies, who were 0-5 d old were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive 3 doses of oral RV3-BB vaccine with the first dose given at 0-5 d after birth (neonatal schedule), or the first dose given at about 8 weeks after birth (infant schedule), or to receive placebo (placebo schedule). Vaccine take (serum immune response or stool shedding of vaccine virus after any dose) was detected after 3 doses of RV3-BB vaccine in >90% of participants when the first dose was administered in the neonatal and infant schedules. The aim of the current study was to characterize RV3-BB shedding and virus replication following administration of RV3-BB in a neonatal and infant vaccination schedule. Shedding was defined as detection of rotavirus by VP6 reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in stool on days 3-7 after administration of RV3-BB. Shedding of rotavirus was highest following vaccination at 8 weeks of age in both neonatal and infant schedules (19/30 and 17/27, respectively). Rotavirus was detected in stool on days 3-7, after at least one dose of RV3-BB, in 70% (21/30) of neonate, 78% (21/27) of infant and 3% (1/32) placebo participants. In participants who shed RV3-BB, rotavirus was detectable in stool on day 1 following RV3-BB administration and remained positive until day 4-5 after administration. The distinct pattern of RV3-BB stool viral load demonstrated using a NSP3 quantitative qRT-PCR in participants who shed RV3-BB, suggests that detection of RV3-BB at day 3-7 was the result of replication rather than passage through the gastrointestinal tract.

  10. Europe-Wide Meta-Analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Prevalence in Questing Ixodes ricinus Ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strnad, Martin; Hönig, Václav; Růžek, Daniel; Grubhoffer, Libor; Rego, Ryan O M

    2017-08-01

    Lyme borreliosis is the most common zoonotic disease transmitted by ticks in Europe and North America. Despite having multiple tick vectors, the causative agent, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato , is vectored mainly by Ixodes ricinus in Europe. In the present study, we aimed to review and summarize the existing data published from 2010 to 2016 concerning the prevalence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes in questing I. ricinus ticks. The primary focus was to evaluate the infection rate of these bacteria in ticks, accounting for tick stage, adult tick gender, region, and detection method, as well as to investigate any changes in prevalence over time. The data obtained were compared to the findings of a previous metastudy. The literature search identified data from 23 countries, with 115,028 ticks, in total, inspected for infection with B. burgdorferi sensu lato We showed that the infection rate was significantly higher in adults than in nymphs and in females than in males. We found significant differences between European regions, with the highest infection rates in Central Europe. The most common genospecies were B. afzelii and B. garinii , despite a negative correlation of their prevalence rates. No statistically significant differences were found among the prevalence rates determined by conventional PCR, nested PCR, and real-time PCR. IMPORTANCE Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is a pathogenic bacterium whose clinical manifestations are associated with Lyme borreliosis. This vector-borne disease is a major public health concern in Europe and North America and may lead to severe arthritic, cardiovascular, and neurological complications if left untreated. Although pathogen prevalence is considered an important predictor of infection risk, solitary isolated data have only limited value. Here we provide summarized information about the prevalence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes among host-seeking Ixodes ricinus ticks, the principal tick vector of

  11. Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies detection by RLB hybridization in Ixodes ricinus ticks from different sites of North-Eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunaj, Justyna; Zajkowska, Joanna Maria; Kondrusik, Maciej; Gern, Lise; Rais, Oliver; Moniuszko, Anna; Pancewicz, Sławomir; Świerzbińska, Renata

    2014-01-01

    RLB (Reverse Line Blot Hybridization) is a molecular biology technique that might be used for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl) DNA detection with genospecies specification. Among B. burgdorferi sl genospecies at least 7 are regarded as pathogenic in Europe. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of different Borrelia genospecies DNA detection in Ixodes ricinus ticks in the endemic area of North-Eastern Poland by using RLB. Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected in May - June, from 6 different sites in North-Eastern Poland (Jakubin, Kolno, Grajewo, Suwałki, Siemiatycze, Białowieża) by flagging. Extracted DNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the intergenic spacer 5S 23S of B. burgdorferi sl. PCR products were hybridised to 15 different oligonucleotide probes for 9 different Borrelia genospecies (B. burgdorferi sl, B. burgdorferi ss, B. garinii, B. afzelii, B. valaisiana, B. lusitaniae, B. spielmanii, B. bissettii and B. relapsing fever-like spirochetes (B. myamotoi)) by RLB. Borrelia genospecies DNA was detected in 205 Ixodes ricinus ticks. Among 14 infected with Borrelia ticks, 4 were identified as B. garinii and 10 as B. afzelii. Higher numbers of infected ticks were noticed in the eastern part of the research area, where large forest complexes dominate. Nymphs appeared to be the most frequently infected tick stage, which has an epidemiological meaning in the incidence of Lyme borreliosis. The study demonstrated that RLB might be easily used in Borrelia DNA detection with genospecies-identification, and indicated the domination of B. afzelii and B. garinii in ticks from North-Eastern Poland.

  12. InterProScan Result: BB993418 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BB993418 BB993418_6_ORF2 7325F21342D1E3DD PANTHER PTHR12479:SF4 LYSOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED TRANSME...MBRANE PROTEIN 1.9e-69 T IPR018400 Lysosomal-associated transmembrane protein, CG14767-PB ...

  13. Los destructivos B&B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel López

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años varios dibujos animados para jóvenes han cautivado a los mayores por la temática que tratan. Ese es el caso de los Simpson o de Vida de Perros, que son fiel representación de la sociedad norteamericana. Ahora se suma a este fenómeno el dúo juvenil integrado por los destructivos BEAVIS & BUTT HEAD -B&B- jóvenes desempleados piromaniáticos cuyas vidas están marcadas por sus locuras, el amor a la música heavy metal, viven en una zona suburbana y retratan fielmente a la sociedad estadounidense. La exhibición de esta serie en América Latina es tomada como otra forma de penetración cultural norteamericana, son productos de mala calidad que nada tienen que ver con nuestra manera de ser, pero el marketing se impone y muy posiblemente en poco tiempo los B&B se impondrá como los Simpson.

  14. A precise measurement of ΓZ-->bb/ΓZ-->hadrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskulic, D.; de Bonis, I.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Minard, M.-N.; Pietrzyk, B.; Ariztizabal, F.; Comas, P.; Crespo, J. M.; Delfino, M.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Gaitan, V.; Garrido, Ll.; Mattison, T.; Pacheco, A.; Padilla, C.; Pascual, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Farilla, A.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Quattromini, M.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Romano, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Chai, Y.; Hu, H.; Huang, D.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, D.; Xu, R.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Blucher, E.; Bonvicini, G.; Boudreau, J.; Casper, D.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Ganis, G.; Gay, C.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Hilgart, J.; Jacobsen, R.; Jost, B.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Lohse, T.; Maggi, M.; Markou, C.; Martinez, M.; Mato, P.; Meinhard, H.; Minten, A.; Miotto, A.; Miquel, R.; Moser, H.-G.; Palazzi, P.; Pater, J. R.; Perlas, J. A.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Redlinger, G.; Rolandi, L.; Rothberg, J.; Ruan, T.; Saich, M.; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Sefkow, F.; Tejessy, W.; Tomalin, I. R.; Veenhof, R.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wasserbaech, S.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wildish, T.; Witzeling, W.; Wotschack, J.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Badaud, F.; Bardadin-Otwinowska, M.; El Fellous, R.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Prulhière, F.; Saadi, F.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Møllerud, R.; Nilsson, B. S.; Kyriakis, A.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Badier, J.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J. C.; Fouque, G.; Orteu, S.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Tanaka, R.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Parsons, M. I.; Veitch, E.; Focardi, E.; Moneta, L.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Ikeda, M.; Levinthal, D.; Antonelli, A.; Baldini, R.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Cerutti, F.; Chiarella, V.; D'Ettorre-Piazzoli, B.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Picchi, P.; Colrain, P.; Ten Have, I.; Lynch, J. G.; Maitland, W.; Morton, W. T.; Raine, C.; Reeves, P.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Smith, M. G.; Thompson, A. S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Brandl, B.; Braun, O.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Maumary, Y.; Putzer, A.; Rensch, B.; Stahl, A.; Tittel, K.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Cattaneo, M.; Colling, D. J.; Dornan, P. J.; Greene, A. M.; Hassard, J. F.; Lieske, N. M.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Patton, S.; Payne, D. G.; Phillips, M. J.; San Martin, G.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Wright, A. G.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Vogl, R.; Bowdery, C. K.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jackson, D.; Keemer, N. R.; Nuttall, M.; Patel, A.; Sloan, T.; Snow, S. W.; Whelan, E. P.; Kleinknecht, K.; Raab, J.; Renk, B.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmidt, H.; Steeg, F.; Walther, S. M.; Wanke, R.; Wolf, B.; Bencheikh, A. M.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Drinkard, J.; Etienne, F.; Nicod, D.; Papalexiou, S.; Payre, P.; Roos, L.; Rousseau, D.; Schwemling, P.; Talby, M.; Adlung, S.; Assmann, R.; Bauer, C.; Blum, W.; Brown, D.; Cattaneo, P.; Dehning, B.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Frank, M.; Halley, A. W.; Jakobs, K.; Lauber, J.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Richter, R.; Schröder, J.; Schwarz, A. S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Stierlin, U.; Stiegler, U.; St. Denis, R.; Wolf, G.; Alemany, R.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Jaffe, D. E.; Janot, P.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Schune, M.-H.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Zhang, Z.; Abbaneo, D.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bottigli, U.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; dell'Orso, R.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Foà, L.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Mannelli, E. B.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Spagnolo, P.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Triggiani, G.; Vannini, C.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Walsh, J.; Betteridge, A. P.; Gao, Y.; Green, M. G.; March, P. V.; Mir, Ll. M.; Medcalf, T.; Quazi, I. S.; Strong, J. A.; West, L. R.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Duarte, H.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Marx, B.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Rosowsky, A.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Si Mohand, D.; Vallage, B.; Johnson, R. P.; Litke, A. M.; Taylor, G.; Wear, J.; Ashman, J. G.; Babbage, W.; Booth, C. N.; Buttar, C.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Dawson, I.; Thompson, L. F.; Barberio, E.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Grupen, C.; Lutters, G.; Rivera, F.; Schäfer, U.; Smolik, L.; Bosisio, L.; Della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Ragusa, F.; Bellantoni, L.; Chen, W.; Conway, J. S.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; Grahl, J.; Harton, J. L.; Hayes, O. J.; Nachtman, J. M.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Schmitt, M.; Scott, I.; Sharma, V.; Shi, Z. H.; Turk, J. D.; Walsh, A. M.; Weber, F. V.; Sau, Lan, Wu; Wu, X.; Zheng, M.; Zobernig, G.

    1993-09-01

    A measurement of the partial width ratio Γbb/Γhad using a method which tags the Z --> bb decays through the lif etime of the produced heavy hadrons is presented. This method relies on the tracking precision afforded by a double-sided silicon vertex detector. The tag algorithm makes a probabilistic interpretation of three-dimensional track impact parameters, using the data to measure the resolution. By tagging the two b hadrons separately, both Γbb/Γhad and the tag efficiency can be determined from the data. For a 26% efficiency of tagging a single b hadron within the vertex detector solid angle coverage, a purity of 96% is achieved. A value of Γbb/Γhad = 0.2192+/-0.0026(stat.)+/-0.0016(Γcc/ Γhad) is found. Combining this result with other recent ALEPH Γbb/Γhad measurements gives a 95% confidence upper limit on the Standard Model top mass of Mt < 228 GeV. Supported by the US Department of Energy, contract DE-AC02-76ER00881.

  15. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae) in Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) adults in New Jersey, 2000-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Terry L; Jordan, Robert A; Hung, Robert W; Puelle, Rose S; Markowski, Daniel; Chomsky, Martin S

    2003-07-01

    Using polymerase chain reaction, we analyzed 529 Ixodes scapularis Say adults collected from 16 of New Jersey's 21 counties for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiological agent of Lyme disease. Overall, 261 (49.3%) were positive. B. burgdorferi was detected in ticks obtained from each county and from 53 of the 58 (93.1%) municipalities surveyed. The observed statewide prevalence in New Jersey is similar to those reported from other northeastern and mid-Atlantic states.

  16. Platelet-Derived Growth Factor BB Influences Muscle Regeneration in Duchenne Muscle Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñol-Jurado, Patricia; Gallardo, Eduard; de Luna, Noemi; Suárez-Calvet, Xavier; Sánchez-Riera, Carles; Fernández-Simón, Esther; Gomis, Clara; Illa, Isabel; Díaz-Manera, Jordi

    2017-08-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is characterized by a progressive loss of muscle fibers, and their substitution by fibrotic and adipose tissue. Many factors contribute to this process, but the molecular pathways related to regeneration and degeneration of muscle are not completely known. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB belongs to a family of growth factors that regulate proliferation, migration, and differentiation of mesenchymal cells. The role of PDGF-BB in muscle regeneration in humans has not been studied. We analyzed the expression of PDGF-BB in muscle biopsy samples from controls and patients with DMD. We performed in vitro experiments to understand the effects of PDGF-BB on myoblasts involved in the pathophysiology of muscular dystrophies and confirmed our results in vivo by treating the mdx murine model of DMD with repeated i.m. injections of PDGF-BB. We observed that regenerating and necrotic muscle fibers in muscle biopsy samples from DMD patients expressed PDGF-BB. In vitro, PDGF-BB attracted myoblasts and activated their proliferation. Analysis of muscles from the animals treated with PDGF-BB showed an increased population of satellite cells and an increase in the number of regenerative fibers, with a reduction in inflammatory infiltrates, compared with those in vehicle-treated mice. Based on our results, PDGF-BB may play a protective role in muscular dystrophies by enhancing muscle regeneration through activation of satellite cell proliferation and migration. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Polysynovitis in a horse due to [i]Borrelia burgdorferi[/i] sensu lato infection – Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Passamonti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lyme borreliosis (LB is a multi-systemic tick-borne disease affecting both humans and animals, including horses, and is caused by a group of interrelated spirochetes classified within the[i] Borrelia burgdorferi [/i]sensu lato (s.l. complex. Despite the high reported seroprevalence in the European equine population for [i]B. burgdorferi[/i] s.l., to-date no documented clinical cases have been described. A 6-year-old Paint gelding was referred with a history of three weeks of fever, intermittent lameness and digital flexor tendon sheath effusion of the right hind limb. Based on a strict diagnostic protocol, which included serological tests for infectious diseases and molecular investigations, a final diagnosis was made of polysynovitis due to [i]B. burgdorferi [/i]s.l. infection. An unreported aspect observed in this case was the absence of the pathogen DNA in two of the affected joints. To the authors’ knowledge, the case described represents the first documented clinical case of equine LB in Italy. Moreover, the absence of pathogen DNA in two of the affected joints observed in this case revealed a possible similarity with the same condition described in humans, where an immunomediated pathogenesis for arthropathy due to [i]B. burgdorferi[/i] s.l. infection is suspected. Since humans and horses share the same habitat, this report supports the role of the horse as potential sentinel for human biological risk.

  18. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes in wild birds in northwestern California: associations with ecological factors, bird behavior and tick infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Erica A; Eisen, Lars; Eisen, Rebecca J; Fedorova, Natalia; Hasty, Jeomhee M; Vaughn, Charles; Lane, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    Although Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) are found in a great diversity of vertebrates, most studies in North America have focused on the role of mammals as spirochete reservoir hosts. We investigated the roles of birds as hosts for subadult Ixodes pacificus ticks and potential reservoirs of the Lyme disease spirochete B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) in northwestern California. Overall, 623 birds representing 53 species yielded 284 I. pacificus larvae and nymphs. We used generalized linear models and zero-inflated negative binomial models to determine associations of bird behaviors, taxonomic relationships and infestation by I. pacificus with borrelial infection in the birds. Infection status in birds was best explained by taxonomic order, number of infesting nymphs, sampling year, and log-transformed average body weight. Presence and counts of larvae and nymphs could be predicted by ground- or bark-foraging behavior and contact with dense oak woodland. Molecular analysis yielded the first reported detection of Borrelia bissettii in birds. Moreover, our data suggest that the Golden-crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichia atricapilla), a non-resident species, could be an important reservoir for B. burgdorferi s.s. Of 12 individual birds (9 species) that carried B. burgdorferi s.l.-infected larvae, no birds carried the same genospecies of B. burgdorferi s.l. in their blood as were present in the infected larvae removed from them. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. Our study is the first to explicitly incorporate both taxonomic relationships and behaviors as predictor variables to identify putative avian reservoirs of B. burgdorferi s.l. Our findings underscore the importance of bird behavior to explain local tick infestation and Borrelia infection in these animals, and suggest the potential for bird-mediated geographic spread of vector ticks and spirochetes in the far-western United States.

  19. A Drug Combination Screen Identifies Drugs Active against Amoxicillin-induced Round Bodies of Borrelia burgdorferi Persisters from an FDA Drug Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie eFeng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Although currently recommended antibiotics for Lyme disease such as doxycycline or amoxicillin cure the majority of the patients, about 10-20% of patients treated for Lyme disease may experience lingering symptoms including fatigue, pain, or joint and muscle aches. Under stress conditions such as starvation or antibiotic exposure, Borrelia burgdorferi can develop round body forms, which are a type of persister bacteria that are not killed by current Lyme antibiotics. To identify more effective drugs that are active against the round bodies of B. burgdorferi, we established a round body persister model induced by amoxicillin and screened the Food and Drug Administration (FDA drug library consisting of 1581 drug compounds and also 22 drug combinations using the SYBR Green I/propidium iodide (PI viability assay. We identified 23 drug candidates that have higher activity against the round bodies of B. burgdorferi than either amoxicillin or doxycycline. Eleven of these scored better than metronidazole and tinidazole which have been previously described to be active against round bodies. While some drug candidates such as daptomycin and clofazimine overlapped with a previous screen against stationary phase B. burgdorferi persisters, additional drug candidates active against round bodies we identified include artemisinin, ciprofloxacin, nifuroxime, fosfomycin, chlortetracycline, sulfacetamide, sulfamethoxypyridazine and sulfathiozole. Two triple drug combinations had the highest activity against round bodies and stationary phase B. burgdorferi persisters: artemisinin/cefoperazone/doxycycline and sulfachlorpyridazine/daptomycin/doxycycline. These findings confirm and extend previous findings that certain drug combinations have superior activity against B. burgdorferi persisters in vitro, even if pre-treated with amoxicillin. These findings may have implications for improved treatment of Lyme disease.

  20. Does Host Complement Kill Borrelia burgdorferi within Ticks?

    OpenAIRE

    Rathinavelu, Sivaprakash; Broadwater, Anne; de Silva, Aravinda M.

    2003-01-01

    The Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, inhabits the gut lumen of the tick vector. At this location the spirochete is exposed to host blood when a tick feeds. We report here on studies that were done with normal and complement-deficient (C3-knockout) mice to determine if the host complement system killed spirochetes within the vector. We found that spirochete numbers within feeding nymphs were not influenced by complement, most likely because host complement was inactivated within ...

  1. InterProScan Result: BB993418 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BB993418 BB993418_6_ORF2 7325F21342D1E3DD PANTHER PTHR12479 LYSOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED TRANSME...MBRANE PROTEIN 1.9e-69 T IPR004687 Golgi 4-transmembrane spanning transporter Biological Process: transport (GO:0006810)|Cellular Component: integral to membrane (GO:0016021) ...

  2. Measure of the e+e-{yields}bb Cross Section at the LEP Energies; Medida de la seccion eficaz e''+e''-{yields}bb a las Energias de LEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arce Dubois, P

    1992-07-01

    In the present work I analyse the data collected during 1990 by the L3 detector, situated in the electron-positron collider LEP. After selecting the events e''+e''-{yields} bb through their semileptonic decays into muons, I calculate the cross section for the process e''+e''- {yields} bb at different energy points around the mass of the vectorial boson Z, and I measure some parameters of the Standard Model, namely, the Br(b{yields}{mu} ),{gamma}{sub z}n-{yields}bb/{gamma}{sub z}n{yields}had and {gamma}{sub z}n{yields}bb{gamma}{sub z}n{yields}e''+e''-. (Author) 26 refs.

  3. [Recombinant OspC identification and antigenicity detection from Borrelia burgdorferi PD91 in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Wan, Kang-Lin

    2003-10-01

    To recombine OspC gene from Borrelia burgdorferi PD91 of China and expressed it in E. coli for early diagnosis of Lyme disease. The OspC gene was amplified from the genome of Borrelia burgdorferi PD91 strain by polymerase chain reaction and recombined with plasmid PET-11D. The recombinant plasmid PET-11D-OspC was identified with PCR, restriction endonuclease analysis and sequencing. The antigenicity was verified with Western Blot. OspC gene was cloned correctly into vector PET-11D. The resultant sequence was definitely different from the published sequence. The recombinant OspC seemed to have had strong antigenicity. The findings laid basis for the studies on early diagnosis of Lyme disease.

  4. SN 2009bb: A PECULIAR BROAD-LINED TYPE Ic SUPERNOVA ,

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pignata, Giuliano; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Phillips, M. M.; Morrell, Nidia; Boldt, Luis; Campillay, Abdo; Contreras, Carlos; Gonzalez, Sergio; Krzeminski, Wojtek; Roth, Miguel; Salgado, Francisco; Soderberg, Alicia; Mazzali, Paolo; Anderson, J. P.; Folatelli, Gaston; Foerster, Francisco; Hamuy, Mario; Maza, Jose; Levesque, Emily M.; Rest, Armin

    2011-01-01

    Ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared photometry and optical spectroscopy of the broad-lined Type Ic supernova (SN) 2009bb are presented, following the flux evolution from -10 to +285 days past B-band maximum. Thanks to the very early discovery, it is possible to place tight constraints on the SN explosion epoch. The expansion velocities measured from near maximum spectra are found to be only slightly smaller than those measured from spectra of the prototype broad-lined SN 1998bw associated with GRB 980425. Fitting an analytical model to the pseudobolometric light curve of SN 2009bb suggests that 4.1 ± 1.9 M sun of material was ejected with 0.22 ± 0.06 M sun of it being 56 Ni. The resulting kinetic energy is 1.8 ± 0.7 x 10 52 erg. This, together with an absolute peak magnitude of M B = -18.36 ± 0.44, places SN 2009bb on the energetic and luminous end of the broad-lined Type Ic (SN Ic) sequence. Detection of helium in the early time optical spectra accompanied with strong radio emission and high metallicity of its environment makes SN 2009bb a peculiar object. Similar to the case for gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), we find that the bulk explosion parameters of SN 2009bb cannot account for the copious energy coupled to relativistic ejecta, and conclude that another energy reservoir (a central engine) is required to power the radio emission. Nevertheless, the analysis of the SN 2009bb nebular spectrum suggests that the failed GRB detection is not imputable to a large angle between the line-of-sight and the GRB beamed radiation. Therefore, if a GRB was produced during the SN 2009bb explosion, it was below the threshold of the current generation of γ-ray instruments.

  5. Prevalence of Babesia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in hard ticks collected from meadows of Lubelskie Voivodship (eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzięgiel Beata

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the distribution of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and Babesia canis in adult females and males of Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks, inhabiting meadows near large forest complexes throughout the Lubelskie Voivodship (eastern region of Poland. Ticks were collected using the flagging method. Among 720 ticks collected, 506 were identified as D. reticulatus, and 214 as I. ricinus. DNA of B. canis and B. burgdorferi s.l. was detected in 21.3% and 0.6% of D. reticulatus ticks, respectively. In I. ricinus ticks, DNA specific to B. burgdorferi s.l. and A. phagocytophilum was detected in 5.6% and 10.3%, respectively. Co-infections of B. burgdorferi s.l. and A. phagocytophilum were found in two I. ricinus ticks. These results indicate that the Lublin region is an area at risk of tick-borne diseases of humans and animals, which must be considered in clinical practice.

  6. Temporomandibular joint involvement caused by Borrelia Burgdorferi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesnicar, Gorazd; Zerdoner, Danijel

    2007-12-01

    Lyme borreliosis is an endemic disease in Slovenia with an incidence of around 150 patients per 100,000 inhabitants. Although the large joints are most typically affected in Lyme borreliosis, there are also periods of disease activity with arthritis or arthralgias involving smaller joints, including the temporo-mandibular joint. During the years between 2000 and 2003, two patients with Lyme borreliosis affecting the temporo-mandibular joints were treated. The patients presented with fatigue and pain in diverse muscle groups accompanied by arthralgia, which was most pronounced in the temporomandibular joint area. None of the patients were febrile or had joint effusions. Both patients were examined by means of biochemical and serological examinations for Borrelia burgdorferi using ELISA assay and Western blot test (both for IgM and IgG), plain radiographs, MR and CT scans, and scinti-scan of the temporo-mandibular joints They both had positive serum markers for an acute B. burgdorferi infection and were treated with intravenous ceftriaxone. None of the patients had clinical or laboratory signs of chronic Lyme disease activity two and four years following therapy, respectively. Roentgenographic and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the temporo-mandibular joints had not shown any persistent sign of acute inflammation. There are only few reports of patients with manifest temporo-mandibular joint involvement of Lyme borreliosis in the literature. This report emphasizes the importance of differential diagnosis of acute temporo-mandibular joint arthralgia, of early diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis, and of the necessity for prompt antibiotic treatment.

  7. Lyme neuroborreliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Correll, Mette Hedegaard; Datta, N; Arvidsson, Henrik Sven Strandbygaard

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) designates central nervous system involvement caused by the tick-borne spirochaete Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb). The present study describes a spectrum of acquired ocular motor disorders in children with LNB. METHODS: Six paediatric patients (age 3-15 years...

  8. Heterogeneity of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and their reflection on immune response

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stefančíková, A.; Derdáková, M.; Tresová, Gabriela; Peťko, B.; Szestáková, E.; Škardová, I.; Čisláková, L.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 2 (2005), s. 211-216 ISSN 1232-1966 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : horses * ELISA * SDS-PAGE * IgG * seroprevalence * Borrelia burgdorferi * Borrelia garinii * Borrelia afzelii Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 1.051, year: 2005

  9. Antibody profile to Borrelia burgdorferi in veterinarians from Nuevo León, Mexico, a non-endemic area of this zoonosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra M. Skinner-Taylor

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Lyme disease is a tick-borne disease caused by infections with Borrelia . Persons infected with Borrelia can be asymptomatic or can develop disseminated disease. Diagnosis and recognition of groups at risk of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi is of great interest to contemporary rheumatology. There are a few reports about Borrelia infection in Mexico, including lymphocytoma cases positive to B. burgdorferi sensu stricto by PCR and a patient with acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. Veterinarians have an occupational risk due to high rates of tick contact. The aim of this work was to investigate antibodies to Borrelia in students at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Zootechnics, at Nuevo León, Mexico, and determine the antibody profile to B. burgdorferi antigens. Material and methods: Sera were screened using a C6 ELISA, IgG and IgM ELISA using recombinant proteins from B. burgdorferi , B. gariniii and B. afzelii . Sera with positive or grey-zone values were tested by IgG Western blot to B. burgdorferi sensu stricto. Results : All volunteers reported tick exposures and 72.5% remembered tick bites. Only nine persons described mild Lyme disease related symptoms, including headaches, paresthesias, myalgias and arthralgias. None of the volunteers reported erythema migrans. Nine samples were confirmed by IgG Western blot. The profile showed 89% reactivity to OspA, 67% to p83, and 45% to BmpA. Conclusions : Positive sera samples shared antibody reactivity to the markers of late immune response p83 and BmpA, even if individuals did not present symptoms of Lyme arthritis or post-Lyme disease. The best criterion to diagnose Lyme disease in our country remains to be established, because it is probable that different strains coexist in Mexico. This is the first report of antibodies to B. burgdorferi in Latin American veterinarians. Veterinarians and high-risk people should be alert to take precautionary measures to prevent tick

  10. Lyme disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi with two homeologous 16S rRNA genes: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee SH

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sin Hang Lee,1,21Pathology Department, Milford Hospital, Milford, CT, USA; 2Milford Molecular Diagnostics, Milford, CT, USA Abstract: Lyme disease (LD, the most common tick-borne disease in North America, is believed to be caused exclusively by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and is usually diagnosed by clinical evaluation and serologic assays. As reported previously in a peer-reviewed article, a 13-year-old boy living in the Northeast of the USA was initially diagnosed with LD based on evaluation of his clinical presentations and on serologic test results. The patient was treated with a course of oral doxycycline for 28 days, and the symptoms resolved. A year later, the boy developed a series of unusual symptoms and did not attend school for 1 year. A LD specialist reviewed the case and found the serologic test band patterns nondiagnostic of LD. The boy was admitted to a psychiatric hospital. After discharge from the psychiatric hospital, a polymerase chain reaction test performed in a winter month when the boy was 16 years old showed a low density of B. burgdorferi sensu lato in the blood of the patient, confirmed by partial 16S rRNA (ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. Subsequent DNA sequencing analysis presented in this report demonstrated that the spirochete isolate was a novel strain of B. burgdorferi with two homeologous 16S rRNA genes, which has never been reported in the world literature. This case report shows that direct DNA sequencing is a valuable tool for reliable molecular diagnosis of Lyme and related borrelioses, as well as for studies of the diversity of the causative agents of LD because LD patients infected by a rare or novel borrelial variant may produce an antibody pattern that can be different from the pattern characteristic of an infection caused by a typical B. burgdorferi sensu stricto strain. Keywords: Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, homeologous 16S rRNA genes, DNA sequencing

  11. Erratum: PDGF-BB induces intratumoral lymphangiogenesis and promotes lymphatic metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, R.H.; Bjorndahl, M.A.; Religa, P.

    2006-01-01

    This corrects the article "PDGF-BB induces intratumoral lymphangiogenesis and promotes lymphatic metastasis", Cancer Cell, 2004, vol. 6(4), pg 333-45.......This corrects the article "PDGF-BB induces intratumoral lymphangiogenesis and promotes lymphatic metastasis", Cancer Cell, 2004, vol. 6(4), pg 333-45....

  12. [Determination of antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi in patients with morphea, lichen sclerosus et atrophicus and erythema chronicum migrans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinazo Canales, I; Betlloch Mas, I; Mestre Bauza, F; Salva Armengod, F; Parras Vázquez, F; Alomar Cardell, J

    1990-04-01

    Several cutaneous entities described in Europe as Chronic Migrans Erythema (CME), Mild Cutis Lymphadenosis (MCL) and Chronic Atrophyc Acrodermatitis (CAA) constitute clinical manifestations of a Borrellia Burgdorferi. The presence of clinical and hystologic lesions similar to those of liquen esclerosus and atrophyc (LEA) and localized esclerodermia (morphea) in patients with CAA has driven to several authors to demonstrate the aethiologic participation of B. Burgdorferi in patients carrying those cutaneous lesions with contradictory results. A serologic study with indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and FIAX test was performed in 16 patients (9 with morphea, 6 with LEA and 1 with CME) in order to evaluate the role of this microorganism in our environment. Five reactive sera were obtained of which only one presented IgG antibodies titrated at 1/256. The IgM antibodies by IIF and IgG by FIAX test turned out to be negative. A specific relationship between B. Burgdorferi and the studied entities could not be established.

  13. Established Population of Blacklegged Ticks with High Infection Prevalence for the Lyme Disease Bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato, on Corkscrew Island, Kenora District, Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, John D.; Foley, Janet E.; Clark, Kerry L.; Anderson, John F.; Durden, Lance A.; Manord, Jodi M.; Smith, Morgan L.

    2016-01-01

    We document an established population of blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis, on Corkscrew Island, Kenora District, Ontario, Canada. Primers of the outer surface protein A (OspA) gene, the flagellin (fla) gene, and the flagellin B (flaB) gene were used in the PCR assays to detect Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), the Lyme disease bacterium. In all, 60 (73%) of 82 adult I. scapularis, were infected with B. burgdorferi s.l. As well, 6 (43%) of 14 unfed I. scapularis nymphs were positive for B. burgdorferi s.l. An I. scapularis larva was also collected from a deer mouse, and several unfed larvae were gathered by flagging leaf litter. Based on DNA sequencing of randomly selected Borrelia amplicons from six nymphal and adult I. scapularis ticks, primers for the flagellin (fla) and flagellin B (flaB) genes reveal the presence of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.), a genospecies pathogenic to humans and certain domestic animals. We collected all 3 host-feeding life stages of I. scapularis in a single year, and report the northernmost established population of I. scapularis in Ontario. Corkscrew Island is hyperendemic for Lyme disease and has the highest prevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. for any established population in Canada. Because of this very high infection prevalence, this population of I. scapularis has likely been established for decades. Of epidemiological significance, cottage owners, island visitors, outdoors enthusiasts, and medical professionals must be vigilant that B. burgdorferi s.l.-infected I. scapularis on Corkscrew Island pose a serious public health risk. PMID:27877080

  14. Serological and molecular evidence for spotted fever group Rickettsia and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato co-infections in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koetsveld, Joris; Tijsse-Klasen, Ellen; Herremans, Tineke; Hovius, Joppe W R; Sprong, Hein

    2016-03-01

    Only a few reported cases indicate that Rickettsia helvetica and Rickettsia monacensis can cause disease in humans. Exposure to these two spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae occurs through bites of Ixodes ricinus, also the primary vector of Lyme borreliosis in Europe. To date, it is unclear how often exposure to these two microorganisms results in infection or disease. We show that of all the Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.-positive ticks, 25% were co-infected with rickettsiae. Predominantly R. helvetica was detected while R. monacensis was only found in approximately 2% of the ticks. In addition, exposure to tick-borne pathogens was compared by serology in healthy blood donors, erythema migrans (EM)-patients, and patients suspected of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB). As could be expected, seroreactivity against B. burgdorferi sensu lato was lower in blood donors (6%) compared to EM patients (34%) and suspected LNB cases (64%). Interestingly, seroreactivity against SFG Rickettsia antigens was not detected in serum samples from blood donors (0%), but 6% of the EM patients and 21% of the LNB suspects showed anti-rickettsial antibodies. Finally, the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. and Rickettsia spp. in cerebrospinal fluid samples of a large cohort of patients suspected of LNB (n=208) was investigated by PCR. DNA of B. burgdorferi s.l., R. helvetica and R. monacensis was detected in seventeen, four and one patient, respectively. In conclusion, our data show that B. burgdorferi s.l. and SFG rickettsiae co-infection occurs in Dutch I. ricinus and that Lyme borreliosis patients, or patients suspected of Lyme borreliosis, are indeed exposed to both tick-borne pathogens. Whether SFG rickettsiae actually cause disease, and whether co-infections alter the clinical course of Lyme borreliosis, is not clear from our data, and warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of nitrogen rate on transgenic corn Cry3Bb1 protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Paul T; Krupke, Christian H; Camberato, James J; Johnson, William G

    2014-05-01

    Combining herbicide-resistant and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) traits in corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids may affect insect resistance management owing to volunteer corn. Some Bt toxins may be expressed at lower levels by nitrogen-deficient corn roots. Corn plants with sublethal levels of Bt expression could accelerate the evolution of Bt resistance in target insects. The present objective was to quantify the concentration of Bt (Cry3Bb1) in corn root tissue with varying tissue nitrogen concentrations. Expression of Cry3Bb1 toxin in root tissue was highly variable, but there were no differences in the overall concentration of Cry3Bb1 expressed between roots taken from Cry3Bb1-positive volunteer and hybrid corn plants. The nitrogen rate did affect Cry3Bb1 expression in the greenhouse, less nitrogen resulted in decreased Cry3Bb1 expression, yet this result was not documented in the field. A positive linear relationship of plant nitrogen status on Cry3Bb1 toxin expression was documented. Also, high variability in Cry3Bb1 expression is potentially problematic from an insect resistance management perspective. This variability could create a mosaic of toxin doses in the field, which does not fit into the high-dose refuge strategy and could alter predictions about the speed of evolution of resistance to Cry3Bb1 in western corn rootworm Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Identification and Phylogenetic Analysis of a CC-NBS-LRR Encoding Gene Assigned on Chromosome 7B of Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangqi Zhang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Hexaploid wheat displays limited genetic variation. As a direct A and B genome donor of hexaploid wheat, tetraploid wheat represents an important gene pool for cultivated bread wheat. Many disease resistant genes express conserved domains of the nucleotide-binding site and leucine-rich repeats (NBS-LRR. In this study, we isolated a CC-NBS-LRR gene locating on chromosome 7B from durum wheat variety Italy 363, and designated it TdRGA-7Ba. Its open reading frame was 4014 bp, encoding a 1337 amino acid protein with a complete NBS domain and 18 LRR repeats, sharing 44.7% identity with the PM3B protein. TdRGA-7Ba expression was continuously seen at low levels and was highest in leaves. TdRGA-7Ba has another allele TdRGA-7Bb with a 4 bp deletion at position +1892 in other cultivars of tetraploid wheat. In Ae. speltoides, as a B genome progenitor, both TdRGA-7Ba and TdRGA-7Bb were detected. In all six species of hexaploid wheats (AABBDD, only TdRGA-7Bb existed. Phylogenic analysis showed that all TdRGA-7Bb type genes were grouped in one sub-branch. We speculate that TdRGA-7Bb was derived from a TdRGA-7Ba mutation, and it happened in Ae. speltoides. Both types of TdRGA-7B participated in tetraploid wheat formation. However, only the TdRGA-7Bb was retained in hexaploid wheat.

  17. Selective Essential Oils from Spice or Culinary Herbs Have High Activity against Stationary Phase and Biofilm Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Zhang, Shuo; Shi, Wanliang; Zubcevik, Nevena; Miklossy, Judith; Zhang, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Although the majority of patients with acute Lyme disease can be cured with the standard 2-4 week antibiotic treatment, about 10-20% of patients continue suffering from chronic symptoms described as posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome. While the cause for this is debated, one possibility is that persister bacteria are not killed by the current Lyme antibiotics and remain active in the system. It has been reported that essential oils have antimicrobial activities and some have been used by patients with persisting Lyme disease symptoms. However, the activity of essential oils against the causative agent Borrelia burgdorferi ( B. burgdorferi ) has not been well studied. Here, we evaluated the activity of 34 essential oils against B. burgdorferi stationary phase culture as a model for persister bacteria. We found that not all essential oils had activity against the B. burgdorferi stationary phase culture, with top five essential oils (oregano, cinnamon bark, clove bud, citronella, and wintergreen) at a low concentration of 0.25% showing high anti-persister activity that is more active than the known persister drug daptomycin. Interestingly, some highly active essential oils were found to have excellent anti-biofilm ability as shown by their ability to dissolve the aggregated biofilm-like structures. The top three hits, oregano, cinnamon bark, and clove bud completely eradicated all viable cells without any regrowth in subculture in fresh medium, whereas but not citronella and wintergreen did not have this effect. Carvacrol was found to be the most active ingredient of oregano oil showing excellent activity against B. burgdorferi stationary phase cells, while other ingredients of oregano oil p-cymene and α-terpinene had no apparent activity. Future studies are needed to characterize and optimize the active essential oils in drug combination studies in vitro and in vivo and to address their safety and pharmacokinetic properties before they can be considered as a

  18. Selective Essential Oils from Spice or Culinary Herbs Have High Activity against Stationary Phase and Biofilm Borrelia burgdorferi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Zhang, Shuo; Shi, Wanliang; Zubcevik, Nevena; Miklossy, Judith; Zhang, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Although the majority of patients with acute Lyme disease can be cured with the standard 2–4 week antibiotic treatment, about 10–20% of patients continue suffering from chronic symptoms described as posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome. While the cause for this is debated, one possibility is that persister bacteria are not killed by the current Lyme antibiotics and remain active in the system. It has been reported that essential oils have antimicrobial activities and some have been used by patients with persisting Lyme disease symptoms. However, the activity of essential oils against the causative agent Borrelia burgdorferi (B. burgdorferi) has not been well studied. Here, we evaluated the activity of 34 essential oils against B. burgdorferi stationary phase culture as a model for persister bacteria. We found that not all essential oils had activity against the B. burgdorferi stationary phase culture, with top five essential oils (oregano, cinnamon bark, clove bud, citronella, and wintergreen) at a low concentration of 0.25% showing high anti-persister activity that is more active than the known persister drug daptomycin. Interestingly, some highly active essential oils were found to have excellent anti-biofilm ability as shown by their ability to dissolve the aggregated biofilm-like structures. The top three hits, oregano, cinnamon bark, and clove bud completely eradicated all viable cells without any regrowth in subculture in fresh medium, whereas but not citronella and wintergreen did not have this effect. Carvacrol was found to be the most active ingredient of oregano oil showing excellent activity against B. burgdorferi stationary phase cells, while other ingredients of oregano oil p-cymene and α-terpinene had no apparent activity. Future studies are needed to characterize and optimize the active essential oils in drug combination studies in vitro and in vivo and to address their safety and pharmacokinetic properties before they can be considered as a

  19. Measure of the e+e-→bb Cross Section at the LEP Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arce Dubois, P.

    1992-01-01

    In the present work I analyse the data collected during 1990 by the L3 detector, situated in the electron-positron collider LEP. After selecting the events e''+e''-→ bb through their semileptonic decays into muons, I calculate the cross section for the process e''+e''- → bb at different energy points around the mass of the vectorial boson Z, and I measure some parameters of the Standard Model, namely, the Br(b→μ ),Γ z n-→bb/Γ z n→had and Γ z n→bbΓ z n→e''+e''-. (Author) 26 refs

  20. A Drug Combination Screen Identifies Drugs Active against Amoxicillin-Induced Round Bodies of In Vitro Borrelia burgdorferi Persisters from an FDA Drug Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Shi, Wanliang; Zhang, Shuo; Sullivan, David; Auwaerter, Paul G; Zhang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Although currently recommended antibiotics for Lyme disease such as doxycycline or amoxicillin cure the majority of the patients, about 10-20% of patients treated for Lyme disease may experience lingering symptoms including fatigue, pain, or joint and muscle aches. Under experimental stress conditions such as starvation or antibiotic exposure, Borrelia burgdorferi can develop round body forms, which are a type of persister bacteria that appear resistant in vitro to customary first-line antibiotics for Lyme disease. To identify more effective drugs with activity against the round body form of B. burgdorferi, we established a round body persister model induced by exposure to amoxicillin (50 μg/ml) and then screened the Food and Drug Administration drug library consisting of 1581 drug compounds and also 22 drug combinations using the SYBR Green I/propidium iodide viability assay. We identified 23 drug candidates that have higher activity against the round bodies of B. burgdorferi than either amoxicillin or doxycycline. Eleven individual drugs scored better than metronidazole and tinidazole which have been previously described to be active against round bodies. In this amoxicillin-induced round body model, some drug candidates such as daptomycin and clofazimine also displayed enhanced activity which was similar to a previous screen against stationary phase B. burgdorferi persisters not exposure to amoxicillin. Additional candidate drugs active against round bodies identified include artemisinin, ciprofloxacin, nifuroxime, fosfomycin, chlortetracycline, sulfacetamide, sulfamethoxypyridazine and sulfathiozole. Two triple drug combinations had the highest activity against amoxicillin-induced round bodies and stationary phase B. burgdorferi persisters: artemisinin/cefoperazone/doxycycline and sulfachlorpyridazine/daptomycin/doxycycline. These findings confirm and extend previous findings that certain drug combinations have superior activity against B. burgdorferi

  1. Influence of experimental parameters inherent to optical fibers on Quantum Key Distribution, the protocol BB84

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bouchoucha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we represent the principle of quantum cryptography (QC that is based on fundamental laws of quantum physics. QC or Quantum Key Distribution (QKD uses various protocols to exchange a secret key between two communicating parties. This research paper focuses and examines the quantum key distribution by using the protocol BB84 in the case of encoding on the single-photon polarization and shows the influence of optical components parameters on the quantum key distribution. We also introduce Quantum Bit Error Rate (QBER to better interpret our results and show its relationship with the intrusion of the eavesdropper called Eve on the optical channel to exploit these vulnerabilities.

  2. Efficacy of sarolaner in the prevention of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum transmission from infected Ixodes scapularis to dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honsberger, Nicole A; Six, Robert H; Heinz, Thomas J; Weber, Angela; Mahabir, Sean P; Berg, Thomas C

    2016-05-30

    The efficacy of sarolaner (Simparica™, Zoetis) to prevent transmission primarily of Borrelia burgdorferi and secondarily of Anaplasma phagocytophilum from infected wild-caught Ixodes scapularis to dogs was evaluated in a placebo-controlled laboratory study. Twenty-four purpose-bred laboratory Beagles seronegative for B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum antibodies were allocated randomly to one of three treatment groups: placebo administered orally on Days 0 and 7, or sarolaner at 2mg/kg administered orally on Day 0 (28 days prior to tick infestation) or on Day 7 (21 days prior to tick infestation). On Day 28, each dog was infested with approximately 25 female and 25 male wild caught adult I. scapularis that were determined to have prevalence of 57% for B. burgdorferi and 6.7% for A. phagocytophilum by PCR. In situ tick counts were conducted on Days 29 and 30. On Day 33, all ticks were counted and removed. Acaricidal efficacy was calculated based on the reduction of geometric mean live tick counts in the sarolaner-treated groups compared to the placebo-treated group for each tick count. Blood samples collected from each dog on Days 27, 49, 63, 77, 91 and 104 were tested for the presence of B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum antibodies using the SNAP(®) 4Dx(®) Plus Test, and quantitatively assayed for B. burgdorferi antibodies using an ELISA test. Skin biopsies collected on Day 104 were tested for the presence of B. burgdorferi by bacterial culture and PCR. Geometric mean live tick counts for placebo-treated dogs were 14.8, 12.8, and 19.1 on Days 29, 30, and 33, respectively. The percent reductions in mean live tick counts at 1, 2, and 5 days after infestation were 86.3%, 100%, and 100% for the group treated with sarolaner 21 days prior to infestation, and 90.9%, 97.1%, and 100% for the group treated with sarolaner 28 days prior to infestation. Geometric mean live tick counts for both sarolaner-treated groups were significantly lower than those for the

  3. THE HIGH-METALLICITY EXPLOSION ENVIRONMENT OF THE RELATIVISTIC SUPERNOVA 2009bb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levesque, E. M.; Kewley, L. J.; Soderberg, A. M.; Foley, R. J.; Berger, E.; Torres, M. A. P.; Challis, P.; Kirshner, R. P.; Copete, A.; Chakraborti, S.; Ray, A.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Bietenholz, M. F.; Chandra, P.; Chaplin, V.; Connaughton, V.; Chevalier, R. A.; Fox, O.; Chugai, N.; Fransson, C.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the environment of the nearby (d ∼ 40 Mpc) broad-lined Type Ic supernova (SN) 2009bb. This event was observed to produce a relativistic outflow likely powered by a central accreting compact object. While such a phenomenon was previously observed only in long-duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs), no LGRB was detected in association with SN 2009bb. Using an optical spectrum of the SN 2009bb explosion site, we determine a variety of interstellar medium properties for the host environment, including metallicity, young stellar population age, and star formation rate. We compare the SN explosion site properties to observations of LGRB and broad-lined SN Ic host environments on optical emission line ratio diagnostic diagrams. Based on these analyses, we find that the SN 2009bb explosion site has a metallicity between 1.7 Z sun and 3.5 Z sun , in agreement with other broad-lined SN Ic host environments and at odds with the low-redshift LGRB host environments and recently proposed maximum metallicity limits for relativistic explosions. We consider the implications of these findings and the impact that SN 2009bb's unusual explosive properties and environment have on our understanding of the key physical ingredient that enables some SNe to produce a relativistic outflow.

  4. Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies detection by RLB hybridization in Ixodes cinus ticks from different sites of North-Eastern Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Justyna Dunaj; Joanna Maria Zajkowska; Maciej Kondrusik; Lise Gern; Oliver Rais; Anna Moniuszko; Sławomir Pancewicz; Renata Świerzbińska

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. RLB (Reverse Line Blot Hybridization) is a molecular biology technique that might be used for [i]Borrelia burgdorferi [/i]sensu lato (sl) DNA detection with genospecies specification. Among[i] B. burgdorferi[/i] sl genospecies at least 7 are regarded as pathogenic in Europe. objective. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of different [i]Borrelia[/i] genospecies DNA detection in Ixodes ricinus ticks in the endemic area of North-Eastern Poland by using RLB. ...

  5. Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies detection by RLB hybridization in Ixodes cinus ticks from different sites of North-Eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Dunaj

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. RLB (Reverse Line Blot Hybridization is a molecular biology technique that might be used for [i]Borrelia burgdorferi [/i]sensu lato (sl DNA detection with genospecies specification. Among[i] B. burgdorferi[/i] sl genospecies at least 7 are regarded as pathogenic in Europe. objective. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of different [i]Borrelia[/i] genospecies DNA detection in Ixodes ricinus ticks in the endemic area of North-Eastern Poland by using RLB. materials and method. Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected in May – June, from 6 different sites in North-Eastern Poland (Jakubin, Kolno, Grajewo, Suwałki, Siemiatycze, Białowieża by flagging. Extracted DNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting the intergenic spacer 5S 23S of [i]B. burgdorferi sl.[/i] PCR products were hybridised to 15 different oligonucleotide probes for 9 different [i]Borrelia [/i]genospecies ([i]B. burgdorferi sl, B. burgdorferi ss, B. garinii, B. afzelii, B. valaisiana, B. lusitaniae, B. spielmanii, B. bissettii and B. relapsing[/i] fever-like spirochetes (B. myamotoi by RLB. results. [i]Borrelia [/i]genospecies DNA was detected in 205 Ixodes ricinus ticks. Among 14 infected with [i]Borrelia[/i] ticks, 4 were identified as B. garinii and 10 as B. afzelii. Higher numbers of infected ticks were noticed in the eastern part of the research area, where large forest complexes dominate. Nymphs appeared to be the most frequently infected tick stage, which has an epidemiological meaning in the incidence of Lyme borreliosis. conclusions. The study demonstrated that RLB might be easily used in [i]Borrelia[/i] DNA detection with genospecies-identification, and indicated the domination of [i]B. afzelii and B. garinii [/i]in ticks from North-Eastern Poland.

  6. In vitro susceptibility of Borrelia burgdorferi isolates to three antibiotics commonly used for treating equine Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caol, Sanjie; Divers, Thomas; Crisman, Mark; Chang, Yung-Fu

    2017-09-29

    Lyme disease in humans is predominantly treated with tetracycline, macrolides or beta lactam antibiotics that have low minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) against Borrelia burgdorferi. Horses with Lyme disease may require long-term treatment making frequent intravenous or intramuscular treatment difficult and when administered orally those drugs may have either a high incidence of side effects or have poor bioavailability. The aim of the present study was to determine the in vitro susceptibility of three B. burgdorferi isolates to three antibiotics of different classes that are commonly used in practice for treating Borrelia infections in horses. Broth microdilution assays were used to determine minimum inhibitory concentration of three antibiotics (ceftiofur sodium, minocycline and metronidazole), for three Borrelia burgdorferi isolates. Barbour-Stoner-Kelly (BSK K + R) medium with a final inoculum of 10 6 Borrelia cells/mL and incubation periods of 72 h were used in the determination of MICs. Observed MICs indicated that all isolates had similar susceptibility to each drug but susceptibility to the tested antimicrobial agents varied; ceftiofur sodium (MIC = 0.08 μg/ml), minocycline hydrochloride (MIC = 0.8 μg/ml) and metronidazole (MIC = 50 μg/ml). The MIC against B. burgorferi varied among the three antibiotics with ceftiofur having the lowest MIC and metronidazole the highest MIC. The MIC values observed for ceftiofur in the study fall within the range of reported serum and tissue concentrations for the drug metabolite following ceftiofur sodium administration as crystalline-free acid. Minocycline and metronidazole treatments, as currently used in equine practice, could fall short of attaining MIC concentrations for B. burgdorferi.

  7. Crystal structure of the human 4-1BB/4-1BBL complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbreth, Ryan N; Oganesyan, Vaheh Y; Amdouni, Hamza; Novarra, Shabazz; Grinberg, Luba; Barnes, Arnita; Baca, Manuel

    2018-05-02

    4-1BBL is a member of the TNF superfamily and is the ligand for the TNFRsuperfamily receptor, 4-1BB. 4-1BB plays an immunomodulatory role in T cells and NK cells and agonists of this receptor have garnered strong attention as potentialimmunotherapy agents. Broadly speaking, the structural features of TNF superfamilymembers, their receptors and ligand/receptor complexes are similar. However, apublished crystal structure of human 4-1BBL suggests that it may be unique in thisregard, exhibiting a three-bladed propeller-like trimer assembly that is distinctly different from that observed in other family members. This unusual structure also suggests that the human 4-1BB/4-1BBL complex may be structurally unique within the TNF/TNFR superfamily, but to date no structural data have been reported. Here we report the crystal structure of the human 4-1BB/4-1BBL complex at 2.4 Å resolution. In this structure, 4-1BBL does not adopt the unusual trimer assembly previously reported, but instead forms a canonical bell-shaped trimer typical of other TNF superfamily members. The structure of 4-1BB is also largely canonical as is the 4-1BB/4-1BBL complex. Mutational data support the 4-1BBL structure reported here as being biologically relevant, suggesting that the previously reported structure is not. Together, the data presented here offer insight into structure/function relationships in the 4-1BB/4-1BBL system and improve our structural understanding of the TNF/TNFR superfamily more broadly. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Differences in acid tolerance between Bifidobacterium breve BB8 and its acid-resistant derivative B. breve BB8dpH, revealed by RNA-sequencing and physiological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xu; Hang, Xiaomin; Tan, Jing; Yang, Hong

    2015-06-01

    Bifidobacteria are common inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract, and their application has increased dramatically in recent years due to their health-promoting effects. The ability of bifidobacteria to tolerate acidic environments is particularly important for their function as probiotics because they encounter such environments in food products and during passage through the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, we generated a derivative, Bifidobacterium breve BB8dpH, which displayed a stable, acid-resistant phenotype. To investigate the possible reasons for the higher acid tolerance of B. breve BB8dpH, as compared with its parental strain B. breve BB8, a combined transcriptome and physiological approach was used to characterize differences between the two strains. An analysis of the transcriptome by RNA-sequencing indicated that the expression of 121 genes was increased by more than 2-fold, while the expression of 146 genes was reduced more than 2-fold, in B. breve BB8dpH. Validation of the RNA-sequencing data using real-time quantitative PCR analysis demonstrated that the RNA-sequencing results were highly reliable. The comparison analysis, based on differentially expressed genes, suggested that the acid tolerance of B. breve BB8dpH was enhanced by regulating the expression of genes involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism, energy production, synthesis of cell envelope components (peptidoglycan and exopolysaccharide), synthesis and transport of glutamate and glutamine, and histidine synthesis. Furthermore, an analysis of physiological data showed that B. breve BB8dpH displayed higher production of exopolysaccharide and lower H(+)-ATPase activity than B. breve BB8. The results presented here will improve our understanding of acid tolerance in bifidobacteria, and they will lead to the development of new strategies to enhance the acid tolerance of bifidobacterial strains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of decorin-binding protein A to the infectivity of Borrelia burgdorferi in the murine models of needle and tick infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagman Kayla E

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decorin-binding proteins (Dbps A and B of Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, are surface-exposed lipoproteins that presumably bind to the extracellular matrix proteoglycan, decorin. B. burgdorferi infects various tissues including the bladder, heart, joints, skin and the central nervous system, and the ability of B. burgdorferi to bind decorin has been hypothesized to be important for this disseminatory pathogenic strategy. Results To determine the role of DbpBA in the infectious lifecycle of B. burgdorferi, we created a DbpBA-deficient mutant of B. burgdorferi strain 297 and compared the infectious phenotype of the mutant to the wild-type strain in the experimental murine model of Lyme borreliosis. The mutant strain exhibited a 4-log decrease in infectivity, relative to the wild-type strain, when needle inoculated into mice. Upon complementation of the DbpBA-mutant strain with DbpA, the wild-type level of infectivity was restored. In addition, we demonstrated that the DbpBA-deficient mutant was able to colonize Ixodes scapularis larval ticks after feeding on infected mice and persist within the ticks during the molt to the nymphal state. Moreover, surprisingly, the DbpBA-mutant strain was capable of being transmitted to naïve mice via tick bite, giving rise to infected mice. Conclusion These results suggest that DbpBA is not required for the natural tick-transmission process to mammals, despite inferences from needle-inoculation experiments implying a requirement for DbpBA during mammalian infection. The combined findings also send a cautionary note regarding how results from needle-inoculation experiments with mice should be interpreted.

  10. Canine infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, Dirofilaria immitis, Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. in Canada, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrin, Brian H; Peregrine, Andrew S; Goring, Jonas; Beall, Melissa J; Little, Susan E

    2017-05-19

    Canine test results generated by veterinarians throughout Canada from 2013-2014 were evaluated to assess the geographical distribution of canine infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia spp., and Anaplasma spp. The percent positive test results of 115,636 SNAP® 4Dx® Plus tests from dogs tested were collated by province and municipality to determine the distribution of these vector-borne infections in Canada. A total of 2,844/115,636 (2.5%) dogs tested positive for antibody to B. burgdorferi. In contrast, positive test results for D. immitis antigen and antibodies to Ehrlichia spp. and Anaplasma spp. were low, with less than 0.5% of dogs testing positive for any one of these three agents nationwide. Provincial seroprevalence for antibodies to B. burgdorferi ranged from 0.5% (Saskatchewan)-15.7% (Nova Scotia); the areas of highest percent positive test results were in proximity to regions in the USA considered endemic for Lyme borreliosis, including Nova Scotia (15.7%) and Eastern Ontario (5.1%). These high endemic foci, which had significantly higher percent positive test results than the rest of the nation (P Canada. Using dogs as sentinels for these pathogens can aid in recognition of the public and veterinary health threat that each pose.

  11. Habitat properties are key drivers of Borrelia burgdorferi (s.l.) prevalence in Ixodes ricinus populations of deciduous forest fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrmann, Steffen; Ruyts, Sanne C; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Bauhus, Jürgen; Brunet, Jörg; Cousins, Sara A O; Deconchat, Marc; Decocq, Guillaume; De Frenne, Pieter; De Smedt, Pallieter; Diekmann, Martin; Gallet-Moron, Emilie; Gärtner, Stefanie; Hansen, Karin; Kolb, Annette; Lenoir, Jonathan; Lindgren, Jessica; Naaf, Tobias; Paal, Taavi; Panning, Marcus; Prinz, Maren; Valdés, Alicia; Verheyen, Kris; Wulf, Monika; Liira, Jaan

    2018-01-08

    The tick Ixodes ricinus has considerable impact on the health of humans and other terrestrial animals because it transmits several tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) such as B. burgdorferi (sensu lato), which causes Lyme borreliosis (LB). Small forest patches of agricultural landscapes provide many ecosystem services and also the disservice of LB risk. Biotic interactions and environmental filtering shape tick host communities distinctively between specific regions of Europe, which makes evaluating the dilution effect hypothesis and its influence across various scales challenging. Latitude, macroclimate, landscape and habitat properties drive both hosts and ticks and are comparable metrics across Europe. Therefore, we instead assess these environmental drivers as indicators and determine their respective roles for the prevalence of B. burgdorferi in I. ricinus. We sampled I. ricinus and measured environmental properties of macroclimate, landscape and habitat quality of forest patches in agricultural landscapes along a European macroclimatic gradient. We used linear mixed models to determine significant drivers and their relative importance for nymphal and adult B. burgdorferi prevalence. We suggest a new prevalence index, which is pool-size independent. During summer months, our prevalence index varied between 0 and 0.4 per forest patch, indicating a low to moderate disservice. Habitat properties exerted a fourfold larger influence on B. burgdorferi prevalence than macroclimate and landscape properties combined. Increasingly available ecotone habitat of focal forest patches diluted and edge density at landscape scale amplified B. burgdorferi prevalence. Indicators of habitat attractiveness for tick hosts (food resources and shelter) were the most important predictors within habitat patches. More diverse and abundant macro- and microhabitat had a diluting effect, as it presumably diversifies the niches for tick-hosts and decreases the probability of contact between ticks

  12. Antimicrobial Activity of Bee Venom and Melittin against Borrelia burgdorferi

    OpenAIRE

    Kayla M. Socarras; Priyanka A. S. Theophilus; Jason P. Torres; Khusali Gupta; Eva Sapi

    2017-01-01

    Lyme disease is a tick-borne, multi-systemic disease, caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. Though antibiotics are used as a primary treatment, relapse often occurs after the discontinuation of antimicrobial agents. The reason for relapse remains unknown, however previous studies suggest the possible presence of antibiotic resistant Borrelia round bodies, persisters and attached biofilm forms. Thus, there is an urgent need to find antimicrobial agents suitable to eliminate all known f...

  13. Genome Stability of Lyme Disease Spirochetes: Comparative Genomics of Borrelia burgdorferi Plasmids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casjens S. R.; Dunn J.; Mongodin, E. F.; Qiu, W.-G.; Luft, B. J.; Schutzer, S. E.; Gilcrease, E. B.; Huang, W. M.; Vujadinovic, M.; Aron, J. K.; Vargas, L. C.; Freeman, S.; Radune, D.; Weidman, J. F.; Dimitrov, G. I.; Khouri, H. M.; Sosa, J. E.; Halpin, R. A.; Fraser, C. M.

    2012-03-14

    Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne human illness in North America. In order to understand the molecular pathogenesis, natural diversity, population structure and epizootic spread of the North American Lyme agent, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, a much better understanding of the natural diversity of its genome will be required. Towards this end we present a comparative analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the numerous plasmids of B. burgdorferi isolates B31, N40, JD1 and 297. These strains were chosen because they include the three most commonly studied laboratory strains, and because they represent different major genetic lineages and so are informative regarding the genetic diversity and evolution of this organism. A unique feature of Borrelia genomes is that they carry a large number of linear and circular plasmids, and this work shows that strains N40, JD1, 297 and B31 carry related but non-identical sets of 16, 20, 19 and 21 plasmids, respectively, that comprise 33-40% of their genomes. We deduce that there are at least 28 plasmid compatibility types among the four strains. The B. burgdorferi {approx}900 Kbp linear chromosomes are evolutionarily exceptionally stable, except for a short {le}20 Kbp plasmid-like section at the right end. A few of the plasmids, including the linear lp54 and circular cp26, are also very stable. We show here that the other plasmids, especially the linear ones, are considerably more variable. Nearly all of the linear plasmids have undergone one or more substantial inter-plasmid rearrangements since their last common ancestor. In spite of these rearrangements and differences in plasmid contents, the overall gene complement of the different isolates has remained relatively constant.

  14. Lectin-binding characteristics of a Lyme borreliosis spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vancová, M.; Nebesářová, J.; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 3 (2005), s. 229-238 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/1323; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi * electron microscopy * lectin binding Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.918, year: 2005

  15. Isolation of live Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochaetes from patients with undefined disorders and symptoms not typical for Lyme borreliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudenko, N; Golovchenko, M; Vancova, M; Clark, K; Grubhoffer, L; Oliver, J H

    2016-03-01

    Lyme borreliosis is a multisystem disorder with a diverse spectrum of clinical manifestations, caused by spirochaetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. It is an infectious disease that can be successfully cured by antibiotic therapy in the early stages; however, the possibility of the appearance of persistent signs and symptoms of disease following antibiotic treatment is recognized. It is known that Lyme borreliosis mimics multiple diseases that were never proven to have a spirochaete aetiology. Using complete modified Kelly-Pettenkofer medium we succeeded in cultivating live B. burgdorferi sensu lato spirochaetes from samples taken from people who suffered from undefined disorders, had symptoms not typical for Lyme borreliosis, but who had undergone antibiotic treatment due to a suspicion of having Lyme disease even though they were seronegative. We report the first recovery of live B. burgdorferi sensu stricto from residents of southeastern USA and the first successful cultivation of live Borrelia bissettii-like strain from residents of North America. Our results support the fact that B. bissettii is responsible for human Lyme borreliosis worldwide along with B. burgdorferi s.s. The involvement of new spirochaete species in Lyme borreliosis changes the understanding and recognition of clinical manifestations of this disease. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. In vitro and in vivo effects of PDGF-BB delivery strategies on tendon healing: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Evrova

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To promote and support tendon healing, one viable strategy is the use or administration of growth factors at the wound/rupture site. Platelet derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB, together with other growth factors, is secreted by platelets after injury. PDGF-BB promotes mitogenesis and angiogenesis, which could accelerate tendon healing. Therefore, in vitro studies with PDGF-BB have been performed to determine its effect on tenocytes and tenoblasts. Moreover, accurate and sophisticated drug delivery devices, aiming for a sustained release of PDGF-BB, have been developed, either by using heparin-binding and fibrin-based matrices or different electrospinning techniques. In this review, the structure and composition, as well as the healing process of tendons, are described. Part A deals with in vitro studies. They focus on the multiple effects evoked by PDGF-BB on the cellular level. Moreover, they address strategies for the sustained delivery of PDGF-BB. Part B focuses on animal models used to test different delivery strategies for PDGF-BB, in the context of tendon reconstruction. These studies showed that dosage and timing of PDGF-BB application are the most important factors for deciding which delivery device should be applied for a specific tendon laceration.

  17. Restriction fragment polymorphisms in the major histocompatibility complex of diabetic BB rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastern, W.; Dyrberg, T.; Scholler, J.

    1984-01-01

    DNA isolated from diabetic BB (BB/Hagedorn) rats was examined for restriction fragment length differences within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) as compared with nondiabetic (W-subline) BB rats. Polymorphisms were detected using a mouse class I MHC gene as probe. Specifically, a 2-kb Bam......HI fragment was present in all the nondiabetic rats examined, but absent in the diabetic rats. Similar polymorphisms were observed with various other restriction enzymes, particularly XbaI, HindII, and SacI. There were no polymorphisms detected using either a human DR-alpha (class II antigen heavy chain...

  18. Measurement of the ratio Γbb/Γhad using event shape variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskulic, D.; de Bonis, I.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Minard, M.-N.; Pietrzyk, B.; Ariztizabal, F.; Comas, P.; Crespo, J. M.; Delfino, M.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Gaitan, V.; Garrido, Ll.; Mattison, T.; Pacheco, A.; Padilla, C.; Pascual, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Farilla, A.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Quattromini, M.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Romano, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Chai, Y.; Hu, H.; Huang, D.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xie, D.; Xu, D.; Xu, R.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Blucher, E.; Bonvicini, G.; Boudreau, J.; Casper, D.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Ganis, G.; Gay, C.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Hilgart, J.; Jacobsen, R.; Jost, B.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Lohse, T.; Maggi, M.; Markou, C.; Martinez, M.; Mato, P.; Meinhard, H.; Minten, A.; Miotto, A.; Miquel, R.; Moser, H.-G.; Palazzi, P.; Pater, J. R.; Perlas, J. A.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Redlinger, G.; Rolandi, L.; Rothberg, J.; Ruan, T.; Saich, M.; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Sefkow, F.; Tejessy, W.; Tomalin, I. R.; Veenhof, R.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wasserbaech, S.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wildish, T.; Witzeling, W.; Wotschack, J.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Badaud, F.; Bardadin-Otwinowska, M.; El Fellous, R.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Prulhière, F.; Saadi, F.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Møllerud, R.; Nilsson, B. S.; Kyriakis, A.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Badier, J.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J. C.; Fouque, G.; Orteu, S.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Tanaka, R.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Parsons, M. I.; Veitch, E.; Focardi, E.; Moneta, L.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Ikeda, M.; Levinthal, D.; Antonelli, A.; Baldini, R.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Cerutti, F.; Chiarella, V.; D'Ettorre-Piazzoli, B.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Picchi, P.; Colrain, P.; Ten Have, I.; Lynch, J. G.; Maitland, W.; Morton, W. T.; Raine, C.; Reeves, P.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Smith, M. G.; Thompson, A. S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Brandl, B.; Braun, O.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Maumary, Y.; Putzer, A.; Rensch, B.; Stahl, A.; Tittel, K.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Cattaneo, M.; Colling, D. J.; Dornan, P. J.; Greene, A. M.; Hassard, J. F.; Lieske, N. M.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Patton, S.; Payne, D. G.; Phillips, M. J.; San Martin, G.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Wright, A. G.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Vogl, R.; Bowdery, C. K.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jackson, D.; Keemer, N. R.; Nuttall, M.; Patel, A.; Sloan, T.; Snow, S. W.; Whelan, E. P.; Kleinknecht, K.; Raab, J.; Renk, B.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmidt, H.; Steeg, F.; Walther, S. M.; Wanke, R.; Wolf, B.; Bencheikh, A. M.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Drinkard, J.; Etienne, F.; Nicod, D.; Papalexiou, S.; Payre, P.; Roos, L.; Rousseau, D.; Schwemling, P.; Talby, M.; Adlung, S.; Assmann, R.; Bauer, C.; Blum, W.; Brown, D.; Cattaneo, P.; Dehning, B.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Frank, M.; Halley, A. W.; Jakobs, K.; Lauber, J.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Richter, R.; Schröder, J.; Schwarz, A. S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Stierlin, U.; Stiegler, U.; St. Denis, R.; Wolf, G.; Alemany, R.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Jaffe, D. E.; Janot, P.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Schune, M.-H.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Zhang, Z.; Abbaneo, D.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bottigli, U.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; dell'Orso, R.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Foà, L.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Mannelli, E. B.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Spagnolo, P.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Triggiani, G.; Vannini, C.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Walsh, J.; Betteridge, A. P.; Gao, Y.; Green, M. G.; March, P. V.; Mir, Ll. M.; Medcalf, T.; Quazi, I. S.; Strong, J. A.; West, L. R.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Duarte, H.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Marx, B.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Rosowsky, A.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Si Mohand, D.; Vallage, B.; Johnson, R. P.; Litke, A. M.; Taylor, G.; Wear, J.; Ashman, J. G.; Babbage, W.; Booth, C. N.; Buttar, C.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Dawson, I.; Thompson, L. F.; Barberio, E.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Grupen, C.; Lutters, G.; Rivera, F.; Schäfer, U.; Smolik, L.; Bosisio, L.; della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Ragusa, F.; Bellantoni, L.; Chen, W.; Conway, J. S.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; Grahl, J.; Harton, J. L.; Hayes, O. J.; Nachtman, J. M.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Schmitt, M.; Scott, I.; Sharma, V.; Shi, Z. H.; Turk, J. D.; Walsh, A. M.; Weber, F. V.; Lan Wu, Sau; Wu, X.; Zheng, M.; Zobernig, G.

    1993-09-01

    The branching fraction of Z --> bb relative to all hadronic decays of the Z has been measured using event shape variables to preferentially select Z --> bb events. The method chosen applies a combination of shape discriminators and the selection of high transverse momentum leptons to event hemispheres. From a sample of 440 000 hadronic Z decays collected with the ALEPH detector at LEP, the ration Γbb/Γhad = 0.228+/-0.005(stat.)+/-0.005(syst.) is measured. Supported by the US Department of Energy, contract DE-AC02-76ER00881.

  19. Perbandingan antara Tramadol 2 mg/kgBB dan Fentanil 2 mg/kgBB Intravena Sebagai Analgetik Intraoperatif pada Operasi Laparotomi Ginekologis; Pengaruhnya terhadap Skor PRST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Kurniawan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan dan kemajuan teknologi serta ilmu pengetahuan telah mendorong pelaksanaan pelayanan kesehatan yang lebih efektif dan lebih ekonomis dibanding dengan cara yang lazim dikerjakan. Telah dilakukan penelitian terhadap 32 pasien operasi laparotomi ginekologis yang dibagi menjadi dua kelompok. Kelompok Tramadol (n=16 diberikan tramadol 2 mg/kgBB (pengenceran akuabides sampai 10 mL lewat jalur infus selama satu menit, sedangkan pada kelompok Fentanil (n=16 diberikan fentanil 2 µg/kgBB dengan cara yang sama. Lima menit kemudian diberikan propofol 2 mg/kgBB, atrakurium 0,5 mg/kgBB, enfluran 2 volume %, N2O:O2=2 L/menit:2 L/menit. Setelah tiga menit dilakukan laringoskopi intubasi. Pasien diventilasi kendali dengan mode ventilator IPPV. Operasi dilaksanakan bila kedalaman anestesi tercapai berdasar atas skor PRST (P=systolic arterial pressure, R=heart rate, S=sweat, dan T=tears 2 sampai dengan 4. Analgetik pertolongan 50 µg fentanil diberikan bila skor PRST lebih dari 4. Analgetik postoperatif 30 mg ketorolak dan antimuntah 10 mg metoklopramid diberikan saat jahit kulit. Pencatatan tekanan darah, laju nadi, saturasi O2, dan skor PRST dilakukan sebagai berikut: T0 = penderita tiba di kamar operasi, T1= preintubasi, T2= satu menit setelah intubasi, T3= satu menit setelah insisi, T4 dan seterusnya diukur tiap 15 menit sampai selesai operasi. Pasien diekstubasi setelah pernapasan adekuat. Skala sedasi dan muntah dinilai setiap 15 menit setelah ekstubasi selama dua jam. Dari hasil penelitian didapatkan skor PRST mulai T1 sampai T12 secara statistis tidak berbeda bermakna antara kelompok tramadol dan fentanil (p>0,05. Kedua kelompok mengalami peningkatan skor PRST satu menit setelah intubasi. Skor PRST dipertahankan antara 0 sampai 2. Pada kelompok tramadol dan fentanil masing-masing satu orang mendapatkan analgetik pertolongan fentanil 50 µg karena skor PRST 5. Tidak ditemukan perbedaan skala sedasi dan muntah antara dua kelompok perlakuan

  20. Measure of the e+e-{yields}bb Cross Section at the LEP Energies; Medida de la seccion eficaz e''+e''-{yields}bb a las Energias de LEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arce Dubois, P.

    1992-07-01

    In the present work I analyse the data collected during 1990 by the L3 detector, situated in the electron-positron collider LEP. After selecting the events e''+e''-{yields} bb through their semileptonic decays into muons, I calculate the cross section for the process e''+e''- {yields} bb at different energy points around the mass of the vectorial boson Z, and I measure some parameters of the Standard Model, namely, the Br(b{yields}{mu} ),{gamma}{sub z}n-{yields}bb/{gamma}{sub z}n{yields}had and {gamma}{sub z}n{yields}bb{gamma}{sub z}n{yields}e''+e''-. (Author) 26 refs.

  1. Elevated platelet-derived growth factor-BB concentrations in premature neonates who develop chronic lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adcock Kim G

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic lung disease (CLD in the preterm newborn is associated with inflammation and fibrosis. Platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB, a potent chemotactic growth factor, may mediate the fibrotic component of CLD. The objectives of this study were to determine if tracheal aspirate (TA concentrations of PDGF-BB increase the first 2 weeks of life in premature neonates undergoing mechanical ventilation for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, its relationship to the development of CLD, pulmonary hemorrhage (PH and its relationship to airway colonization with Ureaplasma urealyticum (Uu. Methods Infants with a birth weight less than 1500 grams who required mechanical ventilation for RDS were enrolled into this study with parental consent. Tracheal aspirates were collected daily during clinically indicated suctioning. Uu cultures were performed on TA collected in the first week of life. TA supernatants were assayed for PDGF-BB and secretory component of IgA concentrations using ELISA techniques. Results Fifty premature neonates were enrolled into the study. Twenty-eight infants were oxygen dependent at 28 days of life and 16 infants were oxygen dependent at 36 weeks postconceptual age. PDGF-BB concentrations peaked between 4 and 6 days of life. Maximum PDGF-BB concentrations were significantly higher in infants who developed CLD or died from respiratory failure. PH was associated with increased risk of CLD and was associated with higher PDGF-BB concentrations. There was no correlation between maximum PDGF-BB concentrations and Uu isolation from the airway. Conclusions PDGF-BB concentrations increase in TAs of infants who undergo mechanical ventilation for RDS during the first 2 weeks of life and maximal concentrations are greater in those infants who subsequently develop CLD. Elevation in lung PDGF-BB may play a role in the development of CLD.

  2. Measure of the e+e-→ bb-bar cross section at the LEP energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arce Dubois, P.

    1992-01-01

    In the present work I analyse the data collected during 1990 by the L3 detector, situated in the electron-positron collider LEP. After selecting the events e + e - → bb-bar through their semileptonic decays into muons, I calculate the cross section for the process e + e - → bb-bar at different energy points around the mass of the vectorial Z 0 , and I measure some parameters of the Standard Model, namely the Br(b→μ),γ Z degree celsius →bb/γ Z degree celsius → had and γ Z degree celsius → bb γ Z degree celsius → e + e -

  3. EST Table: BB985913 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ar to putative lysosomal glucocerebrosidase [Tribolium castaneum] 10/08/28 30 %/249 aa FBpp0129766|DereGG112...EDICTED: similar to putative lysosomal glucocerebrosidase [Tribolium castaneum] BB985877 MSV3 ...

  4. 4-1BB Aptamer-Based Immunomodulation Enhances the Therapeutic Index of Radiation Therapy in Murine Tumor Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benaduce, Ana Paula; Brenneman, Randall; Schrand, Brett; Pollack, Alan; Gilboa, Eli; Ishkanian, Adrian, E-mail: aishkanian@med.miami.edu

    2016-10-01

    Purpose: To report a novel strategy using oligonucleotide aptamers to 4-1BB as an alternate method for costimulation, and show that combinatorial therapy with radiation improves the therapeutic ratio over equivalent monoclonal antibodies. Methods and Materials: Subcutaneous 4T1 (mouse mammary carcinoma) tumors were established (approximately 100 mm{sup 3}), and a radiation therapy (RT) dose/fractionation schedule that optimally synergizes with 4-1BB monoclonal antibody (mAb) was identified. Comparable tumor control and animal survival was observed when either 4-1BB antibody or aptamer were combined with RT using models of breast cancer and melanoma (4T1 and B16-F10). Off-target CD8{sup +} T-cell toxicity was evaluated by quantification of CD8{sup +} T cells in livers and spleens of treated animals. Results: When combined with 4-1BB mAb, significant differences in tumor control were observed by varying RT dose and fractionation schedules. Optimal synergy between RT and 4-1BB mAb was observed at 5 Gy × 6. Testing 4-1BB mAb and aptamer independently using the optimal RT (5 Gy × 6 for 4T1/Balb/c and 12 Gy × 1 for B16/C57BL6J mouse models) revealed equivalent tumor control using 4-1BB aptamer and 4-1BB mAb. 4-1BB mAb, but not 4-1BB aptamer-treated animals, exhibited increased lymphocytic liver infiltrates and increased splenic and liver CD8{sup +} T cells. Conclusions: Radiation therapy synergizes with 4-1BB mAb, and this effect is dependent on RT dose and fractionation. Tumor control by 4-1BB aptamer is equivalent to 4-1BB mAb when combined with optimal RT dose, without eliciting off-target liver and spleen CD8{sup +} expansion. 4-1BB aptamer-based costimulation affords a comparable and less toxic strategy to augment RT-mediated tumor control.

  5. Molecular typing of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, G.; van Dam, A. P.; Spanjaard, L.; Dankert, J.

    1998-01-01

    To study whether pathogenic clusters of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains occur, we typed 136 isolates, cultured from specimens from patients (n = 49) with various clinical entities and from ticks (n = 83) or dogs (n = 4) from different geographic regions, by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA

  6. An invasive mammal (the gray squirrel, Sciurus carolinensis) commonly hosts diverse and atypical genotypes of the zoonotic pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Millins, Caroline; Magierecka, Agnieszka; Gilbert, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    and may support host specific strains. This study examined the role of grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), (n=679), an invasive species in the United Kingdom (UK), as B. burgdorferi s.l. hosts. We found that grey squirrels were frequently infested with Ixodes ricinus, the main vector of B. burgdorferi...

  7. Exposed and hidden lectin-binding epitopes at the surface of Borrelia burgdorferi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stoitsova, S. R.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Nebesářová, Jana

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 5 (2003), s. 654-658 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6022001 Grant - others:National Research Council at the Ministry of Education and Science(BG) K-709/97 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi * lectin-binding epitopes Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.857, year: 2003

  8. Crimean–Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ticks from Kosovo and Albania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherifi, Kurtesh; Rexhepi, Agim; Berxholi, Kristaq; Mehmedi, Blerta; Gecaj, Rreze M.; Hoxha, Zamira; Joachim, Anja; Duscher, Georg G.

    2018-01-01

    Tick-borne diseases pose a serious threat to human health in South-Eastern Europe, including Kosovo. While Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a well-known emerging infection in this area, there are no accurate data on Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE). Therefore, we sampled and tested 795 ticks. Ixodes ricinus (n = 218), Dermacentor marginatus (n = 98), and Haemaphysalis spp. (n = 24) were collected from the environment by flagging (all from Kosovo), while Hyalomma marginatum (n = 199 from Kosovo, all from Kosovo) and Rhipicephalus bursa (n = 130, 126 from Albania) could be collected only by removal from animal pasture and domestic ruminants. Ticks were collected in the years 2014/2015 and tested for viral RNA of CCHF and TBE viruses, as well as for DNA of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato by real-time PCR. In Kosovo, nine ticks were positive for RNA of Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus and seven for DNA of B. burgdorferi s. l. None of the ticks tested positive for TBEV. CCHF virus was detected in one H. marginatum male specimen collected while feeding on grazing cattle from the Prizren region and in eight R. bursa specimens (five females and three males collected while feeding on grazing sheep and cattle) from the Prishtina region (Kosovo). B. burgdorferi s. l. was detected in seven questing ticks (four male and one female D. marginatus, two I. ricinus one female and one male) from the Mitrovica region (Kosovo). Our study confirmed that CCHF virus is circulating in Kosovo mainly in H. marginatum and R. bursa in the central areas of the country. B. burgdorferi s. l. was found in its major European host tick, I. ricinus, but also in D. marginatus, in the north of the Kosovo. In order to prevent the spread of these diseases and better control of the tick-borne infections, an improved vector surveillance and testing of ticks for the presence of pathogens needs to be established. PMID:29560357

  9. Crimean–Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ticks from Kosovo and Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurtesh Sherifi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tick-borne diseases pose a serious threat to human health in South-Eastern Europe, including Kosovo. While Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF is a well-known emerging infection in this area, there are no accurate data on Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE. Therefore, we sampled and tested 795 ticks. Ixodes ricinus (n = 218, Dermacentor marginatus (n = 98, and Haemaphysalis spp. (n = 24 were collected from the environment by flagging (all from Kosovo, while Hyalomma marginatum (n = 199 from Kosovo, all from Kosovo and Rhipicephalus bursa (n = 130, 126 from Albania could be collected only by removal from animal pasture and domestic ruminants. Ticks were collected in the years 2014/2015 and tested for viral RNA of CCHF and TBE viruses, as well as for DNA of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato by real-time PCR. In Kosovo, nine ticks were positive for RNA of Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus and seven for DNA of B. burgdorferi s. l. None of the ticks tested positive for TBEV. CCHF virus was detected in one H. marginatum male specimen collected while feeding on grazing cattle from the Prizren region and in eight R. bursa specimens (five females and three males collected while feeding on grazing sheep and cattle from the Prishtina region (Kosovo. B. burgdorferi s. l. was detected in seven questing ticks (four male and one female D. marginatus, two I. ricinus one female and one male from the Mitrovica region (Kosovo. Our study confirmed that CCHF virus is circulating in Kosovo mainly in H. marginatum and R. bursa in the central areas of the country. B. burgdorferi s. l. was found in its major European host tick, I. ricinus, but also in D. marginatus, in the north of the Kosovo. In order to prevent the spread of these diseases and better control of the tick-borne infections, an improved vector surveillance and testing of ticks for the presence of pathogens needs to be established.

  10. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ticks from Kosovo and Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherifi, Kurtesh; Rexhepi, Agim; Berxholi, Kristaq; Mehmedi, Blerta; Gecaj, Rreze M; Hoxha, Zamira; Joachim, Anja; Duscher, Georg G

    2018-01-01

    Tick-borne diseases pose a serious threat to human health in South-Eastern Europe, including Kosovo. While Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a well-known emerging infection in this area, there are no accurate data on Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE). Therefore, we sampled and tested 795 ticks. Ixodes ricinus ( n  = 218), Dermacentor marginatus ( n  = 98), and Haemaphysalis spp. ( n  = 24) were collected from the environment by flagging (all from Kosovo), while Hyalomma marginatum ( n  = 199 from Kosovo, all from Kosovo) and Rhipicephalus bursa ( n  = 130, 126 from Albania) could be collected only by removal from animal pasture and domestic ruminants. Ticks were collected in the years 2014/2015 and tested for viral RNA of CCHF and TBE viruses, as well as for DNA of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato by real-time PCR. In Kosovo, nine ticks were positive for RNA of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus and seven for DNA of B. burgdorferi s. l. None of the ticks tested positive for TBEV. CCHF virus was detected in one H. marginatum male specimen collected while feeding on grazing cattle from the Prizren region and in eight R. bursa specimens (five females and three males collected while feeding on grazing sheep and cattle) from the Prishtina region (Kosovo). B. burgdorferi s. l. was detected in seven questing ticks (four male and one female D. marginatus , two I. ricinus one female and one male) from the Mitrovica region (Kosovo). Our study confirmed that CCHF virus is circulating in Kosovo mainly in H. marginatum and R. bursa in the central areas of the country. B. burgdorferi s. l. was found in its major European host tick, I. ricinus , but also in D. marginatus , in the north of the Kosovo. In order to prevent the spread of these diseases and better control of the tick-borne infections, an improved vector surveillance and testing of ticks for the presence of pathogens needs to be established.

  11. Occurrence of multiple infections with different Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies in Danish Ixodes ricinus nymphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jean Vennestrøm; Egholm, H.; Mikkelsen, Per Jensen

    2008-01-01

    The pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi causes Lyme Borreliosis in human and animals world-wide. In Europe the pathogen is transmitted to the host by the vector Ixodes ricinus. The nymph is the primary instar for transmission to humans. We here study the infection rate of five Borrelia genospecies: B...

  12. Role of acetyl-phosphate in activation of the Rrp2-RpoN-RpoS pathway in Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijun Xu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease spirochete, dramatically alters its transcriptome and proteome as it cycles between the arthropod vector and mammalian host. During this enzootic cycle, a novel regulatory network, the Rrp2-RpoN-RpoS pathway (also known as the σ(54-σ(S sigma factor cascade, plays a central role in modulating the differential expression of more than 10% of all B. burgdorferi genes, including the major virulence genes ospA and ospC. However, the mechanism(s by which the upstream activator and response regulator Rrp2 is activated remains unclear. Here, we show that none of the histidine kinases present in the B. burgdorferi genome are required for the activation of Rrp2. Instead, we present biochemical and genetic evidence that supports the hypothesis that activation of the Rrp2-RpoN-RpoS pathway occurs via the small, high-energy, phosphoryl-donor acetyl phosphate (acetyl∼P, the intermediate of the Ack-Pta (acetate kinase-phosphate acetyltransferase pathway that converts acetate to acetyl-CoA. Supplementation of the growth medium with acetate induced activation of the Rrp2-RpoN-RpoS pathway in a dose-dependent manner. Conversely, the overexpression of Pta virtually abolished acetate-induced activation of this pathway, suggesting that acetate works through acetyl∼P. Overexpression of Pta also greatly inhibited temperature and cell density-induced activation of RpoS and OspC, suggesting that these environmental cues affect the Rrp2-RpoN-RpoS pathway by influencing acetyl∼P. Finally, overexpression of Pta partially reduced infectivity of B. burgdorferi in mice. Taken together, these findings suggest that acetyl∼P is one of the key activating molecule for the activation of the Rrp2-RpoN-RpoS pathway and support the emerging concept that acetyl∼P can serve as a global signal in bacterial pathogenesis.

  13. Molecular Typing of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato by Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA Fingerprinting Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guiqing; van Dam, Alje P.; Spanjaard, Lodewijk; Dankert, Jacob

    1998-01-01

    To study whether pathogenic clusters of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains occur, we typed 136 isolates, cultured from specimens from patients (n = 49) with various clinical entities and from ticks (n = 83) or dogs (n = 4) from different geographic regions, by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting with four arbitrary primers. The RAPD patterns were reproducible up to the 95% similarity level as shown in duplicate experiments. In these experiments the purified DNAs prepared on different days, from different colonies, and after various passages were used as templates. With an intergroup difference of 55%, the 136 strains could be divided into seven genetic clusters. Six clusters comprised and corresponded to the established species B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (n = 23), Borrelia garinii (n = 39), Borrelia afzelii (n = 59), Borrelia japonica (n = 1), Borrelia valaisiana (n = 12), and genomic group DN127 (n = 1). One strain from a patient with erythema migrans (EM) did not belong to any of the species or genomic groups known up to now. The RAPD types of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii, and B. afzelii isolates, which may give rise to human Lyme borreliosis (LB), were associated with their geographic origins. A high degree of genetic diversity was observed among the 39 B. garinii strains, and six subgroups could be recognized. One of these comprised eight isolates from patients with disseminated LB only and no tick isolates. B. afzelii strains from patients with EM or acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans were not clustered in particular branches. Our study showed that RAPD analysis is a powerful tool for discriminating different Borrelia species as well as Borrelia isolates within species. PMID:9508310

  14. An investigation of hierachical protein recruitment to the inhibitory platelet receptor, G6B-b.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen H Coxon

    Full Text Available Platelet activation is regulated by both positive and negative signals. G6B-b is an inhibitory platelet receptor with an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM and an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motif (ITSM. The molecular basis of inhibition by G6B-b is currently unknown but thought to involve the SH2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1. Here we show that G6B-b also associates with SHP-2, as well as SHP-1, in human platelets. Using a number of biochemical approaches, we found these interactions to be direct and that the tandem SH2 domains of SHP-2 demonstrated a binding affinity for G6B-b 100-fold higher than that of SHP-1. It was also observed that while SHP-1 has an absolute requirement for phosphorylation at both motifs to bind, SHP-2 can associate with G6B-b when only one motif is phosphorylated, with the N-terminal SH2 domain and the ITIM being most important for the interaction. A number of other previously unreported SH2 domain-containing proteins, including Syk and PLCγ2, also demonstrated specificity for G6B-b phosphomotifs and may serve to explain the observation that G6B-b remains inhibitory in the absence of both SHP-1 and SHP-2. In addition, the presence of dual phosphorylated G6B-b in washed human platelets can reduce the EC(50 for both CRP and collagen.

  15. Fetal rat pancreas transplantation in BB rats: immunohistochemical and functional evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yderstræde, Knud Bonnet; Starklint, Henrik; Steinbrüchel, Daniel Andreas

    1993-01-01

    Spontaneously diabetic BB/Wor rats received either a syngeneic fetal pancreas transplant or adult islets. In the former, 4-8 fetal pancreases were transplanted, and in the latter, 3-5000 islets. Transplantation was performed by transferring a blood clot containing the pancreases or islets...... to the renal subcapsular space. Insulin therapy was undertaken postoperatively, except in one experiment with adult islets. Of the fetal pancreas transplanted BB rats, 52% became normoglycaemic, and 21% remained so throughout an observation period of 10 months. Nephrectomy caused a prompt return of diabetes...... that recurrent diabetes is not inevitable following syngeneic fetal pancreas transplantation to spontaneously diabetic BB rats. Recurrent diabetes was only occasionally associated with mononuclear cell infiltration. Transplanted tissue was well-preserved and vascularized; mega-islets were a constant finding....

  16. Measurement of the ratio of branching fractions ${\\cal B}(B^0 \\to K^{\\ast 0} \\gamma)/{\\cal B}(B^0_s \\to \\phi \\gamma)$

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderson, J; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Arrabito, L; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Bailey, D S; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, C; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Bernet, R; Bettler, M -O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chiapolini, N; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Constantin, F; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Lorenzi, F; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Domingo Bonal, F; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisele, F; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Esperante Pereira, D; Falabella, A; Fanchini, E; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garnier, J-C; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gauvin, N; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harji, R; Harnew, N; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Holubyev, K; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Huston, R S; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jahjah Hussein, M; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Keaveney, J; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kim, Y M; Knecht, M; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kruzelecki, K; Kucharczyk, M; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J -P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, L; Li Gioi, L; Lieng, M; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Luisier, J; Mac Raighne, A; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Magnin, J; Malde, S; Mamunur, R M D; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinez Santos, D; Massafferri, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Maynard, B; Mazurov, A; McGregor, G; McNulty, R; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Merkel, J; Messi, R; Miglioranzi, S; Milanes, D A; Minard, M -N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Musy, M; Mylroie-Smith, J; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Nedos, M; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B K; Palacios, J; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Paterson, S K; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petrella, A; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pie Valls, B; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Plackett, R; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodrigues, F; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Rosello, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santinelli, R; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schleich, S; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Sobczak, K; Soler, F J P; Solomin, A; Soomro, F; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urquijo, P; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Viaud, B; Videau, I; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Visniakov, J; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Voss, H; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2012-01-01

    The ratio of branching fractions of the radiative $B$ decays $B^0\\to K^{*0}\\gamma$ and $B^0_s\\to \\phi\\gamma$ has been measured using $0.37\\,$fb$^{-1}$ of $pp$ collisions at a centre of mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}=7\\,$TeV, collected by the LHCb experiment. The value obtained is \\begin{equation} \\frac{{\\cal B}(B^0\\to K^{*0}\\gamma)}{{\\cal B}(B^0_s\\to \\phi\\gamma)} = 1.12 \\pm 0.08^{+0.06}_{-0.04}\\phantom{.}^{+0.09}_{-0.08},\

  17. Functional analysis of the Borrelia burgdorferi bba64 gene product in murine infection via tick infestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni G Patton

    Full Text Available Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, is transmitted to humans from the bite of Ixodes spp. ticks. During the borrelial tick-to-mammal life cycle, B. burgdorferi must adapt to many environmental changes by regulating several genes, including bba64. Our laboratory recently demonstrated that the bba64 gene product is necessary for mouse infectivity when B. burgdorferi is transmitted by an infected tick bite, but not via needle inoculation. In this study we investigated the phenotypic properties of a bba64 mutant strain, including 1 replication during tick engorgement, 2 migration into the nymphal salivary glands, 3 host transmission, and 4 susceptibility to the MyD88-dependent innate immune response. Results revealed that the bba64 mutant's attenuated infectivity by tick bite was not due to a growth defect inside an actively feeding nymphal tick, or failure to invade the salivary glands. These findings suggested there was either a lack of spirochete transmission to the host dermis or increased susceptibility to the host's innate immune response. Further experiments showed the bba64 mutant was not culturable from mouse skin taken at the nymphal bite site and was unable to establish infection in MyD88-deficient mice via tick infestation. Collectively, the results of this study indicate that BBA64 functions at the salivary gland-to-host delivery interface of vector transmission and is not involved in resistance to MyD88-mediated innate immunity.

  18. Phase I trial of RV3-BB rotavirus vaccine: a human neonatal rotavirus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchin, M; Kirkwood, C D; Lee, K J; Bishop, R F; Watts, E; Justice, F A; Clifford, V; Cowley, D; Buttery, J P; Bines, J E

    2013-05-28

    RV3 is a human neonatal rotavirus strain (G3P[6]) that has been associated with asymptomatic neonatal infection and replicates well in the infant gut. RV3-BB rotavirus vaccine has been developed as a rotavirus vaccine candidate for administration at birth. A single-centre, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled Phase I study evaluated the safety and tolerability of a single oral dose of the second generation RV3-BB rotavirus vaccine (8.3×10(6)FFU/mL) in 20 adults, 20 children and 20 infants (10 vaccine and 10 placebo per age cohort). Vaccine take was defined as seroconversion (a 3-fold increase in serum anti-rotavirus IgA or serum neutralising antibody (SNA) from baseline at day 28 post-dose) or evidence of RV3-BB viral replication in the faeces by RT-PCR analysis 3-6 days post-vaccination. RV3-BB presence was confirmed by sequence analysis. The RV3-BB vaccine was well tolerated in all participants, with no pattern of adverse events shown to be associated with the study vaccine. In the infant cohort, vaccine take was demonstrated in 8/9 infants following a single dose of vaccine compared with 2/7 placebo recipients. In the infant vaccine group, 5/9 infants exhibited either IgA or SNA seroconversion and 7/9 infants had evidence of RV3-BB replication on days 3-6, compared with 2/7 infants who seroconverted and 0/10 infants with evidence of replication in the placebo group. Two infants in the placebo group had serological evidence of a rotavirus infection within the 28-day study period: one demonstrated an IgA and the other an SNA response, with wild-type virus replication detected in another infant. A single dose of RV3-BB rotavirus vaccine was well tolerated in adults, children and infants. Most infants (8/9) who received RV3-BB demonstrated vaccine take following a single dose. These data support progression of RV3-BB to Phase II immunogenicity and efficacy trials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. EST Table: BB985877 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 13 aa ref|XP_975608.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative lysosomal glucocerebrosidas...el|GB10584-PA 10/09/10 43 %/213 aa gi|91087345|ref|XP_975608.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative lysosomal glucocerebrosidase [Tribolium castaneum] BB985877 MSV3 ...

  20. Serological survey of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Ehrlichia canis infections in rural and urban dogs in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Virginia Ebani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction[i][/i][/b][i]. Borrelia burgdorferi [/i]sensu lato (s.l. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum are well known zoonotic pathogens, whereas[i] Ehrlichia canis[/i] is usually considered to be of veterinary concern, although on the basis of recent reports it also seems to be able to infect humans. [b]objective[/b]. The aim of the study was to determine the seroprevalence of [i]B. burgdorferi [/i]s.l., A. phagocytophilum and [i]E. canis[/i] in an Italian canine population, and to verify if there are differences between dogs living in urban areas and those from a rural environment. [b]materials and method.[/b] Blood sera of 1,965 dogs, 1,235 from cities and 730 from rural areas, were tested by indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFAT. [b]results[/b]. The overall seroprevalence was highest for E. canis (7.07%, followed by [i]A. phagocytophilum[/i] (4.68%, and [i]B. burgdorferi[/i] s.l. (1.47%. Rural dogs showed the highest seroprevalence to [i]B. burgdorferi[/i] s.l. and [i]A. phagocytophilum[/i]. No significant differences were observed between rural and urban [i]E. canis[/i]-positive dogs. A low percentage (1.32% of dogs with dual seropositivity was detected, and no triple positive reactions were observed. No significant differences were detected in the seroprevalence of the three agents in relationship to the age and gender of the dogs. Seroprevalence in the five years considered were not statistically different, except for the lowest rate for [i]E. canis[/i] observed in 2012. [b]conclusions[/b]. The results confirm the presence of [i]B. burgdorferi[/i] s.l., [i]A. phagocytophilum[/i] and [i]E. canis[/i] in Italian dogs in both urban and rural areas. Monitoring pet dogs, which share the same environment with their owners, is useful for identifying the presence of tick-borne disease agents of both veterinary and public health significance

  1. Eradication of Biofilm-like Microcolony Structures of Borrelia burgdorferi by Daunomycin and Daptomycin but not Mitomycin C in Combination with Doxycycline and Cefuroxime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie eFeng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Lyme disease, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States and Europe. While the majority of Lyme disease patients can resolve their symptoms if treated promptly, 10-20% of patients suffer from prolonged symptoms called post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS. Although the cause for PTLDS is unclear, one possibility is the presence of bacterial persisters not effectively cleared by the current Lyme antibiotics. Recent studies identified several drug candidates including daptomycin, daunomycin, doxorubicin, and mitomycin C that had good activity against B. burgdorferi persisters. However, their relative activities against B. burgdorferi persisters have not been evaluated under the same conditions. In this study, we tested the anti-persister activities of these drugs against both 7-day and 15-day old stationary phase cultures of B. burgdorferi individually as well as in combination with Lyme antibiotics doxycycline and cefuroxime (Ceftin. Our findings demonstrate daunomycin and daptomycin were more active than mitomycin C in single drug comparison at 10 and 20 µM, as well as in drug combinations with doxycycline and cefuroxime. In addition, daunomycin was more active than doxorubicin which correlated with their ability to stain and accumulate in B. burgdorferi. The two drug combination of doxycycline and cefuroxime was unable to eradicate biofilm-like microcolonies of B. burgdorferi persisters. However, the addition of either daunomycin or daptomycin to the doxycycline + cefuroxime combination completely eradicated the biofilm-like structures and produced no visible bacterial regrowth after 7 days and 21 days, while the addition of doxorubicin was unable to prevent regrowth at either 7 day or 21 day subculture. Mitomycin C in combination with doxycycline and cefuroxime caused no regrowth at 7 days but visible spirochetal regrowth occurred after 21 day subculture. Furthermore, we found that

  2. Radioimmunoassay of serum creatine kinase BB as index of brain damage after head injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, J P; Jones, H M; Hitchcock, R; Adams, N; Thompson, R J [Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (UK)

    1980-09-20

    Brain-type creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-BB) was measured by radioimmunoassay in the serum of 54 patients with head injuries. CK-BB was not detectable in 476 out of 1006 controls, the remaining 530 normal samples containing a mean of 1.5 +- SDO.75 ..mu..g/l. The mean CK-BB concentrations in patients with mild, moderate, and fatal head injuries were all significantly higher than the control value (p<0.01 in each instance). Patients with serious head injury had serum concentrations many times the normal value, in two cases within 30 minutes after impact. Fatally injured patients continued to have high serum concentrations several days after injury. In less serious cases values approached normal within two or three days. Every patient with evidence of cerebral laceration, bruising, or swelling had a serum CK-BB concentration above normal. Raised concentrations were found in 14 out of 22 patients with concussion only. Thus the serum CK-BB concentration appears to be a sensitive index of brain damage and may prove useful in the management and follow-up of head-injured patients.

  3. Radioimmunoassay of serum creatine kinase BB as index of brain damage after head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.P.; Jones, H.M.; Hitchcock, R.; Adams, N.; Thompson, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    Brain-type creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-BB) was measured by radioimmunoassay in the serum of 54 patients with head injuries. CK-BB was not detectable in 476 out of 1006 controls, the remaining 530 normal samples containing a mean of 1.5 +- SDO.75 μg/l. The mean CK-BB concentrations in patients with mild, moderate, and fatal head injuries were all significantly higher than the control value (p<0.01 in each instance). Patients with serious head injury had serum concentrations many times the normal value, in two cases within 30 minutes after impact. Fatally injured patients continued to have high serum concentrations several days after injury. In less serious cases values approached normal within two or three days. Every patient with evidence of cerebral laceration, bruising, or swelling had a serum CK-BB concentration above normal. Raised concentrations were found in 14 out of 22 patients with concussion only. Thus the serum CK-BB concentration appears to be a sensitive index of brain damage and may prove useful in the management and follow-up of head-injured patients. (author)

  4. Insights into PG-binding, conformational change, and dimerization of the OmpA C-terminal domains from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Borrelia burgdorferi: Characterization of OmpA C-Terminal Domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Kemin [Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases, University of Chicago, 5735 South Ellis Avenue Chicago Illinois 60637; Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439; Structural Biology Center, Biosciences, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439; Deatherage Kaiser, Brooke L. [National Security Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99352; Wu, Ruiying [Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439; Cuff, Marianne [Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439; Fan, Yao [Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439; Bigelow, Lance [Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439; Jedrzejczak, Robert P. [Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases, University of Chicago, 5735 South Ellis Avenue Chicago Illinois 60637; Adkins, Joshua N. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99352; Cort, John R. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99352; Babnigg, Gyorgy [Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases, University of Chicago, 5735 South Ellis Avenue Chicago Illinois 60637; Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439; Joachimiak, Andrzej [Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases, University of Chicago, 5735 South Ellis Avenue Chicago Illinois 60637; Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439; Structural Biology Center, Biosciences, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439

    2017-06-19

    S. Typhimurium can induce both humoral and cell-mediated responses when establishing itself in the host. These responses are primarily stimulated against the lipopolysaccharide and major outer membrane (OM) proteins. OmpA is one of these major OM proteins. It comprises a N-terminal eight-stranded b-barrel trans membrane domain and a C-terminal domain (OmpACTD). The OmpACTD and its homologs are believed to bind to peptidoglycan (PG) within the periplasm, maintaining bacterial osmotic homeostasis and modulating the permeability and integrity of the OM. Here we present the first crystal structures of the OmpACTD from two pathogens: S. Typhimurium (STOmpACTD) in open and closed forms and causative agent of Lyme Disease Borrelia burgdorferi (BbOmpACTD), in closed form. In the open form of STOmpACTD, an aspartic acid residue from a long b2-a3 loop points into the binding pocket, suggesting that an anion group such as a carboxylate group from PG is favored at the binding site. In the closed form of STOmpACTD and in the structure of BbOmpACTD, a sulfate group from the crystallization buffer is tightly bound at the binding site. The differences between the closed and open forms of STOmpACTD, suggest a large conformational change that includes an extension of a3 helix by ordering a part of b2-a3 loop. We propose that the sulfate anion observed in these structures mimics the carboxylate group of PG when bound to STOmpACTD suggesting PG-anchoring mechanism. In addition, the binding of PG or a ligand mimic may enhance dimerization of STOmpACTD, or possibly that of full length STOmpA.

  5. Insights into PG-binding, conformational change, and dimerization of the OmpA C-terminal domains from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Borrelia burgdorferi: Characterization of OmpA C-Terminal Domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Kemin [Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases, University of Chicago, 5735 South Ellis Avenue Chicago Illinois 60637; Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439; Structural Biology Center, Biosciences, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439; Deatherage Kaiser, Brooke L. [National Security Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99352; Wu, Ruiying [Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439; Cuff, Marianne [Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439; Fan, Yao [Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439; Bigelow, Lance [Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439; Jedrzejczak, Robert P. [Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases, University of Chicago, 5735 South Ellis Avenue Chicago Illinois 60637; Adkins, Joshua N. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99352; Cort, John R. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99352; Babnigg, Gyorgy [Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases, University of Chicago, 5735 South Ellis Avenue Chicago Illinois 60637; Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439; Joachimiak, Andrzej [Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases, University of Chicago, 5735 South Ellis Avenue Chicago Illinois 60637; Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439; Structural Biology Center, Biosciences, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439

    2017-06-19

    S. Typhimurium can induce both humoral and cell-mediated responses when establishing itself in the host. These responses are primarily stimulated against the lipopolysaccharide and major outer membrane (OM) proteins of the bacterium. OmpA is one of these major OM proteins. It comprises a N-terminal eight-stranded -barrel membrane domain and a C-terminal so-called OmpA C-terminal domain (OmpACTD). The OmpACTD and its homologs are believed to bind to peptidoglycan (PG) within the periplasm, maintaining bacterial osmotic homeostasis and modulating the permeability and integrity of the outer membrane. Here we present the structures of two forms of the OmpACTD of S. Typhimurium (STOmpACTD) and one structure of the less-studied OmpACTD of Borrelia burgdorferi (BbOmpACTD). In the open form of STOmpACTD, an aspartic acid residue from a long 2-3 loop points into the binding pocket, suggesting that an anion group such as a carboxylate group from PG is favored at the binding site. In the closed form of STOmpACTD and in the structure of BbOmpACTD, a sulfate group from the crystallization buffer is tightly bound at the equivalent site. The differences between the closed and open forms of STOmpACTD, suggest a large conformational change that includes an extension of 3 helix by ordering a part of 2-3 loop. We suggest that the sulfate anion observed in these structures mimics the carboxylate group of PG when bound to STOmpACTD. In addition, the binding of PG or a ligand mimic may enhance dimerization of STOmpACTD, or possibly that of full length STOmpA.

  6. Search for new resonances decaying to a W or Z boson and a Higgs boson in the ℓ+ℓ−bb¯, ℓνbb¯, and νν¯bb¯ channels with pp collisions at s=13 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aaboud

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A search is presented for new resonances decaying to a W or Z boson and a Higgs boson in the ℓ+ℓ−bb¯, ℓνbb¯, and νν¯bb¯ channels in pp collisions at s=13 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider using a total integrated luminosity of 3.2 fb−1. The search is conducted by looking for a localized excess in the WH/ZH invariant or transverse mass distribution. No significant excess is observed, and the results are interpreted in terms of constraints on a simplified model based on a phenomenological Lagrangian of heavy vector triplets.

  7. Differential expression of Ixodes ricinus tick genes induced by blood feeding or Borrelia burgdorferi infection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudenko, Natalia; Golovchenko, Maryna; Edwards, M. J.; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 1 (2005), s. 36-41 ISSN 0022-2585 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6022306 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Ixodes ricinus * Borrelia burgdorferi * subtractive hybridization Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.489, year: 2005

  8. Coinfection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and Borrelia garinii alters the course of murine Lyme borreliosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovius, Joppe W. R.; Li, Xin; Ramamoorthi, Nandhini; van Dam, Alje P.; Barthold, Stephen W.; van der Poll, Tom; Speelman, Peter; Fikrig, Erol

    2007-01-01

    Ixodes ricinus ticks and mice can be infected with both Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and Borrelia garinii. The effect of coinfection with these two Borrelia species on the development of murine Lyme borreliosis is unknown. Therefore, we investigated whether coinfection with the

  9. Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato in Siberian chipmunks (Tamias sibiricus) introduced in suburban forests in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vourc'h, Gwenaël; Marmet, Julie; Chassagne, Michelle; Bord, Séverine; Chapuis, Jean-Louis

    2007-01-01

    Numerous vertebrate reservoirs have been described for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl), which includes the etiological agents of Lyme Borreliosis (LB). The Siberian chipmunk (Tamias sibiricus) is a rodent originating from Asia, where it is suspected to be a B. burgdorferi reservoir. It has been intentionally released into the wild in Europe since the 1970s, but has not yet been subject to any study regarding its association with the LB agent. In this paper we studied Siberian chipmunk infestation with the LB vector (Ixodes ricinus) and infection prevalence by LB spirochetes in a suburban introduced population. We compared these findings with known competent reservoir hosts, the bank vole (Myodes [clethrionomys] glareolus) and wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus). All Siberian chipmunks were infested with larvae and larval abundance was higher in this species (mean number of larvae [95% Confidence Interval]: 73.5 [46.0, 117.2]) than in the two other rodent species (bank voles: 4.4 [3.0, 6.3] and wood mice: 10.2 [4.9, 21.2]). Significant factors affecting abundance of larvae were host species and sampling season. Nymphs were most prevalent on chipmunks (86.2%, mean: 5.1 [3.3, 8.0]), one vole carried only two nymphs, and none of the mice had any nymphs. Nymph abundance in chipmunks was affected by sampling season and sex. Furthermore, the infection prevalence of B. burgdorferi sl in the Siberian chipmunk was the highest (33.3%) and predominantly of B. afzelii. The infection prevalence was 14.1% in bank voles, but no wood mouse was found to be infected. Our results suggest that the Siberian chipmunk may be an important reservoir host for LB.

  10. Safety of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB in Augment® Bone Graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A Solchaga

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses nonclinical and clinical data regarding the safety of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB as a component of the Augment® Bone Graft (Augment. Augment is a bone graft substitute intended to be used as an alternative to autologous bone graft in the fusion of hindfoot and ankle joints. Nonclinical studies included assessment of the pharmacokinetic profile of intravenously administered recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB in rat and dog, effects of intravenous administration of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB in a reproductive and development toxicity study in rats, and chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity of Augment in a 12-month implantation model. These studies showed that systemic exposure was brief and clearance was rapid. No signs of toxicity, carcinogenicity, or tumor promotion were observed even with doses far exceeding the maximum clinical dose. Results of clinical trials (605 participants and commercial use of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB containing products indicate that these products are not associated with increased incidence of adverse events or cancer. The safety data presented provide evidence that recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB is a safe therapeutic when used in combination products as a single administration during surgical procedures for bone repair and fusion. There is no evidence associating use of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB in Augment with chronic toxicity, carcinogenicity, or tumor promotion.

  11. Nested-PCR real time as alternative molecular tool for detection of Borrelia burgdorferi compared to the classical serological diagnosis of the blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroka-Oleksiak, Agnieszka; Ufir, Krzysztof; Salamon, Dominika; Bulanda, Malgorzata; Gosiewski, Tomasz

    Lyme disease, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, is a multisystem disease that often makes difficulties to recognize caused by their genetic heterogenity. Currently, the gold standard for the detection of Lyme disease (LD) is serologic diagnostics based mainly on tests: ELISA and Western blot (WB). These methods, however, are subject to consider- able defect, especially in the initial phase of infection due to the occurrence of so-called serological window period and low specificity. For this reason, they might be replaced by molecular methods, for example polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which should be more sensitivity and specificity. In the present study we attempt to optimize the PCR reaction conditions and enhance existing test sensitivity by applying the equivalent of real time PCR - nested PCR for detection B. burgdorferi DNA in the patient's blood. The study involved 94 blood samples of patients with suspected LD. From each sample, 1.5 ml of blood was used for the isolation of bacterial DNA and PCR real time am- plification and its equivalent, in nested version. The remaining part earmarked for serologi- cal testing. Optimization of the reaction conditions made experimentally, using gradient of the temperature and gradient of the magnesium ions concentration for reaction real time in nested-PCR and PCR version. The results show that the nested-PCR real time, has a much higher sensitivity 45 (47.8%) of positive results for the detection of B. burgdorferi compared to the single- variety, without a preceding pre-amplification 2 (2.1%). Serological methods allowed the detection of infection in 41 (43.6%) samples. These results support of the nested PCR method as a better molecular tool for the detection of B. burgdorferi infection than classical PCR real time reaction. The nested-PCR real time method may be considered as a complement to ELISA and WB mainly in the early stages of infection, when in the blood circulating B. burgdorferi cells. By contrast, the

  12. EST Table: BB982318 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BB982318 ovS3005A12r 10/09/28 68 %/119 aa ref|XP_002092422.1| GE14184 [Drosophila yakuba] gb|EDW92134.1| GE1...4184 [Drosophila yakuba] 10/08/28 68 %/119 aa FBpp0259194|DyakGE14184-PA 10/08/27 3

  13. Selective association of outer surface lipoproteins with the lipid rafts of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Alvaro; Crowley, Jameson T; Coleman, James L; LaRocca, Timothy J; Chiantia, Salvatore; London, Erwin; Benach, Jorge L

    2014-03-11

    Borrelia burgdorferi contains unique cholesterol-glycolipid-rich lipid rafts that are associated with lipoproteins. These complexes suggest the existence of macromolecular structures that have not been reported for prokaryotes. Outer surface lipoproteins OspA, OspB, and OspC were studied for their participation in the formation of lipid rafts. Single-gene deletion mutants with deletions of ospA, ospB, and ospC and a spontaneous gene mutant, strain B313, which does not express OspA and OspB, were used to establish their structural roles in the lipid rafts. All mutant strains used in this study produced detergent-resistant membranes, a common characteristic of lipid rafts, and had similar lipid and protein slot blot profiles. Lipoproteins OspA and OspB but not OspC were shown to be associated with lipid rafts by transmission electron microscopy. When the ability to form lipid rafts in live B. burgdorferi spirochetes was measured by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), strain B313 showed a statistically significant lower level of segregation into ordered and disordered membrane domains than did the wild-type and the other single-deletion mutants. The transformation of a B313 strain with a shuttle plasmid containing ospA restored the phenotype shared by the wild type and the single-deletion mutants, demonstrating that OspA and OspB have redundant functions. In contrast, a transformed B313 overexpressing OspC neither rescued the FRET nor colocalized with the lipid rafts. Because these lipoproteins are expressed at different stages of the life cycle of B. burgdorferi, their selective association is likely to have an important role in the structure of prokaryotic lipid rafts and in the organism's adaptation to changing environments. IMPORTANCE Lipid rafts are cholesterol-rich clusters within the membranes of cells. Lipid rafts contain proteins that have functions in sensing the cell environment and transmitting signals. Although selective proteins are present in

  14. A new (14th) member of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oliver, J.; Rudenko, Natalia; Golovchenko, Maryna; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 14, S7 (2008), S110-S110 ISSN 1198-743X. [ECCMID /18./. 19.04.2008-22.04.2008, Barcelona] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/1479; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Grant - others:National Institutes of Health (NIH)(US) R37AI-24899; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)(US) U50/CCU410282 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. complex * new member * multilocus sequence analysis Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  15. The Plant-Derived Bauhinia bauhinioides Kallikrein Proteinase Inhibitor (rBbKI Attenuates Elastase-Induced Emphysema in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Tadeu Martins-Olivera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Elastase mediates important oxidative actions during the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. However, few resources for the inhibition of elastase have been investigated. Our study evaluated the ability of the recombinant plant derived Bauhinia bauhinioides Kallikrein proteinase Inhibitor (rBbKI to modulate elastase-induced pulmonary inflammation. Methods. C57Bl/6 mice were given intratracheal elastase (ELA group or saline (SAL group and were treated intraperitoneally with rBbKI (ELA-rBbKI and SAL-rBbKI groups. At day 28, the following analyses were performed: (I lung mechanics, (II exhaled nitric oxide (ENO, (III bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, and (IV lung immunohistochemical staining. Results. In addition to decreasing mechanical alterations and alveolar septum disruption, rBbKI reduced the number of cells in the BALF and decreased the cellular expression of TNF-α, MMP-9, MMP-12, TIMP-1, eNOS, and iNOS in airways and alveolar walls compared with the ELA group. rBbKI decreased the volume proportion of 8-iso-PGF2α, collagen, and elastic fibers in the airways and alveolar walls compared with the ELA group. A reduction in the number of MUC-5-positive cells in the airway walls was also observed. Conclusion. rBbKI reduced elastase-induced pulmonary inflammation and extracellular matrix remodeling. rBbKI may be a potential pharmacological tool for COPD treatment.

  16. Plant Proteinase Inhibitor BbCI Modulates Lung Inflammatory Responses and Mechanic and Remodeling Alterations Induced by Elastase in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Almeida-Reis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Proteinases play a key role in emphysema. Bauhinia bauhinioides cruzipain inhibitor (BbCI is a serine-cysteine proteinase inhibitor. We evaluated BbCI treatment in elastase-induced pulmonary alterations. Methods.  C57BL/6 mice received intratracheal elastase (ELA group or saline (SAL group. One group of mice was treated with BbCI (days 1, 15, and 21 after elastase instillation, ELABC group. Controls received saline and BbCI (SALBC group. After 28 days, we evaluated respiratory mechanics, exhaled nitric oxide, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In lung tissue we measured airspace enlargement, quantified neutrophils, TNFα-, MMP-9-, MMP-12-, TIMP-1-, iNOS-, and eNOS-positive cells, 8-iso-PGF2α, collagen, and elastic fibers in alveolar septa and airways. MUC-5-positive cells were quantified only in airways. Results. BbCI reduced elastase-induced changes in pulmonary mechanics, airspace enlargement and elastase-induced increases in total cells, and neutrophils in BALF. BbCI reduced macrophages and neutrophils positive cells in alveolar septa and neutrophils and TNFα-positive cells in airways. BbCI attenuated elastic and collagen fibers, MMP-9- and MMP-12-positive cells, and isoprostane and iNOS-positive cells in alveolar septa and airways. BbCI reduced MUC5ac-positive cells in airways. Conclusions. BbCI improved lung mechanics and reduced lung inflammation and airspace enlargement and increased oxidative stress levels induced by elastase. BbCI may have therapeutic potential in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  17. Structure of the vitreoretinal border region in spontaneously diabetic BB rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, S

    1993-01-01

    The morphology of the vitreoretinal border region, also termed the inner limiting membrane, was examined in spontaneously diabetic rats (BB rats), in non-diabetes-prone rats (WB rats) and in Buffalo rats (BUF rats) by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM......). This was performed in order to visualize a possible increase in thickness of the lamina densa or in the whole vitreoretinal border region complex with duration of diabetes. The median thickness of the lamina densa in the three groups varied between 34 and 68 nm. In BB rats the thickness decreased with age...... and duration of diabetes. In WB rats the lamina densa thickened up to the 9th month and then decreased to the level of the young rats. In BUF rats the lamina densa decreased in thickness with age. The median thickness of the whole vitreoretinal border region varied between: BB rats: 84 and 126 nm (SEM) and 68...

  18. Analysis of the lipidated recombinant outer surface protein A from Borrelia burgdorferi by mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouchon, B.; Klein, Michele; Bischoff, Rainer; Van Dorsselaer, A.; Roitsch, C.

    1997-01-01

    The outer surface protein A, OspA, from the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi is a lipoprotein of 25 kDa. The recombinant OspA (rOspA) expressed in Escherichia coli has been purified and analyzed by electrospray mass spectrometry (ESMS). A heterogenous spectrum gave a measured mass of 28,462 +/- 9 Da

  19. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in humans in a rural area of Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Dib Gonçalves

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the detection of Borrelia garinii and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s. in Brazilian individuals using PCR and DNA sequencing. Our results suggest that these species are emerging pathogens in this country, and additional studies are necessary to determine the epidemiological characteristics of this disease in Brazil.

  20. EST Table: BB986249 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ar to putative lysosomal glucocerebrosidase [Tribolium castaneum] 10/08/28 low homology 10/08/27 35 %/211 aa... %/206 aa gnl|Amel|GB13722-PA 10/09/10 42 %/206 aa gi|91087345|ref|XP_975608.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative lysosomal glucocerebrosidase [Tribolium castaneum] BB985877 MSV3 ...

  1. EST Table: BB986379 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ar to putative lysosomal glucocerebrosidase [Tribolium castaneum] 10/08/28 low homology 10/08/27 35 %/211 aa... %/206 aa gnl|Amel|GB13722-PA 10/09/10 43 %/206 aa gi|91087345|ref|XP_975608.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative lysosomal glucocerebrosidase [Tribolium castaneum] BB985877 MSV3 ...

  2. Safety of Bifidobacterium animalis Subsp. Lactis (B. lactis) Strain BB-12-Supplemented Yogurt in Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tina P; Ba, Zhaoyong; Sanders, Mary E; D'Amico, Frank J; Roberts, Robert F; Smith, Keisha H; Merenstein, Daniel J

    2017-02-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that may provide health benefits to the individual when consumed in sufficient quantities. For studies conducted on health or disease endpoints on probiotics in the United States, the Food and Administration has required those studies to be conducted as investigational new drugs. This phase I, double-blinded, randomized, controlled safety study represents the first requirement of this pathway. The purpose of the study was to determine the safety of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (B lactis) strain BB-12 (BB-12)-supplemented yogurt when consumed by a generally healthy group of children. The secondary aim was to assess the effect of BB-12-supplemented yogurt on the gut microbiota of the children. Sixty children ages 1 to 5 years were randomly assigned to consume 4 ounces of either BB-12-supplemented yogurt or nonsupplemented control yogurt daily for 10 days. The primary outcome was to assess safety and tolerability, as determined by the number of reported adverse events. A total of 186 nonserious adverse events were reported, with no significant differences between the control and BB-12 groups. No significant changes due to probiotic treatment were observed in the gut microbiota of the study cohort. BB-12-supplemented yogurt is safe and well-tolerated when consumed by healthy children. The present study will form the basis for future randomized clinical trials investigating the potential effects of BB-12-supplemented yogurt in different disease states.

  3. [Creatine kinase BB and lactate in the cerebrospinal fluid of neonates and infants with perinatal injuries of the CNS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatyrtsev, V V; Iakunin, Iu A; Burkova, A S; Podkopaev, V N; Afonina, L G

    1989-01-01

    A study was made of the content of creatine kinase-BB (CK-BB) and lactate in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 202 neonates and infants with perinatal CNS injuries. The relationship was found between the rise of the CK-BB content and the gravity of perinatal CNS injuries. The highest content of CK-BB in CSF was marked in neonates with cerebral disorders complicated by infectious and inflammatory diseases (pneumonia, sepsis). Within the first 5 days of life, the children of this group demonstrated the relationship between the content of CK-BB and lactate of CSF. The measurement of the content of CK-BB in CSF should be used for early diagnosis, assessment of the gravity and course of perinatal CNS injuries in neonates and in infants.

  4. Simple and efficient generation of virus-specific T cells for adoptive therapy using anti-4-1BB antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imahashi, Nobuhiko; Nishida, Tetsuya; Goto, Tatsunori; Terakura, Seitaro; Watanabe, Keisuke; Hanajiri, Ryo; Sakemura, Reona; Imai, Misa; Kiyoi, Hitoshi; Naoe, Tomoki; Murata, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Although recent studies of virus-specific T-cell (VST) therapy for viral infections after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation have shown promising results, simple and less time-intensive and labor-intensive methods are required to generate VSTs for the wider application of VST therapy. We investigated the efficacy of anti-CD28 and anti-4-1BB antibodies, which can provide T cells with costimulatory signals similar in strength to those of antigen-presenting cells, in generating VSTs. When peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with viral peptides together with isotype control, anti-CD28, or anti-4-1BB antibodies, anti-4-1BB antibodies yielded the highest numbers of VSTs, which were on an average 7.9 times higher than those generated with isotype control antibody. The combination of anti-CD28 and anti-4-1BB antibodies did not result in increased numbers of VSTs compared with anti-4-1BB antibody alone. Importantly, the positive effect of anti-4-1BB antibody was observed regardless of the epitopes of the VSTs. In contrast, the capacity of dendritic cells (DCs) to generate VSTs differed considerably depending on the epitopes of the VSTs. Furthermore, the numbers of VSTs generated with DCs were at most similar to those generated with the anti-4-1BB antibody. Generation of VSTs with anti-4-1BB antibody did not result in excessive differentiation or deteriorated function of the generated VSTs compared with those generated with control antibody or DCs. In conclusion, VSTs can be generated rapidly and efficiently by simply stimulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells with viral peptide and anti-4-1BB antibody without using antigen-presenting cells. We propose using anti-4-1BB antibody as a novel strategy to generate VSTs for adoptive therapy.

  5. Role of 4-1BB receptor in the control played by CD8(+ T cells on IFN-gamma production by Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen-specific CD4(+ T Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Palma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antigen-specific IFN-gamma producing CD4(+ T cells are the main mediators of protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection both under natural conditions and following vaccination. However these cells are responsible for lung damage and poor vaccine efficacy when not tightly controlled. Discovering new tools to control nonprotective antigen-specific IFN-gamma production without affecting protective IFN-gamma is a challenge in tuberculosis research. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Immunization with DNA encoding Ag85B, a candidate vaccine antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, elicited in mice a low but protective CD4(+ T cell-mediated IFN-gamma response, while in mice primed with DNA and boosted with Ag85B protein a massive increase in IFN-gamma response was associated with loss of protection. Both protective and non-protective Ag85B-immunization generated antigen-specific CD8(+ T cells which suppressed IFN-gamma-secreting CD4(+ T cells. However, ex vivo ligation of 4-1BB, a member of TNF-receptor super-family, reduced the massive, non-protective IFN-gamma responses by CD4(+ T cells in protein-boosted mice without affecting the low protective IFN-gamma-secretion in mice immunized with DNA. This selective inhibition was due to the induction of 4-1BB exclusively on CD8(+ T cells of DNA-primed and protein-boosted mice following Ag85B protein stimulation. The 4-1BB-mediated IFN-gamma inhibition did not require soluble IL-10, TGF-beta, XCL-1 and MIP-1beta. In vivo Ag85B stimulation induced 4-1BB expression on CD8(+ T cells and in vivo 4-1BB ligation reduced the activation, IFN-gamma production and expansion of Ag85B-specific CD4(+ T cells of DNA-primed and protein-boosted mice. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Antigen-specific suppressor CD8(+ T cells are elicited through immunization with the mycobacterial antigen Ag85B. Ligation of 4-1BB receptor further enhanced their suppressive activity on IFN-gamma-secreting CD4(+ T cells. The selective

  6. Radioimmunoassay of serum creatine kinase-BB as a tumour marker in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, R J; Rubery, E D; Jones, H M [Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (UK)

    1980-09-27

    Brain type creatine kinase-BB (CPK-BB) was measured by radioimmunoassay in the serum of 113 women with breast cancer and 354 female controls. 80% of women with metastatic breast cancer had levels above 3 ng/ml (control range 0.5-3.7 ng/ml); the highest level was 23 ng/ml. 60% of women with local disease but no evidence of distant metastases showed levels above 3 ng/ml, the highest being 9.0 ng/ml. Of women who had presented with stage I, II, or III disease and postoperatively had no evidence of persistent disease 30% had levels above 3 ng/ml. Serial measurements in 31 patients indicated that the serum CPK-BB correlated with clinical response to treatment.

  7. Radioimmunoassay of serum creatine kinase-BB as a tumour marker in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.J.; Rubery, E.D.; Jones, H.M.

    1980-01-01

    Brain type creatine kinase-BB (CPK-BB) was measured by radioimmunoassay in the serum of 113 women with breast cancer and 354 female controls. 80% of women with metastatic breast cancer had levels above 3 ng/ml (control range 0.5-3.7 ng/ml); the highest level was 23 ng/ml. 60% of women with local disease but no evidence of distant metastases showed levels above 3 ng/ml, the highest being 9.0 ng/ml. Of women who had presented with stage I, II, or III disease and postoperatively had no evidence of persistent disease 30% had levels above 3 ng/ml. Serial measurements in 31 patients indicated that the serum CPK-BB correlated with clinical response to treatment. (author)

  8. Competitive advantage of Borrelia burgdorferi with outer surface protein BBA03 during tick-mediated infection of the mammalian host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestor, Aaron; Rego, Ryan O M; Tilly, Kit; Rosa, Patricia A

    2012-10-01

    Linear plasmid lp54 is one of the most highly conserved and differentially expressed elements of the segmented genome of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. We previously reported that deletion of a 4.1-kb region of lp54 (bba01 to bba07 [bba01-bba07]) led to a slight attenuation of tick-transmitted infection in mice following challenge with a large number of infected ticks. In the current study, we reduced the number of ticks in the challenge to more closely mimic the natural dose and found a profound defect in tick-transmitted infection of the bba01-bba07 mutant relative to wild-type B. burgdorferi. We next focused on deletion of bba03 as the most likely cause of this mutant phenotype, as previous studies have shown that expression of bba03 is increased by culture conditions that simulate tick feeding. Consistent with this hypothesis, we demonstrated increased expression of bba03 by spirochetes in fed relative to unfed ticks. We also observed that a bba03 deletion mutant, although fully competent by itself, did not efficiently infect mice when transmitted by ticks that were simultaneously coinfected with wild-type B. burgdorferi. These results suggest that BBA03 provides a competitive advantage to spirochetes carrying this protein during tick transmission to a mammalian host in the natural infectious cycle.

  9. Clinical usefulness of creatine Kinase BB determination by a Ria method in serum of patients with cerebrovascular accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuti, A; Giraldi, C; Piccini, P; Bonucelli, U; Clerico, A; Del Chicca, M G

    1988-01-01

    The measurement of creatine kinase BB isoenzyme (CK-BB) using RIA methods could have diagnostic utility as a biological marker of cerebral damage. The aim of the present study is to evaluate whether frequent sampling (4 samples/day for 3 days) permits a better correlation between serum CK/sub B/B values and the clinical outcomes of patients with cerebrovascular accidents. 16 in-patients (12 men and 4 women) with stroke (15 of an ischemic nature and 1 hemorrhagic) have benn studied. The presence of stroke was confirmed by clinical symptoms and by CAT results. Blood samples were drawn at 6 and 12 a.m. and at 6 and 12 p.m. over 3 consecutive days after hospitalization. Values of serum CK-BB above the normal range (>7 ng/ml) were found in the 5 of the 16 (31.3%) patients studied. The mean CK-BB value observed in the patients' group was significantly higher than that found in a group of 112 control subjects (controls, mean+-SD=2.1+-1.7 ng/ml vs patients 3.3+-3.4 ng/ml, unpaired t-test p<0.025). We observed a very wide range of serum CKBB levels in most of the patients studied. Some prominent peaks of CK-BB concetrations were found in patients' outcame (Spearman correlation coefficient r-s=0.618, p<0,01). Although our results indicate that the measurement of CK-BB concentrations cannot be considered a sensitive marker of stroke, the significant correlation between serum CK-BB values and outcome suggests that high CK-BB levels could be a sign of worse prognosis in patients with cerebrovascular accidents. 24 refs.

  10. A tick gut protein with fibronectin III domains aids Borrelia burgdorferi congregation to the gut during transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Narasimhan, Sukanya; Coumou, Jeroen; Schuijt, Tim J.; Boder, Eric; Hovius, Joppe W.; Fikrig, Erol

    2014-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi transmission to the vertebrate host commences with growth of the spirochete in the tick gut and migration from the gut to the salivary glands. This complex process, involving intimate interactions of the spirochete with the gut epithelium, is pivotal to transmission. We utilized

  11. The ecology of Lyme borreliosis risk : interactions between lxodes ricinus, rodents and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijvendijk, van Gilian

    2016-01-01

    The sheep tick (Ixodes ricinus) is widespread throughout Europe and can transmit Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), which can cause Lyme borreliosis and B. miyamotoi, the agent of Borrelia miyamotoi disease in humans.

  12. Antibody responses to Borrelia burgdorferi detected by western blot vary geographically in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Ogden, Nicholas H.; Arsenault, Julie; Hatchette, Todd F.; Mechai, Samir; Lindsay, L. Robbin

    2017-01-01

    Lyme disease is emerging in eastern and central Canada, and most cases are diagnosed using the two-tier serological test (Enzyme Immuno Assay [EIA] followed by Western blot [WB]). Simplification of this algorithm would be advantageous unless it impacts test performance. In this study, accuracy of individual proteins of the IgG WB algorithm in predicting the overall test result in samples from Canadians was assessed. Because Borrelia burgdorferi strains vary geographically in Canada, geographi...

  13. An Evaluation of Taiwanese B&B Service Quality Using the IPA Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao-Liang Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available According to a December 2011 report released by Taiwan’s Tourism Bureau, there were 3,763 bed-and-breakfast guesthouses (B&B in Taiwan, 3,367 of which were legal with a combined 13,389 rooms, increasing by 96 percent from December 2006. It seems that the B&B sector is quite a popular target for investors. As the word-of-mouth advertising has been considered one of the most influential marketing methods, those who invest in B&Bs must manage to utilize their limited resources to improve customer satisfaction in a fast-growing and competitive market. The best marketing approach in reaching out to B&B customers, as suggested by this study’s author, would be word-of-mouth adverting. A PZB framed questionnaire is used in this study to explore the expectations and satisfaction of B&B customers both before and after the accommodation period, with the Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA model applied to analyze and measure the service quality. Findings from the questionnaire survey showed 3 out of the totally 23 service factors falling in the “concentrated concerned” quadrant (i.e., tidiness, architectural characteristics, and reasonable rates; 6 factors falling in the “continued maintenance” quadrant (i.e., adequate parking place, commitment to customers, handling of customers’ opinions, legality of B&B, grievance handling, and the local specialties-ordering service; 10 factors falling in the “low priority” quadrant (i.e., modern facilities, safety devices, availability of breakfast, security of online reservations; 4 factors falling in the “over-strived” quadrant (i.e., the availability of custom-made services, the ability to grasp customers’ needs, the availability of tour packages, and the availability of experiences regarding local industries.

  14. Identification of Additional Anti-Persister Activity against Borrelia burgdorferi from an FDA Drug Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Feng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lyme disease is a leading vector-borne disease in the United States. Although the majority of Lyme patients can be cured with standard 2–4 week antibiotic treatment, 10%–20% of patients continue to suffer from prolonged post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS. While the cause for this is unclear, persisting organisms not killed by current Lyme antibiotics may be involved. In our previous study, we screened an FDA drug library and reported 27 top hits that showed high activity against Borrelia persisters. In this study, we present the results of an additional 113 active hits that have higher activity against the stationary phase B. burgdorferi than the currently used Lyme antibiotics. Many antimicrobial agents (antibiotics, antivirals, antifungals, anthelmintics or antiparasitics used for treating other infections were found to have better activity than the current Lyme antibiotics. These include antibacterials such as rifamycins (3-formal-rifamycin, rifaximin, rifamycin SV, thiostrepton, quinolone drugs (sarafloxacin, clinafloxacin, tosufloxacin, and cell wall inhibitors carbenicillin, tazobactam, aztreonam; antifungal agents such as fluconazole, mepartricin, bifonazole, climbazole, oxiconazole, nystatin; antiviral agents zanamivir, nevirapine, tilorone; antimalarial agents artemisinin, methylene blue, and quidaldine blue; antihelmintic and antiparasitic agents toltrazuril, tartar emetic, potassium antimonyl tartrate trihydrate, oxantel, closantel, hycanthone, pyrimethamine, and tetramisole. Interestingly, drugs used for treating other non-infectious conditions including verteporfin, oltipraz, pyroglutamic acid, pidolic acid, and dextrorphan tartrate, that act on the glutathione/γ-glutamyl pathway involved in protection against free radical damage, and also the antidepressant drug indatraline, were found to have high activity against stationary phase B. burgdorferi. Among the active hits, agents that affect cell membranes, energy

  15. Identification of Additional Anti-Persister Activity against Borrelia burgdorferi from an FDA Drug Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Weitner, Megan; Shi, Wanliang; Zhang, Shuo; Sullivan, David; Zhang, Ying

    2015-09-16

    Lyme disease is a leading vector-borne disease in the United States. Although the majority of Lyme patients can be cured with standard 2-4 week antibiotic treatment, 10%-20% of patients continue to suffer from prolonged post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS). While the cause for this is unclear, persisting organisms not killed by current Lyme antibiotics may be involved. In our previous study, we screened an FDA drug library and reported 27 top hits that showed high activity against Borrelia persisters. In this study, we present the results of an additional 113 active hits that have higher activity against the stationary phase B. burgdorferi than the currently used Lyme antibiotics. Many antimicrobial agents (antibiotics, antivirals, antifungals, anthelmintics or antiparasitics) used for treating other infections were found to have better activity than the current Lyme antibiotics. These include antibacterials such as rifamycins (3-formal-rifamycin, rifaximin, rifamycin SV), thiostrepton, quinolone drugs (sarafloxacin, clinafloxacin, tosufloxacin), and cell wall inhibitors carbenicillin, tazobactam, aztreonam; antifungal agents such as fluconazole, mepartricin, bifonazole, climbazole, oxiconazole, nystatin; antiviral agents zanamivir, nevirapine, tilorone; antimalarial agents artemisinin, methylene blue, and quidaldine blue; antihelmintic and antiparasitic agents toltrazuril, tartar emetic, potassium antimonyl tartrate trihydrate, oxantel, closantel, hycanthone, pyrimethamine, and tetramisole. Interestingly, drugs used for treating other non-infectious conditions including verteporfin, oltipraz, pyroglutamic acid, pidolic acid, and dextrorphan tartrate, that act on the glutathione/γ-glutamyl pathway involved in protection against free radical damage, and also the antidepressant drug indatraline, were found to have high activity against stationary phase B. burgdorferi. Among the active hits, agents that affect cell membranes, energy production, and reactive

  16. Atorvastatin calcium inhibits phenotypic modulation of PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs via down-regulation the Akt signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuang; Liu, Baoqin; Kong, Dehui; Li, Si; Li, Chao; Wang, Huaqin; Sun, Yingxian

    2015-01-01

    Plasticity of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays a central role in the onset and progression of proliferative vascular diseases. In adult tissue, VSMCs exist in a physiological contractile-quiescent phenotype, which is defined by lack of the ability of proliferation and migration, while high expression of contractile marker proteins. After injury to the vessel, VSMC shifts from a contractile phenotype to a pathological synthetic phenotype, associated with increased proliferation, migration and matrix secretion. It has been demonstrated that PDGF-BB is a critical mediator of VSMCs phenotypic switch. Atorvastatin calcium, a selective inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl l coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, exhibits various protective effects against VSMCs. In this study, we investigated the effects of atorvastatin calcium on phenotype modulation of PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs and the related intracellular signal transduction pathways. Treatment of VSMCs with atorvastatin calcium showed dose-dependent inhibition of PDGF-BB-induced proliferation. Atorvastatin calcium co-treatment inhibited the phenotype modulation and cytoskeleton rearrangements and improved the expression of contractile phenotype marker proteins such as α-SM actin, SM22α and calponin in comparison with PDGF-BB alone stimulated VSMCs. Although Akt phosphorylation was strongly elicited by PDGF-BB, Akt activation was attenuated when PDGF-BB was co-administrated with atorvastatin calcium. In conclusion, atorvastatin calcium inhibits phenotype modulation of PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs and activation of the Akt signaling pathway, indicating that Akt might play a vital role in the modulation of phenotype.

  17. Plant Proteinase Inhibitor BbCI Modulates Lung Inflammatory Responses and Mechanic and Remodeling Alterations Induced by Elastase in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida-Reis, Rafael; Theodoro-Junior, Osmar A.; Oliveira, Bruno T. M.; Oliva, Leandro V.; Toledo-Arruda, Alessandra C.; Bonturi, Camila R.; Brito, Marlon V.; Lopes, Fernanda D. T. Q. S.; Prado, Carla M.; Florencio, Ariana C.; Martins, Mílton A.; Owen, Caroline A.; Leick, Edna A.; Oliva, Maria L. V.; Tibério, Iolanda F. L. C.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Proteinases play a key role in emphysema. Bauhinia bauhinioides cruzipain inhibitor (BbCI) is a serine-cysteine proteinase inhibitor. We evaluated BbCI treatment in elastase-induced pulmonary alterations. Methods.??C57BL/6 mice received intratracheal elastase (ELA group) or saline (SAL group). One group of mice was treated with BbCI (days 1, 15, and 21 after elastase instillation, ELABC group). Controls received saline and BbCI (SALBC group). After 28 days, we evaluated respirator...

  18. Insights into physiological traits of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 through membrane proteome analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilad, Ofir; Hjernø, Karin; Østerlund, Eva Christina

    2012-01-01

    Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 is a widely used probiotic strain associated with a variety of health-promoting traits. There is, however, only limited knowledge available regarding the membrane proteome and the proteins involved in oligosaccharide transport in BB-12. We applied two...

  19. Total lymphoid irradiation prevents diabetes mellitus in the Bio-Breeding/Worcester (BB/W) rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossini, A.A.; Slavin, S.; Woda, B.A.; Geisberg, M.; Like, A.A.; Mordes, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) at doses of 2200 rads or greater prevented diabetes in susceptible BB/W rats. Two of 29 (7%) treated rats became diabetic compared with 23 of 39 (59%) controls. TLI did not, however, prevent insulitis or thyroiditis in nondiabetic rats, nor did it restore the depressed concanavalin-A responsiveness of BB rat lymphocytes. T-lymphocyte subset proportions were the same in both groups. TLI was associated with significant radiation-related mortality, and nondiabetic TLI-treated rats weighed significantly less than controls. It was concluded that TLI is effective in the prevention of BB rat diabetes. However, TLI fails to correct the subclinical immunologic abnormalities of the model and is associated with significant morbidity

  20. T cell dysfunction in the diabetes-prone BB rat. A role for thymic migrants that are not T cell precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiou, H.M.; Lagarde, A.C.; Bellgrau, D.

    1988-01-01

    Diabetes-prone BB (BB-DP) rats express several T cell dysfunctions which include poor proliferative and cytotoxic responses to alloantigen. The goal of this study was to determine the origin of these T cell dysfunctions. When BB-DP rats were thymectomized, T cell depleted, and transplanted with neonatal thymus tissue from diabetes-resistant and otherwise normal DA/BB F1 rats, the early restoration of T cell function proceeded normally on a cell-for-cell basis; i.e., peripheral T cells functioned like those from the thymus donor. Because the thymus in these experiments was subjected to gamma irradiation before transplantation and there was no evidence of F1 chimerism in the transplanted BB-DP rats, it appeared that the BB-DP T cell precursors could mature into normally functioning T cells if the maturation process occurred in a normal thymus. If the F1 thymus tissue was treated with dGua before transplantation, the T cells of these animals functioned poorly like those from untreated BB-DP rats. dGua poisons bone marrow-derived cells, including gamma radiation-resistant cells of the macrophage/dendritic cell lineages, while sparing the thymic epithelium. Therefore, the reversal of the T cell dysfunction depends on the presence in the F1 thymus of gamma radiation-resistant, dGua-sensitive F1 cells. Conversely, thymectomized and T cell-depleted F1 rats expressed T cell dysfunction when transplanted with gamma-irradiated BB thymus grafts. T cell responses were normal in animals transplanted with dGua-treated BB thymus grafts. With increasing time after thymus transplantation, T cells from all animals gradually expressed the functional phenotype of the bone marrow donor. Taken together these results suggest that BB-DP bone marrow-derived cells that are not T cell precursors influence the maturation environment in the thymus of otherwise normal BB-DP T cell precursors

  1. Can the use of the Leggett-Garg inequality enhance security of the BB84 protocol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy H., Akshata; Aravinda, S.; Srikanth, R.; Home, Dipankar

    2017-08-01

    Prima facie, there are good reasons to answer in the negative the question posed in the title: the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol is provably secure subject to the assumption of trusted devices, while the Leggett-Garg-type inequality (LGI) does not seem to be readily adaptable to the device independent (DI) or semi-DI scenario. Nevertheless, interestingly, here we identify a specific device attack, which has been shown to render the standard BB84 protocol completely insecure, but against which our formulated LGI-assisted BB84 protocol (based on an appropriate form of LGI) is secure.

  2. Europe-Wide Meta-Analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Prevalence in Questing Ixodes ricinus Ticks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strnad, Martin; Hönig, Václav; Růžek, Daniel; Grubhoffer, Libor; Rego, Ryan O. M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 15 (2017), č. článku e00609-17. ISSN 0099-2240 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278976 - ANTIGONE; European Commission(XE) 602272 - ANTIDotE Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato * tick * Ixodes ricinus * genospecies * meta-analysis * Lyme borreliosis * Lyme disease Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 3.807, year: 2016

  3. Identification of Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies isolated from Ixodes ricinus ticks in the South Moravian region of the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bonczek, Ondřej; Žákovská, A.; Vargová, L.; Šerý, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 4 (2015), s. 642-646 ISSN 1232-1966 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi s. I. * Borrelia spielmanii * Ixodes ricinus Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.895, year: 2015

  4. Measurement Properties of the Smartphone-Based B-B Score in Current Shoulder Pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Pichonnaz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at the determination of the measurement properties of the shoulder function B-B Score measured with a smartphone. This score measures the symmetry between sides of a power-related metric for two selected movements, with 100% representing perfect symmetry. Twenty healthy participants, 20 patients with rotator cuff conditions, 23 with fractures, 22 with capsulitis, and 23 with shoulder instabilities were measured twice across a six-month interval using the B-B Score and shoulder function questionnaires. The discriminative power, responsiveness, diagnostic power, concurrent validity, minimal detectable change (MDC, minimal clinically important improvement (MCII, and patient acceptable symptom state (PASS were evaluated. Significant differences with the control group and significant baseline—six-month differences were found for the rotator cuff condition, fracture, and capsulitis patient groups. The B-B Score was responsive and demonstrated excellent diagnostic power, except for shoulder instability. The correlations with clinical scores were generally moderate to high, but lower for instability. The MDC was 18.1%, the MCII was 25.2%, and the PASS was 77.6. No floor effect was observed. The B-B Score demonstrated excellent measurement properties in populations with rotator cuff conditions, proximal humerus fractures, and capsulitis, and can thus be used as a routine test to evaluate those patients.

  5. Measurement Properties of the Smartphone-Based B-B Score in Current Shoulder Pathologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichonnaz, Claude; Duc, Cyntia; Gleeson, Nigel; Ancey, Céline; Jaccard, Hervé; Lécureux, Estelle; Farron, Alain; Jolles, Brigitte M.; Aminian, Kamiar

    2015-01-01

    This study is aimed at the determination of the measurement properties of the shoulder function B-B Score measured with a smartphone. This score measures the symmetry between sides of a power-related metric for two selected movements, with 100% representing perfect symmetry. Twenty healthy participants, 20 patients with rotator cuff conditions, 23 with fractures, 22 with capsulitis, and 23 with shoulder instabilities were measured twice across a six-month interval using the B-B Score and shoulder function questionnaires. The discriminative power, responsiveness, diagnostic power, concurrent validity, minimal detectable change (MDC), minimal clinically important improvement (MCII), and patient acceptable symptom state (PASS) were evaluated. Significant differences with the control group and significant baseline—six-month differences were found for the rotator cuff condition, fracture, and capsulitis patient groups. The B-B Score was responsive and demonstrated excellent diagnostic power, except for shoulder instability. The correlations with clinical scores were generally moderate to high, but lower for instability. The MDC was 18.1%, the MCII was 25.2%, and the PASS was 77.6. No floor effect was observed. The B-B Score demonstrated excellent measurement properties in populations with rotator cuff conditions, proximal humerus fractures, and capsulitis, and can thus be used as a routine test to evaluate those patients. PMID:26506355

  6. Spatial clustering of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato within populations of Allen's chipmunks and dusky-footed woodrats in northwestern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Gregory M; Brown, Richard N; Fedorova, Natalia; Girard, Yvette A; Higley, Mark; Clueit, Bernadette; Lane, Robert S

    2018-01-01

    The ecology of Lyme borreliosis is complex in northwestern California, with several potential reservoir hosts, tick vectors, and genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. The primary objective of this study was to determine the fine-scale spatial distribution of different genospecies in four rodent species, the California ground squirrel (Otospermophilus beecheyi), northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus), dusky-footed woodrat (Neotoma fuscipes), and Allen's chipmunk (Neotamias senex). Rodents were live-trapped between June 2004 and May 2005 at the Hoopa Valley Tribal Reservation (HVTR) in Humboldt County, California. Ear-punch biopsies obtained from each rodent were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing analysis. The programs ArcGIS and SaTScan were used to examine the spatial distribution of genospecies. Multinomial log-linear models were used to model habitat and host-specific characteristics and their effect on the presence of each borrelial genospecies. The Akaike information criterion (AICc) was used to compare models and determine model fit. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto was primarily associated with chipmunks and B. bissettiae largely with woodrats. The top model included the variables "host species", "month", and "elevation" (weight = 0.84). Spatial clustering of B. bissettiae was detected in the northwestern section of the HVTR, whereas B. burgdorferi sensu stricto was clustered in the southeastern section. We conclude that the spatial distribution of these borreliae are driven at least in part by host species, time-of-year, and elevation.

  7. Safety of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (B. lactis) strain BB-12®-supplemented yogurt in healthy children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tina P.; Ba, Zhaoyong; Sanders, Mary Ellen; D’Amico, Frank J.; Roberts, Robert F.; Smith, Keisha Herbin; Merenstein, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Probiotics are live microorganisms that may provide health benefits to the individual when consumed in sufficient quantities. For studies conducted on health or disease endpoints on probiotics in the United States, the Food and Administration (FDA) has required those studies to be conducted as investigational new drugs. This phase I, double-blinded, randomized, controlled safety study represents the first requirement of this pathway. The purpose of the study was to determine the safety of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (B. lactis) strain BB-12® (BB-12®)-supplemented yogurt when consumed by a generally healthy group of children. The secondary aim was to assess the effect of BB-12®-supplemented yogurt on the gut microbiota of the children. Methods Sixty children aged 1–5 years were randomly assigned to consume four ounces of either BB-12®-supplemented yogurt or non-supplemented control yogurt daily for 10 days. The primary outcome was to assess safety and tolerability, as determined by the number of reported adverse events. Results A total of 186 non-serious adverse events were reported, with no significant differences between the control and BB-12® groups. No significant changes due to probiotic treatment were observed in the gut microbiota of the study cohort. Conclusions BB-12®-supplemented yogurt is safe and well-tolerated when consumed by healthy children. This study will form the basis for future randomized clinical trials investigating the potential effects of BB-12®-supplemented yogurt in different disease states. PMID:28114246

  8. Regulation of a phenylalanine ammonia lyase (BbPAL) by calmodulin in response to environmental changes in the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyoung; Park, Hyesung; Han, Jae-Gu; Oh, Junsang; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Kim, Seong Hwan; Sung, Gi-Ho

    2015-11-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, E.C. 4.3.1.5) catalyses the deamination of L -phenylalanine to trans-cinnamic acid and ammonia, facilitating a critical step in the phenylpropanoid pathway that produces a variety of secondary metabolites. In this study, we isolated BbPAL gene in the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. According to multiple sequence alignment, homology modelling and in vitro PAL activity, we demonstrated that BbPAL acts as a typical PAL enzyme in B. bassiana. BbPAL interacted with calmodulin (CaM) in vitro and in vivo, indicating that BbPAL is a novel CaM-binding protein. The functional role of CaM in BbPAL action was to negatively regulate the BbPAL activity in B. bassiana. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that L -phenylalanine was reduced and trans-cinnamic acid was increased in response to the CaM inhibitor W-7. Dark conditions suppressed BbPAL activity in B. bassiana, compared with light. In addition, heat and cold stresses inhibited BbPAL activity in B. bassiana. Interestingly, these negative effects of BbPAL activity by dark, heat and cold conditions were recovered by W-7 treatment, suggesting that the inhibitory mechanism is mediated through stimulation of CaM activity. Therefore, this work suggests that BbPAL plays a role in the phenylpropanoid pathway mediated by environmental stimuli via the CaM signalling pathway. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. EST Table: BB987165 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BB987165 E_ET_MSV3_27C09_F_0 10/09/28 36 %/162 aa ref|NP_001129360.1| osiris 9 [Bom...byx mori] gb|ACI23620.1| osiris 9 [Bombyx mori] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h FS937505 MSV3 ...

  10. EST Table: BB987373 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BB987373 E_ET_MSV3_30C12_F_0 10/09/28 39 %/185 aa ref|NP_001129360.1| osiris 9 [Bom...byx mori] gb|ACI23620.1| osiris 9 [Bombyx mori] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h FS937505 MSV3 ...

  11. EST Table: BB986178 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BB986178 E_ET_MSV3_14E04_F_0 10/09/28 38 %/173 aa ref|NP_001129360.1| osiris 9 [Bom...byx mori] gb|ACI23620.1| osiris 9 [Bombyx mori] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h FS937505 MSV3 ...

  12. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks and assessment of entomological risk index at localities in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Milena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The first case of human Lyme borreliosis (LB in Serbia was recorded in 1987. The number of reported LB cases has increased in the past decade. The aim of this study was to estimate the density of Ixodes ricinus (I. ricinus ticks, the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi in them, and entomological risk index (ERI at 19 Belgrade localities which were grouped into three categories (forests, parkforests, parks. The values of ERI were compared with the number of tick bites in humans. Methods. Ticks were collected monthly by using the flag hours method and the infection rate was determined by using dark field microscopy. The ERI value was calculated for each locality where the ticks were collected. The related data about tick bites was obtained from the patient protocol of the Institute of Epidemiology, Military Medical Academy, Belgrade. Results. The total number of collected ticks, the number of nymphs and the infection rates of the nymphs were significantly higher in forests (p < 0.05 than park-forests and parks. Statistically, the ERI value was significantly higher in forests than parks of Belgrade (χ2 = 7.78, p < 0.01. In March and July, the ERI value was also significantly higher in forests, than park-forests (p < 0.01 and parks (p < 0.01. May was the month with the highest ERI value in each ecological category (forests p < 0.05; park-forests p < 0.01; parks p < 0.001. However, the number of tick bites in humans did not correlate with ERI values. Conclusion. The obtained results indicate that the risk of tick bite and human exposure to B. burgdorferi sensu lato is present at all selected localities in Belgrade. For a more comprehensive Lyme disease risk assessment the method of entomological risk index assessment should be combined with other methods, taking into consideration all tick stages and the behaviour and habits of people who may get infected B. burgdorferi sensu lato.

  13. Confirmation of a predicted lack of IgE binding to Cry3Bb1 from genetically modified (GM) crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Osamu; Koyano, Satoru; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Sawada, Jun-Ichi; Teshima, Reiko

    2010-04-01

    Some GM crops including MON863 corn and stack varieties contain Cry3Bb1 protein. Cry3Bb1 is very important from the standpoint of assessing the safety of GM crops. In this study Cry3Bb1 was assessed from the standpoint of possible binding to IgE from allergy patients. First, an ELISA that was improved in our laboratory was used to test serum samples from 13 corn allergy patients in the United States with recombinant Cry3Bb1 expressed in Escherichia coli, and serum samples from 55 patients in Japan with various food allergies were also assayed. Two samples from the Japanese allergy patients were suspected of being positive, but Western blotting analysis with purified Cry3Bb1 indicated that the binding between IgE and Cry3Bb1 was nonspecific. Ultimately, no specific binding between IgE and recombinant Cry3Bb1 was detected. Next, all proteins extracted from MON863 corn and non-GM corn were probed with IgE antibodies in serum samples from the corn allergy patients by Western blotting, but the staining patterns of MON863 and non-GM corn were similar, meaning that unintended allergic reactions to MON863 are unlikely to occur. Our study provides additional information that confirms the predicted lack of IgE binding to Cry3Bb1 in people with existing food allergies. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical usefulness of creatine Kinase BB determination by a Ria method in serum of patients with cerebrovascular accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuti, A.; Giraldi, C.; Piccini, P.; Bonucelli, U.; Clerico, A.; Del Chicca, M. G.

    1988-01-01

    The measurement of creatine kinase BB isoenzyme (CK-BB) using RIA methods could have diagnostic utility as a biological marker of cerebral damage. The aim of the present study is to evaluate whether frequent sampling (4 samples/day for 3 days) permits a better correlation between serum CK B B values and the clinical outcomes of patients with cerebrovascular accidents. 16 in-patients (12 men and 4 women) with stroke (15 of an ischemic nature and 1 hemorrhagic) have benn studied. The presence of stroke was confirmed by clinical symptoms and by CAT results. Blood samples were drawn at 6 and 12 a.m. and at 6 and 12 p.m. over 3 consecutive days after hospitalization. Values of serum CK-BB above the normal range (>7 ng/ml) were found in the 5 of the 16 (31.3%) patients studied. The mean CK-BB value observed in the patients' group was significantly higher than that found in a group of 112 control subjects (controls, mean+-SD=2.1+-1.7 ng/ml vs patients 3.3+-3.4 ng/ml, unpaired t-test p<0.025). We observed a very wide range of serum CKBB levels in most of the patients studied. Some prominent peaks of CK-BB concetrations were found in patients' outcame (Spearman correlation coefficient r-s=0.618, p<0,01). Although our results indicate that the measurement of CK-BB concentrations cannot be considered a sensitive marker of stroke, the significant correlation between serum CK-BB values and outcome suggests that high CK-BB levels could be a sign of worse prognosis in patients with cerebrovascular accidents

  15. Delineation of a New Species of the Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Complex, Borrelia americana sp. nov

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudenko, Natalia; Golovchenko, Maryna; Lin, T.; Gao, L.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Oliver, J. H., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 12 (2009), s. 3875-3880 ISSN 0095-1137 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : multilocus sequence analysis * B. burgdorferi sl complex * new borrelia species * Borrelia americana Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 4.162, year: 2009

  16. Randomness determines practical security of BB84 quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Wang, Shuang; Qian, Yong-Jun; Chen, Wei; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2015-11-01

    Unconditional security of the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol has been proved by exploiting the fundamental laws of quantum mechanics, but the practical quantum key distribution system maybe hacked by considering the imperfect state preparation and measurement respectively. Until now, different attacking schemes have been proposed by utilizing imperfect devices, but the general security analysis model against all of the practical attacking schemes has not been proposed. Here, we demonstrate that the general practical attacking schemes can be divided into the Trojan horse attack, strong randomness attack and weak randomness attack respectively. We prove security of BB84 protocol under randomness attacking models, and these results can be applied to guarantee the security of the practical quantum key distribution system.

  17. Babesia microti, human babesiosis, and Borrelia burgdorferi in Connecticut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J F; Mintz, E D; Gadbaw, J J; Magnarelli, L A

    1991-12-01

    Babesia microti was isolated from a white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) that was captured in southeastern Connecticut in 1988, when the first human case of babesiosis acquired in Connecticut was recognized. To date, 13 cases of babesiosis have been reported in Connecticut, the largest number of human cases reported on the mainland United States. Two of nine patients quiried remembered a prior tick bite. Since Babesia parasites are known to be vectored only by ticks, we surmise that 12 of these infections were acquired via tick bites; 1 was obtained by blood transfusion (the patient was 46 years of age) from an endemically infected donor. The ages of the patients with tick-acquired babesiosis ranged from 61 to 95 years. Two patients died with active infections, and one patient died from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease soon after treatment with clindamycin and quinine. Indirect fluorescent-antibody titers of blood samples drawn at the time of hospitalization for 11 patients and at the time of active infection for 1 asymptomatic person ranged from 1:1,024 to 1:4,096. Five of eight patients with babesiosis also had significant immunoglobulin G or immunoglobulin M titers (1:640 to 1:5,120) to Borrelia burgdorferi. B. microti was isolated in Syrian hamsters inoculated with blood from 7 of 12 patients tested and was also isolated from mice captured in six towns. The peridomestic nature of the disease was demonstrated by isolating the parasite from white-footed mice captured in or near the yards of eight different patients. Of 59 mice tested, 27 were positive and 25 were coinfected with B. burgdorferi. The isolation of B. microti from a white-footed mouse captured in north-central Connecticut (West Hartford), away from the focus of human infections in southeastern Connecticut, suggests that this pathogen may spread into other areas where Ixodes dammini, the tick vector, becomes established.

  18. Perbandingan Granisetron 0,01 mg/KgBb dengan Ondansetron 0,08 Mg/Kg.Bb Untuk Mencegah Mual Muntah Pascaoperasi Dini Mastektomi Radikal Modifikasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Fitriyana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative nausea and vomiting not only cause discomfort to the patient, but also lead to electrolyte imbalance, regurgitation and aspiration, bleeding and loss of surgical sutures. Patients who experience postoperative nausea and vomiting will require further attention and treatment which of course increases the cost of medical services. Women who underwent mastectomy with accompanying decision underarm lymph nodes have a high risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Many anti-vomiting are given including antihistamines, butyrophenon, and dopamine receptor antagonists have been reported to have undesirable side effects including excessive sedation, hypotension, dry mouth, dysphoria, hallucinations and extrapyramidal effects. 5 HT3 receptor antagonists provide a major advancement for treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting due to fewer side effects when compared with anti-vomiting medications before. This study will compare the two drugs 5 HT3 receptor antagonist granisetron with ondansetron in preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting modified radical mastectomy early. Conducted research on 58 patients ASA I and II modified radical mastectomy is performed under general anesthesia. Sampling was carried out using double-blind randomized controlled trial. Samples were divided into two groups by block randomization. Group G is given granisetron 0.01 gr / kg.bb and group O is given ondansetron 0.08 mg / kg.bb. Drug treatment is administered intravenously 30 minutes before the surgery ended on a complete evaluation of blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen saturation and length of surgery. Postoperative nausea and vomiting shortly after surgery assessed every hour until 6 hours after surgery (early postoperative nausea and vomiting to 4 scale (0-3. Data were analyzed by t-test, Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney test and Fisher's Exact test on Windows SPSS ver.16 The results suggest there is a tendency complaints of postoperative nausea and

  19. bb̅ud̅ four-quark systems in the Born-Oppenheimer approximation: prospects and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Antje; Bicudo, Pedro; Wagner, Marc

    2018-03-01

    We summarize previous work on b̅b̅ud four-quark systems in the Born-Oppenheimer approximation and discuss first steps towards an extension to the theoretically more challenging bb̅ud̅ system. Strategies to identify a possibly existing bb̅ud̅ bound state are discussed and first numerical results are presented.

  20. Energy control centres and traction power management of the OeBB infrastructure; Energieleitstellen und Traktionsstrommanagement der OeBB-Infrastruktur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gammer, Michael; Heinze, Florian [OeBB-Infrastruktur AG, Vienna (Austria). Geschaeftsbereich Energie

    2013-04-15

    According to the OeBB control centre concept, the currently four operations management sites for the 15 kV railway power network will be reduced to just two locations which will be reoriented to operate as energy control centres. For the support of the operators, tools have been developed under the title traction power management, which are based on combined simulations of overhead line network and train operations. (orig.)

  1. Propozycja nowego podejścia metodycznego i interpretacji wyników oznaczeń przeciwciał przeciwko Borrelia burgdorferi – analiza składu przeciwciałowego krążących kompleksów immunologicznych

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Miąskiewicz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Borelioza z Lyme ma bogatą symptomatologię i w znacznym odsetkuprzypadków może przypominać wczesne stadia układowej chorobytkanki łącznej. Część pacjentów trafia po wizycie u lekarza POZdo reumatologa. Reumatolog może zlecić badania autoprzeciwciał„markerowych” oraz na obecność przeciwciał bakteryjnych (przeciwkoBorrelia burgdorferi. Odsetek wyników dodatnich w kierunku B. burgdorferijest znikomy (14,7%, istnieje zatem problem wiarygodnościtych wyników.Seronegatywność pod względem obecności swoistych przeciwciałdla B. burgdorferi dotyczy ok. 30���40% surowic pacjentów z podejrzeniemboreliozy, łącznie z pacjentami z potwierdzonymi w wywiadzieukąszeniami przez kleszcza i wystąpieniem objawu patognomonicznego(rumienia wędrującego. Mimo że dysponujemy licznymitestami bakteriologicznymi, serologicznymi czy molekularnymi(PCR, diagnostyka boreliozy nastręcza trudności i może prowadzić do uzyskiwania wyników fałszywie ujemnych lub fałszywie dodatnich.Autorzy pracy skupili się na surowicach pacjentów seronegatywnychpod względem przeciwciał dla B. burgdorferi, w których wolneprzeciwciała przeciwko B. burgdorferi zostały związane przezantygeny krętka i utworzyły krążące kompleksy immunologiczne (KKI.Celem pracy była analiza KKI pod kątem obecności przeciwciał przeciwkoB. burgdorferi w trudnych diagnostycznie surowicach pacjentów,u których obraz kliniczny wskazywał na obecność zakażenia krętkiemz rodzaju B. burgdorferi (ryc. 1–7. Badania przeprowadzono nasurowicach 54 chorych z wywiadem wskazującym na boreliozę. Zastosowanonowe metodyczne podejście do analizy obecności swoistychprzeciwciał dla B. burgdorferi – wytrącanie i dysocjację KKI, a następnieoznaczanie w uzyskanej frakcji γ z osadu PEG przeciwciał swoistychdla B. burgdorferi. W 41 surowicach ujemnych w teście ELISAwytrącono frakcję γ z osadu PEG i powtórnie oznaczono przeciwciaładla B. burgdorferi. W 82

  2. Bb4l event generator, interferences and off-shell effects

    CERN Document Server

    Peyruchat, Leo Paul

    2017-01-01

    Proton-proton collisions happening in LHC create lots of data. To understand the underlying physics behind these events, the real data must be compared to simulated events. A new generator,called the bb4l model, is able to simulate collisions happening in LHC with new interesting features regarding process creating two W bosons and two b quarks. One of them is that it takes interferences between different processes into account. Such effects have always been neglected in the case of top pair or single top production, but with the increasing sensitivity of the detectors it is becoming important to know precisely their amplitude. The goal of this study is to separate events generated with bb4l into different categories, and then to look at many variables and look for differences between categories.

  3. Managing Japanese barberry (Ranunculales: Berberidaceae) infestations reduces blacklegged tick (Acari: Ixodidae) abundance and infection prevalence with Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Scott C; Ward, Jeffrey S; Worthley, Thomas E; Stafford, Kirby C

    2009-08-01

    In many Connecticut forests with an overabundance of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann), Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii DC) has become the dominant understory shrub, which may provide a habitat favorable to blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis Say) and white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus Rafinesque) survival. To determine mouse and larval tick abundances at three replicate sites over 2 yr, mice were trapped in unmanipulated dense barberry infestations, areas where barberry was controlled, and areas where barberry was absent. The number of feeding larval ticks/mouse was recorded. Adult and nymphal ticks were sampled along 200-m draglines in each treatment, retained, and were tested for Borrelia burgdorferi (Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt, and Brenner) presence. Total first-captured mouse counts did not differ between treatments. Mean number of feeding larval ticks per mouse was highest on mice captured in dense barberry. Adult tick densities in dense barberry were higher than in both controlled barberry and no barberry areas. Ticks sampled from full barberry infestations and controlled barberry areas had similar infection prevalence with B. burgdorferi the first year. In areas where barberry was controlled, infection prevalence was reduced to equal that of no barberry areas the second year of the study. Results indicate that managing Japanese barberry will have a positive effect on public health by reducing the number of B. burgdorferi-infected blacklegged ticks that can develop into motile life stages that commonly feed on humans.

  4. Detection of Lyme Disease Bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, in Blacklegged Ticks Collected in the Grand River Valley, Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, John D.; Foley, Janet E.; Anderson, John F.; Clark, Kerry L.; Durden, Lance A.

    2017-01-01

    We document the presence of blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis, in the Grand River valley, Centre Wellington, Ontario. Overall, 15 (36%) of 42 I. scapularis adults collected from 41 mammalian hosts (dogs, cats, humans) were positive for the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.). Using real-time PCR testing and DNA sequencing of the flagellin (fla) gene, we determined that Borrelia amplicons extracted from I. scapularis adults belonged to B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.), which is pathogenic to humans and certain domestic animals. Based on the distribution of I. scapularis adults within the river basin, it appears likely that migratory birds provide an annual influx of I. scapularis immatures during northward spring migration. Health-care providers need to be aware that local residents can present with Lyme disease symptoms anytime during the year. PMID:28260991

  5. Air rifles are more than toys: BB gun-related traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopotek, Blaine; Weibley, Richard; Chapados, Rene

    2014-12-01

    Gunshot wounds are traumatic events that emergency departments around the country treat on a daily basis. An increasing number of these wounds are being caused by air rifles that shoot ball bearings (ie, BB guns) and, although uncommon, the results can be fatal. The general public and most practitioners may not realize the damage these "toys" can inflict. This article highlights an unfortunate event involving a BB gun accidentally discharged at close range and the consequences. Data from recent and older studies are discussed regarding the firepower of these guns and their potential for injury. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Evaluating the cellular targets of anti-4-1BB agonist antibody during immunotherapy of a pre-established tumor in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria H Y Lin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Manipulation of the immune system represents a promising avenue for cancer therapy. Rational advances in immunotherapy of cancer will require an understanding of the precise correlates of protection. Agonistic antibodies against the tumor necrosis factor receptor family member 4-1BB are emerging as a promising tool in cancer therapy, with evidence that these antibodies expand both T cells as well as innate immune cells. Depletion studies have suggested that several cell types can play a role in these immunotherapeutic regimens, but do not reveal which cells must directly receive the 4-1BB signals for effective therapy.We show that re-activated memory T cells are superior to resting memory T cells in control of an 8-day pre-established E.G7 tumor in mice. We find that ex vivo activation of the memory T cells allows the activated effectors to continue to divide and enter the tumor, regardless of antigen-specificity; however, only antigen-specific reactivated memory T cells show any efficacy in tumor control. When agonistic anti-4-1BB antibody is combined with this optimized adoptive T cell therapy, 80% of mice survive and are fully protected from tumor rechallenge. Using 4-1BB-deficient mice and mixed bone marrow chimeras, we find that it is sufficient to have 4-1BB only on the endogenous host alphabeta T cells or only on the transferred T cells for the effects of anti-4-1BB to be realized. Conversely, although multiple immune cell types express 4-1BB and both T cells and APC expand during anti-4-1BB therapy, 4-1BB on cells other than alphabeta T cells is neither necessary nor sufficient for the effect of anti-4-1BB in this adoptive immunotherapy model.This study establishes alphabeta T cells rather than innate immune cells as the critical target in anti-4-1BB therapy of a pre-established tumor. The study also demonstrates that ex vivo activation of memory T cells prior to infusion allows antigen-specific tumor control without the need for

  7. Depressed glucose utilization in lungs of BB wistar spontaneously diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhal, B.D.; Moxley, M.A.; Longmore, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    Lungs of BB wistar spontaneously diabetic rats were perfused with [ 14 C(U)]glucose in modified Krebs Ringer bicarbonate medium for 1.5 hours. Lungs from non-diabetic BB Wistar rats were perfused simultaneously and served as controls. The perfusions were terminated by rapid freezing of the tissue in liquid N 2 followed by separation of surfactant and residual lung fractions. The rates of glucose incorporation into surfactant DSPC, PG, and PE were decreased 4.7, 2.4 and 2.5-fold, respectively, in lungs of spontaneously diabetic rats when expressed as final product specific activities. The rate of glucose incorporation into residual PC was also reduced by 2.3-fold. Expressed as moles incorporated per gram wet weight of lung, incorporations into surfactant DSPC, PG and residual PC were also reduced by 4.1, 6.3 and 3.8-fold respectively. These data; (1) agree with previous studies of the lungs of streptozotocin and alloxan-diabetic rats; (2) show that the depressed glucose utilization for lipid synthesis observed previously is not due to streptozotocin or alloxan toxicity; (3) suggest that the BB Wistar rat will provide a useful model for the study of the effects of insulin-dependent diabetes on lung metabolism

  8. Yukawa corrections from PGBs in OGTC model to the process γγ→bb-bar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jinshu; Song Taiping; Song Haizhen; Lu gongru

    2000-01-01

    The Yukawa corrections from the pseudo-Goldstone bosons (PGBs) in the one generation technicolor (OGTC) model to the process γγ→bb-bar are calculated. The authors find the corrections from the PGBs to the cross section γγ→bb-bar are more than 10% in the certain parameter values region. The maximum of the relative corrections to the process e + e - →γγ→bb-bar may reach -51% in laser back-scattering photos mode, and is only -17.9% in Beamstrahlung photons mode. The corrections are greatly larger the contributions from the relevant particles in the standard model and the supersymmetric model. It can be considered as a signatures of finding the technicolor at the next-generation high energy photons collision

  9. Does host complement kill Borrelia burgdorferi within ticks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathinavelu, Sivaprakash; Broadwater, Anne; de Silva, Aravinda M

    2003-02-01

    The Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, inhabits the gut lumen of the tick vector. At this location the spirochete is exposed to host blood when a tick feeds. We report here on studies that were done with normal and complement-deficient (C3-knockout) mice to determine if the host complement system killed spirochetes within the vector. We found that spirochete numbers within feeding nymphs were not influenced by complement, most likely because host complement was inactivated within the vector. The Lyme disease outer surface protein A (OspA) vaccine is a transmission-blocking vaccine that targets spirochetes in the vector. In experiments with mice hyperimmunized with OspA, complement was not required to kill spirochetes within nymphs and to block transmission from nymphs to the vaccinated host. However, host complement did enhance the ability of OspA antibody to block larvae from acquiring spirochetes. Thus, the effects of OspA antibody on nymphal transmission and larval acquisition appear to be based on different mechanisms.

  10. Multimodal Broadband Vibrational Sum Frequency Generation (MM-BB-V-SFG) Spectrometer and Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christopher M; Kafle, Kabindra; Huang, Shixin; Kim, Seong H

    2016-01-14

    A broadband sum frequency generation (BB-SFG) spectrometer with multimodal (MM) capabilities was constructed, which could be routinely reconfigured for tabletop experiments in reflection, transmission, and total internal reflection (TIR) geometries, as well as microscopic imaging. The system was constructed using a Ti:sapphire amplifier (800 nm, pulse width = 85 fs, repetition rate = 2 kHz), an optical parameter amplification (OPA) system for production of broadband IR pulses tunable between 1000 and 4000 cm(-1), and two Fabry-Pérot etalons arranged in series for production of narrowband 800 nm pulses. The key feature allowing the MM operation was the nearly collinear alignment of the visible (fixed, 800 nm) and infrared (tunable, 1000-4000 cm(-1)) pulses which were spatially separated. Physical insights discussed in this paper include the comparison of spectral bandwidth produced with 40 and 85 fs pump beams, the improvement of spectral resolution using etalons, the SFG probe volume in bulk analysis, the normalization of SFG signals, the stitching of multiple spectral segments, and the operation in different modes for air/liquid and adsorbate/solid interfaces, bulk samples, as well as spectral imaging combined with principle component analysis (PCA). The SFG spectral features obtained with the MM-BB-SFG system were compared with those obtained with picosecond-scanning-SFG system and high-resolution BB-SFG system (HR-BB-SFG) for dimethyl sulfoxide, α-pinene, and various samples containing cellulose (purified commercial products, Cladophora cell wall, cotton and flax fibers, and onion epidermis cell wall).

  11. Isolation, cultivation and identification of Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies from Ixodes ricinus ticks from the city of Brno, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pejchalová, K.; Žákovská, A.; Mejzlíková, M.; Halouzka, Jiří; Dendis, M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 1 (2007), s. 75-79 ISSN 1232-1966 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi * cultivation * DFM method * Ixodes ricinus * Lyme Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.074, year: 2007 http://www.aaem.pl/pdf/1475.pdf

  12. Recombinant constructs of Borrelia burgdorferi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dattwyler, Raymond J. (Setauket, NY); Gomes-Solecki, Maria J. C. (New York, NY); Luft, Benjamin J. (East Setauket, NY); Dunn, John J.(Bellport, NY)

    2007-02-20

    Novel chimeric nucleic acids, encoding chimeric Borrelia proteins comprising OspC or an antigenic fragment thereof and OspA or an antigenic fragment thereof, are disclosed. Chimeric proteins encoded by the nucleic acid sequences are also disclosed. The chimeric proteins are useful as vaccine immunogens against Lyme borreliosis, as well as for immunodiagnostic reagents.

  13. Diagnostic value of serum creatine kinase-BB for acute meningitis in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Alavi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To find out an easy and feasible test instead of cerebrospinal fluid analysis for the diagnosis of acute meningitis. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 in Ahvaz, a city located in the Southwest Iran including 75 patients with clinical diagnosis of fever, headache, vomiting and neck stiffness suspected to have acute meningitis based on cerebrospinal fluid analysis. In the beginning, the patients were divided into two categories as acute meningitis, and non-acute meningitis. Then, 5 L of blood was taken from each patient to determine serum creatine kinase isoenzyme-BB by using ELISA method. After that, the related data including demographics, clinical and laboratory results were analyzed by SPSS software version 16 using Chi-square test for qualitative variables and student’s t-test for quantitative variables. Results: Among the total 75 patients, 37 (49.3% were males and 38 (50.7% were females including 45 patients (60% with acute meningitis and 30 patients (40% without acute meningitis. On the other hand, CK-BB serum levels in acute meningitis and non-acute meningitis patients were 18.23 ± 7.56 and 2.67 ± 1.62, respectively, so significant difference was found between acute meningitis group and non-acute meningitis group (P < 0.000 1. Conclusions: Serum creatine kinase isoenzyme-BB test is a useful test to differentiate acute meningitis from non-acute meningitis among suspected cases of meningitis disease, so measuring the CK-BB serum level in Iran's health system with an expanded health setting especially in remote areas will be useful and helpful in prompt diagnosis and treatment of the acute meningitis.

  14. Complement factor H-related proteins CFHR2 and CFHR5 represent novel ligands for the infection-associated CRASP proteins of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Siegel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available One virulence property of Borrelia burgdorferi is its resistance to innate immunity, in particular to complement-mediated killing. Serum-resistant B. burgdorferi express up to five distinct complement regulator-acquiring surface proteins (CRASP which interact with complement regulator factor H (CFH and factor H-like protein 1 (FHL1 or factor H-related protein 1 (CFHR1. In the present study we elucidate the role of the infection-associated CRASP-3 and CRASP-5 protein to serve as ligands for additional complement regulatory proteins as well as for complement resistance of B. burgdorferi.To elucidate whether CRASP-5 and CRASP-3 interact with various human proteins, both borrelial proteins were immobilized on magnetic beads. Following incubation with human serum, bound proteins were eluted and separated by Glycine-SDS-PAGE. In addition to CFH and CFHR1, complement regulators CFHR2 and CFHR5 were identified as novel ligands for both borrelial proteins by employing MALDI-TOF. To further assess the contributions of CRASP-3 and CRASP-5 to complement resistance, a serum-sensitive B. garinii strain G1 which lacks all CFH-binding proteins was used as a valuable model for functional analyses. Both CRASPs expressed on the B. garinii outer surface bound CFH as well as CFHR1 and CFHR2 in ELISA. In contrast, live B. garinii bound CFHR1, CFHR2, and CFHR5 and only miniscute amounts of CFH as demonstrated by serum adsorption assays and FACS analyses. Further functional analysis revealed that upon NHS incubation, CRASP-3 or CRASP-5 expressing borreliae were killed by complement.In the absence of CFH and the presence of CFHR1, CFHR2 and CFHR5, assembly and integration of the membrane attack complex was not efficiently inhibited indicating that CFH in co-operation with CFHR1, CFHR2 and CFHR5 supports complement evasion of B. burgdorferi.

  15. Analysis of an ordered, comprehensive STM mutant library in infectious Borrelia burgdorferi: insights into the genes required for mouse infectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Lin

    Full Text Available The identification of genes important in the pathogenesis of Lyme disease Borrelia has been hampered by exceedingly low transformation rates in low-passage, infectious organisms. Using the infectious, moderately transformable B. burgdorferi derivative 5A18NP1 and signature-tagged versions of the Himar1 transposon vector pGKT, we have constructed a defined transposon library for the efficient genome-wide investigation of genes required for wild-type pathogenesis, in vitro growth, physiology, morphology, and plasmid replication. To facilitate analysis, the insertion sites of 4,479 transposon mutants were determined by sequencing. The transposon insertions were widely distributed across the entire B. burgdorferi genome, with an average of 2.68 unique insertion sites per kb DNA. The 10 linear plasmids and 9 circular plasmids had insertions in 33 to 100 percent of their predicted genes. In contrast, only 35% of genes in the 910 kb linear chromosome had incapacitating insertions; therefore, the remaining 601 chromosomal genes may represent essential gene candidates. In initial signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM analyses, 434 mutants were examined at multiple tissue sites for infectivity in mice using a semi-quantitative, Luminex-based DNA detection method. Examples of genes found to be important in mouse infectivity included those involved in motility, chemotaxis, the phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system, and other transporters, as well as putative plasmid maintenance genes. Availability of this ordered STM library and a high-throughput screening method is expected to lead to efficient assessment of the roles of B. burgdorferi genes in the infectious cycle and pathogenesis of Lyme disease.

  16. Dual-signal amplification strategy for ultrasensitive chemiluminescence detection of PDGF-BB in capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jun-Tao; Wang, Hui; Ren, Shu-Wei; Chen, Yong-Hong; Liu, Yan-Ming

    2015-12-01

    Many efforts have been made toward the achievement of high sensitivity in capillary electrophoresis coupled with chemiluminescence detection (CE-CL). This work describes a novel dual-signal amplification strategy for highly specific and ultrasensitive CL detection of human platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) using both aptamer and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) modified gold nanoparticles (HRP-AuNPs-aptamer) as nanoprobes in CE. Both AuNPs and HRP in the nanoprobes could amplify the CL signals in the luminol-H2 O2 CL system, owing to the excellent catalytic behavior of AuNPs and HRP in the CL system. Meanwhile, the high affinity of aptamer modified on the AuNPs allows detection with high specificity. As proof-of-concept, the proposed method was employed to quantify the concentration of PDGF-BB from 0.50 to 250 fm with a detection limit of 0.21 fm. The applicability of the assay was further demonstrated in the analysis of PDGF-BB in human serum samples with acceptable accuracy and reliability. The result of this study exhibits distinct advantages, such as high sensitivity, good specificity, simplicity, and very small sample consumption. The good performances of the proposed strategy provide a powerful avenue for ultrasensitive detection of rare proteins in biological sample, showing great promise in biochemical analysis. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. First observation of forward Z→bb¯ production in pp collisions at s=8 TeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Aaij

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The decay Z→bb¯ is reconstructed in pp collision data, corresponding to 2 fb−1 of integrated luminosity, collected by the LHCb experiment at a centre-of-mass energy of s=8 TeV. The product of the Z production cross-section and the Z→bb¯ branching fraction is measured for candidates in the fiducial region defined by two particle-level b-quark jets with pseudorapidities in the range 2.220 GeV and dijet invariant mass in the range 45bb¯ events, where the uncertainty is statistical, a production cross-section times branching fraction of 332±46±59 pb is obtained, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic. The measured significance of the signal yield is 6.0 standard deviations. This measurement represents the first observation of the Z→bb¯ production in the forward region of pp collisions.

  18. Fourth-generation effects in Z0 to bb-bar decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Wengan; Xu Zizong

    1991-01-01

    Possible fourth generation effects in partial widths in Z 0 into bb-bar decay are discussed with the consideration of all quark mixing within the minimal standard model. We show that it is possible to disentangle the effects from the fourth generation. (author)

  19. Establishment of a minor groove binder-probe based quantitative real time PCR to detect Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and differentiation of Borrelia spielmanii by ospA-specific conventional PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strube Christina

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl, the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, is transmitted by ticks of the genus Ixodes as vector. For identification of Borrelia infections in ticks a TaqMan™ minor groove binder (MGB probe-based quantitative real time PCR (qPCR was established targeting the 5S-23S intergenic spacer. Extension to a duplex qPCR included an Ixodes spp. positive control to verify successful DNA isolation. Besides qPCR, an ospA-specific conventional PCR for species-specific identification of B. spielmanii was established. Afterwards 1000 I. ricinus flagged in the city of Hanover, Germany, were investigated for B. burgdorferi sl infections followed by species identification. Furthermore, I. hexagonus ticks were investigated to proof applicability of the PCRs. Results Quantitative real time PCR (qPCR identifying B. burgdorferi sl in ticks was able to detect 1-10 copies per reaction. B. spielmanii ospA-specific conventional PCR was also highly specific and showed no cross reactions with the other tested Borrelia species. From 1000 hanoveranian ticks 24.3% were positive compared to only 7.4% positives by dark-field microscopy. Related to tick stage 1.7% larvae, 18.1% nymphs, and 34.6% adults were positive. The most frequent species was B. garinii, followed by B. afzelii, B. spielmanii, B. valaisiana and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (ss. 70.6% of I. ricinus were mono-infected, whereas 28.0% and 1.4% were infected with two and three Borrelia species, respectively. From 232 I. hexagonus collected from hedgehogs in different sites of Germany, qPCR detected 5.7% to be infected with B. burgdorferi sl, which were identified as B. afzelii, B. garinii and B. spielmanii. Conclusions The evaluated qPCR to detect B. burgdorferi sl in Ixodes spp. is highly specific and sensitive. As a duplex qPCR including detection of Ixodes spp. DNA it is the first DNA based technique incorporating a control for successful DNA isolation from

  20. Antibody responses to Borrelia burgdorferi detected by western blot vary geographically in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Nicholas H; Arsenault, Julie; Hatchette, Todd F; Mechai, Samir; Lindsay, L Robbin

    2017-01-01

    Lyme disease is emerging in eastern and central Canada, and most cases are diagnosed using the two-tier serological test (Enzyme Immuno Assay [EIA] followed by Western blot [WB]). Simplification of this algorithm would be advantageous unless it impacts test performance. In this study, accuracy of individual proteins of the IgG WB algorithm in predicting the overall test result in samples from Canadians was assessed. Because Borrelia burgdorferi strains vary geographically in Canada, geographic variations in serological responses were also explored. Metrics of relative sensitivity, specificity and the kappa statistic measure of concordance were used to assess the capacity of responses to individual proteins to predict the overall IgG WB result of 2524 EIA (C6)-positive samples from across Canada. Geographic and interannual variations in proportions of samples testing positive were explored by logistic regression. No one protein was highly concordant with the IgG WB result. Significant variations were found amongst years and geographic regions in the prevalence of samples testing positive using the overall IgG WB algorithm, and for individual proteins of the algorithm. In most cases the prevalence of samples testing positive were highest in Nova Scotia, and lower in samples from Manitoba westwards. These findings suggest that the current two tier test may not be simplified and continued use of the current two-tier test method and interpretation is recommended. Geographic and interannual variations in the prevalence of samples testing positive may be consistent with B. burgdorferi strain variation in Canada, and further studies are needed to explore this.

  1. Antibody responses to Borrelia burgdorferi detected by western blot vary geographically in Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas H Ogden

    Full Text Available Lyme disease is emerging in eastern and central Canada, and most cases are diagnosed using the two-tier serological test (Enzyme Immuno Assay [EIA] followed by Western blot [WB]. Simplification of this algorithm would be advantageous unless it impacts test performance. In this study, accuracy of individual proteins of the IgG WB algorithm in predicting the overall test result in samples from Canadians was assessed. Because Borrelia burgdorferi strains vary geographically in Canada, geographic variations in serological responses were also explored. Metrics of relative sensitivity, specificity and the kappa statistic measure of concordance were used to assess the capacity of responses to individual proteins to predict the overall IgG WB result of 2524 EIA (C6-positive samples from across Canada. Geographic and interannual variations in proportions of samples testing positive were explored by logistic regression. No one protein was highly concordant with the IgG WB result. Significant variations were found amongst years and geographic regions in the prevalence of samples testing positive using the overall IgG WB algorithm, and for individual proteins of the algorithm. In most cases the prevalence of samples testing positive were highest in Nova Scotia, and lower in samples from Manitoba westwards. These findings suggest that the current two tier test may not be simplified and continued use of the current two-tier test method and interpretation is recommended. Geographic and interannual variations in the prevalence of samples testing positive may be consistent with B. burgdorferi strain variation in Canada, and further studies are needed to explore this.

  2. Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and tick-borne encephalitis virus in zoo animal species in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Širmarová, J.; Tichá, L.; Golovchenko, Maryna; Salát, Jiří; Grubhoffer, L.; Rudenko, Natalia; Nowotny, N.; Růžek, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 5 (2014), s. 523-527 ISSN 1877-959X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/11/2116 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Tick-borne encephalitis virus * Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato * Lyme borreliosis * Seroprevalence * Zoo animals Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.718, year: 2014

  3. Infections and mixed infections with the selected species of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in eastern Poland: a significant increase in the course of 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina; Zając, Violetta; Sawczyn, Anna; Sroka, Jacek; Cisak, Ewa; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2016-02-01

    In the years 2008-2009 and 2013-2014, 1620 and 1500 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks, respectively, were examined on the territory of the Lublin province (eastern Poland). The presence of three pathogenic species causing Lyme disease was investigated: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. afzelii and B. garinii. The proportion of I. ricinus ticks infected with B. burgdorferi sensu lato showed a highly significant increase between 2008-2009 and 2013-2014, from 6.0 to 15.3%. A significant increase was noted with regard to all types of infections with individual species: single (4.7-7.8%), dual (1.2-6.6%), and triple (0.1-0.9%). When expressed as the percent of all infections, the frequency of mixed infections increased from 21.4 to 49.2%. Statistical analysis performed with two methods (by calculating of odds ratios and by Fisher's exact test) showed that the frequencies of mixed infections in most cases proved to be significantly greater than expected. The strongest associations were found between B. burgdorferi s. s. and B. afzelii, and between B. burgdorferi s. s. and B. garinii. They appeared to be highly significant (P eastern Poland, and dramatic enhancement of mixed infections with individual species, which may result in mixed infections of humans and exacerbation of the clinical course of Lyme disease cases on the studied area.

  4. Towards the first B[B0(s) → μ+μ-] measurements with the LHCb detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrover Pacheco, C.

    2012-01-01

    The rare decays B 0 s → μ + μ - are benchmark channels to constrain models beyond the Standard Model (BSM) with a larger Higgs sector. In the SM, the branching fraction of these decays is predicted with a good accuracy: B(B 0 s → μ + μ - )=(3.2±0.2)*10 -9 and B(B 0 → μ + μ - )=(0.10±0.01)*10 -10 . Any deviation from these values can lead to indications of physics BSM. The core of this thesis comprises two main topics: the background rejection and the signal yields extraction. We have optimized a multivariate classifier based on the boosted decision trees technique allowing for a drastic reduction of the B→h + h' - (h=p,K) background. After the selection process, about 76% of the combinatorial background for B 0 s → μ + μ - is removed, while keeping a signal efficiency of about 92%. A further discrimination between signal and background is accomplished with another multivariate classifier optimized to have a large background rejection in the low signal efficiency region. The work presented in this thesis describes the optimization of a boosted decision trees classifier that suppresses 99.9% of the background, after the afore-mentioned selection process, for a signal efficiency of 50%. We have proposed a method to estimate the signal yields present in our data sample using an extended maximum likelihood fit. The validation of the fit using simulation reflects the proper estimation of the statistical uncertainties, and systematic uncertainties have been carefully studied and taken into account in the final results for the 2011 1 fb -1 data sample: B(B 0 s → μ + μ - )=(1.4(+1.6-1.1)(stat)(+0.5-0.8)(syst))*10 -9 and B(B 0 → μ + μ - )=(0.3(+0.5-0.4)(stat)(+0.4-0.3)(syst))*10 -9 . Given the lack of signal evidence, upper limits on the branching fractions are computed: B(B 0 s → μ + μ - ) -9 and B(B 0 → μ + μ - ) -10 , which are the most restrictive limits up to date. (author)

  5. Biochemical and kinetic characterisation of a novel xylooligosaccharide-upregulated GH43 β-d-xylosidase/α-l-arabinofuranosidase (BXA43) from the probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viborg, Alexander Holm; Sørensen, Kim Ib; Gilad, Ofir

    2013-01-01

    The Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 gene BIF_00092, assigned to encode a β-d-xylosidase (BXA43) of glycoside hydrolase family 43 (GH43), was cloned with a C-terminal His-tag and expressed in Escherichia coli. BXA43 was purified to homogeneity from the cell lysate and found to be a dual......-specificity exo-hydrolase active on para-nitrophenyl-β-d-xylopyranoside (pNPX), para-nitrophenyl-α-L-arabinofuranoside (pNPA), β-(1 → 4)-xylopyranosyl oligomers (XOS) of degree of polymerisation (DP) 2–4, and birchwood xylan. A phylogenetic tree of the 92 characterised GH43 enzymes displayed five distinct groups...

  6. Tonic 4-1BB Costimulation in Chimeric Antigen Receptors Impedes T Cell Survival and Is Vector-Dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Gomes-Silva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Antigen-independent tonic signaling by chimeric antigen receptors (CARs can increase differentiation and exhaustion of T cells, limiting their potency. Incorporating 4-1BB costimulation in CARs may enable T cells to resist this functional exhaustion; however, the potential ramifications of tonic 4-1BB signaling in CAR T cells remain unclear. Here, we found that tonic CAR-derived 4-1BB signaling can produce toxicity in T cells via continuous TRAF2-dependent activation of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB pathway and augmented FAS-dependent cell death. This mechanism was amplified in a non-self-inactivating gammaretroviral vector through positive feedback on the long terminal repeat (LTR promoter, further enhancing CAR expression and tonic signaling. Attenuating CAR expression by substitution with a self-inactivating lentiviral vector minimized tonic signaling and improved T cell expansion and anti-tumor function. These studies illuminate the interaction between tonic CAR signaling and the chosen expression platform and identify inhibitory properties of the 4-1BB costimulatory domain that have direct implications for rational CAR design.

  7. Closely-related Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu stricto) strains exhibit similar fitness in single infections and asymmetric competition in multiple infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynkiewicz, Evelyn C; Brown, Julia; Tufts, Danielle M; Huang, Ching-I; Kampen, Helge; Bent, Stephen J; Fish, Durland; Diuk-Wasser, Maria A

    2017-02-06

    Wild hosts are commonly co-infected with complex, genetically diverse, pathogen communities. Competition is expected between genetically or ecologically similar pathogen strains which may influence patterns of coexistence. However, there is little data on how specific strains of these diverse pathogen species interact within the host and how this impacts pathogen persistence in nature. Ticks are the most common disease vector in temperate regions with Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, being the most common vector-borne pathogen in North America. Borrelia burgdorferi is a pathogen of high public health concern and there is significant variation in infection phenotype between strains, which influences predictions of pathogen dynamics and spread. In a laboratory experiment, we investigated whether two closely-related strains of B. burgdorferi (sensu stricto) showed similar transmission phenotypes, how the transmission of these strains changed when a host was infected with one strain, re-infected with the same strain, or co-infected with two strains. Ixodes scapularis, the black-legged tick, nymphs were used to sequentially infect laboratory-bred Peromyscus leucopus, white-footed mice, with one strain only, homologous infection with the same stain, or heterologous infection with both strains. We used the results of this laboratory experiment to simulate long-term persistence and maintenance of each strain in a simple simulation model. Strain LG734 was more competitive than BL206, showing no difference in transmission between the heterologous infection groups and single-infection controls, while strain BL206 transmission was significantly reduced when strain LG734 infected first. The results of the model show that this asymmetry in competition could lead to extinction of strain BL206 unless there was a tick-to-host transmission advantage to this less competitive strain. This asymmetric competitive interaction suggests that strain identity and

  8. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic study of the extracellular domain of the 4-1BB ligand, a member of the TNF family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Jung-Sue; Kim, Dong-Uk [Department of Biology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Byungchan; Kwon, Byoung Se [Immunomodulation Research Center, Ulsan University, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyun-Soo, E-mail: hscho8@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Biology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-01-01

    The extracellular domain of the 4-1BB ligand fused with glutathione-S-transferase was expressed in Escherichia coli (Origami) and purified by using affinity and ion-exchange column chromatographic methods. Crystals of the 4-1BB ligand were obtained at 290 K by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The 4-1BB ligand, a member of the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) family, is an important co-stimulatory molecule that plays a key role in the clonal expansion and survival of CD8+ T cells. Signalling through binding of the 4-1BB ligand and 4-1BB has been reported to enhance CD8+ T-cell expansion and protect activated CD8+ T cells from death. The 4-1BB ligand is an integral protein expressed on activated antigen-presenting cells. The extracellular domain of the 4-1BB ligand fused with glutathione-S-transferase was expressed in Escherichia coli (Origami) and purified by using affinity and ion-exchange column chromatographic methods. Crystals of the 4-1BB ligand were obtained at 290 K by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. X-ray diffraction data were collected from these crystals to 2.8 Å resolution and the crystals belong to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 114.6, b = 73.8, c = 118.50 Å, β = 115.5°.

  9. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic study of the extracellular domain of the 4-1BB ligand, a member of the TNF family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Jung-Sue; Kim, Dong-Uk; Ahn, Byungchan; Kwon, Byoung Se; Cho, Hyun-Soo

    2005-01-01

    The extracellular domain of the 4-1BB ligand fused with glutathione-S-transferase was expressed in Escherichia coli (Origami) and purified by using affinity and ion-exchange column chromatographic methods. Crystals of the 4-1BB ligand were obtained at 290 K by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The 4-1BB ligand, a member of the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) family, is an important co-stimulatory molecule that plays a key role in the clonal expansion and survival of CD8+ T cells. Signalling through binding of the 4-1BB ligand and 4-1BB has been reported to enhance CD8+ T-cell expansion and protect activated CD8+ T cells from death. The 4-1BB ligand is an integral protein expressed on activated antigen-presenting cells. The extracellular domain of the 4-1BB ligand fused with glutathione-S-transferase was expressed in Escherichia coli (Origami) and purified by using affinity and ion-exchange column chromatographic methods. Crystals of the 4-1BB ligand were obtained at 290 K by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. X-ray diffraction data were collected from these crystals to 2.8 Å resolution and the crystals belong to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 114.6, b = 73.8, c = 118.50 Å, β = 115.5°

  10. DELPHI results on the Z0 → bb-bar partial width and on the average B hadrons semileptonic branching ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambade, P.

    1992-05-01

    Results from DELPHI on the Z 0 → bb-bar partial width (Γ ( bb-bar)) and on the average B hadron semileptonic branching ratio (B s.l. ) are reviewed. Prospects are given for improving these measurements, using different complementary techniques. A new and potentially powerful method for extracting the branching ratio R b with minimal errors is suggested, based on using the redundancy provided by two independent discriminators for bb-bar events. (R.P.) 12 refs., 3 figs

  11. REFIR/BB initial observations in the water vapour rotational band: Results from a field campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, F.; Grieco, G.; Leone, L.; Restieri, R.; Serio, C.; Bianchini, G.; Palchetti, L.; Pellegrini, M.; Cuomo, V.; Masiello, G.; Pavese, G.

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the far infrared spectral region 17-50 μm as a remote sensing tool in atmospheric sciences, since this portion of the spectrum contains the characteristic molecular rotational band for water vapour. Much of the Earth energy lost to space is radiated through this spectral region. The Radiation Explorer in the Far InfraRed Breadboard (REFIR/BB) spectrometer was born because of the quest to make observations in the far infrared. REFIR/BB is a Fourier Transform Spectrometer with a sampling resolution of 0.5 cm -1 and it was tested for the first time in the field to check its reliability and radiometric performance. The field campaign was held at Toppo di Castelgrande (40 o 49' N, 15 o 27' E, 1258 m a. s. l.), a mountain site in South Italy. The spectral and radiometric performance of the instrument and initial observations are shown in this paper. Comparisons to both (1) BOMEM MR100 Fourier Transform spectrometer observations and (2) line-by-line radiative transfer calculations for selected clear sky are presented and discussed. These comparisons (1) show a very nice agreement between radiance measured by REFIR/BB and by BOMEM MR100 and (2) demonstrate that REFIR/BB accurately observes the very fine spectral structure in the water vapour rotational band

  12. Effect of platelet-derived growth factor-BB on bone formation in calvarial defects: an experimental study in rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikjaer, D; Blom, S; Hjørting-Hansen, E

    1997-01-01

    The effect of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB (rhPDGF-BB) on bone healing was examined in calvarial defects in rabbits. Bicortical circular (critical size) defects were prepared in the calvarial bone of 16 rabbits. The defects were closed on the dural side and covered externally...

  13. Lycopene inhibits PDGF-BB-induced retinal pigment epithelial cell migration by suppression of PI3K/Akt and MAPK pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Chi-Ming [School of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, Taipei Hsien, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Ophthalmology, Cardinal Tien Hospital, Taipei Hsien, Taiwan, ROC (China); Fang, Jia-You [Pharmaceutics Laboratory, Graduate Institute of Natural Products, Chang Gung University, Kweishan, Taoyuan, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Hsin-Huang [School of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, Taipei Hsien, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yang, Chi-Yea [Department of Biotechnology, Vanung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan, ROC (China); Hung, Chi-Feng, E-mail: 054317@mail.fju.edu.tw [School of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, Taipei Hsien, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2009-10-09

    Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells play a dominant role in the development of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), which is the leading cause of failure in retinal reattachment surgery. Several studies have shown that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) exhibits chemotaxis and proliferation effects on RPE cells in PVR. In this study, the inhibitory effect of lycopene on PDGF-BB-induced ARPE19 cell migration is examined. In electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) and Transwell migration assays, significant suppression of PDGF-BB-induced ARPE19 cell migration by lycopene is observed. Cell viability assays show no cytotoxicity of lycopene on RPE cells. Lycopene shows no effect on ARPE19 cell adhesion and is found to inhibit PDGF-BB-induced tyrosine phosphorylation and the underlying signaling pathways of PI3K, Akt, ERK and p38 activation. However, PDGF-BB and lycopene show no effects on JNK activation. Taken together, our results demonstrate that lycopene inhibits PDGF-BB-induced ARPE19 cell migration through inhibition of PI3K/Akt, ERK and p38 activation.

  14. Lycopene inhibits PDGF-BB-induced retinal pigment epithelial cell migration by suppression of PI3K/Akt and MAPK pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Chi-Ming; Fang, Jia-You; Lin, Hsin-Huang; Yang, Chi-Yea; Hung, Chi-Feng

    2009-01-01

    Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells play a dominant role in the development of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), which is the leading cause of failure in retinal reattachment surgery. Several studies have shown that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) exhibits chemotaxis and proliferation effects on RPE cells in PVR. In this study, the inhibitory effect of lycopene on PDGF-BB-induced ARPE19 cell migration is examined. In electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) and Transwell migration assays, significant suppression of PDGF-BB-induced ARPE19 cell migration by lycopene is observed. Cell viability assays show no cytotoxicity of lycopene on RPE cells. Lycopene shows no effect on ARPE19 cell adhesion and is found to inhibit PDGF-BB-induced tyrosine phosphorylation and the underlying signaling pathways of PI3K, Akt, ERK and p38 activation. However, PDGF-BB and lycopene show no effects on JNK activation. Taken together, our results demonstrate that lycopene inhibits PDGF-BB-induced ARPE19 cell migration through inhibition of PI3K/Akt, ERK and p38 activation.

  15. The ability of the biological control agent Bacillus subtilis, strain BB, to colonise vegetable brassicas endophytically following seed inoculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wulff, E.G.; Vuurde, van J.W.L.; Hockenhull, J.

    2003-01-01

    The ability of Bacillus subtilis, strain BB, to colonise cabbage seedlings endophytically was examined following seed inoculation. Strain BB was recovered from different plant parts including leaves (cotyledons), stem (hypocotyl) and roots. While high bacterial populations persisted in the roots and

  16. Two ways of experimental infection of Ixodes ricinus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) with spirochetes of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fišerová, Lenka; Černá, Kateřina; Horká, Helena; Kopecký, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 2 (2008), s. 150-154 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/05/0811; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Lyme disease spirochete * Borrelia burgdorferi * Borrelia baronii * Borrelia afzelii * tick * Ixodes ricinus Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 1.307, year: 2008

  17. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in ticks removed from skin of people and circumstances of being bitten - research from the area of Poland, 2012-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałęziowska, Edyta; Rzymowska, Jolanta; Najda, Nella; Kołodziej, Przemysław; Domżał-Drzewicka, Renata; Rząca, Marcin; Muraczyńska, Bożena; Charzyńska-Gula, Marianna; Szadowska-Szlachetka, Zdzisława; Ślusarska, Barbara; Guty, Edyta

    2018-03-14

    During feeding, the tick sucks blood from the host along with the pathogens that are in the blood, simultaneously exchanging its own pathogens with the host. Humans can also be a host. It is important to understand the most typical circumstances in which people might become infected with Borrelia burgdorferi. This knowledge will help to prepare health education programmes aimed at the prevention of Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases. The aim of the study was to determine the percentage of ticks infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, depending on the circumstances of getting bitten. The research material consisted of ticks acquired from people who had been bitten, and questionnaires completed by these people. 510 ticks were acquired from 257 females and 253 males. Following delivery of a tick for testing, the stage of its development was determined and a molecular assay of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA performed. A positive result of the nested-PCR test was obtained in 78 ticks, which represents 15.30% of all ticks. The infected ticks were collected from male (41 ticks - 52.56%) and female subjects (37 ticks - 47.44%). The biggest number of infected ticks were collected in autumn (54 ticks - 69.23%) and from people who had been into forests (44 ticks - 56.41%). Among the people from whom the infected ticks were acquired, the dominating group included persons over 16 years of age (53 persons - 67.95%) and children aged 0-5 years (16 persons - 20.51%). One in four infected ticks were acquired from the southwestern (20 ticks - 25.64%) and eastern regions of Poland (21 ticks - 26.92%). Infestation of ticks infected with Lyme disease spirochete in this study proved to be variable and depend on the season, the area of tick attack and the region in Poland. The results of the study clearly show that ticks infected with Borrelia burgdorferi inhabit all regions of Poland. The results are consistent with National Institute of Hygiene data which indicates that Lyme

  18. Z → bb-bar probability and asymmetry in a model of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbuzov, B.A.; Osipov, M.Yu.

    1997-01-01

    The deviations from the standard model in the probability of Z → bb-bar decay and in the forward-backward asymmetry in the reaction e + e - → bb-bar are studied in the framework of the model of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking, the basic point of which is the existence of a triple anomalous W-boson vertex in a region of momenta restricted by a cutoff. A set of equations for additional terms in the W b t-bar vertex is obtained and its solution to the process Z → bb-bar is applied. It is shown that it is possible to obtain a consistent description of both deviations, which is quite nontrivial because these effects are not simply correlated. The necessary value of the anomalous W interaction coupling, λ = -0.22 ± 0.01, is consistent with existing limitations and leads to definite predictions, e.g., for pair W production in e + e - collisions at LEP 200

  19. Co-feeding transmission facilitates strain coexistence in Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. States

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Coexistence of multiple tick-borne pathogens or strains is common in natural hosts and can be facilitated by resource partitioning of the host species, within-host localization, or by different transmission pathways. Most vector-borne pathogens are transmitted horizontally via systemic host infection, but transmission may occur in the absence of systemic infection between two vectors feeding in close proximity, enabling pathogens to minimize competition and escape the host immune response. In a laboratory study, we demonstrated that co-feeding transmission can occur for a rapidly-cleared strain of Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease agent, between two stages of the tick vector Ixodes scapularis while feeding on their dominant host, Peromyscus leucopus. In contrast, infections rapidly became systemic for the persistently infecting strain. In a field study, we assessed opportunities for co-feeding transmission by measuring co-occurrence of two tick stages on ears of small mammals over two years at multiple sites. Finally, in a modeling study, we assessed the importance of co-feeding on R0, the basic reproductive number. The model indicated that co-feeding increases the fitness of rapidly-cleared strains in regions with synchronous immature tick feeding. Our results are consistent with increased diversity of B. burgdorferi in areas of higher synchrony in immature feeding – such as the midwestern United States. A higher relative proportion of rapidly-cleared strains, which are less human pathogenic, would also explain lower Lyme disease incidence in this region. Finally, if co-feeding transmission also occurs on refractory hosts, it may facilitate the emergence and persistence of new pathogens with a more limited host range.

  20. Risk of occupational infections caused by Borrelia burgdorferi among forestry workers and farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Tokarska-Rodak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the work was to analyze the incidence of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi in forestry workers and farmers, major groups occupationally exposed to tick bites. Material and Methods: The study group included 275 workers (171 foresters and 104 farmers. The control group consisted of 45 people, who have not been occupationally exposed to tick bites. The screening Elisa and Wb tests for the presence of anti-Borrelia IgM/IgG antibodies were performed in all subjects of the study and control groups. Statistical analysis was performed using the Chi2 test. Results: The positive results denoting the presence of anti-Borrelia IgM/IgG antibodies were found in 55% of farmers and 28% of foresters occupationally exposed to Lyme borreliosis and coming from the area of South Podlasie Lowland and Lublin Polesie. The differences between the forestry workers and the control group (p ≤ 0.00001 and between farmers and the control group (p ≤ 0.001 were statistically significant. The species, such as B. spielmanii and B. bavariensis, which have not yet been reported in Poland, are significant etiologic agents of Lyme disease. Conclusion: The risk of occupational exposure to the B. burgdorferi infection is high for foresters and farmers, and the infection with spirochetes is frequently confirmed on the basis of positive results of the Wb test. The presence of specific antibodies against protein antigens of B. spielmanii and B. bavariensis suggest that these bacteria can cause Lyme disease both independently and in participation with other Borrelia species, which influences the development of the clinical manifestations of infection. Med Pr 2014;65(1:109–117

  1. Minimal role of eastern fence lizards in Borrelia burgdorferi transmission in central New Jersey oak/pine woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulison, Eric L.; Kerr, Kaetlyn T; Dyer, Megan C; Han, Seungeun; Burke, Russell L.; Tsao, Jean I.; Ginsberg, Howard S.

    2014-01-01

    The Eastern fence lizard, Sceloporus undulatus, is widely distributed in eastern and central North America, ranging through areas with high levels of Lyme disease, as well as areas where Lyme disease is rare or absent. We studied the potential role of S. undulatus in transmission dynamics of Lyme spirochetes by sampling ticks from a variety of natural hosts at field sites in central New Jersey, and by testing the reservoir competence of S. undulatus for Borrelia burgdorferi in the laboratory. The infestation rate of ticks on fence lizards was extremely low (proportion infested = 0.087, n = 23) compared to that on white footed mice and other small mammals (proportion infested = 0.53, n = 140). Of 159 nymphs that had fed as larvae on lizards that had previously been exposed to infected nymphs, none was infected with B. burgdorferi, compared with 79.9% of 209 nymphs that had fed as larvae on infected control mice. Simulations suggest that changes in the numbers of fence lizards in a natural habitat would have little effect on the infection rate of nymphal ticks with Lyme spirochetes. We conclude that in central New Jersey S. undulatus plays a minimal role in the enzootic transmission cycle of Lyme spirochetes.

  2. Salivary gland extract from engorged Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) stimulates in vitro growth of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudolf, Ivo; Šikutová, Silvie; Kopecký, Jan; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 3 (2010), s. 294-298 ISSN 0233-111X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/0726; GA AV ČR IAA600960811 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519; CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : salivary gland extract * Ixodes ricinus ticks * Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.395, year: 2010

  3. The Transcription Factor DAF-16 is Essential for Increased Longevity in C. elegans Exposed to Bifidobacterium longum BB68.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Zhao, Yang; Liu, Ruihai; Zheng, Xiaonan; Zhang, Min; Guo, Huiyuan; Zhang, Hao; Ren, Fazheng

    2017-08-07

    The longevity-promoting benefits of lactobacilli were hypothesized as early as 1907. Although the anti-aging effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been observed in nematodes, rodents and humans for over a century, the mechanisms underlying the effects of probiotics on aging have rarely been assessed. Using the Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) model, various studies have elucidated the role of different signaling cascades, especially the DAF-16 cascade, on lifespan extension by LAB. In this study, the mechanisms through which Bifidobacterium longum strain BB68 affects the longevity of C. elegans were assessed. The lifespan of nematodes increased by 28% after worms were fed BB68, and this extension of lifespan was completely lost in backgrounds containing a mutated DAF-16 gene. High levels of DAF-16 (in the daf-16 (mu86); muIs61 strain) nuclear accumulation and high expression of the SOD-3 gene (a DAF-16-specific target gene) were observed as a result of BB68 treatment. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that TIR-1 and JNK-1 are involved in the phosphorylation and activation of DAF-16. Thus, BB68 increased the longevity of nematodes by activating the TIR-1 - JNK-1 - DAF-16 signaling pathway, and the cell wall component of BB68 contributed to longevity.

  4. Safety of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (B. lactis) strain BB-12-supplemented yogurt in healthy adults on antibiotics: a phase I safety study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merenstein, Daniel J; Tan, Tina P; Molokin, Aleksey; Smith, Keisha Herbin; Roberts, Robert F; Shara, Nawar M; Mete, Mihriye; Sanders, Mary Ellen; Solano-Aguilar, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in sufficient doses, provide health benefits on the host. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires phase I safety studies for probiotics when the intended use of the product is as a drug. The purpose of the study was to determine the safety of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis (B. lactis) strain BB-12 (BB-12)-supplemented yogurt when consumed by a generally healthy group of adults who were prescribed a 10-day course of antibiotics for a respiratory infection. Secondary aims were to assess the ability of BB-12 to affect the expression of whole blood immune markers associated with cell activation and inflammatory response. A phase I, double-blinded, randomized controlled study was conducted in compliance with FDA guidelines for an Investigational New Drug (IND). Forty participants were randomly assigned to consume 4 ounces of either BB-12 -supplemented yogurt or non-supplemented control yogurt daily for 10 d. The primary outcome was to assess safety and tolerability, assessed by the number of reported adverse events. A total of 165 non-serious adverse events were reported, with no differences between the control and BB-12 groups. When compared to the control group, B lactis fecal levels were modestly higher in the BB-12-supplemented group. In a small subset of patients, changes in whole blood expression of genes associated with regulation and activation of immune cells were detected in the BB-12-supplemented group. BB-12-supplemented yogurt is safe and well tolerated when consumed by healthy adults concurrently taking antibiotics. This study will form the basis for future randomized clinical trials investigating the potential immunomodulatory effects of BB-12-supplemented yogurt in a variety of disease states.

  5. De Novo whole genome sequence of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. multiplex strain BB01 from blueberry in Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study reports a de novo assembled draft genome sequence of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. multiplex strain BB01 causing blueberry bacterial leaf scorch in Georgia, USA. The BB01 genome is 2,517,579 bp with a G+C content of 51.8% and 2,943 open reading frames (ORFs) and 48 RNA genes....

  6. Crystal structures of the Erp protein family members ErpP and ErpC from Borrelia burgdorferi reveal the reason for different affinities for complement regulator factor H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brangulis, Kalvis; Petrovskis, Ivars; Kazaks, Andris; Akopjana, Inara; Tars, Kaspars

    2015-05-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi is the causative agent of Lyme disease, which can be acquired after the bite of an infected Ixodes tick. As a strategy to resist the innate immunity and to successfully spread and proliferate, B. burgdorferi expresses a set of outer membrane proteins that are capable of binding complement regulator factor H (CFH), factor H-like protein 1 (CFHL-1) and factor H-related proteins (CFHR) to avoid complement-mediated killing. B. burgdorferi B31 contains three proteins that belong to the Erp (OspE/F-related) protein family and are capable of binding CFH and some CFHRs, namely ErpA, ErpC and ErpP. We have determined the crystal structure of ErpP at 2.53Å resolution and the crystal structure of ErpC at 2.15Å resolution. Recently, the crystal structure of the Erp family member OspE from B. burgdorferi N40 was determined in complex with CFH domains 19-20, revealing the residues involved in the complex formation. Despite the high sequence conservation between ErpA, ErpC, ErpP and the homologous protein OspE (78-80%), the affinity for CFH and CFHRs differs markedly among the Erp family members, suggesting that ErpC may bind only CFHRs but not CFH. A comparison of the binding site in OspE with those of ErpC and ErpP revealed that the extended loop region, which is only observed in the potential binding site of ErpC, plays an important role by preventing the binding of CFH. These results can explain the inability of ErpC to bind CFH, whereas ErpP and ErpA still possess the ability to bind CFH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 76 FR 61129 - BB Liquidation Inc., Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... current and accurate information concerning the securities of BB Liquidation Inc. because of assertions in third-party press releases to investors concerning, among other things, the company's current financial... protection of investors require a suspension of trading in the securities of the company listed above...

  8. Effect of forest clearing on the abundance of Ixodes ricinus ticks and the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk; Halouzka, Jiří; Juřicová, Zina; Šikutová, Silvie; Rudolf, Ivo

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2006), s. 166-172 ISSN 0269-283X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/0726 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 10284 - EDEN Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Ixodes ricinus * Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato * Lyme borreliosis risk Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 2.033, year: 2006

  9. Iptakalim inhibits PDGF-BB-induced human airway smooth muscle cells proliferation and migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wenrui; Kong, Hui; Zeng, Xiaoning; Wang, Jingjing; Wang, Zailiang; Yan, Xiaopei; Wang, Yanli; Xie, Weiping, E-mail: wpxie@njmu.edu.cn; Wang, Hong, E-mail: hongwang@njmu.edu.cn

    2015-08-15

    Chronic airway diseases are characterized by airway remodeling which is attributed partly to the proliferation and migration of airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs). ATP-sensitive potassium (K{sub ATP}) channels have been identified in ASMCs. Mount evidence has suggested that K{sub ATP} channel openers can reduce airway hyperresponsiveness and alleviate airway remodeling. Opening K{sup +} channels triggers K{sup +} efflux, which leading to membrane hyperpolarization, preventing Ca{sup 2+}entry through closing voltage-operated Ca{sup 2+} channels. Intracellular Ca{sup 2+} is the most important regulator of muscle contraction, cell proliferation and migration. K{sup +} efflux decreases Ca{sup 2+} influx, which consequently influences ASMCs proliferation and migration. As a K{sub ATP} channel opener, iptakalim (Ipt) has been reported to restrain the proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) involved in vascular remodeling, while little is known about its impact on ASMCs. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of Ipt on human ASMCs and the mechanisms underlying. Results obtained from cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8), flow cytometry and 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation showed that Ipt significantly inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-induced ASMCs proliferation. ASMCs migration induced by PDGF-BB was also suppressed by Ipt in transwell migration and scratch assay. Besides, the phosphorylation of Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII), extracellular regulated protein kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), protein kinase B (Akt), and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element binding protein (CREB) were as well alleviated by Ipt administration. Furthermore, we found that the inhibition of Ipt on the PDGF-BB-induced proliferation and migration in human ASMCs was blocked by glibenclamide (Gli), a selective K{sub ATP} channel antagonist. These findings provide a strong evidence to support that Ipt

  10. Isolation of live Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochaetes from patients with undefined disorders and symptoms not typical for Lyme borreliosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudenko, Natalia; Golovchenko, Maryna; Vancová, Marie; Clark, K.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Oliver, J. H., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 3 (2016), 267.e9-267.e15 ISSN 1198-743X EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278976 - ANTIGONE Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : antibiotic treatment * live Borrelia burgdorferi * live Borrelia bissettii * Lyme borreliosis * recovery of live spirochaetes Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 5.292, year: 2016

  11. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB-mediated induction of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 in human astrocytes: implications for HIV-associated neuroinflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethel-Brown Crystal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chemokine (C-C motif ligand 2, also known as monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1 is an important factor for the pathogenesis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND. The mechanisms of MCP-1-mediated neuropathogenesis, in part, revolve around its neuroinflammatory role and the recruitment of monocytes into the central nervous system (CNS via the disrupted blood-brain barrier (BBB. We have previously demonstrated that HIV-1/HIV-1 Tat upregulate platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB, a known cerebrovascular permeant; subsequently, the present study was aimed at exploring the regulation of MCP-1 by PDGF-BB in astrocytes with implications in HAND. Specifically, the data herein demonstrate that exposure of human astrocytes to HIV-1 LAI elevated PDGF-B and MCP-1 levels. Furthermore, treating astrocytes with the human recombinant PDGF-BB protein significantly increased the production and release of MCP-1 at both the RNA and protein levels. MCP-1 induction was regulated by activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK and p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinases and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt pathways and the downstream transcription factor, nuclear factor κB (NFκB. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assays demonstrated increased binding of NFκB to the human MCP-1 promoter following PDGF-BB exposure. Conditioned media from PDGF-BB-treated astrocytes increased monocyte transmigration through human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs, an effect that was blocked by STI-571, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (PDGF receptor (PDGF-R blocker. PDGF-BB-mediated release of MCP-1 was critical for increased permeability in an in vitro BBB model as evidenced by blocking antibody assays. Since MCP-1 is linked to disease severity, understanding its modulation by PDGF-BB could aid in understanding the proinflammatory responses in HAND. These results suggest that astrocyte

  12. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and D. immitis in hunting dogs from southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantedosi, Diego; Neola, Benedetto; D'Alessio, Nicola; Di Prisco, Francesca; Santoro, Mario; Pacifico, Laura; Sgroi, Giovanni; Auletta, Luigi; Buch, Jesse; Chandrashekar, Ramaswamy; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Veneziano, Vincenzo

    2017-10-01

    Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) are caused by a range of pathogens transmitted to dogs by arthropods. The present study investigates Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and Dirofilaria immitis seroprevalences in hunting dogs from southern Italy. Dogs (no. 1335) were tested using a commercial in-clinic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by logistic regression analysis to identify risk factors. Overall, 138/1335 dogs (10.3%) were seroreactive to at least one CVBD pathogen. E. canis, Anaplasma spp., B. burgdorferi s.l., and D. immitis seroprevalences were 7.6, 4.4, 0.3, and 0.2%, respectively. E. canis and Anaplasma spp. co-exposures were found in 30 dogs (2.2%), compared with Anaplasma spp. and B. burgdorferi s.l. co-exposures in 2 dogs (0.1%). Adult age was a risk factor for E. canis (OR 2.35) seroreactivity whereas hunting fur-bearing animals for E. canis (OR 4.75) and Anaplasma spp. (OR 1.87), respectively. The historical presence of tick infestation was identified as a risk factor for positivity to E. canis (OR 2.08) and Anaplasma spp. (OR 2.15). Finally, larger dog pack size was significantly associated with E. canis (OR 1.85) and Anaplasma spp. (OR 2.42) exposures. The results of the present survey indicated that hunting dog populations are at relative risk of CVBDs in southern Italy. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of hunting dogs in the epidemiology of vector-borne organisms due to sharing common environments with wild, sympatric animal populations.

  13. Improved Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Responses to Vaccination with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in 4-1BB Transgenic Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangping Huang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination is the most reliable measure to prevent infectious diseases in domestic animals. Development of novel vaccines demands extensive studies with new technologies, such as using novel adjuvants and immunomodulatory molecules. The co-stimulatory molecule 4-1BB provides a key signal that directs the fate of T cells during activation, and thus is important to their function in immune protection. To determine whether host immune responses to viral infection could be promoted by enhancing 4-1BB co-stimulation, in this study, we produced transgenic pig clones expressing an extra copy of the 4-1BB gene by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated gene 9-mediated homologous recombination at the Rosa26 locus. The immune responses of transgenic pigs to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV vaccine were determined on day 14. We show that peripheral blood lymphocytes of transgenic pigs expressed around twice the level of 4-1BB mRNA than those of control pigs. We also found IL-2, TNF-α, and granzyme B mRNA levels as well as PRRSV-specific IFN-γ response were significantly upregulated in 4-1BB transgenic pigs, leading to more efficient cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL killing, whereas the expressions of IL-4, IL-17, and Foxp3 were not affected. These results indicate that higher levels of 4-1BB expression involve in promoting Th1 differentiation and enhancing specific CTL responses to PRRSV, and provide a novel approach to increase the efficacy of current vaccines to control the infectious diseases.

  14. Human neonatal rotavirus vaccine (RV3-BB) targets rotavirus from birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thobari, Jarir At; Satria, Cahya Dewi; Handley, Amanda; Watts, Emma; Cowley, Daniel; Nirwati, Hera; Ackland, James; Standish, Jane; Justice, Frances; Byars, Gabrielle; Lee, Katherine J.; Barnes, Graeme L.; Bachtiar, Novilia S.; Icanervilia, Ajeng Viska; Boniface, Karen; Bogdanovic-Sakran, Nada; Pavlic, Daniel; Bishop, Ruth F.; Kirkwood, Carl D.; Buttery, Jim P.; Soenarto, Yati

    2018-01-01

    Background A birth dose strategy using a neonatal rotavirus vaccine to target early prevention of rotavirus disease may address remaining barriers to global vaccine implementation. Methods We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled trial in Indonesia to evaluate the efficacy of an oral human neonatal rotavirus vaccine (RV3-BB) to prevent rotavirus gastroenteritis. Healthy newborns received three doses of RV3-BB administered in a neonatal schedule at 0-5 days, 8 and 14 weeks or infant schedule at 8, 14 and 18 weeks, or placebo. Laboratory-confirmed rotavirus gastroenteritis was graded using a modified Vesikari score. The primary analysis was efficacy against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis from two weeks after all doses to 18 months in the combined vaccine group (neonatal and infant schedule) compared with placebo. Results Vaccine efficacy against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis to 18 months was 63% in the combined vaccine group (95% CI 34, 80; p<0.001), 75% in the neonatal vaccine group (95% confidence interval [CI] 44, 91; p<0.001) and 51% in the infant vaccine group (95% CI 7, 76; p=0.03) in the per protocol analysis, with similar results in the intention-to-treat analysis. Vaccine efficacy to 12 months was 94% in the neonatal vaccine group (95%CI 56, 99; p=0.006). Vaccine take occurred in 78/83 (94%) in the neonatal vaccine group and 83/84 (99%) in the infant vaccine group. The vaccine was well tolerated, with similar incidence of adverse events in vaccine and placebo recipients. Conclusion RV3-BB was efficacious, immunogenic and well-tolerated when administered in a neonatal or infant schedule in Indonesia. PMID:29466164

  15. Creatine kinase BB and beta-2-microglobulin as markers of CNS metastases in patients with small-cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A G; Bach, F W; Nissen, Mogens Holst

    1985-01-01

    Creatine kinase (CK) and its BB isoenzyme (CK-BB) were measured in CSF in 65 evaluable patients suspected of CNS metastases secondary to small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). In addition, CSF and plasma levels of beta-2-microglobulin (beta-2-m) were measured in a group of 73 evaluable patients. Of the 65...

  16. A disintegrin and metalloprotease-17 and galectin-9 are important regulators of local 4-1BB activity and disease outcome in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Aagaard; Andersen, Thomas; Etzerodt, Anders

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Co-stimulatory T cell cytokines are important in the progression of RA. This study investigates the interplay between 4-1BB, a disintegrin and metalloprotease-17 (ADAM17) and galectin-9 (Gal-9) in RA. METHODS: Stimulated mononuclear cells from patients with chronic RA (n = 12) were co...... treatment outcome serially over a 2-year period. RESULTS: RA CD4(+) and CD8(+) synovial T cells express high levels of 4-1BB. The addition of TNF-α to cultured synovial mononuclear cells increased shedding of 4-1BB. 4-1BB ligand only increased TNF-α shedding in combination with Gal-9. RNA interference...

  17. Genetic Control of Lyme Arthritis by Borrelia burgdorferi Arthritis-Associated Locus 1 Is Dependent on Localized Differential Production of IFN-β and Requires Upregulation of Myostatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Jackie K; Ma, Ying; Fisher, Colleen; Li, Jinze; Lee, Sang Beum; Zachary, James F; Kim, Yong Soo; Teuscher, Cory; Weis, Janis J

    2017-11-15

    Previously, using a forward genetic approach, we identified differential expression of type I IFN as a positional candidate for an expression quantitative trait locus underlying Borrelia burgdorferi arthritis-associated locus 1 ( Bbaa1 ). In this study, we show that mAb blockade revealed a unique role for IFN-β in Lyme arthritis development in B6.C3- Bbaa1 mice. Genetic control of IFN-β expression was also identified in bone marrow-derived macrophages stimulated with B. burgdorferi , and it was responsible for feed-forward amplification of IFN-stimulated genes. Reciprocal radiation chimeras between B6.C3- Bbaa1 and C57BL/6 mice revealed that arthritis is initiated by radiation-sensitive cells, but orchestrated by radiation-resistant components of joint tissue. Advanced congenic lines were developed to reduce the physical size of the Bbaa1 interval, and confirmed the contribution of type I IFN genes to Lyme arthritis. RNA sequencing of resident CD45 - joint cells from advanced interval-specific recombinant congenic lines identified myostatin as uniquely upregulated in association with Bbaa1 arthritis development, and myostatin expression was linked to IFN-β production. Inhibition of myostatin in vivo suppressed Lyme arthritis in the reduced interval Bbaa1 congenic mice, formally implicating myostatin as a novel downstream mediator of the joint-specific inflammatory response to B. burgdorferi . Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  18. Effect of salivary gland extract from Ixodes ricinus ticks on the proliferation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto in vivo

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macháčková, Martina; Oborník, Miroslav; Kopecký, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 2 (2006), s. 153-158 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/05/0811 Grant - others:Studentská grantová agentura, Biologická fakulta Jihočeské univerzity(CZ) SGA2004/009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi * Ixodes ricinus * saliva-activated transmission Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 1.511, year: 2006

  19. Association between Virulence Factors and TRAF1/4-1BB/Bcl-xL Expression in Gastric Mucosa Infected with Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. CagA+/vacAs1+/vacAm1+ Helicobacter pylori upregulates the expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor–associated factor 1 (TRAF1, tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 9 (4-1BB, and B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL in human gastric epithelial cells. We investigated the correlation between cagA/vacAs1/vacAm1 and TRAF1/4-1BB/Bcl-xL expression in gastric mucosal tissue of patients with gastric disorders. Methods. We collected gastric mucosa samples from 35 chronic, nonatrophic gastritis (CG patients, 41 atrophic gastritis patients, 44 intestinal metaplasia with atypical hyperplasia (IM patients, and 28 gastric carcinoma (Ca patients. The expression of  TRAF1, 4-1BB, and Bcl-xL was determined using western blotting. The expression of cagA, vacAs1, and vacAm1 in H. pylori was examined with polymerase chain reaction. Results. The expression of TRAF1, 4-1BB, and Bcl-xL was significantly upregulated in IM and Ca patients (P<0.05 compared with CG. There were more cases of cagA+/vacAs1+/vacAm1+ H. pylori infection in samples with elevated TRAF1, 4-1BB, or Bcl-xL expression (P<0.05. Additionally, there were a remarkably large number of samples with upregulated TRAF1/4-1BB/Bcl-xL expression in cases of cagA+/vacAs1+/vacAm1+ H. pylori infection (44 cases, 67.7%; P<0.05. Conclusions. The pathogenesis of IM and Ca may be promoted by cagA+/vacAs1+/vacAm1+ H. pylori, possibly via upregulated TRAF1, 4-1BB, and Bcl-xL in gastric mucosal tissue.

  20. Immunization with a recombinant subunit OspA vaccine markedly impacts the rate of newly acquired Borrelia burgdorferi infections in client-owned dogs living in a coastal community in Maine, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschner, Andrew K; Mugnai, Kristen

    2015-02-10

    In North America, Borrelia burgdorferi is the causative bacterial agent of canine Lyme borreliosis and is transmitted following prolonged attachment and feeding of vector ticks, Ixodes scapularis or Ixodes pacificus. Its prevention is predicated upon tick-avoidance, effective on-animal tick control and effective immunization strategies. The purpose of this study is to characterize dogs that are newly seropositive for Borrelia burgdorferi infection in relation to compliant use of a recombinant OspA canine Lyme borreliosis vaccine. Specifically, Preventive Fractions (PF) and Risk Ratios (RR) associated with the degree of vaccine compliancy (complete versus incomplete) are determined. 6,202 dogs were tested over a five year period in a single veterinary hospital utilizing a non-adjuvanted, recombinant OspA vaccine according to a 0, 1, 6 month (then yearly) protocol. Rates of newly acquired "Lyme-positive" antibody test results were compared between protocol compliant and poorly compliant (incompletely and/or non-vaccinated) dogs. Over the five-year span, one percent (range 0.39 - 1.3) of protocol compliant vaccinated, previously antibody negative dogs became seropositive for infection. Approximately twenty-one percent (range 16.8 - 33.3) of incompletely vaccinated dogs became positive for infection-specific antibodies. The Preventative Fraction for testing positive for antibodies specific for infection with Borrelia burgdorferi in any given year based on optimal vaccine compliance was, on average, 95.3% (range 93.29 - 98.08). The Risk Ratio for becoming infected with Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in any given year if vaccine non-compliant was 21.41 (range 14.9 - 52.1). There was a high statistically significant relationship (p = <0.0001) in the observed data in terms of vaccination protocol compliance and the probability of Borrelia burgdorferi infection in each of the five years under study. The recombinant outer surface protein A (rOspA) vaccine for dogs is highly

  1. Application of central composite design to optimize the amount of carbon source and prebiotics for Bifidobacterium bifidum BB01

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Guowei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to obtain the optimum proportion of the carbon source and prebiotics for Bifidobacterium bifidum BB01 by the central composite design (CCD. The effect of carbon source (lactose and two prebiotics (inulin and fructooligosaccharides on the BB01 were observed by measuring the OD600 value, pH value and the viable counts at 18h. The final optimized concentrations of carbon source and prebiotics were: lactose 1.6%, inulin 0.26%, and fructooligosaccharides 0.22%. The result indicates that the growth of B. bifidum BB01 shows an significant increase in the optimized culture medium (p < 0.05, the OD600 value reached 1.434 at 18h, which increased 6.58% compared to the control. And the viable counts of B. bifidum BB01 increased 24.36% and reached (2.17±0.06 ×109cfu/mL. The results show that the optimization of the carbon source and prebiotics using CCD in this study is workable and necessary.

  2. Study of a Cohort of 1,886 Persons To Determine Changes in Antibody Reactivity to Borrelia burgdorferi 3 Months after a Tick Bite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dessau, Ram B; Fryland, Linda; Wilhelmsson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    or relative change is defined by dividing the measurement units from the second sample by those from the first sample. The threshold for the minimum level of significant change was defined at the 2.5% level to represent the random error level. The thresholds were a 2.7-fold rise for the flagellar IgG assay......Lyme borreliosis is a tick-borne disease caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. The most frequent clinical manifestation is a rash called erythema migrans. Changes in antibody reactivity to B. burgdorferi 3 months after a tick bite are measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays...... (ELISAs). One assay is based on native purified flagellum antigen (IgG), and the other assay is based on a recombinant antigen called C6 (IgG or IgM). Paired samples were taken at the time of a tick bite and 3 months later from 1,886 persons in Sweden and the Åland Islands, Finland. The seroconversion...

  3. Tick saliva affects both proliferation and distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes in mouse organs and increases transmission of spirochetes to ticks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horká, Helena; Černá-Kýčková, Kateřina; Skallová, Anna; Kopecký, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 299, č. 5 (2009), s. 373-380 ISSN 1438-4221 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600960811; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi * Ixodes ricinus * saliva-activated transmission * real-time PCR Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.802, year: 2009

  4. Serological survey for antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in rodents and detection of spirochaetes in ticks and fleas in South Moravia (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Juřicová, Zina; Halouzka, Jiří; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 3 (2002), s. 383-387 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6087601; GA ČR GA206/00/1204 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi * Lyme disease Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.169, year: 2002

  5. Habitat properties are key drivers of Borrelia burgdorferi (s.l.) prevalence in Ixodes ricinus populations of deciduous forest fragments

    OpenAIRE

    Ehrmann, Steffen; Ruyts, Sanne C.; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Bauhus, Jürgen; Brunet, Jörg; Cousins, Sara A. O.; Deconchat, Marc; Decocq, Guillaume; De Frenne, Pieter; De Smedt, Pallieter; Diekmann, Martin; Gallet-Moron, Emilie; Gärtner, Stefanie; Hansen, Karin; Kolb, Annette

    2018-01-01

    Background The tick Ixodes ricinus has considerable impact on the health of humans and other terrestrial animals because it transmits several tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) such as B. burgdorferi (sensu lato), which causes Lyme borreliosis (LB). Small forest patches of agricultural landscapes provide many ecosystem services and also the disservice of LB risk. Biotic interactions and environmental filtering shape tick host communities distinctively between specific regions of Europe, which makes ...

  6. Slow-roll inflation and BB-mode angular power spectrum of CMB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malsawmtluangi, N.; Suresh, P.K. [University of Hyderabad, School of Physics, Hyderabad (India)

    2016-05-15

    The BB-mode correlation angular power spectrum of CMB is obtained by considering the primordial gravitational waves in the squeezed vacuum state for various inflationary models and results are compared with the joint analysis of the BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck 353 GHz data. The present results may constrain several models of inflation. (orig.)

  7. Predictive modeling of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb-12 growth in cow’s, goat’s and soy milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedran Slačanac

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to use a predictive model to analyse the growth of a probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb-12 in cow’s, goat’s and soy milk. The Gompertz model was used, and the suitability of the model was estimated by the Schnute algorithm. Except for the analysis of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb-12 growth, the Gompertz model was also used for the analysis of pH changes during the fermentation process. Experimental results, as well as the values of kinetic parameters obtained in this study, showed that the highest growth rate of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb-12 was obtained in goat’s milk, and the lowest in soy milk. Contrary to the growth of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb-12, pH decreased faster in soy milk than in cow’s milk. The highest rate of pH decrease was also observed in goat’s milk, which is in correspondence with results of various previous studies. The Gompertz model proved to be highly suitable for analysing the course and the fermentation kinetics in these three kinds of milk, and might be used to analyse the growth kinetics of other probiotic and starter cultures in milk.

  8. Serological studies on the infection of dogs in Ontario with Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiological agent of Lyme disease

    OpenAIRE

    Artsob, Harvey; Barker, Ian K.; Fister, Richard; Sephton, Gregory; Dick, Daryl; Lynch, John A.; Key, Doug

    1993-01-01

    A serological study was undertaken to determine whether dogs in Ontario are being exposed to Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiological agent of Lyme disease. This study consisted of a survey of randomly selected dogs and testing of diagnostic submissions from candidate Lyme disease cases. The survey of 1,095 dogs, bled between January 1988 and August 1989, revealed a total of 65 (5.9%) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) reactors, of which 22 had immuno-fluorescent antibody assay (IFA) tite...

  9. Radioimmunoassay measurement of creatine kinase BB in the serum of schizophrenic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerner, M H; Friedhoff, A J [New York Univ., NY (USA). Medical Center

    1980-10-23

    Brain type creatine kinase (BB) isoenzyme was measured using a highly sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay procedure (limit of detection, 1 ..mu..g/l of sample) in two schizophrenic populations, an acute non-medicated group consisting of 35 subjects and a chronic group of 15 subjects. Since the assay can also measure the B subunit of MB isoenzyme, patients were selected so as to exclude subjects with possible heart, kidney or other ailments which might result in an increased serum creatine kinase B subunit. Both the acute schizophrenics (3.0 +- 0.23) x S.E.M. and the chronic schizophrenics (2.9 +- 0.33) had serum levels of creatine kinase BB similar to those of controls (2.8 +- 0.21) and non-cardiac patients (3.5 +- 0.58). Patients having myocardial infarction or neurovascular surgery had elevated creatine kinase B subunit. Similar but much less sensitive quantitative results were obtained using agarose multizonal electrophoresis.

  10. Radioimmunoassay measurement of creatine kinase BB in the serum of schizophrenic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerner, M.H.; Friedhoff, A.J.

    1980-01-01

    Brain type creatine kinase (BB) isoenzyme was measured using a highly sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay procedure (limit of detection, 1 μg/l of sample) in two schizophrenic populations, an acute non-medicated group consisting of 35 subjects and a chronic group of 15 subjects. Since the assay can also measure the B subunit of MB isoenzyme, patients were selected so as to exclude subjects with possible heart, kidney or other ailments which might result in an increased serum creatine kinase B subunit. Both the acute schizophrenics (3.0 +- 0.23) x S.E.M. and the chronic schizophrenics (2.9 +- 0.33) had serum levels of creatine kinase BB similar to those of controls (2.8 +- 0.21) and non-cardiac patients (3.5 +- 0.58). Patients having myocardial infarction or neurovascular surgery had elevated creatine kinase B subunit. Similar but much less sensitive quantitative results were obtained using agarose multizonal electrophoresis. (Auth.)

  11. Resonant Higgs boson pair production in the hh→bb̄ WW→bb̄ℓ{sup +}νℓ{sup −}ν̄ decay channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozano, Víctor Martín [Instituto de Física Teórica, IFT-UAM/CSIC, UAM Cantoblanco,Nicolás Cabrera 13, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,Cantoblanco, E-28049, Madrid (Spain); Moreno, Jesús M. [Instituto de Física Teórica, IFT-UAM/CSIC, UAM Cantoblanco,Nicolás Cabrera 13, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Park, Chan Beom [School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study,Seoul, 130-722 (Korea, Republic of); TH Division, Physics Department, CERN,CH-1211, Geneve 23 (Switzerland)

    2015-08-03

    The addition of a scalar singlet provides one of the simplest extensions of the Standard Model. In this work we briefly review the latest constraints on the mass and mixing of the new Higgs boson and study its production and decay at the LHC. We mainly focus on double Higgs production in the hh→bb̄WW→bb̄ℓ{sup +}νℓ{sup −}ν̄ decay channel. This decay is found to be efficient in a region of masses of the heavy Higgs boson of 260–500 GeV, so it is complementary to the 4b channel, more efficient for Higgs bosons with masses greater than 500 GeV. We analyse this di-leptonic decay channel in detail using kinematic variables such as M{sub T2} and the M{sub T2}-assisted on-shell reconstruction of invisible momenta. Using proper cuts, a significance of ∼ 3σ for 3000 fb{sup −1} can be achieved at the 14 TeV LHC for m{sub H}=260–400 GeV if the mixing is close to its present limit and BR(H→hh)≈1. Smaller values for the mixing would require combining various decay channels in order to reach a similar significance. The complementarity among H→hh, H→ZZ and H→WW channels is studied for arbitrary BR(H→hh) values.

  12. Serological studies on the infection of dogs in Ontario with Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiological agent of Lyme disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artsob, Harvey; Barker, Ian K.; Fister, Richard; Sephton, Gregory; Dick, Daryl; Lynch, John A.; Key, Doug

    1993-01-01

    A serological study was undertaken to determine whether dogs in Ontario are being exposed to Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiological agent of Lyme disease. This study consisted of a survey of randomly selected dogs and testing of diagnostic submissions from candidate Lyme disease cases. The survey of 1,095 dogs, bled between January 1988 and August 1989, revealed a total of 65 (5.9%) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) reactors, of which 22 had immuno-fluorescent antibody assay (IFA) titers ≥1:32. All but one of the IFA-positive and 10 of the ELISA-positive, IFA-negative sera were further tested by western blot. Eight western blot positive and three equivocal reactors were obtained. Three of the eight confirmed reactors had visited areas known to be endemic for Lyme disease, leaving five reactors that might have been infected in previously undocumented areas for B. burgdorferi activity in Ontario. Diagnostic submissions of sera from 223 dogs were received between August 1987 and February 1992. Test results revealed 21 (9.4%) IFA reactors, of which only six had significant titers (≥1:256) and were reactive by an immunodot Borrelia test. All six dogs had travelled to known Lyme endemic areas. Based on results obtained from this study, it seems likely that the agent of Lyme disease is not widespread in Ontario. PMID:17424284

  13. Tehokkuutta B&B Purola Farmin digitaaliseen markkinointiviestintään

    OpenAIRE

    Luoma-aho, Lilli

    2016-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli selvittää, miten B&B Purola Farmin markkinointia saadaan tehostettua ja kohdennettua digitaalisen markkinointiviestinnän keinoin, yleisesti ja keskittyen hollantilaisiin, sveitsiläisiin ja luxemburgilaisiin matkailijoihin. Tavoitteena oli syventää ymmärrystä siitä, miten digitaalista markkinointiviestintää tulee toteuttaa toivottujen kohderyhmien tavoittamiseksi. Opinnäytetyöhön tietoa kerättiin aiheesta kertovasta kirjallisuudesta ja asiantuntijablogeista. ...

  14. Hybrid CATV/MMW/BB lightwave transmission system based on fiber-wired/fiber-wireless/fiber-VLLC integrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chung-Yi; Lu, Hai-Han; Lu, Ting-Chieh; Chu, Chien-An; Chen, Bo-Rui; Lin, Chun-Yu; Peng, Peng-Chun

    2015-12-14

    A hybrid lightwave transmission system for cable television (CATV)/millimeter-wave (MMW)/baseband (BB) signal transmission based on fiber-wired/fiber-wireless/fiber-visible laser light communication (VLLC) integrations is proposed and demonstrated. For down-link transmission, the light is intensity-modulated with 50-550 MHz CATV signal and optically promoted from 25 GHz radio frequency (RF) signal to 10 Gbps/50 GHz and 20 Gbps/100 GHz MMW data signals based on fiber-wired and fiber-wireless integrations. Good performances of carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR), composite second-order (CSO), composite triple-beat (CTB), and bit error rate (BER) are obtained over a 40-km single-mode fiber (SMF) and a 10-m RF wireless transport. For up-link transmission, the light is successfully intensity-remodulated with 5-Gbps BB data stream based on fiber-VLLC integration. Good BER performance is achieved over a 40-km SMF and a 10-m free-space VLLC transport. Such a hybrid CATV/MMW/BB lightwave transmission system is an attractive alternative, it gives the benefits of a communication link for broader bandwidth and higher transmission rate.

  15. Borrelia host adaptation Regulator (BadR) regulates rpoS to modulate host adaptation and virulence factors in Borrelia burgdorferi

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Christine L.; Rajasekhar Karna, S. L.; Seshu, J.

    2013-01-01

    The RpoS transcription factor of Borrelia burgdorferi is a “gatekeeper” because it activates genes required for spirochetes to transition from tick to vertebrate hosts. However, it remains unknown how RpoS becomes repressed to allow the spirochetes to transition back from the vertebrate host to the tick vector. Here we show that a putative carbohydrate-responsive regulatory protein, designated BadR (Borrelia host adaptation Regulator), is a transcriptional repressor of rpoS. BadR levels are e...

  16. On Solving Aircraft Conflict Avoidance Using Deterministic Global Optimization (sBB) Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Cafieri , Sonia; Messine , Frédéric; Touhami , Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, some improvements of spatial Branch and Bound (sBB) algorithms are discussed to solve aircraft conflict avoidance problems formulated as MINLP. We propose a new quadratic convex relaxation technique based on affine arithmetic. Moreover, a branching strategy is also proposedfor the considered problem. Preliminary numerical results validates the proposed approach

  17. Dual delivery of rhPDGF-BB and bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells expressing the BMP2 gene enhance bone formation in a critical-sized defect model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Shin-Young; Kim, Kyoung-Hwa; Shin, Seung-Yun; Koo, Ki-Tae; Lee, Yong-Moo; Seol, Yang-Jo

    2013-11-01

    Bone tissue healing is a dynamic, orchestrated process that relies on multiple growth factors and cell types. Platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) is released from platelets at wound sites and induces cellular migration and proliferation necessary for bone regeneration in the early healing process. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), the most potent osteogenic differentiation inducer, directs new bone formation at the sites of bone defects. This study evaluated a combinatorial treatment protocol of PDGF-BB and BMP-2 on bone healing in a critical-sized defect model. To mimic the bone tissue healing process, a dual delivery approach was designed to deliver the rhPDGF-BB protein transiently during the early healing phase, whereas BMP-2 was supplied by rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) transfected with an adenoviral vector containing the BMP2 gene (AdBMP2) for prolonged release throughout the healing process. In in vitro experiments, the dual delivery of rhPDGF-BB and BMP2 significantly enhanced cell proliferation. However, the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs was significantly suppressed even though the amount of BMP-2 secreted by the AdBMP2-transfected BMSCs was not significantly affected by the rhPDGF-BB treatment. In addition, dual delivery inhibited the mRNA expression of BMP receptor type II and Noggin in BMSCs. In in vivo experiments, critical-sized calvarial defects in rats showed enhanced bone regeneration by dual delivery of autologous AdBMP2-transfected BMSCs and rhPDGF-BB in both the amount of new bone formed and the bone mineral density. These enhancements in bone regeneration were greater than those observed in the group treated with AdBMP2-transfected BMSCs alone. In conclusion, the dual delivery of rhPDGF-BB and AdBMP2-transfected BMSCs improved the quality of the regenerated bone, possibly due to the modulation of PDGF-BB on BMP-2-induced osteogenesis.

  18. An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Spot Assay Measuring Borrelia burgdorferi B31-Specific Interferon Gamma-Secreting T Cells Cannot Discriminate Active Lyme Neuroborreliosis from Past Lyme Borreliosis: a Prospective Study in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gorkom, T; Sankatsing, S U C; Voet, W; Ismail, D M; Muilwijk, R H; Salomons, M; Vlaminckx, B J M; Bossink, A W J; Notermans, D W; Bouwman, J J M; Kremer, K; Thijsen, S F T

    2018-04-01

    Two-tier serology testing is most frequently used for the diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis (LB); however, a positive result is no proof of active disease. To establish a diagnosis of active LB, better diagnostics are needed. Tests investigating the cellular immune system are available, but studies evaluating the utility of these tests on well-defined patient populations are lacking. Therefore, we investigated the utility of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot) assay to diagnose active Lyme neuroborreliosis. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of various study groups were stimulated by using Borrelia burgdorferi strain B31 and various recombinant antigens, and subsequently, the number of Borrelia -specific interferon gamma (IFN-γ)-secreting T cells was measured. We included 33 active and 37 treated Lyme neuroborreliosis patients, 28 healthy individuals treated for an early manifestation of LB in the past, and 145 untreated healthy individuals. The median numbers of B. burgdorferi B31-specific IFN-γ-secreting T cells/2.5 × 10 5 PBMCs did not differ between active Lyme neuroborreliosis patients (6.0; interquartile range [IQR], 0.5 to 14.0), treated Lyme neuroborreliosis patients (4.5; IQR, 2.0 to 18.6), and treated healthy individuals (7.4; IQR, 2.3 to 14.9) ( P = 1.000); however, the median number of B. burgdorferi B31-specific IFN-γ-secreting T cells/2.5 × 10 5 PBMCs among untreated healthy individuals was lower (2.0; IQR, 0.5 to 3.9) ( P ≤ 0.016). We conclude that the Borrelia ELISpot assay, measuring the number of B. burgdorferi B31-specific IFN-γ-secreting T cells/2.5 × 10 5 PBMCs, correlates with exposure to the Borrelia bacterium but cannot be used for the diagnosis of active Lyme neuroborreliosis. Copyright © 2018 van Gorkom et al.

  19. Automated purification of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. PCR products with KingFisherTM magnetic particle processor prior to genome sequencing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekinen, Johanna; Marttila, Harri; Viljanen, Matti K.

    2001-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies were differentiated by PCR-based sequencing of the borrelial flagellin gene. To evaluate the usefulness of KingFisher TM magnetic particle processor in PCR product purification, borrelia PCR products were purified with KingFisher TM magnetic particle processor prior to cycle sequencing and the quality of the sequence data received was analyzed. KingFisher was found to offer a rapid and reliable alternative for borrelial PCR product purification

  20. An encoding device and a method of encoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to an encoding device, such as an optical position encoder, for encoding input from an object, and a method for encoding input from an object, for determining a position of an object that interferes with light of the device. The encoding device comprises a light source...... in the area in the space and may interfere with the light, which interference may be encoded into a position or activation....

  1. The cc-bar and bb-bar spectroscopy in the two-step potential model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulshreshtha, D.S.; Kaiserslautern Univ.

    1984-07-01

    We investigate the spectroscopy of the charmonium (cc-bar) and bottonium (bb-bar) bound states in a static flavour independent nonrelativistic quark-antiquark (qq-bar) two-step potential model proposed earlier. Our predictions are in good agreement with experimental data and with other theoretical predictions. (author)

  2. Treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia with the second generation of CD19 CAR-T containing either CD28 or 4-1BB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiqi; Zhang, Jiasi; Wang, Meiling; Fu, Gang; Li, Yunyan; Pei, Li; Xiong, Zhouxing; Qin, Dabing; Zhang, Rui; Tian, Xiaobo; Wei, Zhihao; Chen, Run; Chen, Xuejiao; Wan, Jia; Chen, Jun; Wei, Xia; Xu, Yanmin; Zhang, Pei; Wang, Ping; Peng, Xi; Yang, Sainan; Shen, Junjie; Yang, Zhi; Chen, Jieping; Qian, Cheng

    2018-04-10

    T cells modified with anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) containing either CD28 or 4-1BB (also termed TNFRSF9, CD137) costimulatory signalling have shown great potential in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). However, the difference between CD28 and 4-1BB costimulatory signalling in CAR-T treatment has not been well elucidated in clinical trials. In this study, we treated 10 relapsed or refractory ALL patients with the second generation CD19 CAR-T. The first 5 patients were treated with CD28-CAR and the other 5 patients were treated with 4-1BB CAR-T. All the 10 patients were response-evaluable. Three patients achieved complete remission and 1 patient with extramedullary disease achieved partial response after CD28-CAR-T treatment. In the 4-1BB CAR-T treatment group, 3 patients achieved complete remission. Furthermore, FLT-3 ligand (FLT3LG) was highly correlated with response time and may serve as a prognosis factor. No severe adverse events were observed in these 10 treated patients. Our study showed that both CD28 CAR-T and 4-1BB CAR-T both worked for response but they differed in response pattern (peak reaction time, reaction lasting time and reaction degree), adverse events, cytokine secretion and immune-suppressive factor level. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Identification and characterization of an insect toxin protein, Bb70p, from the entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana, using Galleria mellonella as a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sehroon; Nadir, Sadia; Lihua, Guo; Xu, Jianchu; Holmes, Keith A; Dewen, Qiu

    2016-01-01

    An insect-toxic protein, Bb70p, was purified from Beauveria bassiana 70 using ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion exchange chromatography, and gel filtration. Bb70p has a high affinity for anion exchangers and 2D electrophoresis results revealed a single spot with a molecular weight of 35.5 kDa and an iso-electric point of ∼4.5. Bb70p remains active from 4 to 60°C, within a pH range of 4-10, but is more active in slightly acidic pH. A pure protein, Bb70p does not have any carbohydrate side chains. The protein caused high mortality by intra-haemocelic injection into Galleria mellonella with LD50 of 334.4 μg/g body weight and activates the phenol oxidase cascade. With a partial amino acid sequence comparison using the NCBI database, we showed no homology to known toxin proteins of entomopathogenic fungi. Thus, Bb70p appears to be an insect toxin protein, demonstrating novelty. Identification of this insect-toxic protein presents potential to enhance the virulence of B. bassiana through genetic manipulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer Spectroscopy of the Nova-Like Cataclysmic Variable BB Doradus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Godon, Patrick; Sion, Edward M; Barrett, Paul E; Szkody, Paula; Schlegel, Eric M

    2008-01-01

    ... (possibly lower than 10 ). Assuming an average white dwarf (WD) mass of 0.8 M leads to a mass accretion rate of 10 9 M yr 1 and a distance on the order of 650 pc, consistent with the extremely low Galactic reddening in the direction of BB Dor...

  5. Divergence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes could be driven by the host: diversity of Borrelia strains isolated from ticks feeding on a single bird

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudenko, Natalia; Golovchenko, Maryna; Belfiore, N. M.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Oliver, J. H., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 7, JAN 2014 (2014), s. 4 ISSN 1756-3305 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato * Ixodes minor * bird migration * bird reservoir host * multilocus sequence analysis * multilocus sequence typing * recombinant genotypes * Southeastern United States Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.430, year: 2014

  6. Consumption of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 in yogurt reduced expression of TLR-2 on peripheral blood-derived monocytes and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Huicui; Ba, Zhaoyong; Lee, Yujin; Peng, Jiayu; Lin, Junli; Fleming, Jennifer A; Furumoto, Emily J; Roberts, Robert F; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Rogers, Connie J

    2017-03-01

    Probiotic bacteria modulate immune parameters and inflammatory outcomes. Emerging evidence demonstrates that the matrix used to deliver probiotics may influence the efficacy of probiotic interventions in vivo. The aims of the current study were to evaluate (1) the effect of one species, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 at a dose of log10 ± 0.5 CFUs/day on immune responses in a randomized, partially blinded, 4-period crossover, free-living study, and (2) whether the immune response to BB-12 differed depending on the delivery matrix. Healthy adults (n = 30) aged 18-40 years were recruited and received four treatments in a random order: (A) yogurt smoothie alone; smoothie with BB-12 added (B) before or (C) after yogurt fermentation, or (D) BB-12 given in capsule form. At baseline and after each 4-week treatment, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated, and functional and phenotypic marker expression was assessed. BB-12 interacted with peripheral myeloid cells via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2). The percentage of CD14 + HLA-DR + cells in peripheral blood was increased in male participants by all yogurt-containing treatments compared to baseline (p = 0.0356). Participants who consumed yogurt smoothie with BB-12 added post-fermentation had significantly lower expression of TLR-2 on CD14 + HLA-DR + cells (p = 0.0186) and reduction in TNF-α secretion from BB-12- (p = 0.0490) or LPS-stimulated (p = 0.0387) PBMCs compared to baseline. These findings not only demonstrate a potential anti-inflammatory effect of BB-12 in healthy adults, but also indicate that the delivery matrix influences the immunomodulatory properties of BB-12.

  7. Camptothecin inhibits platelet-derived growth factor-BB-induced proliferation of rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells through inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Eun-Seok [Department of Applied Biochemistry, Division of Life Science, College of Health and Biomedical Science, Konkuk University, Chungju, Chungbuk (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Shin-il [College of Pharmacy Medical Research Center, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Kyu-dong [Hazardous Substances Analysis Division, Gwangju Regional Food and Drug Administration, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Mi-Yea [Department of Nursing Kyungbok University, Pocheon (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Hwan-Soo; Hong, Jin-Tae [College of Pharmacy Medical Research Center, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hwa-Sup [Department of Applied Biochemistry, Division of Life Science, College of Health and Biomedical Science, Konkuk University, Chungju, Chungbuk (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bokyung [Department of Physiology, Konkuk Medical School, Konkuk University, Chungju, Chungbuk (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Yeo-Pyo, E-mail: ypyun@chungbuk.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy Medical Research Center, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    The abnormal proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in arterial wall is a major cause of vascular disorders such as atherosclerosis and restenosis after angioplasty. In this study, we investigated not only the inhibitory effects of camptothecin (CPT) on PDGF-BB-induced VSMC proliferation, but also its molecular mechanism of this inhibition. CPT significantly inhibited proliferation with IC50 value of 0.58 μM and the DNA synthesis of PDGF-BB-stimulated VSMCs in a dose-dependent manner (0.5–2 μM ) without any cytotoxicity. CPT induced the cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase. Also, CPT decreased the expressions of G0/G1-specific regulatory proteins including cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)2, cyclin D1 and PCNA in PDGF-BB-stimulated VSMCs. Pre-incubation of VSMCs with CPT significantly inhibited PDGF-BB-induced Akt activation, whereas CPT did not affect PDGF-receptor beta phosphorylation, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 phosphorylation and phospholipase C (PLC)-γ1 phosphorylation in PDGF-BB signaling pathway. Our data showed that CPT pre-treatment inhibited VSMC proliferation, and that the inhibitory effect of CPT was enhanced by LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, on PDGF-BB-induced VSMC proliferation. In addition, inhibiting the PI3K/Akt pathway by LY294002 significantly enhanced the suppression of PCNA expression and Akt activation by CPT. These results suggest that the anti-proliferative activity of CPT is mediated in part by downregulating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. - Highlights: ► CPT inhibits proliferation of PDGF-BB-induced VSMC without cytotoxicity. ► CPT arrests the cell cycle in G0/G1 phase by downregulation of cyclin D1 and CDK2. ► CPT significantly attenuates Akt phosphorylation in PDGF-BB signaling pathway. ► LY294002 enhanced the inhibitory effect of CPT on VSMC proliferation. ► Thus, CPT is mediated by downregulating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  8. Camptothecin inhibits platelet-derived growth factor-BB-induced proliferation of rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells through inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Eun-Seok; Kang, Shin-il; Yoo, Kyu-dong; Lee, Mi-Yea; Yoo, Hwan-Soo; Hong, Jin-Tae; Shin, Hwa-Sup; Kim, Bokyung; Yun, Yeo-Pyo

    2013-01-01

    The abnormal proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in arterial wall is a major cause of vascular disorders such as atherosclerosis and restenosis after angioplasty. In this study, we investigated not only the inhibitory effects of camptothecin (CPT) on PDGF-BB-induced VSMC proliferation, but also its molecular mechanism of this inhibition. CPT significantly inhibited proliferation with IC50 value of 0.58 μM and the DNA synthesis of PDGF-BB-stimulated VSMCs in a dose-dependent manner (0.5–2 μM ) without any cytotoxicity. CPT induced the cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase. Also, CPT decreased the expressions of G0/G1-specific regulatory proteins including cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)2, cyclin D1 and PCNA in PDGF-BB-stimulated VSMCs. Pre-incubation of VSMCs with CPT significantly inhibited PDGF-BB-induced Akt activation, whereas CPT did not affect PDGF-receptor beta phosphorylation, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 phosphorylation and phospholipase C (PLC)-γ1 phosphorylation in PDGF-BB signaling pathway. Our data showed that CPT pre-treatment inhibited VSMC proliferation, and that the inhibitory effect of CPT was enhanced by LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, on PDGF-BB-induced VSMC proliferation. In addition, inhibiting the PI3K/Akt pathway by LY294002 significantly enhanced the suppression of PCNA expression and Akt activation by CPT. These results suggest that the anti-proliferative activity of CPT is mediated in part by downregulating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. - Highlights: ► CPT inhibits proliferation of PDGF-BB-induced VSMC without cytotoxicity. ► CPT arrests the cell cycle in G0/G1 phase by downregulation of cyclin D1 and CDK2. ► CPT significantly attenuates Akt phosphorylation in PDGF-BB signaling pathway. ► LY294002 enhanced the inhibitory effect of CPT on VSMC proliferation. ► Thus, CPT is mediated by downregulating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway

  9. Continuous 4-1BB co-stimulatory signals for the optimal expansion of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes for adoptive T-cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon, Jessica Ann; Pilon-Thomas, Shari; Sarnaik, Amod A; Radvanyi, Laszlo G

    2013-09-01

    Co-stimulation through members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family appears to be critical for the generation of T cells with optimal effector-memory properties for adoptive cell therapy. Our work suggests that continuous 4-1BB/CD137 co-stimulation is required for the expansion of T cells with an optimal therapeutic profile and that the administration of 4-1BB agonists upon adoptive cell transfer further improves antitumor T-cell functions.

  10. Evaluation of Selected Borrelia burgdorferi lp54 Plasmid-Encoded Gene Products Expressed during Mammalian Infection as Antigens To Improve Serodiagnostic Testing for Early Lyme Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Zachary P.; Crew, Rebecca M.; Brandt, Kevin S.; Ullmann, Amy J.; Schriefer, Martin E.; Molins, Claudia R.

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory testing for the diagnosis of Lyme disease is performed primarily by serologic assays and is accurate for detection beyond the acute stage of the infection. Serodiagnostic assays to detect the early stages of infection, however, are limited in their sensitivity, and improvement is warranted. We analyzed a series of Borrelia burgdorferi proteins known to be induced within feeding ticks and/or during mammalian infection for their utility as serodiagnostic markers against a comprehensive panel of Lyme disease patient serum samples. The antigens were assayed for IgM and IgG reactivity in line immunoblots and separately by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), with a focus on reactivity against early Lyme disease with erythema migrans (EM), early disseminated Lyme neuroborreliosis, and early Lyme carditis patient serum samples. By IgM immunoblotting, we found that recombinant proteins BBA65, BBA70, and BBA73 reacted with early Lyme EM samples at levels comparable to those of the OspC antigen used in the current IgM blotting criteria. Additionally, these proteins reacted with serum samples from patients with early neuroborreliosis and early carditis, suggesting value in detecting early stages of this disease progression. We also found serological reactivity against recombinant proteins BBA69 and BBA73 with early-Lyme-disease samples using IgG immunoblotting and ELISA. Significantly, some samples that had been scored negative by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-recommended 2-tiered testing algorithm demonstrated positive reactivity to one or more of the antigens by IgM/IgG immunoblot and ELISA. These results suggest that incorporating additional in vivo-expressed antigens into the current IgM/IgG immunoblotting tier in a recombinant protein platform assay may improve the performance of early-Lyme-disease serologic testing. PMID:26376927

  11. Evaluation of Selected Borrelia burgdorferi lp54 Plasmid-Encoded Gene Products Expressed during Mammalian Infection as Antigens To Improve Serodiagnostic Testing for Early Lyme Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Zachary P; Crew, Rebecca M; Brandt, Kevin S; Ullmann, Amy J; Schriefer, Martin E; Molins, Claudia R; Gilmore, Robert D

    2015-11-01

    Laboratory testing for the diagnosis of Lyme disease is performed primarily by serologic assays and is accurate for detection beyond the acute stage of the infection. Serodiagnostic assays to detect the early stages of infection, however, are limited in their sensitivity, and improvement is warranted. We analyzed a series of Borrelia burgdorferi proteins known to be induced within feeding ticks and/or during mammalian infection for their utility as serodiagnostic markers against a comprehensive panel of Lyme disease patient serum samples. The antigens were assayed for IgM and IgG reactivity in line immunoblots and separately by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), with a focus on reactivity against early Lyme disease with erythema migrans (EM), early disseminated Lyme neuroborreliosis, and early Lyme carditis patient serum samples. By IgM immunoblotting, we found that recombinant proteins BBA65, BBA70, and BBA73 reacted with early Lyme EM samples at levels comparable to those of the OspC antigen used in the current IgM blotting criteria. Additionally, these proteins reacted with serum samples from patients with early neuroborreliosis and early carditis, suggesting value in detecting early stages of this disease progression. We also found serological reactivity against recombinant proteins BBA69 and BBA73 with early-Lyme-disease samples using IgG immunoblotting and ELISA. Significantly, some samples that had been scored negative by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-recommended 2-tiered testing algorithm demonstrated positive reactivity to one or more of the antigens by IgM/IgG immunoblot and ELISA. These results suggest that incorporating additional in vivo-expressed antigens into the current IgM/IgG immunoblotting tier in a recombinant protein platform assay may improve the performance of early-Lyme-disease serologic testing. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. 76 FR 13615 - B&B Manufacturing Site; Mobile, Mobile County, AL; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... settlement for reimbursement of past response costs concerning the B&B Manufacturing Site located in Mobile, Mobile County, Alabama for publication. DATES: The Agency will consider public comments on the settlement... Site; Mobile, Mobile County, AL; Notice of Settlement AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION...

  13. Boosted H­->bb Tagger In Run II

    CERN Document Server

    Sahinsoy, Merve; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Several searches for Higgs bosons decaying to b­quark pairs benefit from the increased Run II centre­of­mass energy by exploiting the large transvers­momentum (boosted) Higgs boson regime, where the two b­jets are merged into one large­radius jet. ATLAS uses a boosted H­>bb tagger algorithm to separate the Higgs signal from the background processes (QCD, W and Z bosons, top quarks). The tagger takes as input a large­R=1.0 jet calibrating the pseudorapidity, energy and mass scale. The tagger employs b­tagging, Higgs candidate mass, and substructure information. The performance of several operating points in Higgs boson signal and QCD and ttbar all­hadronic backgrounds are presented. Systematic uncertainties are evaluated so that this tagger can be used in analyses.

  14. The Sand Fly Salivary Protein Lufaxin Inhibits the Early Steps of the Alternative Pathway of Complement by Direct Binding to the Proconvertase C3b-B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio F. Mendes-Sousa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Saliva of the blood feeding sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis was previously shown to inhibit the alternative pathway (AP of the complement system. Here, we have identified Lufaxin, a protein component in saliva, as the inhibitor of the AP. Lufaxin inhibited the deposition of C3b, Bb, Properdin, C5b, and C9b on agarose-coated plates in a dose-dependent manner. It also inhibited the activation of factor B in normal serum, but had no effect on the components of the membrane attack complex. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR experiments demonstrated that Lufaxin stabilizes the C3b-B proconvertase complex when passed over a C3b surface in combination with factor B. Lufaxin was also shown to inhibit the activation of factor B by factor D in a reconstituted C3b-B, but did not inhibit the activation of C3 by reconstituted C3b-Bb. Proconvertase stabilization does not require the presence of divalent cations, but addition of Ni2+ increases the stability of complexes formed on SPR surfaces. Stabilization of the C3b-B complex to prevent C3 convertase formation (C3b-Bb formation is a novel mechanism that differs from previously described strategies used by other organisms to inhibit the AP of the host complement system.

  15. The Sand Fly Salivary Protein Lufaxin Inhibits the Early Steps of the Alternative Pathway of Complement by Direct Binding to the Proconvertase C3b-B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes-Sousa, Antonio F; do Vale, Vladimir Fazito; Silva, Naylene C S; Guimaraes-Costa, Anderson B; Pereira, Marcos H; Sant'Anna, Mauricio R V; Oliveira, Fabiano; Kamhawi, Shaden; Ribeiro, José M C; Andersen, John F; Valenzuela, Jesus G; Araujo, Ricardo N

    2017-01-01

    Saliva of the blood feeding sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis was previously shown to inhibit the alternative pathway (AP) of the complement system. Here, we have identified Lufaxin, a protein component in saliva, as the inhibitor of the AP. Lufaxin inhibited the deposition of C3b, Bb, Properdin, C5b, and C9b on agarose-coated plates in a dose-dependent manner. It also inhibited the activation of factor B in normal serum, but had no effect on the components of the membrane attack complex. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) experiments demonstrated that Lufaxin stabilizes the C3b-B proconvertase complex when passed over a C3b surface in combination with factor B. Lufaxin was also shown to inhibit the activation of factor B by factor D in a reconstituted C3b-B, but did not inhibit the activation of C3 by reconstituted C3b-Bb. Proconvertase stabilization does not require the presence of divalent cations, but addition of Ni 2+ increases the stability of complexes formed on SPR surfaces. Stabilization of the C3b-B complex to prevent C3 convertase formation (C3b-Bb formation) is a novel mechanism that differs from previously described strategies used by other organisms to inhibit the AP of the host complement system.

  16. The Sand Fly Salivary Protein Lufaxin Inhibits the Early Steps of the Alternative Pathway of Complement by Direct Binding to the Proconvertase C3b-B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes-Sousa, Antonio F.; do Vale, Vladimir Fazito; Silva, Naylene C. S.; Guimaraes-Costa, Anderson B.; Pereira, Marcos H.; Sant’Anna, Mauricio R. V.; Oliveira, Fabiano; Kamhawi, Shaden; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Andersen, John F.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Araujo, Ricardo N.

    2017-01-01

    Saliva of the blood feeding sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis was previously shown to inhibit the alternative pathway (AP) of the complement system. Here, we have identified Lufaxin, a protein component in saliva, as the inhibitor of the AP. Lufaxin inhibited the deposition of C3b, Bb, Properdin, C5b, and C9b on agarose-coated plates in a dose-dependent manner. It also inhibited the activation of factor B in normal serum, but had no effect on the components of the membrane attack complex. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) experiments demonstrated that Lufaxin stabilizes the C3b-B proconvertase complex when passed over a C3b surface in combination with factor B. Lufaxin was also shown to inhibit the activation of factor B by factor D in a reconstituted C3b-B, but did not inhibit the activation of C3 by reconstituted C3b-Bb. Proconvertase stabilization does not require the presence of divalent cations, but addition of Ni2+ increases the stability of complexes formed on SPR surfaces. Stabilization of the C3b-B complex to prevent C3 convertase formation (C3b-Bb formation) is a novel mechanism that differs from previously described strategies used by other organisms to inhibit the AP of the host complement system. PMID:28912782

  17. A theoretical model of the tridimensional structure of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. medellin Cry 11Bb toxin deduced by homology modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutierrez Pablo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cry11Bb is an insecticidal crystal protein produced by Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. medellin during its stationary phase; this ¶-endotoxin is active against dipteran insects and has great potential for mosquito borne disease control. Here, we report the first theoretical model of the tridimensional structure of a Cry11 toxin. The tridimensional structure of the Cry11Bb toxin was obtained by homology modelling on the structures of the Cry1Aa and Cry3Aa toxins. In this work we give a brief description of our model and hypothesize the residues of the Cry11Bb toxin that could be important in receptor recognition and pore formation. This model will serve as a starting point for the design of mutagenesis experiments aimed to the improvement of toxicity, and to provide a new tool for the elucidation of the mechanism of action of these mosquitocidal proteins.

  18. Seroprevalence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in healthy adults from western Norway: risk factors and methodological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjetland, Reidar; Nilsen, Roy M; Grude, Nils; Ulvestad, Elling

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in a healthy adult population from Sogn and Fjordane county in western Norway by different assays. Sera from 1213 blood donors at four different blood banks were analysed in Enzygnost Lyme link VlsE/IgG (IgG), Enzygnost Borreliosis IgM (IgM), and Immunetics C6 Lyme ELISA kit (C6). Sera showing positive or grey-zone reactivities were further examined with Borrelia-EUROLine-RN-AT IgG blot and Borrelia-EUROLine-RN-AT IgM blot. The seroprevalences were 9.6%, 8.2%, 8.4%, 6.4% and 5.7%, respectively. The seroprevalence for IgG was lower in the eastern part of the county and in owners of pet animals. It was higher in men, and increased with age and number of tick bites. C6 and IgG gave comparable results. IgM only was found in 4.5%, more often in women, did not increase with age, and showed no relationship with geography, and 56.4% were positive in IgM blot. In conclusion, antibodies to B. burgdorferi s.l. are common in blood donors in western Norway. The results may be used for evaluation of predictive values of test results in patients, as well as a basis for test algorithms in the laboratory. © 2014 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Immunochemical characterization of and isolation of the gene for a Borrelia burgdorferi immunodominant 60-kilodalton antigen common to a wide range of bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K; Bangsborg, Jette Marie; Fjordvang, H

    1988-01-01

    . burgdorferi CA was localized on a 2.3-kilobase fragment of the plasmid pKH1. CA may have pathogenetic implications in Lyme borreliosis, since the CA of mycobacteria recently has been shown to play a role in the etiology of experimental autoimmune arthritis. The extensive cross-reactivity of this antigen may...... account for the low diagnostic specificity of the currently used serological tests in Lyme borreliosis....

  20. Role of the intestinal tight junction modulator zonulin in the pathogenesis of type I diabetes in BB diabetic-prone rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Tammara; Berti, Irene; Sapone, Anna; Gerarduzzi, Tania; Not, Tarcisio; Zielke, Ronald; Fasano, Alessio

    2005-02-22

    Increased intestinal permeability has been observed in numerous human autoimmune diseases, including type-1 diabetes (T1D) and its' animal model, the BB-wor diabetic prone rat. We have recently described zonulin, a protein that regulates intercellular tight junctions. The objective of this study was to establish whether zonulin-dependent increased intestinal permeability plays a role in the pathogenesis of T1D. In the BB diabetic-prone rat model of T1D, intestinal intraluminal zonulin levels were elevated 35-fold compared to control BB diabetic-resistant rats. Zonulin up-regulation was coincident with decreased small intestinal transepithelial electrical resistance, and was followed by the production of autoantibodies against pancreatic beta cells, which preceded the onset of clinically evident T1D by approximately 25 days. In those diabetic prone rats that did not progress to diabetes, both intraluminal zonulin and transepithelial electrical resistance were similar to those detected in diabetic-resistant animal controls. Blockade of the zonulin receptor reduced the cumulative incidence of T1D by 70%, despite the persistence of intraluminal zonulin up-regulation. Moreover, treatment responders did not seroconvert to islet cell antibodies. Combined together, these findings suggest that the zonulin-induced loss in small intestinal barrier function is involved in the pathogenesis of T1D in the BB diabetic-prone animal model.

  1. Nitrogen Rate Effects on Cry3Bb1 and Cry3Bb1 + Cry34/35Ab1 Expression in Transgenic Corn Roots, Resulting Root Injury, and Corn Rootworm Beetle Emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, T M; Ostlie, K R

    2017-06-01

    Nitrogen (N) application rates have been recommended historically for maximum economic yield of corn (Zea mays L.), but not for optimal expression or impacts of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner) Cry protein(s) on target insects. This study explored the need to adjust N rates to optimize expression of corn rootworm-active Bt (Bt-RW) protein(s) in a single and a pyramided trait hybrid and resulting impacts on beetle emergence and root injury, under field conditions. The experiment featured a factorial treatment arrangement in a split-plot randomized complete block design with six N rates as the main plots and three hybrids (MON88017 expressing Cry3Bb1, MON88017 x DAS-59122 expressing Cry3Bb1 + Cry34/35Ab1, and a non-Bt-RW hybrid) as the subplots. Corn roots were sampled at the beginning of, and after, peak larval feeding to determine Bt-expression levels using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Beetles were collected every 2-3 d during emergence using cut-plant emergence cages. Cry3Bb1 expression was significantly reduced when little or no N was applied. Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 expression was highly variable and unaffected by N rate. Beetle emergence increased with N rate in the non-Bt-RW hybrid while root injury declined. Provided Bt-RW hybrids had sufficient applied N, root injury was relatively low. Results indicate that N management could affect Bt-RW expression and success of insect resistance management plans provided N is applied at rates that enhance production of susceptible beetles emerging from the non-Bt-RW (refuge) hybrid, and achieve optimal expression and efficacy of Bt traits. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Search for the H->bb decay in LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Vieites Díaz, María

    2014-01-01

    The recent discovery of a Higgs-like boson by ATLAS and CMS has drawn the general attention to this topic, promoting the development of tools needed for the study of this new particle. The mass of this boson has been found to be close to 125 GeV=c2, what, as shown in Figure 1, enhances the H ! bb mode over the other possible decays of this particle. Since the mass of the Higgs boson has to be reconstructed from two jets, this mode is particularly challenging in LHCb due to its limited acceptance (when compared with ATLAS or CMS). However, jet b-tagging is expected to be easier due to the highly specic design for b-physics of the detector.

  3. WR 120bb and WR 120bc: a pair of WN9h stars with possibly interacting circumstellar shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgemeister, S.; Gvaramadze, V. V.; Stringfellow, G. S.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Todt, H.; Hamann, W.-R.

    2013-03-01

    Two optically obscured Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars have been recently discovered by means of their infrared (IR) circumstellar shells, which show signatures of interaction with each other. Following the systematics of the WR star catalogues, these stars obtain the names WR 120bb and WR 120bc. In this paper, we present and analyse new near-IR, J-, H- and K-band spectra using the Potsdam Wolf-Rayet model atmosphere code. For that purpose, the atomic data base of the code has been extended in order to include all significant lines in the near-IR bands. The spectra of both stars are classified as WN9h. As their spectra are very similar the parameters that we obtained by the spectral analyses hardly differ. Despite their late spectral subtype, we found relatively high stellar temperatures of 63 kK. The wind composition is dominated by helium, while hydrogen is depleted to 25 per cent by mass. Because of their location in the Scutum-Centaurus Arm, WR 120bb and WR 120bc appear highly reddened, A_{K_s} ≈ 2 mag. We adopt a common distance of 5.8 kpc to both stars, which complies with the typical absolute K-band magnitude for the WN9h subtype of -6.5 mag, is consistent with their observed extinction based on comparison with other massive stars in the region, and allows for the possibility that their shells are interacting with each other. This leads to luminosities of log ({textit {L}/L}_{odot }) = 5.66 and 5.54 for WR 120bb and WR 120bc, with large uncertainties due to the adopted distance. The values of the luminosities of WR 120bb and WR 120bc imply that the immediate precursors of both stars were red supergiants (RSG). This implies in turn that the circumstellar shells associated with WR 120bb and WR 120bc were formed by interaction between the WR wind and the dense material shed during the preceding RSG phase.

  4. Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in dogs from Cotia county, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOPPERT Adriana Marques

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Dogs sera samples collected from Cotia County, São Paulo were tested using indirect immunoenzymatic test (ELISA in order to study Lyme disease serology in dogs. ELISA method was standardized and G39/40 North American strain of Borrelia burgdorferi was used as antigen. Positive results were confirmed employing the Western blotting technique. Because of the possibility of cross-reactions, sera were also tested for different serological strains of Leptospira interrogans and L. biflexa using microscopic sera agglutination test. Twenty-three of 237 (9.7% serum samples were positive in the ELISA; 20 of them (86.9% were confirmed by the Western blotting, what suggests that Cotia may be a risk area for Lyme disease. Although 4 samples (1.7% were positive for Lyme disease and leptospirosis, no correlation was found between the results (X² = 0.725; p = 0.394 what suggests absence of serological cross reactivity.

  5. Pulsed estrogen therapy prevents post-OVX porcine dura mater microvascular network weakening via a PDGF-BB-dependent mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V Glinskii

    Full Text Available In postmenopausal women, estrogen (E2 deficiencies are frequently associated with higher risk of intracranial hemorrhage, increased incidence of stroke, cerebral aneurysm, and decline in cognitive abilities. In younger postpartum women and those using oral contraceptives, perturbations in E2 are associated with higher risk of cerebral venous thrombosis. A number of serious intracranial pathologic conditions linked to E2 deficiencies, such as dural sinus thrombosis, dural fistulae, non-parenchymal intracranial hemorrhages, migraines, and spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leaks, involve the vessels not of the brain itself, but of the outer fibrous membrane of the brain, the dura mater (DM. The pathogenesis of these disorders remains mysterious and how estrogen regulates structural and functional integrity of DM vasculature is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that post ovariectomy (OVX DM vascular remodeling is manifested by microvessel destabilization, capillary rarefaction, increased vascular permeability, and aberrant angio-architecture, and is the result of disrupted E2-regulated PDGF-BB signaling within dura microvasculature. These changes, associated with the reduction in systemic PDGF-BB levels, are not corrected by a flat-dose E2 hormone replacement therapy (HRT, but are largely prevented using HRT schedules mimicking physiological E2 fluctuations. We demonstrate that 1 E2 regulates PDGF-BB production by endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner and 2 optimization of PDGF-BB levels and induction of robust PDGF-mediated endothelial cell-vascular pericyte interactions require high (estrous E2 concentrations. We conclude that high (estrous levels of E2 are important in controlling PDGF-mediated crosstalk between endothelial cells and pericytes, a fundamental mechanism governing microvessel stability and essential for preserving intracranial homeostasis.

  6. Electroluminescent TCC, C3dg and fB/Bb epitope assays for profiling complement cascade activation in vitro using an activated complement serum calibration standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vuuren, B Jansen; Bergseth, G; Mollnes, T E; Shaw, A M

    2014-01-15

    Electroluminescent assays for epitopes on the complement components C3dg, terminal complement complex (TCC) and factor B/Bb (fB/Bb) have been developed with capture and detection antibodies to produce detection limits C3dg=91±9ng/mL, TCC=3±0.1ng/mL and fB=55.7±0.1ng/mL. The assay performance was assessed against a series of zymosan and heat aggregated IgG (HAIgG) in vitro activations of complement using a calibrated activated complement serum (ACS) as calibration standard. The ACS standard was stable within 20% accuracy over a 6-month period with freeze-thaw cycles as required. Differential activation of the complement cascade was observed for TCC showing a pseudo-first order formation half-life of 3.5h after activation with zymosan. The C3dg activation fragment indicates a 10% total activation for both activation agents. The kinetic-epitope analysis for fB indicates that the capture epitope is on the fB/Bb protein fragment which can then become covered by the formation of C3bBb or C3bBbP complexes during the time course of the cascade. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Rotavirus specific maternal antibodies and immune response to RV3-BB neonatal rotavirus vaccine in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mee-Yew; Kirkwood, Carl D.; Bines, Julie; Cowley, Daniel; Pavlic, Daniel; Lee, Katherine J.; Orsini, Francesca; Watts, Emma; Barnes, Graeme; Danchin, Margaret

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Maternal antibodies, acquired passively via placenta and/or breast milk, may contribute to the reduced efficacy of oral rotavirus vaccines observed in children in developing countries. This study aimed to investigate the effect of rotavirus specific maternal antibodies on the serum IgA response or stool excretion of vaccine virus after any dose of an oral rotavirus vaccine, RV3-BB, in parallel to a Phase IIa clinical trial conducted at Dunedin Hospital, New Zealand. At the time of the study rotavirus vaccines had not been introduced in New Zealand and the burden of rotavirus disease was evident. Methods: Rotavirus specific IgG and serum neutralizing antibody (SNA) levels in cord blood and IgA levels in colostrum and breast milk samples collected ∼4 weeks, ∼20 weeks and ∼28 weeks after birth were measured. Infants were randomized to receive the first dose of vaccine at 0–5 d (neonatal schedule) or 8 weeks (infant schedule). Breast feeding was with-held for 30 minutes before and after vaccine administration. The relationship between rotavirus specific IgG and SNA levels in cord blood and IgA in colostrum and breast milk at the time of first active dose of RV3-BB vaccine and level of IgA response and stool excretion after 3 doses of vaccine was assessed using linear and logistic regression. Results: Forty infants received 3 doses of RV3-BB rotavirus vaccine and were included in the analysis of the neonatal and infant groups. Rotavirus specific IgA in colostrum (neonatal schedule group) and breast milk at 4 weeks (infant schedule group) was identified in 14/21 (67%) and 14/17 (82%) of infants respectively. There was little evidence of an association between IgA in colostrum or breast milk IgA at 4 weeks, or between cord IgG or SNA level, and IgA response or stool excretion after 3 doses of RV3-BB, or after one dose (neonatal schedule) (all p>0.05). Conclusions: The level of IgA in colostrum or breast milk and level of placental Ig

  8. Rotavirus specific maternal antibodies and immune response to RV3-BB neonatal rotavirus vaccine in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mee-Yew; Kirkwood, Carl D; Bines, Julie; Cowley, Daniel; Pavlic, Daniel; Lee, Katherine J; Orsini, Francesca; Watts, Emma; Barnes, Graeme; Danchin, Margaret

    2017-05-04

    Maternal antibodies, acquired passively via placenta and/or breast milk, may contribute to the reduced efficacy of oral rotavirus vaccines observed in children in developing countries. This study aimed to investigate the effect of rotavirus specific maternal antibodies on the serum IgA response or stool excretion of vaccine virus after any dose of an oral rotavirus vaccine, RV3-BB, in parallel to a Phase IIa clinical trial conducted at Dunedin Hospital, New Zealand. At the time of the study rotavirus vaccines had not been introduced in New Zealand and the burden of rotavirus disease was evident. Rotavirus specific IgG and serum neutralizing antibody (SNA) levels in cord blood and IgA levels in colostrum and breast milk samples collected ∼4 weeks, ∼20 weeks and ∼28 weeks after birth were measured. Infants were randomized to receive the first dose of vaccine at 0-5 d (neonatal schedule) or 8 weeks (infant schedule). Breast feeding was with-held for 30 minutes before and after vaccine administration. The relationship between rotavirus specific IgG and SNA levels in cord blood and IgA in colostrum and breast milk at the time of first active dose of RV3-BB vaccine and level of IgA response and stool excretion after 3 doses of vaccine was assessed using linear and logistic regression. Forty infants received 3 doses of RV3-BB rotavirus vaccine and were included in the analysis of the neonatal and infant groups. Rotavirus specific IgA in colostrum (neonatal schedule group) and breast milk at 4 weeks (infant schedule group) was identified in 14/21 (67%) and 14/17 (82%) of infants respectively. There was little evidence of an association between IgA in colostrum or breast milk IgA at 4 weeks, or between cord IgG or SNA level, and IgA response or stool excretion after 3 doses of RV3-BB, or after one dose (neonatal schedule) (all p>0.05). The level of IgA in colostrum or breast milk and level of placental IgG and SNA did not impact on the serum IgA response or

  9. Exposure of a distinct PDCA-1+ (CD317 B cell population to agonistic anti-4-1BB (CD137 inhibits T and B cell responses both in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dass S Vinay

    Full Text Available 4-1BB (CD137 is an important T cell activating molecule. Here we report that it also promotes development of a distinct B cell subpopulation co-expressing PDCA-1. 4-1BB is expressed constitutively, and its expression is increased when PDCA-1(+ B cells are activated. We found that despite a high level of surface expression of 4-1BB on PDCA-1(+ B cells, treatment of these cells with agonistic anti-4-1BB mAb stimulated the expression of only a few activation markers (B7-2, MHC II, PD-L2, cytokines (IL-12p40/p70, and chemokines (MCP-1, RANTES, as well as sTNFR1, and the immunosuppressive enzyme, IDO. Although the PDCA-1(+ B cells stimulated by anti-4-1BB expressed MHC II at high levels and took up antigens efficiently, Ig class switching was inhibited when they were pulsed with T-independent (TI or T-dependent (TD Ags and adoptively transferred into syngeneic recipients. Furthermore, when anti-4-1BB-treated PDCA-1(+ B cells were pulsed with OVA peptide and combined with Vα2(+CD4(+ T cells, Ag-specific cell division was inhibited both in vitro and in vivo. Our findings suggest that the 4-1BB signal transforms PDCA-1(+ B cells into propagators of negative immune regulation, and establish an important role for 4-1BB in PDCA-1(+ B cell development and function.

  10. Pengaruh Quality of Work Life terhadap Kinerja Perawat Pelaksana di Rumah Sakit Tk II Putri Hijau Kesdam I/BB Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Pratama, Muchti Yuda

    2012-01-01

    Quality of work life is a problem which should have been paid attention by the management of Level II Putri Hijau Hospital Kesdam I/BB Medan because quality of work life is regarded as being able to improve the participation and contribution of the nurses working here to this hospital. The purpose of this analytical survey study with cross-sectional design conducted at Level II Putri Hijau Hospital Kesdam I/BB Medan was to analyze the influence of quality of work life including employees’ ...

  11. Borrelia carolinensis sp. nov., a new (14th) member of the Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato complex from the southeastern region of the United States

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudenko, Natalia; Golovchenko, Maryna; Grubhoffer, Libor; Oliver, J. H., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 1 (2009), s. 134-141 ISSN 0095-1137 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009; GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/1479 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : multilocus sequence analysis * B. burgdorferi sl complex * new borrelia species * Borrelia carolinensis Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 4.162, year: 2009

  12. Targeting the PDGF-B/PDGFR-β Interface with Destruxin A5 to Selectively Block PDGF-BB/PDGFR-ββ Signaling and Attenuate Liver Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingqi Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available PDGF-BB/PDGFR-ββ signaling plays very crucial roles in the process of many diseases such as liver fibrosis. However, drug candidates with selective affinities for PDGF-B/PDGFR-β remain deficient. Here, we identified a natural cyclopeptide termed destruxin A5 that effectively inhibits PDGF-BB-induced PDGFR-β signaling. Interestingly and importantly, the inhibitory mechanism is distinct from the mechanism of tyrosine kinase inhibitors because destruxin A5 does not have the ability to bind to the ATP-binding pocket of PDGFR-β. Using Biacore T200 technology, thermal shift technology, microscale thermophoresis technology and computational analysis, we confirmed that destruxin A5 selectively targets the PDGF-B/PDGFR-β interaction interface to block this signaling. Additionally, the inhibitory effect of destruxin A5 on PDGF-BB/PDGFR-ββ signaling was verified using in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo models, in which the extent of liver fibrosis was effectively alleviated by destruxin A5. In summary, destruxin A5 may represent an efficacious and more selective inhibitor of PDGF-BB/PDGFR-ββ signaling.

  13. Invasive potential of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto ospC type L strains increases the possible disease risk to humans in the regions of their distribution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Golovchenko, Maryna; Šíma, Radek; Hajdušek, Ondřej; Grubhoffer, Libor; Oliver, J. H., Jr.; Rudenko, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 7, NOV 28 2014 (2014), s. 538 ISSN 1756-3305 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-27630P; GA ČR GP13-12816P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : B. burgdorferi ospC type * Invasive potential * Lyme disease * Southeastern U.S.A. * Tick vector * Vertebrate host Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.430, year: 2014

  14. Impact of Cry3Bb1-expressing Bt maize on adults of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissle, Michael; Hellmich, Richard L; Romeis, Jörg

    2011-07-01

    Genetically engineered maize producing insecticidal Cry3Bb1 protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is protected from root damage by corn rootworm larvae. An examination was made to establish whether western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) adults are affected by Cry3Bb1-expressing maize (MON88017) when feeding on above-ground tissue. In laboratory bioassays, adult D. v. virgifera were fed for 7 weeks with silk, leaves or pollen from Bt maize or the corresponding near-isoline. Male, but not female, survival was reduced in the Bt-leaf treatment compared with the control. Female weight was lower when fed Bt maize, and egg production was reduced in the Bt-silk treatment. ELISA measurements demonstrated that beetles feeding on silk were exposed to higher Cry3Bb1 concentrations than beetles collected from Bt-maize fields in the United States. In contrast to silk and pollen, feeding on leaves resulted in high mortality and low fecundity. Females feeding on pollen produced more eggs than on silk. C:N ratios indicated that silk does not provide enough nitrogen for optimal egg production. Direct effects of Cry3Bb1 on adult beetles could explain the observed effects, but varietal differences between Bt and control maize are also possible. The impact of Bt maize on adult populations, however, is likely to be limited. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Prototypic implementations of the building block for component based open Hypermedia systems (BB/CB-OHSs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, Omer I. Eldai

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we describe the prototypic implementations of the BuildingBlock (BB/CB-OHSs) that proposed to address some of the Component-based Open Hypermedia Systems (CB-OHSs) issues, including distribution and interoperability [4, 11, 12]. Four service implementations were described below. The...

  16. Use of T7 RNA polymerase to direct expression of outer Surface Protein A (OspA) from the Lyme disease Spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, John J.; Lade, Barbara N.

    1991-01-01

    The OspA gene from a North American strain of the Lyme disease Spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, was cloned under the control of transciption and translation signals from bacteriophage T7. Full-length OspA protein, a 273 amino acid (31kD) lipoprotein, is expressed poorly in Escherichia coli and is associated with the insoluble membrane fraction. In contrast, a truncated form of OspA lacking the amino-terminal signal sequence which normally would direct localization of the protein to the outer membrane is expressed at very high levels (less than or equal to 100 mg/liter) and is soluble. The truncated protein was purified to homogeneity and is being tested to see if it will be useful as an immunogen in a vaccine against Lyme disease. Circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy was used to characterize the secondary structure and study conformational changes in the protein. Studies underway with other surface proteins from B burgdorferi and a related spirochete, B. hermsii, which causes relapsing fever, leads us to conclude that a strategy similar to that used to express the truncated OspA can provide a facile method for producing variations of Borrelia lipoproteins which are highly expressed in E. coli and soluble without exposure to detergents.

  17. A recombination outside the BB deletion refines the location of the X-linked retinitis pigmentosa locus RP3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, R.; Bingham, E.; Forsythe, P.; McHenry, C. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)] [and others

    1996-07-01

    Genetic loci for X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) have been mapped between Xp11.22 and Xp22.13 (RP2, RP3, RP6, and RP15). The RP3 gene, which is responsible for the predominant form of XLRP in most Caucasian populations, has been localized to Xp21.1 by linkage analysis and the map positions of chromosomal deletions associated with the disease. Previous linkage studies have suggested that RP3 is flanked by the markers DXS1110 (distal) and OTC (proximal). Patient BB was though to have RP because of a lesion at the RP3 locus, in addition to chronic granulomatous disease, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), mild mental retardation, and the McLeod phenotype. This patient carried a deletion extending {approximately}3 Mb from DMD in Xp21.3 to Xp21.1, with the proximal breakpoint located {approximately}40 kb centromeric to DXS1110. The RP3 gene, therefore, is believed to reside between DXS1110 and the proximal breakpoint of the BB deletion. In order to refine the location of RP3 and to ascertain patients with RP3, we have been analyzing several XLRP families for linkage to Xp markers. Linkage analysis in an American family of 27 individuals demonstrates segregation of XLRP with markers in Xp21.1, consistent with the RP3 subtype. One affected male shows a recombination event proximal to DXS1110. Additional markers within the DXS1110-OTC interval show that the crossover is between two novel polymorphic markers, DXS8349 and M6, both of which are present in BB DNA and lie centromeric to the proximal breakpoint. This recombination places the XLRP mutation in this family outside the BB deletion and redefines the location of RP3. 22 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Population dynamics of Borrelia burgdorferi in Lyme disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Christoph Binder

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Many chronic inflammatory diseases are known to be caused by persistent bacterial or viral infections. A well-studied example is the tick-borne infection by the gram-negative Spirochaetes of the genus Borrelia in humans and other mammals, causing severe symptoms of chronic inflammation and subsequent tissue damage (Lyme Disease, particularly in large joints and the central nervous system, but also in the heart and other tissues of untreated patients. Although killed efficiently by human phagocytic cells in vitro, Borrelia exhibits a remarkably high infectivity in mice and men. In experimentally infected mice, the first immune response almost clears the infection. However, approximately one week post infection, the bacterial population recovers and reaches an even larger size before entering the chronic phase. We developed a mathematical model describing the bacterial growth and the immune response against Borrelia burgdorferi in the C3H mouse strain that has been established as an experimental model for Lyme disease. The peculiar dynamics of the infection exclude two possible mechanistic explanations for the regrowth of the almost cleared bacteria. Neither the hypothesis of bacterial dissemination to different tissue nor a limitation of phagocytic capacity were compatible with experiment. The mathematical model predicts that Borrelia recovers from the strong initial immune response by the regrowth of an immune-resistant sub-population of the bacteria. The chronic phase appears as an equilibration of bacterial growth and adaptive immunity. This result has major implications for the development of the chronic phase of Borrelia infections as well as on potential protective clinical interventions.

  19. Recurrent evolution of host and vector association in bacteria of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Noémie S; Margos, Gabriele; Blum, Helmut; Krebs, Stefan; Graf, Alexander; Lane, Robert S; Castillo-Ramírez, Santiago; Sing, Andreas; Fingerle, Volker

    2016-09-15

    The Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) species complex consists of tick-transmitted bacteria and currently comprises approximately 20 named and proposed genospecies some of which are known to cause Lyme Borreliosis. Species have been defined via genetic distances and ecological niches they occupy. Understanding the evolutionary relationship of species of the complex is fundamental to explaining patterns of speciation. This in turn forms a crucial basis to frame testable hypotheses concerning the underlying processes including host and vector adaptations. Illumina Technology was used to obtain genome-wide sequence data for 93 strains of 14 named genospecies of the B. burgdorferi species complex and genomic data already published for 18 additional strain (including one new species) was added. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on 114 orthologous single copy genes shows that the genospecies represent clearly distinguishable taxa with recent and still ongoing speciation events apparent in Europe and Asia. The position of Borrelia species in the phylogeny is consistent with host associations constituting a major driver for speciation. Interestingly, the data also demonstrate that vector associations are an additional driver for diversification in this tick-borne species complex. This is particularly obvious in B. bavariensis, a rodent adapted species that has diverged from the bird-associated B. garinii most likely in Asia. It now consists of two populations one of which most probably invaded Europe following adaptation to a new vector (Ixodes ricinus) and currently expands its distribution range. The results imply that genotypes/species with novel properties regarding host or vector associations have evolved recurrently during the history of the species complex and may emerge at any time. We suggest that the finding of vector associations as a driver for diversification may be a general pattern for tick-borne pathogens. The core genome analysis presented here

  20. ErpC, a member of the complement regulator-acquiring family of surface proteins from Borrelia burgdorferi, possesses an architecture previously unseen in this protein family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caesar, Joseph J. E.; Johnson, Steven; Kraiczy, Peter; Lea, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    The structure of ErpC, a member of the complement regulator-acquiring surface protein family from B. burgdorferi, has been solved, providing insights into the strategies of complement evasion by this zoonotic bacterium and suggesting a common architecture for other members of this protein family. Borrelia burgdorferi is a spirochete responsible for Lyme disease, the most commonly occurring vector-borne disease in Europe and North America. The bacterium utilizes a set of proteins, termed complement regulator-acquiring surface proteins (CRASPs), to aid evasion of the human complement system by recruiting and presenting complement regulator factor H on its surface in a manner that mimics host cells. Presented here is the atomic resolution structure of a member of this protein family, ErpC. The structure provides new insights into the mechanism of recruitment of factor H and other factor H-related proteins by acting as a molecular mimic of host glycosaminoglycans. It also describes the architecture of other CRASP proteins belonging to the OspE/F-related paralogous protein family and suggests that they have evolved to bind specific complement proteins, aiding survival of the bacterium in different hosts

  1. Daily low-dose/continuous capecitabine combined with neo-adjuvant irradiation reduces VEGF and PDGF-BB levels in rectal carcinoma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loven, David; B e'Ery, Einat; Yerushalmi, Rinat; Koren, Claude; Sulkes, Aaron; Fenig, Eyal; Lavi, Idit; Shaked, Yuval

    2008-01-01

    Metronomic low-dose chemotherapy regimen was found to have an antiangiogenic effect in tumors. However, its effect on levels of circulating pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors is not fully explored. Materials and methods. The levels of both VEGF and PDGF-BB were measured in three time points, in the serum of 32 rectal carcinoma patients receiving daily reduced-dose/continuous capecitabine in combination with preoperative pelvic irradiation. Results. We found a significant decrease in VEGF and PDGF-BB serum levels during the combination treatment (p<0.0001), followed by an increase in the successive rest-period (p<0.0001). In addition, substantial changes in platelets counts were observed during treatment in correlation with the changes of VEGF and PDGF-BB serum levels. Discussion. These results suggest that combined chemo-irradiation affect levels of pro-angiogenic factors during treatment, and may reflect an anti-angiogenic window induced during this treatment. The potential implications of this inducible phenomenon, including a possible clinical benefit from the administration of long lasting metronomic chemotherapy immediately following combined chemo-irradiation, would warrant further investigation

  2. SnoVault and encodeD: A novel object-based storage system and applications to ENCODE metadata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin C Hitz

    Full Text Available The Encyclopedia of DNA elements (ENCODE project is an ongoing collaborative effort to create a comprehensive catalog of functional elements initiated shortly after the completion of the Human Genome Project. The current database exceeds 6500 experiments across more than 450 cell lines and tissues using a wide array of experimental techniques to study the chromatin structure, regulatory and transcriptional landscape of the H. sapiens and M. musculus genomes. All ENCODE experimental data, metadata, and associated computational analyses are submitted to the ENCODE Data Coordination Center (DCC for validation, tracking, storage, unified processing, and distribution to community resources and the scientific community. As the volume of data increases, the identification and organization of experimental details becomes increasingly intricate and demands careful curation. The ENCODE DCC has created a general purpose software system, known as SnoVault, that supports metadata and file submission, a database used for metadata storage, web pages for displaying the metadata and a robust API for querying the metadata. The software is fully open-source, code and installation instructions can be found at: http://github.com/ENCODE-DCC/snovault/ (for the generic database and http://github.com/ENCODE-DCC/encoded/ to store genomic data in the manner of ENCODE. The core database engine, SnoVault (which is completely independent of ENCODE, genomic data, or bioinformatic data has been released as a separate Python package.

  3. Observability of B0 - B vector0 mixing in the e+e- → BB vector X reaction at √s approx. = 15 - 30 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridman, A.; Schwarz, A.

    1985-01-01

    The possibility of observing mixing in the B 0 B vector B 0 system has been rather widely discussed. In particular theoretical estimates have been made for the case of B 0 B vector 0 production in the e + e - → upsilon (4S) → B 0 B vector 0 reaction. Mixing in this specific channel is expected to appear as a small effect and might thus be hardly measurable. Here the authors will therefore consider the e + e - → BB vector X reaction (X meaning anything well above the BB vector threshold where any combination of BB vector mesons (B/sub u/B vector/sub u/, B/sub u/B vector/sub d/, B/sub u/B vector/sub s/, etc.) can be produced. This reaction might be advantageous as mixing is expected to be almost complete for the B/sub s/ mesons. In this respect the study of mixing effects in the e + e - → BB vector X reaction is complementary to that in the e + e - → upsilon (4S) → B/sub d/ 0 B vector /sub e/ 0 process. In Section B.2 the authors recall briefly the parameters used to describe the BB vector mixing and in Section B.3 they give estimates for the mixing effects which could be observed in the e + e - → BB vector X reaction as well as in the upsilon (4S) decays. The authors have also evaluated the influence of a non-spectator component in the B-decay on the observability of the mixing phenomenon. Finally, in Section B.4 they give estimates for the number of signal and background events which could be observed in an e + e - experiment with an accumulated luminosity of 1000 pb -1 . 33 references, 4 figures

  4. Co-stimulation through 4-1BB/CD137 improves the expansion and function of CD8(+ melanoma tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes for adoptive T-cell therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Ann Chacon

    Full Text Available Adoptive T-cell therapy (ACT using tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL can induce tumor regression in up to 50% or more of patients with unresectable metastatic melanoma. However, current methods to expand melanoma TIL, especially the "rapid expansion protocol" (REP were not designed to enhance the generation of optimal effector-memory CD8(+ T cells for infusion. One approach to this problem is to manipulate specific co-stimulatory signaling pathways to enhance CD8(+ effector-memory T-cell expansion. In this study, we determined the effects of activating the TNF-R family member 4-1BB/CD137, specifically induced in activated CD8(+ T cells, on the yield, phenotype, and functional activity of expanded CD8(+ T cells during the REP. We found that CD8(+ TIL up-regulate 4-1BB expression early during the REP after initial TCR stimulation, but neither the PBMC feeder cells in the REP or the activated TIL expressed 4-1BB ligand. However, addition of an exogenous agonistic anti-4-1BB IgG4 (BMS 663513 to the REP significantly enhanced the frequency and total yield of CD8(+ T cells as well as their maintenance of CD28 and increased their anti-tumor CTL activity. Gene expression analysis found an increase in bcl-2 and survivin expression induced by 4-1BB that was associated with an enhanced survival capability of CD8(+ post-REP TIL when re-cultured in the absence or presence of cytokines. Our findings suggest that adding an agonistic anti-4-1BB antibody during the time of TIL REP initiation produces a CD8(+ T cell population capable of improved effector function and survival. This may greatly improve TIL persistence and anti-tumor activity in vivo after adoptive transfer into patients.

  5. Serial measurements of serum PDGF-AA, PDGF-BB, FGF2, and VEGF in multiresistant ovarian cancer patients treated with bevacizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madsen Christine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Anti-VEGF treatment has proven effective in recurrent ovarian cancer. However, the identification of the patients most likely to respond is still pending. It is well known that the angiogenesis is regulated by several other pro-angiogenic proteins, e.g. the platelet - derived growth factor (PDGF system and the fibroblast growth factor (FGF system. These other signaling pathways may remain active or become upregulated during anti-VEGF treatment. The aim of the present study was to investigate if potential changes of PDGF-BB, PDGF-AA, and FGF2 before and during bevacizumab treatment had predictive value for early progression or survival. Furthermore, we wanted to investigate the importance of serum VEGF in the same cohort. Methods This study included 106 patients with chemotherapy-resistant epithelial ovarian cancer who were treated with single agent bevacizumab as part of a biomarker protocol. Patients were evaluated for response by the Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST and/ or Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG CA125 criteria. Serum samples were collected at baseline and prior to each treatment. FGF2, PDGF-BB, PDGF-AA were quantified simultaneously using the Luminex system, and VEGF-A was measured by ELISA. Eighty-eight baseline samples were avaliable for FGF2, PDGF-BB, PDGF-AA analysis, and 93 baseline samples for VEGF. Results High baseline serum VEGF was related to poor overall survival. Furthermore, high serum PDGF-BB and FGF2 was of prognostic significance. None of the markers showed predictive value, neither at baseline level nor during the treatment.

  6. Matched predictions for the bb̄H cross section at the 13 TeV LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonvini, Marco; Papanastasiou, Andrew S.; Tackmann, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    We present up-to-date matched predictions for the bb̄H inclusive cross section at the LHC at √s=13 TeV. Using a previously developed method, our predictions consistently combine the complete NLO contributions that are present in the 4-flavor scheme calculation, including finite b-quark mass effects as well as top-loop induced Y_bY_t interference contributions, with the resummation of collinear logarithms of m_b/m_H as present in the 5-flavor scheme calculation up to NNLO. We provide a detailed estimate of the perturbative uncertainties of the matched result by examining its dependence on the factorization and renormalization scales, the scale of the Yukawa coupling, and also the low b-quark matching scale in the PDFs. We motivate the use of a central renormalization scale of m_H/2, which is halfway between the values typically chosen in the 4-flavor and 5-flavor scheme calculations. We evaluate the parametric uncertainties due to the PDFs and the b-quark mass, and in particular discuss how to systematically disentangle the parametric m_b dependence and the unphysical b-quark matching scale dependence. Our best prediction for the bb̄H production cross section in the Standard Model at 13 TeV and for m_H=125 GeV is σ(bb̄H)=0.52 pb [1±9.6%(perturbative) _−_3_._6_%"+"2"."9"%(parametric)]. We also provide predictions for a range of Higgs masses m_H∈[50,750] GeV. Our method to compute the matched prediction and to evaluate its uncertainty can be readily applied to other heavy-quark-initiated processes at the LHC.

  7. Growth and adhesion to HT-29 cells inhibition of Gram-negatives by Bifidobacterium longum BB536 e Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 alone and in combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inturri, R; Stivala, A; Furneri, P M; Blandino, G

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to test the inhibitory effect of supernatants of broth cultures of Bifidobacterium longum BB536 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001, both individually and in combination, against Gram-negative strains (uropathogens, enteropathogens and a reference strain). Moreover, in vitro protection of B. longum BB536 and L. rhamnosus HN001, both individually and in combination, against pathogen adhesion to HT-29 cell line, was investigated. The inhibitory activity was performed by the agar diffusion test and in vitro antagonistic activity against pathogen adhesion to human epithelial intestinal HT-29 cells was performed using standardized culture techniques. The study showed that B. longum BB536 and L. rhamnosus HN001, individually and in combination have inhibitory activity against the majority of the Gram negative strains tested. Furthermore, the results showed that both probiotic strains have a good capacity to inhibit pathogenic adhesion to HT-29 cells. Moreover, the ability of B. longum BB536 and L. rhamnosus HN001 to inhibit pathogenic adhesion increased when they were used in combination. The combination of B. longum BB536 and L. rhamnosus HN001 showed inhibitory activity against Gram-negatives and an improved ability to reduce their adhesion properties and to compete with them. The simultaneous presence of the two-probiotic strains could promote competitive mechanisms able to reduce the adhesion properties of pathogen strains and have an important ecological role within the highly competitive environment of the human gut.

  8. Effect of PDGF-BB and beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) on bone formation around dental implants: a pilot study in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Tina; Marino, Victor; Bartold, P Mark

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this investigation was to examine the effect of a combination of purified recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor (rhPDGF-BB) mixed with a synthetic beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) on bone healing around dental implants with critical size circumferential defects. Three critical size circumferential defects were prepared in the ilium of six sheep. Three dental implants were placed into the centre of each defect and the 3.25 mm circumferential gap was filled with (a) blood clot alone; (b) β-TCP; (c) rhPDGF-BB (0.3 mg/ml) with β-TCP. All the defects in each group were covered with a Bio-Gide(®) resorbable barrier membrane. The sheep were sacrificed at 2 and 4 weeks and histological and histomorphometric analyses were performed to determine the percentage of new mineralized bone formation and residual β-TCP graft particles in the defects. Defects filled with rhPDGF-BB/β-TCP showed the highest rate of bone formation after 2 and 4 weeks with limited degradation of the β-TCP particles over 4 weeks. Defects filled with β-TCP showed the least bone fill after 2 and 4 weeks, and faster degradation of the β-TCP particles over 4 weeks compared with defects filled with rhPDGF-BB/β-TCP. Percentage of new mineralized bone was comparable in defects to blood clot alone and β-TCP after 4 weeks of healing, but there was a collapse in the defect area in defects with blood clot alone. In comparison, the space was maintained when β-TCP was used in defects at 4 weeks. Defects which had β-TCP alone showed an inhibition in bone healing at 2 and 4 weeks; however, the combination of rhPDGF-BB with β-TCP enhanced bone regeneration in these peri-implant bone defects at the same time intervals. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Mating Success, Longevity, and Fertility of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Chrysomelidae: Coleoptera in Relation to Body Size and Cry3Bb1-Resistant and Cry3Bb1-Susceptible Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Wade French

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Insect resistance to population control methodologies is a widespread problem. The development of effective resistance management programs is often dependent on detailed knowledge regarding the biology of individual species and changes in that biology associated with resistance evolution. This study examined the reproductive behavior and biology of western corn rootworm beetles of known body size from lines resistant and susceptible to the Cry3Bb1 protein toxin expressed in transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis maize. In crosses between, and within, the resistant and susceptible genotypes, no differences occurred in mating frequency, copulation duration, courtship duration, or fertility; however, females mated with resistant males showed reduced longevity. Body size did not vary with genotype. Larger males and females were not more likely to mate than smaller males and females, but larger females laid more eggs. Moderately strong, positive correlation occurred between the body sizes of successfully mated males and females; however, weak correlation also existed for pairs that did not mate. Our study provided only limited evidence for fitness costs associated with the Cry3Bb1-resistant genotype that might reduce the persistence in populations of the resistant genotype but provided additional evidence for size-based, assortative mating, which could favor the persistence of resistant genotypes affecting body size.

  10. Methane and Trichloroethylene Oxidation by an Estuarine Methanotroph, Methylobacter sp. Strain BB5.1

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Kelly S.; Costello, Andria M.; Lidstrom, Mary E.

    1998-01-01

    An estuarine methanotroph was isolated from sediment enrichments and designated Methylobacter sp. strain BB5.1. In cells grown on medium with added copper, oxidation of methane and trichloroethylene occurred with similar Ks values, but the Vmax for trichloroethylene oxidation was only 0.1% of the methane oxidation Vmax. Cells grown on low-copper medium did not oxidize trichloroethylene and showed a variable rate of methane oxidation.

  11. Granuloma Annulare and Morphea: Correlation with Borrelia burgdorferi Infections and Chlamydia-related Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauri Tolkki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study of 109 skin biopsies with granuloma annulare (GA or morphea histology from patients with suspected tick bite was performed. Biopsies were tested for cutaneous Borrelia burgdorferi DNA using PCR. The same biopsies were analysed for tick-borne novel agents, Chlamydia-related bacteria (members of the Chlamydiales order, using a PCR-based method. Borrelia DNA was detected in 7/73 (9.6% biopsies with GA and in 1/36 (2.8 % biopsies with morphea, while Chlamydiales DNA was found in 53/73 (72.6% biopsies with GA and 25/34 (73.4% biopsies with morphea. All Borrelia DNA-positive GA samples were also positive for Chlamydiales DNA. The Chlamydiales sequences detected in GA were heterogeneous and contained Waddliaceae and Rhabdochlamydiaceae bacteria, which are also present in Ixodes ricinus ticks, while the Chlamydiales sequences detected in morphea closely resembled those found in healthy skin. In conclusion, tick-mediated infections can trigger GA in some cases, while correlation of either Borrelia or Chlamydiales with morphea is unlikely.

  12. Human Neonatal Rotavirus Vaccine (RV3-BB) to Target Rotavirus from Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bines, Julie E; At Thobari, Jarir; Satria, Cahya Dewi; Handley, Amanda; Watts, Emma; Cowley, Daniel; Nirwati, Hera; Ackland, James; Standish, Jane; Justice, Frances; Byars, Gabrielle; Lee, Katherine J; Barnes, Graeme L; Bachtiar, Novilia S; Viska Icanervilia, Ajeng; Boniface, Karen; Bogdanovic-Sakran, Nada; Pavlic, Daniel; Bishop, Ruth F; Kirkwood, Carl D; Buttery, Jim P; Soenarto, Yati

    2018-02-22

    A strategy of administering a neonatal rotavirus vaccine at birth to target early prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis may address some of the barriers to global implementation of a rotavirus vaccine. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Indonesia to evaluate the efficacy of an oral human neonatal rotavirus vaccine (RV3-BB) in preventing rotavirus gastroenteritis. Healthy newborns received three doses of RV3-BB, administered according to a neonatal schedule (0 to 5 days, 8 weeks, and 14 weeks of age) or an infant schedule (8 weeks, 14 weeks, and 18 weeks of age), or placebo. The primary analysis was conducted in the per-protocol population, which included only participants who received all four doses of vaccine or placebo within the visit windows, with secondary analyses performed in the intention-to-treat population, which included all participants who underwent randomization. Among the 1513 participants in the per-protocol population, severe rotavirus gastroenteritis occurred up to the age of 18 months in 5.6% of the participants in the placebo group (28 of 504 babies), in 1.4% in the neonatal-schedule vaccine group (7 of 498), and in 2.7% in the infant-schedule vaccine group (14 of 511). This resulted in a vaccine efficacy of 75% (95% confidence interval [CI], 44 to 91) in the neonatal-schedule group (PBill and Melinda Gates Foundation and others; Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number, ACTRN12612001282875 .).

  13. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in ticks removed from skin of people and circumstances of being bitten – research from the area of Poland, 2012–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Gałęziowska

    2018-03-01

    Infestation of ticks infected with Lyme disease spirochete in this study proved to be variable and depend on the season, the area of tick attack and the region in Poland. The results of the study clearly show that ticks infected with Borrelia burgdorferi inhabit all regions of Poland. The results are consistent with National Institute of Hygiene data which indicates that Lyme disease cases are recorded in all regions of Poland.

  14. Lack of IgG antibody seropositivity to Borrelia burgdorferi in patients with Parry-Romberg syndrome and linear morphea en coup de sabre in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Gómez, Claudia; Godínez-Hana, Ana L; García-Hernández, Marisela; Suárez-Roa, María de Lourdes; Toussaint-Caire, Sonia; Vega-Memije, Elisa; Gutiérrez-Mendoza, Daniela; Pérez-Dosal, Marcia; Medina-De la Garza, Carlos E

    2014-08-01

    Progressive hemifacial atrophy or Parry-Romberg Syndrome (PRS) is a rare, acquired, progressive dysplasia of subcutaneous tissue and bone characterized by unilateral facial involvement. Its etiology is unknown, but theories about its pathogenesis include infectious, degenerative, autoimmune, and traumatic causes among others. The causal relationship of PRS and linear morphea en coup de sabre (LMCS) with Borrelia burgdorferi infection remains controversial. Our goal was to serologically determine anti-B. burgdorferi antibodies in patients diagnosed with PRS and LMCS to establish a possible association as a causative agent. We conducted a serology study with patients belonging to a group of 21 individuals diagnosed with PRS, six with LMCS, and 21 matched controls. Anti-Borrelia IgG antibodies were determined by ELISA. A descriptive statistical analysis and Fischer's exact test were done. In serological tests, only two cases had borderline values and were further analyzed by Western blot with non-confirmatory results. For both the PRS and LMCS group, the association test was not significant, suggesting a lack of association between PRS or LMCS and the presence of anti-Borrelia antibodies. In Mexico there are no previous studies on Borrelia infection and its relationship between PRS or LMCS. Our result showed a lack of association of either clinical entities with anti-Borrelia-antibodies. Former reports of this association may suggest coincidental findings without causal relationship. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  15. Search for W→cs-bar, Z→cc-bar,bb-bar in muon-jet events at the CERN proton-antiproton collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ransdell, J.

    1988-01-01

    A search for quark decays of the W and Z particles produced in proton-antiproton collisions at √s of 630 GeV in the UA1 experiment at the CERN collider is described. The search was made in the channels W→cs-bar, Z→cc-bar,bb-bar where b and c quarks were identified by the presence of a high-p/sub T/ muon in or near a jet. Although these decay channels avoid the copious background of QCD produced light quark and gluon jets, it was not possible to detect a W or Z signal because of the large cross section for strong cc-bar and bb-bar production

  16. Predictive value of Borrelia burgdorferi IgG antibody levels in patients referred to a tertiary Lyme centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwerink, M; Zomer, T P; van Kooten, B; Blaauw, G; van Bemmel, T; van Hees, B C; Vermeeren, Y M; Landman, G W

    2018-03-01

    A two-step testing strategy is recommended in serological testing for Lyme borreliosis; positive and indeterminate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) results are confirmed with immunoblots. Several ELISAs quantify the concentration of antibodies tested, however, no recommendation exists for an upper cut-off value at which an IgG ELISA is sufficient and the immunoblot can be omitted. The study objective was to determine at which IgG antibody level an immunoblot does not have any additional predictive value compared to ELISA results. Data of adult patients who visited a tertiary Lyme centre between 2008 and 2014 were analysed. Both an ELISA (Enzygnost Lyme link VlsE IgG) and immunoblot (recomLine blot Borrelia) were performed. Clinical data were extracted from the patient's digital medical record. Positive predictive values (PPVs) for either previous or active infection with Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. were calculated for different cut-off ELISA IgG antibody levels where the immunoblot was regarded as reference test. In total, 1454 patients were included. According to the two-step test strategy, 486 (33%), 69 (5%) and 899 (62%) patients had positive, indeterminate and negative Borrelia IgG serology, respectively. At IgG levels of 500 IU/ml and higher, all immunoblots were positive, resulting in a 100% PPV (95% CI: 97.0-100). At IgG levels of 200 IU/ml and higher, the PPV was 99.3% (95% CI: 97.4-99.8). In conclusion, at IgG levels of 200 IU/ml and higher, an ELISA was sufficient to detect antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. At those IgG levels, a confirmatory immunoblot may be omitted in patients referred to a tertiary Lyme centre. Before these results can be implemented in routine diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis, confirmation of the results is necessary in other patient populations and using other quantitative ELISAs and immunoblots. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of genetically modified maize expressing Cry 3Bb1 on some non-target arthropods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hussein, Hany; Svobodová, Zdeňka; Habuštová, Oxana; Půža, Vladimír; Sehnal, František

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 10 (2012), s. 5124-5131 ISSN 1819-544X R&D Projects: GA MZe QH91093 Grant - others:projekt MOBITAG(CZ) REGPOT-2008-1, GA 229518 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : MON 88017 * Cry3Bb1 * non-target organisms Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection http://www.aensiweb.com/jasr/jasr/2012/5124-5131.pdf

  18. Categorization of the processes contributing to ttH(H→bb) using deep neural networks with the CMS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rath, Yannik; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Benjamin; Fischer, Robert; Heidemann, Fabian; Quast, Thorben; Rieger, Marcel [III. Physikalisches Institut A, RWTH Aachen University (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In ttH(H→bb) analyses, event categorization is introduced to simultaneously constrain signal and background processes. A common procedure is to categorize events according to both their jet and b-tag multiplicities. The separation power of this approach is limited by the b-tagging efficiency. Especially ttH(H→bb) events with their high b-tag multiplicities suffer from migrations to background categories. In this presentation, we explore deep neural networks (DNNs) as a method of categorizing events according to their jet multiplicity and a DNN event class hypothesis. DNNs have the advantage of being able to learn discriminating features from low level variables, e.g. kinematic properties, and are naturally suited for multiclass classification problems. We compare the ttH signal separation achieved with the DNN method with that of a common categorization approach.

  19. Decays of Higgs bosons to bb-bar, ττ-bar, and cc-bar as signatures of supersymmetry and CP phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Tarek; Nath, Pran

    2003-01-01

    The branching ratio of the lightest Higgs boson decay into bb(bar sign), ττ-bar and cc-bar is sensitive to supersymmetric effects. We include in this work the effects of CP phases on the Higgs boson decays. Specifically we compute the deviation of the CP phase dependent branching ratio from the standard model result. The analysis includes the full one loop corrections of fermion masses including CP phases involving the gluino, the chargino and the neutralino exchanges. The analysis shows that the supersymmetric effects with CP phases can change the branching ratios by as much as 100% for the lightest Higgs boson decay into bb(bar sign) and ττ-bar with similar results holding for the heavier Higgs boson decays. A detailed analysis is also given for the effects of CP phases on the Higgs boson decays into cc-bar. The deviations of R b/τ and R b/c from the standard model result are investigated as a possible signature of supersymmetry and CP effects. Thus a measurement of the decays of the Higgs boson into bb-bar, ττ-bar and cc-bar may provide important clues regarding the existence of supersymmetry and CP phases

  20. Combined Transcriptome and Proteome Analysis of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 Grown on Xylo-Oligosaccharides and a Model of Their Utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilad, Ofir; Jacobsen, Susanne; Stuer-Lauridsen, B.

    2010-01-01

    -documented and widely used probiotic strain B. animalis subsp. lactis BB-12, a combined proteomic and transcriptomic approach was applied, involving DNA microarrays, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), and two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) analyses of samples obtained from cultures grown on either...... of these (beta-D-xylosidase, sugar-binding protein, and xylose isomerase) showed higher abundance on XOS. Based on the obtained results, a model for the catabolism of XOS in BB-12 is suggested, according to which the strain utilizes an ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transport system (probably for oligosaccharides...

  1. Human neutrophil peptides and complement factor Bb in pathogenesis of acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenjing; Pham, Huy P; Williams, Lance A; McDaniel, Jenny; Siniard, Rance C; Lorenz, Robin G; Marques, Marisa B; Zheng, X Long

    2016-11-01

    Acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura is primarily caused by the deficiency of plasma ADAMTS13 activity resulting from autoantibodies against ADAMTS13. However, ADAMTS13 deficiency alone is often not sufficient to cause acute thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Infections or systemic inflammation may precede acute bursts of the disease, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Herein, 52 patients with acquired autoimmune thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and 30 blood donor controls were recruited for the study. The plasma levels of human neutrophil peptides 1-3 and complement activation fragments (i.e. Bb, iC3b, C4d, and sC5b-9) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Univariate analyses were performed to determine the correlation between each biomarker and clinical outcomes. We found that the plasma levels of human neutrophil peptides 1-3 and Bb in patients with acute thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura were significantly higher than those in the control (Ppurpura patients and the control. We conclude that innate immunity, i.e. neutrophil and complement activation via the alternative pathway, may play a role in the pathogenesis of acute autoimmune thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, and a therapy targeted at these pathways may be considered in a subset of these patients. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  2. Pretreatment with platelet derived growth factor-BB modulates the ability of costochondral resting zone chondrocytes incorporated into PLA/PGA scaffolds to form new cartilage in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, C H; Schwartz, Z; Niederauer, G G; Carnes, D L; Dean, D D; Boyan, B D

    2000-01-01

    Optimal repair of chondral defects is likely to require both a suitable population of chondrogenic cells and a biodegradable matrix to provide a space-filling structural support during the early stages of cartilage formation. This study examined the ability of chondrocytes to support cartilage formation when incorporated into biodegradable scaffolds constructed from copolymers (PLG) of polylactic acid (PLA) and polyglycolic acid (PGA) and implanted in the calf muscle of nude mice. Scaffolds were fabricated to be more hydrophilic (PLG-H) or were reinforced with 10% PGA fibers (PLG-FR), increasing the stiffness of the implant by 20-fold. Confluent primary cultures of rat costochondral resting zone chondrocytes (RC) were loaded into PLG-H foams and implanted intramuscularly. To determine if growth factor pretreatment could modulate the ability of the cells to form new cartilage, RC cells were pretreated with recombinant human platelet derived growth factor-BB IPDGF-BB) for 4 or 24 h prior to implantation. To assess whether scaffold material properties could affect the ability of chondrogenic cells to form cartilage, RC cells were also loaded into PLG-FR scaffolds. To determine if the scaffolds or treatment with PDGF-BB affected the rate of chondrogenesis, tissue at the implant site was harvested at four and eight weeks post-operatively, fixed, decalcified and embedded in paraffin. Sections were obtained along the transverse plane of the lower leg, stained with haematoxylin and eosin, and then assessed by morphometric analysis for area of cartilage, area of residual implant, and area of fibrous connective tissue formation (fibrosis). Whether or not the cartilage contained hypertrophic cells was also assessed. The amount of residual implant did not change with time in any of the implanted tissues. The area occupied by PLG-FR implants was greater than that occupied by PLG-H implants at both time points. All implants were surrounded by fibrous connective tissue, whether

  3. Pleomorphism and Viability of the Lyme Disease Pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi Exposed to Physiological Stress Conditions: A Correlative Cryo-Fluorescence and Cryo-Scanning Electron Microscopy Study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vancová, Marie; Rudenko, Natalia; Vaněček, Jiří; Golovchenko, Maryna; Strnad, Martin; Rego, Ryan O. M.; Tichá, Lucie; Grubhoffer, Libor; Nebesářová, Jana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, 11 April (2017), č. článku 596. ISSN 1664-302X R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020118; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015062 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278976 - ANTIGONE Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : cryo-fluorescence * cryo-scanning electron microscopy * Borrelia burgdorferi * Lyme disease * round body * pleomorphism * viability staining Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: 2.11 Other engineering and technologies Impact factor: 4.076, year: 2016

  4. Expression of platelet-derived growth factor BB, erythropoietin and erythropoietin receptor in canine and feline osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, F R L; Steinborn, R; Grausgruber, H; Wolfesberger, B; Walter, I

    2015-10-01

    The discovery of expression of the erythropoietin receptor (EPO-R) on neoplastic cells has led to concerns about the safety of treating anaemic cancer patients with EPO. In addition to its endocrine function, the receptor may play a role in tumour progression through an autocrine mechanism. In this study, the expression of EPO, EPO-R and platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) was analysed in five feline and 13 canine osteosarcomas using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). EPO expression was positive in all tumours by IHC, but EPO mRNA was only detected in 38% of the canine and 40% of the feline samples. EPO-R was expressed in all samples by quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) and IHC. EPO-R mRNA was expressed at higher levels in all feline tumours, tumour cell lines, and kidney when compared to canine tissues. PDGF-BB expression was variable by IHC, but mRNA was detected in all samples. To assess the functionality of the EPO-R on tumour cells, the proliferation of canine and feline osteosarcoma cell lines was evaluated after EPO administration using an alamarBlue assay and Ki67 immunostaining. All primary cell lines responded to EPO treatment in at least one of the performed assays, but the effect on proliferation was very low indicating only a weak responsiveness of EPO-R. In conclusion, since EPO and its receptor are expressed by canine and feline osteosarcomas, an autocrine or paracrine tumour progression mechanism cannot be excluded, although in vitro data suggest a minimal role of EPO-R in osteosarcoma cell proliferation. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Proliferation and mitogenic response to PDGF-BB of fibroblasts isolated from chronic venous leg ulcers is ulcer-age dependent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agren, M S; Steenfos, H H; Dabelsteen, S

    1999-01-01

    Several pathophysiologic mechanisms have been proposed to explain slow-healing leg ulcers, but little is known about the growth behavior of cells in these wounds. Platelet-derived growth factor-BB applied topically to chronic wounds has shown beneficial effects, although the effects have been less...... pronounced than would have been expected based on studies on acute wounds. The objective of this study was to compare fibroblasts in culture obtained from chronic wounds (non-healing chronic venous leg ulcers), acute wounds and normal dermis regarding growth, mitogenic response to platelet-derived growth...... chronic wounds have approached or even reached the end of their lifespan (phase III). This might provide one explanation for the non-healing state and therapy resistance to topical platelet-derived growth factor-BB of some venous leg ulcers....

  6. rhPDGF-BB promotes early healing in a rat rotator cuff repair model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacevic, David; Gulotta, Lawrence V; Ying, Liang; Ehteshami, John R; Deng, Xiang-Hua; Rodeo, Scott A

    2015-05-01

    Tendon-bone healing after rotator cuff repair occurs by fibrovascular scar tissue formation, which is weaker than a normal tendon-bone insertion site. Growth factors play a role in tissue formation and have the potential to augment soft tissue healing in the perioperative period. Our study aim was to determine if rhPDGF-BB delivery on a collagen scaffold can improve tendon-to-bone healing after supraspinatus tendon repair compared with no growth factor in rats as measured by (1) gross observations; (2) histologic analysis; and (3) biomechanical testing. Ninety-five male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent acute repair of the supraspinatus tendon. Rats were randomized into one of five groups: control (ie, repair only), scaffold only, and three different platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) doses on the collagen scaffold. Animals were euthanized 5 days after surgery to assess cellular proliferation and angiogenesis. The remaining animals were analyzed at 4 weeks to assess repair site integrity by gross visualization, fibrocartilage formation with safranin-O staining, and collagen fiber organization with picrosirius red staining, and to determine the biomechanical properties (ie, load-to-failure testing) of the supraspinatus tendon-bone construct. The repaired supraspinatus tendon was in continuity with the bone in all animals. At 5 days, rhPDGF-BB delivery on a scaffold demonstrated a dose-dependent response in cellular proliferation and angiogenesis compared with the control and scaffold groups. At 28 days, with the numbers available, rhPDGF-BB had no effect on increasing fibrocartilage formation or improving collagen fiber maturity at the tendon-bone insertion site compared with controls. The control group had higher tensile loads to failure and stiffness (35.5 ± 8.8 N and 20.3 ± 4.5 N/mm) than all the groups receiving the scaffold, including the PDGF groups (scaffold: 27 ± 6.4 N, p = 0.021 and 13 ± 5.7 N/mm, p = 0.01; 30 µg/mL PDGF: 26.5 ± 7.5 N, p = 0.014 and 13

  7. ERP Correlates of Encoding Success and Encoding Selectivity in Attention Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Long-term memory encoding depends critically on effective processing of incoming information. The degree to which participants engage in effective encoding can be indexed in electroencephalographic (EEG) data by studying event-related potential (ERP) subsequent memory effects. The current study investigated ERP correlates of memory success operationalised with two different measures—memory selectivity and global memory—to assess whether previously observed ERP subsequent memory effects reflect focused encoding of task-relevant information (memory selectivity), general encoding success (global memory), or both. Building on previous work, the present study combined an attention switching paradigm—in which participants were presented with compound object-word stimuli and switched between attending to the object or the word across trials—with a later recognition memory test for those stimuli, while recording their EEG. Our results provided clear evidence that subsequent memory effects resulted from selective attentional focusing and effective top-down control (memory selectivity) in contrast to more general encoding success effects (global memory). Further analyses addressed the question of whether successful encoding depended on similar control mechanisms to those involved in attention switching. Interestingly, differences in the ERP correlates of attention switching and successful encoding, particularly during the poststimulus period, indicated that variability in encoding success occurred independently of prestimulus demands for top-down cognitive control. These results suggest that while effects of selective attention and selective encoding co-occur behaviourally their ERP correlates are at least partly dissociable. PMID:27907075

  8. Search for Higgs boson production via weak boson fusion and decaying to bb¯in association with a high-energy photon using the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Zhijun; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    A search for the bb¯ decay of the Standard Model Higgs boson produced through vector boson fusion in association with a high transverse energy (ET) photon has been conducted with the ATLAS detector. The high-ET photon provides a distinct signature for both triggering and reducing the large QCD jet background present in the inclusive bb¯jj signature. The talk will focus on new trigger strategy implemented in 2016 data taking to target the specific final state as well as the implementation of the multivariate strategy for the signal extraction. This analysis has been combined with a complementary analysis in the more inclusive bb¯jj final state, which results in a significant improvement in the sensitivity. Results with pp collision data collected in 2015 and 2016 at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV are presented.

  9. In vivo binding of the Cry11Bb toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. medellin to the midgut of mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Lina María

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. medellin produces numerous proteins among which 94 kDa known as Cry11Bb, has mosquitocidal activity. The mode of action of the Cry11 proteins has been described as similar to those of the Cry1 toxins, nevertheless, the mechanism of action is still not clear. In this study we investigated the in vivo binding of the Cry11Bb toxin to the midgut of the insect species Anopheles albimanus, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus by immunohistochemical analysis. Spodoptera frugiperda was included as negative control. The Cry11Bb protein was detected on the apical microvilli of the midgut epithelial cells, mostly on the posterior midgut and gastric caeca of the three mosquito species. Additionally, the toxin was detected in the Malpighian tubules of An. albimanus, Ae. aegypti, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and in the basal membrane of the epithelial cells of Ae. aegypti midgut. No toxin accumulation was observed in the peritrophic membrane of any of the mosquito species studied. These results confirm that the primary site of action of the Cry11 toxins is the apical membrane of the midgut epithelial cells of mosquito larvae.

  10. Assessment of fitness costs in Cry3Bb1 resistant and susceptible western corn rootworm (Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae) laboratory colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize production in the United States is dominated by plants genetically modified with transgenes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Varieties of Bt maize expressing Cry3Bb endotoxins that specifically target corn rootworms (genus Diabrotica) have proven highly efficacious. Howeve...

  11. Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer Spectroscopy of the Nova-Like Cataclysmic Variable BB Doradus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-27

    which we have best-fit models in the parameter space, we use the infrared magnitudes J, H, and K from the Two Micron All Sky Survey ( 2MASS ) to assess the...in a high state with a visual red magnitude R ¼ 14:60 and a blue magnitude B ¼ 13:90 (whereas B 16:5 in the low state). The 2MASS IR apparent...therefore certainly larger than 300 pc, and most likely in the range of 500 pc. Since BB Dor was observed in a high state (with 2MASS ), it is likely

  12. Lexipafant (BB-882), a platelet activating factor receptor antagonist, ameliorates mucosal inflammation in an animal model of colitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meenan, J.; Grool, T. A.; Hommes, D. W.; Dijkhuizen, S.; ten Kate, F. J.; Wood, M.; Whittaker, M.; Tytgat, G. N.; van Deventer, S. J.

    1996-01-01

    To assess the anti-inflammatory action of lexipafant (BB-882), a platelet activating factor antagonist, in an animal model of acute colitis. An animal intervention study. Following the rectal instillation of formalin 0.75% into male New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits, 0.85 ml of aggregated

  13. Hyaluronic acid/Chitosan nanoparticles as delivery vehicles for VEGF and PDGF-BB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajó, Yolanda; D'Angelo, Ivana; Welle, Alexander; Garcia-Fuentes, Marcos; Alonso, María José

    2010-11-01

    The development of a vascular network in tissue-engineered constructs is a fundamental bottleneck of bioregenerative medicine, particularly when the size of the implant exceeds a certain limit given by diffusion lengths and/or if the host tissue shows a very active metabolism. One of the approaches to achieve the vascularization of tissue constructs is generating a sustained release of proangiogenic factors from the ischemic site. This work describes the formation and characterization of hyaluronic acid-chitosan (HA/CS) nanoparticles for the delivery of two pro-angiogenic growth factors: vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet derived growth factor (PDGF-BB). These nanoparticles were prepared by an ionic gelification technique, and different formulations were developed by encapsulating the growth factors in association with two stabilizing agents: bovine serum albumin or heparin sodium salt. These carriers were characterized with regard to their physicochemical properties, their stability in biological media, and their cytotoxicity in the C3a hepatoma cell line. The results show that nanoparticles around 200 nm can be prepared by this method. HA/CS nanoparticles were stable when incubated in EMEM cell culture medium or in water at 37°C for 24 h. Cell culture tests confirmed that HA/CS nanoparticles are not cytotoxic within the concentration range used for growth factor delivery. Moreover, HA/CS nanoparticles were able to entrap efficiently both growth factors, reaching association values of 94% and 54% for VEGF and PDGF, respectively. In vitro release studies confirm that PDGF-BB is released from HA/CS nanoparticles in a sustained manner over approximately 1 week. On the other hand, VEGF is completely released within the first 24 h.

  14. Analysis of nanomechanical properties of Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes under the influence of lytic factors in an in vitro model using atomic force microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Tokarska-Rodak

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atomic force microscopy (AFM is an experimental technique which recently has been used in biology, microbiology, and medicine to investigate the topography of surfaces and in the evaluation of mechanical properties of cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the complement system and specific anti-Borrelia antibodies in in vitro conditions on the modification of nanomechanical features of B. burgdorferi B31 cells. Material and methods: In order to assess the influence of the complement system and anti-Borrelia antibodies on B. burgdorferi s.s. B31 spirochetes, the bacteria were incubated together with plasma of identified status. The samples were applied on the surface of mica disks. Young’s modulus and adhesive forces were analyzed with a NanoScope V, MultiMode 8 AFM microscope (Bruker by the PeakForce QNM technique in air using NanoScope Analysis 1.40 software (Bruker.Results/Conclusion: The average value of flexibility of spirochetes’ surface expressed by Young’s modulus was 10185.32 MPa, whereas the adhesion force was 3.68 nN. AFM is a modern tool with a broad spectrum of observational and measurement abilities. Young’s modulus and the adhesion force can be treated as parameters in the evaluation of intensity and changes which take place in pathogenic microorganisms under the influence of various lytic factors. The visualization of the changes in association with nanomechanical features provides a realistic portrayal of the lytic abilities of the elements of the innate and adaptive human immune system.

  15. Magnetic Properties of New Triangular Lattice Magnets A${_4}$B'B${_2}$O$_{12}$

    OpenAIRE

    Rawl, Ryan; Lee, Minseong; Choi, Eun Sang; Li, Guang; Chen, Kuan-Wen; Baumbach, Ryan; Cruz, Clarina R. dela; Ma, Jie; Zhou, Haidong

    2017-01-01

    The geometrically frustrated two dimensional triangular lattice magnets A${_4}$B'B${_2}$O$_{12}$ (A = Ba, Sr, La; B' = Co, Ni, Mn; B = W, Re) have been studied by x-ray diffraction, AC and DC susceptibilities, powder neutron diffraction, and specific heat measurements. The results reveal that (i) the samples containing Co$^{2+}$ (effective spin-1/2) and Ni$^{2+}$ (spin-1) ions with small spin numbers exhibit ferromagnetic (FM) ordering while the sample containing Mn$^{2+}$ (spin-5/2) ions wit...

  16. Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Bifidobacterium longum BB536 on the healthy gut microbiota composition at phyla and species level: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Marco; De Grandi, Roberta; Stronati, Laura; De Vecchi, Elena; Drago, Lorenzo

    2017-04-21

    To evaluate the ability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Bifidobacterium longum BB536 to colonize the intestinal environment of healthy subjects and modify the gut microbiota composition. Twenty healthy Italian volunteers, eight males and twelve females, participated in the study. Ten subjects took a sachet containing 4 × 10 9 colony-forming units (CFU) of Bifidobacterium longum BB536 and 10 9 CFU of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001, 30 min before breakfast (pre-prandial administration), while ten subjects took a sachet of probiotic product 30 min after breakfast (post-prandial administration). The ability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Bifidobacterium longum BB536 to colonize human gut microbiota was assessed by means of quantitative real-time PCR, while changes in gut microbiota composition were detected by using Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine. Immediately after 1-mo of probiotic administration, B. longum BB536 and L. rhamnosus HN001 load was increased in the majority of subjects in both pre-prandial and post-prandial groups. This increase was found also 1 mo after the end of probiotic oral intake in both groups, if compared to samples collected before probiotic consumption. At phyla level a significant decrease in Firmicutes abundance was detected immediately after 1-mo of B. longum BB536 and L. rhamnosus HN001 oral intake. This reduction persisted up to 1 mo after the end of probiotic oral intake together with a significant decrease of Proteobacteria abundance if compared to samples collected before probiotic administration. Whereas, at species level, a higher abundance of Blautia producta , Blautia wexlerae and Haemophilus ducrey was observed, together with a reduction of Holdemania filiformis , Escherichia vulneris , Gemmiger formicilis and Streptococcus sinensis abundance. In addition, during follow-up period we observed a further reduction in Escherichia vulneris and Gemmiger formicilis , together with a decrease in Roseburia faecis and

  17. Displacement encoder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesketh, T.G.

    1983-01-01

    In an optical encoder, light from an optical fibre input A is encoded by means of the encoding disc and is subsequently collected for transmission via optical fibre B. At some point in the optical path between the fibres A and B, the light is separated into component form by means of a filtering or dispersive system and each colour component is associated with a respective one of the coding channels of the disc. In this way, the significance of each bit of the coded information is represented by a respective colour thereby enabling the components to be re-combined for transmission by the fibre B without loss of information. (author)

  18. Search for the Higgs boson in the tt-bar H(H→bb-bar) channel and the identification of jets containing 2 B hadrons with the ATLAS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ticse Torres, R.E.

    2016-01-01

    In July 2012, CERN announced the discovery of the Higgs boson, the last missing piece of the Standard Model (SM). The Higgs boson has been observed coupling directly to W and Z bosons and tau leptons, and indirectly to top quarks. Observing the Higgs boson production in association with a pair of top quarks (tt-bar H) would allow a direct measurement of the top quark Yukawa coupling and provides an important test of the Higgs mechanism within the SM. This thesis presents a search for the Higgs boson in the tt-bar H(H→ bb-bar) channel using proton-proton collisions at √s=13 TeV, collected with the ATLAS detector in 2015 and 2016. The Higgs boson decays to two b quarks and top quark pair decays with one lepton, the tt-bar H → (lνb)(jjb)(bb-bar) single lepton channel, are considered. This document details in particular the contributions made by the author in this search: the full reconstruction of the tt-bar H(H → bb-bar) single lepton system and the final discrimination between signal and the main background, tt-bar+jets. A new method was developed to solve the large combinatorial background by fully reconstructing the tt-bar H(H → bb-bar) final state using a multivariate technique to uniquely associate each reconstructed jets to the initial quarks. A multivariate technique was also used to discriminate between the signal and the main tt-bar+jets background further increasing the sensitivity of the search compared to the Run 1 analysis. Finally, the first result at √s=13 TeV shown. The signal strength (the ratio between the measured and predicted cross sections) is found to be 1.6 ± 1.1. No significant excess of events above the background expectation is found and an observed (expected) limit of 3.6 (2.2) is set at 95% confidence level. The tt-bar bb-bar is one of the main backgrounds for the tt-bar H(bb-bar) search. Recent studies with Monte Carlo events generators show that there is a large fraction of tt-bar bb-bar events with jets containing two b

  19. Immunization with a dicistronic plasmid expressing a truncated form of bovine herpesvirus-1 glycoprotein D and the amino-terminal subunit of glycoprotein B results in reduced gB-specific immune responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoj, Sharmila; Babiuk, Lorne A.; Drunen Littel van-Hurk, Sylvia van den

    2003-01-01

    As an approach to create a divalent DNA vaccine, a truncated secreted version of bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) glycoprotein D (tgD) and the amino-terminal subunit of glycoprotein B (gBb) were expressed from a dicistronic plasmid, designated pSLIAtgD-IRES-gBb. Intradermal immunization of mice with pSLIAtgD-IRES-gBb or a mixture of plasmids encoding tgD (pSLIAtgD) and gBb (pSLIAgBb) by needle injection or gene gun elicited strong tgD-specific immune responses. However, a significant reduction in gBb-specific immune responses was observed upon immunization of mice with pSLIAtgD-IRES-gBb or a mixture of pSLIAtgD and pSLIAgBb in comparison to immunization with pSLIAgBb alone. This reduction in gBb-specific immune responses induced by pSLIAtgD-IRES-gBb was due to production of low amounts of gBb from pSLIAtgD-IRES-gBb, inefficient processing and transport of gBb, and possibly competition for antigen-presenting cells by tgD and gBb. These results indicate that, although divalent plasmids may be used to express different antigens, the efficacy of vaccination with such plasmids may be influenced by the plasmid design and the characteristics of the expressed antigens

  20. Vertical ridge augmentation using an equine bone and collagen block infused with recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB: a randomized single-masked histologic study in non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevins, Myron; Al Hezaimi, Khalid; Schupbach, Peter; Karimbux, Nadeem; Kim, David M

    2012-07-01

    This study tests the effectiveness of hydroxyapatite and collagen bone blocks of equine origin (eHAC), infused with recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB (rhPDGF-BB), to augment localized posterior mandibular defects in non-human primates (Papio hamadryas). Bilateral critical-sized defects simulating severe atrophy were created at the time of the posterior teeth extraction. Test and control blocks (without growth factor) were randomly grafted into the respective sites in each non-human primate. All sites exhibited vertical ridge augmentation, with physiologic hard- and soft-tissue integration of the blocks when clinical and histologic examinations were done at 4 months after the vertical ridge augmentation procedure. There was a clear, although non-significant, tendency to increased regeneration in the test sites. As in the first two preclinical studies in this series using canines, experimental eHAC blocks infused with rhPDGF-BB proved to be a predictable and technically viable method to predictably regenerate bone and soft tissue in critical-sized defects. This investigation supplies additional evidence that eHAC blocks infused with rhPDGF-BB growth factor is a predictable and technically feasible option for vertical augmentation of severely resorbed ridges.

  1. Short-term dietary adjustment with a hydrolyzed casein-based diet postpones diabetes development in the diabetes-prone BB rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J; Brugman, S; Klatter, F; Vis, L; Groen, H; Strubbe, J; Rozing, J

    From earlier studies it appears that weaning associated changes in the animal's physiology and that of the pancreas in particular, render diabetes-prone Bio-Breeding (DP-BB) rats susceptible to the induction and development of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). In this study we tested

  2. The PDGF-BB-SOX7 axis-modulated IL-33 in pericytes and stromal cells promotes metastasis through tumour-associated macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yunlong; Andersson, Patrik; Hosaka, Kayoko

    2016-01-01

    Signalling molecules and pathways that mediate crosstalk between various tumour cellular compartments in cancer metastasis remain largely unknown. We report a mechanism of the interaction between perivascular cells and tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) in promoting metastasis through the IL-33......-ST2-dependent pathway in xenograft mouse models of cancer. IL-33 is the highest upregulated gene through activation of SOX7 transcription factor in PDGF-BB-stimulated pericytes. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments validate that IL-33 promotes metastasis through recruitment of TAMs. Pharmacological...... inhibition of the IL-33-ST2 signalling by a soluble ST2 significantly inhibits TAMs and metastasis. Genetic deletion of host IL-33 in mice also blocks PDGF-BB-induced TAM recruitment and metastasis. These findings shed light on the role of tumour stroma in promoting metastasis and have therapeutic...

  3. Detailed analysis of sequence changes occurring during vlsE antigenic variation in the mouse model of Borrelia burgdorferi infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Coutte

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Lyme disease Borrelia can infect humans and animals for months to years, despite the presence of an active host immune response. The vls antigenic variation system, which expresses the surface-exposed lipoprotein VlsE, plays a major role in B. burgdorferi immune evasion. Gene conversion between vls silent cassettes and the vlsE expression site occurs at high frequency during mammalian infection, resulting in sequence variation in the VlsE product. In this study, we examined vlsE sequence variation in B. burgdorferi B31 during mouse infection by analyzing 1,399 clones isolated from bladder, heart, joint, ear, and skin tissues of mice infected for 4 to 365 days. The median number of codon changes increased progressively in C3H/HeN mice from 4 to 28 days post infection, and no clones retained the parental vlsE sequence at 28 days. In contrast, the decrease in the number of clones with the parental vlsE sequence and the increase in the number of sequence changes occurred more gradually in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID mice. Clones containing a stop codon were isolated, indicating that continuous expression of full-length VlsE is not required for survival in vivo; also, these clones continued to undergo vlsE recombination. Analysis of clones with apparent single recombination events indicated that recombinations into vlsE are nonselective with regard to the silent cassette utilized, as well as the length and location of the recombination event. Sequence changes as small as one base pair were common. Fifteen percent of recovered vlsE variants contained "template-independent" sequence changes, which clustered in the variable regions of vlsE. We hypothesize that the increased frequency and complexity of vlsE sequence changes observed in clones recovered from immunocompetent mice (as compared with SCID mice is due to rapid clearance of relatively invariant clones by variable region-specific anti-VlsE antibody responses.

  4. Cloud-based uniform ChIP-Seq processing tools for modENCODE and ENCODE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Quang M; Jen, Fei-Yang Arthur; Zhou, Ziru; Chu, Kar Ming; Perry, Marc D; Kephart, Ellen T; Contrino, Sergio; Ruzanov, Peter; Stein, Lincoln D

    2013-07-22

    Funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the aim of the Model Organism ENCyclopedia of DNA Elements (modENCODE) project is to provide the biological research community with a comprehensive encyclopedia of functional genomic elements for both model organisms C. elegans (worm) and D. melanogaster (fly). With a total size of just under 10 terabytes of data collected and released to the public, one of the challenges faced by researchers is to extract biologically meaningful knowledge from this large data set. While the basic quality control, pre-processing, and analysis of the data has already been performed by members of the modENCODE consortium, many researchers will wish to reinterpret the data set using modifications and enhancements of the original protocols, or combine modENCODE data with other data sets. Unfortunately this can be a time consuming and logistically challenging proposition. In recognition of this challenge, the modENCODE DCC has released uniform computing resources for analyzing modENCODE data on Galaxy (https://github.com/modENCODE-DCC/Galaxy), on the public Amazon Cloud (http://aws.amazon.com), and on the private Bionimbus Cloud for genomic research (http://www.bionimbus.org). In particular, we have released Galaxy workflows for interpreting ChIP-seq data which use the same quality control (QC) and peak calling standards adopted by the modENCODE and ENCODE communities. For convenience of use, we have created Amazon and Bionimbus Cloud machine images containing Galaxy along with all the modENCODE data, software and other dependencies. Using these resources provides a framework for running consistent and reproducible analyses on modENCODE data, ultimately allowing researchers to use more of their time using modENCODE data, and less time moving it around.

  5. The crystal structures of two salivary cystatins from the tick Ixodes scapularis and the effect of these inhibitors on the establishment of Borrelia burgdorferi infection in a murine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Horka, Helena; Salat, Jiri; Andersen, John F. (South Bohemia); (ASCR-ICP); (NIAID)

    2010-11-17

    We have previously demonstrated that two salivary cysteine protease inhibitors from the Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease) vector Ixodes scapularis - namely sialostatins L and L2 - play an important role in tick biology, as demonstrated by the fact that silencing of both sialostatins in tandem results in severe feeding defects. Here we show that sialostatin L2 - but not sialostatin L - facilitates the growth of B. burgdorferi in murine skin. To examine the structural basis underlying these differential effects of the two sialostatins, we have determined the crystal structures of both sialostatin L and L2. This is the first structural analysis of cystatins from an invertebrate source. Sialostatin L2 crystallizes as a monomer with an 'unusual' conformation of the N-terminus, while sialostatin L crystallizes as a domain-swapped dimer with an N-terminal conformation similar to other cystatins. Deletion of the 'unusual' N-terminal five residues of sialostatin L2 results in marked changes in its selectivity, suggesting that this region is a particularly important determinant of the biochemical activity of sialostatin L2. Collectively, our results reveal the structure of two tick salivary components that facilitate vector blood feeding and that one of them also supports pathogen transmission to the vertebrate host.

  6. 4-1BB Signaling in Conventional T Cells Drives IL-2 Production That Overcomes CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ T Regulatory Cell Suppression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hampartsoum B Barsoumian

    Full Text Available Costimulation with the recombinant SA-4-1BBL agonist of 4-1BB receptor on conventional CD4+ T cells (Tconvs overcomes the suppression mediated by naturally occurring CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ T regulatory cells (Tregs. The mechanistic basis of this observation has remained largely unknown. Herein we show that Tconvs, but not Tregs, are the direct target of SA-4-1BBL-mediated evasion of Treg suppression. IL-2 produced by Tconvs in response to 4-1BB signaling is both necessary and sufficient for overcoming Treg suppression. Supernatant from Tconvs stimulated with SA-4-1BBL contains high levels of IL-2 and overcomes Treg suppression in ex vivo Tconv:Treg cocultures. Removal of IL-2 from such supernatant restores Treg suppression and repletion of Tconv:Treg cocultures with exogenous recombinant IL-2 overcomes suppression. This study establishes 4-1BB signaling as a key circuit that regulates physical and functional equilibrium between Tregs and Tconvs with important implications for immunotherapy for indications where a fine balance between Tregs and Teffs plays a decisive role.

  7. Flipped-Adversarial AutoEncoders

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jiyi; Dang, Hung; Lee, Hwee Kuan; Chang, Ee-Chien

    2018-01-01

    We propose a flipped-Adversarial AutoEncoder (FAAE) that simultaneously trains a generative model G that maps an arbitrary latent code distribution to a data distribution and an encoder E that embodies an "inverse mapping" that encodes a data sample into a latent code vector. Unlike previous hybrid approaches that leverage adversarial training criterion in constructing autoencoders, FAAE minimizes re-encoding errors in the latent space and exploits adversarial criterion in the data space. Exp...

  8. Short-Term Dietary Adjustment With a Hydrolyzed Casein–Based Diet Postpones Diabetes Development in the Diabetes-Prone BB Rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Jeroen; Brugman, Sylvia; Klatter, Flip; Vis, Lotte; Groen, Herman; Strubbe, Jan; Rozing, Jan

    2003-01-01

    From earlier studies it appears that weaning associated changes in the animal’s physiology and that of the pancreas in particular, render diabetes-prone Bio-Breeding (DP-BB) rats susceptible to the induction and development of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). In this study we tested

  9. a permutation encoding te algorithm solution of reso tation encoding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Keywords: Genetic algorithm, resource constrained. 1. INTRODUCTION. 1. .... Nigerian Journal of Technology. Vol. 34, No. 1, January 2015. 128 ... 4. ENCODING OF CHROMOSOME. ENCODING OF CHROMOSOME .... International Multi conference of Engineers and ... method”, Naval Research Logistics, vol 48, issue 2,.

  10. Anti-leukemia activity of MS-275 histone deacetylase inhibitor implicates 4-1BBL/4-1BB immunomodulatory functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bérengère Vire

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi have demonstrated promising therapeutic potential in clinical trials for hematological malignancies. HDACi, such as SAHA/Vorinostat, Trichostatin A, and MS-275 were found to induce apoptosis of leukemic blasts through activation of the death receptor pathway and transcriptional induction of the Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-related pro-apoptotic family members, TRAIL and FasL. The impact of HDACi on TNF-related costimulatory molecules such as 4-1BB ligand (4-1BBL/TNFSF9 is however not known. Following exposure to SAHA/Vorinostat, Trichostatin A, and MS-275, transcript levels were determined by real time PCR in Jurkat, Raji and U937 cells. Treatment with HDACi up-regulated TNFSF9 gene expression in the three leukemia cell lines, yet to different extend and with distinct kinetics, which did not require de novo protein synthesis and was not associated with DNAse I hypersensitive chromatin remodeling. Transcriptional activity of TNFSF9 promoter-luciferase constructs was induced up to 12 fold by HDACi, and implication of Sp1/Sp3 transcription factors binding to functional GC-box elements was evidenced by reporter gene assays, site-directed mutagenesis, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Functionality of modulated target genes was assessed in allogeneic mixed leukocyte reaction experiments. MS-275- and to a lesser extent Trichostatin A- and SAHA-treated Raji cells significantly up regulated T lymphocytes proliferation which was reduced by about 50% by a 4-1BB blocking recombinant protein, while MS-275- but neither Trichostatin A- nor SAHA-treated cells up-regulated IFNgamma secretion by T lymphocytes. Our results identify 4-1BBL/4-1BB as a downstream target of HDACi, especially of MS-275 anti-leukemia action in vitro. Thus, HDACi such as MS-275 displaying dual TNF-dependent proapoptotic and costimulatory activities might be favored for inclusion in HDACi-based anti-cancer therapeutic strategies.

  11. Evidence for the H to bb decay in VH production with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Most Higgs bosons are expected to decay to a pair of b-quarks, with the Standard Model predicting a branching fraction of about 58%. Probing this decay is important to furthering our understanding of the Higgs sector, but its observation at hadron colliders is complicated by overwhelming Standard Model backgrounds. In this seminar, a search for the Higgs to bb decay, looking at the associated production of the Higgs boson with a W or Z boson, is presented using 36 fb-1 of 13 TeV LHC Run 2 data.

  12. Microencapsulation and Fermentation of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium BB-12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Yari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of poor survival of probiotic bacteria, microencapsulation evolved from the immobilized cell culture technology used in the biotechnological industry. Two probiotic strains, Bifidobacterium (BB-12 and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA-5 were immobilized in calcium alginate by extrusion method. Encapsulation parameters and efficacy of this method were evaluated. Growth factors of these two bacteria were also measured by culturing in 10-L fermenter. Growth curves were obtained with respect to optical density and dry biomass weight. Encapsulation yield was over than 60% in each experiment. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM of Entrapment of cells in alginate matrix and cross-sections of dried bead were obtained and illustrated. Bifidobacterium have been shown better biotechnological properties.

  13. The Kallikrein Inhibitor from Bauhinia bauhinioides (BbKI) shows antithrombotic properties in venous and arterial thrombosis models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Marlon V; de Oliveira, Cleide; Salu, Bruno R; Andrade, Sonia A; Malloy, Paula M D; Sato, Ana C; Vicente, Cristina P; Sampaio, Misako U; Maffei, Francisco H A; Oliva, Maria Luiza V

    2014-05-01

    The Bauhinia bauhinioides Kallikrein Inhibitor (BbKI) is a Kunitz-type serine peptidase inhibitor of plant origin that has been shown to impair the viability of some tumor cells and to feature a potent inhibitory activity against human and rat plasma kallikrein (Kiapp 2.4 nmol/L and 5.2 nmol/L, respectively). This inhibitory activity is possibly responsible for an effect on hemostasis by prolonging activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). Because the association between cancer and thrombosis is well established, we evaluated the possible antithrombotic activity of this protein in venous and arterial thrombosis models. Vein thrombosis was studied in the vena cava ligature model in Wistar rats, and arterial thrombosis in the photochemical induced endothelium lesion model in the carotid artery of C57 black 6 mice. BbKI at a concentration of 2.0 mg/kg reduced the venous thrombus weight by 65% in treated rats in comparison to rats in the control group. The inhibitor prolonged the time for total artery occlusion in the carotid artery model mice indicating that this potent plasma kallikrein inhibitor prevented thrombosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Strategic Marketing Proposal Plan For A Cosmetics Company : BB Cream of Maybelline New York Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Quynh

    2015-01-01

    Background. Maybelline New York is one of the world’s leading cosmetics brands, with availability in more than 100 countries around the world. Since it first entered the Vietnamese market in 2007, the brand has grown rapidly and dominated the mass makeup market in the categories of Eye and Lip. However, BB Cream is a highly potential market that the company has not exploited. Aims. The aim of this study is about gaining valuable consumer insights in order to suggest strategic proposals t...

  15. Facile insertion of a cyclic alkyl(amino) carbene carbon into the B-B bond of diboron(4) reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, Antonius F; Kuehn, Laura; Marder, Todd B; Radius, Udo

    2017-10-24

    We report herein the room temperature insertion of the carbene carbon atom of the cyclic (alkyl)(amino) carbene cAAC Me into the B-B single bonds of the diboron(4) compounds B 2 pin 2 , B 2 cat 2 , B 2 neop 2 , and B 2 eg 2 (pin = pinacolato, cat = catecholato, neop = neopentylglycolato, eg = ethyleneglycolato).

  16. Integration of a Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato into Mountain Ecosystems, Following a Shift in the Altitudinal Limit of Distribution of Their Vector, Ixodes ricinus (Krkonoše Mountains, Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Danielová, V.; Daniel, M.; Schwarzová, L.; Materna, J.; Rudenko, Natalia; Golovchenko, Maryna; Holubová, J.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Kilian, P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 3 (2010), s. 223-230 ISSN 1530-3667 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA310/06/1546 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies * Climate * Ixodes ricinus tick * Mountain ecosystems * Tick-borne encephalitis virus Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.733, year: 2010

  17. The Impact of Storage Conditions on the Stability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb12 in Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantziari, Anastasia; Aakko, Juhani; Kumar, Himanshu; Tölkkö, Satu; du Toit, Elloise; Salminen, Seppo; Isolauri, Erika; Rautava, Samuli

    2017-11-01

    Human milk is the optimal source of complete nutrition for neonates and it also guides the development of infant gut microbiota. Importantly, human milk can be supplemented with probiotics to complement the health benefits of breastfeeding. Storage of human milk for limited periods of time is often unavoidable, but little is known about the effect of different storage conditions (temperature) on the viability of the added probiotics. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated how different storage conditions affect the viability of two specific widely used probiotics, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (Bb12), in human milk by culturing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Our results indicate that LGG and Bb12 remained stable throughout the storage period. Thus, we conclude that human milk offers an appropriate matrix for probiotic supplementation.

  18. Loss of insulin response to glucose but not arginine during the development of autoimmune diabetes in BB/W rats: relationships to islet volume and glucose transport rate.

    OpenAIRE

    Tominaga, M; Komiya, I; Johnson, J H; Inman, L; Alam, T; Moltz, J; Crider, B; Stefan, Y; Baetens, D; McCorkle, K

    1986-01-01

    The insulin and glucagon responses to 10 mM glucose and 10 mM arginine were studied in pancreata isolated from nondiabetic diabetes-prone and diabetes-resistant BB/W rats at 60, 80, and 140 days of age and in diabetic BB/W rats on the 1st and 14th days of their diabetes. In the former group the insulin response to glucose declined progressively with age (r = -0.575; P less than 0.01) and at 140 days was significantly below age-matched diabetes-resistant controls (P less than 0.05). The insuli...

  19. Selecting Operations for Assembler Encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Praczyk

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Assembler Encoding is a neuro-evolutionary method in which a neural network is represented in the form of a simple program called Assembler Encoding Program. The task of the program is to create the so-called Network Definition Matrix which maintains all the information necessary to construct the network. To generate Assembler Encoding Programs and the subsequent neural networks evolutionary techniques are used.
    The performance of Assembler Encoding strongly depends on operations used in Assembler Encoding Programs. To select the most effective operations, experiments in the optimization and the predator-prey problem were carried out. In the experiments, Assembler Encoding Programs equipped with different types of operations were tested. The results of the tests are presented at the end of the paper.

  20. Assessment of stress tolerance acquisition in the heat-tolerant derivative strains of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aakko, J; Sánchez, B; Gueimonde, M; Salminen, S

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the heat-shock response at molecular level in Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 and their heat-tolerant derivatives and to characterize the changes that make the derivatives more robust in terms of heat stress. The study strains were exposed for 2 h to a heat-shock treatment, Bif. animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 and its derivative at 50°C and the Lact. rhamnosus GG and its derivative at 60°C. Protein synthesis before and after heat shock was examined using proteomics and RT-qPCR. The analysis revealed that the regulation of seven proteins in both strain pairs was modified as a response to heat or between the original and the derivative strain. The comparison of wild-type strains and the heat-tolerant derivatives suggests that the acquisition of heat tolerance in the Bif. animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 derivative is due to a slightly increased constitutive level of chaperones, while in Lact. rhamnosus GG derivative, the main reason seems to be a higher ability to induce the production of chaperones. This study revealed possible markers of heat tolerance in B. lactis and Lact. rhamnosus strains. This study increases our knowledge on how Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains may acquire heat tolerance. These findings may be useful for improving the heat tolerance of existing probiotic strains as well as screening new heat-tolerant strains. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Enhancement of immune response towards non-lipidized Borrelia burgdorferi recombinant OspC antigen by binding onto the surface of metallochelating nanoliposomes with entrapped lipophilic derivatives of norAbuMDP

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křupka, M.; Mašek, J.; Bartheldyová, E.; Turánek Knotigová, P.; Plocková, J.; Korvasová, Z.; Škrabalová, M.; Koudelka, Š.; Kulich, P.; Zachová, K.; Czerneková, L.; Strouhal, O.; Horynová, M.; Šebela, M.; Miller, A. D.; Ledvina, Miroslav; Raška, M.; Turánek, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 160, č. 2 (2012), s. 374-381 ISSN 0168-3659 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/10/1951; GA TA ČR TA01011165; GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN200520703; GA AV ČR KAN200100801 Grant - others:GA UP(CZ) LF-2010-014; GA UP(CZ) LF-2011-002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi * OspC * metallochelating liposomes * MDP Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 7.633, year: 2012

  2. Excited state mass spectra of doubly heavy baryons Ω{sub cc}, Ω{sub bb} and Ω{sub bc}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Zalak; Rai, Ajay Kumar [Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Department of Applied Physics, Surat, Gujarat (India); Thakkar, Kaushal [GIDC Degree Engineering college, Department of Applied Sciences and Humanities, Abrama, Navsari (India)

    2016-10-15

    We discuss the mass spectrum of Ω baryon with two heavy quarks and one light quark (ccs, bbs, and bcs). The main goal of the paper is to calculate the ground state masses and after that, the positive and negative parity excited states masses are also obtained within a hypercentral constituent quark model, using Coulomb plus linear potential framework. We also added a first order correction to the potential. The mass spectra up to 5S for radial excited states and 1P-5P, 1D-4D, and 1F-2F states for orbital excited states are computed for Ω{sub cc}, Ω{sub bb} and Ω{sub bc} baryons. Our obtained results are compared with other theoretical predictions, which could be a useful complementary tool for the interpretation of experimentally unknown heavy baryon spectra. The Regge trajectory is constructed in both the (n{sub r}, M{sup 2}) and the (J, M{sup 2}) planes for Ω{sub cc}, Ω{sub bb} and Ω{sub bc} baryons and their slopes and intercepts are also determined. Magnetic moments of doubly heavy Ω{sup '}s are also calculated. (orig.) 8.

  3. 76 FR 55720 - BB&T Capital Partners Mezzanine Fund II, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ... approval under section 312 of the Act and Section 107.730 (a)(4), Provide Financing to a Small Business to... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [License No. 04/04-0311] BB&T Capital Partners Mezzanine Fund II, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of...

  4. 40 CFR 174.518 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Bb1 protein in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Bb1 protein in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.518 Section 174.518 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and...

  5. Prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma spp. and Leishmania infantum in apparently healthy and CVBD-suspect dogs in Portugal - a national serological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardoso Luís

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs are caused by a wide range of pathogens transmitted to dogs by arthropods including ticks and insects. Many CVBD-agents are of zoonotic concern, with dogs potentially serving as reservoirs and sentinels for human infections. The present study aimed at assessing the seroprevalence of infection with or exposure to Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma spp. and Leishmania infantum in dogs in Portugal. Methods Based on 120 veterinary medical centres from all the regions of mainland and insular Portugal, 557 apparently healthy and 628 CVBD-suspect dogs were sampled. Serum, plasma or whole blood was tested for qualitative detection of D. immitis antigen and antibodies to E. canis, B. burgdorferi s. l., Anaplasma spp. and L. infantum with two commercial in-clinic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Odds ratios (OR were calculated by logistic regression analysis to identify independent risk factors of exposure to the vector-borne agents. Results Total positivity levels to D. immitis, E. canis, B. burgdorferi, Anaplasma spp., L. infantum, one or more agents and mixed agents were 3.6%, 4.1%, 0.2%, 4.5%, 4.3%, 14.0% and 2.0% in the healthy group, and 8.9%, 16.4%, 0.5%, 9.2%, 25.2%, 46.3% and 11.6% in the clinically suspect group, respectively. Non-use of ectoparasiticides was a risk factor for positivity to one or more agents both in the apparently healthy (OR = 2.1 and CVBD-suspect (OR = 1.5 dogs. Seropositivity to L. infantum (OR = 7.6, E. canis (OR = 4.1 and D. immitis (OR = 2.4 were identified as risk factors for the presence of clinical signs compatible with CVBDs. Positivity to mixed agents was not found to be a risk factor for disease. Conclusions Dogs in Portugal are at risk of becoming infected with vector-borne pathogens, some of which are of zoonotic concern. CVBDs should be considered by practitioners and prophylactic measures must be put in

  6. IGF-1 and PDGF-bb Suppress IL-1β-Induced Cartilage Degradation through Down-Regulation of NF-κB Signaling: Involvement of Src/PI-3K/AKT Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobasheri, Ali; Buhrmann, Constanze; Aldinger, Constance; Rad, Jafar Soleimani; Shakibaei, Mehdi

    2011-01-01

    Objective Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that plays a key role in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). Growth factors (GFs) capable of antagonizing the catabolic actions of cytokines may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of OA. Herein, we investigated the potential synergistic effects of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-bb) on different mechanisms participating in IL-1β-induced activation of nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB) and apoptosis in chondrocytes. Methods Primary chondrocytes were treated with IL-1β to induce dedifferentiation and co-treated with either IGF-1 or/and PDGF-bb and evaluated by immunoblotting and electron microscopy. Results Pretreatment of chondrocytes with IGF-1 or/and PDGF-bb suppressed IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation via inhibition of IκB-α kinase. Inhibition of IκB-α kinase by GFs led to the suppression of IκB-α phosphorylation and degradation, p65 nuclear translocation and NF-κB-regulated gene products involved in inflammation and cartilage degradation (COX-2, MMPs) and apoptosis (caspase-3). GFs or BMS-345541 (specific inhibitor of the IKK) reversed the IL-1β-induced down-regulation of collagen type II, cartilage specific proteoglycans, β1-integrin, Shc, activated MAPKinase, Sox-9 and up-regulation of active caspase-3. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of IGF-1 or/and PDGF-bb on IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation were sensitive to inhibitors of Src (PP1), PI-3K (wortmannin) and Akt (SH-5), suggesting that the pathway consisting of non-receptor tyrosine kinase (Src), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and protein kinase B must be involved in IL-1β signaling. Conclusion The results presented suggest that IGF-1 and PDGF-bb are potent inhibitors of IL-1β-mediated activation of NF-κB and apoptosis in chondrocytes, may be mediated in part through suppression of Src/PI-3K/AKT pathway, which may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects. PMID

  7. Studies of b-jets reconstruction and identification in LHCb experiment in order to determine its sensibility to a standard model Higgs decaying in bb-bar pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coco, Victor

    2008-01-01

    LHCb sensitivity to a standard model Higgs in the H + (W, Z) → bb-bar + (ll-bar, ν l l) channel has been studied. Different effects affecting jet reconstruction have been studied at generator and full simulation of the detector level. After correction di-b-jet, mass resolution is σ m /m moyen = 22%. b-jet identification procedure has been set up, selecting ∼ 80% of b-jets while rejecting ∼ 99.5% of other jets. After reducing the bb-bar + l physical background, a statistical significance of 1 is obtained for 4 years of data taking at a luminosity of 5.10 32 cm -2 s -1 . (author)

  8. The risk of exposure to Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Babesia sp. and co-infections in Ixodes ricinus ticks on the territory of Niepołomice forest (southern Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asman, Marek; Nowak, Magdalena; Cuber, Piotr; Strzelczyk, Joanna; Szilman, Ewa; Szilman, Piotr; Trapp, Gizela; Siuda, Krzysztof; Solarz, Krzysztof; Wiczkowski, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Niepołomice Forest is located about 20 kilometers east of Cracow (Malopolska province, southern Poland). Its natural and touristic values, as well as wide range of hosts occurring within indicate this to be an area of high risk of exposure to Ixodes ricinus and tick-borne diseases it transfers. I. ricinus is a common species in Poland and Europe. Its seasonal activity begins in Poland in the early spring, and ends with late autumn. A total number of 129 specimens of I. ricinus was collected by flagging in Niepołomice Forest. DNA was isolated by ammonia method from 30 randomly-selected individuals. PCR was used to detect tick-borne pathogens with primers specific for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Babesia sp. Molecular studies confirmed the presence of all three pathogens in I. ricinus. A. phagocytophilum was found in 76.7%, Babesia sp., 60%, B. burgdorferi s. l., in 3.3% of studied ticks. A. phagocytophilum co-infection with Babesia sp., was found in 46.7% of the specimens. A co-infection of all three tested pathogens was recorded in one case (3.3%). In Poland the problem of tick-borne diseases is a growing issue, therefore people residing in southern Polish touristic areas should be informed about the prevention and protection against ticks.

  9. Long-Term Effects of Berberis thunbergii (Ranunculales: Berberidaceae) Management on Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) Abundance and Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae) Prevalence in Connecticut, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Scott C; Linske, Megan A; Ward, Jeffrey S

    2017-12-08

    Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii de Candolle; Ranunculales: Berberidaceae) is an exotic invasive shrub that escaped cultivation in the United States and is now permanently established in many eastern and midwestern states. This study examined the long-term impacts of Japanese barberry management on blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis Say; Acari: Ixodidae) abundances and associated prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi (Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt, and Brenner; Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae), the etiologic agent of Lyme disease. At six locations across Connecticut, adult I. scapularis were sampled for up to 10 yr. At each location, we sampled an area where barberry infestations were unmanipulated, adjacent areas where barberry was virtually nonexistent, and areas where barberry was managed utilizing a variety of techniques. Barberry management reduced B. burgdorferi-infected adult I. scapularis (BBIAIS) abundances (191/ha ± 64 SE) over 6 yr to statistically indifferent from that of no barberry areas (140/ha ± 47 SE; P = 0.080) and significantly less than intact barberry stands (458/ha ± 80 SE; P = 0.026). Over 9 yr, BBIAIS abundances in managed barberry remained lower than intact barberry stands (P = 0.037), but increased to be significantly greater than no barberry areas (P = 0.007) as cover increased over time. Longer-term data further document that Japanese barberry infestations are favorable habitat for I. scapularis. Control of Japanese barberry and other invasives should be at least on a 5-yr rotation to maintain low levels of invasive cover and eliminate humidity refugia to expose juvenile I. scapularis to more hostile environmental conditions in the interest of public health. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Focal radiation therapy combined with 4-1BB activation and CTLA-4 blockade yields long-term survival and a protective antigen-specific memory response in a murine glioma model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zineb Belcaid

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma (GBM is the most common malignant brain tumor in adults and is associated with a poor prognosis. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen -4 (CTLA-4 blocking antibodies have demonstrated an ability to generate robust antitumor immune responses against a variety of solid tumors. 4-1BB (CD137 is expressed by activated T lymphocytes and served as a co-stimulatory signal, which promotes cytotoxic function. Here, we evaluate a combination immunotherapy regimen involving 4-1BB activation, CTLA-4 blockade, and focal radiation therapy in an immune-competent intracranial GBM model.GL261-luciferace cells were stereotactically implanted in the striatum of C57BL/6 mice. Mice were treated with a triple therapy regimen consisted of 4-1BB agonist antibodies, CTLA-4 blocking antibodies, and focal radiation therapy using a small animal radiation research platform and mice were followed for survival. Numbers of brain-infiltrating lymphocytes were analyzed by FACS analysis. CD4 or CD8 depleting antibodies were administered to determine the relative contribution of T helper and cytotoxic T cells in this regimen. To evaluate the ability of this immunotherapy to generate an antigen-specific memory response, long-term survivors were re-challenged with GL261 glioma en B16 melanoma flank tumors.Mice treated with triple therapy had increased survival compared to mice treated with focal radiation therapy and immunotherapy with 4-1BB activation and CTLA-4 blockade. Animals treated with triple therapy exhibited at least 50% long-term tumor free survival. Treatment with triple therapy resulted in a higher density of CD4+ and CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. Mechanistically, depletion of CD4+ T cells abrogated the antitumor efficacy of triple therapy, while depletion of CD8+ T cells had no effect on the treatment response.Combination therapy with 4-1BB activation and CTLA-4 blockade in the setting of focal radiation therapy improves survival in an orthotopic mouse

  11. The occurrence of Ixodes ricinus ticks and important tick-borne pathogens in areas with high tick-borne encephalitis prevalence in different altitudinal levels of the Czech Republic Part II. Ixodes ricinus ticks and genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Daniel, M.; Rudenko, Natalia; Golovchenko, Maryna; Danielová, V.; Fialová, A.; Kříž, B.; Malý, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 2 (2016), s. 182-192 ISSN 1210-7913 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Ixodes ricinus * Borrelia afezelii * B. garinii * B. burgdorferi s. s. * B. bavariensis * B. valaisiana * B. spielmanii * B. lusitaniae * B. bissettii * distribution * altitude * season * medical importance Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.500, year: 2016

  12. Forsythoside A Inhibits BVDV Replication via TRAF2-Dependent CD28-4-1BB Signaling in Bovine PBMCs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan-Jiang Song

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV, the causative agent of bovine viral diarrhea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD, is an important pathogen of cattle and other wild animals throughout the world. BVDV infection typically leads to an impaired immune response in cattle. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Forsythoside A (FTA on BVDV infection of bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. We found that Forsythoside A could not only promote proliferation of PBMCs and T cells activation but also inhibit the replication of BVDV as well as apoptosis induced by BVDV. FTA treatment could counteract the BVDV-induced overproduction of IFN-γ to maintain the immune homeostasis in bovine PBMCs. At same time, FTA can enhance the secretion of IL-2. What's more, BVDV promotes the expression of CD28, 4-1BB and TRAF-2, which can be modulated by FTA. Our data suggest that FTA protects PBMCs from BVDV infection possibly via TRAF2-dependent CD28-4-1BB signaling, which may activate PBMCs in response to BVDV infection. Therefore, this aids in the development of an effective adjuvant for vaccines against BVDV and other specific FTA-based therapies for preventing BVDV infection.

  13. Analysing and Comparing Encodability Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstin Peters

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Encodings or the proof of their absence are the main way to compare process calculi. To analyse the quality of encodings and to rule out trivial or meaningless encodings, they are augmented with quality criteria. There exists a bunch of different criteria and different variants of criteria in order to reason in different settings. This leads to incomparable results. Moreover it is not always clear whether the criteria used to obtain a result in a particular setting do indeed fit to this setting. We show how to formally reason about and compare encodability criteria by mapping them on requirements on a relation between source and target terms that is induced by the encoding function. In particular we analyse the common criteria full abstraction, operational correspondence, divergence reflection, success sensitiveness, and respect of barbs; e.g. we analyse the exact nature of the simulation relation (coupled simulation versus bisimulation that is induced by different variants of operational correspondence. This way we reduce the problem of analysing or comparing encodability criteria to the better understood problem of comparing relations on processes.

  14. Landscape encodings enhance optimization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Klemm

    Full Text Available Hard combinatorial optimization problems deal with the search for the minimum cost solutions (ground states of discrete systems under strong constraints. A transformation of state variables may enhance computational tractability. It has been argued that these state encodings are to be chosen invertible to retain the original size of the state space. Here we show how redundant non-invertible encodings enhance optimization by enriching the density of low-energy states. In addition, smooth landscapes may be established on encoded state spaces to guide local search dynamics towards the ground state.

  15. Landscape Encodings Enhance Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, Konstantin; Mehta, Anita; Stadler, Peter F.

    2012-01-01

    Hard combinatorial optimization problems deal with the search for the minimum cost solutions (ground states) of discrete systems under strong constraints. A transformation of state variables may enhance computational tractability. It has been argued that these state encodings are to be chosen invertible to retain the original size of the state space. Here we show how redundant non-invertible encodings enhance optimization by enriching the density of low-energy states. In addition, smooth landscapes may be established on encoded state spaces to guide local search dynamics towards the ground state. PMID:22496860

  16. Stress as a mnemonic filter: Interactions between medial temporal lobe encoding processes and post-encoding stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchey, Maureen; McCullough, Andrew M; Ranganath, Charan; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2017-01-01

    Acute stress has been shown to modulate memory for recently learned information, an effect attributed to the influence of stress hormones on medial temporal lobe (MTL) consolidation processes. However, little is known about which memories will be affected when stress follows encoding. One possibility is that stress interacts with encoding processes to selectively protect memories that had elicited responses in the hippocampus and amygdala, two MTL structures important for memory formation. There is limited evidence for interactions between encoding processes and consolidation effects in humans, but recent studies of consolidation in rodents have emphasized the importance of encoding "tags" for determining the impact of consolidation manipulations on memory. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging in humans to test the hypothesis that the effects of post-encoding stress depend on MTL processes observed during encoding. We found that changes in stress hormone levels were associated with an increase in the contingency of memory outcomes on hippocampal and amygdala encoding responses. That is, for participants showing high cortisol reactivity, memories became more dependent on MTL activity observed during encoding, thereby shifting the distribution of recollected events toward those that had elicited relatively high activation. Surprisingly, this effect was generally larger for neutral, compared to emotionally negative, memories. The results suggest that stress does not uniformly enhance memory, but instead selectively preserves memories tagged during encoding, effectively acting as mnemonic filter. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Rotavirus specific maternal antibodies and immune response to RV3-BB neonatal rotavirus vaccine in New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Mee-Yew; Kirkwood, Carl D.; Bines, Julie; Cowley, Daniel; Pavlic, Daniel; Lee, Katherine J.; Orsini, Francesca; Watts, Emma; Barnes, Graeme; Danchin, Margaret

    2017-01-01

    Background: Maternal antibodies, acquired passively via placenta and/or breast milk, may contribute to the reduced efficacy of oral rotavirus vaccines observed in children in developing countries. This study aimed to investigate the effect of rotavirus specific maternal antibodies on the serum IgA response or stool excretion of vaccine virus after any dose of an oral rotavirus vaccine, RV3-BB, in parallel to a Phase IIa clinical trial conducted at Dunedin Hospital, New Zealand. At the time o...

  18. Molecular basis for agonism in the BB3 receptor: an epitope located on the interface of transmembrane-III, -VI, and -VII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gbahou, F; Holst, B; Schwartz, T W

    2010-01-01

    Epitopes determining the agonist property of two structurally distinct selective ligands for the human bombesin receptor subtype 3 (BB3), [D-Tyr6,(R)-Apa11,Phe13, Nle14]-bombesin(6-14) (Pep-1) and Ac-Phe-Trp-Ala-His(TauBzl)-Nip-Gly-Arg-NH2 (Pep-2), were mapped through systematic mutagenesis...

  19. Decoy-state BB84 protocol using space division multiplexing in silicon photonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacco, Davide; Ding, Yunhong; Dalgaard, Kjeld

    2017-01-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD), a technique based on quantum physics, provides unconditional secure quantum keys to be shared between two or more clients (Alice and Bob) [1]. Most QKD systems are implemented in a point-to-point link using bulky and expensive devices. Consequently a large scale...... experiments have already demonstrated conventional binary QKD systems, using polarization and phase reference degrees of freedom [2, 3]. In this paper, we show the first silicon chip-to-chip decoy-state BB84 protocol based on spatial degrees of freedom (the cores of a multi-core fiber-MCF-). By tuning...... the superposition of the quantum state between cores, combined with a positive/negative phase relation. A train of weak coherent pulses (5 kHz repetition and 10 ns wide) are injected into the transmitter chip (Alice), where multiple variable optical attenuators (VOAs) are used to decrease the number of photons per...

  20. Forsythoside A Inhibits BVDV Replication via TRAF2-Dependent CD28–4-1BB Signaling in Bovine PBMCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Quan-Jiang; Weng, Xiao-Gang; Cai, Dong-Jie; Zhang, Wang; Wang, Jiu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), the causative agent of bovine viral diarrhea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD), is an important pathogen of cattle and other wild animals throughout the world. BVDV infection typically leads to an impaired immune response in cattle. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Forsythoside A (FTA) on BVDV infection of bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We found that Forsythoside A could not only promote proliferation of PBMCs and T cells activation but also inhibit the replication of BVDV as well as apoptosis induced by BVDV. FTA treatment could counteract the BVDV-induced overproduction of IFN-γ to maintain the immune homeostasis in bovine PBMCs. At same time, FTA can enhance the secretion of IL-2. What’s more, BVDV promotes the expression of CD28, 4-1BB and TRAF-2, which can be modulated by FTA. Our data suggest that FTA protects PBMCs from BVDV infection possibly via TRAF2-dependent CD28–4-1BB signaling, which may activate PBMCs in response to BVDV infection. Therefore, this aids in the development of an effective adjuvant for vaccines against BVDV and other specific FTA-based therapies for preventing BVDV infection. PMID:27617959

  1. Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1) does not reduce the diabetes incidence in diabetes-prone BB rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimers, J I; Mørch, L; Markholst, H

    1994-01-01

    The cytokine interleukin 1 beta (IL-1) has been implicated as a pathogenetic factor in the initial events leading to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Previous studies investigating the impact of IL-1 on diabetes incidence in spontaneously diabetic rodent models have been conflicting. IL-1...... concentrations at diagnosis, but did not change the diabetes incidence in DP BB rats. The results are not in conflict with the hypothesis that IL-1 is a pathogenetic factor in IDDM, caused by high local concentrations of rat IL-1 in the islets during early insulitis. The results also show the necessity of pair...

  2. Influence of the addition of Lactobacillus acidophilus La-05, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb-12 and inulin on the technological, physicochemical, microbiological and sensory features of creamy goat cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Ilsa C; Oliveira, Maria E G; Madruga, Marta S; Gullón, Beatriz; Pacheco, Maria T B; Gomes, Ana M P; Batista, Ana S M; Pintado, Maria M E; Souza, Evandro L; Queiroga, Rita C R E

    2016-10-12

    The effects of the addition of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-05, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 and inulin on the quality characteristics of creamy goat cheese during refrigerated storage were evaluated. The manufactured cheeses included the addition of starter culture (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris - R-704) (CC); starter culture, L. acidophilus LA-05 and inulin (CLA); starter culture, B. lactis BB-12 and inulin (CBB); or starter culture, L. acidophilus LA-05, B. lactis BB-12 and inulin (CLB). In the synbiotic cheeses (CLA, CBB and CLB), the counts of L. acidophilus LA-05 and B. lactis BB-12 were greater than 6log CFU g -1 , the amount of inulin was greater than 6 g per 100 g, and the firmness was reduced. The cheeses evaluated had high brightness values (L*), with a predominance of yellow (b*). CC had higher contents of proteins, lipids and minerals compared to the other cheeses. There was a decrease in the amount of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and an increase of medium-chain (MCFAs) and long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) in the synbiotic cheeses compared to CC. The amount of conjugated linoleic acid increased in CLA, CBB and CLB. The highest depth of proteolysis and the greatest changes in the release of free amino acids were found in CLB. The addition of inulin and probiotics, alone or in co-culture, did not affect the cheese acceptance. Inulin and probiotics can be used together for the production of creamy goat cheese without negatively affecting the general quality characteristics of the product, and to add value because of its synbiotic potential.

  3. A model for visual memory encoding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolphe Nenert

    Full Text Available Memory encoding engages multiple concurrent and sequential processes. While the individual processes involved in successful encoding have been examined in many studies, a sequence of events and the importance of modules associated with memory encoding has not been established. For this reason, we sought to perform a comprehensive examination of the network for memory encoding using data driven methods and to determine the directionality of the information flow in order to build a viable model of visual memory encoding. Forty healthy controls ages 19-59 performed a visual scene encoding task. FMRI data were preprocessed using SPM8 and then processed using independent component analysis (ICA with the reliability of the identified components confirmed using ICASSO as implemented in GIFT. The directionality of the information flow was examined using Granger causality analyses (GCA. All participants performed the fMRI task well above the chance level (>90% correct on both active and control conditions and the post-fMRI testing recall revealed correct memory encoding at 86.33 ± 5.83%. ICA identified involvement of components of five different networks in the process of memory encoding, and the GCA allowed for the directionality of the information flow to be assessed, from visual cortex via ventral stream to the attention network and then to the default mode network (DMN. Two additional networks involved in this process were the cerebellar and the auditory-insular network. This study provides evidence that successful visual memory encoding is dependent on multiple modules that are part of other networks that are only indirectly related to the main process. This model may help to identify the node(s of the network that are affected by a specific disease processes and explain the presence of memory encoding difficulties in patients in whom focal or global network dysfunction exists.

  4. A model for visual memory encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenert, Rodolphe; Allendorfer, Jane B; Szaflarski, Jerzy P

    2014-01-01

    Memory encoding engages multiple concurrent and sequential processes. While the individual processes involved in successful encoding have been examined in many studies, a sequence of events and the importance of modules associated with memory encoding has not been established. For this reason, we sought to perform a comprehensive examination of the network for memory encoding using data driven methods and to determine the directionality of the information flow in order to build a viable model of visual memory encoding. Forty healthy controls ages 19-59 performed a visual scene encoding task. FMRI data were preprocessed using SPM8 and then processed using independent component analysis (ICA) with the reliability of the identified components confirmed using ICASSO as implemented in GIFT. The directionality of the information flow was examined using Granger causality analyses (GCA). All participants performed the fMRI task well above the chance level (>90% correct on both active and control conditions) and the post-fMRI testing recall revealed correct memory encoding at 86.33 ± 5.83%. ICA identified involvement of components of five different networks in the process of memory encoding, and the GCA allowed for the directionality of the information flow to be assessed, from visual cortex via ventral stream to the attention network and then to the default mode network (DMN). Two additional networks involved in this process were the cerebellar and the auditory-insular network. This study provides evidence that successful visual memory encoding is dependent on multiple modules that are part of other networks that are only indirectly related to the main process. This model may help to identify the node(s) of the network that are affected by a specific disease processes and explain the presence of memory encoding difficulties in patients in whom focal or global network dysfunction exists.

  5. Evidence for idiotypic- and antiidiotypic B-B cellular interaction with the use of cloned antiidiotypic B cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitoh, S; Fujimoto, S; Yamamoto, H

    1990-03-15

    Immunization of BALB/c mice with MOPC104E myeloma protein induces antiidiotypic B lymphocytes that have Id-specific enhancing activity on antibody production. The B-B cell interaction was restricted to both Igh and class II MHC. However, anti-Thy-1 and C-treated splenic B cells were maintained for more than 1 y in a mixture of Con A-stimulated splenocyte culture supernatant and synthetic medium. In applying the long term culture method, we have established a cloned B cell line named B19-1d, B19-1d cells are specific to MOPC104E or J558 cross-reactive Id and they express surface mu, lambda but no Ly-1. B19-1d do not spontaneously secrete Ig but produce them upon stimulation with bacterial LPS. The effect of B19-1d cell line on idiotypic antibody production was tested. Addition of only 10 to 100 B19-1d cells into dextran-immune B cell culture greatly enhanced the Id+ antidextran antibody responses. On the contrary, the antidextran antibody production was suppressed by the higher doses of B19-1d cells. The effective cooperation between dextran-immune B cells and B19-1d cloned B cells was restricted to class II MHC. The role of idiotypic- and antiidiotypic B-B cell interaction in immune regulation and repertoire generation was suggested.

  6. Local Application of Gelatin Hydrogel Sheets Impregnated With Platelet-Derived Growth Factor BB Promotes Tendon-to-Bone Healing After Rotator Cuff Repair in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, Takuya; Ide, Junji; Arimura, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Takayuki; Uehara, Yusuke; Sakamoto, Hidetoshi; Mizuta, Hiroshi

    2015-08-01

    To determine whether the local application of platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) in hydrogel sheets would promote healing and improve histologic characteristics and biomechanical strength after rotator cuff (RC) repair in rats. To assess the effect of PDGF-BB on tendon-to-bone healing we divided 36 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats treated with bilateral surgery to repair the supraspinatus tendon at its insertion site into 3 groups: group 1 = suture-only group; group 2 = suture and gelatin hydrogel sheets impregnated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS); and group 3 = suture and gelatin hydrogel sheets impregnated with PDGF-BB (0.5 μg). Semiquantitative histologic evaluation was carried out 2, 6, and 12 weeks later; cell proliferation was assessed 2 and 6 weeks postoperatively by immunostaining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and biomechanical testing, including ultimate load to failure, stiffness, and ultimate stress to failure, was performed 12 weeks after the operation. At 2 weeks, the average percentage of PCNA-positive cells at the insertion site was significantly higher in group 3 (40.5% ± 2.4%) than in group 1 (32.1% ± 6.9%; P = .03) and group 2 (31.9% ± 3.7%; P = .02). At 2 and 6 weeks, the histologic scores were similar among the 3 groups. At 12 weeks, the histologic score was significantly higher in group 3 (10.3 ± 0.8) than in group 1 (8.5 ± 0.5; P = .002) or group 2 (8.8 ± 0.8; P = .009), whereas ultimate load to failure, stiffness, and ultimate load to stress (normal control population, 44.73 ± 9.75 N, 27.59 ± 4.32 N/mm, and 21.33 ± 4.65 N/mm(2), respectively) were significantly higher in group 3 (28.28 ± 6.28 N, 11.05 ± 2.37 N/mm, and 7.99 ± 2.13 N/mm(2), respectively) than in group 1 (10.44 ± 1.98 N, 4.74 ± 1.31 N/mm, and 3.28 ± 1.27 N/mm(2), respectively; all P repair in humans. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Encoding of coordination complexes with XML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinoth, P; Sankar, P

    2017-09-01

    An in-silico system to encode structure, bonding and properties of coordination complexes is developed. The encoding is achieved through a semantic XML markup frame. Composition of the coordination complexes is captured in terms of central atom and ligands. Structural information of central atom is detailed in terms of electron status of valence electron orbitals. The ligands are encoded with specific reference to the electron environment of ligand centre atoms. Behaviour of ligands to form low or high spin complexes is accomplished by assigning a Ligand Centre Value to every ligand based on the electronic environment of ligand centre atom. Chemical ontologies are used for categorization purpose and to control different hybridization schemes. Complexes formed by the central atoms of transition metal, non-transition elements belonging to s-block, p-block and f-block are encoded with a generic encoding platform. Complexes of homoleptic, heteroleptic and bridged types are also covered by this encoding system. Utility of the encoded system to predict redox electron transfer reaction in the coordination complexes is demonstrated with a simple application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Human histologic evaluation of anorganic bovine bone mineral combined with recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor BB in maxillary sinus augmentation: case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevins, Myron; Garber, David; Hanratty, James J; McAllister, Bradley S; Nevins, Marc L; Salama, Maurice; Schupbach, Peter; Wallace, Steven; Bernstein, Simon M; Kim, David M

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this proof-of-principle study was to examine the potential for improved bone regenerative outcomes in maxillary sinus augmentation procedures when recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor BB (0.3 mg/mL) is combined with particulate anorganic bovine bone mineral. The surgical outcomes in all treated sites were uneventful at 6 to 8 months, with sufficient regenerated bone present to allow successful placement of maxillary posterior implants. Large areas of dense, well-formed lamellar bone were seen throughout the intact core specimens in more than half of the grafted sites. Abundant numbers of osteoblasts were noted in concert with significant osteoid in all sites, indicating ongoing osteogenesis. A number of cores demonstrated efficient replacement of the normally slowly resorbing anorganic bovine bone mineral matrix particles with newly formed bone when the matrix was saturated with recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor BB.

  9. Optimal higher-order encoder time-stamping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merry, R.J.E.; Molengraft, van de M.J.G.; Steinbuch, M.

    2013-01-01

    Optical incremental encoders are used to measure the position of motion control systems. The accuracy of the position measurement is determined and bounded by the number of slits on the encoder. The position measurement is affected by quantization errors and encoder imperfections. In this paper, an

  10. Procesos técnicos y culturales durante el Holoceno inicial en el noroeste de la Península Ibérica. Los niveles B y Bb de La Cativera (El Catllar, Tarragona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales, Juan Ignacio

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the technological structure observed in levels B and Bb (Boreal from La Cativera. A dual technological pattern is observed. For one side simplified blade exploitation is observed and for the other, a normalized short flake production is documented too. A new 14C data corroborates the chronological position of both levels despite showing technical schemes which significantly vary from those of synchronous sites. The B and Bb levels match in time with the so called Notched and Denticulate Mesolithic industries, however the observed knapping patterns present a major affinity with the Late Magdalenian or Epipalaeolithic Late Glacial knapping schemes.Este trabajo presenta la estructura tecnológica observada en los niveles B y Bb (Boreal de La Cativera, donde se observa una dualidad entre explotaciones laminares simplificadas y una producción de lascas cortas normalizadas. Una nueva datación inédita refuerza la posición cronológica de estos niveles pese a que las estrategias de talla de los mismos difieren significativamente de las documentadas en yacimientos sincrónicos. Los niveles B y Bb coinciden en el tiempo con los conjuntos del Mesolítico de Muescas y Denticulados, sin embargo el análisis tecnológico de la industria lítica lo pone en relación más directa con los conjuntos del Magdaleniense final y/o Epipaleolítico microlaminar propios del Tardiglaciar.

  11. Restoration of impaired intestinal barrier function by the hydrolysed casein diet contributes to the prevention of type 1 diabetes in the diabetes-prone BioBreeding rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, J T J; Lammers, K; Hoogendijk, A; Boer, M W; Brugman, S; Beijer-Liefers, S; Zandvoort, A; Harmsen, H; Welling, G; Stellaard, F; Bos, N A; Fasano, A; Rozing, J

    2010-12-01

    Impaired intestinal barrier function is observed in type 1 diabetes patients and animal models of the disease. Exposure to diabetogenic antigens from the intestinal milieu due to a compromised intestinal barrier is considered essential for induction of the autoimmune process leading to type 1 diabetes. Since a hydrolysed casein (HC) diet prevents autoimmune diabetes onset in diabetes-prone (DP)-BioBreeding (BB) rats, we studied the role of the HC diet on intestinal barrier function and, therefore, prevention of autoimmune diabetes onset in this animal model. DP-BB rats were fed the HC diet from weaning onwards and monitored for autoimmune diabetes development. Intestinal permeability was assessed in vivo by lactulose-mannitol test and ex vivo by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER). Levels of serum zonulin, a physiological tight junction modulator, were measured by ELISA. Ileal mRNA expression of Myo9b, Cldn1, Cldn2 and Ocln (which encode the tight junction-related proteins myosin IXb, claudin-1, claudin-2 and occludin) and Il-10, Tgf-ß (also known as Il10 and Tgfb, respectively, which encode regulatory cytokines) was analysed by quantitative PCR. The HC diet reduced autoimmune diabetes by 50% in DP-BB rats. In DP-BB rats, prediabetic gut permeability negatively correlated with the moment of autoimmune diabetes onset. The improved intestinal barrier function that was induced by HC diet in DP-BB rats was visualised by decreasing lactulose:mannitol ratio, decreasing serum zonulin levels and increasing ileal TEER. The HC diet modified ileal mRNA expression of Myo9b, and Cldn1 and Cldn2, but left Ocln expression unaltered. Improved intestinal barrier function might be an important intermediate in the prevention of autoimmune diabetes by the HC diet in DP-BB rats. Effects on tight junctions, ileal cytokines and zonulin production might be important mechanisms for this effect.

  12. Potencial do soro de leite líquido como agente encapsulante de Bifidobacterium Bb-12 por spray drying: comparação com goma arábica Potential of liquid whey as the encapsulating agent of Bifidobacterium Bb-12 by spray drying: comparison with arabic gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Picinin de Castro-Cislaghi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o potencial do soro de leite líquido como agente encapsulante de Bifidobacterium Bb-12 por spray drying, comparando-o com a goma arábica, a qual é tradicionalmente utilizada na tecnologia de microencapsulação. Foram determinados o rendimento da microencapsulação e a viabilidade das microcápsulas durante o armazenamento. Quando o soro de leite foi utilizado como agente encapsulante, o rendimento da microencapsulação foi maior e a viabilidade das células manteve-se elevada e constante durante doze semanas. O soro de leite apresentou-se como um eficiente agente encapsulante de Bifidobacterium por spray drying.The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of liquid whey as the encapsulating agent Bifidobacterium Bb-12 by spray drying, compared with arabic gum, which is typically used in microencapsulation technology. The microencapsulation yield and viability during storage were determined. When the whey was used as the encapsulating agent, the microencapsulation yield was higher, and cell viability remained high and steady for twelve weeks. The whey was shown to be an effective encapsulating agent of Bifidobacterium by spray drying.

  13. Emotional arousal and memory after deep encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventon, Jacqueline S; Camacho, Gabriela L; Ramos Rojas, Maria D; Ruedas, Angelica

    2018-05-22

    Emotion often enhances long-term memory. One mechanism for this enhancement is heightened arousal during encoding. However, reducing arousal, via emotion regulation (ER) instructions, has not been associated with reduced memory. In fact, the opposite pattern has been observed: stronger memory for emotional stimuli encoded with an ER instruction to reduce arousal. This pattern may be due to deeper encoding required by ER instructions. In the current research, we examine the effects of emotional arousal and deep-encoding on memory across three studies. In Study 1, adult participants completed a writing task (deep-encoding) for encoding negative, neutral, and positive picture stimuli, whereby half the emotion stimuli had the ER instruction to reduce the emotion. Memory was strong across conditions, and no memory enhancement was observed for any condition. In Study 2, adult participants completed the same writing task as Study 1, as well as a shallow-encoding task for one-third of negative, neutral, and positive trials. Memory was strongest for deep vs. shallow encoding trials, with no effects of emotion or ER instruction. In Study 3, adult participants completed a shallow-encoding task for negative, neutral, and positive stimuli, with findings indicating enhanced memory for negative emotional stimuli. Findings suggest that deep encoding must be acknowledged as a source of memory enhancement when examining manipulations of emotion-related arousal. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Multidimensionally encoded magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fa-Hsuan

    2013-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) typically achieves spatial encoding by measuring the projection of a q-dimensional object over q-dimensional spatial bases created by linear spatial encoding magnetic fields (SEMs). Recently, imaging strategies using nonlinear SEMs have demonstrated potential advantages for reconstructing images with higher spatiotemporal resolution and reducing peripheral nerve stimulation. In practice, nonlinear SEMs and linear SEMs can be used jointly to further improve the image reconstruction performance. Here, we propose the multidimensionally encoded (MDE) MRI to map a q-dimensional object onto a p-dimensional encoding space where p > q. MDE MRI is a theoretical framework linking imaging strategies using linear and nonlinear SEMs. Using a system of eight surface SEM coils with an eight-channel radiofrequency coil array, we demonstrate the five-dimensional MDE MRI for a two-dimensional object as a further generalization of PatLoc imaging and O-space imaging. We also present a method of optimizing spatial bases in MDE MRI. Results show that MDE MRI with a higher dimensional encoding space can reconstruct images more efficiently and with a smaller reconstruction error when the k-space sampling distribution and the number of samples are controlled. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Optimising charged Higgs boson searches at the Large Hadron Collider across bb¯W± final states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Moretti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the light of the most recent data from Higgs boson searches and analyses, we re-assess the scope of the Large Hadron Collider in accessing heavy charged Higgs boson signals in bb¯W± final states, wherein the contributing channels can be H+→tb¯, hW±, HW± and AW±. We consider a 2-Higgs Doublet Model Type-II and we assume as production mode bg→tH−+c.c., the dominant one over the range MH±≥480 GeV, as dictated by b→sγ constraints. Prospects of detection are found to be significant for various Run 2 energy and luminosity options.

  16. Parallel encoders for pixel detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikityuk, N.M.

    1991-01-01

    A new method of fast encoding and determining the multiplicity and coordinates of fired pixels is described. A specific example construction of parallel encodes and MCC for n=49 and t=2 is given. 16 refs.; 6 figs.; 2 tabs

  17. Quantum authentication based on the randomness of measurement bases in BB84

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang Minh Dung; Bellot, P.; Alleaume, R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The establishment of a secret key between two legitimate end points of a communication link, let us name them Alice and Bob, using Quantum key distribution (QKD) is unconditionally secure thanks to Quantum Physics laws.However, the various QKD protocols do not intend to provide the authentication of the end points: Alice cannot be sure that she is communicating with Bob and reciprocally. Therefore, these protocols are subjects to various attacks. The most obvious attack is the man-in-the-middle attack in which an eavesdropper, let us name her Eve, stands in the middle of the communication link. Alice communicates with Eve meanwhile she thinks she communicate with Bob. And Bob communicates with Eve meanwhile he thinks he is communicating with Alice. Eve, acting as a relay, can read all the communications between Alice and Bob and retransmit them. To prevent this kind of attack, the solution is to authenticate the two end points of the communication link. One solution is that Alice and Bob share an authentication key prior to the communication. In order to improve the security, Alice and Bob must share a set of authentication one-time keys. One-time key means that the key has to be used only once because each time a key is used, the eavesdropper Eve can gain a few information on the key. Re-using the same key many times would finally reveal the key to Eve. However, Eve can simulate many times the authentication process with Alice. Each time Eve simulates the authentication process, one of the pre-positioned keys is depleted leading to the exhaustion of the set of pre-positioned keys. This type of attack is named Denial of Service attack. In this work, we propose to use the randomness of the measurement bases in BB84 to build an authentication scheme based on the existence of a prepositioned authentication key. This authentication scheme can be used with BB84 but also with any other Quantum Key Distribution protocols. It is protected against the Denial of

  18. An Intensional Concurrent Faithful Encoding of Turing Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Given-Wilson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The benchmark for computation is typically given as Turing computability; the ability for a computation to be performed by a Turing Machine. Many languages exploit (indirect encodings of Turing Machines to demonstrate their ability to support arbitrary computation. However, these encodings are usually by simulating the entire Turing Machine within the language, or by encoding a language that does an encoding or simulation itself. This second category is typical for process calculi that show an encoding of lambda-calculus (often with restrictions that in turn simulates a Turing Machine. Such approaches lead to indirect encodings of Turing Machines that are complex, unclear, and only weakly equivalent after computation. This paper presents an approach to encoding Turing Machines into intensional process calculi that is faithful, reduction preserving, and structurally equivalent. The encoding is demonstrated in a simple asymmetric concurrent pattern calculus before generalised to simplify infinite terms, and to show encodings into Concurrent Pattern Calculus and Psi Calculi.

  19. Culture and identification of Borrelia spirochetes in human vaginal and seminal secretions [version 3; referees: 2 approved, 2 not approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne J. Middelveen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent reports indicate that more than 300,000 cases of Lyme disease are diagnosed yearly in the USA. Preliminary clinical, epidemiological and immunological studies suggest that infection with the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb could be transferred from person to person via intimate human contact without a tick vector. Failure to detect viable Borrelia spirochetes in vaginal and seminal secretions would argue against this hypothesis. Methods: Patients with and without a history of Lyme disease were selected for the study after informed consent was obtained. Serological testing for Bb was performed on all subjects. Semen or vaginal secretions were inoculated into BSK-H medium and cultured for four weeks. Examination of genital cultures and culture concentrates for the presence of spirochetes was performed using light and darkfield microscopy, and spirochete concentrates were subjected to Dieterle silver staining, anti-Bb immunohistochemical staining, molecular hybridization and PCR analysis for further characterization. Immunohistochemical and molecular testing was performed in three independent laboratories in a blinded fashion. Positive and negative controls were included in all experiments. Results: Control subjects who were asymptomatic and seronegative for Bb had no detectable spirochetes in genital secretions by PCR analysis. In contrast, spirochetes were observed in cultures of genital secretions from 11 of 13 subjects diagnosed with Lyme disease, and motile spirochetes were detected in genital culture concentrates from 12 of 13 Lyme disease patients using light and darkfield microscopy. Morphological features of spirochetes were confirmed by Dieterle silver staining and immunohistochemical staining of culture concentrates. Molecular hybridization and PCR testing confirmed that the spirochetes isolated from semen and vaginal secretions were strains of Borrelia, and all cultures were negative for treponemal

  20. Blind encoding into qudits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaari, J.S.; Wahiddin, M.R.B.; Mancini, S.

    2008-01-01

    We consider the problem of encoding classical information into unknown qudit states belonging to any basis, of a maximal set of mutually unbiased bases, by one party and then decoding by another party who has perfect knowledge of the basis. Working with qudits of prime dimensions, we point out a no-go theorem that forbids 'shift' operations on arbitrary unknown states. We then provide the necessary conditions for reliable encoding/decoding

  1. Encoder designed to work in harsh environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toop, L.

    2007-05-15

    Dynapar has developed the Acuro AX71 absolute encoder for use on offshore or land-based oil rig operations. It provides feedback on the operation of automated systems such as draw works, racking systems, rotary tables and top drives. By ensuring that automated systems function properly, this encoder responds to a need by the oil and gas industry to keep workers safe and improve efficiency, particularly for operations in rugged situations. The encoder provides feedback from motor systems to controllers, giving information about position and speed of downhole drill bits. This newly developed encoder is better than commonly used incremental encoders which are not precise in strong electrical noise environments. Rather, the absolute encoder uses a different method of reporting to the controller. A digital signal is transmitted constantly as the device operates. It is less susceptible to noise issues. It is highly accurate, tolerant of noise and is not affected by power outages. However, the absolute encoder is generally more delicate in drilling applications with high ambient temperatures and shock levels. Dynapar addressed this issue by developing compact stainless steel housing that is useful for corrosion resistance in marine applications. The AX71 absolute encoder can withstand up to 100 G of mechanical shock and ambient temperatures of up to 60 degrees C. The encoder is ATEX certified without barriers, and offers the high resolution feedback of 4,000 counts of multiturn rotation and 16,000 counts of position. 1 fig.

  2. Safety and immunogenicity of RV3-BB human neonatal rotavirus vaccine administered at birth or in infancy: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bines, Julie E; Danchin, Margaret; Jackson, Pamela; Handley, Amanda; Watts, Emma; Lee, Katherine J; West, Amanda; Cowley, Daniel; Chen, Mee-Yew; Barnes, Graeme L; Justice, Frances; Buttery, Jim P; Carlin, John B; Bishop, Ruth F; Taylor, Barry; Kirkwood, Carl D

    2015-12-01

    Despite the success of rotavirus vaccines, suboptimal vaccine efficacy in regions with a high burden of disease continues to present a challenge to worldwide implementation. A birth dose strategy with a vaccine developed from an asymptomatic neonatal rotavirus strain has the potential to address this challenge and provide protection from severe rotavirus disease from birth. This phase 2a randomised, double-blind, three-arm, placebo-controlled safety and immunogenicity trial was undertaken at a single centre in New Zealand between Jan 13, 2012, and April 17, 2014. Healthy, full-term (≥36 weeks gestation) babies, who weighed at least 2500 g, and were 0-5 days old at the time of randomisation were randomly assigned (1:1:1; computer-generated; telephone central allocation) according to a concealed block randomisation schedule to oral RV3-BB vaccine with the first dose given at 0-5 days after birth (neonatal schedule), to vaccine with the first dose given at about 8 weeks after birth (infant schedule), or to placebo. The primary endpoint was cumulative vaccine take (serum immune response or stool shedding of vaccine virus after any dose) after three doses. The immunogenicity analysis included all randomised participants with available outcome data. This trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12611001212943. 95 eligible participants were randomised, of whom 89 were included in the primary analysis. A cumulative vaccine take was detected in 27 (90%) of 30 participants in the neonatal schedule group after three doses of RV3-BB vaccine compared with four (13%) of 32 participants in the placebo group (difference in proportions 0·78, 95% CI 0·55-0·88; pvaccine take after three doses compared with eight (25%) of 32 participants in the placebo group (difference in proportions 0·68, 0·44-0·81; pvaccine was not associated with an increased frequency of fever or gastrointestinal symptoms compared with placebo. RV3-BB vaccine was

  3. A putative peroxidase cDNA from turnip and analysis of the encoded protein sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Gómez, S; Duarte-Vázquez, M A; García-Almendárez, B E; Mayorga-Martínez, L; Cervantes-Avilés, O; Regalado, C

    2008-12-01

    A putative peroxidase cDNA was isolated from turnip roots (Brassica napus L. var. purple top white globe) by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Total RNA extracted from mature turnip roots was used as a template for RT-PCR, using a degenerated primer designed to amplify the highly conserved distal motif of plant peroxidases. The resulting partial sequence was used to design the rest of the specific primers for 5' and 3' RACE. Two cDNA fragments were purified, sequenced, and aligned with the partial sequence from RT-PCR, and a complete overlapping sequence was obtained and labeled as BbPA (Genbank Accession No. AY423440, named as podC). The full length cDNA is 1167bp long and contains a 1077bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 358 deduced amino acid peroxidase polypeptide. The putative peroxidase (BnPA) showed a calculated Mr of 34kDa, and isoelectric point (pI) of 4.5, with no significant identity with other reported turnip peroxidases. Sequence alignment showed that only three peroxidases have a significant identity with BnPA namely AtP29a (84%), and AtPA2 (81%) from Arabidopsis thaliana, and HRPA2 (82%) from horseradish (Armoracia rusticana). Work is in progress to clone this gene into an adequate host to study the specific role and possible biotechnological applications of this alternative peroxidase source.

  4. Virulence properties of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus food isolates encoding Panton-Valentine Leukocidin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudagidan, Mert; Aydin, Ali

    2010-04-15

    In this study, three Panton-Valentine Leukocidin gene carrying methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) strains (M1-AAG42B, PY30C-b and YF1B-b) were isolated from different food samples in Kesan-Edirne, Turkey. These strains were characterized on the basis of MLST type, spa type, virulence factor gene contents, antibiotic susceptibilities against 21 antibiotics and biofilm formation. The genetic relatedness of the strains was determined by PFGE. In addition, the complete gene sequences of lukS-PV and lukF-PV were also investigated. All strains were found to be susceptible to tested antibiotics and they were mecA negative. Three strains showed the same PFGE band pattern, ST152 clonal type and t355 spa type. In the detection of virulence factor genes, sea, seb, sec, sed, see, seg, seh, sei, sej, sek, sel, sem, sen, seo, sep, seq, seu, eta, etb, set1, geh and tst genes were not detected. All strains showed the positive results for alpha- and beta-haemolysin genes (hla and hlb), protease encoding genes (sspA, sspB and aur), lukE and lukD leukocidin genes (lukED). The strains were found to be non-biofilm formers. By this study, the virulence properties of the strains were described and this is one of the first reports regarding PVL-positive MSSA strains from food. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Cooperative effects in differentiation and proliferation between PDGF-BB and matrix derived synthetic peptides in human osteoblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vordemvenne Thomas

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enhancing osteogenic capabilities of bone matrix for the treatment of fractures and segmental defects using growth factors is an active area of research. Recently, synthetic peptides like AC- 100, TP508 or p-15 corresponding to biologically active sequences of matrix proteins have been proven to stimulate bone formation. The platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF BB has been identified as an important paracrine factor in early bone healing. We hypothesized that the combined use of PDGF-BB with synthetic peptides could result in an increase in proliferation and calcification of osteoblast-like cells. Methods Osteoblast-like cell cultures were treated with PDGF and synthetic peptides, singly and as combinations, and compared to non-treated control cell cultures. The cultures were evaluated at days 2, 5, and 10 in terms of cell proliferation, calcification and gene expression of alkaline phosphate, collagen I and osteocalcin. Results Experimental findings revealed that the addition of PDGF, p-15 and TP508 and combinations of PDGF/AC-100, PDGF/p-15 and PDGF/TP508 resulted in an increase in proliferating osteoblasts, especially in the first 5 days of cultivation. Proliferation did not significantly differ between single factors and factor combinations (p > 0.05. The onset of calcification in osteoblasts occurred earlier and was more distinct compared to the corresponding control or PDGF stimulation alone. Significant difference was found for the combined use of PDGF/p-15 and PDGF/AC-100 (p Conclusions Our findings indicate that PDGF exhibits cooperative effects with synthetic peptides in differentiation and proliferation. These cooperative effects cause a significant early calcification of osteoblast-like cells (p

  6. Impact of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 and, Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5-containing yoghurt, on fecal bacterial counts of healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savard, Patricia; Lamarche, Benoît; Paradis, Marie-Eve; Thiboutot, Hélène; Laurin, Émilie; Roy, Denis

    2011-09-01

    This randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, parallel dose-response study investigated the impact of 4-week commercial yoghurt consumption supplemented with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BB-12) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA-5) on fecal bacterial counts of healthy adults. Fifty-eight volunteers were randomly assigned to three different groups: 1. placebo (no probiotic, no starter and no green tea extract); 2. Yoptimal (10(9)cfu/100g of BB-12 and LA-5 and 40mg of green tea extract) and 3. Yoptimal-10 (10(10)cfu/100g of BB-12, 10(9)cfu/100g of LA-5 and 40mg of green tea extract). These yoghurt products also contained Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (10(7)cfu/100g) and Streptococcus thermophilus (10(10)cfu/100g). The quantitative PCR (qPCR) results showed that there were significant increases (P=0.02) in bifidobacteria counts with the Yoptimal treatment as compared to baseline. The fecal numbers of B. animalis subsp. lactis and LA-5 significantly increased in the two probiotic treatments compared to the placebo treatment. Viable counts of fecal lactobacilli were significantly higher (P=0.05) and those of enterococci were significantly lower (P=0.04) after the intervention when compared to placebo. No significant difference was observed between treatments in volunteers' weight, waist girth, blood pressure, fasting plasma triglyceride and HDL-C concentrations, as well as cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio. However, a significant increase in plasma cholesterol levels was observed in the placebo group (P=0.0018) but the levels remained stable in the two probiotic yoghurt groups. These results show that probiotic strains supplemented in the form of yoghurt remain active during gut transit and are associated with an increase in beneficial bacteria and a reduction in potentially pathogenic bacteria. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00730626. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Chemical Space of DNA-Encoded Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzini, Raphael M; Randolph, Cassie

    2016-07-28

    In recent years, DNA-encoded chemical libraries (DECLs) have attracted considerable attention as a potential discovery tool in drug development. Screening encoded libraries may offer advantages over conventional hit discovery approaches and has the potential to complement such methods in pharmaceutical research. As a result of the increased application of encoded libraries in drug discovery, a growing number of hit compounds are emerging in scientific literature. In this review we evaluate reported encoded library-derived structures and identify general trends of these compounds in relation to library design parameters. We in particular emphasize the combinatorial nature of these libraries. Generally, the reported molecules demonstrate the ability of this technology to afford hits suitable for further lead development, and on the basis of them, we derive guidelines for DECL design.

  8. IL-1beta induced protein changes in diabetes prone BB rat islets of Langerhans identified by proteome analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, T; Bjerre-Christensen, Ulla; Mose Larsen, P

    2002-01-01

    of 82 out of 1 815 protein spots detected by two dimensional gel electrophoresis in IL-1beta exposed diabetes prone Bio Breeding (BB-DP) rat islets of Langerhans in vitro. The aim of this study was to identify the proteins in these 82 spots by mass spectrometry and compare these changes with those seen......Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus is characterized by selective destruction of the insulin producing beta cells. Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) modulates the beta-cell function, protein synthesis, energy production and causes apoptosis. We have previously shown changes in the expression...

  9. Video encoder/decoder for encoding/decoding motion compensated images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1996-01-01

    Video encoder and decoder, provided with a motion compensator for motion-compensated video coding or decoding in which a picture is coded or decoded in blocks in alternately horizontal and vertical steps. The motion compensator is provided with addressing means (160) and controlled multiplexers

  10. The TT, TB, EB and BB correlations in anisotropic inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xingang [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75083 (United States); Emami, Razieh [School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P. O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Firouzjahi, Hassan [School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P. O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Wang, Yi, E-mail: Xingang.Chen@utdallas.edu, E-mail: emami@ipm.ir, E-mail: firouz@ipm.ir, E-mail: yw366@cam.ac.uk [Centre for Theoretical Cosmology, DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-01

    The ongoing and future experiments will measure the B-mode from different sky coverage and frequency bands, with the potential to reveal non-trivial features in polarization map. In this work we study the TT, TB, EB and BB correlations associated with the B-mode polarization of CMB map in models of charged anisotropic inflation. The model contains a chaotic-type large field complex inflaton which is charged under the U(1) gauge field. We calculate the statistical anisotropies generated in the power spectra of the curvature perturbation, the tensor perturbation and their cross-correlation. It is shown that the asymmetry in tensor power spectrum is a very sensitive probe of the gauge coupling. While the level of statistical anisotropy in temperature power spectrum can be small and satisfy the observational bounds, the interactions from the gauge coupling can induce large directional dependence in tensor modes. This will leave interesting anisotropic fingerprints in various correlations involving the B-mode polarization such as the TB cross-correlation which may be detected in upcoming Planck polarization data. In addition, the TT correlation receives an anisotropic contribution from the tensor sector which naturally decays after l ∼> 100. We expect that the mechanism of using tensor sector to induce asymmetry at low l to be generic which can also be applied to address other low l CMB anomalies.

  11. Negative base encoding in optical linear algebra processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlee, C.; Casasent, D.

    1986-01-01

    In the digital multiplication by analog convolution algorithm, the bits of two encoded numbers are convolved to form the product of the two numbers in mixed binary representation; this output can be easily converted to binary. Attention is presently given to negative base encoding, treating base -2 initially, and then showing that the negative base system can be readily extended to any radix. In general, negative base encoding in optical linear algebra processors represents a more efficient technique than either sign magnitude or 2's complement encoding, when the additions of digitally encoded products are performed in parallel.

  12. Encoding entanglement-assisted quantum stabilizer codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yun-Jiang; Bai Bao-Ming; Li Zhuo; Xiao He-Ling; Peng Jin-Ye

    2012-01-01

    We address the problem of encoding entanglement-assisted (EA) quantum error-correcting codes (QECCs) and of the corresponding complexity. We present an iterative algorithm from which a quantum circuit composed of CNOT, H, and S gates can be derived directly with complexity O(n 2 ) to encode the qubits being sent. Moreover, we derive the number of each gate consumed in our algorithm according to which we can design EA QECCs with low encoding complexity. Another advantage brought by our algorithm is the easiness and efficiency of programming on classical computers. (general)

  13. Data Encoding using Periodic Nano-Optical Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosoogh-Grayli, Siamack

    Successful trials have been made through a designed algorithm to quantize, compress and optically encode unsigned 8 bit integer values in the form of images using Nano optical features. The periodicity of the Nano-scale features (Nano-gratings) have been designed and investigated both theoretically and experimentally to create distinct states of variation (three on states and one off state). The use of easy to manufacture and machine readable encoded data in secured authentication media has been employed previously in bar-codes for bi-state (binary) models and in color barcodes for multiple state models. This work has focused on implementing 4 states of variation for unit information through periodic Nano-optical structures that separate an incident wavelength into distinct colors (variation states) in order to create an encoding system. Compared to barcodes and magnetic stripes in secured finite length storage media the proposed system encodes and stores more data. The benefits of multiple states of variation in an encoding unit are 1) increased numerically representable range 2) increased storage density and 3) decreased number of typical set elements for any ergodic or semi-ergodic source that emits these encoding units. A thorough investigation has targeted the effects of the use of multi-varied state Nano-optical features on data storage density and consequent data transmission rates. The results show that use of Nano-optical features for encoding data yields a data storage density of circa 800 Kbits/in2 via the implementation of commercially available high resolution flatbed scanner systems for readout. Such storage density is far greater than commercial finite length secured storage media such as Barcode family with maximum practical density of 1kbits/in2 and highest density magnetic stripe cards with maximum density circa 3 Kbits/in2. The numerically representable range of the proposed encoding unit for 4 states of variation is [0 255]. The number of

  14. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in oncogenesis: development of a vascular connective tissue stroma in xenotransplanted human melanoma producing PDGF-BB.

    OpenAIRE

    Forsberg, K; Valyi-Nagy, I; Heldin, C H; Herlyn, M; Westermark, B

    1993-01-01

    Human WM9 melanoma cells, previously shown to be devoid of PDGF expression, were stably transfected with a PDGF-B cDNA under the transcriptional control of a cytomegalovirus promoter. Northern blot analysis revealed high expression of an mRNA of the expected size in the PDGF-B-transfected cells. Synthesis and secretion of PDGF-BB was confirmed by immunoprecipitation. Furthermore, conditioned medium from PDGF-B-transfected cells contained a mitogenic activity for fibroblasts. For analysis of t...

  15. Molecular mechanisms for protein-encoded inheritance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltzius, Jed J. W.; Landau, Meytal; Nelson, Rebecca; Sawaya, Michael R.; Apostol, Marcin I.; Goldschmidt, Lukasz; Soriaga, Angela B.; Cascio, Duilio; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta; Eisenberg, David

    2013-01-01

    Strains are phenotypic variants, encoded by nucleic acid sequences in chromosomal inheritance and by protein “conformations” in prion inheritance and transmission. But how is a protein “conformation” stable enough to endure transmission between cells or organisms? Here new polymorphic crystal structures of segments of prion and other amyloid proteins offer structural mechanisms for prion strains. In packing polymorphism, prion strains are encoded by alternative packings (polymorphs) of β-sheets formed by the same segment of a protein; in a second mechanism, segmental polymorphism, prion strains are encoded by distinct β-sheets built from different segments of a protein. Both forms of polymorphism can produce enduring “conformations,” capable of encoding strains. These molecular mechanisms for transfer of information into prion strains share features with the familiar mechanism for transfer of information by nucleic acid inheritance, including sequence specificity and recognition by non-covalent bonds. PMID:19684598

  16. Probable late lyme disease: a variant manifestation of untreated Borrelia burgdorferi infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Lyme disease, a bacterial infection with the tick-borne spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, can cause early and late manifestations. The category of probable Lyme disease was recently added to the CDC surveillance case definition to describe patients with serologic evidence of exposure and physician-diagnosed disease in the absence of objective signs. We present a retrospective case series of 13 untreated patients with persistent symptoms of greater than 12 weeks duration who meet these criteria and suggest a label of ‘probable late Lyme disease’ for this presentation. Methods The sample for this analysis draws from a retrospective chart review of consecutive, adult patients presenting between August 2002 and August 2007 to the author (JA), an infectious disease specialist. Patients were included in the analysis if their current illness had lasted greater than or equal to 12 weeks duration at the time of evaluation. Results Probable late Lyme patients with positive IgG serology but no history of previous physician-documented Lyme disease or appropriate Lyme treatment were found to represent 6% of our heterogeneous sample presenting with ≥ 12 weeks of symptom duration. Patients experienced a range of symptoms including fatigue, widespread pain, and cognitive complaints. Approximately one-third of this subset reported a patient-observed rash at illness onset, with a similar proportion having been exposed to non-recommended antibiotics or glucocorticosteroid treatment for their initial disease. A clinically significant response to antibiotics treatment was noted in the majority of patients with probable late Lyme disease, although post-treatment symptom recurrence was common. Conclusions We suggest that patients with probable late Lyme disease share features with both confirmed late Lyme disease and post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome. Physicians should consider the recent inclusion of probable Lyme disease in the CDC Lyme disease surveillance

  17. Beyond initial encoding: Measures of the post-encoding status of memory traces predict long-term recall in infancy

    OpenAIRE

    Pathman, Thanujeni; Bauer, Patricia J.

    2012-01-01

    The first years of life are witness to rapid changes in long-term recall ability. In the present research, we contributed to explanation of the changes by testing the absolute and relative contributions to long-term recall of encoding and post-encoding processes. Using elicited imitation, we sampled the status of 16-, 20-, and 24-month-old infants’ memory representations at various time points after experience of events. In Experiment 1, infants were tested immediately, 1 week after encoding,...

  18. Dual beam encoded extended fractional Fourier transform security ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper describes a simple method for making dual beam encoded extended fractional Fourier transform (EFRT) security holograms. The hologram possesses different stages of encoding so that security features are concealed and remain invisible to the counterfeiter. These concealed and encoded anticounterfeit ...

  19. The Arabic Diatessaron Project: Digitalizing, Encoding, Lemmatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Lancioni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Arabic Diatessaron Project (henceforth ADP is an international research project in Digital Humanities that aims to collect, digitalise and encode all known manuscripts of the Arabic Diatessaron (henceforth AD, a text that has been relatively neglected in scholarly research. ADP’s final goal is to provide a number of tools that can enable scholars to effectively query, compare and investigate all known variants of the text that will be encoded as far as possible in compliance with the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI guidelines. The paper addresses a number of issues involved in the process of digitalising manuscripts included in the two existing editions (Ciasca 1888 and Marmardji 1935, adding variants in unedited manuscripts, encoding and lemmatising the text. Issues involved in the design of the ADP include presentation of variants, choice of the standard text, applicability of TEI guidelines, automatic translation between different encodings, cross-edition concordances and principles of lemmatisation.

  20. Measurement of Inclusive Ds, D0, and J/ψ Rates and Determination of the Bs(*)Bs(*) Production Fraction in bb Events at the Υ(5S) Resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drutskoy, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Kinoshita, K.; Kulasiri, R.; Schwartz, A. J.; Somov, A.; Abe, K.; Adachi, I.; Dragic, J.; Gershon, T.; Haba, J.; Hazumi, M.; Higuchi, T.; Itoh, R.; Iwasaki, Y.; Katayama, N.; Kichimi, H.; Krokovny, P.; Limosani, A.; Nakao, M.

    2007-01-01

    The inclusive production of D s , D 0 , and J/ψ mesons is studied using a 1.86 fb -1 data sample collected on the Υ(5S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e + e - collider. The number of bb events in this Υ(5S) data sample is determined. We measure the branching fractions B(Υ(5S)→D s X)/2=(23.6±1.2±3.6)%, B(Υ(5S)→D 0 X)/2=(53.8±2.0±3.4)%, and B(Υ(5S)→J/ψX)/2=(1.030±0.080±0.067)%. From the D s and D 0 inclusive branching fractions the ratio f s =(18.0±1.3±3.2)% of B s (*) B s (*) to the total bb quark pair production at the Υ(5S) energy is obtained in a model-dependent way

  1. Using XML to encode TMA DES metadata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Lyttleton

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Tissue Microarray Data Exchange Specification (TMA DES is an XML specification for encoding TMA experiment data. While TMA DES data is encoded in XML, the files that describe its syntax, structure, and semantics are not. The DTD format is used to describe the syntax and structure of TMA DES, and the ISO 11179 format is used to define the semantics of TMA DES. However, XML Schema can be used in place of DTDs, and another XML encoded format, RDF, can be used in place of ISO 11179. Encoding all TMA DES data and metadata in XML would simplify the development and usage of programs which validate and parse TMA DES data. XML Schema has advantages over DTDs such as support for data types, and a more powerful means of specifying constraints on data values. An advantage of RDF encoded in XML over ISO 11179 is that XML defines rules for encoding data, whereas ISO 11179 does not. Materials and Methods: We created an XML Schema version of the TMA DES DTD. We wrote a program that converted ISO 11179 definitions to RDF encoded in XML, and used it to convert the TMA DES ISO 11179 definitions to RDF. Results: We validated a sample TMA DES XML file that was supplied with the publication that originally specified TMA DES using our XML Schema. We successfully validated the RDF produced by our ISO 11179 converter with the W3C RDF validation service. Conclusions: All TMA DES data could be encoded using XML, which simplifies its processing. XML Schema allows datatypes and valid value ranges to be specified for CDEs, which enables a wider range of error checking to be performed using XML Schemas than could be performed using DTDs.

  2. Using XML to encode TMA DES metadata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyttleton, Oliver; Wright, Alexander; Treanor, Darren; Lewis, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The Tissue Microarray Data Exchange Specification (TMA DES) is an XML specification for encoding TMA experiment data. While TMA DES data is encoded in XML, the files that describe its syntax, structure, and semantics are not. The DTD format is used to describe the syntax and structure of TMA DES, and the ISO 11179 format is used to define the semantics of TMA DES. However, XML Schema can be used in place of DTDs, and another XML encoded format, RDF, can be used in place of ISO 11179. Encoding all TMA DES data and metadata in XML would simplify the development and usage of programs which validate and parse TMA DES data. XML Schema has advantages over DTDs such as support for data types, and a more powerful means of specifying constraints on data values. An advantage of RDF encoded in XML over ISO 11179 is that XML defines rules for encoding data, whereas ISO 11179 does not. We created an XML Schema version of the TMA DES DTD. We wrote a program that converted ISO 11179 definitions to RDF encoded in XML, and used it to convert the TMA DES ISO 11179 definitions to RDF. We validated a sample TMA DES XML file that was supplied with the publication that originally specified TMA DES using our XML Schema. We successfully validated the RDF produced by our ISO 11179 converter with the W3C RDF validation service. All TMA DES data could be encoded using XML, which simplifies its processing. XML Schema allows datatypes and valid value ranges to be specified for CDEs, which enables a wider range of error checking to be performed using XML Schemas than could be performed using DTDs.

  3. Using XML to encode TMA DES metadata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyttleton, Oliver; Wright, Alexander; Treanor, Darren; Lewis, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Tissue Microarray Data Exchange Specification (TMA DES) is an XML specification for encoding TMA experiment data. While TMA DES data is encoded in XML, the files that describe its syntax, structure, and semantics are not. The DTD format is used to describe the syntax and structure of TMA DES, and the ISO 11179 format is used to define the semantics of TMA DES. However, XML Schema can be used in place of DTDs, and another XML encoded format, RDF, can be used in place of ISO 11179. Encoding all TMA DES data and metadata in XML would simplify the development and usage of programs which validate and parse TMA DES data. XML Schema has advantages over DTDs such as support for data types, and a more powerful means of specifying constraints on data values. An advantage of RDF encoded in XML over ISO 11179 is that XML defines rules for encoding data, whereas ISO 11179 does not. Materials and Methods: We created an XML Schema version of the TMA DES DTD. We wrote a program that converted ISO 11179 definitions to RDF encoded in XML, and used it to convert the TMA DES ISO 11179 definitions to RDF. Results: We validated a sample TMA DES XML file that was supplied with the publication that originally specified TMA DES using our XML Schema. We successfully validated the RDF produced by our ISO 11179 converter with the W3C RDF validation service. Conclusions: All TMA DES data could be encoded using XML, which simplifies its processing. XML Schema allows datatypes and valid value ranges to be specified for CDEs, which enables a wider range of error checking to be performed using XML Schemas than could be performed using DTDs. PMID:21969921

  4. Assimilable organic carbon (AOC) in soil water extracts using Vibrio harveyi BB721 and its implication for microbial biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jincai; Ibekwe, A Mark; Wang, Haizhen; Xu, Jianming; Leddy, Menu; Yang, Ching-Hong; Crowley, David E

    2012-01-01

    Assimilable organic carbon (AOC) is commonly used to measure the growth potential of microorganisms in water, but has not yet been investigated for measuring microbial growth potential in soils. In this study, a simple, rapid, and non-growth based assay to determine AOC in soil was developed using a naturally occurring luminous strain Vibrio harveyi BB721 to determine the fraction of low molecular weight organic carbon in soil water extract. Calibration of the assay was achieved by measuring the luminescence intensity of starved V. harveyi BB721 cells in the late exponential phase with a concentration range from 0 to 800 µg l(-1) glucose (equivalent to 0-16.0 mg glucose C kg(-1) soil) with the detection limit of 10 µg l(-1) equivalent to 0.20 mg glucose C kg(-1) soil. Results showed that bioluminescence was proportional to the concentration of glucose added to soil. The luminescence intensity of the cells was highly pH dependent and the optimal pH was about 7.0. The average AOC concentration in 32 soils tested was 2.9±2.2 mg glucose C kg(-1). Our data showed that AOC levels in soil water extracts were significantly correlated (Pgrowth bioluminescence based assay. Understanding the levels of AOC in soil water extract provides new insights into our ability to estimate the most available carbon pool to bacteria in soil that may be easily assimilated into cells for many metabolic processes and suggest possible the links between AOC, microbial regrowth potential, and microbial biomass in soils.

  5. Extreme expansion of NBS-encoding genes in Rosaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, YanXiao; Yuan, Yang; Zhang, Yanchun; Yang, Sihai; Zhang, Xiaohui

    2015-05-03

    Nucleotide binding site leucine-rich repeats (NBS-LRR) genes encode a large class of disease resistance (R) proteins in plants. Extensive studies have been carried out to identify and investigate NBS-encoding gene families in many important plant species. However, no comprehensive research into NBS-encoding genes in the Rosaceae has been performed. In this study, five whole-genome sequenced Rosaceae species, including apple, pear, peach, mei, and strawberry, were analyzed to investigate the evolutionary pattern of NBS-encoding genes and to compare them to those of three Cucurbitaceae species, cucumber, melon, and watermelon. Considerable differences in the copy number of NBS-encoding genes were observed between Cucurbitaceae and Rosaceae species. In Rosaceae species, a large number and a high proportion of NBS-encoding genes were observed in peach (437, 1.52%), mei (475, 1.51%), strawberry (346, 1.05%) and pear (617, 1.44%), and apple contained a whopping 1303 (2.05%) NBS-encoding genes, which might be the highest number of R-genes in all of these reported diploid plant. However, no more than 100 NBS-encoding genes were identified in Cucurbitaceae. Many more species-specific gene families were classified and detected with the signature of positive selection in Rosaceae species, especially in the apple genome. Taken together, our findings indicate that NBS-encoding genes in Rosaceae, especially in apple, have undergone extreme expansion and rapid adaptive evolution. Useful information was provided for further research on the evolutionary mode of disease resistance genes in Rosaceae crops.

  6. Aerobic Exercise During Encoding Impairs Hippocampus-Dependent Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, Keishi; Kamijo, Keita; Masaki, Hiroaki

    2017-08-01

    We investigated how aerobic exercise during encoding affects hippocampus-dependent memory through a source memory task that assessed hippocampus-independent familiarity and hippocampus-dependent recollection processes. Using a within-participants design, young adult participants performed a memory-encoding task while performing a cycling exercise or being seated. The subsequent retrieval phase was conducted while sitting on a chair. We assessed behavioral and event-related brain potential measures of familiarity and recollection processes during the retrieval phase. Results indicated that source accuracy was lower for encoding with exercise than for encoding in the resting condition. Event-related brain potential measures indicated that the parietal old/new effect, which has been linked to recollection processing, was observed in the exercise condition, whereas it was absent in the rest condition, which is indicative of exercise-induced hippocampal activation. These findings suggest that aerobic exercise during encoding impairs hippocampus-dependent memory, which may be attributed to inefficient source encoding during aerobic exercise.

  7. Disturbed zone modelling SVC validation drift using UDEC-BB, models 1 to 8 - Stripa phase 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monsen, K.; Makurat, A.; Barton, N.

    1991-01-01

    Several rock mechanics studies were performed within the site characterization and validation (SCV) project at Stripa. Joints represented in Harwell's stochastically generated 8m x 8m x 8m cubes were used to select four possible joints geometries for two-dimensional rock mechanics simulations of the 2.8 x 2.2 m validation drift, and the rock mass response to its excavation. The joints intersecting the four end faces of these cubes were set up in distinct element UDEC-BB models, and loaded with boundary stresses of 10 MPa vertically and 14 to 18 MPa horizontally. In numerical models 1, 2, 3 and 4 average values of the Barton Bandis joint parameters JRC, JCS and φ r were utilized for all joints, irrespective of length. These values were obtained from NGI's index characterization of 220 joints in 100 mm core and from 200 mm diameter and 1 x 1 2m block testing were coupled closure-shear-flow testing (CSFT) was also performed. In numerical models 5, 6, 7, 8 the same joint geometries were utilized with length-dependent values of JRC, JCS and φ r . The longest joints were given low values representing mineralized persistent discontinuities, while the shortest joints were given high values. Detailed analyses were made of the tangential and radial stress magnitudes that were obtained in the four UDEC-BB discontinuum models 5, 6, 7 and 8. Results were presented for all sectors of the models as a function of radius from the drift walls. These stress magnitudes were compared with those from an equivalent continuum model which showed, as expected, much more predictable stress gradients. Modelled drift closures ranged from 2 to 3 mm in the jointed models and from 1 to 1.5 mm in the continuum model. Local tensile stress development maximum 28 MPa, and local shearing of individual joints, maximum 1.0 mm, were a feature of the jointed models. Peak tangential stresses locally reached 54 to 74 MPa in the jointed models compared to 43 MPa in the continuum model. (au)

  8. Convolutional over Recurrent Encoder for Neural Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakwale Praveen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Neural machine translation is a recently proposed approach which has shown competitive results to traditional MT approaches. Standard neural MT is an end-to-end neural network where the source sentence is encoded by a recurrent neural network (RNN called encoder and the target words are predicted using another RNN known as decoder. Recently, various models have been proposed which replace the RNN encoder with a convolutional neural network (CNN. In this paper, we propose to augment the standard RNN encoder in NMT with additional convolutional layers in order to capture wider context in the encoder output. Experiments on English to German translation demonstrate that our approach can achieve significant improvements over a standard RNN-based baseline.

  9. Exploring the influence of encoding format on subsequent memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Indira C; Dennis, Nancy A; Maillet, David; Rajah, M Natasha

    2017-05-01

    Distinctive encoding is greatly influenced by gist-based processes and has been shown to suffer when highly similar items are presented in close succession. Thus, elucidating the mechanisms underlying how presentation format affects gist processing is essential in determining the factors that influence these encoding processes. The current study utilised multivariate partial least squares (PLS) analysis to identify encoding networks directly associated with retrieval performance in a blocked and intermixed presentation condition. Subsequent memory analysis for successfully encoded items indicated no significant differences between reaction time and retrieval performance and presentation format. Despite no significant behavioural differences, behaviour PLS revealed differences in brain-behaviour correlations and mean condition activity in brain regions associated with gist-based vs. distinctive encoding. Specifically, the intermixed format encouraged more distinctive encoding, showing increased activation of regions associated with strategy use and visual processing (e.g., frontal and visual cortices, respectively). Alternatively, the blocked format exhibited increased gist-based processes, accompanied by increased activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus. Together, results suggest that the sequence that information is presented during encoding affects the degree to which distinctive encoding is engaged. These findings extend our understanding of the Fuzzy Trace Theory and the role of presentation format on encoding processes.

  10. Source-constrained retrieval influences the encoding of new information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danckert, Stacey L; MacLeod, Colin M; Fernandes, Myra A

    2011-11-01

    Jacoby, Shimizu, Daniels, and Rhodes (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 12, 852-857, 2005) showed that new words presented as foils among a list of old words that had been deeply encoded were themselves subsequently better recognized than new words presented as foils among a list of old words that had been shallowly encoded. In Experiment 1, by substituting a deep-versus-shallow imagery manipulation for the levels-of-processing manipulation, we demonstrated that the effect is robust and that it generalizes, also occurring with a different type of encoding. In Experiment 2, we provided more direct evidence for context-related encoding during tests of deeply encoded words, showing enhanced priming for foils presented among deeply encoded targets when participants made the same deep-encoding judgments on those items as had been made on the targets during study. In Experiment 3, we established that the findings from Experiment 2 are restricted to this specific deep judgment task and are not a general consequence of these foils being associated with deeply encoded items. These findings provide support for the source-constrained retrieval hypothesis of Jacoby, Shimizu, Daniels, and Rhodes: New information can be influenced by how surrounding items are encoded and retrieved, as long as the surrounding items recruit a coherent mode of processing.

  11. Frequency of antibodies to Babesia bigemina, B. bovis, Anaplasma marginale, Trypanosoma vivax and Borrelia burdgorferi in cattle from the northeastern region of the state of Pará, Brazil Freqüência de anticorpos para Babesia bigemina, B. bovis, Anaplasma marginale, Trypanosoma vivax e Borrelia burgdorferi em bovinos do nordeste do Estado do Pará, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S. Guedes Junior

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Babesiosis, anaplasmosis, and trypanosomosis are relevant diseases, potentially causing morbidity in cattle, leading to economic losses. Borreliosis is import as a potential zoonosis. The objective of this study was to determine, by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, the frequency of seropositive cattle to Babesia bigemina, B. bovis, Anaplasma marginale, Trypanosoma vivax and Borrelia burgdorferi in cattle from the Northeastern region of Pará, Brazil. Sera samples from 246 female adult cattle from municipalities of Castanhal and São Miguel do Guamá were used. Crude antigens ELISAs were used to detect antibodies to all agents, except to A. marginale, to which an indirect ELISA with recombinant major surface 1a protein (MSP1a antigen was used. Overall frequencies of seropositive animals were: B. bigemina - 99.2%; B. bovis - 98.8%; A. marginale - 68.3%; T. vivax - 93.1% and B. burgdorferi - 54.9%. The frequencies of seropositive cattle to B. bovis and B. bigemina suggest a high rate of transmission of these organisms by tick in the studied region, which can be classified as enzootically stable to these hemoprotozoans. The low frequency of seropositive cattle to A. marginale may be attributed to a lower sensitivity of the recombinant antigen ELISA utilized or a distinct rate of inoculation of this rickettsia by ticks, as compared with Babesia sp. transmission. The high frequency of seropositive cattle to T. vivax indicates that this hemoprotozoan is prevalent in herds from the Northeastern region of Pará. The rate of animal that showed homologues antibodies to B. burgdorferi indicates the presence of the tickborne spirochaetal agent in the cattle population in the studied region.A babesiose, a anaplasmose e a tripanossomose são enfermidades relevantes, potencialmente causadoras de morbidade em bovinos, levando a perdas econômicas. A borreliose assume importância como zoonose potencial. O objetivo desse estudo foi determinar

  12. Hall effect encoding of brushless dc motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berard, C. A.; Furia, T. J.; Goldberg, E. A.; Greene, R. C.

    1970-01-01

    Encoding mechanism integral to the motor and using the permanent magnets embedded in the rotor eliminates the need for external devices to encode information relating the position and velocity of the rotating member.

  13. Multichannel compressive sensing MRI using noiselet encoding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamlesh Pawar

    Full Text Available The incoherence between measurement and sparsifying transform matrices and the restricted isometry property (RIP of measurement matrix are two of the key factors in determining the performance of compressive sensing (CS. In CS-MRI, the randomly under-sampled Fourier matrix is used as the measurement matrix and the wavelet transform is usually used as sparsifying transform matrix. However, the incoherence between the randomly under-sampled Fourier matrix and the wavelet matrix is not optimal, which can deteriorate the performance of CS-MRI. Using the mathematical result that noiselets are maximally incoherent with wavelets, this paper introduces the noiselet unitary bases as the measurement matrix to improve the incoherence and RIP in CS-MRI. Based on an empirical RIP analysis that compares the multichannel noiselet and multichannel Fourier measurement matrices in CS-MRI, we propose a multichannel compressive sensing (MCS framework to take the advantage of multichannel data acquisition used in MRI scanners. Simulations are presented in the MCS framework to compare the performance of noiselet encoding reconstructions and Fourier encoding reconstructions at different acceleration factors. The comparisons indicate that multichannel noiselet measurement matrix has better RIP than that of its Fourier counterpart, and that noiselet encoded MCS-MRI outperforms Fourier encoded MCS-MRI in preserving image resolution and can achieve higher acceleration factors. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed noiselet encoding scheme, a pulse sequences with tailored spatially selective RF excitation pulses was designed and implemented on a 3T scanner to acquire the data in the noiselet domain from a phantom and a human brain. The results indicate that noislet encoding preserves image resolution better than Fouirer encoding.

  14. Low Complexity HEVC Encoder for Visual Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoqing Pan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Visual sensor networks (VSNs can be widely applied in security surveillance, environmental monitoring, smart rooms, etc. However, with the increased number of camera nodes in VSNs, the volume of the visual information data increases significantly, which becomes a challenge for storage, processing and transmitting the visual data. The state-of-the-art video compression standard, high efficiency video coding (HEVC, can effectively compress the raw visual data, while the higher compression rate comes at the cost of heavy computational complexity. Hence, reducing the encoding complexity becomes vital for the HEVC encoder to be used in VSNs. In this paper, we propose a fast coding unit (CU depth decision method to reduce the encoding complexity of the HEVC encoder for VSNs. Firstly, the content property of the CU is analyzed. Then, an early CU depth decision method and a low complexity distortion calculation method are proposed for the CUs with homogenous content. Experimental results show that the proposed method achieves 71.91% on average encoding time savings for the HEVC encoder for VSNs.

  15. A genome-wide survey for host response of silkworm, Bombyx mori during pathogen Bacillus bombyseptieus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulin Huang

    Full Text Available Host-pathogen interactions are complex relationships, and a central challenge is to reveal the interactions between pathogens and their hosts. Bacillus bombysepticus (Bb which can produces spores and parasporal crystals was firstly separated from the corpses of the infected silkworms (Bombyx mori. Bb naturally infects the silkworm can cause an acute fuliginosa septicaemia and kill the silkworm larvae generally within one day in the hot and humid season. Bb pathogen of the silkworm can be used for investigating the host responses after the infection. Gene expression profiling during four time-points of silkworm whole larvae after Bb infection was performed to gain insight into the mechanism of Bb-associated host whole body effect. Genome-wide survey of the host genes demonstrated many genes and pathways modulated after the infection. GO analysis of the induced genes indicated that their functions could be divided into 14 categories. KEGG pathway analysis identified that six types of basal metabolic pathway were regulated, including genetic information processing and transcription, carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid and nitrogen metabolism, nucleotide metabolism, metabolism of cofactors and vitamins, and xenobiotic biodegradation and metabolism. Similar to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt, Bb can also induce a silkworm poisoning-related response. In this process, genes encoding midgut peritrophic membrane proteins, aminopeptidase N receptors and sodium/calcium exchange protein showed modulation. For the first time, we found that Bb induced a lot of genes involved in juvenile hormone synthesis and metabolism pathway upregulated. Bb also triggered the host immune responses, including cellular immune response and serine protease cascade melanization response. Real time PCR analysis showed that Bb can induce the silkworm systemic immune response, mainly by the Toll pathway. Anti-microorganism peptides (AMPs, including of Attacin, Lebocin, Enbocin, Gloverin

  16. Negative affect promotes encoding of and memory for details at the expense of the gist: affect, encoding, and false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storbeck, Justin

    2013-01-01

    I investigated whether negative affective states enhance encoding of and memory for item-specific information reducing false memories. Positive, negative, and neutral moods were induced, and participants then completed a Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false-memory task. List items were presented in unique spatial locations or unique fonts to serve as measures for item-specific encoding. The negative mood conditions had more accurate memories for item-specific information, and they also had fewer false memories. The final experiment used a manipulation that drew attention to distinctive information, which aided learning for DRM words, but also promoted item-specific encoding. For the condition that promoted item-specific encoding, false memories were reduced for positive and neutral mood conditions to a rate similar to that of the negative mood condition. These experiments demonstrated that negative affective cues promote item-specific processing reducing false memories. People in positive and negative moods encode events differently creating different memories for the same event.

  17. Assessment of Inheritance and Fitness Costs Associated with Field-Evolved Resistance to Cry3Bb1 Maize by Western Corn Rootworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolino, Aubrey R; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2017-05-11

    The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is among the most serious insect pests of maize in North America. One strategy used to manage this pest is transgenic maize that produces one or more crystalline (Cry) toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). To delay Bt resistance by insect pests, refuges of non-Bt maize are grown in conjunction with Bt maize. Two factors influencing the success of the refuge strategy to delay resistance are the inheritance of resistance and fitness costs, with greater delays in resistance expected when inheritance of resistance is recessive and fitness costs are present. We measured inheritance and fitness costs of resistance for two strains of western corn rootworm with field-evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 maize. Plant-based and diet-based bioassays revealed that the inheritance of resistance was non-recessive. In a greenhouse experiment, in which larvae were reared on whole maize plants in field soil, no fitness costs of resistance were detected. In a laboratory experiment, in which larvae experienced intraspecific and interspecific competition for food, a fitness cost of delayed larval development was identified, however, no other fitness costs were found. These findings of non-recessive inheritance of resistance and minimal fitness costs, highlight the potential for the rapid evolution of resistance to Cry3Bb1 maize by western corn rootworm, and may help to improve resistance management strategies for this pest.

  18. Assessment of Inheritance and Fitness Costs Associated with Field-Evolved Resistance to Cry3Bb1 Maize by Western Corn Rootworm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubrey R. Paolino

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is among the most serious insect pests of maize in North America. One strategy used to manage this pest is transgenic maize that produces one or more crystalline (Cry toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt. To delay Bt resistance by insect pests, refuges of non-Bt maize are grown in conjunction with Bt maize. Two factors influencing the success of the refuge strategy to delay resistance are the inheritance of resistance and fitness costs, with greater delays in resistance expected when inheritance of resistance is recessive and fitness costs are present. We measured inheritance and fitness costs of resistance for two strains of western corn rootworm with field-evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 maize. Plant-based and diet-based bioassays revealed that the inheritance of resistance was non-recessive. In a greenhouse experiment, in which larvae were reared on whole maize plants in field soil, no fitness costs of resistance were detected. In a laboratory experiment, in which larvae experienced intraspecific and interspecific competition for food, a fitness cost of delayed larval development was identified, however, no other fitness costs were found. These findings of non-recessive inheritance of resistance and minimal fitness costs, highlight the potential for the rapid evolution of resistance to Cry3Bb1 maize by western corn rootworm, and may help to improve resistance management strategies for this pest.

  19. Selection of Co-Substrate and Aeration Conditions for Vanillin Production by Escherichia coli JM109/pBB1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Torre

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Yeast extract, Luria-Bertani medium and tryptone were tested as co-substrates for vanillin production from ferulic acid by resting cells of Escherichia coli JM109/pBB1. Yeast extract proved to be the best component for sustaining such a bioconversion, which is not self-sustained from the bioenergetic point of view. Tests were also performed under variable aeration conditions by simultaneously varying the ratio of medium to vessel volume and the agitation speed. The results of these tests suggest that, under excess aeration, a non-specific oxidase activity was very likely responsible for the oxidation of a significant portion of vanillin to vanillic acid, thus reducing the vanillin yield.

  20. Effect of yoghurt containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12® on faecal excretion of secretory immunoglobulin A and human beta-defensin 2 in healthy adult volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabeerdoss Jayakanthan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Probiotics are used to provide health benefits. The present study tested the effect of a probiotic yoghurt on faecal output of beta-defensin and immunoglobulin A in a group of young healthy women eating a defined diet. Findings 26 women aged 18-21 (median 19 years residing in a hostel were given 200 ml normal yoghurt every day for a week, followed by probiotic yoghurt containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12® (109 in 200 ml for three weeks, followed again by normal yoghurt for four weeks. Stool samples were collected at 0, 4 and 8 weeks and assayed for immunoglobulin A and human beta-defensin-2 by ELISA. All participants tolerated both normal and probiotic yoghurt well. Human beta-defensin-2 levels in faeces were not altered during the course of the study. On the other hand, compared to the basal sample, faecal IgA increased during probiotic feeding (P = 0.0184 and returned to normal after cessation of probiotic yoghurt intake. Conclusions Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12® increased secretory IgA output in faeces. This property may explain the ability of probiotics to prevent gastrointestinal and lower respiratory tract infections.

  1. Evaluation of color encodings for high dynamic range pixels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitard, Ronan; Mantiuk, Rafal K.; Pouli, Tania

    2015-03-01

    Traditional Low Dynamic Range (LDR) color spaces encode a small fraction of the visible color gamut, which does not encompass the range of colors produced on upcoming High Dynamic Range (HDR) displays. Future imaging systems will require encoding much wider color gamut and luminance range. Such wide color gamut can be represented using floating point HDR pixel values but those are inefficient to encode. They also lack perceptual uniformity of the luminance and color distribution, which is provided (in approximation) by most LDR color spaces. Therefore, there is a need to devise an efficient, perceptually uniform and integer valued representation for high dynamic range pixel values. In this paper we evaluate several methods for encoding colour HDR pixel values, in particular for use in image and video compression. Unlike other studies we test both luminance and color difference encoding in a rigorous 4AFC threshold experiments to determine the minimum bit-depth required. Results show that the Perceptual Quantizer (PQ) encoding provides the best perceptual uniformity in the considered luminance range, however the gain in bit-depth is rather modest. More significant difference can be observed between color difference encoding schemes, from which YDuDv encoding seems to be the most efficient.

  2. Security enhanced BioEncoding for protecting iris codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouda, Osama; Tsumura, Norimichi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya

    2011-06-01

    Improving the security of biometric template protection techniques is a key prerequisite for the widespread deployment of biometric technologies. BioEncoding is a recently proposed template protection scheme, based on the concept of cancelable biometrics, for protecting biometric templates represented as binary strings such as iris codes. The main advantage of BioEncoding over other template protection schemes is that it does not require user-specific keys and/or tokens during verification. Besides, it satisfies all the requirements of the cancelable biometrics construct without deteriorating the matching accuracy. However, although it has been shown that BioEncoding is secure enough against simple brute-force search attacks, the security of BioEncoded templates against more smart attacks, such as record multiplicity attacks, has not been sufficiently investigated. In this paper, a rigorous security analysis of BioEncoding is presented. Firstly, resistance of BioEncoded templates against brute-force attacks is revisited thoroughly. Secondly, we show that although the cancelable transformation employed in BioEncoding might be non-invertible for a single protected template, the original iris code could be inverted by correlating several templates used in different applications but created from the same iris. Accordingly, we propose an important modification to the BioEncoding transformation process in order to hinder attackers from exploiting this type of attacks. The effectiveness of adopting the suggested modification is validated and its impact on the matching accuracy is investigated empirically using CASIA-IrisV3-Interval dataset. Experimental results confirm the efficacy of the proposed approach and show that it preserves the matching accuracy of the unprotected iris recognition system.

  3. cDNA sequences of two inducible T-cell genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, B.S. (Indiana Univ. School of Medicine, Indianapolis (USA) Guthrie Research Institute, Sayre, PA (USA)); Weissman, S.M. (Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (USA))

    1989-03-01

    The authors have previously described a set of human T-lymphocyte-specific cDNA clones isolated by a modified differential screening procedure. Apparent full-length cDNAs containing the sequences of 14 of the 16 initial isolates were sequenced and were found to represent five different species of mRNA; three of the five species were identical to previously reported cDNA sequences of preproenkephalin, T-cell-replacing factor, and a serine esterase, respectively. The other two species, 4-1BB and L2G25B, were inducible sequences found in mRNA from both a cytolytic T-lymphocyte and a helper T-lymphocyte clone and were not previously described in T-cell mRNA; these mRNA sequences encode peptides of 256 and 92 amino acids, respectively. Both peptides contain putative leader sequences. The protein encoded by 4-1BB also has a potential membrane anchor segment and other features also seen in known receptor proteins.

  4. Clinical characteristics associated with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato skin culture results in patients with erythema migrans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franc Strle

    Full Text Available Clinical characteristics associated with isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from skin have not been fully evaluated. To gain insight into predictors for a positive EM skin culture, we compared basic demographic, epidemiologic, and clinical data in 608 culture-proven and 501 culture-negative adult patients with solitary EM. A positive Borrelia spp. skin culture was associated with older age, a time interval of >2 days between tick bite and onset of the skin lesion, EM ≥ 5 cm in diameter, and location of the lesion on the extremities, whereas several other characteristics used as clinical case definition criteria for the diagnosis of EM (such as tick bite at the site of later EM, information on expansion of the skin lesion, central clearing were not. A patient with a 15-cm EM lesion had almost 3-fold greater odds for a positive skin culture than patients with a 5-cm lesion. Patients with a free time interval between the tick bite and onset of EM had the same probability of a positive skin culture as those who did not recall a tick bite (OR=1.02; however, the two groups had >3-fold greater odds for EM positivity than patients who reported a tick bite with no interval between the bite and onset of the lesion. In conclusion, several yet not all clinical characteristics used in EM case definitions were associated with positive Borrelia spp. skin culture. The findings are limited to European patients with solitary EM caused predominantly by B. afzelii but may not be valid for other situations.

  5. Deep and shallow encoding effects on face recognition: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzi, Tessa; Viggiano, Maria Pia

    2010-12-01

    Event related potentials (ERPs) were employed to investigate whether and when brain activity related to face recognition varies according to the processing level undertaken at encoding. Recognition was assessed when preceded by a "shallow" (orientation judgement) or by a "deep" study task (occupation judgement). Moreover, we included a further manipulation by presenting at encoding faces either in the upright or inverted orientation. As expected, deeply encoded faces were recognized more accurately and more quickly with respect to shallowly encoded faces. The ERP showed three main findings: i) as witnessed by more positive-going potentials for deeply encoded faces, at early and later processing stage, face recognition was influenced by the processing strategy adopted during encoding; ii) structural encoding, indexed by the N170, turned out to be "cognitively penetrable" showing repetition priming effects for deeply encoded faces; iii) face inversion, by disrupting configural processing during encoding, influenced memory related processes for deeply encoded faces and impaired the recognition of faces shallowly processed. The present study adds weight to the concept that the depth of processing during memory encoding affects retrieval. We found that successful retrieval following deep encoding involved both familiarity- and recollection-related processes showing from 500 ms a fronto-parietal distribution, whereas shallow encoding affected only earlier processing stages reflecting perceptual priming. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Review of Random Phase Encoding in Volume Holographic Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chia Su

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Random phase encoding is a unique technique for volume hologram which can be applied to various applications such as holographic multiplexing storage, image encryption, and optical sensing. In this review article, we first review and discuss diffraction selectivity of random phase encoding in volume holograms, which is the most important parameter related to multiplexing capacity of volume holographic storage. We then review an image encryption system based on random phase encoding. The alignment of phase key for decryption of the encoded image stored in holographic memory is analyzed and discussed. In the latter part of the review, an all-optical sensing system implemented by random phase encoding and holographic interconnection is presented.

  7. New recombinant bacterium comprises a heterologous gene encoding glycerol dehydrogenase and/or an up-regulated native gene encoding glycerol dehydrogenase, useful for producing ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    dehydrogenase encoding region of the bacterium, or is inserted into a phosphotransacetylase encoding region of the bacterium, or is inserted into an acetate kinase encoding region of the bacterium. It is operably linked to an inducible, a regulated or a constitutive promoter. The up-regulated glycerol......TECHNOLOGY FOCUS - BIOTECHNOLOGY - Preparation (claimed): Producing recombinant bacterium having enhanced ethanol production characteristics when cultivated in growth medium comprising glycerol comprises: (a) transforming a parental bacterium by (i) the insertion of a heterologous gene encoding...... glycerol dehy