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Sample records for bur bignoniaceae extracts

  1. Studies on the antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp toxicity of Zeyheria tuberculosa (Vell. Bur. (Bignoniaceae extracts and their main constituents

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    Rocha Eliana MM

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the indiscriminate use of antimicrobial drugs, the emergence of human pathogenic microorganisms resistant to major classes of antibiotics has been increased and has caused many clinical problems in the treatment of infectious diseases. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate for the first time the in vitro antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp lethality of extracts and isolated compounds from Zeyheria tuberculosa (Vell. Bur., a species used in Brazilian folk medicine for treatment of cancer and skin diseases. Methods Using the disc diffusion method, bioautography assay and brine shrimp toxicity test (Artemia salina Leach, we studied the antimicrobial activity and lethality of extracts and isolated compounds against three microorganisms strains, including Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria and yeasts (Candida albicans. Results In this study, the extracts inhibited S. aureus (8.0 ± 0.0 to 14.0 ± 0.0 mm and C. albicans (15.3 ± 0.68 to 25.6 ± 0.4 mm growth. In the brine shrimp test, only two of them showed toxic effects (LC50 29.55 to 398.05 μg/mL and some extracts were non-toxic or showed weak lethality (LC50 705.02 to > 1000 μg/mL. From these extracts, four flavones [5,6,7,8-tetramethoxyflavone (1, 5,6,7-trimethoxyflavone (2, 4'-hydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetramethoxyflavone (3, and 4'-hydroxy-5,6,7-trimethoxyflavone (4] were isolated through bioassay-guided fractionation and identified based on the 1D and 2D NMR spectral data. By bioautography assays, compounds 1 [S. aureus (16.0 ± 0.0 mm and C. albicans (20.0 ± 0.0 mm] and 3 [S. aureus (10.3 ± 0.6 mm and C. albicans (19.7 ± 0.6 mm] inhibited both microorganisms while 2 inhibited only S. aureus (11.7 ± 0.6 mm. Compound 4 did not restrain the growth of any tested microorganism. Conclusion Our results showed that extracts and isolated flavones from Z. tuberculosa may be particularly useful against two pathogenic

  2. Anthelmintic and cytotoxic activities of extracts of Markhamia obtusifolia Sprague (Bignoniaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nchu, F; Githiori, J B; McGaw, L J; Eloff, J N

    2011-12-29

    The anthelmintic activity of Markhamia obtusifolia Sprague (Bignoniaceae) leaf extracts was evaluated against the ruminant gastrointestinal nematode parasite Trichostrongylus colubriformis (Nematoda: Strongylida) using the in vitro egg hatch test. Also, the cytotoxic activity of aqueous extracts of M. obtusifolia was evaluated in cell line cytotoxicity assays. The results indicated that the effective concentration (EC(50)) for the water extract of M. obtusifolia leaves (0.46 mg/mL; Confidence Interval [CI] 0.3-0.5mg/mL) was significantly lower than the EC(50) for the acetone extract of M. obtusifolia (0.8 mg/mL; CI 0.7-1mg/mL). Aqueous extracts were twice as potent as the acetone extracts. The EC(90) (0.2mg/mL; CI 0.1-0.02) for thiabendazole (positive control) was significantly lower than the EC(90) for the water extract of M. obtusifolia (10.7 mg/mL; CI 8.3-13.7 mg/mL). In the cytotoxicity bioassay, the lethal concentration (LC(50)) for the aqueous extract of M. obtusifolia was 0.476 mg/mL, which was relatively high (low toxicity) in comparison to the highly toxic berberine (LC(50)=9.80 μg/mL). The current study showed that M. obtusifolia plant extracts possess anthelmintic activity and are relatively non-cytotoxic, thus providing support for their use in traditional veterinary practices.

  3. Evaluation of antihyperglycemic activity of methanolic Tecomaria capensis Thunb. (Bignoniaceae) leaves extract in alloxan induced hyperglycemic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saini NK; Singhal M

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antihyperglycemic activity of Tecomaria capensis (T. capensis) Thunb. (Bignoniaceae) methanolic leaves extract (TCLE) using blood glucose level in normal fasted rats, glucose tolerance test and alloxan induced hyperglycemia models. Methods: TCLE (100, 300, 1 000 and 2 000 mg/kg body wt.) was given to rats orally to observe acute toxicity, and observed for 14 d. TCLE 200 and 400 mg/kg, and glibenclamide 0.6 mg/kg were given orally in all models. Results: Results demonstrated that the no mortality was reported even after 14 d. This indicates that the methanol extract is safe up to a single dose of 2 000 mg/kg body weight. TCLE (200 and 400 mg/kg p.o.) exhibited remarkable blood glucose lowering effect in blood glucose level in normal fasted rats, glucose tolerance and alloxan induced hyperglycemia model. Cholesterol and triglyceride also decreased in alloxan induced hyperglycemia model. Conclusions: The results of this study exhibites that methanol extract of T. capensis possesses antihypergycemic activity and it may prove to be effective for the treatment of hyperglycemia.

  4. Code Generation = A* + BURS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nymeyer, A.; Katoen, J.P.; Westra, Y.; Alblas, H.; Gyimóthy, T.

    1996-01-01

    A system called BURS that is based on term rewrite systems and a search algorithm A* are combined to produce a code generator that generates optimal code. The theory underlying BURS is re-developed, formalised and explained in this work. The search algorithm uses a cost heuristic that is derived fro

  5. Evaluation of anti-nociceptive activity of methanolic extract of Tecomaria capensis Thunb. (Bignoniaceae) leaves in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saini NK; Singhal M

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the anti-nociceptive activity of Tecomaria capensis (T. capensis) leaves extract (TCLE) using different models in rats by acetic acid induced writhing test, (b) tail-flick test (c) tail-clip test. Methods:TCLE (100, 300, 1 000 and 2 000 mg/kg body wt.) was given to rats orally to observe acute toxicity for 14 d. Then test drug TCLE were given at dose of 100, 200 and 500 mg/kg p.o. and standard drug aspirin were given at a dose of 100 mg/kg p.o. Results: No mortality was reported even after 14 d. This indicates that the methanol extract is safe up to a single dose of 2 000 mg/kg body weight. TCLE (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) significantly inhibited abdominal constrictions (writhing) induced by acetic acid and increased the latency period in the tail flick and tail clip test. TCLE at the dose of 500 mg/kg showed significant anti-nociceptive activity compared to standard aspirin. Discussions:The results of this study show that methanol extract of T. capensis possesses anti-nociceptive activity which may be mediated by the central and peripheral mechanisms.

  6. Análise fitoquímica e atividade antimicobacteriana de extratos metanólicos de Jacaranda cuspidifolia Mart. (Bignoniaceae Phytochemical analysis and antimycobacterial activity of methanol extracts from Jacaranda cuspidifolia Mart. (Bignoniaceae

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    A.L.A. Arruda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Jacaranda cuspidifolia Mart., conhecida popularmente como "caroba", "jacarandá" ou "bolacheira", é utilizada medicinalmente para o tratamento da sífilis e da gonorréia. A atividade antimicobacteriana dessa espécie foi avaliada em ensaios in vitro com os extratos metanólicos das cascas e folhas, segundo o Método Analítico Alamar Blue (MABA. Os valores de concentração inibitória mínima para os extratos metanólicos das cascas e das folhas de J. cuspidifolia foram iguais a CIM = 250 μg mL-1 para ambos os extratos. A análise fitoquímica, por Cromatografia em Camada Delgada de gel de sílica, dos extratos metanólicos das cascas e folhas revelou a presença de taninos, flavonóides, terpenos, cumarinas e esteróides. A análise dos perfis dos extratos metanólicos por Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência de Fase Reversa registrou a presença de compostos fenólicos derivados do verbascosídeo sugerindo a provável responsabilidade pela ação antimicobacteriana.Jacaranda cuspidifolia Mart., popularly known as "caroba", "jacaranda" or "bolacheira", is used as medicine for the treatment of syphilis and gonorrhea. The antimycobacterial activity of this species was assessed by means of in vitro assays with methanol extracts of barks and leaves according to the Microplate Alamar Blue Assay (MABA. The minimal inhibitory concentration values for methanol extracts of barks and leaves from J. cuspidifolia were MIC = 250 μg mL-1 for both extracts. Phytochemical analysis, by Thin Layer Chromatography on silica gel, of methanol extracts of barks and leaves revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, terpenes, cumarins and steroids. Analysis of the profiles of methanol extracts by High Performance Liquid Chromatography - Reversed Phase recorded the presence of phenolic compounds derivatives of verbascoside, suggesting their probable responsibility for the antimycobacterial action.

  7. Bignoniaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1974-01-01

    Trees, shrubs, lianas, very rarely herbaceous (extra-Mal.); twigs often lenticellate and nodes with gland fields; spines very rare (extra-Mal.). Stipules absent. Leaves simple or mostly compound (digitate or impari-1-4-pinnate), (in Mal.) decussate, rarely in whorls of 3-4, often provided with gland

  8. In vitro effects of crude extracts of Parkia biglobosa (Mimosaceae), Stereospermum kunthianum (Bignoniaceae) and Biophytum petersianum (Oxalidaceae) on corticosteroid secretion in rat.

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    Kodjo, K M; Contesse, V; Do Rego, J L; Aklikokou, K; Titrikou, S; Gbeassor, M; Vaudry, H

    2006-08-01

    Previous studies conducted in guinea pig, rat and rabbit have revealed that crude extracts from Parkia biglobosa, Stereospermum kunthianum and Biophytum petersianum exert hypotensive and/or hypoglycemic activities. Since corticosteroids are involved in the control of arterial blood pressure and glycemia, we have investigated the possible effects of these plant extracts on rat adrenal tissue in vitro. Short-term administration of crude semi-ethanolic extracts of P. biglobosa and S. kunthianum to perifused rat adrenal tissue did not induce any significant changes in corticosteroid output. Conversely, the B. petersianum extract caused a dose-dependent increase in corticosterone and aldosterone secretion. Repeated infusions or prolonged administration of B. petersianum extract did not produce any apparent attenuation of the steroid response. Altogether, these data indicate that a semi-ethanolic extract of B. petersianum dose-dependently stimulates corticosterone and aldosterone secretion in rat without any desensitization phenomenon.

  9. 21 CFR 872.3240 - Dental bur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental bur. 872.3240 Section 872.3240 Food and... DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3240 Dental bur. (a) Identification. A dental bur is a rotary... materials intended for use in the fabrication of dental devices. (b) Classification. Class I...

  10. The distribution of iridoids in Bignoniaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Poser, Gilsane Lino; Schripsema, Jan; Henriques, Amelia T.;

    2000-01-01

    The distribution of iridoids among the tribes of Bignoniaceae is shown. In the present work, 18 species from the tribes Bignonieae and Tecomeae as well as one from Eccremocarpae have been investigated. These data combined with those obtained through a literature review were analysed and showed th...

  11. Antioxidant Potential of Polyphenols and Tannins from Burs of Castanea mollissima Blume

    OpenAIRE

    Chao Ma; Ling Ling Shi; Yu Jun Liu; Si Yu Chen; Jie Yuan Liu; Shan Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Spiny burs of Castanea mollissima Blume (Chinese chestnut) are usually discarded as industrial waste during post-harvesting processing. The objective of this study was to establish an extraction and isolation procedure for tannins from chestnut burs, and to assess their potential antioxidant activity. Aqueous ethanol solution was used as extraction solvent, and HPD 100 macroporous resin column was applied for isolation. The influence of solvent concentration in the extraction and elution proc...

  12. In vitro antiplasmodial activity and cytotoxicity of crude extracts and compounds from the stem bark of Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth (Bignoniaceae).

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    Zofou, Denis; Kengne, Archile Bernabe Ouambo; Tene, Mathieu; Ngemenya, Moses N; Tane, Pierre; Titanji, Vincent P K

    2011-06-01

    In order to assess the potential of the stem bark of Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth as source of new anti-malarial leads, n-hexane and ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extracts and four compounds isolated from the stem bark were screened in vitro against the chloroquine-resistant W-2 and two field isolates of Plasmodium falciparum using lactate dehydrogenase assay. The products were also tested for their cytotoxicity on LLC/MK2 monkey kidney cells. The EtOAc extract exhibited a significant antiplasmodial activity (IC(50) = 11.15 μg/mL on W-2; 3.91 and 4.74 μg/mL on field CAM10 and SHF4 isolates, respectively), whereas the n-hexane fraction showed a weak activity (IC(50) = 73.78 μg/mL on W-2 and 21.85 μg/mL on SHF4). Three out of the four compounds showed good activity against all the three different parasite strains (IC(50) atranorin (IC(50) = 4.41 μM), while p-hydroxycinnamic acid was the least active (IC(50) =53.84 μM). The EtOAc extract and its isolated compounds (specicoside and p-hydroxycinnamic acid) were non-cytotoxic (CC(50) > 30 μg/mL), whereas the n-hexane extract and two of its products, atranorin and 2β, 3β, 19α-trihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid showed cytotoxicity at high concentrations, with the last one being the most toxic (CC(50) = 9.37 μg/mL). These findings justify the use of K. africana stem bark as antimalaria by traditional healers of Western Cameroon, and could constitute a good basis for further studies towards development of new leads or natural drugs for malaria. PMID:21487780

  13. Antimicrobial potentials of some plant species of the Bignoniaceae family.

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    Binutu, O A; Lajubutu, B A

    1994-09-01

    The methanol extracts of the leaves and stem bark of four Bignoniaceae plants Jacaranda mimosifolia D. Dol., Tecoma stans Linn., Tabebuia rosea (Bertol) D.C., and Crescentia cujete Linn. were studied for their antimicrobial activity using a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. Extracts of both the leaves and stem bark of majority of plant species studied showed variable but remarkable broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. However, methanol extracts of Tecoma stans leaves was found to be effective against only Candida albicans at the concentrations employed. It was observed that the extracts of stem bark generally showed better antimicrobial activity than those of the leaves and some organisms were selectively more sensitive to the extracts than others. Preliminary phytochemical screening of these plants revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, quinones and traces of saponins. The antimicrobial activity observed are discussed in relation to the chemical constituents reportedly isolated from these plants and their traditional uses. PMID:7604753

  14. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...

  15. Comparison of Dentin Permeability After Tooth Cavity Preparation with Diamond Bur and Er:YAG Laser

    OpenAIRE

    Hasani Tabatabaei, Masoumeh; Shirmohammadi, Sara; Yasini, Esmaeil; Mirzaei, Mansoureh; Arami, Sakineh; Kermanshah, Hamid; Ranjbar Omrani, Ladan; Alimi, Azar; Chiniforush, Nasim; Nakhostin, Afrooz; Abbasi, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the permeability of dentin after using diamond bur and Er:YAG laser. Materials and Methods: Seventy-two recently extracted, intact, and restoration-free human permanent molars were used in this study. The samples were randomly divided into three groups of 24 each and class I cavities were prepared as follows. Group 1: High speed diamond bur with air and water spray. Group 2: Er:YAG laser. Group 3: Er:YAG laser followed by additional sub-ablativ...

  16. A new species of Amphitecna (Bignoniaceae) endemic to Chiapas, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz-Rodriguez, Andres Ernesto; Burelo Ramos, Carlos Manuel; Gomez-Dominguez, Héctor

    2016-01-01

    Amphitecna loreae Ortiz-Rodr. & Burelo, sp. nov. (Bignoniaceae), a new species endemic to the karst rainforest in southern Mexico, is described and illustrated. The new species differs from the other species of Amphitecna by the combination of cauliflorous inflorescences, larger flowers, buds rounded at apex, and globose-ellipsoid rather than acuminate fruits. A key to the Mexican species of Amphitecna is presented.

  17. The transcription elongation factor Bur1-Bur2 interacts with replication protein A and maintains genome stability during replication stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausing, Emanuel; Mayer, Andreas; Chanarat, Sittinan;

    2010-01-01

    Multiple DNA-associated processes such as DNA repair, replication, and recombination are crucial for the maintenance of genome integrity. Here, we show a novel interaction between the transcription elongation factor Bur1-Bur2 and replication protein A (RPA), the eukaryotic single-stranded DNA-binding...... foci. Interestingly, the DNA damage sensitivity of an rfa1 mutant was suppressed by bur1 mutation, further underscoring a functional link between these two protein complexes. The transcription elongation factor Bur1-Bur2 interacts with RPA and maintains genome integrity during DNA replication stress....

  18. A new species of Amphitecna (Bignoniaceae) endemic to Chiapas, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Rodriguez, Andres Ernesto; Burelo Ramos, Carlos Manuel; Gomez-Dominguez, Héctor

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Amphitecna loreae Ortiz-Rodr. & Burelo, sp. nov. (Bignoniaceae), a new species endemic to the karst rainforest in southern Mexico, is described and illustrated. The new species differs from the other species of Amphitecna by the combination of cauliflorous inflorescences, larger flowers, buds rounded at apex, and globose-ellipsoid rather than acuminate fruits. A key to the Mexican species of Amphitecna is presented. PMID:27489485

  19. A new species of Amphitecna (Bignoniaceae) endemic to Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Rodriguez, Andres Ernesto; Burelo Ramos, Carlos Manuel; Gomez-Dominguez, Héctor

    2016-01-01

    Amphitecna loreae Ortiz-Rodr. & Burelo, sp. nov. (Bignoniaceae), a new species endemic to the karst rainforest in southern Mexico, is described and illustrated. The new species differs from the other species of Amphitecna by the combination of cauliflorous inflorescences, larger flowers, buds rounded at apex, and globose-ellipsoid rather than acuminate fruits. A key to the Mexican species of Amphitecna is presented. PMID:27489485

  20. Code generation based on formal BURS theory and heuristic search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nymeyer, A.; Katoen, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    BURS theory provides a powerful mechanism to efficiently generate pattern matches in a given expression tree. BURS, which stands for bottom-up rewrite system, is based on term rewrite systems, to which costs are added. We formalise the underlying theory, and derive an algorithm that computes all pat

  1. Cutting characteristics of dental diamond burs made with CVD technology Características de corte de pontas odontológicas diamantadas obtidas pela tecnologia CVD

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Monti Lima; Cristiane Motisuki; Lourdes dos Santos-Pinto; Ary dos Santos-Pinto; Evaldo Jose Corat

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the cutting ability of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond burs coupled to an ultrasonic dental unit handpiece for minimally invasive cavity preparation. One standard cavity was prepared on the mesial and distal surfaces of 40 extracted human third molars either with cylindrical or with spherical CVD burs. The cutting ability was compared regarding type of substrate (enamel and dentin) and direction of handpiece motion. The morphological characterist...

  2. Evaluation of Safety of Arrabidaea chica Verlot (Bignoniaceae), a Plant with Healing Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemelli, Tiago Farret; Prado, Lismare da Silva; Santos, Franciele Souza; de Souza, Ana Paula; Guecheva, Temenouga Nikolova; Henriques, João Antonio Pêgas; Ferraz, Alexandre de Barros Falcão; Corrêa, Dione Silva; Dihl, Rafael Rodrigues; Picada, Jaqueline Nascimento

    2015-01-01

    Arrabidaea chica Verlot (Bignoniaceae) has been used as a medicinal herb to treat anemia, hemorrhage, inflammation, intestinal colic, hepatitis, and skin infections in the Brazilian Amazon region. Studies have demonstrated the healing properties of extracts obtained from A. chica leaves, which contain anthocyanins and flavonoids. However, few investigations have assessed the safe use of this plant species. In this study, mutagenic and genotoxic effects of a crude aqueous extract, a butanolic fraction, and aqueous waste from A. chica leaves were evaluated using the Salmonella/microsome assay in TA98, TA97a, TA100, TA102, and TA1535 strains and the alkaline comet assay in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell culture with and without metabolic activation. The crude aqueous extract, butanolic fraction, and aqueous waste were not mutagenic in any of the Salmonella typhimurium strains tested, and showed negative responses for genotoxicity in CHO cells. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated the presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids such as rutin and luteolin. The lack of mutagenic/genotoxic effects might be due to phytochemical composition with high concentrations of known anti-inflammatory compounds. Thus, the crude aqueous extract, butanolic fraction, and aqueous waste from A. chica leaves do not appear to pose short-term genotoxic risks.

  3. Sistema reprodutivo de Sparattosperma leucanthum (Vell.) K. Schum. (Bignoniaceae) The reproductive system of a Sparattosperma leucanthum (Vell.) K. Schum. (Bignoniaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Leandro Pereira Polatto; Valter Vieira Alves Júnior

    2009-01-01

    Sparattosperma leucanthum (Vell.) K. Schum. (Bignoniaceae) é uma árvore polinizada por mamangavas, apesar de outros visitantes florais explorarem néctar ou pólen das flores sem exercerem benefício reprodutivo. Neste estudo, focalizaram-se aspectos do sistema de polinização, além de inferir se o espaçamento interplantas encontrado na área amostral e a quantidade de flores produzidas por árvore limitavam ou não a polinização por xenogamia em S. leucanthum. Assim, foram realizados testes reprodu...

  4. Complete Chloroplast Genome of Tanaecium tetragonolobum: The First Bignoniaceae Plastome.

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    Alison Gonçalves Nazareno

    Full Text Available Bignoniaceae is a Pantropical plant family that is especially abundant in the Neotropics. Members of the Bignoniaceae are diverse in many ecosystems and represent key components of the Tropical flora. Despite the ecological importance of the Bignoniaceae and all the efforts to reconstruct the phylogeny of this group, whole chloroplast genome information has not yet been reported for any members of the family. Here, we report the complete chloroplast genome sequence of Tanaecium tetragonolobum (Jacq. L.G. Lohmann, which was reconstructed using de novo and referenced-based assembly of single-end reads generated by shotgun sequencing of total genomic DNA in an Illumina platform. The gene order and organization of the chloroplast genome of T. tetragonolobum exhibits the general structure of flowering plants, and is similar to other Lamiales chloroplast genomes. The chloroplast genome of T. tetragonolobum is a circular molecule of 153,776 base pairs (bp with a quadripartite structure containing two single copy regions, a large single copy region (LSC, 84,612 bp and a small single copy region (SSC, 17,586 bp separated by inverted repeat regions (IRs, 25,789 bp. In addition, the chloroplast genome of T. tetragonolobum has 38.3% GC content and includes 121 genes, of which 86 are protein-coding, 31 are transfer RNA, and four are ribosomal RNA. The chloroplast genome of T. tetragonolobum presents a total of 47 tandem repeats and 347 simple sequence repeats (SSRs with mononucleotides being the most common and di-, tri-, tetra-, and hexanucleotides occurring with less frequency. The results obtained here were compared to other chloroplast genomes of Lamiales available to date, providing new insight into the evolution of chloroplast genomes within Lamiales. Overall, the evolutionary rates of genes in Lamiales are lineage-, locus-, and region-specific, indicating that the evolutionary pattern of nucleotide substitution in chloroplast genomes of flowering

  5. Xanthatin and xanthinosin from the burs of Xanthium strumarium L. as potential anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Erosa, Irving; Huang, Yaoge; Hickie, Robert A; Sutherland, Ronald G; Barl, Branka

    2007-11-01

    Xanthatin and xanthinosin, 2 sesquiterpene lactones isolated from the burs of Xanthiun strumarium L. (cocklebur), showed moderate to high in vitro cytotoxic activity in the human cancer cell lines WiDr ATCC (colon), MDA-MB-231 ATCC (breast), and NCI-417 (lung). Xanthatin and xanthinosin were purified as the result of a multi-screening bioassay-guided study of wild plant species of the family Asteraceae, collected from various sites in Saskatchewan, Canada. Seventy-five extracts at a single concentration of 100 microg/mL were evaluated for in vitro cytotoxicity to the human cancer cell lines used. The chloroform extract of Carduus nutans L. (nodding thistle) aerial parts (IC50, 9.3 microg/mL) and the hexane extract of Echinacea angustifolia DC. (narrow-leaved purple coneflower) root (IC50, 4.0 microg/mL) were moderately to highly cytotoxic to the lung cancer cell line. The chloroform extracts of X. strumarium L. burs and Tanacetum vulgare L. (tansy) aerial parts exhibited the highest cytotoxicity for all cell lines tested; their IC50 values, obtained from multidose testing, ranged from 0.1 to 6.2 microg/mL (X. strumarium) and from 2.4 to 9.1 microg/mL (T. vulgare). Further purification of the chloroform fraction of X. strumarium yielded xanthatin and xanthinosin in high yields. This is the first time that these compounds have been reported in the burs of X. strumarium. Their IC50 values are also reported herein. PMID:18066118

  6. Assessing microleakage of composite restorations in class V cavities prepared by Er:YAG laser irradiation or diamond bur

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    Sakineh Arami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to make a comparison between microleakage of conventionally restored class V cavities using bur and acid etchant and, the ones prepared and conditioned by Er:YAG laser. Materials and Methods: 30 recently extracted intact caries and filling free human permanent molars were used for this study. Then, Cold cure acrylic resin was used to seal the apices. The samples were randomly assigned to 5 groups of six each. Class V cavities were prepared one on buccal and one on lingual surface of each sample. Group 1: cavity preparation by diamond bur and turbine + acid etch, Group 2: cavity preparation by Er:YAG laser + acid etch, Group 3: cavity preparation by Er:YAG laser + Laser etching, Group 4: cavity preparation by diamond bur and turbine + laser etching, Group 5: cavity preparation by Er:YAG laser with no conditioning procedure. The cavities restored with restorative composite resin. Samples were then immersed in 2% methylene blue solution for 24 hours. The data were then analyzed using Wilcoxon signed ranks test and Kruskal-Wallis statistical tests. Results: The Kruskal Wallis test showed a significant difference (P < 0.05 between enamel and cementum margin microleakage, while the higher microleakage was related to the cementum margin of restorations. Conclusion: There was no significant difference in evaluating microleakeage degree of cavities prepared by Er:YAG laser and diamond bur.

  7. Decontamination Methods Used for Dental Burs – A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugar, Deepa; Hugar, Santosh; Ranjan, Shashi; Kadani, Megha

    2014-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: Infection control and modes of sterilizations are the key factors to avoid cross transmission of infection in the field of dentistry. Transmission of disease or infection is noted with improper sterilization of reused instruments. Dental burs are the most important tool in any endodontic or conservative procedures of teeth involving tooth contouring, restorative filling procedures and endodontic procedures. Hence, the present study is undertaken to assess the efficacy of different methods of sterilization or decontamination which are routinely used in dental clinics. Materials and Methods: For the present study 96 round diamond burs were selected and divided into 6 groups. These burs were used for the access cavity preparation to get contamination and subjected for bacteriological culture. After getting base line date burs were subjected to manual scrubbing, hot air oven, glass bead sterilizer, ultrasonic cleaner and autoclave to get post decontamination data. Results: The study revealed that mean colony forming units/ml of Streptococcus mutans decreased maximum for autoclave with 80% reduction, for Lactobacilli 76% reduction and for Candida albicans maximum reduction seen for glass bead sterilizer with 74%. Conclusion: Findings of our study revealed that none of the methods used were found to be absolutely efficacious in the decontamination of dental burs. However, among the experimental groups used in the present study, autoclave was found to be the relatively best method. PMID:25121062

  8. A novel simplified numbering system for dental burs

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    Hemamalathi Senthil

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A universally accepted standardization is of great value for any material or equipment that is used globally. A single number or name should represent the particular material or instrument throughout the world. Since the dental burs are used worldwide, a single standard numbering system, which gives a unique specification for each bur in any part of the world, is mandatory. Though the existing systems have tried to attain this goal, they have their own advantages and limitations that are explained in detail in this article. So, the idea of proposing a novel system is to formulate a simple way of mentioning each bur with its dimension and composition without the need for memorizing the numbers.

  9. Comparison of the Er,Cr:YSGG laser with a chemical vapour deposition bur and conventional techniques for cavity preparation: a microleakage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, A Rüya; Yıldırım, Zeren; Antonson, Sibel A; Kilinc, Evren; Koch, Daniele; Antonson, Donald E; Dayangaç, Berrin; Ozgünaltay, Gül

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the Er,Cr:YSGG laser using chemical vapour deposition (CVD) bur cavity preparation with conventional preparation methods including a diamond bur and a carbide bur on the microleakage with two different adhesive systems. A total of 40 extracted human premolars were randomly assigned to four experimental groups according to the cavity preparation technique: group I diamond bur (Diatech); group II carbide bur (Diatech); group III Er,Cr:YSGG laser (Biolase Millennium II); and group IV CVD bur (CVDentUS). Using the different preparation techniques, Class V standardized preparations were performed on the buccal and lingual surfaces with gingival margins on the dentin and occlusal margins on the enamel. Each preparation group was randomly assigned to two subgroups (five teeth, ten preparations) according to the type of adhesive: an etch-and-rinse adhesive (Adper Single Bond), and a single-step self-etch adhesive (AdheSE One). All preparations were restored with a nanohybrid composite resin in a single increment. Following thermocycling (×500; 5-55°C), the teeth were immersed in basic fuchsin and sectioned in the orovestibular direction. Dye penetration was evaluated under a light microscope by two blinded examiners. Data were statistically analysed with the Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon tests (p0.05). Comparing the enamel and dentin leakage scores within each group, no statistically significant differences were found (p>0.05). The Er,Cr:YSGG laser cavity preparation did not differ from preparation with CVD, diamond or carbide bur in terms of microleakage with the different adhesive systems.

  10. A Comparative Study of Microleakage on Dental Surfaces Bonded with Three Self-Etch Adhesive Systems Treated with the Er:YAG Laser and Bur

    OpenAIRE

    Sanhadji El Haddar, Youssef; CETIK, SIBEL; Bahrami, Babak; Atash, Ramin

    2016-01-01

    Aim. This study sought to compare the microleakage of three adhesive systems in the context of Erbium-YAG laser and diamond bur cavity procedures. Cavities were restored with composite resin. Materials and Methods. Standardized Class V cavities were performed in 72 extracted human teeth by means of diamond burs or Er-YAG laser. The samples were randomly divided into six groups of 12, testing three adhesive systems (Clearfil s3 Bond Plus, Xeno® Select, and Futurabond U) for each method used. C...

  11. A Comparative Study of Microleakage on Dental Surfaces Bonded with Three Self-Etch Adhesive Systems Treated with the Er:YAG Laser and Bur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanhadji El Haddar, Youssef; Cetik, Sibel; Bahrami, Babak; Atash, Ramin

    2016-01-01

    Aim. This study sought to compare the microleakage of three adhesive systems in the context of Erbium-YAG laser and diamond bur cavity procedures. Cavities were restored with composite resin. Materials and Methods. Standardized Class V cavities were performed in 72 extracted human teeth by means of diamond burs or Er-YAG laser. The samples were randomly divided into six groups of 12, testing three adhesive systems (Clearfil s3 Bond Plus, Xeno® Select, and Futurabond U) for each method used. Cavities were restored with composite resin before thermocycling (methylene blue 2%, 24 h). The slices were prepared using a microtome. Optical microscope photography was employed to measure the penetration. Results. No statistically significant differences in microleakage were found in the use of bur or laser, nor between adhesive systems. Only statistically significant values were observed comparing enamel with cervical walls (p adhesive restoration procedures, thus constituting an alternative tool for tooth preparation. PMID:27419128

  12. Cotizaciones bursátiles: una alternativa predictiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Rayego Seriñan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es discutir la viabilidad de realizar predicciones en el mercado bursátil a partir del análisis espectral. La primera parte se dedica a analizar las regularidades del ciclo bursátil (IGBM y su relación con el ciclo económico real (IPI. En segundo lugar se realizarán predicciones a partir de los resultados anteriores, es decir, a partir de las regularidades comunes entre el ciclo bursátil y de la actividad económica. Puesto que el análisis empírico se realiza para el periodo 1965-2002, podemos comparar las predicciones con lo realmente sucedido de enero de 2003 a mayo de 2005. Las evidencias empíricas encontradas sugieren que las cotizaciones se comportan como un indicador adelantado que amplifica el ciclo de la actividad económica. Las predicciones presentan un buen ajuste con un coeficiente de correlación superior a la predicción que resulta de considerar las cotizaciones como un proceso camino aleatorio.

  13. Morfoanatomia de Memora nodosa (Silva Manso Miers, Bignoniaceae Morpho-anatomy of Memora nodosa (Silva Manso Miers, Bignoniaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonice M. F. Tresvenzol

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Memora nodosa (Silva Manso Miers, Bignoniaceae, é uma planta do Cerrado utilizada popularmente como cicatrizante de úlceras e feridas externas (folhas e caules. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar morfologicamente essa espécie e fazer o estudo anatômico de suas folhas. O estudo morfológico foi realizado à vista desarmada e com o auxílio de microscópio estereoscópico. Para o estudo anatômico as folhas foram seccionadas e as lâminas histológicas confeccionadas de acordo com as técnicas convencionais. Memora nodosa é um arbusto com folhas opostas cruzadas, recompostas, bipinadas, imparipinadas, com foliólulos pequenos, lanceolados, verde-escuros e brilhantes. A inflorescência é racemosa com flores infundibuliformes e corola amarelo-ouro; glândulas nectaríferas são observadas no terço superior do cálice; androceu com quatro estames férteis, didínamos e um estaminódio reduzido; gineceu com estilete terminal, ovário súpero, assentado sobre um disco nectarífero. O fruto é do tipo cápsula septífraga achatada, com sementes aladas. Anatomicamente a lâmina do foliólulo é hipoestomática com estômatos predominantemente paracíticos. O parênquima paliçádico é pluriestratificado, ocupando cerca de dois terços do mesofilo dorsiventral. Tricomas glandulares e tectores são observados, em maior número, nas folhas jovens.Memora nodosa (Silva Manso Miers, Bignoniaceae, is a Brazilian Savannah plant, popularly used as external wound and ulcer healing (leaves and stems. The goal of this research was to perform the morphological study of M. nodosa species and the anatomical study of its leaves. The morphological study was done to the naked eye and with the aid of a stereoscopic microscope. For the anatomical study leaves were sectioned and histological slides made in accordance with conventional techniques. Memora nodosa is a shrub with decussate leaves recomposed, bipinnate, imparipinnate with small leaflets

  14. A Comparative Study of Microleakage on Dental Surfaces Bonded with Three Self-Etch Adhesive Systems Treated with the Er:YAG Laser and Bur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanhadji El Haddar, Youssef; Cetik, Sibel; Bahrami, Babak; Atash, Ramin

    2016-01-01

    Aim. This study sought to compare the microleakage of three adhesive systems in the context of Erbium-YAG laser and diamond bur cavity procedures. Cavities were restored with composite resin. Materials and Methods. Standardized Class V cavities were performed in 72 extracted human teeth by means of diamond burs or Er-YAG laser. The samples were randomly divided into six groups of 12, testing three adhesive systems (Clearfil s(3) Bond Plus, Xeno® Select, and Futurabond U) for each method used. Cavities were restored with composite resin before thermocycling (methylene blue 2%, 24 h). The slices were prepared using a microtome. Optical microscope photography was employed to measure the penetration. Results. No statistically significant differences in microleakage were found in the use of bur or laser, nor between adhesive systems. Only statistically significant values were observed comparing enamel with cervical walls (p < 0.001). Conclusion. It can be concluded that the Er:YAG laser is as efficient as diamond bur concerning microleakage values in adhesive restoration procedures, thus constituting an alternative tool for tooth preparation.

  15. A Comparative Study of Microleakage on Dental Surfaces Bonded with Three Self-Etch Adhesive Systems Treated with the Er:YAG Laser and Bur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Sanhadji El Haddar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. This study sought to compare the microleakage of three adhesive systems in the context of Erbium-YAG laser and diamond bur cavity procedures. Cavities were restored with composite resin. Materials and Methods. Standardized Class V cavities were performed in 72 extracted human teeth by means of diamond burs or Er-YAG laser. The samples were randomly divided into six groups of 12, testing three adhesive systems (Clearfil s3 Bond Plus, Xeno® Select, and Futurabond U for each method used. Cavities were restored with composite resin before thermocycling (methylene blue 2%, 24 h. The slices were prepared using a microtome. Optical microscope photography was employed to measure the penetration. Results. No statistically significant differences in microleakage were found in the use of bur or laser, nor between adhesive systems. Only statistically significant values were observed comparing enamel with cervical walls (p<0.001. Conclusion. It can be concluded that the Er:YAG laser is as efficient as diamond bur concerning microleakage values in adhesive restoration procedures, thus constituting an alternative tool for tooth preparation.

  16. Biologia floral e polinização de Arrabidaea conjugata (Vell.) Mart. (Bignoniaceae) Floral and pollination biology of Arrabidaea conjugata (Vell.) Mart. (Bignoniaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Célia Rodrigues Correia; Maria Célia B. Pinheiro; Heloísa Alves de Lima

    2005-01-01

    O trabalho aborda a biologia floral, a atividade forrageira dos visitantes florais (polinizadores e pilhadores), os eventos fenológicos e o sistema de reprodução de Arrabidaea conjugata (Vell.) Mart. (Bignoniaceae), em área de vegetação de restinga, município de Maricá, Rio de Janeiro, no período 1997 a 2000. A espécie estudada tem flores com antese diurna, lilases, tubulosas, hermafroditas, odoríferas e oferecem néctar como recurso floral. O néctar é secretado por um disco localizado na base...

  17. Effect of diamond bur cutting efficacy on dentin bond strengths of different bonding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirani F.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: As composite-dentin bond strength is affected by cavity preparation and the bond strength of composite resin to new and used bur prepared dentin has not yet been evaluated, this study evaluated the effects of cutting dentin with different cutting efficacy (new and used of burs on composite-dentin shear bond strength using self-etching primer bonding system and total etching bonding system. "nMaterials and Methods: Sixty caries free human 3rd molar were sectioned in occlosal surface to expose dentin, then polished with silicon carbide paper and randomly divided into four groups. Each group was prepared in a depth of 0.5mm of dentin, using new diamond bur, or used diamond bur. To change into a used bur, each new rough diamond bur had to work on bovine enamel for 30 minutes, under a load of 150g. Then, each group was bonded, using a total etch adhesive (single Bond or a self etch adhesive (clearfil SE Bond So there were 4 groups : 1-SE Bond, New bur; 2-SE Bond , used bur; 3-Single Bond , New bur ; 4-Single Bond, used bur. Similar composite capsules(Filtek Z250 were bonded to dentin surface and cured. specimens were stored in physiologic saline for 48h at 370 c , then put under shearing load to define composite - dentin shear bond strength. Results were interpreted via statistical analysis (T-test & two - way variance. "nResults: Shear bond strength of each group was as follows: 1-(27.3Mpa, 2-(33.5Mpa, 3-(16.9Mpa 4-(19.3Mpa. Statistical analysis proved that shear bond strength of used diamond bur prepared groups (2,4 was more than new diamond bur prepared ones (1,3. This statistical difference, specially, was seen between SE Bond groups (1,2 but not between single Bond groups (3,4. Also, shear bond strength of (SE Bond bonded groups (1,2 were more significantly than (single Bond bonded ones (3,4. "nConclusion: This study show that Bur cutting efficiency influences composite - dentin shear bond strength especially when the

  18. PHARMACOGNOSTIC AND PHYSICO- CHEMICAL EVALUATION OF LEAVES OF TECOMA GAUDICHAUDI DC (BIGNONIACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Kedar K.A; S. R. CHAUDHARI; A. Srinivasa Rao

    2013-01-01

    Tecoma gaudichaudi DC (Family Bignoniaceae) is a small tree of height 9-12m. and various Tecoma species are attractive to bees, butterflies or birds. Present study focuses on determination of some quantitative microscopical factors of leaves of Tecoma gaudichaudi DC includes Stomatal no., vein islet no etc. Under physicochemical standards various parameters were checked, such as ash value, acid insoluble ash value and moisture content etc. It helps in to check purity of crude drug. Ultimately...

  19. Floral visitors and reproductive strategies in five melittophilous species of Bignoniaceae in Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Yuriko A. N. Pinto Yanagizawa; Rita de Cassia Sindrônia Maimoni-Rodella

    2007-01-01

    In order to evaluate the pollination strategies of Bignoniaceae, the floral biology and the floral visitors in five species, three cerrado shrubs (Arrabidaea brachypoda (DC.) Bor., Jacaranda decurrens Cham., and Jacaranda oxyphylla Cham.), and two lianas from the border of a semideciduous seasonal forest (Arrabidaea samydoides (Cham.) Sandw., and Arrabidaea triplinervia H. Baill.) were studied in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Southeastern Brazil. The flowering periods were partially overlapping,...

  20. Enamel Surface Evaluation after Removal of Orthodontic Composite Remnants by Intraoral Sandblasting Technique and Carbide Bur Technique: A Three-Dimensional Surface Profilometry and Scanning Electron Microscopic Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mhatre, Amol C; Tandur, Arundhati P; Reddy, Sumitra S; Karunakara, B C; Baswaraj, H

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this thesis is to present a practical and efficient clinical method of returning enamel to as near its original condition as possible following removal of bonded orthodontic attachments. The main objective of this study is to evaluate and compare the iatrogenic enamel damage caused by use of two different remnant removal techniques – sandblasting technique and carbide bur technique. Materials and Methods: 40 extracted premolar teeth were selected as sample. Premolar...

  1. Comparing cutting efficiencies of diamond burs using a high-speed electric handpiece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Evelyn M; Sung, Eric C; Wu, Ben; Caputo, Angelo A

    2006-01-01

    This study sought to compare the cutting efficiency of different diamond burs on initial use as well as during repeated use, alternating with sterilization. Long, round-end, tapered diamond burs with similar diameter, profile, and diamond coarseness (125-150 microm grit) were used. A high-torque, high-speed electric handpiece (set at 200,000 rpm) was utilized with a coolant flow rate of 25 mL/min. Burs were tested under a constant load of 170 g while cuts were made on a machinable ceramic substrate block. Each bur was subjected to five consecutive cuts for 30 seconds of continuous operation and the cutting depths were measured. All burs performed similarly on the first cut. Cutting efficiencies for three of the bur groups decreased significantly after the first cycle; however, by the fifth cycle, all bur groups performed similarly without any significant differences (p > 0.05). A scanning electron microscope revealed significant crystal loss after each use. PMID:16903197

  2. Dentine hypersensitivity. The effects in vitro of acids and dietary substances on root-planed and burred dentine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addy, M; Absi, E G; Adams, D

    1987-05-01

    Evidence indicates that teeth exhibiting cervical dentine hypersensitivity have open dentinal tubules at the dentine surface. The identification of factors which render dentine exposed and tubules open is important both to the prevention and management of dentine hypersensitivity. In this study, recently extracted teeth were root planed or burred to expose the root dentine. Specimens were horizontally sectioned and then using the apical portion as control, the coronal portions placed in a variety of strong and weak acids and dietary fluids. Examination under the scanning electron microscope revealed a smear layer covering completely underlying tubules on the control root planed or burred portions. Test portions exposed to strong and weak acids showed loss of the smear layer and exposure of large numbers of tubules. Formic and tannic acids produced no changes. Some dietary fluids, in particular red and white wine, citrus fruit juices, apple juice and yogurt produced similar etching effects to the acids. The low pH carbonated drink, coca-cola, and a blackcurrent cordial produced no effects. The results of this study in vitro cannot necessarily be extrapolated to the clinical situation, but suggest that certain dietary factors could play a rôle in the aetiology of dentine hypersensitivity. Dietary advice to patients may prove important in the management of this often recurrent condition. PMID:3301914

  3. Effects of flapless bur decortications on movement velocity of dogs′ teeth

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    Seyed Mohammadreza Safavi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: (1 Corticotomy facilitated orthodontic tooth movement is achievable with flapless bur decortication technique. (2 Velocity of tooth movement decreases in later stages of treatment due to maturation of newly formed bone at decortication sites.

  4. Laboratory analysis of dental sections made with commercial tungsten carbide burs coated with HFCVD diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maass, F [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Antofagasta, Av. Angamos 601, Antofagasta (Chile); Aguilera, Y [Departamento de Ingenieria Industrial, Universidad de Antofagasta, Av. Angamos 601, Antofagasta (Chile); Avaria, J [Departamento de OdontologIa, Universidad de Antofagasta, Av. Angamos 601, Antofagasta (Chile)], E-mail: fdmaass@uantof.cl

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the cutting power of diamond burs obtained by the HFCVD deposition process. Diamond was deposited on the active part of each of a series of 10 commonly used Tungsten Carbide (WC) commercial burs. The quality of the section was compared with sections made by commonly used commercial burs, employing fresh human molars and a standard device [1]. Both burs and sections were analysed by using SEM and EDX techniques. The quality and tension of the deposited diamond coatings were analyzed by Raman Spectroscopy. The optimal thickness of the diamond coating which provided the best durability and finish of the sections was determined by comparative observations of results.

  5. Dentinal surface-cutting efficiency using a high-speed diamond bur, ultrasound and laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, M.; Quinelato, A.; Youssef, F.; Pelino, J. E. Pelizon; Salvadori, M. C.; Mori, M.

    2008-04-01

    We compare an ultrasound bur with a conventional one and an Er:YAG laser for cavity preparations. Human molars were embedded in resin and sliced for this study. The surface abrasion was performed by a high-speed instrument and ultrasound. The cavity preparation was initially performed with a high-speed diamond bur. After this, a 2.94-μm laser with 400 mJ/pulse at 4 Hz, and a pulse width from 250-500 μs was applied to the tooth surface for 30 s in a sweeping motion. The samples were analyzed by SEM. The abrasion surface with a conventional bur showed structure removal with different grooves, a smear-layer presence, and occluded dentinal tubules. The abraded surface with the CVD bur suggested a removal process in layers. The laser-irradiated surface showed a rough aspect with opened tubules and the absence of a smear layer. The results of this study suggest that a high-speed diamond bur, ultrasound, and laser were able to perform cavity preparation. However, the CVD bur presented a higher surface quality.

  6. Microleakage of compomer restorations in primary teeth after preparation with bur or air abrasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aysegül, Olmez; Nurhan, Oztas; Haluk, Bodur; Dilek, Tüfekçioglu

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the degree of marginal leakage of a compomer in Class V cavities of human primary molars prepared by a conventional dental bur and air abrasion with or without acid etching. Fifty-six non-carious extracted primary molars were randomly divided into four groups (n=14) to be prepared by four techniques: Group-1: Bur followed by acid etching: Class V cavity preparations were placed on the buccal surfaces of each tooth using a high-speed handpiece. The preparations were 1.5-mm deep, 3-mm long and 2-mm wide, with the occlusal margin in enamel and the cervical margin extending 0.5 mm below the cementoenamel junction. The preparations were acid etched with 37% phosphoric acid starting at the enamel margins for 30 seconds and rinsed with water for 20 seconds. The preparations were then restored with Compoglass F. 2-Group 2: Bur: The preparations and the treatment procedures were the same as in Group 1, with the exception of 37% phosphoric acid application. Group 3: Air abrasion followed by acid etching: Class V cavity preparations were placed on the buccal surfaces of each tooth using a handpiece of an air-abrasive system (PrepStart, Danville Engineering). The system was supplied with dry compressed air at 80 psi. In all tests, the air-abrasion system was operated with an 80 degrees-angle handpiece tip and 50-mm aluminum oxide particles. A tip with a 0.38-mm inner diameter was used at a 2-mm distance. The treatment procedures were the same as in Groups 1 and 2. Group 4: Air abrasion: The preparations and treatment procedures were the same as in Group 3, with the exception of 37% phosphoric acid. After finishing the restorations, the teeth were stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C for 24 hours. The samples were thermocycled for 500 cycles between 5 degrees C and 55 degrees C with a dwell time of 30 seconds. The samples were then immersed in 0.5 percent basic fuchsin dye for 24 hours at 37 degrees C. The surface-adhered dye was then rinsed in tap

  7. Primers for Phylogeny Reconstruction in Bignonieae (Bignoniaceae Using Herbarium Samples

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    Alexandre R. Zuntini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: New primers were developed for Bignonieae to enable phylogenetic studies within this clade using herbarium samples. Methods and Results: Internal primers were designed based on available sequences of the plastid ndhF gene and the rpl32-trnL intergenic spacer region, and the nuclear gene PepC. The resulting primers were used to amplify DNA extracted from herbarium materials. High-quality data were obtained from herbarium samples up to 53 yr old. Conclusions: The standardized methodology allows the inclusion of herbarium materials as alternative sources of DNA for phylogenetic studies in Bignonieae.

  8. Effect of diamond burs on process and damage involving in vitro dental resurfacing of a restorative porcelain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work reports on the effect of diamond burs with coarse, medium and fine grit sizes and nickel or chromium coatings on in vitro dental resurfacing of a restorative porcelain. Process parameters such as tangential and normal forces, surface roughness, surface damage and morphology were studied as a function of removal rate using the different burs. At the lower removal rate, the differences for both the tangential and the normal forces were not significant among the coarse, medium and fine burs. However, when the porcelain was removed at the higher removal rate, both the tangential and the normal forces were markedly higher using the fine bur than those using the medium and coarse burs. Surface roughness values in terms of arithmetic mean and maximum roughness decreased significantly with a decrease in diamond grit size. The scale of surface damage in the form of brittle fracture decreased, and more transitions from brittle removal to ductile flow were observed when using finer grit diamond burs. In a comparison of the diamond bur topographies before and after dental finishing, it was found that minimal wear occurred on the nickel-coated coarse diamond bur, while minor abrasive wear occurred on the nickel-coated medium and chromium-coated fine burs

  9. Chemical review and studies related to species from the genus Tynanthus (Bignoniaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Colombi Cansian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Species from the Bignoniaceae Family, including the genus Tynanthus, are very prevalent in the tropical Americas, with specimens found in a large part of the Brazilian territory. These plants are commonly used in traditional medicine for several purposes, and some studies have described their chemical structure, in addition to other reports related to some species from this genus. This review aimed to gather information from published works concerning species of the genus Tynanthus, as well as to detect flaws in research related to these plants, which may have great biological and pharmaceutical importance. Also, this review points out some common chemical characteristics of these species, providing information that may help new researchers to improve their knowledge about these plants.

  10. A genomic approach for isolating chloroplast microsatellite markers for Pachyptera kerere (Bignoniaceae)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Jessica N. C.; Nazareno, Alison G.; Lohmann, Lúcia G.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: In this study, we developed chloroplast microsatellite markers (cpSSRs) for Pachyptera kerere (Bignoniaceae) to investigate the population structure and genetic diversity of this species. Methods and Results: We used Illumina HiSeq data to reconstruct the chloroplast genome of P. kerere by a combination of de novo and reference-guided assembly. We then used the chloroplast genome to develop a set of cpSSRs from intergenic regions. Overall, 24 primer pairs were designed, 21 of which amplified successfully and were polymorphic, presenting three to nine alleles per locus. The unbiased haploid diversity per locus varied from 0.207 (Pac28) to 0.817 (Pac04). All but one locus amplified for all other taxa of Pachyptera. Conclusions: The markers reported here will serve as a basis for studies to assess the genetic structure and phylogeographic history of Pachyptera. PMID:27672522

  11. A genomic approach for isolating chloroplast microsatellite markers for Pachyptera kerere (Bignoniaceae)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Jessica N. C.; Nazareno, Alison G.; Lohmann, Lúcia G.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: In this study, we developed chloroplast microsatellite markers (cpSSRs) for Pachyptera kerere (Bignoniaceae) to investigate the population structure and genetic diversity of this species. Methods and Results: We used Illumina HiSeq data to reconstruct the chloroplast genome of P. kerere by a combination of de novo and reference-guided assembly. We then used the chloroplast genome to develop a set of cpSSRs from intergenic regions. Overall, 24 primer pairs were designed, 21 of which amplified successfully and were polymorphic, presenting three to nine alleles per locus. The unbiased haploid diversity per locus varied from 0.207 (Pac28) to 0.817 (Pac04). All but one locus amplified for all other taxa of Pachyptera. Conclusions: The markers reported here will serve as a basis for studies to assess the genetic structure and phylogeographic history of Pachyptera.

  12. El potencial bursátil del mercado portugués

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Miralles Marcelo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La reciente inestabilidad de los principales mercados bursátiles europeos ha conducido a los inversores a considerar otros mercados en los que invertir, como los mercados latinoamericanos o aquellos pertenecientes a los países del Este. Sin embargo, existe otra posibilidad mucho más cercana que es la inversión en el mercado portugués ya que ofrece una transparencia y seguridad mayor que la de los mercados emergentes. Además, forma parte de la mayor plataforma bursátil europea (NYSE Euronext y sus datos macroeconómicos y bursátiles revelan un gran potencial de crecimiento.

  13. Measuring Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) Tooth Growth and Eruption by Fluorescence Markers and Bur Marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, Fabia; Müller, Jacqueline; Clauss, Marcus; Kircher, Patrick; Geyer, Hans; von Rechenberg, Brigitte; Hatt, Jean-Michel

    2016-03-01

    Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and rodents possess continuously growing teeth, and dental problems are a major health issue in these species. Knowledge of tooth growth characteristics is required to adequately treat dental problems and advise owners concerning diets. Most research was performed using bur marks and measuring eruption and wear manually. However, this method cannot be applied to teeth less rostral than the first premolar; therefore, for evaluation of molars, other methods are needed. We evaluated the use of fluorochromes xylenol orange and calcein green to measure growth rates of rabbit teeth and compared this method to results obtained by manually measuring the distance between a bur mark and the gingival margin of the same tooth (eruption) and by measuring the distance between the bur mark and the apex of the same tooth on computed tomography scans (growth). Apical fluorochrome measurements correlated well with eruption and growth rates obtained with bur marks, whereas measurements coronal to the pulp cavity did not. Growth rates were approximately 1.9 mm/wk for maxillary and 2.2 mm/wk for mandibular incisors. Growth rates of premolars were 2.14 ± 0.28 mm/wk in rabbits on a grass/rice hulls/sand pelleted diet and 0.93 ± 0.18 mm/wk in rabbits on a hay diet. Growth of molars could only be assessed using the measurement in dentin on the wall of the pulp cavity, which does not account for the real growth. However, being similar to this measurement in premolars, one could hypothesize similar growth in molars as in premolars. We conclude that the application of fluorochrome staining can be used to measure tooth growth in teeth that are not accessible for bur marks or in animals that are too small to assess tooth eruption or growth by bur marks. PMID:27487654

  14. El Mercado Alternativo Bursátil: una novedosa oportunidad para las empresas familiares

    OpenAIRE

    Duréndez Gómez Guillamón, Antonio Luis; García Pérez de Lema, Domingo; Mariño Garrido, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Con la entrada en funcionamiento del Mercado Alternativo Bursátil en España, las empresas familiares de menor capitalización tienen la posibilidad de cotizar en un mercado bursátil diseñado para pymes. Actualmente, con una profunda crisis de origen financiero, el MAB gana una especial relevancia como estrategia alternativa para conseguir financiación y así superar la fuerte restricción en el acceso al crédito bancario. No obstante, las empresas familiares no se podrán ben...

  15. Characterization of microsatellites identified by next-generation sequencing in the Neotropical tree Handroanthus billbergii (Bignoniaceae) 1

    OpenAIRE

    Morillo, Eduardo; Buitron, Johanna; Limongi, Ricardo; Vignes, Helene; Argout, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: We developed microsatellite (simple sequence repeat [SSR]) markers in the Neotropical tree Handroanthus billbergii (Bignoniaceae), to be applied in assessment of genetic diversity in this species as a reference for inferring the impact of dry forest fragmentation in Ecuador. Methods and Results: Using next-generation sequencing, we detected a total of 26,893 putative SSRs reported here. Using an ABI 3500xl sequencer, we identified and characterized a set of polymorphic m...

  16. Biologia floral e polinização de Arrabidaea conjugata (Vell. Mart. (Bignoniaceae Floral and pollination biology of Arrabidaea conjugata (Vell. Mart. (Bignoniaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Célia Rodrigues Correia

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho aborda a biologia floral, a atividade forrageira dos visitantes florais (polinizadores e pilhadores, os eventos fenológicos e o sistema de reprodução de Arrabidaea conjugata (Vell. Mart. (Bignoniaceae, em área de vegetação de restinga, município de Maricá, Rio de Janeiro, no período 1997 a 2000. A espécie estudada tem flores com antese diurna, lilases, tubulosas, hermafroditas, odoríferas e oferecem néctar como recurso floral. O néctar é secretado por um disco localizado na base do gineceu e é acumulado em câmara nectarífera. Os grãos de pólen são liberados gradativamente, prolongando-se a fase de doação de pólen. As abelhas Euglossa cordata Linnaeus, Centris analis Fabricius e C. tarsata Smith são os polinizadores da espécie. Destaca-se pilhagem primária de néctar, por abelhas, e secundária, por borboletas e beija-flor. A espécie é auto-incompatível, apresentando baixos índices de formação de frutos em condições naturais (Frutos/Flores = 12,2%. Foi registrado padrão de floração "cornucópia", entre os meses de dezembro a março (estação quente/chuvosa, com pico em janeiro. As sementes são anemocóricas e liberadas gradativamente na estação fria e seca.This work deals with the floral biology, the foraging activities of floral visitors (pollinators and robbers, phenology and reproductive system of Arrabidaea conjugata (Vell. Mart. (Bignoniaceae in the "restinga" of Maricá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 1997 to 2000. The flowers display daytime anthesis and last only one day. These attractive pink flowers are tubular, hermaphroditic, odoriferous and produce nectar as the floral reward. The nectar is secreted by a nectariferous disk concealed within a chamber. The pollen grains are gradually released throughout anthesis, extending the pollen presentation phase. The bees Euglossa cordata Linnaeus, Centris analis Fabricius and C. tarsata Smith are the pollinator species. Primary and secondary

  17. Sistema reprodutivo do Ipê-Branco: Tabebuia roseo-alba (Ridley Sandwith (Bignoniaceae Breeding system of the White Trumpet Tree: Tabebuia roseo-alba (Ridley Sandwith (Bignoniaceae

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    Gabriel Gandolphi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudos sobre sistemas reprodutivos têm indicado o predomínio da autoincompatibilidade de ação tardia (AIT em Bignoniaceae, embora poucas espécies tenham sido investigadas e ocorram outros tipos de sistemas reprodutivos na família. O presente estudo objetivou determinar o sistema reprodutivo de T. roseo-alba através de experimentos de polinizações controladas, análise histológica dos eventos posteriores à polinização, verificação do desenvolvimento in situ dos tubos polínicos e testes de germinação de sementes. Apesar de os tubos polínicos penetrarem e fecundarem a maioria dos óvulos em pistilos autopolinizados, o aborto de 100% dos mesmos foi verificado e, embora sua abscisão tenha ocorrido entre o quarto e o sexto dia após o início da antese, observou-se um ligeiro crescimento dos óvulos e do ovário precedendo a abscisão, porém inferior ao crescimento nos pistilos submetidos à polinização cruzada. A endospermogênese inicial e a formação do tubo proembriônico também foram mais lentas nos pistilos autopolinizados. A longevidade dos pistilos autopolinizados foi maior que a de pistilos não polinizados, e a taxa de germinação de sementes foi de 93%, sendo todas as sementes monoembriônicas. Os resultados demonstram que T. roseo-alba é espécie auto-estéril, destituída de poliembrionia e que apresenta AIT pós-zigótica.Breeding system studies have indicated the predominance of late-acting self-incompatibility (LSI in Bignoniaceae, despite the relatively few species investigated, and the occurrence of other kinds of breeding systems in this family. This study aimed to determine the breeding system in T. roseo-alba by means of controlled experimental pollination, histological analysis of post-pollination events, and studies of pistil longevity, in situ pollen tube growth and seed germination. Despite pollen tube penetration and fertilization of most ovules of selfed pistils, 100% of these pistils aborted

  18. Synchrotron-radiation-based X-ray micro-computed tomography reveals dental bur debris under dental composite restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayat, Assem; Nagy, Nicole; Packota, Garnet; Monteith, Judy; Allen, Darcy; Wysokinski, Tomasz; Zhu, Ning

    2016-05-01

    Dental burs are used extensively in dentistry to mechanically prepare tooth structures for restorations (fillings), yet little has been reported on the bur debris left behind in the teeth, and whether it poses potential health risks to patients. Here it is aimed to image dental bur debris under dental fillings, and allude to the potential health hazards that can be caused by this debris when left in direct contact with the biological surroundings, specifically when the debris is made of a non-biocompatible material. Non-destructive micro-computed tomography using the BioMedical Imaging & Therapy facility 05ID-2 beamline at the Canadian Light Source was pursued at 50 keV and at a pixel size of 4 µm to image dental bur fragments under a composite resin dental filling. The bur's cutting edges that produced the fragment were also chemically analyzed. The technique revealed dental bur fragments of different sizes in different locations on the floor of the prepared surface of the teeth and under the filling, which places them in direct contact with the dentinal tubules and the dentinal fluid circulating within them. Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy elemental analysis of the dental bur edges revealed that the fragments are made of tungsten carbide-cobalt, which is bio-incompatible.

  19. Photosynthesis, Growth and Development of Tabebuia avellanedae Lor. ex Griseb. (Bignoniaceae in Flooded Soil

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    Viviane M. Davanso

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Morphological, anatomical and ecophysiological modifications caused by flooding in the growth and development of Tabebuia avellanedae Lor. ex Griseb. (Bignoniaceae were studied and correlated with tolerance to the excess of water in the soil. Three-month-old plants, grown in a greenhouse, underwent a period of 56 days of flooding and a post-flooding period. Photosynthesis rate and growth decreased in T. avellanedae when flooding duration increased. Though not much tolerant, plant adapted itself to short flooding periods. This relative tolerance was probably due to the capacity of T. avellanedae in developing structures which lessened flooding effects and promoted internal diffusion of oxygen from the aerial part to the roots, such as stem fissures, superficial roots and hypertrophied lenticels in the roots. As there was no great variation in the internal anatomy of T. avellanedae leaves and roots, metabolic alterations might have helped in the survival of the species during flooding.Foram estudadas as modificações morfo-anatômicas e ecofisiológicas que o alagamento provoca em Tabebuia avellanedae Lor. ex Griseb. (Bignoniaceae, correlacionando-as com sua capacidade de tolerar o excesso de água no solo. Plantas com três meses de idade, crescendo em casa de vegetação, foram submetidas a 56 dias de alagamento e a um período de pós-alagamento. A taxa fotossintética e o crescimento de T. avellanedae decresceram conforme aumentou o tempo de alagamento, mas mesmo não sendo altamente tolerante, a espécie foi capaz de se adaptar a curtos períodos de alagamento. Esta relativa tolerância provavelmente se deve à capacidade apresentada por T. avellanedae de desenvolver estruturas que amenizam os efeitos do alagamento, promovendo a difusão interna de oxigênio da parte aérea para as raízes, tais como rachaduras caulinares, raízes superficiais e lenticelas hipertrofiadas nas raízes. Como não houve acentuada variação na anatomia interna

  20. Caracterização anatômica e química de folhas de Jacaranda puberula (Bignoniaceae presente na Mata Atlântica Anatomical and chemical characterization of Jacaranda puberula (Bignoniaceae leaves present in Mata Atlântica

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    Maria Bernadete Gonçalves Martins

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A espécie Jacaranda puberula (Bignoniaceae é conhecida popularmente como "carobinha" sendo utilizada na medicina popular em comunidades tradicionais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar a caracterização anatômica e química das folhas de J. puberula. Para a análise anatômica utilizou-se a microscopia de luz e microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV. Para a análise química utilizou-se a Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência (CLAE. O mesofilo é dorsiventral, a epiderme unisseriada com cutícula espessa, tricomas glandulares do tipo peltado e tricomas tectores em ambas as faces da epiderme, parênquima clorofiliano com duas a três camadas de células paliçádicas e quatro a cinco camadas de células formando o parênquima lacunoso, de tamanho pequeno, com muitos espaços intercelulares, hipoestomática com nervura pinada. Os estudos através de MEV evidenciaram a epiderme recoberta com cera epicuticular e glândulas peltadas com maior incidência na epiderme da face abaxial, constituídas por oitos células secretoras apicais. A análise cromatográfica do extrato etanólico evidenciou a presença de fitoquinóides e flavonóides.Jacaranda puberula is popularly known as "carobinha" and is used in medical practices of many folk communities. The objective of this work was the anatomical and chemical characterization of Jacaranda puberula (Bignoniaceae leaves. The anatomical analysis was carried through light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. For the chemical analysis it was used High Perfomance Liquid Chromatografy (HPLC. Cross and paradermic sections of leaf showed the presence of uniseriate epidermal cells covered by a thick cuticle layer. There are peltate gland trichomes of multicellular type and no gland trichomes (tectores. It was observed that the faces of mesophyll are distinctly. Two to three layers of palisades cells form chlorophylian parenchyma and lacunary parenchyma is formed of four to five layers

  1. Nectar robbing positively influences the reproductive success of Tecomella undulata (Bignoniaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vineet Kumar; Barman, Chandan; Tandon, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    The net consequence of nectar robbing on reproductive success of plants is usually negative and the positive effect is rarely produced. We evaluated the influence of nectar robbing on the behaviour of pollinators and the reproductive success of Tecomella undulata (Bignoniaceae) in a natural population. Experimental pollinations showed that the trees were strictly self-incompatible. The three types of floral colour morphs of the tree viz. red, orange and yellow, lacked compatibility barriers. The pollinators (Pycnonotus cafer and Pycnonotus leucotis) and the robber (Nectarinia asiatica) showed equal preference for all the morphs, as they visited each morph with nearly equal frequency and flower-handling time. The sunbirds caused up to 60% nectar robbing, mostly (99%) by piercing through the corolla tube. Although nectar is replenished at regular intervals, insufficient amount of nectar compelled the pollinators to visit additional trees in bloom. Data of manual nectar robbing from the entire tree showed that the pollinators covered lower number of flowers per tree (5 flowers/tree) and more trees per bout (7 trees/bout) than the unrobbed ones (19 flowers/tree and 2 trees bout). The robbed trees set a significantly greater amount of fruits than the unrobbed trees. However, the number of seeds in a fruit did not differ significantly. The study shows that plant-pollinator-robber interaction may benefit the self-incompatible plant species under conditions that increases the visits of pollinators among the compatible conspecifics in a population.

  2. Nectar robbing positively influences the reproductive success of Tecomella undulata (Bignoniaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet Kumar Singh

    Full Text Available The net consequence of nectar robbing on reproductive success of plants is usually negative and the positive effect is rarely produced. We evaluated the influence of nectar robbing on the behaviour of pollinators and the reproductive success of Tecomella undulata (Bignoniaceae in a natural population. Experimental pollinations showed that the trees were strictly self-incompatible. The three types of floral colour morphs of the tree viz. red, orange and yellow, lacked compatibility barriers. The pollinators (Pycnonotus cafer and Pycnonotus leucotis and the robber (Nectarinia asiatica showed equal preference for all the morphs, as they visited each morph with nearly equal frequency and flower-handling time. The sunbirds caused up to 60% nectar robbing, mostly (99% by piercing through the corolla tube. Although nectar is replenished at regular intervals, insufficient amount of nectar compelled the pollinators to visit additional trees in bloom. Data of manual nectar robbing from the entire tree showed that the pollinators covered lower number of flowers per tree (5 flowers/tree and more trees per bout (7 trees/bout than the unrobbed ones (19 flowers/tree and 2 trees bout. The robbed trees set a significantly greater amount of fruits than the unrobbed trees. However, the number of seeds in a fruit did not differ significantly. The study shows that plant-pollinator-robber interaction may benefit the self-incompatible plant species under conditions that increases the visits of pollinators among the compatible conspecifics in a population.

  3. Self-sterility in the hexaploid Handroanthus serratifolius (Bignoniaceae, the national flower of Brazil

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    Mariana Ferreira Alves

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyploidization is common among angiosperms and might induce typically allogamous plants to become autogamous (self-compatible, relying on sexual self-fertilization or apomictic (achieving asexual reproduction through seeds. This work aimed to determine whether neopolyploidy leads to the breakdown of the self-incompatibility system in the hexaploid non-apomictic species Handroanthus serratifolius (Vahl S. Grose, through analyses of its floral biology, pollination biology and breeding system. Although anthesis lasted for three days, increasing the overall floral display, receptivity decreased as of the second day. Centridini and Euglossini bees were the main pollinators, and low nectar availability (1.95 ± 1.91 µl/flower might have obliged them to visit multiple flowers. We observed low reproductive efficacy. That might be explained by self-sterility and by the great number of flowers per individual, which could increase the frequency of geitonogamy. Ovule penetration by the pollen tubes in self-pollinated pistils with posterior abscission indicated late-acting self-incompatibility in H. serratifolius, as observed in other diploid Bignoniaceae species, although inbreeding depression cannot be excluded. The self-sterility found in the monoembryonic, hexaploid individuals studied here contrasts with the results for other neopolyploid Handroanthus and Anemopaegma species, which are often autogamous and apomictic. Our results suggest that neopolyploidy is not the main factor leading to self-fertility in Handroanthus.

  4. Propriedade inseticida dos óleos essenciais de Piper hispidinervum C. DC.; Piper aduncum L. e Tanaecium nocturnum (Barb. Rodr. Bur. & K. Shum sobre Tenebrio molitor L., 1758 Insecticidal properties of essential oils of Piper hispidinervum C. DC.; Piper aduncum L. and Tanaecium nocturnum (Barb. Rodr. Bur. & K. Shum against Tenebrio molitor L., 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Fazolin

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Óleos essenciais das piperáceas Piper aduncum L., Piper hispidinervum C. DC. e da bignoniácea Tanaecium nocturnum (Barb. Rodr. Bur. & K. Shum foram avaliados para o controle de larvas de Tenebrio molitor L., 1758. Para a avaliação do efeito por contato em superfície contaminada, foram utilizados papéis-filtro impregnados com diferentes quantidades dos óleos essenciais. Para a avaliação do efeito tópico foram aplicados 5 mL de soluções com diferentes concentrações dos óleos sobre larvas de quinto instar do inseto. A taxa de mortalidade foi a variável utilizada para avaliar os experimentos. Todos os óleos essenciais apresentaram efeito inseticida sobre larvas de T. molitor, sendo que as respostas variaram em função da concentração utilizada, assim como do método de exposição do inseto. A toxicidade dos óleos essenciais foi elevada apresentando os seguintes valores de CL50: 0,045; 0,033 e 1,515 mL de óleo cm-2 para exposição por contato (papel filtro aos óleos de P. hispidinervum,P. aduncum e T. nocturnum, respectivamente. Para a aplicação tópica, os valores da DL50 foram de: 0,000025; 0,009 e 0,000015 mL de óleo mg de inseto -1 para os óleos essenciais de P. hispidinervum,P. aduncum e T. nocturnum, respectivamente. Resultados promissores para o emprego desses óleos essenciais como inseticidas foram obtidos utilizando-se concentrações acima de 3,0% (v v-1 para P. hispidinervum e 2,5% (v v-1 para P. aduncum e T. nocturnum.Essential oils from Piper aduncum L., Piper hispidinervum C. DC. (Piperaceae and Tanaecium nocturnum (Barb. Rodr. Bur.& K. Shum (Bignoniaceae were tested against Tenebrio molitor L., 1758 larvaes. Filter paper with different amounts of oils were employed for contact toxicity effects study. For topical effect study, aliquots of 5 mL of oils at different concentrations were applied on larvaes of the fifth instar. Mortality rate was used to evaluate the assays. All essential oils possessed

  5. Anxiolytic effects of Dolichandrone falcata Seem., Bignoniaceae, stem-bark in elevated plus maze and marble burying test on mice Efeitos ansiolíticos das cascas de Dolichandrone falcata Seem., Bignoniaceae, em teste do labirinto em cruz elevada e teste de esconder esferas, em camundongos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal B Badgujar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Dolichandrone falcata Seem., Bignoniaceae, is a deciduous tree commonly known as Medshingi in local areas of Toranmal region of Maharashtra, India. Its bark paste is applied on fractured or dislocated bones, used as a fish poison; bark juice is used in cases of menorragia and leucorrhoea. The leaves of the plant have afforded chrysin-7-rutinoside. The present study was carried out to investigate the anxiolytic effects of methanol extract (DFBM, ethyl acetate extract (DFBEA and isolated compound DFB (V+VI of D. falcata stem-bark using animal models. Anxiolytic effects were studied by elevated plus maze (EPM and marble burying test (MBT assay. The crude dried DFBM and DFBEA extract was prepared in doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg whereas DFB (V+VI compound was prepared in doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg and were administered orally to mice for evaluation of anxiolytic activity. DFBEA 400 and DFB (V+VI 200 mg/kg produced highly significant (p Dolichandrone falcata Seem., Bignoniaceae, é uma árvore do tipo decidua, comumente conhecida como "Medshingi" na da região Toranmal de Maharashtra, na Índia. Uma pasta da casca é aplicada em fraturas ou luxação dos ossos e usada como veneno de peixe; o suco da casca é usada em casos de menorragia e leucorréia. Das folhas da planta foi isolado crisina-7-rutinoside. O presente estudo foi realizado para investigar os efeitos ansiolíticos do extrato metanólico (DFBM, acetato de etila (DFBEA e compostos isolados DFB (V + VI de D. falcata utilizando a casca do tronco em modelos animais. Os efeitos ansiolíticos foram estudados por labirinto em cruz elevada (EPM e o ensaio de esconder esferas de mármore (MBT. Os extratos bruto e seco DFBM DFBEA foram preparados em doses de 100, 200 e 400 mg/kg, enquanto que o composto DFB (V + VI foi preparado em doses de 50, 100 e 200 mg/kg e foram administrados em camundongos para avaliação da atividade ansiolítica. DFBEA 400 and DFB (V+VI 200 mg/kg produziram efeitos

  6. Influence of ultrasound and diamond burs treatments on microtensile bond strength

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Conde; Vivian Mainieri; Eduardo Gonçalves Mota; Hugo Mitsuo Oshima

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare surface treatments with CVDentUS ® ultrasound tips (UT) and KGSorensen ® diamond burs (DB) on etched (e) and non-etched (n/e) dentin. The microtensile bond strength (μTBS) was measured and fractography was assessed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Materials and Methods: Sixteen molars were divided into four groups of four teeth each according to treatment (DB-n/e; DB-e; UT-n/e; UT-e). The teeth were restored, sectioned into samples for μTBS (n=40) and tested on...

  7. Long-term bonding to eroded dentin requires superficial bur preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmerli, Brigitte; de Munck, Jan; Lussi, Adrian; Lambrechts, Paul; Meerbeek, Bart Van

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study aims to evaluate the influence of different surface preparation techniques on long-term bonding effectiveness to eroded dentin. Materials and methods Dentin specimens were eroded by pH cycling or were left untreated as control, respectively. Five different “preparation” techniques were applied: (1) cleaning with pumice, (2) air abrasion, (3) silicon polisher, (4) proxo-shape, and (5) diamond bur. The three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive OptiBond FL (O-FL; Kerr) and the mil...

  8. ¿Han sido los mercados bursátiles eficientes informacionalmente?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Benjamín Duarte Duarte

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se estudia la contrastación de la eficiencia demercados bursátiles en los últimos quince años, para ello se acude a la revisión de artículos de la base de datos ScienceDirect caracterizando los resultados de forma porcentual. Se encuentra que el 60 % de los trabajos rechaza la eficiencia del mercado, el 35 % presenta evidencia de eficiencia, y el 5 % restante verifica una mejora progresiva de la eficiencia debida a reformas económicas, mayor velocidad en el flujo de información y el lanzamiento de nuevos productos financieros.

  9. Characterization of microsatellites identified by next-generation sequencing in the Neotropical tree Handroanthus billbergii (Bignoniaceae)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillo, Eduardo; Buitron, Johanna; Limongi, Ricardo; Vignes, Helene; Argout, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: We developed microsatellite (simple sequence repeat [SSR]) markers in the Neotropical tree Handroanthus billbergii (Bignoniaceae), to be applied in assessment of genetic diversity in this species as a reference for inferring the impact of dry forest fragmentation in Ecuador. Methods and Results: Using next-generation sequencing, we detected a total of 26,893 putative SSRs reported here. Using an ABI 3500xl sequencer, we identified and characterized a set of polymorphic markers in 23 individuals belonging to three populations of H. billbergii. Conclusions: We report a set of 30 useful SSR markers for H. billbergii and a large list of potential microsatellites for developing new markers for this or related species. PMID:27213123

  10. Cutting characteristics of dental diamond burs made with CVD technology Características de corte de pontas odontológicas diamantadas obtidas pela tecnologia CVD

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    Luciana Monti Lima

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the cutting ability of chemical vapor deposition (CVD diamond burs coupled to an ultrasonic dental unit handpiece for minimally invasive cavity preparation. One standard cavity was prepared on the mesial and distal surfaces of 40 extracted human third molars either with cylindrical or with spherical CVD burs. The cutting ability was compared regarding type of substrate (enamel and dentin and direction of handpiece motion. The morphological characteristics, width and depth of the cavities were analyzed and measured using scanning electron micrographs. Statistical analysis using the Kruskal-Wallis test (p O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a habilidade de corte das pontas de diamante obtidas pelo processo de deposição química a vapor (CVD associadas ao aparelho de ultra-som no preparo cavitário minimamente invasivo. Uma cavidade padronizada foi preparada nas faces mesial e distal de 40 terceiros molares, utilizando-se pontas de diamante CVD cilíndrica e esférica. A habilidade de corte foi comparada quanto ao tipo de substrato (esmalte e dentina e quanto à direção do movimento realizado com a ponta. As características morfológicas, a largura e profundidade das cavidades foram analisadas e medidas em microscopia eletrônica de varredura. A análise estatística pelo teste de Kruskal-Wallis (p < 0,05 revelou que a largura e profundidade das cavidades foram significativamente maiores em dentina. Cavidades mais largas foram obtidas quando se utilizou a ponta de diamante CVD cilíndrica, e mais profundas quando a ponta esférica foi empregada. A direção do movimento da ponta não influenciou o tamanho das cavidades, sendo os cortes produzidos pelas pontas de diamante CVD precisos e conservadores.

  11. A contribution to the pollination ecology of Tabebuia pulcherrima (Bignoniaceae) in a sandbank area of the south of Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Afonso Inácio Orth; Maurício Lenzi; Dalzemira Anselmo da Silva Souza

    2004-01-01

    Studies on pollination mechanisms in Bignoniaceae have show some evidence of co-evolution with its pollen vectors. Floral biology and flower visitors of Tabebuia pulcherrima were investigated in a sandbank area. Flower phenology, the nectar production, pollen/ovule ratio, and identification of the flower visitors, as well as their behavior, were studied. Tabebuia pulcherrima displays typical melitophilous flowers, due to its morphology, diurnal anthesis and day-long nectar secretion. In the m...

  12. The influences of the hurly-burly renaissance world in the formation of camonian thematics

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    Paulo Rogério souza

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Current article proposes a reading of poetic texts produced by Camões based on his experience as a man of the Renaissance. Luíz Vaz de Camões (1524-1580 experienced the social conflicts brought about by structural and organizational changes in 16th century Portuguese society, which developed into world confusion. Such an experience may be observed in Rhymes and in the epic poem The Lusiads with different themes. It reveals a man divided between contradictory feelings and social conflicts experienced at that historical moment. The selected poems and the historical-biographical references on the poet produce the hurly-burly world immortalized in his verses and in the great changes of the 16th century.

  13. Ultrasonic cavity preparation using CVD coated diamond bur: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vasconcellos, Beatriz Tholt; Thompson, Jeffrey Y; de Paula Macedo, Manoel Roberto; de Oliveira Maia, Janaína Monalisa; Oda, Margareth; Garone-Netto, Narciso

    2013-01-01

    Before any restorative procedure can be undertaken a proper cavity preparation is required. This clinical step is the mechanical alteration of the tooth to receive a restorative material with which a satisfactory form, function and the esthetics of the tooth will be established. In recent years improvements in materials and techniques have been devised and new technologies are now available for this purpose. The aim of the present study is to report two clinical cases in which a CVD coated diamond bur coupled to an ultrasonic handpiece is used in dental preparation. This technique provides an accurate and conservative tooth preparation with ideal access and visibility and because of enhanced efficiency can also play a role in eliminating some of the patient discomfort of the dental treatment.

  14. Bond strength of resin modified glass ionomer cement to primary dentin after cutting with different bur types and dentin conditioning

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    Rebeca Di Nicoló

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of different bur types and acid etching protocols on the shear bond strength (SBS of a resin modified glass ionomer cement (RM-GIC to primary dentin. Forty-eight clinically sound human primary molars were selected and randomly assigned to four groups (n=12. In G1, the lingual surface of the teeth was cut with a carbide bur until a 2.0-mm-diameter dentin area was exposed, followed by the application of RM-GIC (Vitremer - 3M/ESPE prepared according to the manufacturer's instructions. The specimens of G2, received the same treatment of G1, however the dentin was conditioned with phosphoric acid. In groups G3 and G4 the same procedures of G1 and G2 were conducted respectively, nevertheless dentin cutting was made with a diamond bur. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37ºC for 24h, and then tested in a universal testing machine. SBS. data were submitted to 2-way ANOVA (= 5% and indicated that SBS values of RM-GIC bonded to primary dentin cut with different burs were not statistically different, but the specimens that were conditioned with phosphoric acid presented SBS values significantly higher that those without conditioning. To observe micromorphologic characteristics of the effects of dentin surface cut by diamond or carbide rotary instruments and conditioners treatment, some specimens were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Smear layer was present in all specimens regardless of the type of rotary instrument used for dentin cutting, and specimens etched with phosphoric acid presented more effective removal of smear layer. It was concluded that SBS of a RM-GIC to primary dentin was affected by the acid conditioning but the bur type had no influence.

  15. Machinability of lithium disilicate glass ceramic in in vitro dental diamond bur adjusting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao-Fei; Ren, Hai-Tao; Yin, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Esthetic high-strength lithium disilicate glass ceramics (LDGC) are used for monolithic crowns and bridges produced in dental CAD/CAM and oral adjusting processes, which machinability affects the restorative quality. A machinability study has been made in the simulated oral clinical machining of LDGC with a dental handpiece and diamond burs, regarding the diamond tool wear and chip control, machining forces and energy, surface finish and integrity. Machining forces, speeds and energy in in vitro dental adjusting of LDGC were measured by a high-speed data acquisition and force sensor system. Machined LDGC surfaces were assessed using three-dimensional non-contact chromatic confocal optical profilometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Diamond bur morphology and LDGC chip shapes were also examined using SEM. Minimum tool wear but significant LDGC chip accumulations were found. Machining forces and energy significantly depended on machining conditions (pMachining speeds dropped more rapidly with increased removal rates than other glass ceramics (pmachinability indices associated with the hardness, Young's modulus and fracture toughness were derived based on the normal force-removal rate relations, which ranked LDGC the most difficult to machine among glass ceramics. Surface roughness for machined LDGC was comparable for other glass ceramics. The removal mechanisms of LDGC were dominated by penetration-induced brittle fracture and shear-induced plastic deformation. Unlike most other glass ceramics, distinct intergranular and transgranular fractures of lithium disilicate crystals were found in LDGC. This research provides the fundamental data for dental clinicians on the machinability of LDGC in intraoral adjustments.

  16. Análise farmacognóstica das folhas de Arrabidaea chica (Humb. & Bonpl. B. Verlt., Bignoniaceae Pharmacognostic analysis of Arrabidaea chica (Humb. & Bonpl. B. Verlt. Leaves, Bignoniaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Sérgio Marques Alves

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Arrabidaea chica (Humb. & Bonpl. B. Verlt. é uma Bignoniaceae amplamente utilizada na medicina popular como anti-inflamatório e adstringente, e para várias doenças como cólicas intestinais, diarréias, anemias e enfermidades da pele. Devido as suas propriedades biológicas e a produção de corante a espécie passou a ser utilizada pela indústria cosmética. A utilização de produtos naturais de origem vegetal implica no controle de qualidade farmacobotânico e em ensaios de pureza que compõem as especificações técnicas da espécie. Para isso foi realizada a descrição anatômica das folhas jovens e maduras de A. chica a partir de observações realizadas ao microscópio óptico, a partir de cortes histológicos. As folhas são hipoestomáticas e dorsiventrais com mesofilo heterogêneo. No pecíolo, a epiderme é uniestratificada contendo tricomas e dotada de cutícula delgada. Os testes farmacopéicos incluíram a determinação da distribuição granulométrica do pó da planta, determinação do teor de umidade e de cinzas totais, além da abordagem fitoquímica da tintura, visando estabelecer parâmetros para seu controle de qualidade.Arrabidaea chica (Humb. & Bonpl. B. Verlt. is a Bignoniaceae widely used in the popular medicine as anti-inflammatory and astringent agent, and for some illnesses as intestinal colic, diarrhoeas, anaemia and diseases of the skin. Its biological properties and dye biosynthesis lead the species to be used in the cosmetic industry. The use of natural products of vegetal origin implies in pharmacognostic quality control and purity assays that compose the technical specifications of the material. Therefore, the anatomical description of mature and young leaves of A. chica was carried through the use of optic microscopy on histological preparations. The leaves are hipostomatic and dorsiventral with heterogeneous mesophile. In petiole, the epidermis is unistratified, it contains trachoma and it is endowed

  17. Potential of antioxidant extracts produced by aqueous processing ofrenewable resources for the formulation of cosmetics

    OpenAIRE

    Balboa, Elena M.; Soto, Maria Luisa; Daniele R. Nogueira; González-López, Noelia; Conde, Enma; Moure, Andrés; Vinardell Martínez-Hidalgo, Ma. Pilar; Mitjans Arnal, Montserrat; Domínguez, Herminia

    2014-01-01

    The performance of natural extracts obtained from underutilized and residual vegetal and macroalgal biomass processed with food-grade green solvents was compared with that of commercial antioxidants. Selected extracts were obtained from two terrestrial sources: winery byproducts concentrate (WBC) and chestnut burs hydrothermally fractionated extract (CBAE), and from two underutilized seaweeds: Sargassum muticum extracts, either extracted with ethanol (SmEE) or after alginate extraction and hy...

  18. Control of cross-infection risks in the dental operatory: prevention of water retraction by bur cooling spray systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, J J; Broderius, C

    1988-05-01

    A new dental unit control system was found to overcome the possibility of mechanically retracting bacteria from the mouth into the water line used to provide a spray of water to cool high-speed burs during treatments. This was demonstrated by results obtained after clinical use and after use in simulated, worst case test conditions using a red tempera indicator solution and indicator bacteria.

  19. Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Stereospermum Kunthianum (Cham, Sandrine Petit) Protects Against Generalized Seizures in Pentylenetetrazole and Electro-Convulsive Models in Rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Ching, F. P.; Omogbai, E. K. I.; Otokiti, I O

    2009-01-01

    Stereospermum kunthianum, Cham Sandrine Petit (Bignoniaceae) known in English as pink jacaranda is used in traditional medicine to treat an array of ailments including febrile convulsions in infants and young children by the rural dwellers in Nigeria. This study examined the anticonvulsant activity of its aqueous stem bark extract (100 – 400mg/kg) against maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in rodents. Phenobarbitone and ethosuximide were used as reference anticonvuls...

  20. Neutralization of the edema-forming, defibrinating and coagulant effects of Bothrops asper venom by extracts of plants used by healers in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez V.; Otero R.; Barona J.; Saldarriaga M.; Osorio R.G.; Fonnegra R.; Jiménez S.L.; Díaz A.; Quintana J.C.

    2004-01-01

    We determined the neutralizing activity of 12 ethanolic extracts of plants against the edema-forming, defibrinating and coagulant effects of Bothrops asper venom in Swiss Webster mice. The material used consisted of the leaves and branches of Bixa orellana (Bixaceae), Ficus nymphaeifolia (Moraceae), Struthanthus orbicularis (Loranthaceae) and Gonzalagunia panamensis (Rubiaceae); the stem barks of Brownea rosademonte (Caesalpiniaceae) and Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae); the whole plant of Pleop...

  1. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra;

    2016-01-01

    therefore developed an interactive annotation tool, EXTRACT, which helps curators identify and extract standard-compliant terms for annotation of metagenomic records and other samples. Behind its web-based user interface, the system combines published methods for named entity recognition of environment...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/....

  2. EFFECTS OF LIGHT AND TEMPERATURE ON Tabebuia serratifolia (Vahl Nich,Tabebuia chrysotricha (Mart. ex DC. Standl. AND Tabebuia roseo-alba (Ridl Sand – Bignoniaceae SEED GERMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Leonardo dos Santos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Tabebuia serratifolia, Tabebuia chrysotricha and Tabebuia roseo-alba (Bignoniaceae, are an important ornamental and wood trees in Brasil. The effects of light and temperature in the  germination of Tabebuia serratifolia, Tabebuia chrysotricha and Tabebuia roseo-alba seeds were studied in the present work. The results indicated that the species present light insensitive seeds the and optimum temperature was between 20° and 30°C, the maximum temperature between 35° and 40°C and minimal temperature between 10° and 15°C for Tabebuia chrysotricha and Tabebuia roseo-alba and below 10°C for Tabebuia serratifolia.

  3. Comparison of growth traits between abundant and uncommon forms of a non-native vine, Dolichandra unguis-cati (Bignoniaceae) in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Buru, Joshua C.; Dhileepan, Kunjithapatham; Osunkoya, Olusegun O.; Firn, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Cat’s claw creeper vine, Dolichandra unguis-cati (L.) Lohmann (syn. Macfadyena unguis-cati (L.) Gentry) (Bignoniaceae), is a major environmental weed in Australia. Two distinct forms of this weed (‘long’ and ‘short’ pod), with differences in leaf morphology and fruit size, occur in Australia. The long pod form has only been reported in less than fifteen localities in the whole of south-east Queensland, while the short pod form is widely distributed in Queensland and New South Wales. This stud...

  4. Comportamiento bursátil en los G-9 emergentes (brics+4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Sosa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo estudia la relación de las variables macroeconómicas con los mercados accionarios del grupo brics, Corea del Sur, Indonesia, Turquía y México, determinando el riesgo sistemático para estos mercados, tomando en consideración cambios en cuatro variables macroeconómicas: índice de precios al consumidor, producción industrial, volumen de exportaciones y reservas internacionales; como variables explicativas de los principales índices bursátiles para cada economía, durante el periodo 2003:05 a 2013:05. La metodología incluye un modelo multifactorial, Vector Auto Regresivo (var, la prueba de descomposición de la varianza y la función impulso respuesta. La evidencia obtenida, identifica un comportamiento heterogéneo a través de las economías, implicando la presencia de segmentación y una base débil para la integración financiera en el corto plazo.

  5. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Dampierre-en-Burly nuclear facilities - 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Dampierre-en-Burly nuclear power plant (INB 84 and 85, Loiret, 45 (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2010, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise, microbial proliferation in cooling towers) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  6. Estruturas secretoras em cipó-d'alho (Mansoa standleyi (Steyerm. A. H. Gentry, Bignoniaceae: ocorrência e morfologia Secretory structures in cipó-d'alho (Mansoa standleyi (Steyerm. A. H. Gentry, Bignoniaceae: occurrence and morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimunda Conceição Vilhena-Potiguara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Espécies de Mansoa são denominadas de "cipó-d'alho", por exalarem odor de alho das partes vegetativas e reprodutivas. Contudo, dados sobre morfologia e distribuição das estruturas secretoras presentes em Mansoa são escassos e ausentes para M. standleyi. O presente trabalho objetivou caracterizar a ocorrência e morfologia das estruturas secretoras do eixo vegetativo aéreo de M. standleyi. Para tanto, amostras da lâmina foliolar e de regiões nodais foram fixadas e submetidas às técnicas histológicas e de microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Testes histoquímicos, com os respectivos controles foram aplicados nas estruturas secretoras em fase secretora. Indivíduos de formigas e moscas, que visitavam a espécie foram amostrados, preservados e identificados por entomólogo. As estruturas secretoras do eixo vegetativo aéreo de M. standleyi estão representadas por tricomas glandulares dos tipos pateliformes e peltados. Todos com desenvolvimento assincrônico e presentes nas regiões nodais e lâmina foliolar, principalmente nas partes mais jovens. Nas regiões nodais, os tricomas formam um complexo secretor e, na lâmina foliolar, estão dispersos. As análises histoquímicas revelaram que os tricomas pateliformes são de fato nectários extraflorais e que os tricomas peltados, apresentam uma fração de alcaloides. Os visitantes das glândulas nodais correspondem a formigas Crematogaster (Formicidae e Ectatomma brunea (Vespoidea, Formicidae e moscas Oxysarcodexia (Sarcophagidae, subfamília Utitidae (Ulidiidae. Mansoa standleyi possui as estruturas secretoras do eixo vegetativo aéreo semelhantes às citadas pela literatura para Bignoniaceae, sendo esta a primeira vez, que um nectário extrafloral é descrito para a espécie.Species of Mansoa are called "cipó-d'alho" because of the smell of garlic that wafts from their vegetative and reproductive parts. Since data on the morphology and occurrence of their secretory structures are

  7. Tree and stand transpiration in a Midwestern bur oak savanna after elm encroachment and restoration thinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbjornsen, H.; Tomer, M.D.; Gomez-Cardenas, M.; Brudvig, L.A.; Greenan, C.M.; Schilling, K.

    2007-01-01

    Oak savannas, once common in the Midwest, are now isolated remnants within agricultural landscapes. Savanna remnants are frequently encroached by invasive trees to become woodlands. Thinning and prescribed burning can restore savanna structure, but the ecohydrological effects of managing these remnants are poorly understood. In this study, we measured sap flow (Js) to quantify transpiration in an Iowa bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa) savanna woodland encroached by elms (Ulmus americana), and in an adjacent restored savanna after thinning to remove elms, during summer 2004. Savanna oaks had greater mean daily Js (35.9 L dm-2 day-1) than woodland oaks (20.7 L dm-2 day-1) and elms (12.4 L dm-2 day-1). The response of Js to vapor pressure deficit (D) was unexpectedly weak, although oaks in both stands showed negative correlation between daily Js and D for D > 0.4 kPa. An earlier daily peak in Js in the elm trees showed a possible advantage for water uptake. As anticipated, the woodland's stand transpiration was greater (1.23 mm day-1) than the savanna's (0.35 mm day-1), yet the savanna achieved 30% of the woodland's transpiration with only 11% of its sapwood area. The difference in transpiration influenced water table depths, which were 2 m in the savanna and 6.5 m in the woodland. Regionally, row-crop agriculture has increased groundwater recharge and raised water tables, providing surplus water that perhaps facilitated elm encroachment. This has implications for restoration of savanna remnants. If achieving a savanna ecohydrology is an aim of restoration, then restoration strategies may require buffers, or targeting of large or hydrologically isolated remnants. ?? 2007.

  8. Domacios y nectarios extraflorales en Bignoniáceas: componentes vegetales de una interacción mutualística Domatia and extrafloral nectaries in Bignoniaceae: two components of a mutualistic interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M Gonzalez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Las plantas presentan relaciones mutualísticas con insectos a cambio del control de sus herbívoros u hongos patógenos; por medio de los domacios les ofrecen albergue y mediante la secreción de néctar de nectarios extraflorales les brindan alimento. Se examinó la anatomía foliar en 52 especies de Bignoniaceae con microscopía óptica y electrónica de barrido, con el objetivo de describir los domacios y los nectarios extraflorales. Los domacios presentes son de dos tipos: mechones de pelos y bolsillos, siendo un carácter taxonómico útil en varias especies. Los nectarios extraflorales se encuentran en todas las especies, ubicándose en diversas posiciones: a lo largo de la vena media, asociados a los domacios o agrupados en campos glandulares, que pueden ser foliares o interpeciolares. Las Bignoniaceae presentan simultáneamente domacios y nectarios extraflorales en sus hojas, los cuales se describen como componentes vegetales de un probable mecanismo de defensa indirecta.Plants have mutualistic relationships with insects in two ways: through domatia provide housing of predators, and extrafloral nectaries secreting nectar and provide food in exchange for control of herbivores or fungal pathogens. The foliar anatomy of 52 species of Bignoniaceae was examined by light and scanning electron microscopy, in order to describe the different types of domatia and extrafloral nectaries. Two types of domatia were observed: small hair-tufts and pockets; the presence and type of domatia represents important taxonomic characters in Bignoniaceae. Extrafloral nectaries are found in all studied species. They are located in different positions: along the midvein, associated with domatia, or grouped in glandular fields, either in leaf or interpetiolar. The Bignoniaceae have simultaneously domatia and extrafloral nectaries on their leaves, these features are described as plant components in a probable mechanism of indirect defense.

  9. Primers for phylogeny reconstruction in Bignonieae (Bignoniaceae) using herbarium samples 1

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre R. Zuntini; Fonseca, Luiz Henrique M.; Lúcia G. Lohmann

    2013-01-01

    Premise of the study: New primers were developed for Bignonieae to enable phylogenetic studies within this clade using herbarium samples. Methods and Results: Internal primers were designed based on available sequences of the plastid ndhF gene and the rpl32-trnL intergenic spacer region, and the nuclear gene PepC. The resulting primers were used to amplify DNA extracted from herbarium materials. High-quality data were obtained from herbarium samples up to 53 yr old. Conclusions: The sta...

  10. Supervisores bursátiles, gobierno corporativo y cumplimiento de las niif: el caso de la cnmv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Villanueva García

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Las Normas Internacionales de Información Financiera (NIIF, emitidas por el International Accounting Standards Board (IASB y los US-GAAP, son hoy el referente global en convergencia hacia un estándar global. Las NIIF se utilizan fundamentalmente en los mercados de capitales, si bien carecen de una superestructura que garantice un sistema contable de elevada calidad. La Unión Europea, en su nueva propuesta de reglamento de auditoría para Entidades de Interés Público (EIP, da un gran protagonismo a los supervisores bursátiles como controladores de una adecuada aplicación de estas normas en la confección de los estados financieros. En este contexto, el objetivo que persigue el presente trabajo es contrastar la labor del supervisor bursátil español a este respecto, durante los años 2005-2010. Estudiamos, en primer lugar, el grado de incumplimiento detectado en las NIIF y, en segundo, contrastamos la posible influencia de distintos atributos de gobierno corporativo y algunas magnitudes corporativas sobre los apercibimientos que reciben las empresas cotizadas españolas, por parte de la Comisión Nacional del Mercado de Valores (CNMV.

  11. In vitro cytotoxic activity of Brazilian Middle West plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talal Suleiman Mahmoud

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cytotoxic activity of eight plant extracts, native from the Mid-West of Brazil comprising Cerrado, Pantanal and semideciduous forest, was evaluated for MDA-MB-435, SF-295, and HCT-8 cancer cell strains. A single 100 µg.mL-1 dose of each extract was employed with 72 h of incubation for all tests. Doxorubicin (1 µg.mL-1 was used as the positive control and the MTT method was used to detect the activity. Cytotoxicity of distinct polarities was observed in thirty extracts (46%, from different parts of the following species: Tabebuia heptaphylla (Vell. Toledo, Bignoniaceae, Tapirira guianensis Aubl., Anacardiaceae, Myracrodruon urundeuva Allemão, Anacardiaceae, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Anacardiaceae, Gomphrena elegans Mart., Amaranthaceae, Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng., Arecaceae, Eugenia uniflora L., Myrtaceae, and Annona dioica A. St.-Hil., Annonaceae. Extracts of at least two tested cell strains were considered to be highly active since their inhibition rate was over 75%.

  12. A Comparative Study on Micro Hardness and Structural Changes of Dentin Floor Cavity Prepared by Er: YAG Laser Irradiation and Mechanical Bur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbabzadeh F.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Laser irradiation makes structural and chemical changes on the dental hard tissues. These changes alter the level of solubility and permeability of dentin. Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the microhardness and the structural changes in the dentin cavity floor prepared with Er: YAG laser and bur.Material and Methods: In this experimental study, fifteen intact human molars were selected. Two square cavities were prepared on the buccal and lingual surfaces of each tooth. One side was randomly prepared by Er:YAG laser and the other side by bur. The specimens were divided into two halves. Consequently, there were 30 samples in every group. One half was assigned for the Vickers’s hardness test and the other one, for determination of Ca and P percentage and atomic elements analysis. The data were analyzed by Paired T-tests through SPSS16 (α≤o.o5.Results: The means and the standard deviation of the microhardness were 69.77±25.62 and 51.33±9.31 Kg/mm2 in the laser and bur groups, respectively. Statistical analysis showed significant differences between the two groups (p=0.017. Weight percentage of calcium in the laser cavity (65.5 was less than the bur cavities (68.21 and the difference was significant (p= 0.037.Conclusion: The hardness of dentin in laser group was higher than the bur group because of the higher mineral content of the dentin. The hardness and the mineral content of dentin are important factors in the bonding effectiveness of the dental materials so with laser cavity preparation, good mineral substrate are available for a better bonding.

  13. EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS OF CONDENSED TANNINS IN CASTANEA SATIVA MILL.

    OpenAIRE

    Živković, J.; Mujić, I.; Nikolić, G.; S Vidović; A Mujić

    2010-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins, also known as condensed tannins are widespread in woody plants, but are also found in certain forages. Castanea sativa Mill. are exploited for various purposes, but a little is known about potential of this species and possible application in diet and therapy. The parts of chestnut such as: seed, peeled seed, brown seed shell, red internal seed shell, leaves, catkin, spiny bur, as well as the new and old chestnut bark were extracted with 50% ethanol as an extragents. Conten...

  14. Estudo fitoquímico e avaliação alelopática de Memora peregrina - "ciganinha" - Bignoniaceae, uma espécie invasora de pastagens em Mato Grosso do Sul Phytochemical study and evaluation of allelopathy in Memora peregrina, 'ciganinha', Bignoniaceae, an invading species in pastures in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Ferreira Grassi

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Memora peregrina (local name: 'ciganinha' - Bignoniaceae is a weed that often invades pastures in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul. From its leaves and subterranean parts, the following compounds were isolated: allantoin (20.7 w/w in subterranean parts, the iridoid 6beta-hydroxyipolamiide, hyperin, 3'-O-methylhyperin, 4-hydroxy-N-methylproline, beta-sitosterol, alpha-amirin and beta-amirin, and lupeol. Allantoin exhibited an activity of inducing germination in seeds of Lactuca sativa used as a biological model, and the iridoid showed moderate activity in the larval development of Anagasta kuehniella. These results, associated with this plant's behavior, are suggestive of the occurrence of adaptive and competitive strategies in relation to other plant species.

  15. Phyto chemical study and evaluation of allelopathy in Memora peregrina, 'ciganinha', Bignoniaceae, an invading species in pastures in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil; Estudo fitoquimico e avaliacao alelopatica de Memora peregrina - 'ciganinha' - Bignoniaceae, uma especie invasora de pastagens em Mato Grosso do Sul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassi, Rafaela Ferreira [Mato Grosso do Sul Univ., Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Resende, Ubirazilda Maria [Mato Grosso do Sul Univ., Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia; Silva, Walciane da; Macedo, Maria Ligia Rodrigues [Mato Grosso do Sul Univ., Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Naturais; Butera, Ana Paola; Tulli, Elayne de Oliveira; Saffran, Francis Paes; Siqueira, Joao Maximo de [Mato Grosso do Sul Univ., Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia-Bioquamica]. E-mail: jmaximo@nin.ufms.br

    2005-04-01

    Memora peregrina (local name: 'ciganinha' - Bignoniaceae) is a weed that often invades pastures in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul. From its leaves and subterranean parts, the following compounds were isolated: allantoin (20.7 w/w in subterranean parts), the iridoid 6{beta}-hydroxyipolamiide, hyperin, 3'-O-methylhyperin, 4-hydroxy-N-methylproline, {beta}-sitosterol, {alpha}-amirin and {beta}-amirin, and lupeol. Allantoin exhibited an activity of inducing germination in seeds of Lactuca sativa used as a biological model, and the iridoid showed moderate activity in the larval development of Anagasta kuehniella. These results, associated with this plant's behavior, are suggestive of the occurrence of adaptive and competitive strategies in relation to other plant species. (author)

  16. Bioactivity of Pseudocalymma alliaceum (Lam.) Sandwith (Bignoniaceae) against Spodoptera litura Fabricius and Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidotera:Noctuidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alagarmalai Jeyasankar; Tamilarasu Chinnamani

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antifeedant, larvicidal and insect growth inhibitory activities of crude extracts of Pseudocalymma alliaceum tested against fourth instar larvae of Spodoptera litura (S. litura) and Helicoverpa armigera (H. armigera). Methods: Hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts were prepared and tested for antifeedant, insecticidal and growth inhibitory activities against fourth instar larvae of S. litura and H. armigera.Results:Ethyl acetate extract showed promising antifeedant, insecticidal activity against S. litura and H. armigera. Maximum percentage of deformed larvae, pupae and adults were found on treatment with ethyl acetate extract. Percentage of successful adult emergence was deteriorated by extract treated larvae. Ethyl acetate extracts of Pseudocalymma alliaceum, showed higher percentage of antifeedant, insecticidal and growth inhibition activities.Conclusions:This is the first report on S. litura and H. armigera. Further, the active compounds isolated from the ethyl acetate extracts will be useful for controlling economically important insect pests.

  17. Microleakage of composite resin restoration in cavities prepared by Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation and etched bur cavities in primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mozammal; Nakamura, Yukio; Yamada, Yoshishige; Murakami, Yoshiko; Matsumoto, Koukichi

    2002-01-01

    In this in vitro study, the surface alterations of enamel and dentin in cavities prepared by Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and compared to the microleakage degree after composite resin restoration with etched bur cavities in human primary teeth. The results confirmed that laser cavity surface facilitated a good adhesion with the restorative materials; the acid etch step can be easily avoided with the laser treatment.

  18. A contribution to the pollination ecology of Tabebuia pulcherrima (Bignoniaceae in a sandbank area of the south of Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso Inácio Orth

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies on pollination mechanisms in Bignoniaceae have show some evidence of co-evolution with its pollen vectors. Floral biology and flower visitors of Tabebuia pulcherrima were investigated in a sandbank area. Flower phenology, the nectar production, pollen/ovule ratio, and identification of the flower visitors, as well as their behavior, were studied. Tabebuia pulcherrima displays typical melitophilous flowers, due to its morphology, diurnal anthesis and day-long nectar secretion. In the morning, the nectar volume is smaller, which is associated with a higher frequency of visitors. The pollen/ovule ratio indicates facultative xenogamy. We collected 88 insects on the flowers, 52% of which were bees; the rest were wasps, flies, ants end beetles. The most abundant species were Niltonia virgilii (42%, Bombus morio (20% and Xylocopa brasilianorum (18%. According to their frequency, abundance and visiting behavior, Bombus morio and Niltonia virgilii were considered to be the potencial pollinators of T. pulcherrima and Epicharis dejeanii, a secondary pollinator. The carpenter bee Xylocopa brasilianorum is a nectar robber of T. pulcherrima. The flowers of T. pulcherrima are an important food source for the entomofauna of the restinga, offering nectar and pollen as floral rewards.

  19. Bioactive properties of Tynanthus panurensis (Bureau) Sanwith bark extract, the Amazonian "clavo huasca".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Lidia; Acero, Nuria; Galán, Antonio; Perez-García, Carmen; Alguacil, Luis Fernando; Muñoz-Mingarro, Dolores

    2011-09-01

    Tynanthus panurensis (Bureau) Sanwith (Bignoniaceae) is a liana vine used in traditional Amazonian medicine as a tonic and energizer as well as a treatment for rheumatism. These traditional indications prompted this study of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of T. panurensis bark extract (ETP). Phytochemical analysis of ETP showed the presence of saponins and a high concentration of phenols and flavonoids. A battery of in vitro tests revealed that the extract has free radical-scavenging antioxidant properties and reduces microsomal lipid peroxidation, uric acid synthesis, and tumor necrosis factor-α production. The anti-inflammatory properties of ETP were further confirmed in vivo in a rat carrageenan edema model, in which the extract exhibited a potent activity. These results support the idea that T. panurensis bark extract could be beneficial for treating inflammation and are in agreement with one of the main traditional uses of this plant. PMID:21488753

  20. Bioactive properties of Tynanthus panurensis (Bureau) Sanwith bark extract, the Amazonian "clavo huasca".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Lidia; Acero, Nuria; Galán, Antonio; Perez-García, Carmen; Alguacil, Luis Fernando; Muñoz-Mingarro, Dolores

    2011-09-01

    Tynanthus panurensis (Bureau) Sanwith (Bignoniaceae) is a liana vine used in traditional Amazonian medicine as a tonic and energizer as well as a treatment for rheumatism. These traditional indications prompted this study of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of T. panurensis bark extract (ETP). Phytochemical analysis of ETP showed the presence of saponins and a high concentration of phenols and flavonoids. A battery of in vitro tests revealed that the extract has free radical-scavenging antioxidant properties and reduces microsomal lipid peroxidation, uric acid synthesis, and tumor necrosis factor-α production. The anti-inflammatory properties of ETP were further confirmed in vivo in a rat carrageenan edema model, in which the extract exhibited a potent activity. These results support the idea that T. panurensis bark extract could be beneficial for treating inflammation and are in agreement with one of the main traditional uses of this plant.

  1. Estimacion de modelos de volatilidad estocástica en series de rendimientos bursátiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvo Martín, Meri Emilia

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Las series temporales de alta frecuencia observadas en los mercados financieros y cambiarios se caracterizan por ser asimétricas, leptocúrticas, agrupamiento de la volatilidad, mostrar una elevada persistencia en volatilidad, correlaciones en los cuadrados, efecto leverage, etc. Estas características son las que se conoce en la literatura econométrica como hechos estilizados. Para recoger estas características de las series temporales se han planteado modelos no lineales, entre los que se pueden destacar básicamente dos tipos: por un lado, los modelos ARCH y GARCH y todas sus posibles variantes y por otro lado, los modelos de volatilidad estocástica. Estos modelos se diferencian entre sí en la forma de modelizar la volatilidad, así el primer tipo de modelos se caracteriza porque la varianza condicional depende de las observaciones pasadas de la serie (modelos ARCH y de sus propios valores pasados (modelos GARCH, mientras que en los modelos de volatilidad estocástica la volatilidad es función de un proceso estocástico no observable. En este trabajo, vamos a analizar los distintos resultados obtenidos de la estimación de los dos tipos de modelos anteriormente propuestos, aplicados a series de rendimientos de índices bursátiles.

  2. Volatile and non-volatile compounds and antimicrobial activity of Mansoa difficilis (Cham.) Bureau and K. Schum. (Bignoniaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilhon, Giselle Maria Skelding Pinheiro; Silva, Elisangela Sarmento da; Santos, Lourivaldo da Silva [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Fac. de Quimica; Zoghbi, Maria das Gracas Bichara [Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Belem, PA (Brazil). Coordenacao de Botanica; Araujo, Isabella Santos [Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana (UEFS), Feira de Santana, BA (Brazil); Uetanabaro, Ana Paula Trovatti, E-mail: giselle@ufpa.br [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (UESC), Ilheus, BA (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Essential oil from the leaves of Mansoa difficilis was analyzed by GC/MS. Oct-1-en-3-ol (49.65%) was the major compound, but diallyl di- and trisulfide were also present (0.85 and 0.37%, respectively), justifying the garlic-like odor of the crushed leaves. The hexane and methanol extracts of the leaves and stems afforded as main constituents a mixture of linear hydrocarbons, spinasterol, stigmasterol, ursolic and oleanolic acids, two apigenin derivatives and verbascoside. The hexane and methanol extracts of leaves were tested for antimicrobial activity against ten microorganisms. The hexane extract was active against both Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. (author)

  3. Determinantes de la valoración bursátil : variables económico-financieras y de responsabilidad social corporativa en los bancos europeos

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Jiménez, Iván

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo es buscar, entre los ratios económico-financieros y las variables de Responsabiliodad Social Corporativa (Gobierno Corporativo, Medio Ambiente y Social), aquellos factores que influyan de forma más determinante en el valor bursátil de las empresas (medido mediante la Q de Tobin), desde el punto de vista empírico mediante el uso de técnicas estadísticas y econométricas. Para ello, se estiman modelos econométricos que reflejan el valor de las principales entidades financ...

  4. Phytotoxicity of the organic phase and major compound obtained from the fruit pulp of Crescentia cujete L. (Bignoniaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Sinval Garcia Pereira; Giselle Maria Skelding Pinheiro Guilhon; Lourivaldo da Silva Santos; Luidi Cardoso Pacheco; Antônio José Cantanhede Filho; Antônio Pedro da Silva Souza Filho

    2015-01-01

    The phytotoxity of ethanol extracts, of the organic phase and major compound (cinnamic acid) obtained from the fruit pulp of Crescentia cujete L., were evaluated for their potential to inhibit seed germination, hypocotyl development and radicle development of the invasive weeds Senna obtusifolia (L.) Irwin & Barneby and Mimosa pudica Mill. The organic phase at a concentration of 0.5% inhibited 100% seed germination of both weeds. Cinnamic acid obtained from the organic phase inhibited seed ge...

  5. Study of methanolic extract of flower of Spathodea campanulata L. as an anti-solar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Vinayak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunlight stimulates hormone production, allows for the synthesis of vitamin D, promotes skin cell regeneration and contributes to all overall sense of well-being of individual. Also sunlight stimulates the melanin, the pigment that acts as the skin natural sunscreen. But excessive unprotected exposure to sunrays can lead to painful sunburn or other skin-related complications. This paper evaluates the UV absorption ability of flowers from Spathodea campanulata L. (Bignoniaceae as an anti-solar agent. The extract was prepared by maceration with a mixture of distilled water and methanol (2:5. The method is performed by UV-visible spectrophotomety in the range of 200-400 nm and result of the extract showed maximum absorbance at 200-240 nm, while good absorbance at 240-325 nm. The moderate absorbance was noted at 310-340 nm.

  6. Geta burðardýr verið fórnarlömb mansals skv. skilgreiningu 227. gr. a almennra hegningarlaga?

    OpenAIRE

    Eyrún Halla Eyjólfsdóttir 1976

    2014-01-01

    Efni þessarar ritgerðar lýtur að málefnum svokallaðra „burðardýra“ í fíkniefnamálum. Þessi málaflokkur hefur lítið verið rannsakaður en þekkt er að burðardýr hafa orðið fyrir þvingunum og nauðung innan fíkniefnaheimsins. Þessi heimur er eins og gefur að skilja lítt kunnur þar sem hann starfar utan laga og réttar og er lítið vitað um stöðu þessara einstaklinga. Staða þeirra er þó afar erfið vegna ólögmætis starfs þeirra. Þeir standa utan réttarkerfisins og njóta ekki verndar yfirvalda. Dómu...

  7. Phytotoxicity of the organic phase and major compound obtained from the fruit pulp of Crescentia cujete L. (Bignoniaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinval Garcia Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The phytotoxity of ethanol extracts, of the organic phase and major compound (cinnamic acid obtained from the fruit pulp of Crescentia cujete L., were evaluated for their potential to inhibit seed germination, hypocotyl development and radicle development of the invasive weeds Senna obtusifolia (L. Irwin & Barneby and Mimosa pudica Mill. The organic phase at a concentration of 0.5% inhibited 100% seed germination of both weeds. Cinnamic acid obtained from the organic phase inhibited seed germination by 95% for S. obtusifolia and 99% for M. pudica at a concentration of 0.1%, with concentrations (% inhibiting 50% (IC50 seed germination equal to 0.063% and 0.037%, respectively. For the seedling growth bioassays, the toxicity of the cinnamic acid was more efficient for the S. obtusifolia radicle (IC50 equal to 0.009%, and for M. pudica the IC50 values were 0.097% and 0.117% for the radicle and hypocotyl, respectively. This research reinforces the phytotoxic potential of cinnamic acid, verified initially in the organic phase (in ethyl acetate, which is rich in this phenylpropanoid.

  8. Effect of the erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser or diamond bur cavity preparation on the marginal microleakage of class V cavities restored with different adhesives and composite systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Batu Can; Guray, Begum Efes; Dorter, Can; Gomeç, Yavuz; Yazıcıoglu, Oktay; Erdilek, Dina

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the microleakage of Er:YAG laser and diamond bur on different bonding systems in class V restorations. Class V cavities were prepared with Er:YAG laser or diamond bur on 80 intact human molars. Teeth were randomly distributed into ten groups and cavities were restored with CeramX duo (DENTSPLY) or Filtek Silorane (3M/ESPE) using different bonding materials (One Coat 7.0 (Coltène), XP Bond (DENTSPLY), Clearfil Protect Bond (Kuraray), AdperSE (3M/ESPE), and Silorane System Adhesive (3M/ESPE). All specimens were subjected to thermocycling and load cycling. After being immersed in silver nitrate dye, the specimens were sectioned. Microleakage was evaluated by stereomicroscope and SEM. Data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney tests. Statistically differences were found between groups (p > 0.05) and cavities prepared with the Er:YAG laser showed higher microleakage than diamond bur. The microleakage of different bonding systems was influenced by the choice of diamond bur or Er:YAG laser for class V composite cavity preparation.

  9. Computer-Assisted Technique for Surgical Tooth Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosamuddin Hamza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Surgical tooth extraction is a common procedure in dentistry. However, numerous extraction cases show a high level of difficulty in practice. This difficulty is usually related to inadequate visualization, improper instrumentation, or other factors related to the targeted tooth (e.g., ankyloses or presence of bony undercut. Methods. In this work, the author presents a new technique for surgical tooth extraction based on 3D imaging, computer planning, and a new concept of computer-assisted manufacturing. Results. The outcome of this work is a surgical guide made by 3D printing of plastics and CNC of metals (hybrid outcome. In addition, the conventional surgical cutting tools (surgical burs are modified with a number of stoppers adjusted to avoid any excessive drilling that could harm bone or other vital structures. Conclusion. The present outcome could provide a minimally invasive technique to overcome the routine complications facing dental surgeons in surgical extraction procedures.

  10. FACT, the Bur kinase pathway, and the histone co-repressor HirC have overlapping nucleosome-related roles in yeast transcription elongation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R Stevens

    Full Text Available Gene transcription is constrained by the nucleosomal nature of chromosomal DNA. This nucleosomal barrier is modulated by FACT, a conserved histone-binding heterodimer. FACT mediates transcription-linked nucleosome disassembly and also nucleosome reassembly in the wake of the RNA polymerase II transcription complex, and in this way maintains the repression of 'cryptic' promoters found within some genes. Here we focus on a novel mutant version of the yeast FACT subunit Spt16 that supplies essential Spt16 activities but impairs transcription-linked nucleosome reassembly in dominant fashion. This Spt16 mutant protein also has genetic effects that are recessive, which we used to show that certain Spt16 activities collaborate with histone acetylation and the activities of a Bur-kinase/Spt4-Spt5/Paf1C pathway that facilitate transcription elongation. These collaborating activities were opposed by the actions of Rpd3S, a histone deacetylase that restores a repressive chromatin environment in a transcription-linked manner. Spt16 activity paralleling that of HirC, a co-repressor of histone gene expression, was also found to be opposed by Rpd3S. Our findings suggest that Spt16, the Bur/Spt4-Spt5/Paf1C pathway, and normal histone abundance and/or stoichiometry, in mutually cooperative fashion, facilitate nucleosome disassembly during transcription elongation. The recessive nature of these effects of the mutant Spt16 protein on transcription-linked nucleosome disassembly, contrasted to its dominant negative effect on transcription-linked nucleosome reassembly, indicate that mutant FACT harbouring the mutant Spt16 protein competes poorly with normal FACT at the stage of transcription-linked nucleosome disassembly, but effectively with normal FACT for transcription-linked nucleosome reassembly. This functional difference is consistent with the idea that FACT association with the transcription elongation complex depends on nucleosome disassembly, and that the

  11. Estimación de modelos de volatilidad estocástica asimétrica. Aplicación en series de rendimientos de índices bursátiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mínguez Salido, Román

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Una de las principales características o hechos estilizados observados en las series financieras en general y en las series de rendimientos de índices bursátiles en particular es el comportamiento asimétrico de la volatilidad ante shocks positivos o negativos en los mercados. Para estimar si existe o no este comportamiento asimétrico de la volatilidad en las series de rendimientos de los índices bursátiles Ibex35 y Nasdaq100 hemos utilizado dos tipos de modelos diferentes que son: el modelo de heterocedasticidad condicional asimétrico, modelo AGARCH y el modelo de volatilidad estocástica asimétrico, modelo A-ARSV.

  12. Las crisis bursátiles en España y su comparación con otros mercados internacionales: Análisis de sus principales características

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio de la Torre-Gallegos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Periódicamente en los mercados bursátiles se producen periodos de caídas drásticas que son denominados como "crisis bursátiles". El análisis de estas crisis sobre el mercado bursátil Español y sus repercusiones, puede permitir a gestores e inversores anticipar sus estrategias ante las mismas. Las variables empíricas más importantes que definen a una crisis, las cuales serán objeto de este estudio, son el porcentaje de caída desde el máximo, la duración de la caída y el tiempo necesario hasta recuperar el máximo anterior. La comparación de estas variables con las obtenidas del análisis de los mercados Americano, Alemán e Inglés, nos permitirá ver el grado de correlación entre crisis a nivel internacional y realizar previsiones.

  13. Antiinflammatory activity of aqueous extract of Stereospermum kunthianum (cham, sandrine petit stem bark in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching F

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Stereospermum kunthianum, Cham, Sandrine Petit (family: Bignoniaceae is used in traditional medicine to treat bronchitis, pneumonia and coughs, gastritis, wounds, rheumatic arthritis, ulcers, dysentery, leprosy and venereal diseases in humans. The antiinflammatory activity of the aqueous extract of the stem bark was investigated with experimental animal models using the carrageenan-induced paw oedema, leucocytes migration and granuloma air pouch tests in rats. The extract (100, 200 or 400 mg/kg at 3 h post-treatment caused a significant (p< 0.05 reduction in the paw oedema in rats. The effect of the extract was most pronounced at the dose of 400 mg/kg and was higher than that of indomethacin (10 mg/kg. The extract (400 mg/kg caused a significant (p< 0.05 reduction in the number of recruited leucocytes and it′s inhibition of peritoneal exudate formation was comparable to that of indomethacin at a dose of 10 mg/kg. The exudate formation inhibited by 400 mg/kg of the extract in the granuloma air pouch test was comparatively less to that of indomethacin at a dose of 10 mg/kg. The findings of the study indicate that the aqueous extract of Stereospermum kunthianum stem bark possesses antiinflammatory activity which is probably related to the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. This is a possible rationale for its folkloric use as an antiinflammatory agent.

  14. Dependencia Estructural en los mercados Bursátiles de Colombia y Estados Unidos, una aproximación usando cópulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardona Salgado Daiver

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Para determinar la dependencia estructural entre los mercados bursátiles colombiano y 
    estadounidense, se usaron las pérdidas de los índices Col20, Dow Jones y Standard & 
    Poors 500 como variables. La metodología desarrollada siguió los lineamientos de los 
    modelos de dinámica multivariados, basados en la cópula y propuestos por Chen y Fan 
    (2006. Se encontró que los dos mercados presentan una moderada dependencia y que, 
    de acuerdo con el modelo CAPM, el riesgo
    sistemático que comparten es bajo y ofrecen posibilidades de diversificación. Además, se 
    encontró que es baja la probabilidad de que ambos mercados experimenten pérdidas 
    extremas conjuntamente.

  15. Algunas consideraciones sobre el uso de técnicas fractales en el análisis del mercado accionario bursátil mexicano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Díaz Mata

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se aportan pruebas de que los rendimientos de las acciones que cotizan en la Bolsa Mexicana de Valores, así como también su índice de precios, no cumplen con dos de los supuestos en los que se basa buena parte de la teoría de cartera moderna. Estos supuestos son que las series tienen distribución normal y que los rendimientos sucesivos son independientes. Se revisan, por un lado, los planteamientos de la teoría del paseo aleatorio y los de la hipótesis del mercado efi ciente y, por otra parte, el supuesto de que la distribución de esos rendimientos es normal para mostrar que, en ambos casos, no se cumplen los supuestos con series del mercado bursátil mexicano. Después se ve que las series de tiempo de rendimientos tienen características fractales a las que se les puede aplicar una técnica conocida como "análisis de rangos redimensionados", como una técnica adicional, fractal, para tratar de probar que sí hay dependencia entre rendimientos sucesivos de los títulos. Se señala la necesidad de aplicar modelos que prescindan de esos dos supuestos para lograr mejores descripciones de la realidad y mejores pronósticos.

  16. Dampierre-en-Burly plant - Report on the complementary safety assessment of nuclear facilities in the light of the Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This CSA (Complementary Safety Assessment) analyses the robustness of the Dampierre-en-Burly plant to extreme situations such as those that led to the Fukushima accident and proposes a series of improvements. Robustness is the ability for the plant to withstand events beyond the level for which the plant was designed. Robustness is linked to safety margins but also to the situations leading to a sudden deterioration of the accident sequence. Safety is not only a matter of design or of engineered systems, it is also a matter of organization. So issues like EDF's crisis organization, the organization of radiation protection, and work organization via subcontracting are also taken into consideration. The creation of a nuclear rapid action force (FARN) is proposed: this will be a national emergency force made up of specialized teams equipped to intervene in less than 24 hours on a nuclear site hit by an accident. This report is divided into 8 main chapters: 1) features of the site, 2) earthquake risk, 3) flooding risk, 4) risks due to other extreme natural disasters, 5) the loss of electrical power supplies and of heat sink, 6) management of severe accidents (accidents with core melt), 7) task subcontracting policy, 8) synthesis and list of improvements. 4 following appendices review: EDF's crisis organization, the FARN, radiation protection organization and accidental event trees. (A.C.)

  17. Pathogenesis-related protein expression in the apoplast of wheat leaves protected against leaf rust following application of plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Rabia; Bano, Asghari; Wilson, Neil L; Guest, David; Roberts, Thomas H

    2014-09-01

    Leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) is a major disease of wheat. We tested aqueous leaf extracts of Jacaranda mimosifolia (Bignoniaceae), Thevetia peruviana (Apocynaceae), and Calotropis procera (Apocynaceae) for their ability to protect wheat from leaf rust. Extracts from all three species inhibited P. triticina urediniospore germination in vitro. Plants sprayed with extracts before inoculation developed significantly lower levels of disease incidence (number of plants infected) than unsprayed, inoculated controls. Sprays combining 0.6% leaf extracts and 2 mM salicylic acid with the fungicide Amistar Xtra at 0.05% (azoxystrobin at 10 μg/liter + cyproconazole at 4 μg/liter) reduced disease incidence significantly more effectively than sprays of fungicide at 0.1% alone. Extracts of J. mimosifolia were most active, either alone (1.2%) or in lower doses (0.6%) in combination with 0.05% Amistar Xtra. Leaf extracts combined with fungicide strongly stimulated defense-related gene expression and the subsequent accumulation of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins in the apoplast of inoculated wheat leaves. The level of protection afforded was significantly correlated with the ability of extracts to increase PR protein expression. We conclude that pretreatment of wheat leaves with spray formulations containing previously untested plant leaf extracts enhances protection against leaf rust provided by fungicide sprays, offering an alternative disease management strategy.

  18. Effects of Glyphosate on Ultrastructure of Ficus tikoua Bur Epidermal Cells%利用扫描电镜研究草甘膦对地果的伤害

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧灵; 陈凯飞; 张美凯; 张欢; 卜贵军; 肖强

    2014-01-01

    In order to provide theoretical basis for the development and utilization of Ficus tikoua Bur on greening and farmland weed control, by using scanning electron microscope, the authors studied the microstructure of Ficus tikoua Bur, which was dealt with by glyphosate. The experiment results indicated that glyphosate could cause a periodical damage to the vegetative organ of Ficus tikoua Bur.; wither appeared at different degree of green leaf after certain time. Under the action of glyphosate, leaf epidermal cells were damaged; stomatal closure caused a serious effect on the leaf physicological function, such as photosynthesis and transpiration. The effect of glyphosate was more obvious to the tender leaves than the older ones. The research, which proves that glyphosate of bur, has certain killing effect, will guide the application of Ficus tikoua Bur. in landscape of urban areas.%为了给地果在绿化上的开发利用以及农田除草提供理论依据,以扫描电镜为主要工具对经过草甘膦处理的地果进行微观结构的观察。研究结果表明:喷施草甘膦对地果叶片表皮细胞造成了阶段性的伤害,经过一定的时间叶片出现不同程度的失绿枯萎,在草甘膦的作用下叶片表皮细胞受损,气孔出现闭合现象,从而对地果的光合及蒸腾等生理作用产生影响。草甘膦对于嫩叶表皮的作用效果比老叶更显著一些。草甘膦对地果具有一定的杀灭效果,对地果在园林绿化中的应用有指导作用。

  19. Research Progress on Chemical Constituents and Bioactivities of Macfadyena unguis-cati (Bignoniaceae)%紫威科植物猫爪藤化学成分与生物活性研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐晓辉; 童庆宣; 明艳林

    2012-01-01

    紫威科植物猫爪藤常被用作装饰植物,其自然群落主要分布在热带美洲的一些国家,在其它国家移植或归化的猫爪藤因被认为具有生物入侵危害而备受关注.然而,在原产地的一些国家或地区民间则将其作为药物治疗许多病症,如炎症、风湿病、痢疾、性病、疟疾、毒蛇咬伤等.近年来,这些国家的研究者就此对猫爪藤进行了较多的化学成分和药理作用的相关研究,本文主要综述了这方面的研究进展,以期使人们进一步了解猫爪藤具有药用价值的一面,从而引导和促进对其进行开发和利用而不要简单的当作有害入侵物种来进行对待.%Macfadyena unguis-cati (L. ) (Bignoniaceae) is an ornamental climbing plant,widespread in Egypt,America and Western India. It has received much concern for its invasion danger when it was transplanted in non-native countries. However.it has been widely used in folk medicine for anti-in? ammatory,antimalarial,dysentery,rheumatism, antivenereal.as well as against snakebite in native country. Tin's review covers research advances on chemical constituents and biological activities of M. unguis-cati in recent years. It aims at making peoples recognize medicinal properties of M. unguis-cati,and thus exploit and utilize it.

  20. Aqueous stem bark extract of Stereospermum kunthianum (Cham, Sandrine Petit) protects against generalized seizures in pentylenetetrazole and electro-convulsive models in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, F P; Omogbai, E K I; Otokiti, I O

    2009-01-01

    Stereospermum kunthianum, Cham Sandrine Petit (Bignoniaceae) known in English as pink jacaranda is used in traditional medicine to treat an array of ailments including febrile convulsions in infants and young children by the rural dwellers in Nigeria. This study examined the anticonvulsant activity of its aqueous stem bark extract (100 - 400mg/kg) against maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in rodents. Phenobarbitone and ethosuximide were used as reference anticonvulsant drugs for comparison. Stereospermum kunthianum extract (200 - 400mg/kg, i.p.) remarkably protected (76.9% and 84.6 % respectively) the rats against electroshock-induced seizures. However, the extract (200- 400mg/kg) when administered orally showed a comparatively less effect (33.3% and 55.6% respectively) to the intraperitoneally administered extract in the maximal electroshock test. The extract (100-400mg/kg, i.p.) significantly delayed (pbark extract of Stereospermum kunthianum produces its antiseizure effect by enhancing GABAergic neurotransmission and/or action in the brain. The results indicate that the aqueous extract possesses anticonvulsant activity in rodents and therefore tend to suggest that the shrub may be used as a natural supplementary remedy in the management, control and/or treatment of childhood convulsions. It can be concluded that the aqueous stem bark extract possesses anticonvulsant activity and therefore lend pharmacological credence to the traditionally claimed use in the treatment of childhood convulsions.

  1. Intoxicação experimental pelos frutos de Xanthium cavanillesii (Asteraceae em ovinos Experimental poisoning by the burs of Xanthium cavanillesii (Asteraceae in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Paulino Loretti

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Os frutos moídos de Xanthium cavanillesii foram administrados por via oral, em doses únicas ou fracionadas, a 15 ovinos adultos. Nove ovinos morreram. Doses a partir de 2 g/kg em uma única administração foram letais para os ovinos. Doses únicas de 1,25 g/kg e doses de 2,5 g/kg subdivididas em duas administrações diárias (1,25 g/kg em dois dias consecutivos não causaram a intoxicação. Sinais clínicos foram observados apenas nos animais que morreram. Iniciavam entre 5 horas e 20 horas após o início da administração dos frutos. A evolução do quadro clínico foi superaguda (90 minutos a 3 horas ou aguda (9 a 13 horas. Sinais clínicos incluíam apatia, anorexia, hipomotilidade ruminal, tremores musculares generalizados, incoordenação motora, andar rígido, relutância em caminhar, instabilidade, quedas e decúbito. Muitos animais apresentavam corrimento nasal seromucoso que dificultava a respiração. Nas fases terminais havia tiques, sialorréia, convulsões, nistagmo, movimentos de pedalagem e períodos de apnéia seguidos de morte. Os principais achados de necropsia incluíam acentuação do padrão lobular do fígado acompanhada de petéquias distribuídas aleatoriamente na superfície capsular e de corte, distensão da vesícula biliar associada a edema e hemorragias na parede, ascite, hidrotórax, edema gelatinoso e translúcido da região perirrenal, conteúdo do ceco e alça proximal do cólon ascendente ressequido, compactado, recoberto por muco e estrias de sangue coagulado. Havia petéquias e sufusões disseminadas. A principal lesão microscópica consistia em acentuada necrose coagulativa hepatocelular centrolobular ou massiva acompanhada de congestão e hemorragia e vacuolização ou tumefação dos hepatócitos remanescentes.The ground burs of Xanthium cavanillesii (Asteraceae were force fed to 15 adult sheep in single doses or divided in two doses. Nine sheep died. Doses of 2 g/kg and above were lethal for the

  2. Comparison and evaluation of volatile oils from three different extraction methods for some Thai fragrant flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paibon, W; Yimnoi, C-A; Tembab, N; Boonlue, W; Jampachaisri, K; Nuengchamnong, N; Waranuch, N; Ingkaninan, K

    2011-04-01

    Several tropical flowers have distinctive fragrances which are very appealing to use in perfumery, cosmetics and spa. However, to obtain a 'natural fragrance' from the flower is a challenge as the scent could change during the extraction process. The aim of the study is to find the suitable procedure for extraction of volatile oils from some Thai fragrant flowers. Three different methods: hydrodistillation, solvent extraction and enfleurage methods have been applied for the extraction of volatile oil from Jasminum sambac L. Aiton; Oleaceae (jasmine). The quantities and quality of jasmine volatile oils obtained from the different tested methods were compared. The solvent extraction method using 95% ethanol provided the greatest level of oil yield. However, sensory evaluation using preference test showed that the scents of the volatile oils from solvent extraction using diethyl ether and from enfleurage method were the closest to the fresh flowers compared with the volatile oils obtained from other methods. Their chemical constituents were analysed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer. Both volatile oils were then evaluated using a triangle discrimination test. From the triangle test, we found that 14 panellists from the total of 36 could not distinguish between the scents of jasmine oil from enfleurage and fresh jasmine flowers whereas only one panellist could not distinguish between the scent of jasmine oil from the solvent extraction and fresh jasmine flowers. These results suggest that the scent of the volatile oil obtained from the enfleurage method was the closest to fresh flowers compared with that obtained from other methods. This method was then successfully applied for extraction of volatile oils from three other Thai fragrant flowers, Michelia alba DC.; Magnoliaceae, Millingtonia hortensis L.; Bignoniaceae and Hedychium coronarium J. Konig; Zingiberaceae. PMID:20704598

  3. Antimicrobial activity of extracts and topical products of the stem bark of Spathodea campanulata for wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofori-Kwakye, K; Kwapong, A A; Adu, F

    2009-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of the aqueous, ethanol, methanol and petroleum ether Soxhlet extracts of sundried stem bark of Spathodea campanulata P. Beauv. (Bignoniaceae) was investigated by testing the extracts against B. subtilis, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the methanol extract was determined against the four bacteria strains and C. albicans using the broth dilution method. Four topical products were prepared by incorporating the methanol extract of S. campanulata (20 % w/w) into aqueous cream, soft paraffin, emulsifying ointment and simple ointment bases and evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial efficacy. The effect of storage time on the activity of the methanol extract of S. campanulata and S. campanulata extract incorporated in aqueous cream base was also investigated. The methanol and ethanol extracts showed good activity while the aqueous and petroleum ether extracts exhibited little activity. The methanol extract showed the best antibacterial activity. The MIC of the methanol extract of S. campanulata was: C. albicans (45 - 50 mg/ml), B. subtilis and E. coli (50 - 55 mg/ml), P. aeruginosa (60 - 65 mg/ml), S. aureus (145 - 150 mg/ml). Antimicrobial activity of S. campanulata in the topical bases was in the order: aqueous cream > emulsifying ointment > simple ointment > white soft paraffin. Antimicrobial activity of S. campanulata in aqueous cream decreased (p < 0.05) upon storage at room temperature for 6-months. The antifungal activity of the methanol extract of S. campanulata was reduced (p < 0.05) upon storage while antibacterial activity was largely unaffected. PMID:20209009

  4. Avaliação da temperatura desenvolvida durante a remoção de pino intra-radicular, com instrumentos cortantes rotatórios em alta rotação Evaluation of the temperature generated during the removal of posts with burs in high speed handpiece

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    Tomie Nakakuki de CAMPOS

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Com a preocupação de avaliar os efeitos danosos da transmissão de calor aos tecidos periodontais, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a temperatura gerada durante a remoção de pinos intra-radiculares com o uso de instrumentos cortantes rotatórios (ICR em alta rotação. Para se obter os registros da temperatura durante os desgastes, foram fixados fios termopares ao redor do terço médio e terço apical da raiz de incisivos centrais superiores extraídos, conectados a termômetros digitais. Através da análise de variância, verificou-se que houve diferença estatisticamente significante, de 5%, entre as regiões medidas e as ligas utilizadas. Analisando as regiões, observou-se, na região mediana, amplitude de 9,1oC, e, na região apical, amplitude de 6,2oC. A liga de CuAlZn (GOLDENT alcançou média de amplitude maior, 10,3oC, as ligas de CuAl (DURACAST, 6,3oC, e a de PdAg (PORS-ON 4, 6,3oC. Provavelmente, os fatores que interferiram foram o grau de refrigeração, a pressão e o corte intermitente. Baseando-se na metodologia utilizada, concluiu-se que a remoção de pinos intra-radiculares, através do uso de ICR em alta rotação, pode gerar amplitudes de temperatura críticas de acordo com a região do desgaste e liga utilizada.Due to the concern with the damaging effects of heat distribution on periodontal tissues, this study had the objective of evaluating the temperature generated during the removal of posts with burs in high speed handpieces. Fixed thermopars around the medium and apical regions of the roots of extracted superior central incisors, connected to digital thermometers, were used to obtain temperature measurements during wearing down. Analysis of variance demonstrated a statistically significant difference, to the level of 5%, between the regions where the temperature was taken and the alloys used. When comparing the differences between the regions of roots, the medium portion presented a variation of 9.1oC, and

  5. Trading Activity in Colombian Stock Markets. Determinants and evolution 1997-2007 Actividad bursátil en los mercados accionarios colombianos. Determinantes y evolución 1997-2007

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    Diego A lonso Agudelo Rueda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We present evidence of the important improvement of the Colombian stock market in terms of trading activity in the last ten years. Indeed, the merger of the former three stock exchanges (Bogota, Medellín and Cali into the Bolsa de Valores de Colombia in July 2001 can be associated, in an econometric model, to a significant improvement in number for trades for most of the individual stocks. We also explore the determinants and time series regularities of trading activity. Results show that trading activity is strongly positively related to contemporaneous and lagged returns, and is reduced before an macroeconomic announcement, portraying the Colombian stock market as a conservative yet not sophisticated one. Trading activity tend to be lower on Mondays and Fridays and before and after a holiday, and shows a positive end of the year effect. We discuss several explanations for this relations based on the theory and anecdotic observations.El estudio que se presenta permite mostrar evidencia sobre el importante crecimiento de la actividad bursátil del mercado accionario colombiano para la gran mayoría de acciones, durante el período 1997 a 2007. Los resultados demuestran que la fusión de las tres bolsas (Bogotá, Medellín y Cali en julio de 2001 está asociada con un aumento del número de operaciones para un grupo representativo de acciones, con cierto rezago, de los valores transados. También se exploran los determinantes y las regularidades de la actividad bursátil. Se encontró que esta depende en buena medida de rendimientos contemporáneos y rezagados y se reduce antes de los anuncios macroeconómicos. Tal comportamiento pone de presente el carácter conservador y poco sofisticado de nuestro mercado accionario. Además, la actividad bursátil presenta importantes efectos estacionales dentro del año y de la semana. Por último, se discuten posibles explicaciones para dichas relaciones desde la literatura y opiniones de los agentes.

  6. Allozyme Divergence among Fagopyrum urophyllum Populations in Southweast China%西南地区硬枝野荞麦(Fagopyrum urophyllum(Bur.et Franch.) H. Gross)天然居群的等位酶变异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗定泽; 侯鑫; 赵佐成

    2002-01-01

    采用等位酶电泳技术研究了云南省中北部昆明、富民、宾川3县(市)及四川省西南布拖县境内的硬枝野荞麦(Fagopyrum urophyllum(Bur.et Franch.)H.Gross)6个天然居群的遗传分化.硬枝野荞麦居群间遗传分化程度较低,FST值为0.161.居群间遗传一致度(I)和遗传距离(D)的均值分别为0.927 4和0.077 6,并提出了保护建议.

  7. Application of robust iterative learning control to burring robot path tracking%鲁棒性迭代学习控制在去毛刺机器人轨迹跟踪中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑佳奇; 熊禾根; 陶永; 林远长; 王田苗; 何国田

    2015-01-01

    研究了去毛刺机器人的轨迹跟踪控制。考虑到在工业机器人去毛刺加工过程中,由于受非重复性扰动、毛刺大小不同引起切削力变化以及动态建模不确定性因素的影响,传统的迭代学习控制算法无法精确规划出去毛刺机器人的打磨路径,且很难实现高精度的跟踪控制,不能保证系统的稳定性,提出了一种鲁棒性迭代学习控制算法,旨在提高去毛刺机器人的跟踪性能和对环境的抗干扰能力。该算法由于引入了鲁棒项,与传统的迭代学习控制算法相比,抗干扰能力得到增强,跟踪示教轨迹的性能得到提高,跟踪轨迹精度得到改善,解决了传统迭代学习控制算法需要确定模型才能完成打磨轨迹的精度要求的问题。仿真试验验证了该鲁棒迭代学习算法的鲁棒性和轨迹跟踪精度。%The study investigated the path tracking control problem in the burring process of an industrial robot, and found that the traditional iterative learning control algorithm cannot precisely plan the polishing path of a burring ro-bot due to the influences of non-repetitive disturbances, cutting force variation caused by burr size difference, un-certainty in dynamic modeling and other uncertain factors, so the higher precise tracking control can not be a-chieved, and the stability of the burring system cannot be guaranteed.Then, a kind of robust iterative learning con-trol algorithm was put forward to improve burring robots’ path tracking performance and anti-interference ability. The adoption of a robustness item, makes this algorithm more robust when under interference and more accurate when tracking path, and traditional iterative learning control’ s problem that the accuracy requirements of polishing path can be completed only after determining the model can be solved.The simulation experiment verified the ro-bustness of the robust iterative learning algorithm and showed its little

  8. High-Speed Burring with and without the Use of Surgical Adjuvants in the Intralesional Management of Giant Cell Tumor of Bone: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algawahmed, H; Turcotte, Robert; Farrokhyar, F; Ghert, M

    2010-01-01

    Local control rates for Giant Cell Tumor of Bone (GCT) have been reported in a large number of retrospective series. However, there remains a lack of consensus with respect to the need for a surgical adjuvant when intralesional curettage is performed. We have systematically reviewed the literature and identified six studies in which two groups from the same patient cohort were treated with intralesional curettage and high-speed burring with or without a chemical or thermal adjuvant. Studies were evaluated for quality and pooled data was analyzed using the fixed effects model. Data from 387 patients did not indicate improved local control with the use of surgical adjuvants. Given the available data, we conclude that surgical adjuvants are not required when meticulous tumor removal is performed.

  9. High-Speed Burring with and without the Use of Surgical Adjuvants in the Intralesional Management of Giant Cell Tumor of Bone: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Algawahmed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Local control rates for Giant Cell Tumor of Bone (GCT have been reported in a large number of retrospective series. However, there remains a lack of consensus with respect to the need for a surgical adjuvant when intralesional curettage is performed. We have systematically reviewed the literature and identified six studies in which two groups from the same patient cohort were treated with intralesional curettage and high-speed burring with or without a chemical or thermal adjuvant. Studies were evaluated for quality and pooled data was analyzed using the fixed effects model. Data from 387 patients did not indicate improved local control with the use of surgical adjuvants. Given the available data, we conclude that surgical adjuvants are not required when meticulous tumor removal is performed.

  10. Antioxidant activity of extracts and flavonoids from Bidens tripartita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolniak, Michał; Tomczykowa, Monika; Tomczyk, Michał; Gudej, Jan; Wawer, Iwona

    2007-01-01

    Extracts from herb and flowers of Bidens tripartita L. (Asteraceae), obtained using solvents of different polarity, were studied for their radical scavenging effects. Antioxidant activities of pure flavonoids: flavanomarein (isookanin 7-O-glucoside), cynaroside (luteolin 7-O-glucoside) and luteolin, which had been isolated from this plant, were also evaluated. Radical-scavenging activity was measured by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy using stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. The content of flavonoids in flower heads is half of that found in the herb; however, the extract from flowers showed that the antioxidant activity was almost two times higher there. Some extracts (n-BuOH fraction) showed long lasting radical scavenging activity and the EPR spectra were recorded in time to follow the reaction kinetics. Scavenging of DPPH showed second-order kinetics at the beginning of the assay period and later the first-order one. Different kinetics suggested the presence of polymerized and/or less active antioxidants with different scavenging mechanisms for particular polyphenolic compounds. Bur-marigold extracts are a potential source of natural antioxidants that may be used in pharmaceutical or food industry. PMID:18540165

  11. Interpretation of the Standard YY 0302.1-2010“Dental rotary instruments - Burs - Part 1:Steel and carbide burs”%YY 0302.1-2010《牙科旋转器械车针第1部分:钢质和硬质合金车针》标准解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万易易; 樊翔

    2016-01-01

    为了规范钢和硬质合金车针市场,国家食品药品监督管理总局发布了一系列的牙科车针行业标准,本文针对其中的YY 0302.1-2010进行解读,重点将它与YY 0302-1998进行了对比,同时对标准中的部分条款进行了解析。%In order to regulate the market of steel and carbide burs, China Food and Drug Administration released a series of dental bur industry standards, This paper carries on the explanation to the YY 0302.1-2010,and compares YY 0302.1-2010 with YY 0302-1998. This paper has carried on the analysis to the part of the terms.

  12. Sensitivity, Persistence and Asymmetric Effects in International Stock Market Volatility during the Global Financial Crisis || Efectos de sensibilidad, persistencia y asimetría en la volatilidad de los mercados bursátiles internacionales
en el entorno de la crisis financiera global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel, Vítor

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Financial market volatility is an important element when setting up port- folio management strategies, option pricing and market regulation. The Subprime crisis affected all markets around the world. Daily data of twelve stock indexes for the period of October 1999 to June 2011 are studied using basic GARCH type models. The data were then divided into three different sub-periods to allow the behaviour of stock market in different sub-periods to be investigated. The following sub-periods are identified: Dot-Com crisis, Quiet and Subprime crisis. This paper revealed that the Subprime crisis turned out to have bigger impact on stock market volatility, namely at sensitivity, persistence and asymmetric effects. || La volatilidad de los mercados financieros es un importante elemento para la estrategia de carteras de inversión y para la regulación de los mercados. La crisis subprime afectó a los mercados bursátiles mundiales. Para realizar este estudio, fueron tomados datos diarios relativos a doce mercados bursátiles, desde el 4 de octubre de 1999 hasta el 30 de junio de 2011. El período de la muestra considerado ha sido subdividido en tres subperiodos distintos: crisis de las empresas tecnológicas, tranquilo y crisis financiera global. Para estudiar la volatilidad de los mercados bursátiles, se ha recurrido a modelos de tipo GARCH. Los resultados demuestran la influencia de la crisis financiera global en el comportamiento de la volatilidad del mercado bursátil, sobre todo en cuanto a la sensibilidad, la persistencia y la asimetría.

  13. EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS OF CONDENSED TANNINS IN CASTANEA SATIVA MILL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Živković

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins, also known as condensed tannins are widespread in woody plants, but are also found in certain forages. Castanea sativa Mill. are exploited for various purposes, but a little is known about potential of this species and possible application in diet and therapy. The parts of chestnut such as: seed, peeled seed, brown seed shell, red internal seed shell, leaves, catkin, spiny bur, as well as the new and old chestnut bark were extracted with 50% ethanol as an extragents. Contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids were measured by application of the standard colorimetric assay. The total condensed tannins content estimated was highest in red internal seed shell 15.29%CE (vanillin assay and 3.12%CT (acid butanol assay. Also high content of total phenolic compounds and condensed tannins had extracts of catkin, brown seed shell of chestnut and new chestnut bark. Extracts of C. sativa Mill. can be a potential resource of natural tannins with possible application in diet and therapy.

  14. Antispasmodic effect of Tecoma stans (L. Juss leaf extract on rat ileum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gharib Naseri M.K.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Tecoma stans (L. Juss or Yellow bells from Bignoniaceae is a ornamental tropical shrub or small tree predominantly found in central, and south America and in Latin America is used traditionally for reducing blood glucose. However, its other pharmacological effects have not been yet elucidated. The aim of present study was to investigate the effect of its leaves extract on rat ileum contractility and involved mechanism(s. Tecoma stans Juss hydroalcoholic leaf extract (TLE was prepared by macerated method using 70% alcohol. Distal segment of ileum (2 cm from male Wistar rat was mounted in an organ bath containing Tyrode solution (10 ml, pH 7, 37 °C and pre-contracted by carbachol (CCh, 10 µM or by KCl (60 mM. The antispasmodic effects of TLE (0.125-2 mg/ml were studied prior and after 20-30 min incubation of ileum with propranolol (1µM, naloxone (1µM, L-NAME (100 µM, or 5 min incubation with glibenclamide (10 µM and tetraethylammonium (TEA, 1mM. The effect of TLE on CaCl2-induced contraction in Ca2+-free with high K+ Tyrode solution was also studied. The CCh- and KCl-induced ileal contractions were reduced by TLE (P<0.0001. This effect was not attenuated by propranolol, naloxone, L-NAME, glibenclamide and TEA. In Ca2+-free Tyrode solution with high K+, cumulative concentrations of CaCl2 induced contractions which were inhibited by TLE dose-dependently. Our results indicate that the Tecoma stans (L. Juss leaf extract induces its antispasmodic effects without involvement β-adrenoceptors, opioid receptors, potassium channels and NO production. It seems that, the calcium channels are involved in this spasmolytic effect.

  15. Burócratas ambulantes. Movilidad y producción de conocimiento estadístico en Chile, 1860-1873

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Estefane

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the figure of the provincial statistical agent, position established by law of October 5, 1855, this article studies the links between circulation and bureaucracy regarding statistical knowledge production in Chile during 1860-1873. To this effect, it concentrates on the history of the Statistical Office under Santiago Lindsay’s administration, who launched a series of reforms conceived to strengthen the state capacity of extracting and processing official information. By analyzing the territorial and relational dimensions of the production of statistics and considering the administrative effects of the emergence of an ambulant bureaucracy, the article explores the practical limits of state power as well as the diverse bureaucratic dealings that determined the production of texts whose complexity invites us to reassess what we understand by official documents.

  16. Neutralization of the edema-forming, defibrinating and coagulant effects of Bothrops asper venom by extracts of plants used by healers in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, V; Otero, R; Barona, J; Saldarriaga, M; Osorio, R G; Fonnegra, R; Jiménez, S L; Díaz, A; Quintana, J C

    2004-07-01

    We determined the neutralizing activity of 12 ethanolic extracts of plants against the edema-forming, defibrinating and coagulant effects of Bothrops asper venom in Swiss Webster mice. The material used consisted of the leaves and branches of Bixa orellana (Bixaceae), Ficus nymphaeifolia (Moraceae), Struthanthus orbicularis (Loranthaceae) and Gonzalagunia panamensis (Rubiaceae); the stem barks of Brownea rosademonte (Caesalpiniaceae) and Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae); the whole plant of Pleopeltis percussa (Polypodiaceae) and Trichomanes elegans (Hymenophyllaceae); rhizomes of Renealmia alpinia (Zingiberaceae), Heliconia curtispatha (Heliconiaceae) and Dracontium croatii (Araceae), and the ripe fruit of Citrus limon (Rutaceae). After preincubation of varying amounts of each extract with either 1.0 microg venom for the edema-forming effect or 2.0 microg venom for the defibrinating effect, the mixture was injected subcutaneously (sc) into the right foot pad or intravenously into the tail, respectively, to groups of four mice (18-20 g). All extracts (6.2-200 microg/mouse) partially neutralized the edema-forming activity of venom in a dose-dependent manner (58-76% inhibition), with B. orellana, S. orbicularis, G. panamensis, B. rosademonte, and D. croatii showing the highest effect. Ten extracts (3.9-2000 microg/mouse) also showed 100% neutralizing ability against the defibrinating effect of venom, and nine prolonged the coagulation time induced by the venom. When the extracts were administered either before or after venom injection, the neutralization of the edema-forming effect was lower than 40% for all extracts, and none of them neutralized the defibrinating effect of venom. When they were administered in situ (sc at the same site 5 min after venom injection), the neutralization of edema increased for six extracts, reaching levels up to 64% for C. limon. PMID:15264003

  17. Neutralization of the edema-forming, defibrinating and coagulant effects of Bothrops asper venom by extracts of plants used by healers in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, V; Otero, R; Barona, J; Saldarriaga, M; Osorio, R G; Fonnegra, R; Jiménez, S L; Díaz, A; Quintana, J C

    2004-07-01

    We determined the neutralizing activity of 12 ethanolic extracts of plants against the edema-forming, defibrinating and coagulant effects of Bothrops asper venom in Swiss Webster mice. The material used consisted of the leaves and branches of Bixa orellana (Bixaceae), Ficus nymphaeifolia (Moraceae), Struthanthus orbicularis (Loranthaceae) and Gonzalagunia panamensis (Rubiaceae); the stem barks of Brownea rosademonte (Caesalpiniaceae) and Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae); the whole plant of Pleopeltis percussa (Polypodiaceae) and Trichomanes elegans (Hymenophyllaceae); rhizomes of Renealmia alpinia (Zingiberaceae), Heliconia curtispatha (Heliconiaceae) and Dracontium croatii (Araceae), and the ripe fruit of Citrus limon (Rutaceae). After preincubation of varying amounts of each extract with either 1.0 microg venom for the edema-forming effect or 2.0 microg venom for the defibrinating effect, the mixture was injected subcutaneously (sc) into the right foot pad or intravenously into the tail, respectively, to groups of four mice (18-20 g). All extracts (6.2-200 microg/mouse) partially neutralized the edema-forming activity of venom in a dose-dependent manner (58-76% inhibition), with B. orellana, S. orbicularis, G. panamensis, B. rosademonte, and D. croatii showing the highest effect. Ten extracts (3.9-2000 microg/mouse) also showed 100% neutralizing ability against the defibrinating effect of venom, and nine prolonged the coagulation time induced by the venom. When the extracts were administered either before or after venom injection, the neutralization of the edema-forming effect was lower than 40% for all extracts, and none of them neutralized the defibrinating effect of venom. When they were administered in situ (sc at the same site 5 min after venom injection), the neutralization of edema increased for six extracts, reaching levels up to 64% for C. limon.

  18. Neutralization of the edema-forming, defibrinating and coagulant effects of Bothrops asper venom by extracts of plants used by healers in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núñez V.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We determined the neutralizing activity of 12 ethanolic extracts of plants against the edema-forming, defibrinating and coagulant effects of Bothrops asper venom in Swiss Webster mice. The material used consisted of the leaves and branches of Bixa orellana (Bixaceae, Ficus nymphaeifolia (Moraceae, Struthanthus orbicularis (Loranthaceae and Gonzalagunia panamensis (Rubiaceae; the stem barks of Brownea rosademonte (Caesalpiniaceae and Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae; the whole plant of Pleopeltis percussa (Polypodiaceae and Trichomanes elegans (Hymenophyllaceae; rhizomes of Renealmia alpinia (Zingiberaceae, Heliconia curtispatha (Heliconiaceae and Dracontium croatii (Araceae, and the ripe fruit of Citrus limon (Rutaceae. After preincubation of varying amounts of each extract with either 1.0 µg venom for the edema-forming effect or 2.0 µg venom for the defibrinating effect, the mixture was injected subcutaneously (sc into the right foot pad or intravenously into the tail, respectively, to groups of four mice (18-20 g. All extracts (6.2-200 µg/mouse partially neutralized the edema-forming activity of venom in a dose-dependent manner (58-76% inhibition, with B. orellana, S. orbicularis, G. panamensis, B. rosademonte, and D. croatii showing the highest effect. Ten extracts (3.9-2000 µg/mouse also showed 100% neutralizing ability against the defibrinating effect of venom, and nine prolonged the coagulation time induced by the venom. When the extracts were administered either before or after venom injection, the neutralization of the edema-forming effect was lower than 40% for all extracts, and none of them neutralized the defibrinating effect of venom. When they were administered in situ (sc at the same site 5 min after venom injection, the neutralization of edema increased for six extracts, reaching levels up to 64% for C. limon.

  19. Extraction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process is described for extracting at least two desired constituents from a mineral, using a liquid reagent which produces the constituents, or compounds thereof, in separable form and independently extracting those constituents, or compounds. The process is especially valuable for the extraction of phosphoric acid and metal values from acidulated phosphate rock, the slurry being contacted with selective extractants for phosphoric acid and metal (e.g. uranium) values. In an example, uranium values are oxidized to uranyl form and extracted using an ion exchange resin. (U.K.)

  20. Chemical constituents of Arrabidaea samydoides (Bignoniaceae); Constituintes quimicos de Arrabidaea samydoides (Bignoniaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauletti, Patricia Mendonca; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: bolzaniv@iq.unesp.br; Young, Maria Claudia Marx [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas

    2003-10-01

    Chemical investigation of Arrabidaea samydoides resulted in the isolation of the flavone chrysin; five triterpenes: lupeol, ursolic acid, 3{beta},16{alpha}-dihydroxy-urs-12-ene, uvaol, and erythrodiol; and two sterols: sitosterol and stigmasterol. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic analysis. This paper deal with the first phytochemical study of Arrabidaea samydoides. (author)

  1. Intoxicação espontânea pelos frutos de Xanthium cavanillesii (Asteraceae em bovinos no Rio Grande do Sul Spontaneous poisoning by the burs of Xanthium cavanillesii (Asteraceae in cattle in Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Driemeier

    1999-01-01

    em bovinos e ovinos. A morfologia e a patogenia da lesão hepática e o quadro clínico-patológico observados são discutidos e comparados com outros relatos de intoxicação por Xanthium spp descritos na literatura e com outras hepato-toxicoses agudas em bovinos.Two outbreaks of Xanthium cavanillesii poisoning in feedlot cattle in the counties of Casca and Cachoeira do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, are described. The disease occurred on two farms in late April and mid August 1996. On one farm, 17 heifers out of 310 cattle died. On the other, 11 out of 83 yearling calves died. Clinical signs included depression, anorexia, progressive dehydration, sunken eyes, tenesmus and slight rectal prolapse, muscle tremors, incoordination of gait, blindness, aggressivity and recumbency. Blindness was present in the terminal stages prior to death that occurred within 3 to 24 hours after the onset of the clinical signs. Necropsy findings included accentuation of the lobular pattern of the liver with pinpoint hemorrhages on capsular and cut surfaces; perirenal edema, hydropericardium, and translucent and gelatinous edema of the gall bladder wall, mesentery, abomasal ligaments and folds. The feces were scant, dry and formed balls coated by mucus and streaks of clotted blood. There were widespread petechiae, ecchymoses and suffusions. Burs of X. cavanillesii were found mixed with the solid and dried contents of the rumen and reticulum. The main histopathological findings were marked centrilobular coagulative hepatocellular necrosis associated with congestion and hemorrhages, surrounded or not by a narrow rim of markedly swollen and vesicular hepatocytes. The animals were being fed with whole or milled leftovers from soybean crops contaminated with large amounts of burs of X. cavanillesii. Deaths stopped after the feeding with the soybean leftovers was discountinued. The diagnosis was based on epidemiological data, clinical signs, necropsy findings, histological lesions and

  2. Vacuum extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maagaard, Mathilde; Oestergaard, Jeanett; Johansen, Marianne;

    2012-01-01

    with daily work in the obstetric field were tested. Methods. The Delphi method was used for development of the scale. In a simulated vacuum extraction scenario first-year residents and obstetric chief physicians were rated using the developed OSATS scale for vacuum extraction to test construct validity...... of the scale. Main outcome measures. Consensus for the content of the scale. To test the scale Cronbachs alpha, interclass correlation and differential item function was calculated in the prospective study. Results. 89% completed the first and 61% completed the second Delphi round. Hereafter, consensus......Objectives. To develop and validate an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) scale for vacuum extraction. Design. Two part study design: Primarily, development of a procedure-specific checklist for vacuum extraction. Hereafter, validationof the developed OSATS scale for vacuum...

  3. Pyrostegia venusta heptane extract containing saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons induces apoptosis on B16F10-Nex2 melanoma cells and displays antitumor activity in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Carlos R.; Matsuo, Alisson L.; Pereira, Felipe V.; Rabaça, Aline N.; Farias, Camyla F.; Girola, Nátalia; Massaoka, Mariana H.; Azevedo, Ricardo A.; Scutti, Jorge A.B.; Arruda, Denise C.; Silva, Luciana P.; Rodrigues, Elaine G.; Lago, João Henrique G.; Travassos, Luiz R.; Silva, Regildo M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pyrostegia venusta (Ker. Gawl.) Miers (Bignoniacea) is a medicinal plant from the Brazilian Cerrado used to treat leucoderma and common diseases of the respiratory system. Objective: To investigate the antitumor activity of P.venusta extracts against melanoma. Materials and Methods: The cytotoxic activity and tumor induced cell death of heptane extract (HE) from P. venusta flowers was evaluated against murine melanoma B16F10-Nex2 cells in vitro and in a syngeneic model in vivo. Results: We found that HE induced apoptosis in melanoma cells by disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, induction of reactive oxygen species and late apoptosis evidenced by plasma membrane blebbing, cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation, exposure of phosphatidylserine on the cell surface and activation of caspase-2,-3,-8,-9. HE was also protective against singeneyc subcutaneous melanoma HE compounds were also able to induce cell cycle arrest at G2/M phases on tumor cells. On fractionation of HE in silica gel we isolated a cytotoxic fraction that contained a mixture of saturated hydrocarbons identified by 1H NMR and GC-MS analyses. Predominant species were octacosane (C28H58-36%) and triacontane (C30H62-13%), which individually showed significant cytotoxic activity against murine melanoma B16F10-Nex2 cells in vitro and a very promising antitumor protection against subcutaneous melanoma in vivo. Conclusion: The results suggest that the components of the heptane extract, mainly octasane and triacontane, which showed antitumor properties in experimental melanoma upon regional administration, might also be therapeutic in human cancer, such as in the mostly epidermal and slowly invasive melanomas, such as acral lentiginous melanoma, as an adjuvant treatment to surgical excision. PMID:24991116

  4. Pyrostegia venusta heptane extract containing saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons induces apoptosis on B16F10-Nex2 melanoma cells and displays antitumor activity in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R Figueiredo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pyrostegia venusta (Ker. Gawl. Miers (Bignoniacea is a medicinal plant from the Brazilian Cerrado used to treat leucoderma and common diseases of the respiratory system. Objective: To investigate the antitumor activity of P.venusta extracts against melanoma. Materials and Methods: The cytotoxic activity and tumor induced cell death of heptane extract (HE from P. venusta flowers was evaluated against murine melanoma B16F10-Nex2 cells in vitro and in a syngeneic model in vivo. Results: We found that HE induced apoptosis in melanoma cells by disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, induction of reactive oxygen species and late apoptosis evidenced by plasma membrane blebbing, cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation, exposure of phosphatidylserine on the cell surface and activation of caspase-2,-3,-8,-9. HE was also protective against singeneyc subcutaneous melanoma HE compounds were also able to induce cell cycle arrest at G2/M phases on tumor cells. On fractionation of HE in silica gel we isolated a cytotoxic fraction that contained a mixture of saturated hydrocarbons identified by 1 H NMR and GC-MS analyses. Predominant species were octacosane (C 28 H 58 -36% and triacontane (C 30 H 62 -13%, which individually showed significant cytotoxic activity against murine melanoma B16F10-Nex2 cells in vitro and a very promising antitumor protection against subcutaneous melanoma in vivo. Conclusion: The results suggest that the components of the heptane extract, mainly octasane and triacontane, which showed antitumor properties in experimental melanoma upon regional administration, might also be therapeutic in human cancer, such as in the mostly epidermal and slowly invasive melanomas, such as acral lentiginous melanoma, as an adjuvant treatment to surgical excision.

  5. 冷热循环对Er:YAG激光以及车针备洞后牙本质和玻璃离子粘结剪切强度的影响%Influence of thermocycling on the shear bonding strength of glass ionomer to Er:YAG laser-irradiated or bur-prepared dentin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱琼; 王洋; 方溢云; 于春梅

    2014-01-01

    目的:评价冷热循环对Er:YAG激光以及车针备洞后牙本质与玻璃离子粘结剪切强度的影响。方法:40个离体牙分为颊舌两半,完全去除颊舌侧牙釉质,暴露牙本质后自凝塑料包埋,制成80个试件后随机分为A、B、C、D 4组(n=20)。A组采用Er:YAG激光照射后粘结Fuji IX;B组采用Er:YAG激光照射后粘结Fuji IX,再进行12000次冷热循环;C组采用车针预备牙本质后粘结Fuji IX;D组采用车针预备牙本质后粘结Fuji IX,再进行12000次冷热循环。所有样本置于万能材料力学测试机进行剪切强度测试。结果:A、B、C组之间的剪切强度无显著差异(P>0.05),D组剪切强度明显小于其他3组(P<0.05)。结论:经过冷热循环之后,Er:YAG激光组的剪切强度未见明显变化,但车针备洞组的剪切强度明显降低。%AIM:To study the influence of thermocycling on the shear bond strength of a glass-ionomer ce-ment to Er:YAG irradiated or bur-prepared dentin.METHODS:40 premolars were selected and the roots were re-moved.Each premolar was separated into two parts.80 samples were individually embedded in polyester resin.Sam-ples were randomly assigned into 4 groups (n=20)according to the method of cavity preparation:Er:YAG laser or bur-preparation,with or without thermocycling for 12000 times.Fuji IX was adhered to the surface of the samples in each group.The shear bond strength of samples was measured by an universal testing machine.RESULTS:The thermocy-cle had no significant effect on the shear bond strength of glass ionomer to laser-irradiated dentin (P>0.05).In bur-prepared samples,the thermocycling decreased shear bond strength value (P<0.05 ).CONCLUSION:Thermocy-cling can decrease the shear bond strength of glass-ionomer cement bonded to bur-prepared dentin.

  6. Evaluation of the apical seal after intraradicular retainer removal with ultrasound or carbide bur Avaliação do selamento apical após remoção de retentor intra-radicular com ultra-som ou instrumento cortante rotatório

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomie Nakakuki Campos

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available There are situations in which intraradicular retainers have to be removed and replaced. The objective of this research was to evaluate the apical seal after the removal of a custom cast post and core with a carbide bur or with an ultrasound apparatus. Twenty five roots of extracted human incisors were used. They were endodontically treated and prepared to receive the posts. The posts and cores were cast with 2 types of dental alloys, CuAlZn and PdAg, and were cemented with zinc phosphate cement. After 24 hours, they were removed using the two above mentioned techniques. Then, the roots had their external surface made impermeable by two layers of cyanoacrylate adhesive, leaving only the cervical area for dye penetration. The teeth were immersed in rhodamine for 24 hours. They were then cut and observed under an optical microscope and analyzed with appropriate software (Imagelab. The results were submitted to ANOVA, and they evidenced that, regarding the alloy factor, PdAg posts presented a larger mean infiltration value (2.23 ± 0.48 mm as compared to the posts made of CuAlZn (1.39 ± 0.48 mm (p = 0.025. Regarding the technique factor, there was no significant difference (p = 0.9 between the removal of the intraradicular retainer using ultrasound (1.99 ± 0.62 mm or using a rotating cutting instrument (1.62 ± 0.62 mm. Under these experimental conditions, it was possible to conclude that the degree of apical leakage was directly related to the alloy type, and it was present in both techniques used.Há situações que exigem a remoção ou substituição de retentores intra-radiculares. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o selamento apical do material obturador após a remoção de pino intra-radicular metálico fundido com instrumento cortante rotatório ou com aparelho de ultra-som. Utilizaram-se 25 raízes de incisivos humanos extraídos, que foram endodonticamente tratadas e preparadas para receberem os pinos. Os retentores intra

  7. Constituintes químicos de Arrabidaea samydoides (Bignoniaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauletti Patrícia Mendonça

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical investigation of Arrabidaea samydoides resulted in the isolation of the flavone chrysin; five triterpenes: lupeol, ursolic acid, 3b,16a-dihydroxy-urs-12-ene, uvaol, and erythrodiol; and two sterols: sitosterol and stigmasterol. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic analysis. This paper deal with the first phytochemical study of Arrabidaea samydoides.

  8. Extracts against Various Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritika Chauhan

    2013-07-01

    The present study shows that tested lichen Parmotrema sp. extracts demonstrated a strong antimicrobial effect. That suggests the active components from methanol extracts of the investigated lichen Parmotrema sp. can be used as natural antimicrobial agent against pathogens.

  9. Information extraction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmond, Tracy D; Hanley, William G; Guensche, Joseph Wendell; Perry, Nathan C; Nitao, John J; Kidwell, Paul Brandon; Boakye, Kofi Agyeman; Glaser, Ron E; Prenger, Ryan James

    2014-05-13

    An information extraction system and methods of operating the system are provided. In particular, an information extraction system for performing meta-extraction of named entities of people, organizations, and locations as well as relationships and events from text documents are described herein.

  10. Exhaustive extraction of peptides by electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2015-01-01

    trifluoroacetate, and leu-enkephalin were extracted from 600 μL of 25 mM phosphate buffer (pH 3.5), through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) containing di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphate (DEHP) dissolved in an organic solvent, and into 600 μL of an acidified aqueous acceptor solution using a thin flat membrane-based EME......This fundamental work illustrates for the first time the possibility of exhaustive extraction of peptides using electromembrane extraction (EME) under low system-current conditions (... device. Mass transfer of peptides across the SLM was enhanced by complex formation with the negatively charged DEHP. The composition of the SLM and the extraction voltage were important factors influencing recoveries and current with the EME system. 1-nonanol diluted with 2-decanone (1:1 v/v) containing...

  11. Extractant Design by Covalency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaunt, Andrew James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Olson, Angela Christine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kozimor, Stosh Anthony [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cross, Justin Neil [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Batista, Enrique Ricardo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Macor, Joe [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Peterman, Dean R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Grimes, Travis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-01-21

    This project aims to provide an electronic structure-to-function understanding of extractants for actinide selective separation processes. The research entails a multi-disciplinary approach that integrates chemical syntheses, structural determination, K-edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS), and Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. In FY15, the project reached the final stage of testing the extraction performance of a new ligand design and preparing an americium-extractant complex for analysis.

  12. Predispersed solvent extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Rodarte, Alma Isabel Marín

    1988-01-01

    A new solvent extraction method has been developed for the extraction of metal and organic ions from very dilute aqueous solutions. The new method, which has been named Predispersed Solvent Extraction (POSE), is based on the principle that 1 there is no need to comminute both phases. All that is necessary is to comminute the solvent phase prior to contacting it with the feed. This is done by converting the solvent into aphrons, which are micron-sized globules encapsulated in a ...

  13. Extracting oil from coffee

    OpenAIRE

    Elkin Mauricio López Fontal

    2010-01-01

    The present work describes oil being extracted from toasted coffee by the extrusion method; two products are obtained from this process: coffee oil and pulp. Toasted coffee was used which has a high amount of sensorial compounds. It should be noted that a significant criterion in evaluating the quality of coffee lies in its aroma. When extracting oil from coffee, a significant part of toasted coffee’s aromatic content leaves with it, varying according to the extraction method. A fixed oil h...

  14. Supercritical solvent coal extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, L. E. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Yields of soluble organic extract are increased up to about 50% by the supercritical extraction of particulate coal at a temperature below the polymerization temperature for coal extract fragments (450 C.) and a pressure from 500 psig to 5,000 psig by the conjoint use of a solvent mixture containing a low volatility, high critical temperature coal dissolution catalyst such as phenanthrene and a high volatility, low critical temperature solvent such as toluene.

  15. Fingerprint Feature Extraction Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehala. G

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to design an efficient Fingerprint Feature Extraction (FFE algorithm to extract the fingerprint features for Automatic Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS. FFE algorithm, consists of two major subdivisions, Fingerprint image preprocessing, Fingerprint image postprocessing. A few of the challenges presented in an earlier are, consequently addressed, in this paper. The proposed algorithm is able to enhance the fingerprint image and also extracting true minutiae.

  16. Parallel Feature Extraction System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAHuimin; WANGYan

    2003-01-01

    Very high speed image processing is needed in some application specially for weapon. In this paper, a high speed image feature extraction system with parallel structure was implemented by Complex programmable logic device (CPLD), and it can realize image feature extraction in several microseconds almost with no delay. This system design is presented by an application instance of flying plane, whose infrared image includes two kinds of feature: geometric shape feature in the binary image and temperature-feature in the gray image. Accordingly the feature extraction is taken on the two kind features. Edge and area are two most important features of the image. Angle often exists in the connection of the different parts of the target's image, which indicates that one area ends and the other area begins. The three key features can form the whole presentation of an image. So this parallel feature extraction system includes three processing modules: edge extraction, angle extraction and area extraction. The parallel structure is realized by a group of processors, every detector is followed by one route of processor, every route has the same circuit form, and works together at the same time controlled by a set of clock to realize feature extraction. The extraction system has simple structure, small volume, high speed, and better stability against noise. It can be used in the war field recognition system.

  17. Feature Extraction of Mammograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Sharma

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in women today. Early detection of the cancer can reduce mortality rate. Studies have shown that radiologists can miss the detection of a significant proportion of abnormalities in addition to having high rates of false positives. Pattern recognition in image processing requires the extraction of features from regions of the image and the processing of these features with a pattern recognition algorithm. We consider the feature extraction part of this processing; with a focus on the problem of micro calcification detection in digital mammography. For every pattern classification problem, the most important stage is feature extraction. The accuracy of the classification depends on the feature extraction stage. We have extracted textural, statistical and structural features which show promising results than most of the existing technology.

  18. Polyhydroxyflavones as extracting reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The europium (3) complex with morin is studied as well as the possibility of its analytical application. The formation of two extractable complexes, one of which dominates at pH--4-7, the other one - at pH>=8.5 is shown. The electrophoresis of the extracts containing the second complex has shown the latter to have a negative charge and to be extracted into the organic phase only in the form of an ionic associate [EU(OH)2H3B]-, (where H3B- is the morin anion). The extraction constant and spectra characteristics of the comples are estimated. The extraction constant and spectral characteristics of the complex are estimated. The extraction of the Eu(3) complex with morin from an alkaline medium (NaOH) by the TBP 20% solution in isoamyl alcohol is used for the direct extraction-photometric determination of Eu(3) in compounds of the elements possessing amphoteric properties of forming ammoniates (ZnS, MoO3). The method sensitivity is 5x10-4%

  19. Electromembrane extraction of peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balchen, Marte; Reubsaet, Léon; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2008-06-20

    Rapid extraction of eight different peptides using electromembrane extraction (EME) was demonstrated for the first time. During an extraction time of 5 min, the model peptides migrated from a 500 microL aqueous acidic sample solution, through a thin supported liquid membrane (SLM) of an organic liquid sustained in the pores in the wall of a porous hollow fiber, and into a 25 microL aqueous acidic acceptor solution present inside the lumen of the hollow fiber. The driving force of the extraction was a 50 V potential sustained across the SLM, with the positive electrode in the sample and the negative electrode in the acceptor solution. The nature and the composition of the SLM were highly important for the EME process, and a mixture of 1-octanol and 15% di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate was found to work properly. Using 1mM HCl as background electrolyte in the sample and 100 mM HCl in the acceptor solution, and agitation at 1050 rpm, enrichment up to 11 times was achieved. Recoveries were found to be dependent on the structure of the peptide, indicating that the polarity and the number of ionized groups were important parameters affecting the extraction efficiency. The experimental findings suggested that electromembrane extraction of peptides is possible and may be a valuable tool for future extraction of peptides. PMID:18479691

  20. Multimedia Information Extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Maybury, Mark T

    2012-01-01

    The advent of increasingly large consumer collections of audio (e.g., iTunes), imagery (e.g., Flickr), and video (e.g., YouTube) is driving a need not only for multimedia retrieval but also information extraction from and across media. Furthermore, industrial and government collections fuel requirements for stock media access, media preservation, broadcast news retrieval, identity management, and video surveillance.  While significant advances have been made in language processing for information extraction from unstructured multilingual text and extraction of objects from imagery and vid

  1. Nano-electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Payán, María D Ramos; Li, Bin; Petersen, Nickolaj J.;

    2013-01-01

    ), and into approximately 8 nL phosphate buffer (pH 2.7) as acceptor phase. The driving force for the extraction was an electrical potential sustained over the SLM. The acceptor phase was located inside a fused silica capillary, and this capillary was also used for the final analysis of the acceptor phase by capillary......The present work has for the first time described nano-electromembrane extraction (nano-EME). In nano-EME, five basic drugs substances were extracted as model analytes from 200 μL acidified sample solution, through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) of 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE...

  2. Comparison of mentha extracts obtained by different extraction methods

    OpenAIRE

    Milić Slavica; Lepojević Žika; Adamović Dušan; Mujić Ibrahim; Zeković Zoran

    2006-01-01

    The different methods of mentha extraction, such as steam distillation, extraction by methylene chloride (Soxhlet extraction) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) by carbon dioxide (CO J were investigated. SFE by CO, was performed at pressure of 100 bar and temperature of40°C. The extraction yield, as well as qualitative and quantitative composition of obtained extracts, determined by GC-MS method, were compared.

  3. Feature Extraction of Mammograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Sharma

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deathsin women today. Early detection of the cancer can reducemortality rate. Studies have shown that radiologists canmiss the detection of a significant proportion ofabnormalities in addition to having high rates of falsepositives. Pattern recognition in image processing requiresthe extraction of features from regions of the image andthe processing of these features with a pattern recognitionalgorithm. We consider the feature extraction part of thisprocessing; with a focus on the problem of microcalcification detection in digital mammography. For everypattern classification problem, the most important stage isfeature extraction. The accuracy of the classificationdepends on the feature extraction stage. We have extractedtextural, statistical and structural features which showpromising results than most of the existing technology.

  4. Painful Bile Extraction Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    It was only in the past 20 years that countries in Asia began to search for an alternative to protect moon bears from being killed for their bile and other body parts. In the early 1980s, a new method of extracting bile from living bears was developed in North Korea. In 1983, Chinese scientists imported this technique from North Korea. According to the Animals Asia Foundation, the most original method of bile extraction is to embed a latex catheter, a narrow rubber

  5. DNA extraction by zinc.

    OpenAIRE

    Kejnovský, E; Kypr, J

    1997-01-01

    A fast, very simple and efficient method of DNA extraction is described which takes advantage of DNA sedimentation induced by millimolar concentrations of ZnCl2. The zinc-induced sedimentation is furthermore strongly promoted by submillimolar phosphate anion concentrations. Within 90% of DNA irrespective of whether a plasmid DNA or short oligonucleotides are the extracted material. The method works with plasmid DNA and oligonucleotide concentrations as low as 100 ng/ml and 10 microg/ml, respe...

  6. Genotoxicity of plant extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Vera M. F. Vargas; Régis R. Guidobono; Henriques, João A.P.

    1991-01-01

    Aqueous extracts of seven species used in Brazilian popular medicine (Achyrocline satureoides, Iodina rhombifolia, Desmodium incanum, Baccharis anomala, Tibouchina asperior, Luehea divaricata, Maytenus ilicifolia) were screened to the presence of mutagenic activity in the Ames test (Salmonella/microsome). Positive results were obtained for A. satureoides, B anomala and L. divaricata with microsomal activation. As shown elsewhere (Vargas et al., 1990) the metabolites of A. satureoides extract ...

  7. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF RUTHENIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, H.H.; Leader, G.R.

    1959-07-14

    The separation of rathenium from aqueous solutions by solvent extraction is described. According to the invention, a nitrite selected from the group consisting of alkali nitrite and alkaline earth nitrite in an equimolecular quantity with regard to the quantity of rathenium present is added to an aqueous solution containing ruthenium tetrantrate to form a ruthenium complex. Adding an organic solvent such as ethyl ether to the resulting mixture selectively extracts the rathenium complex.

  8. Fingerprint Feature Extraction Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Mehala. G

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to design an efficient Fingerprint Feature Extraction (FFE) algorithm to extract the fingerprint features for Automatic Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS). FFE algorithm, consists of two major subdivisions, Fingerprint image preprocessing, Fingerprint image postprocessing. A few of the challenges presented in an earlier are, consequently addressed, in this paper. The proposed algorithm is able to enhance the fingerprint image and also extractin...

  9. Du mythe de l’efficience des marchés au krach From Efficient Markets to Crash: The Illusion of Market Liquidity Del mito de la eficiencia de los mercados a la crisis. La ilusión de la liquidez bursátil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bourghelle

    2010-12-01

    perspectiva como el origen de la evaporación de la liquidez. Dos argumentos teóricos vienen entonces a apoyar la promoción de la liquidez bursátil : por una parte la negociabilidad de los títulos tendría por su propia naturaleza la posibilidad de bajar la tasa de rentabilidad requerida por los inversores, y por esa vía, del costo de financiamiento de las inversiones directamente productivas. Ella permitirá, por otra parte, la asimilación casi instantánea de la información en los precios. Pero sin embargo, un examen más atento revela la cara oculta de la liquidez. La tesis defendida acá es que la cotización bursátil, lejos de garantizar la eficiencia de los mercados, genera la atracción para hacer un intercambio especulativo, y altera, por ese hecho, la naturaleza de la racionalidad de los operadores : bien lejos de favorecer la emergencia de una racionalidad de tipo fundamentalista que consistiría para los inversores en la posibilidad de anticipar los flujos de los ingresos futuros asociados a la posesión de títulos con el propósito de elaborar colectivamente un escenario de futuro, la puesta  a disposición de una cotización de la bolsa, o más generalmente, de una posibilidad de reventa, invade por el contrario todo el espacio cognitivo de los actores y los obliga a dar prueba de una racionalidad autoreferencial. Esta se caracteriza por una actividad cognitiva enteramente destinada a prever la dinámica de la opinión dominante, que el precio del mercado revela, para precederla en sus evoluciones. Sometiendo la valorización de los activos a la apreciación del juicio colectivo instantáneo, la liquidez bursátil transforma en efecto la evaluacón financiera en un proceso intrínsecamente inestable y se revela, de todas maneras, impossible de ser satisfecha colectivamente durante los períodos de tensión en los cuales ella se consideraría sin embargo vital. La pérdida de sentido, de los puntos de referencia y de clarividencia ¿será el precio a

  10. Neutral Complex Extraction and Synergistic Extraction of Macrolide Antibiotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Based on the theory of reactive extraction, new solvent systems were developed to replace butylacetate for extraction of macrolide antibiotics (erythromycin, kitasamycin, spiramycin meleumycin etc.). A new neutral complex solvent extraction system, fatty alcohol-kerosene (marked by E1), was used for extraction of erythromycin, one of the macrolide antibiotics. The extraction equilibrium equation is obtained, and the extraction distribution is as follows The effects of several parameters on extraction equilibrium were investigated. Furthermore, a new synergistic extraction system (marked by E2) was developed, in which another solvent was used as synergistic agent to replace the diluent kerosene in the neutral complex extraction system. Based on these new extraction systems, an improved process for extraction of erythromycin was developed, showing remarkable advantages in technology and economics owing to its low solvent consumption of 3kg per billion unit compared with 9-10 for butylacetate. The recovery process of solvent from raffinate may be eliminated.

  11. Atividade antiinflamatória do extrato aquoso de Arrabidaea chica (Humb. & Bonpl. B. Verl. sobre o edema induzido por venenos de serpentes amazônicas Anti-inflammatory activity of the aqueous extract of Arrabidaea chica (Humb. & Bonpl. B. Verl. on the self-induced inflammatory process from venoms amazonians snakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denys Paixão Costa de Oliveira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo investigou o efeito antiinflamatório do extrato aquoso da Arrabidaea chica (Humb. & Bonpl. B. Verl., Bignoniaceae, popularmente conhecida como "crajiru", sobre o edema induzido por venenos de serpentes amazônicas dos gêneros Brothrops e Crotalus, em camundongos albinos, por via oral, intraperitoneal e subcutânea. O efeito anti-edematogênico foi avaliado pela medição do diâmetro dos coxins das patas posteriores, sendo medidos as 1, 3, 6, 12 e 24 horas, para B. atrox e 1, 3 e 6 horas para Crotalus durissus ruruima, e também avaliado por histopatologia. O estudo mostrou que o efeito inibitório do extrato aquoso para o gênero Bothrops, pelas vias subcutânea e intraperitoneal (12 horas foi de 55,87% e 65,70%, respectivamente. Para o gênero Crotalus o efeito inibitório do extrato pela via subcutânea após 3 horas foi de 33,55% e após 6 horas de 79,81%. Pela via intraperitoneal após 3 horas foi de 48,02% e após 6 horas de 92,52%. Na análise histopatológica, o infiltrado de granulócitos e a miocitólise foram os efeitos inflamatórios inibidos mais significativamente. Os resultados sugerem a presença no extrato aquoso de A. chica de substâncias com atividade inibitória sobre os efeitos inflamatórios dos venenos das serpentes Bothrops atrox e Crotalus durissus ruruima.The study investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of the aqueous extract (EAq, the Arrabidaea chica (Humb. & Bonpl. B. Verl., Bignoniaceae, known as the "crajiru", tested on the paw oedema induced in inflammatory process by venoms Amazon snakes from the Bothrops and Crotalus species, on albino mice. This process was done by an oral, intraperitoneal and subcutaneous way. The cushions thickness was measured at time breaks of 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 hours, Bothrops genus and 1, 3 and 6 hours, Crotalus genus, and a histopathologic analysis was made. The Bothrops genus, was used as an inhibitory effect for the subcutaneous and intraperitoneal way (12 hours, and it

  12. Isoflavones hydrolisis and extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozilene Fernandes Farias dos Santos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones are found in leguminous species and are used as phytoestrogens widely used by industry for its beneficial effects as estrogens mimicked, antioxidant action and anti-cancer activity. The identification and quantification of isoflavones in plants is a need due to the high demand of industry. Several methods are used for its extraction, using organic solvents (methanol, ethanol and acetonitrile. Samples from five legumes species from Instituto de Zootecnia (IZ, Forage Gene Bank were tested. All seeds received a hydrothermic treatment immersed in pure water at 50°C for 12 hours. Seeds were then oven-dryed. In this work we tested the extraction using only the hydrothermic treatment and hyfrothermic treatment allied to methanol extaction protocol. Seeds were grinded and half of the samples were ressuspended in PBS (phosphate Buffer and the other half were submited to 4 mL of methanol and 1% of acetic acid, soaked for 5 hours, shaked every 15 minutes, at room temperature. The five legume species that we quantify isoflavones by enzyme immunoassay (EIA were: Calopogonium mucunoides, Bauhinia sp., Cajanus cajan, Galactia martii, Leucaena leucocephala. The extraction procedure is a recomendation of AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists for isoflavone quantification. Ours results show an increase of extraction using methanol 80% plus acetic acid 1% and was obtained using solvent extraction in comparison to hydrothermic procedure alone (figure 1.

  13. Tevatron extraction microcomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extraction in the Fermilab Tevatron is controlled by a multi-processor Multibus microcomputer system called QXR (Quad eXtraction Regulator). QXR monitors several analog beam signals and controls three sets of power supplies: the ''bucker'' and ''pulse'' magnets at a rate of 5760 Hz, and the ''QXR'' magnets at 720 Hz. QXR supports multiple slow spills (up to a total of 35 seconds) with multiple fast pulses intermixed. It linearizes the slow spill and bucks out the high frequency components. Fast extraction is done by outputting a variable pulse waveform. Closed loop learning techniques are used to improve performance from cycle to cycle for both slow and fast extraction. The system is connected to the Tevatron clock system so that it can track the machine cycle. QXR is also connected to the rest of the Fermilab control system, ACNET. Through ACNET, human operators and central computers can monitor and control extraction through communications with QXR. The controls hardware and software both employ some standard and some specialized components. This paper gives an overview of QXR as a control system; another paper summarizes performance

  14. Extracting oil from coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkin Mauricio López Fontal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes oil being extracted from toasted coffee by the extrusion method; two products are obtained from this process: coffee oil and pulp. Toasted coffee was used which has a high amount of sensorial compounds. It should be noted that a significant criterion in evaluating the quality of coffee lies in its aroma. When extracting oil from coffee, a significant part of toasted coffee’s aromatic content leaves with it, varying according to the extraction method. A fixed oil having a high volatile load is thus obtained, presenting favourable sensory characteristics. The pulp was physically and chemically analysed to show its benefit and particular properties and, according to the results so obtained, it is a product having potential usefulness.

  15. Substoichiometric extraction of chromium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Substoichiometric extraction of chromium with tetraphenylarsonium chloride (TPACl), tri-n-octylamine (TNOA), diethylammonium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDDC) and ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC) was examined in detail. Chromium can be extracted substoichiometrically in a pH range, which is 1.1-2.6 for the TPACl compound, 0.6-2.3 for the TNOA compound, 5.1-6.4 for the DDDC chelate and 3.9-4.9 for the APDC chelate. Chromium in high-purity calcium carbonate, Orchard Leaves (NBS SRM-1571) and Brewers Yeast (NBS SRM-1569) was determined by neutron activation analysis combined with substoichiometric extraction by DDDC and APDC. The values of 2.0+-0.02 ppm and 2.6+-0.2 ppm were obtained for Brewers Yeast and Orchard Leaves, respectively. These values were in good agreement with those reported by NBS. The reaction mechanism and the reaction ratio between hexavalent chromium and dithiocarbamate are also discussed. (author)

  16. Extraction Methods, Variability Encountered in

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodelier, P.L.E.; Nelson, K.E.

    2014-01-01

    Synonyms Bias in DNA extractions methods; Variation in DNA extraction methods Definition The variability in extraction methods is defined as differences in quality and quantity of DNA observed using various extraction protocols, leading to differences in outcome of microbial community composition as

  17. Genotoxicity of plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera M. F. Vargas

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extracts of seven species used in Brazilian popular medicine (Achyrocline satureoides, Iodina rhombifolia, Desmodium incanum, Baccharis anomala, Tibouchina asperior, Luehea divaricata, Maytenus ilicifolia were screened to the presence of mutagenic activity in the Ames test (Salmonella/microsome. Positive results were obtained for A. satureoides, B anomala and L. divaricata with microsomal activation. As shown elsewhere (Vargas et al., 1990 the metabolites of A. satureoides extract also show the capacity to induce prophage and/or SOS response in microscreen phage induction assay and SOS spot chromotest.

  18. Polar Lipid Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Author: Biotechniques Polar lipids are generally extracted from dry cell material using chloroform:methanol:0.3% NaCl (1:2:0.8 v/v/v). This may be carried out by adding 9.5 ml of this mixture to 100 mg of freeze dried cells, or by adding a suitable amount of chloroform, methanol and 0.3% NaCl to the cell material, or to the aqueous methanolic phase remaining from the lipoquinone extraction. 1. The aqueous methanolic phase (4 ml total volume), together with the cell material from the ...

  19. LEAR: antiproton extraction lines

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1992-01-01

    Antiprotons, decelerated in LEAR to a momentum of 100 MeV/c (kinetic energy of 5.3 MeV), were delivered to the experiments in an "Ultra-Slow Extraction", dispensing some 1E9 antiprotons over times counted in hours. Beam-splitters and a multitude of beam-lines allowed several users to be supplied simultaneously.

  20. SPS extraction systems

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1973-01-01

    One of the 3-m long electrostatics septa. The septum itself consists of 0.15 mm thick molybdenum wires with a 1.5 mm pitch. Each of the two SPS extraction systems will contain four of these electrostatic septa.

  1. Source Wavelet Phase Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghadeh, Diako Hariri; Morley, Christopher Keith

    2016-06-01

    Extraction of propagation wavelet phase from seismic data can be conducted using first, second, third and fourth-order statistics. Three new methods are introduced, which are: (1) Combination of different moments, (2) Windowed continuous wavelet transform and (3) Maximum correlation with cosine function. To compare different methods synthetic data with and without noise were chosen. Results show that first, second and third order statistics are not able to preserve wavelet phase. Kurtosis can preserve propagation wavelet phase but signal-to-noise ratio can affect the extracted phase using this method. So for data set with low signal-to-noise ratio, it will be unstable. Using a combination of different moments to extract the phase is more robust than applying kurtosis. The improvement occurs because zero phase wavelets with reverse polarities have equal maximum kurtosis values hence the correct wavelet polarity cannot be identified. Zero-phase wavelets with reverse polarities have minimum and maximum values for a combination of different-moments method. These properties enable the technique to handle a finite data segment and to choose the correct wavelet polarity. Also, the existence of different moments can decrease sensitivity to outliers. A windowed continuous wavelet transform is more sensitive to signal-to-noise ratio than the combination of different-moments method, also if the scale for the wavelet is incorrect it will encounter with more problems to extract phase. When the effects of frequency bandwidth, signal-to-noise ratio and analyzing window length are considered, the results of extracting phase information from data without and with noise demonstrate that combination of different-moments is superior to the other methods introduced here.

  2. Automated Water Extraction Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyisa, Gudina Legese; Meilby, Henrik; Fensholt, Rasmus;

    2014-01-01

    Classifying surface cover types and analyzing changes are among the most common applications of remote sensing. One of the most basic classification tasks is to distinguish water bodies from dry land surfaces. Landsat imagery is among the most widely used sources of data in remote sensing of water...... resources; and although several techniques of surface water extraction using Landsat data are described in the literature, their application is constrained by low accuracy in various situations. Besides, with the use of techniques such as single band thresholding and two-band indices, identifying...... an appropriate threshold yielding the highest possible accuracy is a challenging and time consuming task, as threshold values vary with location and time of image acquisition. The purpose of this study was therefore to devise an index that consistently improves water extraction accuracy in the presence...

  3. Extracting tag hierarchies

    CERN Document Server

    Tibély, Gergely; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2014-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy betwe...

  4. Live facial feature extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO JieYu

    2008-01-01

    Precise facial feature extraction is essential to the high-level face recognition and expression analysis. This paper presents a novel method for the real-time geomet-ric facial feature extraction from live video. In this paper, the input image is viewed as a weighted graph. The segmentation of the pixels corresponding to the edges of facial components of the mouth, eyes, brows, and nose is implemented by means of random walks on the weighted graph. The graph has an 8-connected lattice structure and the weight value associated with each edge reflects the likelihood that a random walker will cross that edge. The random walks simulate an anisot-ropic diffusion process that filters out the noise while preserving the facial expres-sion pixels. The seeds for the segmentation are obtained from a color and motion detector. The segmented facial pixels are represented with linked lists in the origi-nal geometric form and grouped into different parts corresponding to facial com-ponents. For the convenience of implementing high-level vision, the geometric description of facial component pixels is further decomposed into shape and reg-istration information. Shape is defined as the geometric information that is invari-ant under the registration transformation, such as translation, rotation, and iso-tropic scale. Statistical shape analysis is carried out to capture global facial fea-tures where the Procrustes shape distance measure is adopted. A Bayesian ap-proach is used to incorporate high-level prior knowledge of face structure. Ex-perimental results show that the proposed method is capable of real-time extraction of precise geometric facial features from live video. The feature extraction is robust against the illumination changes, scale variation, head rotations, and hand inter-ference.

  5. Shibusa: extracting beauty

    OpenAIRE

    Adkins, Monty; Dickens, Pip

    2012-01-01

    Shibusa – Extracting Beauty celebrates a number of artistic endeavours: music, painting and the skill of making in general with particular reflection upon Japanese aesthetics. Composer, Monty Adkins and visual artist, Pip Dickens (through a Leverhulme Trust Award collaboration) investigate commonality and difference between the visual arts and music exploring aspects of rhythm, pattern, colour and vibration as well as outlining processes utilised to evolve new works within these practic...

  6. The Extractive Industries Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Halland, Havard; Lokanc, Martin; Nair, Arvind; Kannan, Sridar Padmanabhan

    2015-01-01

    The extractive industries (EI) sector occupies an outsize space in the economies of many developing countries. Economists, public finance professionals, and policy makers working in such countries are frequently confronted with issues that require an in-depth understanding of the sector. The objective of this volume is to provide a concise overview of EI-related topics these professionals are likely to encounter. The volume provides an overview of issues central to EI economics; discusses key...

  7. Plant extracts as radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies show that the extracts of some plants, namely containing vitamins or sulfide components, have radioprotection properties against the effects of ionizing radiation. In Syria, many of hates plants are available. This experiment was conducted in order to test the ability of ten different plants to protect against the radiation damages. These plants are Daucus carota L., Brassica oleracea L, Aloe vera L., Opuntia ficus-indica, Allium cepa L., Capsicum annuum L., Scilla maritima L., Allium sativum L., Rubus sanctus L. and Rosa canina L.Their effects on the protection of E. Coli growth after the exposure to L.D 50 of gamma radiation (100 Gy) were investigated . Two concentrations to each plant extract were tested, both were than 1%. Our results are indicating that the protection depend on plant. The radioprotection factors were ranged between 1.42 to 2.39. The best results were obtained by using the extract of Allium sativum L. (2.01), Opuntia ficus-indica (2.14) and Capsiucum annuum L. (2.39). (author) 16 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  8. Plant extracts as radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies show that the extracts of some plants, namely containing vitamins or sulfide components, have radioprotection properties against the effects of ionizing radiation. In Syria, many of hates plants are available. This experiment was conducted in order to test the ability of ten different plants to protect against the radiation damages. These plants are Daucus carota L., Brassica oleracea L, Aloe vera L., Opuntia ficus-indica, Allium cepa L., Capsicum annuum L., Scilla maritima L., Allium sativum L., Rubus sanctus L. and Rosa canina L.Their effects on the protection of E. Coli growth after the exposure to L.D 50 of gamma radiation (100 Gy) were investigated . Two concentrations to each plant extract were tested, both were than 1%. Our results are indicating that the protection depend on plant. The radioprotection factors were ranged between 1.42 to 2.39. The best results were obtained by using the extract of Allium sativum L. (2.01), Opuntia ficus-indica (2.14) and Capsiucum annuum L. (2.39). (author)

  9. AGRICULTURAL USES OF SEAWEEDS EXTRACTS

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Popescu

    2013-01-01

    Marine bioactive substances extracted from seaweed are currently used in food, animal feed, as a raw material in the industry and have therapeutic applications. Most of the products based on marine algae are extracted from Brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum. The use of extracts of seaweed in agriculture is beneficial because the amount of chemical fertilizers and obtaining organic yield.

  10. AGRICULTURAL USES OF SEAWEEDS EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Popescu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine bioactive substances extracted from seaweed are currently used in food, animal feed, as a raw material in the industry and have therapeutic applications. Most of the products based on marine algae are extracted from Brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum. The use of extracts of seaweed in agriculture is beneficial because the amount of chemical fertilizers and obtaining organic yield.

  11. Challenges in Managing Information Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Warren H.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation studies information extraction (IE), the problem of extracting structured information from unstructured data. Example IE tasks include extracting person names from news articles, product information from e-commerce Web pages, street addresses from emails, and names of emerging music bands from blogs. IE is all increasingly…

  12. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF URANIUM VALUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, H.M.; Ader, M.; Ross, L.E.

    1959-02-01

    A process is presented for extracting uranium salt from aqueous acidic solutions by organic solvent extraction. It consists in contacting the uranium bearing solution with a water immiscible dialkylacetamide having at least 8 carbon atoms in the molecule. Mentioned as a preferred extractant is dibutylacetamide. The organic solvent is usually used with a diluent such as kerosene or CCl/sub 4/.

  13. Coal extraction - environmental prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Blaine Cecil; Susan J. Tewalt

    2002-08-01

    To predict and help minimize the impact of coal extraction in the Appalachian region, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is addressing selected mine-drainage issues through the following four interrelated studies: spatial variability of deleterious materials in coal and coal-bearing strata; kinetics of pyrite oxidation; improved spatial geologic models of the potential for drainage from abandoned coal mines; and methodologies for the remediation of waters discharged from coal mines. As these goals are achieved, the recovery of coal resources will be enhanced. 2 figs.

  14. Supercritical fluid extraction of hops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZORAN ZEKOVIC

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Five cultivars of hop were extracted by the method of supercritical fluid extraction using carbon dioxide (SFE–CO2 as extractant. The extraction (50 g of hop sample using a CO2 flow rate of 97.725 L/h was done in the two steps: 1. extraction at 150 bar and 40°C for 2.5 h (sample of series A was obtained and, after that, the same sample of hop was extracted in the second step: 2. extraction at 300 bar and 40 °C for 2.5 h (sample of series B was obtained. The Magnum cultivar was chosen for the investigation of the extraction kinetics. For the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the obtained hop extracts, the GC-MS method was used. Two of four themost common compounds of hop aroma (a-humulene and b-caryophyllene were detected in samples of series A. In addition, isomerized a-acids and a high content of b-acids were detected. The a-acids content in the samples of series B was the highest in the extract of the Magnum cultivar (it is a bitter variety of hop. The low contents of a-acids in all the other hop samples resulted in extracts with low a-acids content, i.e., that contents were under the prescribed a-acids content.

  15. Extracting Text from Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayshree Ghorpade

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The text data present in images and video contain certain useful information for automatic annotation,indexing, and structuring of images. However variations of the text due to differences in text style, font, size, orientation, alignment as well as low image contrast and complex background make the problem of automatic text extraction extremely difficult and challenging job. A large number of techniques have been proposed to address this problem and the purpose of this paper is to design algorithms for each phase of extracting text from a video using java libraries and classes. Here first we frame the input video into stream of images using the Java Media Framework (JMF with the input being a real time or a video from the database. Then we apply pre processing algorithms to convert the image to gray scale and remove the disturbances like superimposed lines over the text, discontinuity removal, and dot removal.Then we continue with the algorithms for localization, segmentation and recognition for which we use the neural network pattern matching technique. The performance of our approach is demonstrated by presenting experimental results for a set of static images.

  16. EXTRACTING TEXT FROM VIDEO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayshree Ghorpade

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The text data present in images and video contain certain useful information for automatic annotation,indexing, and structuring of images. However variations of the text due to differences in text style, font, size, orientation, alignment as well as low image contrast and complex background make the problem of automatic text extraction extremely difficult and challenging job. A large number of techniques have been proposed to address this problem and the purpose of this paper is to design algorithms for each phase of extracting text from a video using java libraries and classes. Here first we frame the input video into stream of images using the Java Media Framework (JMF with the input being a real time or a video from the database. Then we apply pre processing algorithms to convert the image to gray scale and remove the disturbances like superimposed lines over the text, discontinuity removal, and dot removal.Then we continue with the algorithms for localization, segmentation and recognition for which we use the neural network pattern matching technique. The performance of our approach is demonstrated by presenting experimental results for a set of static images.

  17. 卷烟烟气中镇咳祛痰平喘类植物提取物对呼吸系统的作用评价%Evaluation of Medicinal Action of Selected Plant Extracts Added in Cigarettes on Respiratory System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋旭艳; 魏敏; 王君; 罗诚浩; 徐诗强; 胡霞敏

    2011-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of cigarette and its plant additives on three symptoms, cough, ropy phlegm and asthma caused by smoking, the influences of the extracts from Elettaria Maton, Lauraceae and Ericaceae composite, Bignoniaceae and Asteraceae composite, and smoke of the cigarettes containing the mentioned extracts on cough, tracheal excretion and tension of bronchial smooth muscle were evaluated by classic pharmacological evaluation models for respiratory system combining with functional properties of cigarette smoke. The results showed that by means of an in-house designed smoking device, it was feasible, applicable, and objective to evaluate the mentioned influences respectively by ammonia-induced cough test on mice, citric acid-induced cough test on guinea pig, phenol red excretion test, in vitro trachea spiral strip test on guinea pig, and medicine-induced asthma test on integral animal.%为评价卷烟及其植物添加剂对吸烟易引发的呼吸系统“咳嗽、痰多、喘息”三大症状的作用,结合卷烟烟气作用特点,采用经典的药物呼吸道功能评价方法评价了镇咳祛痰平喘类植物小豆蔻属、樟科、杜鹃花科植物复方和紫葳科、菊科植物复方提取物和添加提取物的卷烟烟气对咳嗽、气管分泌液量和支气管平滑肌张力的影响.结果显示:配合自主开发的吸烟机给药,采用小鼠氨水引咳法、豚鼠枸橼酸引咳法、酚红排泄法、豚鼠离体气管螺旋条法和整体动物药物引喘法分别评价卷烟及其添加剂对咳嗽、气管分泌液量和气管平滑肌张力的影响是可行的,具有良好的可操作性和客观准确性.

  18. Supercritical carbon dioxide hop extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfaf-Šovljanski Ivana I.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The hop of Magnum cultivar was extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide (SFE-as extractant. Extraction was carried out in the two steps: the first one being carried out at 150 bar and 40°C for 2.5 h (Extract A, and the second was the extraction of the same hop sample at 300 bar and 40°C for 2.5 h (Extract B. Extraction kinetics of the system hop-SFE-CO2 was investigated. Two of four most common compounds of hop aroma (α-humulene and β-caryophyllene were detected in Extract A. Isomerised α-acids and β-acids were detected too. a-Acid content in Extract B was high (that means it is a bitter variety of hop. Mathematical modeling using empirical model characteristic time model and simple single sphere model has been performed on Magnum cultivar extraction experimental results. Characteristic time model equations, best fitted experimental results. Empirical model equation, fitted results well, while simple single sphere model equation poorly approximated the results.

  19. Ontogenia dos estratos parietais da antera de Tabebuia pulcherrima Sandw. (Bignoniaceae Ontogeny of the anther parietal layers of Tabebuia pulcherrima Sandw. (Bignoniaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson S Bittencourt Jr

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available A ontogenia do tapete e dos demais estratos parietais, bem como o desenvolvimento do estômio e deiscência da antera de Tabebuia pulcherrima, foram presentemente estudados. O padrão de formação da parede do androsporângio é do tipo Dicotiledôneo. A camada parietal primária, a camada esporogênica e o tapete interno derivam-se diretamente do meristema fundamental. O tecido esporogênico, em cada androsporângio, visto em secção transversal, organiza-se numa fileira celular em forma de ferradura. O tapete é do tipo secretor e possui origem dual. O tapete interno diferencia-se precocemente em relação ao tapete externo. As duas camadas tapetais são discretamente dimórficas, mas tal dimorfismo é perdido no fim do estádio meiótico do esporângio. O dimorfismo tapetai e a precoce diferenciação do tapete interno são interpretados como expressão de um lapso ontogenético entre as duas camadas. Nas regiões dorso-laterais das tecas desenvolve-se um endotécio multiestratificado com espessamentos anelados ou helicoidais nas paredes celulares. A deiscência é precedida pela degeneração dos tecidos placentóides e ruptura dos septos interesporangiais. Apenas as células epidérmicas dos dois lados do sítio de ruptura do estômio (células estomiais estão envolvidas com a ruptura do mesmo.The ontogeny of the tapetum and parietal layers, as well as the stomium development and the dehiscence of the anther of Tabebuia pulcherima was studied. The anther wall formation follows the Dicotyledoneous type. The primary parietal layer, the sporogenous tissue, and the inner tapetum are differentiated directly from the ground meristem. The sporogenous tissue, as seeing in a transverse section, is organized in one cellular strip with a horseshoe outline. The tapetum is secretory and shows a distinct dual origin. The inner tapetai layer differentiates earlier than the outher. The two tapetai layers are moderately dimorphic. However, even such a dimorphism is lost at the end of the sporangium meiosis. The tapetai dimorphism and the precocious differentiation of the inner tapetum was interpreted as expression of a developmental gap between the two layers. At the four corners of the anther, a multilayered endothecium with annular or spiral fibrous thickenings in their cell walls is formed. The deiscence is preceded by the placentoid tissues degeneration and the rupture of the interesporangial septa. Only the epidermal cell rows, at the two sides of the stomial dehiscing place, are involved in the stomium rupturing.

  20. Ontogenia dos estratos parietais da antera de Tabebuia pulcherrima Sandw. (Bignoniaceae) Ontogeny of the anther parietal layers of Tabebuia pulcherrima Sandw. (Bignoniaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    BITTENCOURT JR, NELSON S.; Jorge Ernesto de A Mariath

    1997-01-01

    A ontogenia do tapete e dos demais estratos parietais, bem como o desenvolvimento do estômio e deiscência da antera de Tabebuia pulcherrima, foram presentemente estudados. O padrão de formação da parede do androsporângio é do tipo Dicotiledôneo. A camada parietal primária, a camada esporogênica e o tapete interno derivam-se diretamente do meristema fundamental. O tecido esporogênico, em cada androsporângio, visto em secção transversal, organiza-se numa fileira celular em forma de ferradura. O...

  1. Fumigação de milho para o controle do gorgulho utilizando caule de Tanaecium nocturnum (Bignoniaceae Fumigation of maize for weevil control using Tanaecium nocturnum (Bignoniaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Fazolin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da fumigação de grãos de milho com segmentos de caules injuriados de Tanaecium nocturnum no controle de Sitophilus zeamais. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com sete repetições, em parcelas subdivididas. Considerou-se como parcela os tratamentos de fumigação e, como subparcelas, os intervalos de tempo consecutivos tomados a cada 23 dias para as avaliações. Os tratamentos foram: fumigação com 50 g de segmentos de caules verdes de T. nocturnum por quilograma de grãos de milho, que continham entre 800 e 900 mg kg-1 de HCN; fumigação com 60 mg de pastilhas de fosfeto de alumínio por quilograma de grãos de milho que continham 57% do princípio ativo; e testemunha (sem aplicação de fumigantes. A infestação por S. zeamais e a perda de peso de grãos foram avaliadas nove vezes durante 207 dias. A utilização de 50 g kg-1 de segmentos do caule de T. nocturnum para o controle de S. zeamais proporcionou redução da infestação pela praga e da perda de peso de grãos comparável à do fosfeto de alumínio. Esse controle alternativo pode ser adaptado às condições de armazenamento do milho em pequenas propriedades da Amazônia Ocidental.The objective of this work was to assess the effect of fumigating corn grains with injured stem parts of Tanaecium nocturnum in the control of Sitophilus zeamais. The experimental design was completely randomized with seven replicates in split plots. The plots consisted of fumigation treatments and the subplots, of consecutive time intervals taken every 23 days for the evaluations. The treatments were: fumigation using 50 g of green stem parts of T. nocturnum per kilogram of corn grains; which contained between 800 and 900 mg kg-1 HCN fumigation using 60 mg of aluminum phosphide tablets per kilogram of corn grains with 57% of active ingredient; and control (no fumigation. S. zeamais infestation and weight loss of corn grains were evaluated nine times along 207 days. The use of 50 g kg-1 of stem parts of T. nocturnum for S. zeamais control produced reduction of the pest infestation and of the weight loss of grains comparable to that of aluminum phosphide. This alternative control can be adapted to maize storage conditions on small properties in Occidental Amazon.

  2. Uranium extraction technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1983 the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD/NEA) and the IAEA jointly published a book on Uranium Extraction Technology. A primary objective of this report was to document the significant technological developments that took place during the 1970s. The purpose of this present publication is to update and expand the original book. It includes background information about the principle of the unit operations used in uranium ore processing and summarizes the current state of the art. The publication also seeks to preserve the technology and the operating 'know-how' developed over the past ten years. This publication is one of a series of Technical Reports on uranium ore processing that have been prepared by the Division of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management at the IAEA. A complete list of these reports is included as an addendum. Refs, figs and tabs

  3. Lithium extractive metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Fusion National Program depends on lithium supplies. Extractive metallurgy development is subordinate to the localization and evaluation of ore resources. Nowadays lithium raw materials usable with present technology consist of pegmatite ore and brine. The Instituto Geologico y Minero Espanol (IGME) found lepidolite, ambligonite and spodrimene in pegmatite ores in different areas of Spain. However, an evaluation of resources has not been made. Different Spanish surface and underground brines are to be sampled and analyzed. If none of these contain significant levels of lithium, the Junta de Energia Nuclear (JEN) will try an agreement with IGME for ENUSA (Empresa Nacional del Uranio, S.A.) to explore pegmatite-ore bodies from different locations. Different work stages, laboratory tests, pilots plants tests and commercial plant, are foreseen, if the deposits are found. (author)

  4. Feature Extraction Using Mfcc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Gupta

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Mel Frequency Ceptral Coefficient is a very common and efficient technique for signal processing. Thispaper presents a new purpose of working with MFCC by using it for Hand gesture recognition. Theobjective of using MFCC for hand gesture recognition is to explore the utility of the MFCC for imageprocessing. Till now it has been used in speech recognition, for speaker identification. The present systemis based on converting the hand gesture into one dimensional (1-D signal and then extracting first 13MFCCs from the converted 1-D signal. Classification is performed by using Support Vector Machine.Experimental results represents that proposed application of using MFCC for gesture recognition havevery good accuracy and hence can be used for recognition of sign language or for other householdapplication with the combination for other techniques such as Gabor filter, DWT to increase the accuracyrate and to make it more efficient.

  5. Underground mineral extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    A method was developed for extracting underground minerals such as coal, which avoids the need for sending personnel underground and which enables the mining of steeply pitched seams of the mineral. The method includes the use of a narrow vehicle which moves underground along the mineral seam and which is connected by pipes or hoses to water pumps at the surface of the Earth. The vehicle hydraulically drills pilot holes during its entrances into the seam, and then directs sideward jets at the seam during its withdrawal from each pilot hole to comminute the mineral surrounding the pilot hole and combine it with water into a slurry, so that the slurried mineral can flow to a location where a pump raises the slurry to the surface.

  6. Quantitative metamaterial property extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Schurig, David

    2015-01-01

    We examine an extraction model for metamaterials, not previously reported, that gives precise, quantitative and causal representation of S parameter data over a broad frequency range, up to frequencies where the free space wavelength is only a modest factor larger than the unit cell dimension. The model is comprised of superposed, slab shaped response regions of finite thickness, one for each observed resonance. The resonance dispersion is Lorentzian and thus strictly causal. This new model is compared with previous models for correctness likelihood, including an appropriate Occam's factor for each fit parameter. We find that this new model is by far the most likely to be correct in a Bayesian analysis of model fits to S parameter simulation data for several classic metamaterial unit cells.

  7. KEYWORD EXTRACTION FOR PUNJABI LAGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAMALDEEP KAUR

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces keyword extraction for Punjabi language. Keywords are the index terms that contain the most important information about the contents of the document. Automatic keyword extraction is the task to identify a small set of words, keyphrases or keywords from a document that can describe the meaning ofdocument. Not much work has been done in keyword extraction for Indian languages in general and Punjabi in particular. Adequate annotated corpora are not yet available in Punjabi. The paper represents the Automatic keyword extraction system for Punjabi language to find words from a document which convey the completemeaning of the text. First we survey about the various approaches available for keyword extraction, then represent our hybrid approach for Punjabi. A number of features are used to extract keywords effectively. The experimental results are shown.

  8. Event extraction for DNA methylation

    OpenAIRE

    Ohta Tomoko; Pyysalo Sampo; Miwa Makoto; Tsujii Jun’ichi

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background We consider the task of automatically extracting DNA methylation events from the biomedical domain literature. DNA methylation is a key mechanism of epigenetic control of gene expression and implicated in many cancers, but there has been little study of automatic information extraction for DNA methylation. Results We present an annotation scheme for DNA methylation following the representation of the BioNLP shared task on event extraction, select a set of 200 abstracts inc...

  9. Extraction chromatography: Progress and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, M.L.; Horwitz, E.P.; Bond, A.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.

    1997-10-01

    Extraction chromatography provides a simple and effective method for the analytical and preparative-scale separation of a variety of metal ions. Recent advances in extractant design, particularly the development of extractants capable of metal ion recognition or of strong complex formation in highly acidic media, have significantly improved the utility of the technique. Advances in support design, most notably the introduction of functionalized supports to enhance metal ion retention, promise to yield further improvements. Column instability remains a significant obstacle, however, to the process-scale application of extraction chromatography. 79 refs.

  10. Organization and Extraction for Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang-hua Chen

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of Internet makes the researches on information retrieval more changeable. Actually, the so-called "information retrieval" is "text retrieval." It is necessary for users to find out the needed information from the retrieved texts. A higher-level task is information extraction, which extracts the information based on pre-defined templates. From the viewpoint of Library Science, these pre-defined templates are the metadata, which describes the collection of libraries in common. This paper discusses the relationships between metadata and information extraction and how natural1anguage processing helps the task of information extraction.[Article content in Chinese

  11. Passive vapor extraction feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demonstration of a passive vapor extraction remediation system is planned for sites in the 200 West Area used in the past for the disposal of waste liquids containing carbon tetrachloride. The passive vapor extraction units will consist of a 4-in.-diameter pipe, a check valve, a canister filled with granular activated carbon, and a wind turbine. The check valve will prevent inflow of air that otherwise would dilute the soil gas and make its subsequent extraction less efficient. The granular activated carbon is used to adsorb the carbon tetrachloride from the air. The wind turbine enhances extraction rates on windy days. Passive vapor extraction units will be designed and operated to meet all applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements. Based on a cost analysis, passive vapor extraction was found to be a cost-effective method for remediation of soils containing lower concentrations of volatile contaminants. Passive vapor extraction used on wells that average 10-stdft3/min air flow rates was found to be more cost effective than active vapor extraction for concentrations below 500 parts per million by volume (ppm) of carbon tetrachloride. For wells that average 5-stdft3/min air flow rates, passive vapor extraction is more cost effective below 100 ppm

  12. Evaluation of DNA and RNA extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwin Shiaw, C S; Shiran, M S; Cheah, Y K; Tan, G C; Sabariah, A R

    2010-06-01

    This study was done to evaluate various DNA and RNA extractions from archival FFPE tissues. A total of 30 FFPE blocks from the years of 2004 to 2006 were assessed with each modified and adapted method. Extraction protocols evaluated include the modified enzymatic extraction method (Method A), Chelex-100 extraction method (Method B), heat-induced retrieval in alkaline solution extraction method (Methods C and D) and one commercial FFPE DNA Extraction kit (Qiagen, Crawley, UK). For RNA extraction, 2 extraction protocols were evaluated including the enzymatic extraction method (Method 1), and Chelex-100 RNA extraction method (Method 2). Results show that the modified enzymatic extraction method (Method A) is an efficient DNA extraction protocol, while for RNA extraction, the enzymatic method (Method 1) and the Chelex-100 RNA extraction method (Method 2) are equally efficient RNA extraction protocols.

  13. New extraction techniques on bioseparations: 1. Reactive extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Cascaval Dan; Galaction Anca-Irina

    2004-01-01

    The complexity of downstream processes for biosynthetic products constitutes a particularity of industrial biotechnologies, especially because of the biosynthetic product high dilution in fermentation broth, their chemical and thermal liability and the presence of secondary products. For these reasons, new separation techniques have been developed and applied to bioseparations. Among them, reactive extraction, pertraction (extraction and transport through liquid membranes) and direct extracti...

  14. Oil shale extraction using super-critical extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, L. E. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Significant improvement in oil shale extraction under supercritical conditions is provided by extracting the shale at a temperature below 400 C, such as from about 250 C to about 350 C, with a solvent having a Hildebrand solubility parameter within 1 to 2 Hb of the solubility parameter for oil shale bitumen.

  15. Antifungal activity of juniper extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawdust from three species of Juniperus (i.e., J. virginianna, J. occidentalis, and J. ashei) were extracted with hexane or ethanol and the extracts tested for antifungal activity against four species of wood-rot fungi. These species studied represent the junipers with the greatest potential for co...

  16. Sterilization of Extracted Human Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantera, Eugene A., Jr.; Schuster, George S.

    1990-01-01

    At present, there is no specific recommendation for sterilization of extracted human teeth used in dental technique courses. The purpose of this study was to determine whether autoclaving would be effective in the sterilization of extracted teeth without compromising the characteristics that make their use in clinical simulations desirable. (MLW)

  17. Supercritical multicomponent solvent coal extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, W. H.; Fong, W. S.; Pichaichanarong, P.; Chan, P. C. F.; Lawson, D. D. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The yield of organic extract from the supercritical extraction of coal with larger diameter organic solvents such as toluene is increased by use of a minor amount of from 0.1 to 10% by weight of a second solvent such as methanol having a molecular diameter significantly smaller than the average pore diameter of the coal.

  18. Extracting amplitudes from photoproduction data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, R. L.

    2011-09-01

    We consider the problems associated with amplitude extraction, from meson photoproduction data, over the first resonance regions. The notion of a complete experiment has motivated the FROST program at Jefferson Lab. Exercises applied to pion photoproduction data illustrate the problems to be confronted in any attempt to extract underlying resonance signals from these data (without introducing a model for the resonant process).

  19. Gold extraction from flotation tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of studies on cyanide leaching of gold comprising flotation tailings of antimony ore are given. The possibility to extract 50% of gold by cyanide leaching is shown. The dependence of gold extraction on leaching duration is studied. Influence of kerosine on cyanide leaching of flotation tailings is studied as well.

  20. Extraction systems of the SPS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1973-01-01

    A pair of prototype septum magnets for the extraction systems of the SPS. Each of the two extraction systems will contain eighteen of these septum magnets (eight with a 4 mm septum and ten with a 16 mm septum) mounted in pairs in nine vacuum tanks.

  1. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelstad, Astrid; Rasmussen, Knut Einar; Parmer, Marthe Petrine;

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports development of a new approach towards analytical liquid-liquid-liquid membrane extraction termed parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction. A donor plate and acceptor plate create a sandwich, in which each sample (human plasma) and acceptor solution is separated by an arti......This paper reports development of a new approach towards analytical liquid-liquid-liquid membrane extraction termed parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction. A donor plate and acceptor plate create a sandwich, in which each sample (human plasma) and acceptor solution is separated...... by an artificial liquid membrane. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction is a modification of hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction, where the hollow fibers are replaced by flat membranes in a 96-well plate format....

  2. Uranium extraction from phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been carried out for the extraction of uranium from phosphoric acid produced in Algeria. First of all, the Algerian phosphoric acid produced in Algeria by SONATRACH has been characterised. This study helped us to synthesize a phosphoric acid that enabled us to pass from laboratory tests to pilot scale tests. We have then examined extraction and stripping parameters: diluent, DZEPHA/TOPO ratio and oxidising agent. The laboratory experiments enabled us to set the optimum condition for the choice of diluent, extractant concentration, ratio of the synergic mixture, oxidant concentration, redox potential. The equilibrium isotherms lead to the determination of the number of theoretical stages for the uranium extraction and stripping of uranium, then the extraction from phosphoric acid has been verified on a pilot scale (using a mixer-settler)

  3. Injection and extraction for cyclotrons

    CERN Document Server

    Kleeven, W

    2006-01-01

    The main design goals for beam injection are explained and special problems related to a central region with internal ion source are considered. The principle of a PIG source is addressed. The issue of vertical focusing in the cyclotron centre is briefly discussed. Several examples of numerical simulations are given. Different ways of (axial) injection are briefly outlined. A proposal for a magnetostatic axial inflector is given. Different solutions for beam extraction are treated. These include the internal target, extraction by stripping, resonant extraction using a deflector and self-extraction. The different ways of creating a turn-separation are explained. The purpose of different types of extraction devices such as harmonic coils, deflectors and gradient corrector channels are outlined. Several illustrations are given in the form of photographs and drawings.

  4. Development of signal-extraction scheme for Resonant Sideband Extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Kokeyama, K; Kawazoe, F; Sato, S; Kawamura, S; Sugamoto, A

    2008-01-01

    As a future plan, an advanced gravitational-wave detector will employ an optical configuration of resonant sideband extraction (RSE), achieved with an additional mirror at the signal-detection port of the power-recycled Fabry-Perot Michelson interferometer. To control the complex coupled cavity system, one of the most important design issues is how to extract the longitudinal control signals of the cavities. We developed a new signal-extraction scheme which provides an appropriate sensing matrix. The new method uses two sets of sidebands: one of the sideband components satisfies the critical coupling ondition for the RSE interferometer and reaches the signal-extraction port, and the other sideband is completely reflected by the Michelson interferometer. They provide a diagonalized sensing matrix and enable the RSE control to be robust.

  5. Extraction of uranium with emulsion membrane process use tributylphosphate extractant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To increase the effectiveness of extraction process with so for to occur, it was tried the extraction with a couple of extraction and stripping process. This couple process was called liquid membrane emulsion. As membrane was used mix surfactant (Span-80), tributylphosphate in kerosene, natrium carbonate, while as a feeder was uranium solution with 500 concentration ppm in 0.5 - 3 M nitrate acid. In this experiment the variable investigated were % surfactant (1 - 5 %), rotary speed for membrane making (2,500 - 10.000 rpm). The optimal condition result of experiment were 5 % surfactant, 3 M nitrate acid, rotary speed 10.000 rpm and (KdeksU) 57 %, and (KdstrippU) 87 %, KdeksU at liquid-liquid extraction is 44 %. (author)

  6. 21 CFR 169.175 - Vanilla extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vanilla extract. 169.175 Section 169.175 Food and... § 169.175 Vanilla extract. (a) Vanilla extract is the solution in aqueous ethyl alcohol of the sapid and odorous principles extractable from vanilla beans. In vanilla extract the content of ethyl alcohol is...

  7. Nonvolatile dichloromethane extractives of Gmelina arborea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ukkonen, K.

    1982-02-01

    In pulping it is important to know how lipophilic extractives will behave and so avoid pitch problems. Experiments on Gmelina wood delivered from Brazil in 1978 are described, using dichloromethane extractives to give sufficient information about the lipophilic extractives. The behavior of Gmelina extracts in kraft pulping was compared to that of birch extracts and was found to be similar. (Refs. 10).

  8. Apparatus and methods for hydrocarbon extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2016-04-26

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  9. Method of purifying neutral organophosphorus extractants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Chiarizia, Renato

    1988-01-01

    A method for removing acidic contaminants from neutral mono and bifunctional organophosphorous extractants by contacting the extractant with a macroporous cation exchange resin in the H.sup.+ state followed by contact with a macroporous anion exchange resin in the OH.sup.- state, whereupon the resins take up the acidic contaminants from the extractant, purifying the extractant and improving its extraction capability.

  10. Adult orthodontic therapy: extraction versus non-extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, S

    1998-11-01

    This study addresses the problem of randomization of subjects with respect to an irreversible aspect of treatment strategy, namely, the extraction of teeth. The investigation includes both prospective and retrospective components. The data presented focus on clinician decision-making. Of the 1321 potential subjects for whom records were taken, 250 met the inclusion criteria. Of these subjects, 82 declined to participate and 20 were dropped because of difficulty in obtaining five independent evaluations of their records within a reasonable time frame. Thus, the final sample contained 148 subjects. Approximately one-third of the subjects in the sample are adult, somewhat more than half are female, and Class I malocclusions outnumber Class II malocclusions by a count of 95 to 53. Patterns of agreement and disagreement among five clinicians include: a) agreement/disagreement on the primary decision whether or not to extract: the data reveal a strong tendency towards consensus among the clinicians; b) agreement/disagreement on extraction pattern in patients in whom the clinician believes that extraction is indicated: the clinicians tended strongly to agree on extraction pattern; c) agreement/disagreement on the need for adjunctive orthognathic surgery: decisions favoring surgery were more common and more 'definite' than 'probable' in the adult cohort than in the adolescent cohort but this tendency was not as strong as had been anticipated; d) agreement/disagreement concerning Angle classification: disagreements were more common than had been anticipated; and e) differences among the individual clinicians as to their ratios of extraction/non-extraction decisions: overall, clinicians opted for extraction less frequently in the adolescent cohort than in the adult cohort (55 vs. 66%). Because the data are drawn from actual clinical experience, the conclusions involve a number of assumptions and their generalizability should be evaluated.

  11. New extraction techniques on bioseparations: 2. Pertraction, direct extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Galaction Anca-Irina; Cascaval Dan

    2004-01-01

    The second part of this review presents our original results on the separation of some biosynthetic products (antibiotics, carboxylic acids, alcohols) by pertraction and direct extraction from broths without biomass filtration. For the analyzed systems, the experimental conditions required for reaching maximum separation efficiency and the mathematical models describing the process have been established. For all the studied cases, these extraction techniques simplify the technologies and redu...

  12. New extraction techniques on bioseparations: 2. Pertraction, direct extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galaction Anca-Irina

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The second part of this review presents our original results on the separation of some biosynthetic products (antibiotics, carboxylic acids, alcohols by pertraction and direct extraction from broths without biomass filtration. For the analyzed systems, the experimental conditions required for reaching maximum separation efficiency and the mathematical models describing the process have been established. For all the studied cases, these extraction techniques simplify the technologies and reduce the overall cost of the product.

  13. Implantable defibrillator lead extraction with optimized standard extraction techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-Ming Chu; Xue-Bin Li; Ping Zhang; Yi An; Jiang-Bo Duan; Long Wang; Ding Li; Bing Li; Ji-Hong Guo

    2013-01-01

    Background Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) leads might not be extracted especially in developing countries because of the high cost and lack of specialized tools. We aimed to evaluate transvenous extraction of ICD leads using optimized standard techniques. Methods We prospectively analyzed clinical characteristics, optimized extraction techniques and the feasibility of extraction for 40 patients (33 males; mean age 47.9 ± 16.1 years) with 42 ICD leads. Results Complete procedural success rate was 95.2% (40/42), and the clinical success rate was 97.6% (41/42). One ICD lead required cardiothoracic surgery. Minor complications occurred in three cases (7.5%), and no major complications or death occurred. Locking stylets were used to extract most leads (34, 81.0%) and almost half of the leads (20, 47.6%) required mechanical dilatation to free fibrotic adhesions; these leads had been implanted for a longer period of time than the others (43.7 ± 18.2 vs. 18.4 ± 13.4 months, P < 0.05). Three-quarters of the leads (30, 71.4%) were extracted with locking stylets plus manual traction (12, 28.6%), or mechanical dilatation with counter-traction (18, 42.8%) by the superior vena cava approach and one-quarter of the leads (11, per lead. Linear regression analysis showed that the extraction time was significantly correlated with implant duration (r = 0.70, P < 0.001). optimized procedure for transvenous extraction of ICD leads provides a practical and low-cost method for standard procedures.

  14. New extraction techniques on bioseparations: 1. Reactive extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cascaval Dan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of downstream processes for biosynthetic products constitutes a particularity of industrial biotechnologies, especially because of the biosynthetic product high dilution in fermentation broth, their chemical and thermal liability and the presence of secondary products. For these reasons, new separation techniques have been developed and applied to bioseparations. Among them, reactive extraction, pertraction (extraction and transport through liquid membranes and direct extraction from broths have considerable potential and are required for the further development of many biotechnologies. This review is structured on two parts and presents our original results of the studies on the separation of some biosynthetic products (antibiotics, carboxylic acids, amino acids, alcohols by reactive extraction in the first part, and by pertraction and direct extraction from broths without biomass filtration in the second. For all the analyzed cases, these extraction techniques simplify the technologies by reducing material and energy consumption, by avoiding product inhibition, by increasing the separation selectivity, therefore decreasing the overall cost of the product.

  15. Point Source Extraction with MOPEX

    CERN Document Server

    Marleau, D M F R

    2005-01-01

    MOPEX (MOsaicking and Point source EXtraction) is a package developed at the Spitzer Science Center for astronomical image processing. We report on the point source extraction capabilities of MOPEX. Point source extraction is implemented as a two step process: point source detection and profile fitting. Non-linear matched filtering of input images can be performed optionally to increase the signal-to-noise ratio and improve detection of faint point sources. Point Response Function (PRF) fitting of point sources produces the final point source list which includes the fluxes and improved positions of the point sources, along with other parameters characterizing the fit. Passive and active deblending allows for successful fitting of confused point sources. Aperture photometry can also be computed for every extracted point source for an unlimited number of aperture sizes. PRF is estimated directly from the input images. Implementation of efficient methods of background and noise estimation, and modified Simplex a...

  16. Coil for LEAR extraction septum

    CERN Multimedia

    1982-01-01

    Which way does the current flow ? This intriguing object is the coil for the LEAR extraction septum. There were two septa, first a thin one, then this one, not so thin, somewhat on the borderline between septum and bending magnet.

  17. Extracting Oil From Tar Sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, L. B.; Daly, D.

    1984-01-01

    Recovery of oil from tar sands possible by batch process, using steam produced by solar heater. In extraction process, solar heater provides steam for heating solvent boiler. Boiling solvent removes oil from tar sands in Soxhlet extractor.

  18. TSCA Inventory Data Extraction Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data extraction tool contains the non confidential identities of chemical substances submitted under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). TSCA was enacted...

  19. Conditioning of Piezoresistance Coefficient Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Gniazdowski, Zenon; Koszur, Jan; Kowalski, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    The necessary and sufficient condition for the piezoresistance coefficient extraction and conditioning of the extraction problem are considered as a problem of the certain matrix A. This matrix is implied by the stress distribution on the certain test structure. For the given test structure matrix A was calculated and the condition number was estimated. Obtained value of condition number shows that proposed test structure gives well-conditioned matrix A. Both the geometrical analysis and nume...

  20. Optimizing Sustainable Geothermal Heat Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Iti; Bielicki, Jeffrey; Buscheck, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Geothermal heat, though renewable, can be depleted over time if the rate of heat extraction exceeds the natural rate of renewal. As such, the sustainability of a geothermal resource is typically viewed as preserving the energy of the reservoir by weighing heat extraction against renewability. But heat that is extracted from a geothermal reservoir is used to provide a service to society and an economic gain to the provider of that service. For heat extraction used for market commodities, sustainability entails balancing the rate at which the reservoir temperature renews with the rate at which heat is extracted and converted into economic profit. We present a model for managing geothermal resources that combines simulations of geothermal reservoir performance with natural resource economics in order to develop optimal heat mining strategies. Similar optimal control approaches have been developed for managing other renewable resources, like fisheries and forests. We used the Non-isothermal Unsaturated-saturated Flow and Transport (NUFT) model to simulate the performance of a sedimentary geothermal reservoir under a variety of geologic and operational situations. The results of NUFT are integrated into the optimization model to determine the extraction path over time that maximizes the net present profit given the performance of the geothermal resource. Results suggest that the discount rate that is used to calculate the net present value of economic gain is a major determinant of the optimal extraction path, particularly for shallower and cooler reservoirs, where the regeneration of energy due to the natural geothermal heat flux is a smaller percentage of the amount of energy that is extracted from the reservoir.

  1. Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.; Leonard, R.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems are a series of novel solvent extraction (SX) processes that will remove and recover all of the major radioisotopes from acidic-dissolved sludge or other acidic high-level wastes. The major focus of this effort during the last 2 years has been the development of a combined cesium-strontium extraction/recovery process, the Combined CSEX-SREX Process. The Combined CSEX-SREX Process relies on a mixture of a strontium-selective macrocyclic polyether and a novel cesium-selective extractant based on dibenzo 18-crown-6. The process offers several potential advantages over possible alternatives in a chemical processing scheme for high-level waste treatment. First, if the process is applied as the first step in chemical pretreatment, the radiation level for all subsequent processing steps (e.g., transuranic extraction/recovery, or TRUEX) will be significantly reduced. Thus, less costly shielding would be required. The second advantage of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process is that the recovered Cs-Sr fraction is non-transuranic, and therefore will decay to low-level waste after only a few hundred years. Finally, combining individual processes into a single process will reduce the amount of equipment required to pretreat the waste and therefore reduce the size and cost of the waste processing facility. In an ongoing collaboration with Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Company (LMITCO), the authors have successfully tested various segments of the Advanced Integrated Solvent Extraction Systems. Eichrom Industries, Inc. (Darien, IL) synthesizes and markets the Sr extractant and can supply the Cs extractant on a limited basis. Plans are under way to perform a test of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process with real waste at LMITCO in the near future.

  2. Electrochemical process of titanium extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CH. RVS. NAGESH; C. S. RAMACHANDRAN

    2007-01-01

    A wide variety of processes are being pursued by researchers for cost effective extraction of titanium metal. Electrochemical processes are promising due to simplicity and being less capital intensive. Some of the promising electrochemical processes of titanium extraction were reviewed and the results of laboratory scale experiments on electrochemical reduction of TiO2 granules were brought out. Some of the kinetic parameters of the reduction process were discussed while presenting the quality improvements achieved in the experimentation.

  3. Organization and Extraction for Information

    OpenAIRE

    Kuang-hua Chen

    1997-01-01

    The development of Internet makes the researches on information retrieval more changeable. Actually, the so-called "information retrieval" is "text retrieval." It is necessary for users to find out the needed information from the retrieved texts. A higher-level task is information extraction, which extracts the information based on pre-defined templates. From the viewpoint of Library Science, these pre-defined templates are the metadata, which describes the collection of libraries in common. ...

  4. Phoenix I energy extraction experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy extraction experiments are reported for the Phoenix I amplifier driven by a discharge-initiated oscillator-preamplifier system operating on mixtures of either SF6-HI or SF6-C2H6 and an electron-beam-initiated intermediate amplifer (lambda-3) fueled with H2 and F2 mixtures. When the oscillator-preamplifier system operated with mixtures of SF6-HI the input spectrum to the Phoenix I amplifier contained approx. 28 P-branch vibrational-rotational lines which were almost identical to the input spectrum from the H2-F2 fueled oscillator. In this case the energy extraction measurements were essentially the same as the results obtained with the spectrum produced using H2 and F2 mixtures. For an input intensity of 107 W/cm2, 170 J were extracted from the amplifier. With the SF6-C2H6 spectrum, extraction was only obtained from the first three excited vibrational levels. This result indicates that most of the energy in the amplifier could be extracted on the first three excited vibrational levels. It is shown that the extraction results can be fit with a simple two level model. The radius of curvature of the beam was estimated using a lateral shearing interferometer. It was found that the Phoenix I amplifier altered the radius of curvature

  5. Caesium extraction by calixarene molecules: Some aspects of extraction kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, N.; Tournois, B.; Volle, G

    2004-07-01

    In the framework of the environment Code (2000 studies were developed to recover long-lived fission products (F.P.) from acidic highly radioactive effluents issuing the reprocessing of spent fuels, to destroy them by transmutation or to encapsulate them into specific matrices. Efforts had been directed towards caesium, particularly {sup 135}Cs, which is one of the most harmful fission products because of its long half life (more than 2.10{sup 6} years) and its mobility in repository. The flow-sheet will be included in the general scheme of long-lived radionuclide partitioning. It was decided to define a process based on liquid-liquid extraction. Crown-calixarenes molecules were chosen for process development. To refine the flowsheet diagram, it is necessary to know the rate constants of the implied chemical reactions involved in the extraction. This paper describes the first determination of rate constant in the Cs extraction with crown calixarenes. (authors)

  6. Propolis extract application in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiano Spaziani Pereira

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Propolis has been ground in various areas of science, but its application in agriculture, is a recent and almost unknown subject. In agronomy work mainly seek to explore the antibiotic and antifungal properties of propolis, but other uses have been proposed, such as plant nutrition, pest control (such as mites and even reducing water stress in plants. Despite numerous utilities proven and proposals, there are many questions, particularly for the preparation of the extract, most appropriate chemical composition for a particular use, application forms, crude propolis extract in percentages, dose minimum efficiency, efficiency, etc. Given the above, the purpose of this literature review is to present the origin and chemical composition of propolis, making methodology of propolis extract, more effective dose in the control of fungi, plant pathogenic bacteria and reduce water stress. During the study, it can be seen that the difference in propolis composition occurs mainly due to the variability of vegetable composition in the vicinity of the hive, the bees forage and chemical composition is quite complex and variable in terms of both concentration and chemicals gifts. In the extraction, there are still many gaps to be studied, including the best way to obtain the extract, with questions about the best puller, with lack of consensus in the literature. On the efficiency of this technology, there are numerous studies with promising results, which allow implementation of technology in the field and these jobs concentrated in coffee crops, beans, cucumber and tomato.

  7. Optimal Extraction of Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golabi, Kamal; Scherer, Charles, R.

    1977-06-01

    This study is concerned with the optimal extraction of energy from a hot water geothermal field. In view of the relative "commercial" availability of the many energy sources alternative to geothermal, it is possible that a socially "best" extraction policy may not include producing geothermal energy as fast as the current technology will permit. Rather, a truly "optimal" policy will depend on, among other things, the costs and value of geothermal energy in the future and the analogous values of other energy sources. Hence, a general approach to this problem would make the policy contingent on pertinent information on alternative sources. A good example of this approach is given in Manne's (1976) Energy Technology Assessment Model, where he points out that "Each energy source has its own cost parameters and introduction date, but is interdependent with other components of the energy sector." (Manne (1976), p. 379). But by their large dimensions, such relativity macro-analyses tend to preclude a close look at the specific technology of a process is important in developing meaningful resource management models, we substitute for a macro model the increasing value over time of the energy extracted. In this contact we seek an extraction rate (and an economic life) that maximizes the net discounted value of the energy extracted. [DJE-2005

  8. GAS EXCHANGE IN YOUNG PLANTS OF Tabebuia aurea(Bignoniaceae Juss. SUBJECTED TO FLOODING STRESS1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Kleber Morbeck Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Paratudo (Tabebuia aurea is a species occurring in the Pantanal of Miranda, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, an area characterized by seasonal flooding. To evaluate the tolerance of this plant to flooding, plants aged four months were grown in flooded soil and in non-flooded soil (control group. Stomatal conductance, transpiration and CO2 assimilation were measured during the stress (48 days and recovery (11 days period, totalling 59 days. The values of stomatal conductance of the control group and stressed plants at the beginning of the flooded were 0.33 mol m-2s-1 and reached 0.02 mol m-2 s-1 (46th day at the end of this event. For the transpiration parameter, the initial rate was 3.1 mol m s-1, and the final rate reached 0.2 or 0.3 mol m-2 s-1 (47/48 th day. The initial photosynthesis rate was 8.9 mmol m-2s-1 and oscillated after the sixth day, and the rate reached zero on the 48th day. When the photosynthesis rate reached zero, the potted plants were dried, and the rate was analyzed (11th day. The following values were obtained for dried plants: stomatal conductance = 0.26 mol m-2 s-1, transpiration rate = 2.5 mol m-2 s-1 and photosynthesis rate = 7.8 mmol m-2 s-1. Flooded soil reduced photosynthesis and stomatal conductance, leading to the hypertrophy of the lenticels. These parameters recovered and after this period, and plants exhibited tolerance to flooding stress by reducing their physiological activities.

  9. Germination of Jacaranda mimosifolia (D. Don - Bignoniaceae seeds: effects of light, temperature and water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Socolowski

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out to study the effect of light, temperature and water stress on the germination of seeds of Jacaranda mimosifolia which showed the minimum and maximum germination temperature at 15 and 40º C, respectively. The optimum temperature was 25º C with high percentage and germination rate. Slight promotive effect of white light was observed. Under water stress conditions the effect of light was high but at optimum temperature no effect of light was observed. At -0.9MPa few seeds germinated.Sementes de Jacaranda mimosifolia apresentaram temperaturas mínima e máxima de germinação a 15 e a 40º C, respectivamente. A temperatura ótima foi de 25º C com alta porcentagem e velocidade de germinação. Uma pequena estimulação da germinação pela luz foi observada. Sob condições de estresse de água o efeito promotor da luz foi maior, mas na temperatura ótima este efeito da luz não foi observado. No potencial de água de -0,9MPa praticamente nenhuma semente germinou.

  10. The reproductive strategy of a pollinator-limited Himalayan plant, Incarvillea mairei (Bignoniaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ai, Honglian; Zhou, Wei; Xu, Kun; Wang, Hong; Li, Dezhu

    2013-01-01

    Background Plants may adapt to alpine habitats by specialization in the reproductive strategy and functional aspects of their flowers and pollination systems. Alpine habitats reduce the opportunities for cross-pollination in a relatively high proportion of alpine plant species, and self-pollination may be favored in these adverse conditions. Here, we investigated the mating system and pollination of Incarvillea mairei, a perennial Himalayan herb typically found at altitudes between 3000 and 4...

  11. Histological features, starch accumulation and sprouting in the early root development of Jacaranda ulei (Bignoniaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULO R.D. DA SILVA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The plant species occurring in the savanna region of the Cerrado biome in Brazil present typical morphological and physiological adaptations to a dry climate with seasonal occurrence of wildfires. In this study, the histological features of the root system, the main sites of synthesis and storage of starch and the initial phases of the bud development were characterized in Jacaranda ulei. The anatomical features observed in the root system of J. ulei are related to the needs of the species to survive in the Cerrado. The histochemical analyses demonstrated high synthesis of glucose and glycoprotein after the third day of in vitro culture, in the proximal cells of the cortical parenchyma of the exoderm. Meristematic primordia were observed in the ninth day and the beginning of the meristem formation was observed after 21 days of in vitro culture. Jacaranda ulei displays morphological, anatomical and storage features typical from resprouter species. However, it may be vulnerable to unsustainable exploitation. Considering the importance of this species for local people, more studies regarding its therapeutic properties should be performed, including the planning of appropriate programs for the species management and the production of selected clones through in vitro micropropagation.

  12. Salt effects in electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seip, Knut Fredrik; Jensen, Henrik; Kieu, Thanh Elisabeth;

    2014-01-01

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was performed on samples containing substantial amounts of NaCl to investigate how the presence of salts affected the recovery, repeatability, and membrane current in the extraction system. A group of 17 non-polar basic drugs with various physical chemical...... properties were used as model analytes. When EME was performed in a hollow fiber setup with a supported liquid membrane (SLM) comprised of 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE), a substantial reduction in recovery was seen for eight of the substances when 2.5% (w/v) NaCl was present. No correlation between...... this loss and the physical chemical properties of these substances was seen. The recovery loss was hypothesized to be caused by ion pairing in the SLM, and a mathematical model for the extraction recovery in the presence of salts was made according to the experimental observations. Some variations...

  13. Evaluation of Rule Extraction Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiruveedula GopiKrishna

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available For the data mining domain, the lack of explanation facilities seems to be a serious drawback for techniques based on Artificial Neural Networks, or, for that matter, any technique producing opaque models In particular, the ability to generate even limited explanations is absolutely crucial for user acceptance of such systems. Since the purpose of most data mining systems is to support decision making,the need for explanation facilities in these systems is apparent. The task for the data miner is thus to identify the complex but general relationships that are likely to carry over to production data and the explanation facility makes this easier. Also focused the quality of the extracted rules; i.e. how well the required explanation is performed. In this research some important rule extraction algorithms are discussed and identified the algorithmic complexity; i.e. how efficient the underlying rule extraction algorithm is

  14. Antibacterial activity of Pulicaria dysenterica extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickavar, Bahman; Mojab, Faraz

    2003-06-01

    Aqueous, methanolic and chloroformic extracts of Pulicaria dysenterica aerial parts were tested for their antibacterial activity using the disc-diffusion assay technique. The methanolic extract was found to be the most effective extract against three out of six tested bacteria. All of the extracts were active against Vibrio cholera.

  15. Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Hibiscus cannabinus L. Seed Extracts after Sequential Solvent Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Shahid Iqbal; Maznah Ismail; Noordin Mohd Yusri; Kim Wei Chan

    2012-01-01

    A sequential solvent extraction scheme was employed for the extraction of antioxidant compounds from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds. Yield of extracts varied widely among the solvents and was the highest for hexane extract (16.6% based on dry weight basis), while water extract exhibited the highest total phenolic content (18.78 mg GAE/g extract), total flavonoid content (2.49 mg RE/g extract), and antioxidant activities (p < 0.05). DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging, β...

  16. Solvent extraction: the coordination chemistry behind extractive metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A Matthew; Bailey, Phillip J; Tasker, Peter A; Turkington, Jennifer R; Grant, Richard A; Love, Jason B

    2014-01-01

    The modes of action of the commercial solvent extractants used in extractive hydrometallurgy are classified according to whether the recovery process involves the transport of metal cations, M(n+), metalate anions, MXx(n-), or metal salts, MXx into a water-immiscible solvent. Well-established principles of coordination chemistry provide an explanation for the remarkable strengths and selectivities shown by most of these extractants. Reagents which achieve high selectivity when transporting metal cations or metal salts into a water-immiscible solvent usually operate in the inner coordination sphere of the metal and provide donor atom types or dispositions which favour the formation of particularly stable neutral complexes that have high solubility in the hydrocarbons commonly used in recovery processes. In the extraction of metalates, the structures of the neutral assemblies formed in the water-immiscible phase are usually not well defined and the cationic reagents can be assumed to operate in the outer coordination spheres. The formation of secondary bonds in the outer sphere using, for example, electrostatic or H-bonding interactions are favoured by the low polarity of the water-immiscible solvents.

  17. Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ascari, Matthew [Lockheed Martin Corporation, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2012-10-28

    The Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization (OTEEV) project focuses on assessing the Maximum Practicably Extractable Energy (MPEE) from the world’s ocean thermal resources. MPEE is defined as being sustainable and technically feasible, given today’s state-of-the-art ocean energy technology. Under this project the OTEEV team developed a comprehensive Geospatial Information System (GIS) dataset and software tool, and used the tool to provide a meaningful assessment of MPEE from the global and domestic U.S. ocean thermal resources.

  18. Informed consent in dental extractions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Capote Femenías

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available When performing any oral intervention, particularly dental extractions, the specialist should have the oral or written consent of the patient. This consent includes the explanation of all possible complications, whether typical, very serious or personalized associated with the previous health condition, age, profession, religion or any other characteristic of the patient, as well as the possi.ble benefits of the intervention. This article is related with the bioethical aspects related with dental extractions, in order to determine the main elements that the informed consent should include.

  19. Carcinogenic potential of hydrotreated petroleum aromatic extracts.

    OpenAIRE

    Doak, S. M.; Hend, R W; van der Wiel, A; Hunt, P F

    1985-01-01

    Five experimental petroleum extracts were produced from luboil distillates derived from Middle East paraffinic crude by solvent extraction and severe hydrotreatment. The polycyclic aromatic content (PCA) of the extracts was determined by dimethyl sulphoxide extraction and ranged from 3.7-9.2% w/w. The five extracts were evaluated for their potential to induce cutaneous and systemic neoplasia in female mice derived from Carworth Farm No 1 strain (CF1). The test substances were applied undilute...

  20. Tablets with thyme (Thymus Vulgaris L extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeković Zoran P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The strongly antiseptic and antifungal activities of thyme is mainly due to the presence of phenolic compounds, thymol and carvacrol. Thyme extracts essential oil, extract obtained using 70% ethanol and extract obtained by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE using carbon dioxide, were incorporated in the most useful form of pharmaceutical products - tablets. The work is concerned with the characterisation of the obtained tablets containing thyme extracts.

  1. Personalized Web Services for Web Information Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Jarir, Zahi; Quafafou, Mohamed; Erradi, Mahammed

    2011-01-01

    The field of information extraction from the Web emerged with the growth of the Web and the multiplication of online data sources. This paper is an analysis of information extraction methods. It presents a service oriented approach for web information extraction considering both web data management and extraction services. Then we propose an SOA based architecture to enhance flexibility and on-the-fly modification of web extraction services. An implementation of the proposed architecture is p...

  2. Repeated extraction of DNA from FTA cards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Ferrero, Laura; Børsting, Claus;

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. However, the yield of extracted DNA from FTA-cards is typically low. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible...... to repeatedly extract DNA from the processed FTA-disk. The method increases the yield from the nanogram range to the microgram range....

  3. Tablets with thyme (Thymus Vulgaris L) extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Zeković Zoran P.; Lepojević Žika D.; Markov Siniša L.; Milošević Svetlana G.

    2002-01-01

    The strongly antiseptic and antifungal activities of thyme is mainly due to the presence of phenolic compounds, thymol and carvacrol. Thyme extracts essential oil, extract obtained using 70% ethanol and extract obtained by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using carbon dioxide, were incorporated in the most useful form of pharmaceutical products - tablets. The work is concerned with the characterisation of the obtained tablets containing thyme extracts.

  4. Repeated extraction of DNA from FTA cards

    OpenAIRE

    Stangegaard, Michael; Ferrero, Laura; Børsting, Claus; Frank-Hansen, Rune; Hansen, Anders Johannes; Morling, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. However, the yield of extracted DNA from FTA-cards is typically low. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible to repeatedly extract DNA from the processed FTA-disk. The method increases the yield from the nanogram range to the microgram range.

  5. Supercritical fluid extraction of mercury species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, G P; Pacey, G E

    2003-12-23

    Supercritical fluid extraction was used to recover organic and inorganic mercury species. Variations in pressure, water, methanol, and chelator create methods that allowed separation of inorganic from organic mercury species. When extracted using a compromised set of extraction conditions, the order of extraction was methyl, phenyl and inorganic mercury. For the individually optimized conditions, quantitative recoveries were observed. Level as low as 20 ppb were extracted and then determined using ICP.

  6. Extractive Summarisation of Medical Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeed Sarker

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Evidence Based Medicine (EBM practice requires practitioners to extract evidence from published medical research when answering clinical queries. Due to the time-consuming nature of this practice, there is a strong motivation for systems that can automatically summarise medical documents and help practitioners find relevant information. Aim The aim of this work is to propose an automatic query-focused, extractive summarisation approach that selects informative sentences from medical documents. MethodWe use a corpus that is specifically designed for summarisation in the EBM domain. We use approximately half the corpus for deriving important statistics associated with the best possible extractive summaries. We take into account factors such as sentence position, length, sentence content, and the type of the query posed. Using the statistics from the first set, we evaluate our approach on a separate set. Evaluation of the qualities of the generated summaries is performed automatically using ROUGE, which is a popular tool for evaluating automatic summaries. Results Our summarisation approach outperforms all baselines (best baseline score: 0.1594; our score 0.1653. Further improvements are achieved when query types are taken into account. Conclusion The quality of extractive summarisation in the medical domain can be significantly improved by incorporating domain knowledge and statistics derived from a specialised corpus. Such techniques can therefore be applied for content selection in end-to-end summarisation systems.

  7. Statistical Model for Content Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah

    2011-01-01

    We present a statistical model for content extraction from HTML documents. The model operates on Document Object Model (DOM) tree of the corresponding HTML document. It evaluates each tree node and associated statistical features to predict significance of the node towards overall content...

  8. DNA Extraction and Primer Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karst, Søren Michael; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Albertsen, Mads;

    Talk regarding pitfalls in DNA extraction and 16S amplicon primer choice when performing community analysis of complex microbial communities. The talk was a part of Workshop 2 "Principles, Potential, and Limitations of Novel Molecular Methods in Water Engineering; from Amplicon Sequencing to -omics...

  9. Extracting useful information from images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucheryavskiy, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of methods for extracting useful information from digital images. It covers various approaches that utilized different properties of images, like intensity distribution, spatial frequencies content and several others. A few case studies including isotropic...... and heterogeneous, congruent and non-congruent images are used to illustrate how the described methods work and to compare some of them...

  10. Incremental Observer Relative Data Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukauskas, Linas; Bøhlen, Michael Hanspeter

    2004-01-01

    -tree, is used to index visibility ranges of objects. We introduce a new operator for incremental Observer Relative data Extraction (iORDE). We propose the Volatile Access STructure (VAST), a lightweight main memory structure that is created on the fly and is maintained during visual data explorations. VAST...

  11. Salt effects in electromembrane extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seip, Knut Fredrik; Jensen, Henrik; Kieu, Thanh Elisabeth; Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2014-06-20

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was performed on samples containing substantial amounts of NaCl to investigate how the presence of salts affected the recovery, repeatability, and membrane current in the extraction system. A group of 17 non-polar basic drugs with various physical chemical properties were used as model analytes. When EME was performed in a hollow fiber setup with a supported liquid membrane (SLM) comprised of 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE), a substantial reduction in recovery was seen for eight of the substances when 2.5% (w/v) NaCl was present. No correlation between this loss and the physical chemical properties of these substances was seen. The recovery loss was hypothesized to be caused by ion pairing in the SLM, and a mathematical model for the extraction recovery in the presence of salts was made according to the experimental observations. Some variations to the EME system reduced this recovery loss, such as changing the SLM solvent from NPOE to 6-undecanone, or by using a different EME setup with more favorable volume ratios. This was in line with the ion pairing hypothesis and the mathematical model. This thorough investigation of how salts affect EME improves the theoretical understanding of the extraction process, and can contribute to the future development and optimization of the technique. PMID:24792700

  12. Chromatographic analysis of wheatgrass extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Shah Khan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Wheatgrass (WG is the shoot of Triticum aestivum Linn. belongs to the family Gramineae, and possess high chlorophyll content and essential vitamins, minerals, vital enzymes, amino acids, dietary fibers etc., It has been shown to possess anti-cancer, anti-ulcer, antioxidant, and anti-arthritic activity due to the presence of biologically active compounds, and minerals. Therefore, in the present study, high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC methods for qualitative and quantitative analysis have been proposed, which will help in quality evaluation of wheat grass extract. Materials and Methods: Samples for analysis were prepared in methanol and water simply by sonication. These were applied on pre-coated silica plate and chromatograms were developed using toluene: Ethyl acetate: Formic acid. HPLC analysis was done on Waters HPLC system using water, methanol, and acetonitrile as mobile phase. Merck C18 column has been used. Results: HPTLC finger printing of alcoholic extracts of WG was carried out and found 10–11 spots at different wavelengths 254, 366, and 435 nm. HPLC fingerprinting produced 22 peaks at 256 nm. Quantitative HPTLC analysis was done to determine the gallic acid content, and was found to be 0.077% w/w in aqueous extract. By HPLC, the content of gallic acid and rutin was found to be 0.07%, and 0.04% w/w in aqueous extract of WG. Conclusion: The developed HPLC and HPTLC fingerprinting method can be used for the quality control, and standardization of WG and its extracts used as nutritional supplement.

  13. Extraction Techniques for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, E. V.; Gan, S.; Ng, H.K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a review of the analytical extraction techniques for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils. The extraction technologies described here include Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic and mechanical agitation, accelerated solvent extraction, supercritical and subcritical fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, solid phase extraction and microextraction, thermal desorption and flash pyrolysis, as well as fluidised-bed extraction. The influencing factors in ...

  14. Recycle use of phosphorous mixer extractant to extract indium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The stripping and regeneration of the loaded organic phase of phosphorous mixer extractant (PPD) were studied.The mixed solutions (3 mol/L HCl +2 mol/L ZnCl2) were used as the stripping agent and more than 99% of indium can bestripped after three-stage stripping when the volume ratio of organic phase to stripping agent is 1:1. The organic phase canbe recycled to use after regeneration with HCl. The parallel contrast experiments with D2EHPA (di-2-ethyl hexyl phospho-ric acid) were carried out under the same conditions. The results show that the mixer extractant has good reusability and thestripping and regeneration of PPD are superior to those of D2EHPA.

  15. Recent trends in metals extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regel-Rosocka, M.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available After near 70 years of practical usage, solvent extraction is a perfectly mastered technique of separation, widely used on an industrial scale for the separation of metals mainly from raw materials. However, currently, in the era of depleting natural resources and increasingly less accessible deposits, environmental restrictions, etc., an increasing interest, both from social and economical constrains, is being directed at the extraction of metals from the secondary sources (such as batteries, electronic scrap. In many cases, solvent extraction, due to its operational characteristics, can be considered as the Best Available Technology for the purpose of separating multielemental metal solutions. This paper provides a brief overview of past achievements and present scenario of solvent extraction investigations and developments, describing some recently commissioned solvent extraction plants, whereas the Skorpion Zinc plant (Namibia for zinc extraction from raw materials and caesium removal from radioactive High Level Wastes (HLWs are told over in detail as case studies. The paper also presents some proposals for the use of liquid-liquid extraction to separate metal ions from secondary sources (e.g. cobalt from industrial waste streams. The review highlights the emerging use of ionic liquids as new extractants for metals, providing an insight into this exciting research field. Despite its detractors, solvent extraction has entered in force into XXI century as a leading separation technology for metals.Después de casi 70 años de uso práctico, la extracción líquido-líquido o extracción con disolventes es una técnica de separación muy evolucionada, utilizándose a escala industrial en el beneficio de metales obtenidos de diversas materias primas. Sin embargo, con el agotamiento de los recursos naturales y el aumento de depósitos minerales de más difícil acceso, restricciones medio ambientales, etc., ha aumentado el interés, tanto desde

  16. Optimal Extraction of Echelle Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskunov, Nikolai

    The extraction of the echelle spectra registered with a CCD detector represents a big challenge because of three reasons: (1) the pixel sampling is often close or worse then optimal, (2) spectral orders are curved and tilted with respect to the CCD rows (or columns) and (3) every pixel contains additional noise coming from various sources as illustrated in Figure 1. The main goal of an optimal extraction is to recover as much of the science signal while minimizing the contribution of the noise. Here we present the Slit Function Decomposition algorithm which replaces the summation in a sliding window with a reconstruction of the slit illumination profile. The reconstruction is formulated as an inverse problem solved by iterations and it is robust against most of the systematic problems including cosmic rays and cosmetic defects.

  17. Experience with intravascular lead extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jian; TANG Kai; WANG Fang-zheng; ZHANG Shu; HUANG Cong-xin

    2005-01-01

    @@ With the increase of clinical use of cardiac pacemaker, a certain kinds of severe leads-related complications (especially infection) have presented in a few patients who underwent pacemaker implantation. The best way to manage this problem is to remove the transvenous leads.1,2 The technique for percutaneous removal of transvenous leads have undergone considerable development in western countries over the past 2 decades. However, there was scarce data on the application of this technique in China. This article reports the results of transvenous extraction of 171 permanent pacemaker leads with the standard lead extraction devices and intravascular countertraction technique during the period from January 1996 to May 2005 in the Center of Arrhythmia Diagnosis and Treatment, Fu Wai Hospital, Beijing, China.

  18. Sugars present in tobacco extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, S C; Pollack, R L; Hsu, A F; Going, R E

    1980-12-01

    The presence of fructose, glucose, sucrose, maltose, and isomaltose in commercial tobacco products was identified and quantitated. Gas-liquid chromatographic studies showed that these five types of sugar were present in the water-soluble extracts of pouch and plug chewing tobacco, yet only fructose and glucose were found in extracts of snuff and unprocessed natural tobaccos. The amount of sucrose present in pouch chewing tobacco was twice that in plug chewing tobacco. No detectable amount of sucrose was found in snuff or unprocessed natural tobaccos. The content of maltose and isomaltose was much less than the content of fructose, glucose, or sucrose. All unprocessed natural tobacco leaves studied as controls contained low amounts of fructose and glucose, and no detectable amounts of sucrose, maltose, or isomaltose. The larger amounts of fructose and glucose, and the additional sucrose, maltose, and isomaltose present in pouch and plug chewing tobaccos are probably added during the manufacturing process. PMID:6935284

  19. Soil vapor extraction with dewatering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, N.R. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-08-01

    The physical treatment technology of soil vapor extraction (SVE) is reliable, safe, robust, and able to remove significant amounts of mass at a relatively low cost. SVE combined with a pump-and-treat system to create a dewatered zone has the opportunity to remove more mass with the added cost of treating the extracted groundwater. Various limiting processes result in a significant reduction in the overall mass removal rates from a SVE system in porous media. Only pilot scale, limited duration SVE tests conducted in low permeability media have been reported in the literature. It is expected that the presence of a fracture network in low permeability media will add another complexity to the limiting conditions surrounding the SVE technology. 20 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Energy Extraction from Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Straumann, Norbert

    2007-01-01

    In this lecture I give an introduction to the rotational energy extraction of black holes by the electromagnetic Blandford-Znajek process and the generation of relativistic jets. After some basic material on the electrodynamics of black hole magnetospheres, we derive the most important results of Blandford and Znajek by making use of Kerr-Schild coordinates, which are regular on the horizon. In a final part we briefly describe results of recent numerical simulations of accretion flows on rota...

  1. Information Extraction and Webpage Understanding

    OpenAIRE

    M.Sharmila Begum; L. Dinesh; P.Aruna

    2011-01-01

    The two most important tasks in information extraction from the Web are webpage structure understanding and natural language sentences processing. However, little work has been done toward an integrated statistical model for understanding webpage structures and processing natural language sentences within the HTML elements. Our recent work on webpage understanding introduces a joint model of Hierarchical Conditional Random Fields (HCRFs) and extended Semi-Markov Conditional Random Fields (Sem...

  2. Lead extraction. Indications and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, C L; Schwartz, S J; Hedin, N

    1992-11-01

    Each of the extraction techniques and their ancillary tools was reported as used successfully; however, until now, no technique has been successful when used in more than a few isolated instances. The technique for intravascular countertraction and the associated tools described in this paper were devised and selected in an attempt to develop one technique to be used on all patients, with all types of leads, and with a very low complication rate. Its versatility permitted single or multiple lead extractions combined with the precision of selecting and extracting a specific lead. In our experience, as well as the experience of others, the techniques described in this paper have proved to be superior by minimizing the inherent risk and morbidity, allowing us to expand the indications for lead removal beyond septicemia and free-floating leads, to include infection, abandonment of pockets, and replacement of malfunctioning or fractured leads. Intravascular countertraction was a consistently safe and efficacious method of removing transvenous pacemaker leads regardless of the duration of the implant, thus permitting extractions in patients not considered candidates for a more extensive surgical procedure. Intravascular countertraction encompasses surgical and fluoroscopic techniques possessed by most physicians experienced in pacemaker and automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator implants. However, there is a learning curve, predicating caution for the inexperienced physician. In addition, advanced surgical skills may be needed in handling associated conditions such as debridement and primary closure of chronically inflamed tissues, especially in submuscular pockets and sinus tracts in the neck. Although the potential for a cardiovascular complication is small, it does exist, and cardiovascular surgical backup is a recommended precaution.

  3. Electrostatic septa for SPS extraction

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    The extraction system for the N-Area is located in LSS2 (another one for the W-Area, now abandoned, was in LSS6). The electrostatic septum consists of 4 parts, each 3 m long. It is made of W-wires, 0.12 mm thick. The nominal electric field is 100 kV/cm. See also Annual Report 1975, p.175.

  4. Extraction treatment using Invisalign Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giancotti, Aldo; Greco, Mario; Mampieri, Gianluca

    2006-01-01

    The Invisalign method is gaining an increasing interest as an alternative treatment option in adult patients and in difficult orthodontic cases. The aim of this work is to show a class II malocclusion with severe crowding in the upper and lower arches treated with the extraction of the upper first premolars performed by means of Invisalign. The alignment phase was successfully completed but the space closure achieved with crown tipping and without correct root inclination making a further fixed appliance phase necessary.

  5. Information Extraction and Webpage Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Sharmila Begum

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The two most important tasks in information extraction from the Web are webpage structure understanding and natural language sentences processing. However, little work has been done toward an integrated statistical model for understanding webpage structures and processing natural language sentences within the HTML elements. Our recent work on webpage understanding introduces a joint model of Hierarchical Conditional Random Fields (HCRFs and extended Semi-Markov Conditional Random Fields (Semi-CRFs to leverage the page structure understanding results in free text segmentation and labeling. In this top-down integration model, the decision of the HCRF model could guide the decision making of the Semi-CRF model. However, the drawback of the topdown integration strategy is also apparent, i.e., the decision of the Semi-CRF model could not be used by the HCRF model to guide its decision making. This paper proposed a novel framework called WebNLP, which enables bidirectional integration of page structure understanding and text understanding in an iterative manner. We have applied the proposed framework to local business entity extraction and Chinese person and organization name extraction. Experiments show that the WebNLP framework achieved significantly better performance than existing methods.

  6. Information based universal feature extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Mohammad; Brause, Rüdiger

    2015-02-01

    In many real world image based pattern recognition tasks, the extraction and usage of task-relevant features are the most crucial part of the diagnosis. In the standard approach, they mostly remain task-specific, although humans who perform such a task always use the same image features, trained in early childhood. It seems that universal feature sets exist, but they are not yet systematically found. In our contribution, we tried to find those universal image feature sets that are valuable for most image related tasks. In our approach, we trained a neural network by natural and non-natural images of objects and background, using a Shannon information-based algorithm and learning constraints. The goal was to extract those features that give the most valuable information for classification of visual objects hand-written digits. This will give a good start and performance increase for all other image learning tasks, implementing a transfer learning approach. As result, in our case we found that we could indeed extract features which are valid in all three kinds of tasks.

  7. Prevalent Color Extraction and Indexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.K.Thyagharajan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Colors in an image provides tremendous amount of information. Using this color information images can be segmented, analyzed, labeled and indexed. In content based image retrieval system, color is one of the basic primitive features used. In Prevalent Color Extraction and indexing, the most extensive color on an image is identified and it is used for indexing. For implementation, Asteroideae flower family image dataset is used. It consist of more than 16,000 species, among them nearly 100 species are considered and indexed by dominating colors. To extract the most appealable color from the user defined images, the overall color of an image has to be quantized. Spatially, quantizing the color of an image to extract the prevalent color is the major objective of this paper. A combination of K-Mean and Expectation Minimization clustering algorithm called hidden-value learned K-mean clustering quantization algorithm is used to avoid the over clustering behavior of K-Mean algorithm. The experimental result shows the marginal differences between these algorithms.

  8. Optimal and Sustainable Groundwater Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A. Wada

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available With climate change exacerbating over-exploitation, groundwater scarcity looms as an increasingly critical issue worldwide. Minimizing the adverse effects of scarcity requires optimal as well as sustainable patterns of groundwater management. We review the many sustainable paths for groundwater extraction from a coastal aquifer and show how to find the particular sustainable path that is welfare maximizing. In some cases the optimal path converges to the maximum sustainable yield. For sufficiently convex extraction costs, the extraction path converges to an internal steady state above the level of maximum sustainable yield. We describe the challenges facing groundwater managers faced with multiple aquifers, the prospect of using recycled water, and the interdependence with watershed management. The integrated water management thus described results in less water scarcity and higher total welfare gains from groundwater use. The framework also can be applied to climate-change specifications about the frequency, duration, and intensity of precipitation by comparing before and after optimal management. For the case of South Oahu in Hawaii, the prospect of climate change increases the gains of integrated groundwater management.

  9. Titanium metal: extraction to application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambogi, Joseph (USGS, Reston, VA); Gerdemann, Stephen J.

    2002-09-01

    In 1998, approximately 57,000 tons of titanium metal was consumed in the form of mill products (1). Only about 5% of the 4 million tons of titanium minerals consumed each year is used to produce titanium metal, with the remainder primarily used to produce titanium dioxide pigment. Titanium metal production is primarily based on the direct chlorination of rutile to produce titanium tetrachloride, which is then reduced to metal using the Kroll magnesium reduction process. The use of titanium is tied to its high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Aerospace is the largest application for titanium. In this paper, we discuss all aspects of the titanium industry from ore deposits through extraction to present and future applications. The methods of both primary (mining of ore, extraction, and purification) and secondary (forming and machining) operations will be analyzed. The chemical and physical properties of titanium metal will be briefly examined. Present and future applications for titanium will be discussed. Finally, the economics of titanium metal production also are analyzed as well as the advantages and disadvantages of various alternative extraction methods.

  10. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITIES OF CUNNINGHAMIA LANCEOLATA HEARTWOOD EXTRACTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Three extractives from China-fir were obtained by a sequential extraction processes with hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. The components of the three extractives were analyzed: (1 The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis showed that in addition to the presence of cedrol, naphthalenes comprised a relatively large percentage of both the hexane extract (10.39% and the ethyl acetate extract (9.43%. (2 Total phenolic contents analysis showed that phenols took up 6.66 % of the ethyl acetate extract and 22.8% of the methanol extract. All extracts, even with low concentrations, presented fair antifungal activities against two white-rot fungi, Trametes versicolor and Irpex lacteus and two brown-rot fungi, Postia placenta and Gloeophyllum trabeum. Cedrol and naphthalenes were partly responsible for the bioactivities. The synergistic effect of phenols and antifungal compounds also contributed to the wood decay resistance.

  11. CANINE ECTOPIC TREATMENT WITH FIRST MOLAR EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Margo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Decision to extract or not and the type of tooth must be analyzed carefully in orthodontic treatment. Preferable tooth to be extracted was the tooth with large caries or restoration. Usually the type of tooth to be extracted was second molar (if the third molar appears, incisor, first molar, and combination of several teeth. Orthodontic treatment with molar extraction is more difficult to treat and the result is usually compromise. There are several considerations in extracting first molar such as tooth with large caries or restoration, hypoplasia, periapical disease, large discrepancy, high maxilla-mandibular plane angle, and cases with anterior open bite. Nowadays, orthodontic cases with molar extraction do not prolong the treatment time compared to premolar extraction case, but the anchorage system must be considered carefully. The present case was treated with extraction of first molar to solve anterior crowding with maximum anchorage at the upper jaw and using Nance Holding Appliance.

  12. Inflation of Unreefed and Reefed Extraction Parachutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Eric S.; Varela, Jose G.

    2015-01-01

    Data from the Orion and several other test programs have been used to reconstruct inflation parameters for 28 ft Do extraction parachutes as well as the parent aircraft pitch response during extraction. The inflation force generated by extraction parachutes is recorded directly during tow tests but is usually inferred from the payload accelerometer during Low Velocity Airdrop Delivery (LVAD) flight test extractions. Inflation parameters are dependent on the type of parent aircraft, number of canopies, and standard vs. high altitude extraction conditions. For standard altitudes, single canopy inflations are modeled as infinite mass, but the non-symmetric inflations in a cluster are modeled as finite mass. High altitude extractions have necessitated reefing the extraction parachutes, which are best modeled as infinite mass for those conditions. Distributions of aircraft pitch profiles and inflation parameters have been generated for use in Monte Carlo simulations of payload extractions.

  13. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF TINOSPORA CRISPA ROOT EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Iqbal Chittur Mohammed

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro antimicrobial activity of ethanol, distilled water, methanol and chloroform crude extracts of the roots of Tinospora crispa. Antimicrobial activity was examined by disc diffusion method against gram positive bacterial strains of Streptococcus pneumonia, gram negative bacterial strains of Escherichia coli and fungal strains of Candida albicans. The maximum zone of inhibition was obtained with ethanol extract against Escherichia coli and Streptococcus pneumonia followed by chloroform extract against the same organisms. Whilst distilled water extract showed a minimal zone of inhibition, methanol extract showed a moderate zone of inhibition against the bacterial strains used. The values were compared with a standard antibiotic. The ethanol extract also showed the maximum zone of inhibition against the growth of Candida albicans, whereas the lowest activity was shown with distilled water crude extract. Methanol and chloroform crude extracts showed considerably moderate activities against the fungal strain, as compared to the standard antibiotic used.

  14. WEB CONTENT EXTRACTION USING HYBRID APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    K. Nethra; Anitha, J; Thilagavathi, G

    2014-01-01

    The World Wide Web has rich source of voluminous and heterogeneous information which continues to expand in size and complexity. Many Web pages are unstructured and semi-structured, so it consists of noisy information like advertisement, links, headers, footers etc. This noisy information makes extraction of Web content tedious. Many techniques that were proposed for Web content extraction are based on automatic extraction and hand crafted rule generation. Automatic extraction technique is do...

  15. Extraction time for soybean isoflavone determination

    OpenAIRE

    Carrão-Panizzi Mercedes C.; Favoni Silvana Pedroso de Goés; Kikuchi Akio

    2002-01-01

    Studies were carried out on the optimization of the extraction procedures for isoflavones determination in soybean by HPLC. Isoflavones were extracted from 100 mg samples of full fat soybean flour "Kinako" (milled toasted grains). Recovery of average total isoflavones was higher when extraction was performed with agitation(217.2 mg/100g), than without agitation(191.0 mg/100g). Isoflavone extraction without agitation for 1,4, 20 and 24 hours, were equally efficient for total and individual com...

  16. Web-Based Information Extraction Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Information extraction techniques on the Web are the current research hotspot. Now many information extraction techniques based on different principles have appeared and have different capabilities. We classify the existing information extraction techniques by the principle of information extraction and analyze the methods and principles of semantic information adding, schema defining,rule expression, semantic items locating and object locating in the approaches. Based on the above survey and analysis,several open problems are discussed.

  17. Effective Approaches For Extraction Of Keywords

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmeen Kaur

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Keywords are index terms that contain most important information. Automatic keyword extraction is the task to identify a small set of words , keyphrases or keywords from a document that can describe the meaning of document. Keyword extraction is considered as core technology of all automatic processing for text materials. In this paper, a Survey of Keyword Extraction techniques have been presented that can be applied to extract effective keywords that uniquely identify a document.

  18. Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    GÜVENÇ, A.; MEHMETOĞLU, Ü.; ÇALIMLI, A.

    1999-01-01

    Extraction of ethanol was studied from both synthetic ethanol solution and fermentation broth using supercritical CO2 in an extraction apparatus in ranges of 313 to 333 K and 80 to 160 atmospheres, for varying extraction times. The experimental system consists mainly of four parts: a CO2 storage system, a high-pressure liquid pump, an extractor and a product collection unit. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography. Effects of temperature, pressure, extraction time, initial ethan...

  19. Lessons Extracting Diseases from Discharge Summaries

    OpenAIRE

    Long, William

    2007-01-01

    We developed a program to extract diseases and procedures from discharge summaries and have applied this program to 96 cases annotated by physicians. We compared the concepts extracted by the program to those extracted by the annotators. The program extracts 93% of the desired concepts including some more specific than the annotators. Concepts were missed because phrases were ambiguous, phrases were missing words or were separated, or deduction was needed, among other reasons. The false posit...

  20. Modification of Phenolic Oximes for Copper Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Forgan, Ross Stewart

    2008-01-01

    The thesis deals with the modification of salicylaldoxime-based reagents used in hydrometallurgical extraction, addressing rational ligand design to tune copper(II) extractant strengths and also the development of reagents which are capable of transporting transition metal salts. Chapter 1 reviews current solvent extractant technology for metal recovery, including the limited knowledge of the effect of substituents on extractive efficacy. Advances in leaching technology have...

  1. Organization of extracting molecules of the diamide type: link with the extracting properties?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of these studies is to establish a link between the different organizations of diamide extractants (used in the DIAMEX process) and their extracting properties. The effects of the key parameters leading the liquid-liquid extraction (concentration of extractant, nature of solute, activity of the aqueous phase, nature of the diluent and temperature) are studied: 1) at the supramolecular scale, with the characterization of the extractant organizations by vapor-pressure osmometry (VPO) and small angle neutron and X-ray scattering (SANS/SAXS) experiments; 2) at the molecular scale, with the quantification of the extracted solutes (water, nitric acid, metal nitrate) and the determination of extracted complexes stoichiometries by electro-spray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) experiments. The DMDOHEMA molecule acts as a classical surfactant and forms aggregates of the reverse micelle type. Taking into account the established supramolecular diagrams, a quantitative link between the extractants structures and their extracting properties has been brought to light. To model the europium nitrate extraction, two approaches have been developed: - an approach based on mass action laws. Extractions equilibria have been proposed taking into account the supramolecular speciation; - an innovative approach considering the extracted ions as adsorbed on a specific surface of the extractant molecule which depends on the extractant organization state. The ion extraction can be considered as a sum of isotherms corresponding to the different states of organization. This approach allows to compare the extraction efficiency of an extracting molecule as a function of its organization state. (author)

  2. COMPARISONS OF SOXHLET EXTRACTION, PRESSURIZED LIQUID EXTRACTION, SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION, AND SUBCRITICAL WATER EXTRACTION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SOLIDS: RECOVERY, SELECTIVITY, AND EFFECTS ON SAMPLE MATRIX. (R825394)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extractions of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil from a former manufactured gas plant site were performed with a Soxhlet apparatus (18 h), by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) (50 min at 100°C), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) (1 h at 150°...

  3. Automated Extraction of DNA from clothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Hjort, Benjamin Benn; Nøhr Hansen, Thomas;

    2011-01-01

    Presence of PCR inhibitors in extracted DNA may interfere with the subsequent quantification and short tandem repeat (STR) reactions used in forensic genetic DNA typing. We have compared three automated DNA extraction methods based on magnetic beads with a manual method with the aim of reducing...... the amount of PCR inhibitors in the DNA extracts and increasing the proportion of reportable DNA profiles....

  4. Automated Extraction of DNA from clothing

    OpenAIRE

    Stangegaard, Michael; Hjort, Benjamin Benn; Nøhr Hansen, Thomas; Hansen, Anders Johannes; Morling, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Presence of PCR inhibitors in extracted DNA may interfere with the subsequent quantification and short tandem repeat (STR) reactions used in forensic genetic DNA typing. We have compared three automated DNA extraction methods based on magnetic beads with a manual method with the aim of reducing the amount of PCR inhibitors in the DNA extracts and increasing the proportion of reportable DNA profiles.

  5. Vessel tree extraction using locally optimal paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, P.; Ginneken, B. van; Bruijne, M. de

    2010-01-01

    of the vessel tree. Experiments were performed on 10 low dose chest CT scans for which the pulmonary vessel trees were extracted. The proposed method is shown to extract a better connected vessel tree and extract more of the small peripheral vessels in comparison to applying a threshold on the output...

  6. Improved Supercritical-Solvent Extraction of Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, L.

    1982-01-01

    Raw coal upgraded by supercritical-solvent extraction system that uses two materials instead of one. System achieved extraction yields of 20 to 49 weight percent. Single-solvent yields are about 25 weight percent. Experimental results show extraction yields may be timedependent. Observed decreases in weight of coal agreed well with increases in ash content of residue.

  7. 21 CFR 573.520 - Hemicellulose extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hemicellulose extract. 573.520 Section 573.520 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additive Listing § 573.520 Hemicellulose extract. Hemicellulose extract may be safely used in animal...

  8. Antioxidant activities of crude extracts of fucoidan extracted from Sargassum glaucescens by a compressional-puffing-hydrothermal extraction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Yung; Wu, Shu-Jing; Yang, Wen-Ning; Kuan, Ai-Wei; Chen, Cheng-Yo

    2016-04-15

    Fucoidan, a multifunctional marine polymer, is normally extracted from brown algae via extensive use of acid, solvent or high temperature water and a long reaction time. In present study, we developed a novel compressional-puffing-hydrothermal extraction (CPHE) process which primarily decomposes the cellular structure of algae and facilitates the release of fucoidan by hot water extraction. The CPHE process provides a number of advantages including simple procedure, reactant-saving, reduced pollution, and feasibility for continuous production. Sargassum glaucescens (SG) was utilized in this study, and the maximum extraction yield of polysaccharide was approximately 9.83 ± 0.11% (SG4). Thin layer chromatography (TLC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis, and measurements of monosaccharide composition, fucose, sulfate, and uronic acid contents revealed that the extracted polysaccharide showed characteristics of fucoidan. All extracts exhibited antioxidant activities, and thus, further exploration of these extracts as potential natural and safe antioxidant agents is warranted. PMID:26675848

  9. The combined extraction of sage (Salvia officinalis L.): ultrasound followed by supercritical CO2 extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glisic, Sandra B; Ristic, Mihajlo; Skala, Dejan U

    2011-01-01

    A wide spectrum of phytochemicals could be isolated from sage (Salvia officinalis L.) using different extraction or distillation technique: the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), the volatiles compounds (monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes) isolation using hydrodistillation or higher molecular compounds with Soxhlet extraction or ultrasound-assisted extraction. The combination of ultrasound-assisted extraction followed by re-extraction of obtained extract with supercritical CO(2) was performed in this study. The goal of performed investigation was to concentrate diterpenes present in sage extract which are generally considered to be responsible for antioxidant activity of extracted compounds. The fractionation using the supercritical CO(2), and different combination of the ultrasound-assisted solvent extractions (water-ethanol mixture or only water) followed by supercritical CO(2) re-extraction of obtained extract or treated plant material were analyzed and compared. Based on the results of these investigations it could be proposed the best extraction procedure: the ultrasound pretreatment of plant material with distilled water and re-extraction of plant material (residue) using supercritical CO(2). That procedure gives two valuable products: the ultrasound extract which is rich in sugars and possess the immunomodulatory activity and supercritical extract which is rich in diterpenes and sesquiterpenes.

  10. Integration of galacturonic acid extraction with alkaline protein extraction from green tea leaf residue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Chen; Bozileva, Elvira; Klis, van der Frits; Dong, Yiyuan; Sanders, Johan P.M.; Bruins, Marieke E.

    2016-01-01

    Leaf pectin can be used as a feedstock for galacturonic acid (GA) production, but high extraction costs limit economic feasibility. To improve the extraction efficiency, leaf pectin extraction was integrated with an already cost-effective alkaline protein extraction, focusing on high yield of GA

  11. Handling uncertainty in relation extraction: a case study on tennis tournament results extraction from tweets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, J.; Habib, M. B.; Keulen, M. van

    2015-01-01

    Relation extraction involves different types of uncertainty due to the imperfection of the extraction tools and the inherent ambiguity of unstructured text. In this paper, we discuss several ways of handling uncertainties in relation extraction from social media. Our study case is to extract tennis

  12. 30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other...

  13. Extraction of Polyphenols from Cashew Nut Shell

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew Obichukwu EDOGA; Labake FADIPE; Rita Ngozi EDOGA

    2006-01-01

    Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) was extracted from cashew nut shell by indirect leaching process using soxhlet extraction equipment. Normal hexane (n-hexane) was used as solvent. The operating conditions for the extraction were 680C and 1 atmosphere in every 100g of cashew nut shell used for the extraction, 35gCNSL was obtained. The CNSL was further separated into cardol, cardanol and anacardic acid (polyphenol) using an amine extractant (alanine) with the aid of shake-out separation equipment...

  14. Extraction time for soybean isoflavone determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrão-Panizzi Mercedes C.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out on the optimization of the extraction procedures for isoflavones determination in soybean by HPLC. Isoflavones were extracted from 100 mg samples of full fat soybean flour "Kinako" (milled toasted grains. Recovery of average total isoflavones was higher when extraction was performed with agitation(217.2 mg/100g, than without agitation(191.0 mg/100g. Isoflavone extraction without agitation for 1,4, 20 and 24 hours, were equally efficient for total and individual compounds. These results suggested that an efficient isoflavone recovery could be achieved with extraction for one hour with agitation.

  15. Primary metals extraction by liquid membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extraction of copper and uranium by liquid membranes is presented. The recovery of uranium from wet process phosphoric acid is described. The development of this process has progressed through three stages, firstly the chemistry of uranium extraction as it pertains to liquid membrane systems. This was followed by continuous extraction tests on fresh black acid and on aged acid. Results on a 1 litre/minute pilot plant demonstrated that the process could be operated with a minimum of feed pretreatment and about 90% of uranium could be extracted. The extraction of copper from copper leach liquors is also described. (U.K.)

  16. Personalized Web Services for Web Information Extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Jarir, Zahi; Erradi, Mahammed

    2011-01-01

    The field of information extraction from the Web emerged with the growth of the Web and the multiplication of online data sources. This paper is an analysis of information extraction methods. It presents a service oriented approach for web information extraction considering both web data management and extraction services. Then we propose an SOA based architecture to enhance flexibility and on-the-fly modification of web extraction services. An implementation of the proposed architecture is proposed on the middleware level of Java Enterprise Edition (JEE) servers.

  17. Using augers to extract minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levkovich, P.Ye.; Meznikov, V.I.; Savich, N.S.

    1981-08-25

    The purpose of the device is to increase productivity based on eliminating empty auger trips. Following drilling the length of the auger away from the (preparatory) working area, the auger section is put in place on the side opposite from the drilled part of the (preparatory) working area. Simultaneous with drilling the other shaft opposite to the preparatory working area, the spindle device for injecting the bit into the drilled out part is set in place. Through it the auger sections are extracted from both shafts (facing each other) directly by moving the spindle device from one shaft to the other.

  18. Targets and Secondary Beam Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noah, Etam

    2014-02-01

    Several applications make use of secondary beams of particles generated by the interaction of a primary beam of particles with a target. Spallation neutrons, bremsstrahlung photon-produced neutrons, radioactive ions and neutrinos are available to users at state-of-the-art facilities worldwide. Plans for even higher secondary beam intensities place severe constraints on the design of targets. This article reports on the main targetry challenges and highlights a variety of solutions for targetry and secondary beam extraction. Issues related to target station layout, instrumentation at the beam-target interface, safety and radioprotection are also discussed.

  19. A Study for Extraction Kinetics of Β-Carotene from Oven Dried Carrot by Solvent Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Sudipta Das; Saikat Mazumder

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of this work was to study the kinetics of the extraction of β-carotene by solvent (ethanol) extraction from carrots dried at 50ºC in an oven. The moisture content after drying was 11±1.5% (dry weight basis). Extraction time was 5 hours and extraction process was carried out at 30ºC. The ratio of Carrot (gm): ethanol (ml) of 1:60 was maintained throughout the extraction process. The experimental data of extracted β- Carotene yield during solvent extraction were mode...

  20. Antioxidant properties of fermented mango leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Anna; Ku, Taekyu; Yoo, Ilsou

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant properties of mango (Mangifera indica) leaves were evaluated. Hydroalcoholic leaf extracts that were lyophilized were subsequently fermented with either Lactobacillus casei or effective microorganisms (EM) such as probiotic bacteria and/or other anaerobic organisms. Antioxidant properties were measured as a function of the mango leaf extract concentration in the fermentation broth. Tests for radical scavenging using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical showed higher antioxidant activity for Lactobacillus- and EM-fermented mango leaf extracts than for the synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene. Antioxidant activity generally increased with increasing fermented extract concentration as did the fermented extracts' polyphenol and flavonoid contents. Fermented extracts reduced reactive oxygen species generation by lipopolysaccharide in RAW 264.7 cells when measured via fluorescence of dichlorodihydrofluorescein acetate treated cells using flow cytometry. RAW 264.7 cells also showed a concentration-dependent cytotoxic effect of the fermented extracts using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthialol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase activity as well as nitrite scavenging by the fermented extracts increased as fermented extract concentrations increased. Tyrosinase activity was assayed with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine as substrate. Nitrite scavenging was assessed via measurement of inhibition of chromophore production from nitrite-naphthylamine-sulfanilic acid mixtures. The antioxidant properties of fermented mango leaf extracts suggest the fermented extracts may be useful in developing health food and fermentation-based beauty products.

  1. Effect of Temperature on the Color of Natural Dyes Extracted Using Pressurized Hot Water Extraction Method

    OpenAIRE

    Nursyamirah A. Razak; Siti M. Tumin; Ruziyati Tajuddin

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Traditionally, extraction of natural dyes with boiling method produced only one single tone of colorant/dyes which involved plenty of water in several hours of extraction time. A new modern extraction technique should be introduced especially to textile dyers so that a variety of tone of colorants can be produced in a shorter time with less consumption of water. Approach: This study demonstrated Pressurized Hot Water Extraction (PHWE) as a new technique to extract colorants...

  2. Web Data Identification and Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V.Rajya Lakshmi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, with the rapid growth of the web, a large volume of data and information are published in numerous web pages. As web sites are getting more complicated, the construction of web information extraction systems becomes more difficult and time-consuming. In this paper proposes a new method to perform the task automatically which is more effective than machine learning and semi automated system. The proposed method consists of two steps, (1 identifying individual data records in a page, and (2 aligning and extracting data items from the identified data records. For step 1, we propose a method based on visual information to segment data records, which is more accurate than existing methods. For step 2, we propose a novel partial alignment technique based on tree matching. Partial alignment means that we align only those data fields in a pair of data records that can be aligned (or matched with certainty, and make no commitment on the rest of the data fields.

  3. Solar Filament Extraction and Characterizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuan; Shih, F. Y.; Jing, J.; Wang, H.

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a new method to extract and characterize solar filaments from H-alpha full-disk images produced by Big Bear Solar Observatory. A cascading Hough Transform method is designed to identify solar disk center location and radius. Solar disks are segmented from the background, and unbalanced illumination on the surface of solar disks is removed using polynomial surface fitting. And then a localized adaptive thresholding is employed to extract solar filament candidates. After the removal of small solar filament candidates, the remaining larger candidates are used as the seeds of region growing. The procedure of region growing not only connects broken filaments but also generate complete shape for each filament. Mathematical morphology thinning is adopted to produce the skeleton of each filament, and graph theory is used to prune branches and barbs to get the main skeleton. The length and the location of the main skeleton is characterized. The proposed method can help scientists and researches study the evolution of solar filament, for instance, to detect solar filament eruption. The presented method has already been used by Space Weather Research Lab of New Jersey Institute of Technology (http://swrl.njit.edu) to generate the solar filament online catalog using H-alpha full-disk images of Global H-alpha Network (http://swrl.njit.edu/ghn_web/).

  4. EVALUATION OF EXTRACTION TECHNIQUES WITH VARIOUS SOLVENTS TO DETERMINE EXTRACTION EFFICIENCY OF SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Patil et al

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Herbal drugs play an important role in health care dynamics especially in developing countries. The key step in isolation of biologically active compounds is extraction, which is expressed as total extractive yield, yields of metabolites of interest or intensity of biological activity. Extraction of phytoconstituents from plant materials has been of tremendous interest and potential. Extractive value of the crude drug also indicates the quality as well as purity of the drug. For most extractions, relatively simple techniques, such as percolation and maceration are effective and economical. Some specific applications however, require more sophisticated and costly extraction techniques using specialized equipments. It is often possible to select the specific solvent to maximize the yields on the basis of different techniques, varying in cost and level of complexity. Therefore the objective of the present study was to compare different extraction techniques with various solvents for determination of extractive values. The plants selected for the present research work were Averrrhoa carambola L. fruits (Oxalidaceae, Lagenaria vulgaris Ser. fruits (Cucurbitaceae and Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. rhizomes (Hypoxidaceae. The maximum percentage of extractive value for L. vulgaris Ser. fruit extract was found to be 76.26±0.46 in water using reflux for extraction, whereas A. carambola L. fruit extract and C. orchioides Gaertn. rhizome extract, the maximum percentage of extractive values were found to be 88.40±0.80 and 54.00±0.80 respectively in water using ultrasound extraction method.

  5. Hydrophilic solutes in modified carbon dioxide extraction-prediction of the extractability using molecular dynamic simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Martina; Maus, Martin; Wagner, Karl Gerhard; Schmidt, Peter Christian

    2005-06-01

    Super- and subcritical carbon dioxide (CO2) extractions of crude drugs were simulated by molecular modelling to predict the extractability of different hydrophilic plant constituents under various extraction conditions. The CO2 extraction fluids were simulated either with pure CO2 or with solvent modified CO2 at different pressures and temperatures. Molecular modelling resulted in three different solubility parameters: the total solubility parameter delta and the partial solubility parameters delta(d) for the van der Waals and delta(EL) for the polar forces. Thus, delta(EL) enabled the estimation of the polarity of the extraction fluids and the solute molecules. If the value of delta(EL) of the extraction fluid reached the value of the solute molecule in the crude drug, i.e. minimum extraction value, the compound was soluble at the distinct extraction conditions. For a further increase in yield of the hydrophilic solutes, the polarity of the extraction fluid had to be increased, too. That means delta(EL) of the fluid exceeded the minimum extraction value. All simulations were verified by CO2 extractions of the secondary roots of Harpagophytum procumbens (harpagoside, stachyose) and the seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum (aescin). CO2 extractions of the flowers of Matricaria recutita ((-)-alpha-bisabolol) were obtained from literature data. These four constituents with different properties, like molecular size and the allocation of polar functional groups were extracted, analysed, simulated and the extract content was correlated with the extraction fluid used, respectively. PMID:15911229

  6. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS FROM ECUADORIAN LICHENS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matvieieva, N A; Pasichnyk, L A; Zhytkevych, N V; Jacinto, Pabón Garcés Galo; Pidgorskyi, V S

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic, isopropanolic, acetone, DMSO and aqueous extracts of the two lichen species from Ecuadorian highland, Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. were explored in vitro against bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by the disc-diffusion method. Also the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. The strongest antimicrobial activity was found in DMSO extract of Usnea sp. compared to antibacterial activity of ciprfloxacin and cefazolin antibiotics. The inhibition zone was 28 mm, 30 mm, 31mm (DMSO extract, ciprfloxacin and cefazolin respectively) in case of B. subtilis usage as the test bacteria. MIC value for Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. DMSO extracts was 0.4 mg/ml. E. coli was resistant to all kinds of extracts. The S. aureus sensitivity to lichen DMSO extracts was comparable to sensitivity of these microorganisms to tetracycline and vancomycin. Thereby, most kinds of extracts (ethanol, isopropanol, hexane, DMSO and acetone solvents) from Ecuadorian lichens Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. with the exception of aqueous Stereocaulon sp. extracts possessed antibacterial activity against B. subtilis. DMSO lichen extracts had also antimicrobial activity against S. aureus. At the same time the extracts studied didn't demonstrate antibacterial activity against the representatives of the most common and harmful phytopathogenic bacteria tested. Further investigations of Ecuadorian lichens especially study of plants collected from extremal highland biotops can be very important in study of possibility of treatment of numerous diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:26214895

  7. Extraction of bromelain from pineapple peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketnawa, S; Chaiwut, P; Rawdkuen, S

    2011-08-01

    Large amount of pineapple peels (by-products) is left over after processing and they are a potential source for bromelain extraction. Distilled water (DI), DI containing cysteine and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (DI-CE), sodium phosphate buffer pH 7.0 (PB) and PB containing cysteine and EDTA (PB-CE) were used as extractants for bromelain from the pineapple peels. The highest bromelain activity was obtained when it was extracted with PB-CE (867 and 1032 units for Nang Lae and Phu Lae cultv, respectively). The PB could maintain the pH of the extract (pH 5.1-5.7) when compared with others. Under sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the extract showed protein bands in the range 24-28 kDa. The protein band with a molecular weight of ∼28 kDa exposed the clear zone on blue background under the casein-substrate gel electrophoresis. The effects of the bromelain extract on the protein patterns of beef, chicken and squid muscles were also determined. Trichloroacetic acid soluble peptide content of all the treated muscles increased when the amount of bromelain extract increased. Decrease in myosin heavy chains and actin was observed in all the muscle types when bromelain extract was used. The best extractant for bromelain from pineapple peels was PB-CE. Moreover, bromelain extract could be used as a muscle food tenderizing agent in food industries.

  8. Beam stripping extraction from the VINCY cyclotron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić-Đurović Jasna L.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction system of a cyclotron guides an ion beam from a spiral acceleration orbit, through an extraction trajectory, into a high energy transport line. The two methods commonly used to direct an ion into the extraction path are deflection, by the electric field of an electrostatic deflector, and ion stripping, by a thin carbon foil. Compared to the electrostatic deflector system, the stripping extraction provides a fast and easy change of the extracted ion energy and is easier to manufacture operate, and maintain. However, the extraction trajectory and dynamics of an ion beam after stripping are highly dependant on the ion energy and specific charge. Thus, when a multipurpose machine such as the VINCY Cyclotron is concerned, it is far from easy to deliver a variety of ion beams into the same high energy transport line and at the same time preserve a reasonable compactness of the extraction system. The front side stripping extraction system of the VINCY Cyclotron provides high (~70 MeV and mid (~30 MeV energy protons, as well as a number of heavy ions in broad energy ranges. The back side stripping extraction system extracts low energy protons (~18 MeV and enables their simultaneous use with high energy protons at the front side of the machine.

  9. Changing perspectives on resource extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Hazel; Stewart, Iain; Pahl, Sabine; Stokes, Alison

    2015-04-01

    Over the last century, resource extraction in the UK has changed immeasurably; from relatively small-scale, manually-operated facilities to the larger technological advanced sites that exist today. The communities that live near these sites have also changed, from housing workers that were as much of a resource as the geological material, to local residents who are environmentally literate and strongly value their landscape. Nowadays great pressure is put on the extractive industry to work in both environmentally sustainable and socially ethical ways, but how does this impact upon the local population? How do communities perceive the resource extraction that neighbours them? And is this perception rooted in a general understanding of geology and the subsurface? To explore resident's perceptions of the geological environment, three villages in the southwest of England have been investigated, using a mixed-methods mental models approach. The villages were selected as each has a different geological setting, both commercially and culturally. The first village has a strong historical geological identity, but little current geological activity. The second village has a large tungsten mine in the process of beginning production. The third village has no obvious cultural or commercial relationships with geology and acts as the control site. A broad sample from each of the three villages was qualitatively interviewed, the results of which were analyzed using an emergent thematic coding scheme. These qualitative results were then modelled using Morgan et al's mental models method (2002) and tested using a quantitative questionnaire. The results of this mixed method approach reveals the principal perceptions (or mental models) of residents in these three villages. The villages each present a different general perception of resource exploitation, which appears to be culturally driven, with the first village having the most positive correlations. These mental models are

  10. Bioactivity of Neem (Azadirachta indica) callus extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted in order to explore the possibility of utilizing plant tissue culture techniques for production of secondary metabolites from callus culture of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and to investigate the bioactivity of the established callus extract in comparison with the extract from the intact leaves. The presence of secondary metabolites in the extracts was detected by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). Both the callus and leaf extracts eluted five fraction of compounds and it were observed that callus extract had a good resolution. various extract concentration (5.10. and 20 mg/ml) were determined for the rate and extent of inhibition kinetics against staphylococcus aureus. Escherichia coli, and candida albicans. Results showed that callus extract of A. indica wiped out all viable cells of C. albicans within 18 hours and the subsequent concentration 5 and 10 mg/ m1 retard the growth after 24 h. A higher concentration of 20 mg/ ml had the same effect on S. aureus after 6 h and the E. coli cells were completely inhibited by the extracts after 24 h. Similar kinetics were showed by leaf extract but in slight rate as compared to the callus extract. In general both extract posses antimicrobial activity with notable efficient rates. For assaying of the inhibitory effect on some phyto pathogens the effect of different concentrations of the callus and leaf extracts on the radial growth of Drechslera rostrata. Fusarium oxysporum and Alterneria alternata were in vitro assessed. Obvious inhibitory effect was observed on the mycelia radial growth of the three treated fungi. The level of inhibition increased with the increase of te extract concentration. The maximum inhibitory effect (84%) was recorded with Drechslera rostrata when inoculated in media contain 20 mg/ ml of callus while the inhibition rate of mycelia growth of the same species reaches 61% when inoculated in a medium contain the same concentration of the neem leaf extract. The subsequent

  11. Preliminary studies on the extraction of Glycospanonins in Tongkat Ali extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abirame, S.; Sivakumar, K.; Chua, L. S.; Sarmidi, M. R.

    2016-06-01

    Eurycoma longifolia, locally known as Tongkat Ali, is a famous medicinal plant in the family of Simaroubaceae and well known for its aphrodisiac properties from its water extract. The root of E. longifolia is used to extract wide range bioactive components of Tongkat Ali. Previous works standardised Tongkat Ali extracts by measuring the concentration of eurycomanone, a quassinoid marker chemical, within the overall extract. There is a newer Malaysian standard that specifies that Tongkat Ali can be standardised to glycosaponin, thus it is desired to determine how extraction parameters such as particle size, extraction temperature, and solvent type affects the glycosaponin content in the extract. The overall study is aimed to determine how the extraction parameters affect the glycosaponin amount in extract. This paper presents the preliminary work where in this study the effect of particle size on overall extract and glycosaponin quantification method development is presented. A reflux extraction method was used to extract Tongkat Ali with a particle size of 0.5 mm, 1.0 mm and 2.0 mm of raw material to study effect of particle size on overall extract. Water and methanol were the two types of solvent used for extraction to study the quantity of glycosaponin.

  12. Extracting information from multiplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovacci, Jacopo; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2016-06-01

    Multiplex networks are generalized network structures that are able to describe networks in which the same set of nodes are connected by links that have different connotations. Multiplex networks are ubiquitous since they describe social, financial, engineering, and biological networks as well. Extending our ability to analyze complex networks to multiplex network structures increases greatly the level of information that is possible to extract from big data. For these reasons, characterizing the centrality of nodes in multiplex networks and finding new ways to solve challenging inference problems defined on multiplex networks are fundamental questions of network science. In this paper, we discuss the relevance of the Multiplex PageRank algorithm for measuring the centrality of nodes in multilayer networks and we characterize the utility of the recently introduced indicator function Θ ˜ S for describing their mesoscale organization and community structure. As working examples for studying these measures, we consider three multiplex network datasets coming for social science.

  13. Hybrid Model of Content Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah

    2012-01-01

    We present a hybrid model for content extraction from HTML documents. The model operates on Document Object Model (DOM) tree of the corresponding HTML document. It evaluates each tree node and associated statistical features like link density and text distribution across the node to predict...... significance of the node towards overall content provided by the document. Once significance of the nodes is determined, the formatting characteristics like fonts, styles and the position of the nodes are evaluated to identify the nodes with similar formatting as compared to the significant nodes. The proposed...... hybrid model is derived from two different models, i.e., one is based on statistical features and other on formatting characteristics and achieved the best accuracy. We describe the validity of model with the help of experiments conducted on the standard data sets. The results revealed that the proposed...

  14. Extracting Information from Multiplex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Iacovacci, Jacopo

    2016-01-01

    Multiplex networks are generalized network structures that are able to describe networks in which the same set of nodes are connected by links that have different connotations. Multiplex networks are ubiquitous since they describe social, financial, engineering and biological networks as well. Extending our ability to analyze complex networks to multiplex network structures increases greatly the level of information that is possible to extract from Big Data. For these reasons characterizing the centrality of nodes in multiplex networks and finding new ways to solve challenging inference problems defined on multiplex networks are fundamental questions of network science. In this paper we discuss the relevance of the Multiplex PageRank algorithm for measuring the centrality of nodes in multilayer networks and we characterize the utility of the recently introduced indicator function $\\widetilde{\\Theta}^{S}$ for describing their mesoscale organization and community structure. As working examples for studying thes...

  15. Uranium separations using extraction chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the analysis of environmental samples for uranium and thorium pollutants and at natural levels for the dating of geological samples there was felt a need to develop better uranium and thorium, separation procedures to replace the established anion exchange method used at AEA Technology plc. This was the first aim of the PhD research. Separation of uranium from thorium prior to measurement of the isotopes by alpha spectrometry was necessary due to the similar alpha energies of 234U and 230Th. TRU and UTEVA extraction chromatography resins (EIChroM Industries) were investigated as potential replacements to the anion exchange separation method. The resins are claimed by EIChroM to offer the advantage of providing an actinide specific separation while reducing the separation time from 2 to 0.5 days; the volume of acidic waste produced by a factor of 3, therefore, the cost of analysis was reduced. A uranium and thorium separation procedure using the UTEVA extraction chromatography resin was developed. The uranium and thorium were sorbed by the UTEVA resin from 2M nitric acid. The thorium was then eluted from the resin with 5M hydrochloric acid and the uranium with 0.02M hydrochloric acid. The separation procedure was then evaluated using uraninite ore, coral, granite and lake sediment reference materials. The uranium and thorium concentrations and the 234U/238U and 230Th/234U activity ratio values determined for the reference material were in good agreement with certified values. The presence of plutonium was found to interfere with the measurement of uranium and thorium by alpha spectrometry. This was due to the similar alpha energies of uranium, thorium and plutonium. The co-elution of plutonium with uranium and thorium from the UTEVA resin was prevented by the inclusion of a reduction step using iron (II) sulphamate. The resulting plutonium (III) was not retained by the UTEVA column. The chemical recoveries for the procedure were similar to those for anion

  16. Data extraction from proteomics raw data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mancuso, Francesco; Bunkenborg, Jakob; Wierer, Michael;

    2012-01-01

    In shot-gun proteomics raw tandem MS data are processed with extraction tools to produce condensed peak lists that can be uploaded to database search engines. Many extraction tools are available but to our knowledge, a systematic comparison of such tools has not yet been carried out. Using raw data...... and agreement in-between tools. Processing a primary data set with 9 different tandem MS extraction tools resulted in a low overlap of identified peptides. The tools differ by assigned charge states of precursors, precursor and fragment ion masses, and we show that peptides identified very confidently using one...... extraction tool might not be matched when using another tool. We also found a bias towards peptides of lower charge state when extracting fragment ion data from higher resolution raw data without deconvolution. Collecting and comparing the extracted data from the same raw data allow adjusting parameters...

  17. Allelopathic Potential of Cucumber Tissues Aqueous Extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Lin-lin; HAO Zhi-peng; ZUO Yuan-mei; LI Xiao-lin; WANG Qian

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] The aim of this study was to explore allelopathic effects of the water-extracted crude of cucumber plant parts on seed germination and seedling growth of lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. ), cabbage ( Brassica pekinensis L. ), radish ( Raphanus sativus L. ) and scallion ( Allium fistulosum L. ). [ Method] The allelopathic effects of different cucumber tissues aqueous extracts were investigated on lettuce, cabbage,radish and scallion using the water-soluble allelopathic principle by seedling bioassay tests. [ Result] The trends of inhibitory effects of different cucumber parts increased with increasing extract concentrations. The inhibition effects and the inhibition rate of three aqueous extracts were more significant on root growth than shoot length. Leaf aqueous extracts represented the most exhibited and root aqueous extracts representing the least inhibitory on seed germination, shoot length and root length of lettuce, cabbage, radish and scallion. [Conclusion] This study had provided basis for allelopathic character of different cucumber plant parts.

  18. Enzyme extraction by ultrasound from sludge flocs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Guanghui; HE Pinjing; SHAO Liming; ZHU Yishu

    2009-01-01

    Enzymes play essential roles in the biological processes of sludge treatment. In this article, the ultrasound method to extract enzymes from sludge flocs was presented. Results showed that using ultrasound method at 20 kHz could extract more types of enzymes than that ultrasound at 40 kHz and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) methods. The optimum parameters of ultrasound extraction at 20 kHz were duration of 10 min and power of 480 W. Under the condition, ultrasound could break the cells and extract both the extracellular and intercellular enzymes. Ultrasound power was apparently more susceptive to enzyme extraction than duration, suggesting that the control of power during ultrasound extraction was more important than that of duration. The Pearson correlation analysis between enzyme activities and cation contents revealed that the different types of enzymes had distinct cation binding characteristics.

  19. Lipase and protease extraction from activated sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gessesse, Amare; Dueholm, Thomas; Petersen, Steffen B.;

    2003-01-01

    of gentle and efficient enzyme extraction methods from environmental samples is very important. In this study we present a method for the extraction of lipases and proteases from activated sludge using the non-ionic detergent Triton X-100, EDTA, and cation exchange resin (CER), alone or in combination...... for the extraction of lipases and proteases from activated sludge. The sludge was continuously stirred in the presence of either buffer alone or in the presence of detergent and/or chelating agents. In all cases, a marked reduction in floc size was observed upon continuous stirring. However, no lipase activity...... and negligible protease activity was extracted in the presence of buffer alone, indicating that enzyme extraction was not due to shear force alone. The highest lipase activity was extracted using 0.1% Triton X-100 above which the activity was gradually decreasing. For proteases, the highest activity was obtained...

  20. Extraction, fatty acid profile and antioxidant activity of sesame extract (Sesamum Indicum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    R. H. R. Carvalho; E. L. Galvão; J. Â. C. Barros; M. M. Conceição; E. M. B. D. Sousa

    2012-01-01

    This article carried out the extraction of sesame oil by using three extraction techniques: supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), Soxhlet and sequential extraction. The SFE was performed using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) as solvent and ethanol as cosolvent. Tests were performed at 20 MPa, 35ºC and a flow rate of 2.5 g CO2/min with a total extraction time of 210 minutes. The Soxhlet extraction was performed for 8 hours, using petroleum ether and ethanol as solvents, until the exhaust...

  1. Comparative Studies on the Extraction of Certain Lanthanides from Nitrate Medium by Selected Organophosphorous Extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extraction of the lanthanide elements Ce(III), Nd(III), Sm(III), Eu(III) and Gd(III) from nitrate solution has been investigated using two different extractants namely, di(2- ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP) and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) diluted in kerosene. The different parameters affecting the extraction process have been investigated. TBP was found to be more suitable for the extraction of the lanthanides under investigation. Effect of temperature on the extraction using TBP has been examined to evaluate the change in the standard thermodynamic parameters. The results obtained indicate that the extraction is exothermic and less random in nature

  2. The Extraction and Application of Ginger Oleoresin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩吉庆; 张慧; 姜传世; 崔振蕾

    2014-01-01

    Ginger oleoresin is to present the main substance of ginger spicy flavor and aroma from the ginger extract.How to extract a high concentration of ginger oleoresin from ginger ginger is an important research direction.In this paper, different ginger oleoresin extraction process gives a brief introduction and comparison;Finally the application of ginger oleoresin in food and medicine are introduced in the paper.

  3. PROPOLIS EXTRACT IN POSTHARVEST CONSERVATION BANANA ' PRATA'

    OpenAIRE

    FLÁVIA REGINA PASSOS; FABRÍCIA QUEIROZ MENDES; MARIANA CRIVELARI DA CUNHA; MARIANA TEIXEIRA PIGOZZI; ANDRÉ MUNDSTOCK XAVIER DE CARVALHO

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the present work were evaluated the effects of propolis coatings of various botanical sources on quality traits of bananas cv. Prata (Musa sapientum L.) stored at room temperature. ´Prata´ bananas were selected and submitted to five postharvest treatments: four coatings applied by immersion in propolis extracts at a concentration of 2.5% (w/v) and a control (without coating). Propolis extracts were applied as 1) a wild type aqueous propolis extract, 2) a wild type hydroalcoholic ...

  4. Antityrosinase activity of Euphorbia characias extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Pintus, Francesca; Spanò, Delia; Corona, Angela; Medda, Rosaria

    2015-01-01

    Tyrosinase is a well-known key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis and its inhibitors have become increasingly important because of their potential use as hypopigmenting agents. In the present study, the anti-melanogenic effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts from Euphorbia characias leaves, stems, and flowers in cell-free and cellular systems was examined. All the extracts showed inhibitory effects against mushroom tyrosinase with leaf extracts exhibiting the lowest IC50 values of 24 and 97 µg/...

  5. Automatic Extraction of Protein Interaction in Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Peilei; Wang, Ting

    2014-01-01

    Protein-protein interaction extraction is the key precondition of the construction of protein knowledge network, and it is very important for the research in the biomedicine. This paper extracted directional protein-protein interaction from the biological text, using the SVM-based method. Experiments were evaluated on the LLL05 corpus with good results. The results show that dependency features are import for the protein-protein interaction extraction and features related to the interaction w...

  6. Binary Solvent Extraction System and Extraction Time Effects on Phenolic Antioxidants from Kenaf Seeds (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) Extracted by a Pulsed Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Hua Wong; Hwee Wen Lau; Chin Ping Tan; Kamariah Long; Kar Lin Nyam

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the best parameter for extracting phenolic-enriched kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The antioxidant activities of ultrasonic-assisted kenaf seed extracts (KSE) were determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity assay, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, β -carotene bleaching inhibition assay, and ferric reducing antioxi...

  7. DNA Extraction: Organic and Solid-Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altayari, Wafa

    2016-01-01

    DNA extraction remains a critical step in DNA profiling of biological material recovered from scenes of crime. In the forensic community several methods have gained popularity, including Chelex(®), organic extraction, and solid-phase extraction. While some laboratories streamlined their processes and only use one method we have retained several methods and continue to use these for different sample types. In this chapter we present three methods that have been used for several years in our laboratory. PMID:27259731

  8. DNA extraction from formalin-fixed material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Paula F; Gilbert, Thomas M P

    2012-01-01

    The principal challenges facing PCR-based analyses of DNA extracted from formalin-fixed materials are fragmentation of the DNA and cross-linked protein-DNA complexes. Here, we present an efficient protocol to extract DNA from formalin-fixed or paraffin-embedded tissues (FFPE). In this protocol, protein-DNA cross-links are reversed using heat and alkali treatment, yielding significantly longer fragments and larger amounts of PCR-amplifiable DNA than standard DNA extraction protocols.

  9. Fingerprint Feature Extraction Based on Macroscopic Curvature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiong; He Gui-ming; Zhang Yun

    2003-01-01

    In the Automatic Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS), extracting the feature of fingerprint is very important. The local curvature of ridges of fingerprint is irregular, so people have the barrier to effectively extract the fingerprint curve features to describe fingerprint. This article proposes a novel algorithm; it embraces information of few nearby fingerprint ridges to extract a new characteristic which can describe the curvature feature of fingerprint. Experimental results show the algorithm is feasible, and the characteristics extracted by it can clearly show the inner macroscopic curve properties of fingerprint. The result also shows that this kind of characteristic is robust to noise and pollution.

  10. Fingerprint Feature Extraction Based on Macroscopic Curvature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang; Xiong; He; Gui-Ming; 等

    2003-01-01

    In the Automatic Fingerprint Identification System(AFIS), extracting the feature of fingerprint is very important. The local curvature of ridges of fingerprint is irregular, so people have the barrier to effectively extract the fingerprint curve features to describe fingerprint. This article proposes a novel algorithm; it embraces information of few nearby fingerprint ridges to extract a new characterstic which can describe the curvature feature of fingerprint. Experimental results show the algorithm is feasible, and the characteristics extracted by it can clearly show the inner macroscopic curve properties of fingerprint. The result also shows that this kind of characteristic is robust to noise and pollution.

  11. Extraction of radioactive cesium from tea leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive contamination of foodstuffs attributed to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster has become a social problem. This study investigated the extraction of radioactive cesium from the contaminated leaves to the tea. The green tea was brewed twice reusing the same leaves to study the difference in extraction of cesium between the first and second brew. Moreover, the extraction of cesium was studied in correlation to brewing time. The concentration of radioactive cesium was determined with gamma spectrometry, and the concentration of caffeine was determined with absorption spectrometry. About 40% of cesium was extracted from leaves in the first brew, and about 80% was extracted in the second brew. The extraction of cesium increased over time, and it reached about 80% after 10 minutes brew. The ratio of radioactive cesium to caffeine decreased linearly over time. This study revealed that the extraction of cesium was higher for the second brew, and a rapid increase in extraction was seen as the tea was brewed for 6 minutes and more. Therefore, the first brew of green tea, which was brewed within 5 minutes, contained the least extraction of radioactive cesium from the contaminated leaves. (author)

  12. Production of Ice Cream with Cola Extract

    OpenAIRE

    DERVİŞOĞLU, Muhammet; Yazici, Fehmi

    2001-01-01

    In this study, the use of cola extract and cola flavor in ice cream production were investigated. Cola extract was used at rates of between 0 and 1.5% based on mix weight. The samples with Na2CO3 (between 0 and 20% and based on the weight of cola extract) were used to balance the acidic taste of the samples due to the low pH of the cola extract. Cola flavor was used at rates of between 0 and 0.15% based on mix weight. According to the sensory evaluation results, the ice cream containing 0.75...

  13. A Line Extraction Algorithm for Hand Drawings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵明

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for extracting lines from hand drawings.It starts from contour pixel tracing,fits them into contour segments,and then extracts skeleton lines from the contour segments.The algorithm finds all contours in one scan of the input matrix without detecting and marking multiple pixels.In line extraction,the method Elastic Contour Segment Tracing is proposed which extracts lines by referring to the contour segments at both sides,overcoming noise and passing through blotted areas by fitting and extrapolation. Experiments on free hand mechanical drawings,sketches,letter/numerals,as well as Chinese characters are carried out and satisfactory results are achieved.

  14. Cytotoxic Effects of Bangladeshi Medicinal Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh J. Uddin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the cytotoxic effect of some Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts, 16 Bangladeshi medicinal plants were successively extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3 and three human cancer-cell lines (gastric: AGS; colon: HT-29; and breast: MDA-MB-435S using the MTT assay. Two methanolic extracts (Hygrophila auriculata and Hibiscus tiliaceous and one aqueous extract (Limnophila indica showed no toxicity against healthy mouse fibroblasts, but selective cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells (IC50 1.1–1.6 mg mL−1. Seven methanolic extracts from L. indica, Clerodendron inerme, Cynometra ramiflora, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Argemone mexicana, Ammannia baccifera and Acrostichum aureum and four aqueous extracts from Hygrophila auriculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, X. moluccensis and Aegiceras corniculatum showed low toxicity (IC50 > 2.5 mg mL−1 against mouse fibroblasts but selective cytotoxicity (IC50 0.2–2.3 mg mL−1 against different cancer cell lines. The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity (IC50 0.01–0.08 mg mL−1 against all tested cell lines among all extracts tested in this study. For some of the plants their traditional use as anticancer treatments correlates with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others so far unknown cytotoxic activities were identified.

  15. Automatic Keyword Extraction from Individual Documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Stuart J.; Engel, David W.; Cramer, Nicholas O.; Cowley, Wendy E.

    2010-05-03

    This paper introduces a novel and domain-independent method for automatically extracting keywords, as sequences of one or more words, from individual documents. We describe the method’s configuration parameters and algorithm, and present an evaluation on a benchmark corpus of technical abstracts. We also present a method for generating lists of stop words for specific corpora and domains, and evaluate its ability to improve keyword extraction on the benchmark corpus. Finally, we apply our method of automatic keyword extraction to a corpus of news articles and define metrics for characterizing the exclusivity, essentiality, and generality of extracted keywords within a corpus.

  16. Light extraction block with curved surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levermore, Peter; Krall, Emory; Silvernail, Jeffrey; Rajan, Kamala; Brown, Julia J.

    2016-03-22

    Light extraction blocks, and OLED lighting panels using light extraction blocks, are described, in which the light extraction blocks include various curved shapes that provide improved light extraction properties compared to parallel emissive surface, and a thinner form factor and better light extraction than a hemisphere. Lighting systems described herein may include a light source with an OLED panel. A light extraction block with a three-dimensional light emitting surface may be optically coupled to the light source. The three-dimensional light emitting surface of the block may includes a substantially curved surface, with further characteristics related to the curvature of the surface at given points. A first radius of curvature corresponding to a maximum principal curvature k.sub.1 at a point p on the substantially curved surface may be greater than a maximum height of the light extraction block. A maximum height of the light extraction block may be less than 50% of a maximum width of the light extraction block. Surfaces with cross sections made up of line segments and inflection points may also be fit to approximated curves for calculating the radius of curvature.

  17. Metal extraction by amides of carboxylic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extraction ability of various amides was studied. Data on extraction of rare earths, vanadium, molybdenum, rhenium, uranium, niobium, tantalum by N,N-dibutyl-amides of acetic, nonanic acids and fatly synthetic acids of C7-C9 fractions are presented. Effect of salting-out agents, inorganic acid concentrations on extraction process was studied. Potential ability of using amides of carboxylic acids for extractional concentration of rare earths as well as for recovery and separation of iron, rhenium, vanadium, molybdenum, uranium, niobium, and tantalum was shown

  18. Órganos de vigilancia y la crisis bursátil de 2012 en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanza Blanco Barón

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo es hacer una evaluación del marco institucional de la supervisión de las actividades de intermediación de valores, en particular de las sociedades comisionistas de bolsa, para mostrar que, si bien existen múltiples organizaciones internas y externas a las firmas que se cruzan en sus funciones, dicho marco institucional puede ser costoso e ineficiente para períodos de normalidad, y más aún, sería insuficiente para situaciones de crisis. Así, a partir de un marco teórico basado en la vertiente no clásica del Análisis Económico del Derecho, como es la economía neoinstitucional, que incluye la definición de un marco institucional adecuado para la supervisión del mercado de valores; la regulación / supervisión regulación basada en riesgo, y el enforcement, tanto en su sentido amplio de verificación de obtención de los objetivos de la regulación –de arriba hacia abajo–, como en su versión restringida, aproximando este último al de eficacia –de abajo hacia arriba–, se realiza un ejercicio de aplicación para períodos de normalidad y para situaciones de crisis, aprovechando al efecto lo acontecido con la sociedad comisionista de bolsa InterBolsa a fines de 2012.

  19. Estimación del riesgo bursátil peruano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Zevallos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo son comparadas dos metodologías para estimar el Valor en Riesgo (VaR del Índice General de la Bolsa de Valores de Lima (IGBVL durante el periodo 2000-2006. Específicamente son utilizados el método RiskmetricsTM y el método de regresión cuantílica CAViaR, propuesto por Engle y Manganelli (2004. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que, en periodos de baja volatilidad o para VaR 95%, los VaR estimados por los dos métodos son próximos, pero se observan diferencias importantes en periodos de alta volatilidad, especialmente para VaR 99%.

  20. Órganos de vigilancia y la crisis bursátil de 2012 en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Constanza Blanco Barón

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo es hacer una evaluación del marco institucional de la supervisión de las actividades de intermediación de valores, en particular de las sociedades comisionistas de bolsa, para mostrar que, si bien existen múltiples organizaciones internas y externas a las firmas que se cruzan en sus funciones, dicho marco institucional puede ser costoso e ineficiente para períodos de normalidad, y más aún, sería insuficiente para situaciones de crisis. Así, a partir de un marco teórico basado en l...

  1. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Dampierre-en-Burly nuclear facilities - 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 84 and 85). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2013, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  2. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Dampierre-en-Burly nuclear facilities - 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 84 and 85). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2014, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  3. Acid Release from an Acid Sulfate Soil Sample Under Successive Extractions with Different Extractants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    An acid sulfate soil sample was successively extracted with deionized water, 1 mol L-1 KCI and 0.000 5 mol L-1 Ca(OH)2 solutions. The results showed that only very small amounts of acidity were extracted by deionized water, possibly through slow jarosite hydrolysis. Acid release through jarosite hydrolysis was greatly enhanced by Ca(OH)2 extraction at the expense of the added OH- being neutralized by the acid released. Successive extraction of the sample with KCI removed the largest amounts of acidity from the sample. However, it is likely that the major form of acidity released by KC1 extraction was exchangeable acidity. The results also show the occurrence of low or non charged A1 and Fe species in water and Ca(OH)2 extracts after first a few extractions. It appears that such a phenomenon was related to a decreasing EC value with increasing number of extractions.

  4. Extraction of betulin from bark of Betula platyphylla by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu-hong; YU Tao; WANG Yang

    2003-01-01

    Betulin, which is a medicinal pentacyclic triterpene, is abundant in the bark of white birch (Betula platyphlly). The bark of birch was collected at Tayuan Forest Farm of Jiagedaqi, Heilongjiang Province in September 2000. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) that is a new separation technology has been used for the processing pharmaceutical and natural products. In this paper, the extraction of betulin from the bark of birch by supercritical CO2 extraction was studied. The authors investigated and analyzed a few parameters such as modifier dosage, extraction pressure and extraction temperature. The optimal extraction conditions showed that the modifier dosage used for per gram bark powder was 1.5 mL, the extraction pressure was at 20 Mpa, and the extraction temperature was at 55 ℃. The velocity of flow of liquid CO2 was at 10 kg/h. The pressure and temperature in separation vessel were at 5.5 Mpa and 50 ℃, respectively.

  5. Extraction of glabridin with heat reflux extraction by response surface analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-ying DING

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the extraction process of glabridin from Glycyrrhiza glabra. Methods: The solid-liquid ratio, extraction time and extraction temperature are the three main factors in the experiment, and the extract solvent is ethyl acetate. Establish the response surface quadratic regression equation of glabridin extraction rate and purity. Results:The results indicate that the optimum conditions for glabridin are as follows: solvent is ethyl acetate, extraction time is 90 min, the ratio of solvent to solid is 35 ∶1 (ml/g, and extraction temperature is 44.7 ℃, purity and the maximum yield of Extraction of glabridin are 6.96% and 0.241%, The validation test shows that the experimental values of the model are 0.235% and 6.05% . Conclusion: The model equation can predict the experimental results, it can be used as reference in industrial production. 

  6. The Effect of Different Extracting Agents on Extraction Rate of Polysaccharides in Shii- Takes from Guizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Herba Glossogynes Tenuifoliae (Shii-Take) contains lots of bioactive components, such as equal amylose, mixed amylose, sugar albumen, albumen polysaccharide, proflin and so on, that all have effects of anticancer and restrain tumour. But the extraction rate by hot water and alkali solution is much low. Different Shii-Takes contain polysaccharides with different properties and structures, such as acid-base property, solubility, stability and so on. So the property of extracting agent is one of important effects on extraction rate, in addition cell structures of Shii-Takes. Extraction of polysaccharides from four species of Herba Glossogynes Tenuifoliae (Shii-Take) from Guizhou in different extracting agents is studied in this paper. Extraction conditions are 0.5mol/L aqueous solution of extracting agents, 40 times of weight ratio of liquid and solid during 1hour at 60℃. The quantities of the polysaccharides extracted shows the following Table 1.

  7. The Effect of Different Extracting Agents on Extraction Rate of Polysaccharides in Shii- Takes from Guizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MO; Liping

    2001-01-01

    Herba Glossogynes Tenuifoliae (Shii-Take) contains lots of bioactive components, such as equal amylose, mixed amylose, sugar albumen, albumen polysaccharide, proflin and so on, that all have effects of anticancer and restrain tumour. But the extraction rate by hot water and alkali solution is much low.  Different Shii-Takes contain polysaccharides with different properties and structures, such as acid-base property, solubility, stability and so on. So the property of extracting agent is one of important effects on extraction rate, in addition cell structures of Shii-Takes. Extraction of polysaccharides from four species of Herba Glossogynes Tenuifoliae (Shii-Take) from Guizhou in different extracting agents is studied in this paper. Extraction conditions are 0.5mol/L aqueous solution of extracting agents, 40 times of weight ratio of liquid and solid during 1hour at 60℃. The quantities of the polysaccharides extracted shows the following Table 1.……

  8. Extraction Techniques for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Lau

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide a review of the analytical extraction techniques for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in soils. The extraction technologies described here include Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic and mechanical agitation, accelerated solvent extraction, supercritical and subcritical fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, solid phase extraction and microextraction, thermal desorption and flash pyrolysis, as well as fluidised-bed extraction. The influencing factors in the extraction of PAHs from soil such as temperature, type of solvent, soil moisture, and other soil characteristics are also discussed. The paper concludes with a review of the models used to describe the kinetics of PAH desorption from soils during solvent extraction.

  9. Design of a high current extraction/strypping system using extraction and stripping isotherms

    OpenAIRE

    Danovska, Milena; Karanfilov, Dejan; Golomeova, Mirjana; Krstev, Boris; Zendelska, Afrodita

    2015-01-01

    The isotherms define the capacity of some extragent for its capability to extract required metal (in this case copper). They are used to evaluate how the system extraction/stripping works, or expected to work. The construction of extraction isotherm consists of the following stages: preparation of laboratory extragent, the organic phase is brought into contact with the electrolyte, optimization of the extraction equilibrium isotherm. Similarly, construct and stripping isotherm: or...

  10. Handling uncertainty in relation extraction: a case study on tennis tournament results extraction from tweets

    OpenAIRE

    Verburg, Jochem; Habib, Mena; Keulen, van, S.

    2015-01-01

    Relation extraction involves different types of uncertainty due to the imperfection of the extraction tools and the inherent ambiguity of unstructured text. In this paper, we discuss several ways of handling uncertainties in relation extraction from social media. Our study case is to extract tennis games’ results for two Grand Slam tennis tournaments from tweets. Analysis has been done to find to what extent it is useful to use semantic web, domain knowledge, facts repetition, and authors’ tr...

  11. Sustainable extraction of molecules for human food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical products: extraction in supercritical fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since several years, the ENEA Innovation Laboratory for Agro-Industrial, proposed activities of research and development of extraction processes with supercritical fluids (SFE, Supercritical Fluid Extraction), focusing on sustainability characteristics of the process. The technique, in fact, makes no use of organic solvents, has a low energy consumption and requires a lower number of process steps compared to conventional extractions. The process also responds to the requirements imposed by the legislation for human food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical extracts.

  12. Optimisation of extraction and sludge dewatering efficiencies of bio-flocculants extracted from Abelmoschus esculentus (okra)

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Siah Lee; Chong, Mei Fong; Robinson, John P.; Binner, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    The production of natural biopolymers as flocculants for water treatment is highly desirable due to their inherent low toxicity and low environmental footprint. In this study, bio-flocculants were extracted from Hibiscus/Abelmoschus esculentus (okra) by using a water extraction method, and the extract yield and its performance in sludge dewatering were evaluated. Single factor experimental design was employed to obtain the optimum conditions for extraction temperature (25–90 °C), time (0.25–5...

  13. Effects of cyclohexane/acetone ratio on bixin extraction yield by accelerated solvent extraction method

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmalia, Winda; Fabre, Jean-François; Mouloungui, Zephirin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) was applied to the quantitative extraction of bixin. The effects of cyclohexane/ acetone ratios on bixin extraction yield were evaluated. Acetone was used in the process of pigment extraction and also played a major role in its analysis by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Pure cis-bixin isolated by flash chromatography and characterized by Fourier Transform Infra Red spectrometry was used as a bixin standard for qualitative and quantitative analysi...

  14. Metal Concentrations in Soil Paste Extracts as Affected by Extraction Ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Filip M.G. Tack; Nic Dezillie; Verloo, Marc G.

    2002-01-01

    Saturated paste extracts are sometimes used to estimate metal levels in the soil solution. To assess the significance of heavy-metal concentrations measured in saturation extracts, soil paste extracts were prepared with distilled water in amounts ranging from 60–200% of the moisture content at saturation. Trace metals behaved as if a small pool consistently was dissolved independent of the extraction ratio applied. Metal concentrations in the solution hence were not buffered by the solid phas...

  15. Sustainable extraction of molecules for potable alcohol, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals: extraction in supercritical fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since many years the Laboratory of Agro-Industrial Innovation (UTAGRI-INN) ENEA proposed research and development of extraction processes with supercritical fluids (SFE, Supercritical Fluid Extraction), aiming on the sustainability of the process characteristics. The technique, in fact, makes no use of organic solvents, It has reduced energy consumption and requires a number of process step lower than the extractions traditional. The process also responds to the requirements required by the regulations for food use, cosmetics and pharmaceutical extracts.

  16. Antioxidant and Antibacterial Assays on Polygonum minus Extracts: Different Extraction Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Norsyamimi Hassim; Masturah Markom; Nurina Anuar; Kurnia Harlina Dewi; Syarul Nataqain Baharum; Normah Mohd Noor

    2015-01-01

    The effect of solvent type and extraction method was investigated to study the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Polygonum minus. Two extraction methods were used: a solvent extraction using Soxhlet apparatus and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). The antioxidant capacity was evaluated using the ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and the free radical-scavenging capacity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The highest polyphenol content was obtained from the m...

  17. Language extraction from zinc sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varn, Dowman Parks

    2001-09-01

    Recent advances in the analysis of one-dimensional temporal and spacial series allow for detailed characterization of disorder and computation in physical systems. One such system that has defied theoretical understanding since its discovery in 1912 is polytypism. Polytypes are layered compounds, exhibiting crystallinity in two dimensions, yet having complicated stacking sequences in the third direction. They can show both ordered and disordered sequences, sometimes each in the same specimen. We demonstrate a method for extracting two-layer correlation information from ZnS diffraction patterns and employ a novel technique for epsilon-machine reconstruction. We solve a long-standing problem---that of determining structural information for disordered materials from their diffraction patterns---for this special class of disorder. Our solution offers the most complete possible statistical description of the disorder. Furthermore, from our reconstructed epsilon-machines we find the effective range of the interlayer interaction in these materials, as well as the configurational energy of both ordered and disordered specimens. Finally, we can determine the 'language' (in terms of the Chomsky Hierarchy) these small rocks speak, and we find that regular languages are sufficient to describe them.

  18. Extracting entanglement from identical particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killoran, N; Cramer, M; Plenio, M B

    2014-04-18

    Identical particles and entanglement are both fundamental components of quantum mechanics. However, when identical particles are condensed in a single spatial mode, the standard notions of entanglement, based on clearly identifiable subsystems, break down. This has led many to conclude that such systems have limited value for quantum information tasks, compared to distinguishable particle systems. To the contrary, we show that any entanglement formally appearing amongst the identical particles, including entanglement due purely to symmetrization, can be extracted into an entangled state of independent modes, which can then be applied to any task. In fact, the entanglement of the mode system is in one-to-one correspondence with the entanglement between the inaccessible identical particles. This settles the long-standing debate about the resource capabilities of such states, in particular spin-squeezed states of Bose-Einstein condensates, while also revealing a new perspective on how and when entanglement is generated in passive optical networks. Our results thus reveal new fundamental connections between entanglement, squeezing, and indistinguishability.

  19. Rapid extraction of PCDD/Fs from soil and fly ash samples. Pressurized fluid extraction (PFE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz, P.; Fabrellas, B. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain)

    2004-09-15

    The main reference extraction method in the analysis of polychlorinated dibenzop- dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) is still the Soxhlet extraction. But it requires long extraction times (up to 24 hs), large volumes of hazardous organic solvents (100-300 ml) and its automation is limited. Pressurized Fluid Extraction (PFE) and Microwave-Assisted Extraction (MAE) are two relatively new extraction techniques that reduce the time and the volume of solvent required for extraction. However, very different PFE extraction conditions are found for the same enviromental matrices in the literature. MAE is not a extraction technique very applied for the analysis of PCDD/Fs yet, although it is used for the determination of other organic compounds, such as PCBs and PAHs. In this study, PFE and MAE extraction conditions were optimized to determine PCDDs y PCDFs in fly ash and soil/sediment samples. Conventional Soxhlet extraction with toluene was used to compare the extraction efficiency of both techniques.

  20. Effect of different extraction protocols on anticancer and antioxidant activities of Berberis koreana bark extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadir, Syed Abdul; Kwon, Min Chul; Han, Jae Gun; Ha, Ji He; Chung, Hyang Suk; Ahn, Juhee; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2009-03-01

    High-pressure extraction and ultrasonification extraction techniques were employed to extract bioactive compounds from Berberis koreana. This study aimed to determine the effect of ultrasonification in a high pressure process on the extraction yield, and the anticancer and antioxidant activities of the B. koreana bark extract. The effect of high-pressure extraction time when carried out for 5 and 15 min (HP5 and HP15) was also investigated. The best extraction yield with maximum percentage of phenolic compounds was obtained using high pressure with sonification (HPWS) extraction method. Experimental results indicated that HPWS altered the antioxidant activities, including the scavenging capacity of diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and xanthine oxidase. HP5 and HP15 with conventional extraction have almost similar bioactivity, but showed lower antioxidant and anticancer activities compared to HPWS. The results showed that the application of ultrasonification improved the extraction efficiency for bioactive compounds and, as deduced from chromatographic profiles, it may have allowed the release of new compounds. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed evidence of rupturing of the tissue surface treated with HPWS, in contrast to conventional extraction, HP5, and HP15. The HPWS extraction was not only more efficient but also convenient for the recovery and purification of the active compounds of hard plant tissues. PMID:19269602

  1. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY, TOTAL PHENOLIC AND FLAVONOID CONTENT OF MORINDA CITRIFOLIA FRUIT EXTRACTS FROM VARIOUS EXTRACTION PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRAVEEN K. RAMAMOORTHY

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Soxhlet, Ultrasonic extract of Morinda citrifolia L. fruit and four extracts from high pressure extraction at 10 MPa using ethanol, ethyl acetate as solvent and dried by vacuum oven and spray dryer were analyzed for their antioxidant activity by peroxide value method and diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. The five extracts along with the reference samples, butylated hydroxyl toluene and tannic acid were further analyzed to determine their total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteau method and total flavonoid content by Dowd method. The M. citrifolia extract by high pressure extraction with ethyl acetate as solvent and spray dried was found to exhibit highest antioxidant activity and total flavonoid content. High total phenolic content was determined in the high pressure extract using ethyl acetate as solvent and vacuum dried. It was interesting to note that ultrasonic extract exhibited significant antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content. High pressure extracted M. citrifolia in ethanol was found to express lesser values comparatively. The significant difference in activity among the high pressure extracts was found to be due to the polarity of the solvents used for extraction as M. citrifolia fruit contains relatively larger quantity of non-polar antioxidant compounds. It was also found that the drying methods had significant impact on the antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content of the extracts.

  2. Kinetics and thermodynamics of cottonseed oil extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxena, D. K.; Sharma, S. K.

    2011-07-01

    Petroleum derived n-hexane is commercially used in solvent extraction plants due to its higher extraction efficiency in spite of the fact that it is graded as highly toxic and hazardous. The present study is based on the use of both a much safer and non toxic solvent ethanol and n-hexane for the extraction of oil from cottonseed. The extraction data were obtained by varying temperature, solvent-solid ratio and particle size, to compare the extraction efficiency of both ethanol and n-hexane. The data show that nearly the same amount of extraction is possible at a higher solvent-solid ratio for both the solvents. This study has established that the kinetics of oil extraction follows a second order reaction mechanism. The thermodynamic analysis of the data shows that both .{delta}H degree centigrade and {delta}G degree centigrade are positive, and {delta}G degree centigrade is negative indicating that the extraction process is endothermic, irreversible, and spontaneous. (Author) 41 refs.

  3. WEB CONTENT EXTRACTION USING HYBRID APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nethra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The World Wide Web has rich source of voluminous and heterogeneous information which continues to expand in size and complexity. Many Web pages are unstructured and semi-structured, so it consists of noisy information like advertisement, links, headers, footers etc. This noisy information makes extraction of Web content tedious. Many techniques that were proposed for Web content extraction are based on automatic extraction and hand crafted rule generation. Automatic extraction technique is done through Web page segmentation, but it increases the time complexity. Hand crafted rule generation uses string manipulation function for rule generation, but generating those rules is very difficult. A hybrid approach is proposed to extract main content from Web pages. A HTML Web page is converted to DOM tree and features are extracted and with the extracted features, rules are generated. Decision tree classification and Naïve Bayes classification are machine learning methods used for rules generation. By using the rules, noisy part in the Web page is discarded and informative content in the Web page is extracted. The performance of both decision tree classification and Naïve Bayes classification are measured with metrics like precision, recall, F-measure and accuracy.

  4. Selective electromembrane extraction based on isoelectric point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2015-01-01

    , and the target remained in the acceptor solution. The acceptor solution pH, the SLM composition, the extraction voltage, and the extraction time during the clean-up process (step #2) were important factors influencing the separation performance. An acceptor solution pH of 5.25 for the clean-up process slightly...

  5. Ranking XPaths for extracting search result records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trieschnigg, Dolf; Tjin-Kam-Jet, Kien; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    2012-01-01

    Extracting search result records (SRRs) from webpages is useful for building an aggregated search engine which combines search results from a variety of search engines. Most automatic approaches to search result extraction are not portable: the complete process has to be rerun on a new search result

  6. Idioms-based Business Rule Extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, R

    2011-01-01

    This thesis studies the extraction of embedded business rules, using the idioms of the used framework to identify them. Embedded business rules exist as source code in the software system and knowledge about them may get lost. Extraction of those business rules could make them accessible and managea

  7. REMEDIATING PESTICIDE CONTAMINATED SOILS USING SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bench-scale solvent extraction studies were performed on soil samples obtained from a Superfund site contaminated with high levels of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD,, p,p'-DDE and toxaphene. The effectiveness of the solvent extraction process was assessed using methanol and 2-propanol as sol...

  8. Immunochemical and biological quantification of peanut extract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.; Pedersen, Mona H; Platzer, Michael;

    2003-01-01

    Biological standardization of allergen extracts is one of the steps in the characterization of an extract. The gold standard for determination of biological potency is the skin prick test, but histamine release (HR) has been used as a convenient ex vivo method for analyzing a large number...

  9. Purification of trioctylphosphine oxide by liquid extracting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many methods of TOPO synthesis are known in the litterature. Neverthless, the purification methods still unknown or quite known. In this work, we have proposed to develop a new method of purification and we have used the extraction properties of TOPO. This method consist to extracting the molybdene with TOPO in acid medium

  10. System for Information Extraction from News Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanov, Tihomir

    2015-01-01

    The present paper deals with a system for crawling and content extraction from news sites. The system of web crawlers extracts textual and graphic information and checks for multimedia content availability. A part of the programming code and the database have been presented.

  11. Acoustic Signal Feature Extraction of Vehicle Targets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝金辉; 马宝华; 李科杰

    2002-01-01

    Acoustic signal feature extraction is an important part of target recognition. The mechanisms for producing acoustic signals and their propagation are analyzed to extract the features of the radiated noise from different targets. Analysis of the acoustic spectra of typical vehicle targets acquired outdoors shows that the vehicles can be classified based on the acoustic spectra and amplitudes.

  12. ANXIOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF OCIMUM SANCTUM LEAF EXTRACT

    OpenAIRE

    R R Chattopadhyay

    1994-01-01

    The anxiolytic activity of Ocimum sanctum leaf extract was studied in mice. O.sanctum leaf extract produced significant anxiolytic activity in plus – maze and open field behaviour test models. The effect was compared with diazepam, a standard antianxiety drug.

  13. Soil moisture by extraction and gas chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merek, E. L.; Carle, G. C.

    1973-01-01

    To determine moisture content of soils rapidly and conveniently extract moisture with methanol and determine water content of methanol extract by gas chromatography. Moisture content of sample is calculated from weight of water and methanol in aliquot and weight of methanol added to sample.

  14. DNA Extraction Techniques for Use in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, R. P.; Arblaster, K. E.

    2010-01-01

    DNA extraction provides a hands-on introduction to DNA and enables students to gain real life experience and practical knowledge of DNA. Students gain a sense of ownership and are more enthusiastic when they use their own DNA. A cost effective, simple protocol for DNA extraction and visualization was devised. Buccal mucosal epithelia provide a…

  15. Extraction Optimization of Polysaccharides from Pitaya Stems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Cong-fen; LI Peng; ZHAO Hua; SONG Li-ya; ZHU Jun; DONG Yin-mao

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to describe the extraction of polysaccharides from pitaya stems.[Method] The hot water,enzyme-assisted and microwave-assisted methods were used,with the microwave-assisted extraction being deemed optimal by general evaluation.[Result] The main factors affecting the yield of polysaccharides in the microwave-assisted extraction,by order of magnitude,were as follows:timemicrowave powertemperature;additionally,optimal conditions included a 10 min extraction time,an 80 ℃ extraction temperature and a microwave setting of 200 W.Using these optimal conditions,the yield of PSPS(Polysaccharides from Pitaya Stems) was 1.42%.After purification,the yield of PSPS was 0.74%.[Conclusion] The PSPS was analyzed by IR,MALDI-TOF-MS and an element analysis technique.It was shown to be a polysaccharide mixture,and the molecular weight was between 3 900 and 4 300 Da.

  16. Time profile of the slowly extracted beam

    CERN Document Server

    Pullia, M

    1997-01-01

    An important spin-off from accelerators is the use of synchrotrons for cancer therapy. For this application a precise control of the slow extraction is needed to satisfy the medical specifications for the online measurement and control of the delivered dose. This has led to a renewed interest in the basic theory of third-order resonance extraction. In the present paper, an analytic study of the time profile of the extracted beam is made by first considering the time profile of an elementary strip of monoenergetic particles from the side of the shrinking stable triangle. This basic result is then used to predict the characteristics of the spills for the most common extraction configurations. The influence of ripples whose period is comparable to the transit time of a particle in the resonance is also analyzed. Simulations of the extraction process that confirm the analytic study are included.

  17. Nondestructive DNA extraction from museum specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofreiter, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Natural history museums around the world hold millions of animal and plant specimens that are potentially amenable to genetic analyses. With more and more populations and species becoming extinct, the importance of these specimens for phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses is rapidly increasing. However, as most DNA extraction methods damage the specimens, nondestructive extraction methods are useful to balance the demands of molecular biologists, morphologists, and museum curators. Here, I describe a method for nondestructive DNA extraction from bony specimens (i.e., bones and teeth). In this method, the specimens are soaked in extraction buffer, and DNA is then purified from the soaking solution using adsorption to silica. The method reliably yields mitochondrial and often also nuclear DNA. The method has been adapted to DNA extraction from other types of specimens such as arthropods.

  18. Extraction of bioactive carbohydrates from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) external bracts using microwave assisted extraction and pressurized liquid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Aceituno, Laura; García-Sarrió, M Jesús; Alonso-Rodriguez, Belén; Ramos, Lourdes; Sanz, M Luz

    2016-04-01

    Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) methods using water as solvent have been optimized by means of a Box-Behnken and 3(2) composite experimental designs, respectively, for the effective extraction of bioactive carbohydrates (inositols and inulin) from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) external bracts. MAE at 60 °C for 3 min of 0.3 g of sample allowed the extraction of slightly higher concentrations of inositol than PLE at 75 °C for 26.7 min (11.6 mg/g dry sample vs. 7.6 mg/g dry sample). On the contrary, under these conditions, higher concentrations of inulin were extracted with the latter technique (185.4 mg/g vs. 96.4 mg/g dry sample), considering two successive extraction cycles for both techniques. Both methodologies can be considered appropriate for the simultaneous extraction of these bioactive carbohydrates from this particular industrial by-product. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that these techniques are applied for this purpose.

  19. Effect of surface roughness of cavity preparations on the microleakage of Class V resin composite restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shook, Larry W; Turner, Edgar W; Ross, Judith; Scarbecz, Mark

    2003-01-01

    This study determined whether surface roughness of the internal walls of a Class V resin composite preparation, using a carbide bur, a medium-grit diamond bur and a fine-grit diamond bur, affected the degree of microleakage of the restoration. The facial and lingual surfaces of 45 non-carious extracted human molars provided 90 samples for evaluation. The specimen surfaces were assigned randomly in equal numbers to one of three groups (n = 30). Conservative Class V composite preparations were made using one of three different burs: a 330-carbide bur, a 330 fine-grit diamond bur or a 330 medium-grit diamond bur (Brasseler USA). After acid etching, PQ1 (Ultradent Products Inc) primer/bonding resin and Vitalescence (Ultradent Products Inc) were applied and cured following the manufacturers' instructions. After minor finishing, the apices of all root surfaces were sealed with Vitrebond (3M), and the unprepared external surfaces were sealed with nail polish to within 1 mm of the restoration margins. The specimens were stored in distilled water at room temperature for 24 hours, then subjected to 1,200 thermocycles at 5 degrees C and 55 degrees C with a 30-second dwell time. After cycling, the teeth were immersed in a 5% solution of methylene blue dye for 12 hours. The molars were invested in clear acrylic casting resin, labeled, then sectioned once vertically approximately midway through the facial and lingual surfaces using a diamond coated saw blade. Microleakage was evaluated using a 10x microscope for the enamel and cementum surfaces and blindly scored by two independent examiners. In all cases, regardless of the examiner, at both the enamel and the dentin margins, the analysis revealed no statistically significant differences in microleakage across bur types. Further results show that dentin margins leaked significantly more than enamel margins for all bur types.

  20. Isolation and Extraction of Total Flavonoids from Epimedium Koreanum Nakai by Supercritical Fluid Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chun-ming; ZHAO Xue-liang; LIU Zhi-qiang; XING Jun-peng

    2004-01-01

    In the present paper is reported the method for the isolation and extraction of total flavonoids of Epimedium Koreanum Nakai by means of supercritical fluid extraction(SFE). By examining pressure, temperature, amounts of modifier and extraction time, the optimized condition of SFE is confirmed as 30 MPa and 60 ℃, with 70% ethanol as the modifier. The samples were statically extracted for 30 min, followed by dynamic extraction for 120 min at a flow rate of 6 mL/min. The quantitative analysis of total flavonoids was performed by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Compared with the conventional method, the SFE method is more efficient, more rapid and more friendly environmentally.

  1. Clinical research of persimmon leaf extract and ginkgo biloba extract in the treatment of vertebrobasilar insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, S G; Guan, S H; Wang, G M; Liu, G Y; Sun, H; Wang, B J; Xu, F

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to compare the curative effects of persimmon leaf extract and ginkgo biloba extract in the treatment of headache and dizziness caused by vertebrobasilar insufficiency. Sixty patients were observed, who underwent therapy with persimmon leaf extract and ginkgo biloba extract based on the treatment of nimodipine and aspirin. After 30 days, 30 patients treated with persimmon leaf extract and 30 patients with ginkgo biloba extract were examined for changes in hemodynamic indexes and symptoms, such as headache and dizziness. The results showed statistically significant differences of 88.3% for the persimmon leaf extract and 73.1% for the ginkgo biloba extract, P ginkgo biloba extract, the group of persimmon leaf extract had more apparent improvement in the whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, fibrinogen, hematokrit, and platelet adhesion rate, and the difference was statistically significant (P ginkgo biloba extract in many aspects, such as cerebral circulation improvement, cerebral vascular expansion, hypercoagulable state lowering and vertebrobasilar insufficiency-induced headache and dizziness relief.

  2. Effect of Temperature on the Color of Natural Dyes Extracted Using Pressurized Hot Water Extraction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nursyamirah A. Razak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Traditionally, extraction of natural dyes with boiling method produced only one single tone of colorant/dyes which involved plenty of water in several hours of extraction time. A new modern extraction technique should be introduced especially to textile dyers so that a variety of tone of colorants can be produced in a shorter time with less consumption of water. Approach: This study demonstrated Pressurized Hot Water Extraction (PHWE as a new technique to extract colorants from a selected plant, i.e., Xylocarpus moluccensis species which can be found abundantly in Peninsular Malaysia. Colorant from the heartwood of Xylocarpus moluccensis was extracted at different elevated temperatures, from 50°C up to 150°C using PHWE technique and the extracts obtained were compared to those obtained via boiling method at 100°C. The color strength of dye extracts was then analyzed using UV-Visible spectrophotometer and Video Spectral Comparator (VSC 5000. The effect of the extraction temperatures on the color of extracts obtained by PHWE was also investigated. Results: Results show that the colorimetric data obtained from VSC reading exhibited the exact tone of colors found in anthraquinone. UV-Visible spectrum also shows that higher absorbance of natural dyes extracted via PHWE compared to those obtained by boiling method. Conclusion: By using PHWE employed at different elevated temperatures, different tones of colorants can be produced from one single source in a shorter time with less consumption of water.

  3. Extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from smoked fish using pressurized liquid extraction with integrated fat removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mette; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Christensen, Jan H.

    2009-01-01

    extraction with fat retention in one single analytical step. The PLE parameters: type of fat retainer, flush volume, solvent composition, fat-to-fat retainer ratio (FFR), and the dimensions of the extraction cells were the most important factors for obtaining fat-free extracts with high recoveries of PAHs. A...... 100 mL extraction cell filled with 18 g activated silica gel, dichloromethane:hexane (15:85, v/v) as extraction solvent, FFR of 0.025 and 100% flush volume was the best analytical setup for integrated extraction and fat retention. The one-step procedure provided a more rapid and cost......Quantification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in smoked fish products often requires multiple clean-up steps to remove fat and other compounds that may interfere with the chemical analysis. We present a novel pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method that integrates exhaustive...

  4. Development of pressurised hot water extraction (PHWE) for essential compounds from Moringa oleifera leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matshediso, Phatsimo G; Cukrowska, Ewa; Chimuka, Luke

    2015-04-01

    Pressurised hot water extraction (PHWE) is a "green" technology which can be used for the extraction of essential components in Moringa oleifera leaf extracts. The behaviour of three flavonols (myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol) and total phenolic content (TPC) in Moringa leaf powder were investigated at various temperatures using PHWE. The TPC of extracts from PHWE were investigated using two indicators. These are reducing activity and the radical scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Flavonols content in the PHWE extracts were analysed on high performance liquid chromatography with ultra violet (HPLC-UV) detection. The concentration of kaempferol and myricetin started decreasing at 150 °C while that of quercetin remained steady with extraction temperature. Optimum extraction temperature for flavonols and DPPH radical scavenging activity was found to be 100 °C. The TPC increased with temperature until 150 °C and then decreased while the reducing activity increased.

  5. INTEGRATED SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION AND BIOPROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen Catchpole

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluids are increasingly being used and promoted at a laboratory and pilot scale to produce high value, natural bioactives from biologically based raw materials. Supercritical CO2 is overwhelmingly the solvent of choice for these operations, but is largely limited to the processing of dry raw materials and the extraction of low polarity, low molecular weight compounds. The use of co-solvents and the use of alternative ‘near-critical’ extraction fluids such as dimethyl ether show potential to mitigate these limitations. Commercialisation of new supercritical extraction processes has arguably been limited because the supercritical extraction process has been developed in isolation of other processing steps necessary to achieve a successful product. This study reviews recent developments in integrated processing that incorporate the use of supercritical fluids for bioseparations and in particular process schemes that produce high value natural bioactives. Integrated processes include prior operation (fermentation, extraction, enzyme pre-treatment, physical fractionation or size reduction followed by supercritical extraction or fractionation and processes in which operations are carried out in situ in supercritical fluids (supercritical chromatography, enzymatic conversion, precipitation and coating of solutes. The use of co-solvents and alternative extraction solvents in these processes is discussed. Prospects for future developments are also discussed.

  6. Some plant extracts retarde nitrification in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul–Mehdi S. AL-ANSARI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An incubation experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of aqueous extracts of 17 plant materials on nitrification inhibition of urea- N in soil as compared with chemical inhibitor Dicyandiamide (DCD. Plant materials used in study were collected from different areas of Basrah province, south of Iraq. Aqueous extracts were prepared at ratio of 1:10 (plant material: water and added at conc. of 0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 ml g– 1 soil to loamy sand soil. DCD was added to soil at rate of 50 µg g-1 soil . Soil received urea at rate of 1000 µg N g-1 soil. Treated soils were incubated at 30 OC for 40 days. Results showed that application of all plant extracts, except those of casuarina, date palm and eucalyptus to soil retarded nitrification in soil. Caper, Sowthistle ,bladygrass and pomegranate extracts showed highest inhibition percentage (51, 42, 40 and 40 %, respectively and were found to be more effective than DCD (33 %. Highest inhibition was achieved by using those extracts at conc. of 0.1 ml g-1 soil after 10 days of incubation . Data also revealed that treated soil with these plant extracts significantly increased amount of NH4+–N and decreased amount of NO3-–N accumulation in soil compared with DCD and control treatments. Results of the study suggested a possibility of using aqueous extracts of some studied plants as potent nitrification inhibitor in soil.

  7. Induction of inflammatory cytokines by cartilage extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merly, Liza; Simjee, Shabana; Smith, Sylvia L

    2007-03-01

    Shark cartilage extracts were examined for induction of cytokines and chemokines in human peripheral blood leukocytes. Primary leukocyte cultures were exposed to a variety of aqueous and organic extracts prepared from several commercial brands of shark cartilage. From all commercial sources of shark cartilage tested the acid extracts induced higher levels of TNFalpha than other extracts. Different commercial brands of shark cartilage varied significantly in cytokine-inducing activity. TNFalpha induction was seen as early as 4 h and IFNgamma at detectable levels for up to four days. Shark cartilage extracts did not induce physiologically significant levels of IL-4. Results suggest that shark cartilage, preferentially, induces Th1 type inflammatory cytokines. When compared to bovine cartilage extract, collagen, and chondroitin sulfate, shark cartilage induced significantly higher levels of TNFalpha. Treatment with digestive proteases (trypsin and chymotrypsin) reduced the cytokine induction response by 80%, suggesting that the active component(s) in cartilage extracts is proteinaceous. The induction of Th1 type cytokine response in leukocytes is a significant finding since shark cartilage, taken as a dietary supplement for a variety of chronic degenerative diseases, would be contraindicated in cases where the underlying pathology of the chronic condition is caused by inflammation. PMID:17276897

  8. Binary Solvent Extraction System and Extraction Time Effects on Phenolic Antioxidants from Kenaf Seeds (Hibiscus cannabinus L. Extracted by a Pulsed Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hua Wong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the best parameter for extracting phenolic-enriched kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L. seeds by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The antioxidant activities of ultrasonic-assisted kenaf seed extracts (KSE were determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging capacity assay, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radical scavenging assay, β-carotene bleaching inhibition assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay. Total phenolic content (TPC and total flavonoid content (TFC evaluations were carried out to determine the phenolic and flavonoid contents in KSE. The KSE from the best extraction parameter was then subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC to quantify the phenolic compounds. The optimised extraction condition employed 80% ethanol for 15 min, with the highest values determined for the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assay. KSE contained mainly tannic acid (2302.20 mg/100 g extract and sinapic acid (1198.22 mg/100 g extract, which can be used as alternative antioxidants in the food industry.

  9. Antigenotoxic properties of Terminalia arjuna bark extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scassellati-Sforzolini, G; Villarini, L M; Moretti, L M; Marcarelli, L M; Pasquini, R; Fatigoni, C; Kaur, L S; Kumar, S; Grover, I S

    1999-01-01

    Compounds possessing antimutagenic properties (polyphenols, tannins, vitamins, etc.) have been identified in fruits, vegetables, spices, and medicinal plants. Terminalia arjuna (Combretaceae), a tropical woody tree occurring throughout India and known locally as Kumbuk, is a medicinal plant rich in tannins and triterpenes that is used extensively in Ayurvedic medicine as a cardiac tonic. The aim of the present collaborative work was to test six solvent extracts from the bark of Terminalia arjuna for antigenotoxic activity using in vitro short-term tests. Terminalia arjuna extracts were obtained by sequential extraction using acetone, methanol, methanol + HCl, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and ethyl ether. The antigenotoxic properties of these extracts were investigated by assessing the inhibition of genotoxicity of the directacting mutagen 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4NQO) using the "comet" assay and the micronucleus (MN) test. Human peripheral blood leukocytes were incubated with different concentrations of the six extracts (from 5 to 100 microg/ mL) and with 4NQO (1 and 2 microg/mL, for the "comet" assay and MN test, respectively). Each extract/4NQO combination was tested twice; in each experiment, positive control (4NQO alone) and negative control (1% DMSO) were set. "Comet" assay results showed that acetone and methanol extracts were highly effective in reducing the DNA damage caused by 4NQO, whereas the acidic methanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and ethyl ether extracts showed less marked or no antigenotoxic activity. In the MN test, a decrease in 4NQO genotoxicity was observed by testing this mutagen in the presence of acetone, methanol, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts, even though the extent of inhibition was not always statistically significant. PMID:15281223

  10. Chronic toxicity of Passiflora foetida L. extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Chivapat

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The extract of Passiflora foetida leaf has been reported to possess various interesting biological benefits. The objective of this study was to investigate the safety of ethanolic extract, containing 0.84% vitexin in Wistar rats. The animals were randomly allocated into five groups, each of twenty four rats (12 male and 12 female. Four experimental groups were orally given the P. foetida extract at the doses of 16, 160, 800 and 1600 mg/kg/day for six months respectively, whereas the control received distilled water.  The extract did not affect the body weights, food intake and relative organ weights of the animals, and nor did cause the abnormal changes of hematological and biochemical values.  Histopathological alterations in the various organs of all extract-treated group did not show any significance, except the adrenal glands of the highest dose male group showed the appearance of fatty infiltration in the cortex; however this phenomenon might be physiological rather than pathological change.  The results suggested that the ethanolic extract of P. foetida extract at the given doses did not induce any harmful effects in the rats.   Industrial relevance: In this study, 40% ethanolic extract from Passiflora foetida leaves contained 0.84% vitexin  which was reported to possess potent anti-inflammatory effect. In addition, other compounds i.e. Kaempferol, apigenin and luteolin in this plant were found to exert anti-histamine release. The present toxicity study revealed no harmful effect in the experimental animal. Therefore, the quality control of the above mentioned compounds in the extract could lead to anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic drug development for compensation of excessive steroidal drugs usage.

  11. PROPOLIS EXTRACT IN POSTHARVEST CONSERVATION BANANA ' PRATA'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLÁVIA REGINA PASSOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the present work were evaluated the effects of propolis coatings of various botanical sources on quality traits of bananas cv. Prata (Musa sapientum L. stored at room temperature. ´Prata´ bananas were selected and submitted to five postharvest treatments: four coatings applied by immersion in propolis extracts at a concentration of 2.5% (w/v and a control (without coating. Propolis extracts were applied as 1 a wild type aqueous propolis extract, 2 a wild type hydroalcoholic propolis extract, 3 a rosemary green type hydroalcoholic propolis extract and 4 a red type hydroalcoholic propolis extract. The bananas were evaluated at three-day intervals along 12 days for fresh weight losses, flesh firmness, soluble solids (SS, titratable acidity (TA, the ratio SS/TA and pH. Sensory analyses were performed after three and six days of storage by 55 not trained panelists designed for acceptability. At the end of the twelve-day storage period, bananas coated either with the rosemary green hydroalcoholic extract or with the aqueous extract presented lower fresh weight losses in comparison to the bananas of the control treatment. No differences were determined in relation to flesh firmness and along the storage period TA values decreased and pH values increased in bananas of all treatments. SS contents increased towards the end of the storage period that, consequently, contributed to increases in the SS/TA ratio. The most significant increase in SS/TA ratio was determined in bananas coated with the red type hydroalcoholic extract. Taste panelists did not detect significant differences amongst coated and not coated cv. Prata bananas up to six days of storage.

  12. Sequential extraction of uranium metal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of uranium contaminated dirt collected from the dirt floor of an abandoned metal rolling mill were analyzed for uranium using a sequential extraction protocol involving a series of five increasingly aggressive solvents. The quantity of uranium extracted from the contaminated dirt by each reagent can aid in predicting the fate and transport of the uranium contamination in the environment. Uranium was separated from each fraction using anion exchange, electrodeposition and analyzed by alpha spectroscopy analysis. Results demonstrate that approximately 77 % of the uranium was extracted using NH4Ac in 25 % acetic acid. (author)

  13. Chinese Term Extraction Based on PAT Tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Feng; FAN Xiao-zhong; XU Yun

    2006-01-01

    A new method of automatic Chinese term extraction is proposed based on Patricia (PAT) tree. Mutual information is calculated based on prefix searching in PAT tree of domain corpus to estimate the internal associative strength between Chinese characters in a string. It can improve the speed of term candidate extraction largely compared with methods based on domain corpus directly. Common collocation suffix, prefix bank are constructed and term part of speech (POS) composing rules are summarized to improve the precision of term extraction. Experiment results show that the F-measure is 74.97 %.

  14. COBALT SALTS PRODUCTION BY USING SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila V. Dyakova

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the extracting cobalt salts by using mixtures on the basis of tertiary amine from multicomponent solutions from the process of hydrochloride leaching of cobalt concentrate. The optimal composition for the extraction mixture, the relationship between the cobalt distribution coefficients and modifier’s nature and concentration, and the saltingout agent type have been determined. A hydrochloride extraction technology of cobalt concentrate yielding a purified concentrated cobalt solution for the production of pure cobalt salts has been developed and introduced at Severonikel combine.

  15. ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF HIBISCUS CANNABINUS LEAF EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kota Chaitanya Sravanthi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the anthelmintic activity of Hibiscus cannabinus leaf extract using adult earthworm, Pheritima posthuma. The methanolic extract of the crude drug at concentrations of 10mg/ml, 20mg/ml, 30mg/ml, 40mg/ml were tested which involve determination of paralysis time and death time. Albendazole was used as standard and it was found that the concentrated methanolic extract (with no traces of solvent of the Hibiscus cannabinus leaves which is used as food in many parts of the world, showed a better anthelminthic activity in comparison with the standard.

  16. Extractive Distillation with Salt in Solvent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Extractive distillation with salt in solvent is a new process for producing anhydrous ethanol by combining the principle of "salt effect" and some traditional extractive distillation methods. Compared with the common extractive distillation the performance of solvent is improved, the recycling amount of solvent is reduced to 1/4-1/5, and the number of theoretical plates is reduced to 1/3. Energy consumption and cost of equipment are also reduced and continuous production is realized. High efficiency and low solvent wastage make this technique feasible.

  17. Enhanced Pattern Representation in Information Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖乐健; 曹元大; 张映波

    2004-01-01

    Traditional pattern representation in information extraction lack in the ability of representing domain-specific concepts and are therefore devoid of flexibility. To overcome these restrictions, an enhanced pattern representation is designed which includes ontological concepts, neighboring-tree structures and soft constraints. An information-extraction inference engine based on hypothesis-generation and conflict-resolution is implemented. The proposed technique is successfully applied to an information extraction system for Chinese-language query front-end of a job-recruitment search engine.

  18. Separation of digoxin by luiquid-luiquid extraction from extracts of foxglove secondary glycosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novković Vesna V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the extraction of digoxin (Dgx from chloroform and trichloroethylene extracts of the secondary glycosides of fermented foxglove (Digitalis lanata Ehrh. foliage by liquid-liquid extraction. The extraction degree (ED of Dgx achieved by maceration and percolation using 10% vol. aqueous ethanol solutions were higher than 95%. Using trichlorethylene and chloroform, the ED of Dgx of about 100% and 96%, respectively from the liquid ethanolic extracts (macerate or percolate were achieved by the four-cycle extraction. Fifteen separating funnels were employed for the liquid-liquid extraction. Three different four-component two-phase systems (ethanol:water - chloroform:ethyl acetate, ethanol:water - chloroform:trichloroethylene and ethanol:water - trichloroethylene:ethyl acetate were tested as an extracting solvent to get the final product having more than 98% of Dgx. The initial amount of the chloroform or trichloroethylene extract in the light phase was varied between 5 and 25 g/L, while the volume ratio of light and heavy phases was in the range of 1:1 to 1:2. The best Dgx yield of 98% was achieved with the system ethanol:water - chloroform:trichloroethylene 35:15:20:30 at the volume ratio of the phases of 1:1.1 and at the initial amount of the extract of 15 g/L. Purity of the separated digoxin was 99.8 %. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-34012

  19. Diluent effects in solvent extraction. The Effects of Diluents in Solvent Extraction - a literature study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fact that the choice of organic diluent is important for a solvent extraction process goes without saying. Several factors, such as e.g. price, flash point, viscosity, polarity etc. each have their place in the planning of a solvent extraction system. This high number of variables makes the lack of compilations concerning diluent effects to an interesting topic. Often the interest for the research concerning a specific extraction system focuses on the extractant used and the complexes built up during an extraction. The diluents used are often classical ones, even if it has been shown that choice of diluent can affect extraction as well as separation in an extraction system. An attempt to point out important steps in the understanding of diluent effects in solvent extraction is here presented. This large field is, of course, not summarized in this article, but an attempt is made to present important steps in the understanding of diluents effects in solvent extraction. Trying to make the information concerning diluent effects and applications more easily accessible this review offers a selected summarizing of literature concerning diluents effects in solvent extraction. (authors)

  20. Compositional variance in extracted particulate matter using different filter extraction techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bein, K. J.; Wexler, A. S.

    2015-04-01

    Collection and subsequent extraction of particulate matter (PM) from filter substrates is a common requirement for in vivo and in vitro toxicological studies, as well as chemical analyses such as ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Several filter extraction protocols exist and different laboratories employ different methods, potentially biasing inter-study comparisons. Previous studies have shown significant differences in extraction efficiency between techniques and identified the relevant extraction artifacts. However, a comprehensive inter-comparison of different methods based on the chemical composition of the extracted PM has never been conducted. In the current study, an exhaustive suite of chemical analyses is performed on PM extracted from glass micro-fiber filters using techniques commonly employed in different laboratories: Multi-solvent extraction (MSE) and spin-down extraction (SDE). PM samples were collected simultaneously during field studies conducted in an urban and rural setting using a high-volume PM2.5 sampler. Results show remarkable compositional variance between the PM extracts for all chemical components analyzed, including metals, water soluble ions, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, non-aromatic organics, elemental carbon and organic carbon. Mass closure was greater than 90% for MSE but deviated substantially for SDE. Detailed retrospective gravimetric analysis of archived SDE samples revealed that a process-based loss of PM mass is the root cause of the differences. These losses are shown to be compositionally biased, both externally between different PM mixtures and internally within a given PM mixture. In combination, the results of this study are the first to demonstrate (i) an exhaustive chemical characterization of a single PM extract, (ii) the significance of directly characterizing the extracted PM used in toxicological studies, (iii) the existence of substantial compositional biases between

  1. ECG Feature Extraction Techniques - A Survey Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Karpagachelvi, S; Sivakumar, M

    2010-01-01

    ECG Feature Extraction plays a significant role in diagnosing most of the cardiac diseases. One cardiac cycle in an ECG signal consists of the P-QRS-T waves. This feature extraction scheme determines the amplitudes and intervals in the ECG signal for subsequent analysis. The amplitudes and intervals value of P-QRS-T segment determines the functioning of heart of every human. Recently, numerous research and techniques have been developed for analyzing the ECG signal. The proposed schemes were mostly based on Fuzzy Logic Methods, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), Genetic Algorithm (GA), Support Vector Machines (SVM), and other Signal Analysis techniques. All these techniques and algorithms have their advantages and limitations. This proposed paper discusses various techniques and transformations proposed earlier in literature for extracting feature from an ECG signal. In addition this paper also provides a comparative study of various methods proposed by researchers in extracting the feature from ECG signal.

  2. Medicaid Analytic eXtract (MAX) Chartbooks

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicaid Analytic eXtract Chartbooks are research tools and reference guides on Medicaid enrollees and their Medicaid experience in 2002 and 2004. Developed for...

  3. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Flavonoids from Dandelion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the total flavonoids from dandelion was extracted by supercritical CO2 and the total flavonoids content in the extract was investigated by the sodium nitrite-aluminum nitrate method with Rutin as a standard product. Single-factor experiments were carried out to map the effects of extraction pressure, temperature, time and entrainer amount on the yield of flavonoids. The orthogonal experiments on the optimum technology parameters demonstrated that the influence of the experimental conditions over the yield from high to low was: (a pressure, (b temperature, (c entrainer amount, (d time. The optimization result showed that under the conditions of 50°C, 35 MPa, 80 min and 4.0 mL/g entrainer amount, the yield of the preparative supercritical fluid extraction was 4.974%.

  4. Extracting Minerals from Seawater: An Energy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Bardi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of recovering minerals from seawater has been proposed as a way of counteracting the gradual depletion of conventional mineral ores. Seawater contains large amounts of dissolved ions and the four most concentrated metal ones (Na, Mg, Ca, K are being commercially extracted today. However, all the other metal ions exist at much lower concentrations. This paper reports an estimate of the feasibility of the extraction of these metal ions on the basis of the energy needed. In most cases, the result is that extraction in amounts comparable to the present production from land mines would be impossible because of the very large amount of energy needed. This conclusion holds also for uranium as fuel for the present generation of nuclear fission plants. Nevertheless, in a few cases, mainly lithium, extraction from seawater could provide amounts of metals sufficient for closing the cycle of metal use in the economy, provided that an increased level of recycling can be attained.

  5. Biologically active extracts with kidney affections applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascu (Neagu), Mihaela; Pascu, Daniela-Elena; Cozea, Andreea; Bunaciu, Andrei A.; Miron, Alexandra Raluca; Nechifor, Cristina Aurelia

    2015-12-01

    This paper is aimed to select plant materials rich in bioflavonoid compounds, made from herbs known for their application performances in the prevention and therapy of renal diseases, namely kidney stones and urinary infections (renal lithiasis, nephritis, urethritis, cystitis, etc.). This paper presents a comparative study of the medicinal plant extracts composition belonging to Ericaceae-Cranberry (fruit and leaves) - Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and Bilberry (fruit) - Vaccinium myrtillus L. Concentrated extracts obtained from medicinal plants used in this work were analyzed from structural, morphological and compositional points of view using different techniques: chromatographic methods (HPLC), scanning electronic microscopy, infrared, and UV spectrophotometry, also by using kinetic model. Liquid chromatography was able to identify the specific compounds of the Ericaceae family, present in all three extracts, arbutosid, as well as specific components of each species, mostly from the class of polyphenols. The identification and quantitative determination of the active ingredients from these extracts can give information related to their therapeutic effects.

  6. Automated Feature Extraction from Hyperspectral Imagery Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed activities will result in the development of a novel hyperspectral feature-extraction toolkit that will provide a simple, automated, and accurate...

  7. SPIRAL CONTACTOR FOR SOLVENT EXTRACTION COLUMN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, C.R.

    1961-06-13

    The patented extraction apparatus includes a column, perforated plates extending across the column, liquid pulse means connected to the column, and an imperforate spiral ribbon along the length of the column.

  8. Solvent Extraction Developments in Southern Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The largest solvent-extraction plant in the world at the time, the Nchanga Copper Operation, was in Zambia. The first commercial process using solvent extraction for the refining of the platinum-group metals was in South Africa. More recently, the Southern African region has seen the implementation of solvent extraction for other base metals, precious metals, and specialty metals. These include the world firsts of primary production of zinc at Skorpion Zinc in Namibia and the large-scale refining of gold by Harmony Gold in South Africa. Several other flowsheets that use solvent-extraction technology are currently under commissioning, development, or feasibility study for implementation in this part of the world, including those for the recovery of copper, cobalt, nickel, tantalum, and niobium.

  9. Lunar In-Situ Volatile Extraction Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A method of extracting volatile resources from the Lunar regolith is proposed to reduce the launch mass and cost of bringing such resources from the Earth to enable...

  10. Oil extraction linked to Oklahoma earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Marcus

    2014-08-01

    Pumping waste water into the ground - a by-product of new oil and gas extraction processes - was the likely cause of a recent surge of earthquakes in the US state of Oklahoma, according to researchers in the US.

  11. Ion Beam Extraction by Discrete Ion Focusing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    An apparatus (900) and methods are disclosed for ion beam extraction. In an implementation, the apparatus includes a plasma source (or plasma) (802) and an ion extractor (804). The plasma source is adapted to generate ions and the ion extractor is immersed in the plasma source to extract a fraction...... of the generated ions. The ion extractor is surrounded by a space charge (810) formed at least in part by the extracted ions. The ion extractor includes a biased electrode (806) forming an interface with an insulator (808). The interface is customized to form a strongly curved potential distribution (812......) in the space-charge surrounding the ion extractor. The strongly curved potential distribution focuses the extracted ions towards an opening (814) on a surface of the biased electrode thereby resulting in an ion beam....

  12. EXTRACTION OF MEDICINAL PRINCIPLES WITH MILK

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, A V

    1994-01-01

    In Ayurveda many formulations are described which milk is used as a solvent for extraction of medicinal principles present in the herbs. The rationale of this technique is analysed in this article from the standpoint of pharmaceutical sciences.

  13. Automatic Statistics Extraction for Amateur Soccer Videos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemert, J.C. van; Schavemaker, J.G.M.; Bonenkamp, C.W.B.

    2014-01-01

    Amateur soccer statistics have interesting applications such as providing insights to improve team performance, individual coaching, monitoring team progress and personal or team entertainment. Professional soccer statistics are extracted with labor intensive expensive manual effort which is not rea

  14. SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY OF SEA BUCKTHORN EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Mihaela Topală

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The application of sea buckthorn oil is to incorporate the oil into foodstuffs such as milk, yoghurt, cheese, butter, juice and snacks which represents new opportunities for food manufacturers, food supplements and nutraceuticals providing nutritional supports. The FTIR spectroscopy is a powerful technique for assessing food production and studied materials provides fundamental information on the behavior of the spectral metabolites and bio product. The extracts were studied from two varieties of sea buckthorn oil Pitesti I and II. Oil obtained from peel and seeds by the Soxhlet extraction with hexane solvent and CO2 supercriticalwas analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy. The concentration of fatty acids in oil extracted from seeds and peels was similar in both extraction techniques.

  15. Novel Concept of the Magmatic Heat Extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Labinov, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced Geothermal Systems are the primary sources of interest nowadays. The paper presents a novel concept for the extraction of the magmatic heat directly from the magma chamber by utilizing the thermodynamic Retrograde Condensation curve.

  16. Green Vehicle Guide Data Extraction Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Green Vehicle Guide provides vehicle ratings based on emissions and fuel economy. This data extraction tool allows...

  17. Automatic Contour Extraction from 2D Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis GIOANNIS

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To develop a method for automatic contour extraction from a 2D image. Material and Method: The method is divided in two basic parts where the user initially chooses the starting point and the threshold. Finally the method is applied to computed tomography of bone images. Results: An interesting method is developed which can lead to a successful boundary extraction of 2D images. Specifically data extracted from a computed tomography images can be used for 2D bone reconstruction. Conclusions: We believe that such an algorithm or part of it can be applied on several other applications for shape feature extraction in medical image analysis and generally at computer graphics.

  18. Enzymatic Aqueous Extraction of Soybean Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The procedure of enzymatic aqueous extraction of soybean oil was assessed when two-step controlled enzymatic hydrolysis was applied. With aqueous extraction of soybean oil-containing protein, the highest yield of oil was 96.1% at the optimized conditions studied. Soybean oil-containing protein was hydrolyzed and resulted in releasing part of oil. The separated protein that contained 40% oil was enriched due to its adsorption capacity of released oil, the average oil extraction yeild reached 93.5%. Then the high oil content protein was hydrolyzed again to release oil by enzyme, the oil extraction yeild was 80.4%. As a result, high quality of soybean oil was obtained and the content of total oil yield was 74.4%.

  19. Chiral separation by enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuur, Boelo; Verkuijl, Bastiaan J V; Minnaard, Adriaan J; de Vries, Johannes G; Heeres, Hero J; Feringa, Ben L

    2011-01-01

    The literature on enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction (ELLE) spans more than half a century of research. Nonetheless, a comprehensive overview has not appeared during the past few decades. Enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction is a technology of interest for a wide range of chemists and chemical engineers in the fields of fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, fragrances and foods. In this review the principles and advances of resolution through enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction are discussed, starting with an introduction on the principles of enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction including host-guest chemistry, extraction and phase transfer mechanisms, and multistage liquid-liquid extraction processing. Then the literature on enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction systems is reviewed, structured on extractant classes. The following extractant classes are considered: crown ether based extractants, metal complexes and metalloids, extractants based on tartrates, and a final section with all other types of chiral extractants. PMID:21107491

  20. Antioxidant activity of Moringa oleifera tissue extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Andréa F. S.; Argôlo, Adriana C. C.; Paiva, Patrícia M. G.; Coelho, L. C. B. B.

    2012-01-01

    Moringa oleifera is an important source of antioxidants, tools in nutritional biochemistry that could be beneficial for human health; the leaves and flowers are used by the population with great nutritional importance. This work investigates the antioxidant activity of M. oleifera ethanolic (E1) and saline (E2) extracts from flowers (a), inflorescence rachis (b), seeds (c), leaf tissue (d), leaf rachis (e) and fundamental tissues of stem (f). The radical scavenging capacity (RSC) of extracts ...

  1. ECG Feature Extraction using Time Frequency Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Mahesh A.

    The proposed algorithm is a novel method for the feature extraction of ECG beats based on Wavelet Transforms. A combination of two well-accepted methods, Pan Tompkins algorithm and Wavelet decomposition, this system is implemented with the help of MATLAB. The focus of this work is to implement the algorithm, which can extract the features of ECG beats with high accuracy. The performance of this system is evaluated in a pilot study using the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database.

  2. THROMBOLYTIC & CYTOTOXIC EFFECT OF DIFFERENT HERBAL EXTRACTS

    OpenAIRE

    Irfan Newaz Khan et al.

    2011-01-01

    An in-vitro thrombolytic model was used to check the clot lysis effect of four herbal extracts viz., Honey, Nigella sativa, Capsicum frutescens, Brassica oleracea, combination of Honey & Nigella sativa and Honey & Capsicum frutescens along with Streptokinase as a positive control and water as a negative control. And also brine shrimp lethality bio-assay was done using brine shrimp Nauplii and 5% of DMSO as a solvent for the ethanol extracts of Nigella sativa & Capsicum frutescens and Honey. U...

  3. Enhancing clinical concept extraction with distributional semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha; Cohen, Trevor; Wu, Stephen; Gonzalez, Graciela

    2011-01-01

    Extracting concepts (such as drugs, symptoms, and diagnoses) from clinical narratives constitutes a basic enabling technology to unlock the knowledge within and support more advanced reasoning applications such as diagnosis explanation, disease progression modeling, and intelligent analysis of the effectiveness of treatment. The recent release of annotated training sets of de-identified clinical narratives has contributed to the development and refinement of concept extraction methods. Howeve...

  4. Total Nucleic Acid Extraction from Soil

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Roey Angel ### Abstract The following protocol is intended for the simultaneous extraction of DNA and RNA from various soil samples along with suggestions on how to tweak the protocol for soil with higher humic content. The protocol has been used by many and results in very high yields of nucleic acids, typically much more than commercial kits. For buffers and solutions used in this protocol, please see accompanying document Buffers and Solutions for TNA Extractions.pdf. ...

  5. Biological extraction of bromelain from pineapple byproducts

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Débora A.; Picó, Guillermo A.; Pastrana-Castro, Lorenzo M.; J. A. Teixeira; Pintado, M.

    2015-01-01

    [Excerpt] Isolation and purification of valuable compounds are very important processes to valorize agro-food byproducts. Currently, protein extraction and development of environmentally friendly technologies are industrially relevant topics [1]. Among the extracted proteins from byproducts proteases are a relevant group for industrial applications. These enzymes are a class of hydrolytic enzymes capable of cleaving the peptide bonds of proteins chains and are essential in physiological proce...

  6. Gold and Silver Extraction from Leach Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagdaulet K. Kenzhaliyev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been carried out an investigation on the extraction of gold and silver from thiosulfate solutions: standard test and technological solutions of chemical and electrochemical leaching. The influence of related metals on the process of extracting gold from solution was studied. There has been conducted a comparative study of the IR spectra of solutions after the sorption of gold, silver and related metals.

  7. Proapoptotic effect of Uncaria tomentosa extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martino, Laura; Martinot, José Luis Silva; Franceschelli, Silvia; Leone, Arturo; Pizza, Cosimo; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2006-08-11

    Uncaria tomentosa ("Uña de gato") (Rubiaceae) is widely used in South America for treatment of gastritis, arthritis, cancer and inflammatory conditions. Recent literature reports cytostatic, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, mutagenic and anti-mutagenic properties of extracts of the plant. The present study investigates the possible proapoptotic mechanism via the activation of caspase3, in cytostatic effects of root bark extracts of Uncaria tomentosa on three different tumoral cell lines. PMID:16569487

  8. Deep Webpage Classification and Extraction (DWCE)

    OpenAIRE

    Supriya; Meenakshi Sharma

    2013-01-01

    As the Deep web (or Hidden web) information is hidden behind the search query forms, this information can only be accessed by interacting with these forms. Therefore, development of automated system that interacts with the search forms and extracts the hidden web pages would be of great value to human users. To accomplishthis task stated above, this paper proposes a novel method “Deep Webpage Classification and Extraction” which classifies the websites into appropriate domain, extracts their ...

  9. Testbed for Information Extraction from Deep Web

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Yasuhiro; Nakatoh, Tetsuya; Hirokawa, Sachio

    2004-01-01

    Search results generated by searchable databases are served dynamically and far larger than the static documents on the Web. These results pages have been referred to as the Deep Web [1]. We need to extract the target data in results pages to integrate them on different searchable databases. We propose a testbed for information extraction from search results. We chose 100 databases randomly from 114,540 pages with search forms. Therefore, these databases have a good variety. We selected 51 da...

  10. MTN magnet for the SPS extracted beam.

    CERN Multimedia

    1976-01-01

    This type of dipole magnet was used in the extracted beam lines of the North Area. It shows an opening for three different proton beam lines: a primary extracted proton beam, split by an upstream magnetic beam splitter (see photo 7612017) into three separated beams passes through different parts of its aperture: right, left up, left down. These magnets were designed to be concrete-insulated for radiation resistance. F. Streun stands on the right.

  11. Microdissection testicular sperm extraction: an update

    OpenAIRE

    Dabaja, Ali A; Schlegel, Peter N.

    2012-01-01

    Patients with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) were once considered to be infertile with few treatment options due to the absence of sperm in the ejaculate. In the last two decades, the advent of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and the application of various testicular sperm retrieval techniques, including fine needle aspiration (FNA), conventional testicular sperm extraction (TESE) and microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE) have revolutionized treatment in this gr...

  12. Natural Gas Extraction, Earthquakes and House Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Hans R. A. Koster; Jos N. van Ommeren

    2015-01-01

    The production of natural gas is strongly increasing around the world. Long-run negative external effects of extraction are understudied and often ignored in social) cost-benefit analyses. One important example is that natural gas extraction leads to soil subsidence and subsequent induced earthquakes that may occur only after a couple of decades. We show that induced earthquakes that are noticeable to residents generate substantial non-monetary economic effects, as measured by their effects o...

  13. Extraction of Chlorophyll from Alfalfa Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Khalid Khudair Al-Jomaily; Ahmed Jawad; Isam Kamal

    2006-01-01

    The extraction process of chlorophyll from dehydrated and pulverized alfalfa plant were studied by percolation method. Two solvent systems were used for the extraction namely; Ethanol-water and Hexane-Toluene systems . The effect of circulation rate, solvent concentration, and solvent volume to solid weight ratio were studied. In both ethanol water, and Hexane-Toluene systems it appears that solvent concentration is the most effective variable.

  14. Alkaline earth cation extraction from acid solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Mark; Horwitz, E. Philip

    2003-01-01

    An extractant medium for extracting alkaline earth cations from an aqueous acidic sample solution is described as are a method and apparatus for using the same. The separation medium is free of diluent, free-flowing and particulate, and comprises a Crown ether that is a 4,4'(5')[C.sub.4 -C.sub.8 -alkylcyclohexano]18-Crown-6 dispersed on an inert substrate material.

  15. Proapoptotic effect of Uncaria tomentosa extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martino, Laura; Martinot, José Luis Silva; Franceschelli, Silvia; Leone, Arturo; Pizza, Cosimo; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2006-08-11

    Uncaria tomentosa ("Uña de gato") (Rubiaceae) is widely used in South America for treatment of gastritis, arthritis, cancer and inflammatory conditions. Recent literature reports cytostatic, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, mutagenic and anti-mutagenic properties of extracts of the plant. The present study investigates the possible proapoptotic mechanism via the activation of caspase3, in cytostatic effects of root bark extracts of Uncaria tomentosa on three different tumoral cell lines.

  16. Enzymatic hydrolysis of plant extracts containing inulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiraud, J.P.; Galzy, P.

    1981-10-01

    Inulin-rich extracts of chicory and Jerusalem artichoke are a good potential source of fructose. Total enzymatic hydrolysis of these extracts can be effected by yeast inulinases (EC 3.2.1.7). Chemical prehydrolysis is unfavourable. Enzymatic hydrolysis has advantages over chemical hydrolysis: it does not produce a dark-coloured fraction or secondary substances. It is possible to envisage the preparation of high fructose syrups using this process. (Refs. 42).

  17. Toxicological evaluation of a chicory root extract

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Barbara M.; Ilic, Nebojsa; Poulev, Alexander; Raskin, Ilya

    2007-01-01

    An Ames test and a 28-day sub-chronic toxicity study in male and female Sprague–Dawley rats were conducted to evaluate the safety of a chicory root extract being investigated as a therapeutic for inflammation. Chicory extract had no mutagenic activity in the Ames test although it was cytotoxic to certain strains of Salmonella at higher doses with and without metabolic activation. For the 28-day rat study, measurements included clinical observations, body weights, food consumption, clinical pa...

  18. Tongue Image Feature Extraction in TCM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Dong; DU Lian-xiang; LU Fu-ping; DU Jun-ping

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, digital image processing and computer vision techniques are applied to study tongue images for feature extraction with VC++ and Matlab. Extraction and analysis of the tongue surface features are based on shape, color, edge, and texture. The developed software has various functions and good user interface and is easy to use. Feature data for tongue image pattern recognition is provided, which form a sound basis for the future tongue image recognition.

  19. Rate phenomena in uranium extraction by amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, C. F.; McDowell, W. J.

    1979-01-01

    Kinetics studies and other rate measurements are reviewed in the amine extraction of uranium and of some other related and associated metal ions. Equilibration is relatively fast in the uranium sulfate systems most important to uranium hydrometallurgy. Significantly slow equilibration has been encountered in some other systems. Most of the recorded rate information, both qualitative and quantitative, has come from exploratory and process-development work, while some kinetics studies have been directed specifically toward elucidation of extraction mechanisms. 71 references.

  20. Hanford soil partitioning and vapor extraction study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the testing and results of laboratory experiments conducted to assist the carbon tetrachloride soil vapor extraction project operating in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. Vapor-phase adsorption and desorption testing was performed using carbon tetrachloride and Hanford Site soils to estimate vapor-soil partitioning and reasonably achievable carbon tetrachloride soil concentrations during active vapor extractions efforts at the 200 West Area. (CCl4 is used in Pu recovery from aqueous streams.)

  1. Extraction of Parquat from Blood by Clinoptilolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Amin Aghaii-Afshar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraquat is a bipyridyl herbicide and organic divalent cation which due to its high polarity and water solubility cannot be readily extracted by common organic solvents from body fluids. Dithionite color test for qualitative and quantitative determination of paraquat in urine has been proposed and used for many years. Although some methods were proposed for solvent extraction of paraquat from blood, they are less practical in clinical laboratories and lack high extraction recovery. Clinoptilolite is a highly porous natural zeolite with cation-exchange property and high surface area. In the present work, extraction of paraquat from human blood by clinoptilolite was investigated and compared with Amberlite CG-50 I, a well-known weak cation-exchanger. Blood paraquat was adsorbed by adsorbents (clinoptilolite or Amberlite and extracted from them by saturated sodium chloride solution. Extracted paraquat was spectrophotometrically measured by means of sodium dithionite reagent at 394.5 nm. Recovery, limit of detection, considering signal-to-noise (S/N ratio of 3, and limit of quantification, regarding S/N of 10, of paraquat extraction by clinoptilolite and Amberlite CG-50 were 81.7% ± 3.4%, 0.58 μg, and 1.93 μg and 83.6% ± 3.2%, 0.49 μg, and 1.63 μg, respectively. Repeatabilities (within-laboratory error of paraquat extraction by clinoptilolite and Amberlite CG-50 I were 7.1% and 6.3%, respectively.

  2. Key frames extraction in athletic video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccia, Giuseppe; Lancini, Rosa; Russo, Stefano

    2003-06-01

    In this paper, we present an effective framework for features extraction from an athletic sport sequence. We analyze both forward and backward motion vectors from MPEG 2 video sequences for camera movements detection. Features like the beginning and the end of the race and the type of competition are strictly connected to the camera motion. Our algorithm is able to extract the frame number of the investigated feature with very high accuracy.

  3. Clinical Relationships Extraction Techniques from Patient Narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafaa Tawfik Abdel-Moneim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Clinical E-Science Framework (CLEF project was used to extract important information from medical texts by building a system for the purpose of clinical research, evidence-based healthcare and genotype-meets-phenotype informatics. The system is divided into two parts, one part concerns with the identification of relationships between clinically important entities in the text. The full parses and domain-specific grammars had been used to apply many approaches to extract the relationship. In the second part of the system, statistical machine learning (ML approaches are applied to extract relationship. A corpus of oncology narratives that hand annotated with clinical relationships can be used to train and test a system that has been designed and implemented by supervised machine learning (ML approaches. Many features can be extracted from these texts that are used to build a model by the classifier. Multiple supervised machine learning algorithms can be applied for relationship extraction. Effects of adding the features, changing the size of the corpus, and changing the type of the algorithm on relationship extraction are examined.

  4. Solvent induced track sensitization. Extraction of oligomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, P.; Angert, N.; Brüchle, W.; Hermann, H.; Kampschulte, U.; Klein, P.; Kravets, L. I.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Remmert, G.; Spohr, R.; Steckenreiter, T.; Trautmann, C.; Vetter, J.

    1994-04-01

    Oligomer extraction from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) irradiated by xenon ions of 11.4 MeV/u is investigated using UV spectrophotometry and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The cyclic trimer is identified as the predominant diffusing species removed during extraction by dimethyl formamide (DMF). Extraction dynamics is modeled by a rapid (time constant ≈ 2 min) and a slow (time constant ≈ 100 min) diffusion process attributed to the latent ion tracks and to the virgin material, respectively. Thereby latent tracks act simultaneously as irrigation and drainage pipes for the transfer of the solvent into and the extraction of oligomers from the polymer matrix. Thus tracks help to release osmotic pressure differences and to avoid blistering of the unirradiated polymer during solvent exchange. The total extracted mass per track shows a characteristic decrease with increasing ion fluence interpreted as oxygen effect, due to the decreasing supply of oxygen in the sample during irradiation. The extractable mass corresponds to an equivalent track diameter of initially around 10 nm contracting with increasing ion fluence to an asymptotic value around 3 nm.

  5. Highlights of the Salt Extraction Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasalizadeh, Aida; Seetharaman, Seshadri; Teng, Lidong; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Grinder, Olle; Izumi, Yukari; Barati, Mansoor

    2013-11-01

    This article presents the salient features of a new process for the recovery of metal values from secondary sources and waste materials such as slag and flue dusts. It is also feasible in extracting metals such as nickel and cobalt from ores that normally are difficult to enrich and process metallurgically. The salt extraction process is based on extraction of the metals from the raw materials by a molten salt bath consisting of NaCl, LiCl, and KCl corresponding to the eutectic composition with AlCl3 as the chlorinating agent. The process is operated in the temperature range 973 K (700°C) to 1173 K (900°C). The process was shown to be successful in extracting Cr and Fe from electric arc furnace (EAF) slag. Electrolytic copper could be produced from copper concentrate based on chalcopyrite in a single step. Conducting the process in oxygen-free atmosphere, sulfur could be captured in the elemental form. The method proved to be successful in extracting lead from spent cathode ray tubes. In order to prevent the loss of AlCl3 in the vapor form and also chlorine gas emission at the cathode during the electrolysis, liquid aluminum was used. The process was shown to be successful in extracting Nd and Dy from magnetic scrap. The method is a highly promising process route for the recovery of strategic metals. It also has the added advantage of being environmentally friendly.

  6. Antiradical Activity of Paulownia tomentosa (Scrophulariaceae Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margita Dvorska

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Paulownia tomentosa is a large indecidous tree planted mostly for its fast growing wood and decoratative purposes. The tree is also used in traditional Chinese medicine. As a part of our study of natural polyphenols, the fruits of Paulownia tomentosa were extracted by EtOH and than subjected to liquid/liquid extraction. Fractions were analysed by TLC and HPLC to determine presence of phenolic substantaces. We identified and quantified acteoside (1 and isoacteoside (2 in the EtOAc and n-BuOH extracts; mimulone (3 and diplacone (4 in the MeOH extract. To determine the antiradical activity of extracts we used the anti DPPH and peroxynitrite assays. The activity was expressed as Trolox C equivalents, IC50 for DPPH scavenging and a time dependency course was established. The polyphenols content was determined; results were expressed as gallic acid equivalents. Using these methods we found the fractions of the n-BuOH, EtOAc and MeOH extracts that display antiradical activity, which could be exploited as potential pharmaceuticals.

  7. MERIT: Minutiae Extraction using Rotation Invariant Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Pokhriyal,

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Thinning a fingerprint makes its ridges as thin as one pixel and still retaining its basic structure. So many algorithms are devised by researchers to extract skeleton of a fingerprint image, but the problem is that they produce different results with different rotations of the same fingerprint image. This results in inefficient minutiae extraction. In this paper, a new way of thinning a fingerprint image is proposed. This method is called MERIT (Minutiae Extraction using Rotation Invariant Thinning, as it thins a fingerprint image irrespective of the fingerprint's position and then extracts minutiae points from a fingerprint image. First of all, we binarize the fingerprint image and convert it into a 0-1 pattern. Then, we apply some morphological operations like dilation and erosion, and also some if-then rules governing a 3x3 mask that is to be convoluted throughout the image to skeletonize it. In the end,some postprocessing is done on the thinned fingerprint image to remove false minutiae structures from it. Finally genuine minutiae points are extracted from the thinned fingerprint image along with their directions. Results show that the proposed method extracts genuine minutiae points even from low-quality fingerprint images.

  8. Facial Feature Extraction Based on Wavelet Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Nguyen Viet

    Facial feature extraction is one of the most important processes in face recognition, expression recognition and face detection. The aims of facial feature extraction are eye location, shape of eyes, eye brow, mouth, head boundary, face boundary, chin and so on. The purpose of this paper is to develop an automatic facial feature extraction system, which is able to identify the eye location, the detailed shape of eyes and mouth, chin and inner boundary from facial images. This system not only extracts the location information of the eyes, but also estimates four important points in each eye, which helps us to rebuild the eye shape. To model mouth shape, mouth extraction gives us both mouth location and two corners of mouth, top and bottom lips. From inner boundary we obtain and chin, we have face boundary. Based on wavelet features, we can reduce the noise from the input image and detect edge information. In order to extract eyes, mouth, inner boundary, we combine wavelet features and facial character to design these algorithms for finding midpoint, eye's coordinates, four important eye's points, mouth's coordinates, four important mouth's points, chin coordinate and then inner boundary. The developed system is tested on Yale Faces and Pedagogy student's faces.

  9. Antiradical activity of Paulownia tomentosa (Scrophulariaceae) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smejkal, Karel; Holubova, Pavla; Zima, Ales; Muselik, Jan; Dvorska, Margita

    2007-01-01

    Paulownia tomentosa is a large indecidous tree planted mostly for its fast growing wood and decorative purposes. The tree is also used in traditional Chinese medicine. As a part of our study of natural polyphenols, the fruits of Paulownia tomentosa were extracted by EtOH and than subjected to liquid/liquid extraction. Fractions were analysed by TLC and HPLC to determine presence of phenolic substances. We identified and quantified acteoside (1) and isoacteoside (2) in the EtOAc and n-BuOH extracts; mimulone (3) and diplacone (4) in the MeOH extract. To determine the antiradical activity of extracts we used the anti DPPH and peroxynitrite assays. The activity was expressed as Trolox C equivalents, IC50 for DPPH scavenging and a time dependency course was established. The polyphenols content was determined; results were expressed as gallic acid equivalents. Using these methods we found the fractions of the n-BuOH, EtOAc and MeOH extracts that display antiradical activity, which could be exploited as potential pharmaceuticals. PMID:17876290

  10. A New Approach for Web Information Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Gunasundari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the exponentially growing amount of information available on the Internet, an effective technique for users to discern the useful information from the unnecessary information is urgently required. Cleaning web pages for web data extraction becomes critical for improving performance of information retrieval and information extraction. So, we investigate to remove various noise patterns in Web pages instead of extracting relevant content from Web pages to get main content information. To solve this problem, we put forward an extracting main content method which firstly removes the usual noise and the candidate nodes without any main content information from web pages, and makes use of the relation of content text length, the length of anchor text and the number of punctuation marks to extract the main content. In this paper, we focus on removing noise and utilization of all kinds of content-characteristics, experiments show that this approach can enhance the universality and accuracy in extracting the body text of web pages

  11. Potentiometric determination of uranium in organic extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potentimetric determination of uranium in organic extracts was studied. A mixture of 30% TBP, (tributylphosphate), in carbon tetrachloride was used, with the NBL (New Brunswick Laboratory) titrimetric procedure. Results include a comparative analysis performed on organic extracts of fissium alloys vs those performed on aqueous samples of the same alloys which had been treated to remove interfering elements. Also comparative analyses were performed on sample solutions from a typical scrap recovery operation common in the uranium processing industry. A limited number of residue type materials, calciner products, and presscakes were subjected to analysis by organic extraction. The uranium extraction was not hindered by 30% TBP/CCl4. To fully demonstrate the capabilities of the extraction technique and its compatibility with the NBL potentiometric uranium determination, a series of uranium standards was subjected to uranium extraction with 30% TBP/CCl4. The uranium was then stripped out of the organic phase with 40 mL of H3PO4, 15 mL of H20, and 1 mL of 1M FeSO4 solution. The uranium was then determined in the aqueous phosphoric phase by the regular NBL potentiometric method, omitting only the addition of another 40 mL of H3PO4. Uranium determinations ranging from approximately 20 to 150 mg of U were successfully made with the same accuracy and precision normally achieved. 8 tables

  12. Development of mouthwash with Rosmarinus officinalis extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Moreira Baumgratz de Paula

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rosmarinus officinalis, which belongs to the Lamiaceaefamily, is a species of medicinal flora with therapeutic properties. In order to exploit the benefits of these properties, a mouthwash formulation was developed, with careful selection of raw materials to meet pharmacotechnical requirements. Extracts of the plant were incorporated into a mouthwash, which was shown to have inhibitory action in vitro against the micro-organisms commonly found in periodontics. Controls for assessing the quality of the drugs were carried out, quantifying phenols and flavonoids as chemical markers. Mouthwash solutions were formulated containing 0.1, 5 and 10% ethanol extract of R. officinalis; and 0.05, 5 and 10% of the hexane fraction of R. officinalis. In order to evaluate synergism, ethanol extract and hexane fraction were also added to formulations containing 0.05% sodium fluoride and 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate. These formulations were assessed for inhibitory effect against the specific microorganisms involved in the process of bacterial plaque formation, S. mutans(ATCC25175 and C. albicans(ATCC 10231, frequently found in cases of oral infections. The agar diffusion method was used to evaluate the inhibitory activity of extracts and formulations. All mouthwash solutions displayed inhibitory activity having higher sensitivity to S. mutansfor the 5% ethanol extract+0.05% sodium fluoride, and greater sensitivity to C. albicansfor the 10% hexane fraction. Results were characterized by the appearance of a growth inhibition halo, justifying the utilization and association of extracts of R. officinalis.

  13. Estimating the extractability of potentially toxic metals in urban soils: A comparison of several extracting solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madrid, F. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla (CSIC), Apartado 1052, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Reinoso, R. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla (CSIC), Apartado 1052, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Florido, M.C. [Departamento de Cristalografia, Mineralogia y Quimica Agricola, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes, s/n, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Diaz Barrientos, E. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla (CSIC), Apartado 1052, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Ajmone-Marsan, F. [DI.VA.P.R.A., Chimica Agraria, Universita di Torino, Via Leonardo da Vinci, 44, 10095 Grugliasco, Torino (Italy); Davidson, C.M. [Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, University of Strathclyde, 295 Cathedral Street, Glasgow G1 1XL, Scotland (United Kingdom); Madrid, L. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla (CSIC), Apartado 1052, 41080 Sevilla (Spain)]. E-mail: madrid@irnase.csic.es

    2007-06-15

    Metals released by the extraction with aqua regia, EDTA, dilute HCl and sequential extraction (SE) by the BCR protocol were studied in urban soils of Sevilla, Torino, and Glasgow. By multivariate analysis, the amounts of Cu, Pb and Zn liberated by any method were statistically associated with one another, whereas other metals were not. The mean amounts of all metals extracted by HCl and by SE were well correlated, but SE was clearly underestimated by HCl. Individual data for Cu, Pb and Zn by both methods were correlated only if each city was considered separately. Other metals gave poorer relationships. Similar conclusions were reached comparing EDTA and HCl, with much lower values for EDTA. Dilute HCl extraction cannot thus be recommended for general use as alternative to BCR SE in urban soils. - Dilute HCl extraction is tested as an alternative to the BCR sequential extraction in urban soils.

  14. Polyhydroxyflavones as extractants. Communication 7. Solvent extraction of europrium complexes with morin from alkaline media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper studies the analytical application of europium (III)-morin complex which is formed in alkaline medium and has an intense color. The extent of europium extraction was determined by adding to the extract a morin solution in isoamyl alcohol in a 50-100-fold excess with respect to europium. The dependence of the optical density of the extracts on the ph in the system europium (III)-morin-water-organic solvent for different excesses of the reagent is shown: this indicates formation of two extractable complexes, one being dominant in the pH range 4-7, the other at pH greater than or equal to 8.5. The extraction of the europium (III)-morin complex from alkaline solution is used for direct extraction-photometric determination of europium(III) in compounds of elements having amphoteric properties or forming amines (Zns, Mo03)

  15. A Fluorous Biphasic Solvent Extraction System for Lanthanides with a Fluorophilic β-Diketone Type Extractant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Etsuko; Hiruta, Yuki; Watanabe, Takafumi; Iwasawa, Naoko; Citterio, Daniel; Suzuki, Koji

    2015-01-01

    The properties of a fluorous solvent extraction system for trivalent lanthanide metal ions are reported. A fluorinated extractant, 4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,9,9,9-tridecafluoro-1-(2-thienyl)-1,3-nonanedione, and HFE-7200 (C4F9OC2H5) as the extraction solvent were chosen. With this fluorous extractant/solvent combination, higher extraction ratios and separation factors compared to a conventional organic solvent system (thenoyltrifluoroacetone in CHCl3) were achieved for 5 heavy lanthanide ions (Lu, Yb, Tm, Er and Ho). On the other hand, light lanthanide ions (Nd, Pr, Ce and La) are hardly extracted, therefore enabling the mutual separation of light lanthanides from middle or heavy lanthanide ions. PMID:26353959

  16. Extraction of Organochlorine Pesticides in Sediments Using Soxhlet, Ultrasonic and Accelerated Solvent Extraction Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LANG Yinhai; CAO Zhengmei; NIE Xinhua

    2005-01-01

    The application of soxhlet, ultrasonic and accelerated solvent extraction techniques to the analysis of six organochlorine pesticides (α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH, o, p'-DDT, p, p'-DDT and p, p'-DDE) in Taihu Lake sediment samples is described. It was found that the limits of quantification ranged from 0.002 μg g-1 to 0.004 μg g-1, and the recoveries of organochlorine pesticides with the three extraction techniques were acceptable (> 80.7%). With a mass selective detector,better results were obtained by accelerated solvent extraction using hexane-acetone (1: 1) as compared with soxhlet and ultrasonic extraction. It was shown that the accelerated solvent extraction was the optimum technique for the analysis of organochlorine pesticides in sediments. The general features of the three extraction techniques are also presented.

  17. Antioxidant Capacity of Rapeseed Extracts Obtained by Conventional and Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Szydłowska-Czerniak, Aleksandra; Tułodziecka, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and conventional solid–liquid extraction were applied to extract total antioxidants from two rapeseed varieties. The antioxidant capacities (AC) of winter and spring rapeseed cultivars were determined by four different analytical methods: ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS). The average AC of the studied r...

  18. Selective Extraction of Organic Contaminants from Soil Using Pressurised Liquid Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Rozita Osman; Norashikin Saim

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the application of sorbents in pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) cell to establish a selective extraction of a variety of organic contaminants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), chlorpyrifos, phenol, pentachlorophenol, and sterols) from soil. The selectivity and efficiency of each sorbent depend on the properties of the material, extracting solvent, capacity factor, organic compounds of interest, and PLE operating parameters (temperature, pressure, and extractio...

  19. A short review of headspace extraction and ultrasonic solvent extraction for honey volatiles fingerprinting

    OpenAIRE

    Jerković, I.; Marijanović, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Honey volatiles exhibit a potential role in distinguishing honeys as a function of botanical origin, but heating of honey generates artefacts such as compounds of Strecker degradation and Maillard reaction products. This short review is focused on the most recently applied methods for honey volatiles fingerprinting (without generation of thermal artefacts): headspace extraction (dynamic headspace extraction (DHE), headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME)) and ultrasonic solvent extract...

  20. Optimization of microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and soxhlet extraction of phenolic compound from licorice root

    OpenAIRE

    Karami, Zohreh; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra; Mirzaee, Habib Allah; Khomeiri, Morteza; Mahoonak, Alireza Sadeghi; Aydani, Emad

    2014-01-01

    In present study, response surface methodology was used to optimize extraction condition of phenolic compounds from licorice root by microwave application. Investigated factors were solvent (ethanol 80 %, methanol 80 % and water), liquid/solid ratio (10:1–25:1) and time (2–6 min). Experiments were designed according to the central composite rotatable design. The results showed that extraction conditions had significant effect on the extraction yield of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capac...

  1. Effect of Extraction Conditions on the Antioxidant Activity of Olive Wood Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Mercedes Pérez-Bonilla; Sofía Salido; Adolfo Sánchez; van Beek, Teris A.; Joaquín Altarejos

    2013-01-01

    An investigation to optimize the extraction yield and the radical scavenging activity from the agricultural by-product olive tree wood (Olea europaea L., cultivar Picual) using six different extraction protocols was carried out. Four olive wood samples from different geographical origin, and harvesting time have been used for comparison purposes. Among the fifty olive wood extracts obtained in this study, the most active ones were those prepared with ethyl acetate, either through direct extra...

  2. Extraction of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Seeds: Process Optimization and Antioxidant Capacity of the Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Angelov, G.; Boyadzhieva, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the study on the extraction of bioactive substances from fennel seeds. The impact of the main process variables (solvent composition, liquid-to-solid ratio, temperature, contact time) on the concentration of the target substances (polyphenols and flavonoids) in the extracts is studied resulting in the selection of a set of operating parameters, at which their content is maximized. Extracts with higher concentration of target compounds demonstrate higher antioxidant capacit...

  3. The effect of extraction method on antioxidant activity of Atractylis babelii Hochr. leaves and flowers extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Khadidja Boudebaz; Samira Nia, Malika; Trabelsi Ayadi; Jamila Kalthoum Cherif

    2015-01-01

    In this study, leaves and flowers of Atractylis babelii were chosen to investigate their antioxidant activities. Thus, a comparison between the antioxidant properties of ethanolic crude extracts obtained by two extraction methods, maceration and soxhlet extraction, was performed using two different tests; DPPH and ABTS radical assays. Besides, total polyphenol, flavonoid and condensed tannin contents were determined in leaves and flowers of Atractylis babelii by colorimetric methods. The resu...

  4. [Improvement on microwave technology of extracting polysaccharide from yacon leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing-wei; Liu, Jian; Yang, Yong; Zheng, Ming-min; Rong, Ting-zhao

    2007-11-01

    According to the extraction ratio of polysaccharide in yacon leaves, the comparison between microwave extraction and traditional hot water extraction was conducted, and the two-factor and three-level experiment on the microwave extraction of polysaccharide from yacon leaves was investigated. The result showed that the extraction ratio of polysaccharide by using microwave extraction was better than that by using traditional hot water extraction. Moreover, according to the result of variance analysis and multiple comparison, the optimum conditions for extraction of polysaccharide by using microwave technology from yacon leaves were as follows: 280W microwave power for 2 times and 15 minutes at every time. PMID:18323219

  5. Extraction of copper from bacterial leach solution using LIX98

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳建设; 邱冠周; 葛玉卿; 徐竞

    2002-01-01

    Extraction of copper from bacterial leach solution using Lix984 had been performed.It was found that the main factors influencing extraction yield of copper are the phase ratio and the concentration of extractant,following the pH of solution and extraction time and the order of factors influencing the separation rate is the pH of solution,the concentration of extractant,the extraction time and the phase ratio.The best conditions obtained by the orthogonal tests are as follows: the extractant concentration 4%,extraction time 3 min,phase ratio 1∶1,pH of solution 2.

  6. Ultrasound-associated extraction of seed oil of Korean pine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGYing; WANGZhen-yu; CHENXiao-qiang

    2005-01-01

    Experiment on ultrasound- associated extraction of seed oil of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) was conducted in Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, China. The factors affecting extraction yield, such as ultrasonic frequency, extracting temperature, extracting time and the ratio of material to liquid (ratio of Korean pine seed to absolute alcohol), were analyzed under specific condition and the optimal extracting parameters were obtained as the ultrasonic frequency 32 000 Hz, the extracting temperature 80℃, the extracting time 50 rain, and the ratio of material to liquid 1: 30. The study demonstrates that ultrasound is a reliable and great efficiency tool for the fast extraction of Korean pine seed oil。

  7. Extraction, fatty acid profile and antioxidant activity of sesame extract (Sesamum Indicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. R. Carvalho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article carried out the extraction of sesame oil by using three extraction techniques: supercritical fluid extraction (SFE, Soxhlet and sequential extraction. The SFE was performed using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 as solvent and ethanol as cosolvent. Tests were performed at 20 MPa, 35ºC and a flow rate of 2.5 g CO2/min with a total extraction time of 210 minutes. The Soxhlet extraction was performed for 8 hours, using petroleum ether and ethanol as solvents, until the exhaustion of the oil contained in the seeds. The sequential extraction used ethyl ether, ethanol and water as solvents. The Soxhlet extraction was the most effective (58.93%, while the SFE technique obtained 26.47% as the best result. The antioxidant activity (AA was determined by the β-carotene/linoleic acid system, with good oxidation inhibition percentages (29.32-83.49% for all the extracts. The main fatty acids (FA in sesame oil were oleic and linoleic acids.

  8. Extracting natural dyes from wool—an evaluation of extraction methods

    OpenAIRE

    Manhita, Ana; Ferreira, Teresa; Candeias, António; Barrocas Dias, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    The efficiency of eight different procedures used for the extraction of natural dyes was evaluated using contemporary wool samples dyed with cochineal, madder, woad, weld, brazilwood and logwood. Comparison was made based on the LC-DAD peak areas of the natural dye’s main components which had been extracted from the wool samples. Among the tested methods, an extraction procedure with Na2EDTA in water/DMF (1:1, v/v) proved to be the most suitable for the extraction of the studied dyes, ...

  9. Liquid-liquid extraction for the enrichment of edible oils with phenols from olive leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japón-Luján, R; Luque de Castro, M D

    2008-04-01

    A liquid-liquid extraction method to enrich edible oils--olive, sunflower, and soy oils--with phenols from olive leaf extracts is proposed. After microwave assistance to remove the phenols from three varieties of olive leaves, concentrations in the extracts between 12921 and 5173 mg/L of oleuropein, between 488 and 192 mg/L of apigenin-7-glucoside, between 444 and 219 mg/L of luteolin-7-glucoside, and between 501 and 213 mg/L of verbascoside were obtained, which clearly depended on the target variety. After optimization of the liquid-liquid extraction step, the concentrations in oils were 442, 162, and 164 mg/L of oleuropein, respectively, which were also enriched in apigenin-7-glucoside (between 8 and 15 mg/L, depending of the oil), lutelin-7-glucoside (between 11 and 12 mg/L), and verbascoside (between 11 and 13 mg/L). The oil-extract distribution factor of these compounds was also calculated for all olive leaf varieties and edible oils using different extracts concentrations and also different oil-extract volume ratios. Thus, a door is open to enrichment of any oil with olive phenols at preset concentrations using extracts preconcentrated as required and taking into account the distribution factor of the target compounds between the oil and the extracts. PMID:18324773

  10. Effects of Different Extraction Methods and Conditions on the Phenolic Composition of Mate Tea Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Vladic

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A simple and rapid HPLC method for determination of chlorogenic acid (5-O-caffeoylquinic acid in mate tea extracts was developed and validated. The chromatography used isocratic elution with a mobile phase of aqueous 1.5% acetic acid-methanol (85:15, v/v. The flow rate was 0.8 mL/min and detection by UV at 325 nm. The method showed good selectivity, accuracy, repeatability and robustness, with detection limit of 0.26 mg/L and recovery of 97.76%. The developed method was applied for the determination of chlorogenic acid in mate tea extracts obtained by ethanol extraction and liquid carbon dioxide extraction with ethanol as co-solvent. Different ethanol concentrations were used (40, 50 and 60%, v/v and liquid CO2 extraction was performed at different pressures (50 and 100 bar and constant temperature (27 ± 1 °C. Significant influence of extraction methods, conditions and solvent polarity on chlorogenic acid content, antioxidant activity and total phenolic and flavonoid content of mate tea extracts was established. The most efficient extraction solvent was liquid CO2 with aqueous ethanol (40% as co-solvent using an extraction pressure of 100 bar.

  11. Effect of the extraction process on yield and composition of selected extracts from maidenhair tree green and yellow leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Kobus-Cisowska; Ewa Flaczyk; Aleksander Siger; Dominik Kmiecik

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of extraction process on the extraction efficiency and composition of selected extracts from the maidenhair tree (Ginkgo biloba L.) green and yellow leaves. Taken three-step extraction, where water, solution of acetone and water and ethyl alcohol were used, effectiveness by evaluating the content of total polyphenols was estimated. In the next step yield of selected extraction processes was estimated, then UV spectra of the obtained extracts and...

  12. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE) and Solvent Extraction of Papaya Seed Oil: Yield, Fatty Acid Composition and Triacylglycerol Profile

    OpenAIRE

    Hasanah Mohd Ghazali; Chin Ping Tan; Hamed Mirhosseini; Shadi Samaram

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE) and solvent extraction (SE)). In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (...

  13. Evaluation of in vitro antioxidant potential of different polarities stem crude extracts by different extraction methods of Adenium obesum

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Amzad Hossain; Tahiya Hilal Ali Alabri; Amira Hamood Salim Al Musalami; Md. Sohail Akhtar; Sadri Said

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To select best extraction method for the isolated antioxidant compounds from the stems of Adenium obesum. Methods: Two methods used for the extraction are Soxhlet and maceration methods. Methanol solvent was used for both extraction method. The methanol crude extract was defatted with water and extracted successively with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol solvents. The antioxidant potential for all crude extracts were determined by using 1, 1-diphenyl...

  14. Extraction of functional ingredients from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) using liquid solvent and supercritical CO2 extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime, Laura; Vázquez, Erika; Fornari, Tiziana; López-Hazas, María Del Carmen; García-Risco, Mónica R.; Santoyo, Susana; Reglero, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    This is the accepted version of the following article: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 94 (2014), which has been published in final form at http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.6788 In this work three different techniques were applied to extract dry leaves of spinach (Spinacia oleracea): solid-liquid extraction (SLE), pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) to investigate the influence of extraction solvent and technique on extracts composition...

  15. Effect of temperature and extraction process on antioxidant activity of various leaves crude extracts of Thymus vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad A. Hossain; Zawan Hamood AL-Mijizy; Kawther Khalifa Al-Rashdi; AfafM Weli; Qasim Al-Riyami

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of temperature and extraction process on the estimation of antioxidant activity of various organic crude extracts from the leaves of Thymus vulgaris (T. vulgaris) species native to Sultanate of Oman. Methods: The dry powder samples of T. vulgaris were extracted with methanol using two different extraction methods. Both methanol crude extracts from the leaves of T. vulgaris were defatted with water and extracted successively with different polari...

  16. Extraction of antioxidant components from peanut skins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzman, C. A.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to extract antioxidant components from peanut skins using different solvents and to determine antioxidant activity of the extracts. Methanolic, ethanolic, acetonic and aqueous extracts were prepared from defatted and non defatted peanut skins. Total dry matter content and total phenolic content, radical-scavenging activity and antioxidant activity in sunflower oil were determined from the extracts. The peanut skins used in this work had the following proximate composition: 16.60 % oil, 12.32 % protein, 2.83 % ash and 69.8 % other components. High content of total dry matter was found in methanolic (17.11 %, ethanolic (17.70 % and acetonic (18.54 % extracts from non defatted peanut skins. The acetonic extract from defatted peanut skins had lower dry matter extraction than the non defatted peanut skin extract. High content of total phenolics was detected in methanolic (158.6 mg/g and ethanolic (144.1 mg/g extracts from deffated peanut skins. These last two extracts in concentration of 1 μg/mL, the radical-scavenging activities were 32.59 % in methanolic extract and 31.5 % in ethanolic extract. All extracts (0.05 % w/w in sunflower oil showed antioxidant activity. This antioxidant activity from the extracts was lower than that activity from BHT.El objetivo del trabajo fue extraer sustancias antioxidantes del tegumento de las semillas de maní usando diferentes tipos de solventes y determinar la actividad antioxidante de los extractos. Extractos metanólicos, etanólicos, acetónicos y acuosos fueron preparados desde tegumento de maní desengrasado y sin desengrasar. Sobre los extractos se determinaron los contenidos de materia seca y fenoles totales, actividad secuestrante de radicales libres y la actividad antioxidante sobre aceite de girasol. El tegumento de maní usado en este trabajo tuvo la siguiente composición porcentual: 16.60 % de aceite, 12.32 % de proteínas, 2.83 % de cenizas y 69.8 % de otros

  17. Uranium extraction by complexation with siderophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahamonde Castro, Cristina

    One of the major concerns of energy production is the environmental impact associated with the extraction of natural resources. Nuclear energy fuel is obtained from uranium, an abundant and naturally occurring element in the environment, but the currently used techniques for uranium extraction leave either a significant fingerprint (open pit mines) or a chemical residue that alters the pH of the environment (acid or alkali leaching). It is therefore clear that a new and greener approach to uranium extraction is needed. Bioleaching is one potential alternative. In bioleaching, complexants naturally produced from fungi or bacteria may be used to extract the uranium. In the following research, the siderophore enterobactin, which is naturally produced by bacteria to extract and solubilize iron from the environment, is evaluated to determine its potential for complexing with uranium. To determine whether enterobactin could be used for uranium extraction, its acid dissociation and its binding strength with the metal of interest must be determined. Due to the complexity of working with radioactive materials, lanthanides were used as analogs for uranium. In addition, polyprotic acids were used as structural and chemical analogs for the siderophore during method development. To evaluate the acid dissociation of enterobactin and the subsequent binding constants with lanthanides, three different analytical techniques were studied including: potentiometric titration, UltraViolet Visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry and Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC). After evaluation of three techniques, a combination of ITC and potentiometric titrations was deemed to be the most viable way for studying the siderophore of interest. The results obtained from these studies corroborate the ideal pH range for enterobactin complexation to the lanthanide of interest and pave the way for determining the strength of complexation relative to other naturally occurring metals. Ultimately, this

  18. Herbal extracts in diets for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Goulart Petrolli

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding herbal extracts for broilers on performance and histology of the intestinal mucosa and its effects on the profiting from the metabolizable energy of experimental diets. For so, two experiments were conducted. In experiment I, the inclusion of different herbal extracts in diets on performance and intestinal histology of broilers was evaluated, and in experiment II, the values of apparent metabolizable energy and metabolizable energy corrected by the nitrogen balance of the experimental diets were studied. Treatments consisted of: positive control diet; positive control + avilamycin; negative control; negative control + 100 ppm of a complex containing three different herbal medicines (pepper, cinnamon and oregano; negative control + 75 ppm garlic extract; negative control + 150 ppm garlic extract. In the performance experiment, which comprised the period of 1 to 40 days of age, 960 male broilers were distributed in a randomized block design, with six treatments and eight replicates, with 20 birds per experimental unit. In experiment II, the method adopted was the traditional of total excreta collection with male broiler chicks in the age of 14 to 24 days, in a completely randomized design, with six treatments and eight replicates with five birds per experimental unit. The intestinal villus height was improved with addition of the composite containing the three herbal extracts; however, crypt depth and villus/crypt ratio were not affected. The use of herbal extract in diets for broilers promotes performance similar to that with the use of antibiotics. Herbal extracts can be incorporated into diets replacing antibiotics without compromising the metabolizable energy of diets, performance or intestinal mucosa for broilers in the period of 1 to 40 days of age.

  19. Study on Ultrasonic Extraction Technology of Sterol from the Rhizome of Begonia grandis Dry.subsp, sinensis ( A.DC.) Irmsch.%中华秋海棠根茎中甾醇的超声提取工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高丽; 黄行健; 凌洁玉

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To study the ultrasonic extraction technology of sterol from the rhizome of Begonia grandis Dry. Subsp. Sinensis (A. DC. ) Irmsch. . [Method] In this study,the sterol was first extracted from the rhizome of B. Grandis using ultrasonic technology,and then quantitatively analyzed using the advanced Liebennann - Burchard colorimetric method. The single factor experiment and the orthogonal experiment were carried out to study the effects of factors including extraction temperature, extraction time and solid - liquid ratio on the yield of sterol. The regression equations to three factors were established by RSREG software in SAS8. 1. In addition, the types of sterols were analyzed using HPLC. [ Result] Results show that the regression equation was significant,the optimal technological conditions of sterol extraction were as follows : extracting temperature was 58℃, extracting time was 57 min, solid - liquid ratio was 1: 44 g/ml. Under these conditions, the content of sterol was 1.80 mg/g in the rhizome of B. Sinensis. [Conclusion] Ultrasonic - assisted technology is an efficient, energy - saving and time -saving method that can be used to extract sterol from the rhizome of B. Grandis. In addition, the analysis of HPLC spectrum reveals that sterol composition in the rhizome of B. Sinensis is complex, including β- sitosterol and other sterols.%[目的]研究中华秋海棠根茎中甾醇的超声提取工艺条件.[方法]使用超声波提取法对中华秋海棠进行提取,利用改进的Liebermarn - Bur chard比色法对秋海棠根茎超声波提取物中的甾醇进行定量分析,研究了料液比、温度、时间和提取溶剂4个因素对秋海棠根茎中甾醇含量的影响,选取提取温度、提取时间和料液比为影响因子,采用3元2次旋转正交设计,对超声提取工艺进行优化,计算回归方程,并进行响应面分析,同时采用高效液相色谱法分析其甾醇种类.[结果]回归方程准确可靠,且拟合情

  20. Anatomia foliar de ipê-branco (Tabebuia roseo alba (Ridl. Sand. – Bignoniaceae, proveniente do cultivo ex vitro e in vitro = Ex vitro and in vitro leaf anatomy of Tabebuia roseo alba (Ridl. Sand. – Bignoniaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Caravita Abbade

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo comparar a estrutura interna de folhas de ipêbranco cultivadas in vitro e ex vitro. Para as avaliações anatômicas foram utilizadas folhas do primeiro nó de ramos, da base para o ápice, com 30 dias de cultivo in vitro e de plantas de campo. O estudo anatômico foi feito por meio das secções transversais e paradérmicas das folhas. As folhas apresentam epiderme uniestratificada e mesofilo dorsiventral. São hipostomáticas e apresentam tricomas em todas as faces. Folhas de plantas cultivadas ex vitro, quando comparadas com in vitro, tiveram espessura do limbo foliar, nervura central da epiderme adaxial e abaxial e os parênquimas paliçádico e esponjoso maiores. Em folhas oriundas do cultivo in vitro, a cutícula e o esclerênquima são ausentes. Folhas de plantas cultivadas ex vitro apresentaram menor número de estômatos e maior número de tricomas, quando comparadas com o cultivo in vitro. Os estômatos de folhas cultivadas in vitro são maiores que os de folhas ex vitro.Considering the importance of knowledge of anatomical structures in the protocol definition for the micropropagation of the ipê-branco, this study compared the in vitro and ex vitro internal structure of leaves. For anatomical evaluations, the first leaf in vitro with 30 days of growth and adult plants were used. The anatomical study of leaves was based on microscope examination from cross-sectional and paradermic sections from the leaf blade. The leaf structures from plants ex vitro show uniseriate skin, and mesophyll with dorsiventral organization. They are hipostomatics and trichome is present in all faces. Leaves ex vitro was thicker that culture in vitro in limb, central nervure, epidermis and palisade and spongious parenchyma. In leaves in vitro, cuticle and sclerenchyma are absent. Leaves of ex vitro presented minor numbers of stomata and greater number of trichromes when compared with culture in vitro. Stomata of in vitro are larger than stomata ex vitro.