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Sample records for bupivacaine

  1. Effects of intrathecal bupivacaine and bupivacaine plus sufentanil in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-23

    Mar 23, 2013 ... block characteristics, hemodynamic changes, side effects, and time to first analgesic requirement were recorded. No differences ... was observed and the time to first analgesic request was longer, the combination of bupivacaine + sufentanil might be ... complications, early hospital discharge, and reducing.

  2. Comparison of efficacy of intraperitoneal instillation of bupivacaine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of efficacy of intraperitoneal instillation of bupivacaine alone with bupivacaine – fentanyl and bupivacaine –tramadol combination for alleviation of post-operative pain following laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized prospective study.

  3. Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 and bupivacaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivanovic-Posilovic, Gordana; Balenovic, Diana; Barisic, Ivan; Strinic, Dean; Stambolija, Vasilije; Udovicic, Mario; Uzun, Sandra; Drmic, Domagoj; Vlainic, Josipa; Bencic, Martina Lovric; Sindic, Aleksandra; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2016-12-15

    Bupivacaine toxicity following accidental overdose still lacks therapeutic solution. However, there are major arguments for testing BPC 157 against bupivacaine toxicity in vivo in rats, in particular, and then finally, in vitro. These are: the lack of any known BPC 157 toxicity, a lifesaving effect via the mitigation of arrhythmias in rats underwent hyperkalemia or digitalis toxicity, the elimination of hyperkalemia and arrhythmias in rats underwent succinylcholine toxicity and finally, the reduction of potassium-induced depolarization in vitro (in HEK293 cells) in severe hyperkalemia. Most importantly, BPC 157 successfully prevents and counteracts bupivacaine cardiotoxicity; BPC 157 is effective even against the worst outcomes such as a severely prolonged QRS complex. Here, rats injected with bupivacaine (100mg/kg IP) exhibited bradycardia, AV-block, ventricular ectopies, ventricular tachycardia, T-wave elevation and asystole. All of the fatalities had developed T-wave elevation, high-degree AV-block, respiratory arrest and asystole. These were largely counteracted by BPC 157 administration (50µg/kg, 10µg/kg, 10ng/kg, or 10pg/kg IP) given 30min before or 1min after the bupivacaine injection. When BPC 157 was given 6min after bupivacaine administration, and after the development of prolonged QRS intervals (20ms), the fatal outcome was markedly postponed. Additionally, the effect of bupivacaine on cell membrane depolarization was explored by measuring membrane voltages (Vm) in HEK293 cells. Bupivacaine (1mM) alone caused depolarization of the cells, while in combination with BPC 157 (1µm), the bupivacaine-induced depolarization was inhibited. Together, these findings suggest that the stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 should be a potential antidote for bupivacaine cardiotoxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of intrathecal sufentanil and hyperbaric bupivacaine with intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine for caesarean section

    OpenAIRE

    Shweta Pravin Mhambrey; Shital S. Ahire; Sambharan Nayak

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sufentanil added to intrathecal bupivacaine for cesarean section has shown to improve intraoperative and postoperative analgesia without any adverse effects to the mother and neonate. In the present study we compare the effects of intrathecal sufentanil 5 and micro;g and 8 mg of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine with intrathecal 10 mg of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine for caesarean section. Methods: This study was performed in a 60 pregnant patients undergoing elective LSCS under s...

  5. Levobupivacaine 0.5%, 50% enantiomeric excess bupivacaine and racemic bupivacaine in epidural anesthesia for lower abdominal procedures. Comparative study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tanaka, Pedro Paulo; Ogleari, Mário; Valmorbida, Paulo; Tanaka, Maria Aparecida A

    2005-01-01

    .... This study aimed at evaluating, for one hour after injection, the efficacy of 50% enantiomeric excess bupivacaine as compared to levobupivacaine and racemic bupivacaine for epidural anesthesia in patients submitted to lower abdominal procedures...

  6. Improved Chondrotoxic Profile of Liposomal Bupivacaine Compared With Standard Bupivacaine After Intra-articular Infiltration in a Porcine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, K Aaron; Moreland, Colleen; Jacobs, Jeremy; Hire, Justin M; Topolski, Richard; Hoyt, Nathan; Parada, Stephen A; Cameron, Craig D

    2017-10-01

    Increasingly, liposomal bupivacaine is being used with multimodal pain management strategies. In vitro investigations have shown decreased chondrotoxicity profiles for liposomal bupivacaine; however, there is no evidence regarding its in vivo effects. Hypothesis/Purpose: This study sought to investigate the in vivo chondrotoxicity of liposomal bupivacaine, hypothesizing that there would be increased chondrocyte viability after exposure to liposomal bupivacaine when compared with standard bupivacaine. Controlled laboratory study. Eight juvenile, female Yorkshire cross piglets underwent a lateral stifle joint injection with either 1.3% liposomal bupivacaine or 0.5% bupivacaine. Injections were performed on one joint per animal with no injection to the contralateral knee, which served as the control. Chondrocyte viability was assessed 1 week after injection with a live-dead staining protocol and histologic examination. Significant chondrocyte death was seen with the live-dead staining in the bupivacaine group (33% nonviable cells) in comparison with liposomal bupivacaine (6.2%) and control (5.8%) groups ( P model. Although bupivacaine demonstrated decreased chondrocyte viability on a cellular level, histologically there were no changes. This study highlights the dichotomy between fluorescent staining and histologic appearance of articular chondrocytes in short-term analyses of viability. This study supports the peri-articular application of liposomal bupivacaine in the setting of preserved articular cartilage. A single injection of standard bupivacaine did not produce histologic changes in the articular cartilage.

  7. Treatment of Digital Ischemia with Liposomal Bupivacaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Raul Soberón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This report describes a case in which the off-label use of liposomal bupivacaine (Exparel in a peripheral nerve block resulted in marked improvement of a patient’s vasoocclusive symptoms. The vasodilating and analgesic properties of liposomal bupivacaine in patients with ischemic symptoms are unknown, but our clinical experience suggests a role in the management of patients suffering from vasoocclusive disease. Case Report. A 45-year-old African American female was admitted to the hospital with severe digital ischemic pain. She was not a candidate for any vascular surgical or procedural interventions. Two continuous supraclavicular nerve blocks were placed with modest clinical improvement. These effects were also short-lived, with the benefits resolving after the discontinuation of the peripheral nerve blocks. She continued to report severe pain and was on multiple anticoagulant medications, so a decision was made to perform an axillary nerve block using liposomal bupivacaine (Exparel given the compressibility of the site as well as the superficial nature of the target structures. Conclusions. This case report describes the successful off-label usage of liposomal bupivacaine (Exparel in a patient with digital ischemia. Liposomal bupivacaine (Exparel is currently FDA approved only for wound infiltration use at this time.

  8. Comparison of Effect of Intrathecal Sufentanil-Bupivacaine and Fentanyl-Bupivacaine Combination on Postoperative Analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishwar Singh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty ASA grade I/II patients scheduled for elective lower abdominal, lower limb and urological procedures were divided into two groups of 25 each .The first group (Group S received 2.5 ml of heavy bupivacaine with 0.2. ml sufentanil made up to 3 ml with saline. The second group (Group F received 2.5 ml of heavy bupivacaine with 0.5 ml of fentanyl. From our study it can be concluded that bupivacaine sufentanil combination although had shorter onset of action, but had more side effects especially nausea, vomiting and headache. The time for rescue analgesia in both groups was however similar.

  9. Evaluation of intrathecal bupivacaine alone, bupivacaine with butorphanol and bupivacaine with dexmedetomidine for lower segment caesarean section: a randomized control trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ashem Jack Meitei; Okram Rubina; Laithangbam PKS; Joyshankar Singh I.; Dilip Ingudum; Mithun Raj R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Following caesarean operation, a painless early ambulation is necessary to mother for caring of the neonate. Aim of the study is to compare more effective analgesic by intrathecal bupivacaine or combination with butorphanol or dexmedetomidine. Methods: Ninety parturients undergoing elective caesarean section were randomly divided into three equal groups (n=30). Group B: received bupivacaine (0.5%) 2 ml + 0.5 ml of normal saline (NS); group BB, bupivacaine (0.5%) 2 ml + 25 mcg b...

  10. STUDY COMPARING BUPIVACAINE WITH ROPIVACAINE AND LEVO - BUPIVACAINE IN SUB UMBILICAL SURGERIES UN DER EPIDURAL ANAESTHESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kameshwara Rao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACK GROUND: Epidural blockade is becoming one of the most useful and versatile procedures in modern anesthesiology . Levobupivacaine and Ropivacaine, the two new long - acting local anaesthetics, have been developed as an alternative to Bupivacaine, after the evidence of its severe toxicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It is prospective, randomized, double blind study on 90 Patients to evaluate th e time of onset and duration of sensory and motor blockade and hemodynamic effects of Bupivacaine 0.5% Ropivacaine 0.75% and Levobupivacaine 0.5% when administered epidurally for sub umbilical surgeries of age group 18 - 60yr of ASA I and II physical status un der epidural anesthesia . RESULTS: Ropivacaine has short duration of motor block when compared with Bupivacaine and Levobupivacaine. The onset of sensory and motor blocks, highest level of sensory block, degree of motor block and duration of sensory analgesia with Ropivacaine and Levobupivacaine are s imilar to that of Bupivacaine. The hemodynamic changes and side effect profile of Ropivacaine and Levobupivacaine is not significantly different from that of Bupivacaine. CONCLUSION : Ropivacaine and Levobupivacaine can be used as a safe alternative to Bupi vacaine , shorter duration of motor block with Ropivacaine suggest that it could be effectively used for early mobilization of patients in the post - operative period

  11. Intraperitoneal Hydrocortisone plus Bupivacaine versus Bupivacaine alone for Pain Relief after Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Sharma

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has been the gold standard in the treatment of gallstones since last decades. Beside several benefits of laparoscopic cholecystectomy compared with open surgery, postoperative pain is still a frequent melancholy.  Hence, pain management is utmost regarding patients' comfort. The main objective of the study was to compare the effect of intraperitoneal hydrocortisone plus bupivacaine with bupivacaine alone on pain relief following laparoscopic cholecystectomy.   Methods: A randomized study was conducted from December 2015 to August 2015 that included 100 patients aged 20 to 60 years of both genders who were found to have symptomatic gallstones and were scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy at Lumbini Medical College. Patients randomly received 100 mg hydrocortisone plus 100 mg bupivacaine in 200 ml normal saline (group A or 100 mg bupivacaine in 200 ml normal saline (group B into the peritoneum. Post-operative abdominal and shoulder pain were evaluated using Visual Analog Score (VAS. The patients were also followed up for postoperative analgesic requirements, and recovery variables. Data were collected, tabulated and analyzed statistically using SPSS version 19.   Results: Total number of patients in this study were 100. Age and gender among both groups were comparable. VAS scores for pain was significantly lower for group A as compared to group B at 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours. Time of oral intake in hrs for liquids and solids was statistically significant in Group A compared to Group B. Rescue analgesic requirement was also significantly low in Group A compared to Group B. Hospital stay in both group were comparable.   Conclusion: Combination of hydrocortisone plus bupivacaine can relieve pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy better compared to bupivacaine alone when administered intraperitoneally.

  12. Intraperitoneal bupivacaine with or without incisional bupivacaine for postoperative analgesia in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalchofner Guerrero, Karin S; Campagna, Ivo; Bruhl-Day, Rodolfo; Hegamin-Younger, Cecilia; Guerrero, Tomas G

    2016-09-01

    Intraperitoneal (IP) bupivacaine provides postoperative analgesia in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy (OHE) alone or in combination with incisional (INC) bupivacaine. This study investigated whether the combination of INC and IP bupivacaine is superior to IP bupivacaine alone. Prospective, randomized, blinded clinical study. Thirty-nine privately owned dogs undergoing OHE, aged 25 ± 23 months and weighing 11.8 ± 5.7 kg. Dogs were premedicated with acepromazine (0.05 mg kg(-1) ) and morphine (0.5 mg kg(-1) ) intramuscularly (IM); anaesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. Carprofen (4 mg kg(-1) ) was administered subcutaneously (SC) after intubation. Bupivacaine (3 mg kg(-1) ) IP was administered before complete closure of the linea alba to all dogs. Dogs were randomly assigned into two groups: group B received bupivacaine (n = 20; 1 mg kg(-1) ) and group S received saline (n = 19; 0.2 mL kg(-1) ) INC as a subcutaneous 'splash' before skin closure. Postoperative analgesia was assessed with a dynamic interactive visual analogue scale, the short form of the Glasgow Composite Pain Scale, and mechanical nociceptive threshold (MNT) measurement at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 20 hours after surgery by one blinded observer. Parametric data were tested using t-test; nonparametric data were analysed using the two-sample Wilcoxon test (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between groups with regard to age, weight, surgical and anaesthetic duration, incision length, sedation and pain scores. MNT values decreased in both groups at all time points as compared with the baseline. No dog required rescue analgesia. No postoperative complications were observed. Bupivacaine IP and carprofen SC after morphine IM did provide satisfactory postoperative analgesia in dogs undergoing OHE with the anaesthetic protocol used. There appears to be no clinical advantage to adding bupivacaine INC. Neither protocol could

  13. Post- operative analgesic effect of epidural bupivacaine alone and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted from December, 2013 to May, 2014 on 12 healthy bitches presented to the University of Gondar Teaching Veterinary Clinic for ovariohysterectomy to compare the epidural analgesic efficacy of bupivacaine alone and bupivacaine with tramadol to relieve postoperative pain and asses changes on ...

  14. Formulation and Evaluation of Bupivacaine-Loaded Glutaraldehyde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Bupivacaine has been widely used for local or regional anesthesia after surgery because of its rapid onset and relatively long-lasting anesthetic effect as compared to other commonly used LA. [1]. Liposphere formulation of bupivacaine and lidocaine were previously evaluated as sustained release delivery system for LA [2].

  15. STUDY COMPARING BUPIVACAINE WITH ROPIVACAINE AND LEVO - BUPIVACAINE IN SUB UMBILICAL SURGERIES UN DER EPIDURAL ANAESTHESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Kameshwara Rao; Suresh Chander; Nagesh; Harinath

    2015-01-01

    BACK GROUND: Epidural blockade is becoming one of the most useful and versatile procedures in modern anesthesiology . Levobupivacaine and Ropivacaine, the two new long - acting local anaesthetics, have been developed as an alternative to Bupivacaine, after the evidence of its severe toxicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It is prospective, randomized, double blind study on 90 Patients to evaluate th ...

  16. Addition of adenosine to hyperbaric bupivacaine in spinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-04-17

    effects, ... efficacy of adenosine on postoperative pain when administered with hyperbaric bupivacaine. The aim of our present study ... lower back, or ingestion of methylxanthine-containing food or beverages within 12 hours of ...

  17. Acetylcholinesterase assay for cerebrospinal fluid using bupivacaine to inhibit butyrylcholinesterase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Jens

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most test systems for acetylcholinesterase activity (E.C.3.1.1.7. are using toxic inhibitors (BW284c51 and iso-OMPA to distinguish the enzyme from butyrylcholinesterase (E.C.3.1.1.8. which occurs simultaneously in the cerebrospinal fluid. Applying Ellman's colorimetric method, we were looking for a non-toxic inhibitor to restrain butyrylcholinesterase activity. Based on results of previous in vitro studies bupivacaine emerged to be a suitable inhibitor. Results Pharmacokinetic investigations with purified cholinesterases have shown maximum inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase activity and minimal interference with acetylcholinesterase activity at bupivacaine final concentrations between 0.1 and 0.5 mmol/l. Based on detailed analysis of pharmacokinetic data we developed three equations representing enzyme inhibition at bupivacaine concentrations of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.5 mmol/l. These equations allow us to calculate the acetylcholinesterase activity in solutions containing both cholinesterases utilizing the extinction differences measured spectrophotometrically in samples with and without bupivacaine. The accuracy of the bupivacaine-inhibition test could be confirmed by investigations on solutions of both purified cholinesterases and on samples of human cerebrospinal fluid. If butyrylcholinesterase activity has to be assessed simultaneously an independent test using butyrylthiocholine iodide as substrate (final concentration 5 mmol/l has to be conducted. Conclusions The bupivacaine-inhibition test is a reliable method using spectrophotometrical techniques to measure acetylcholinesterase activity in cerebrospinal fluid. It avoids the use of toxic inhibitors for differentiation of acetylcholinesterase from butyrylcholinesterase in fluids containing both enzymes. Our investigations suggest that bupivacaine concentrations of 0.1, 0.2 or 0.5 mmol/l can be applied with the same effect using 1 mmol/l acetylthiocholine iodide as substrate.

  18. Tetrodotoxin-Bupivacaine-Epinephrine Combinations for Prolonged Local Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Bognet

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently available local anesthetics have analgesic durations in humans generally less than 12 hours. Prolonged-duration local anesthetics will be useful for postoperative analgesia. Previous studies showed that in rats, combinations of tetrodotoxin (TTX with bupivacaine had supra-additive effects on sciatic block durations. In those studies, epinephrine combined with TTX prolonged blocks more than 10-fold, while reducing systemic toxicity. TTX, formulated as Tectin, is in phase III clinical trials as an injectable systemic analgesic for chronic cancer pain. Here, we examine dose-duration relationships and sciatic nerve histology following local nerve blocks with combinations of Tectin with bupivacaine 0.25% (2.5 mg/mL solutions, with or without epinephrine 5 µg/mL (1:200,000 in rats. Percutaneous sciatic blockade was performed in Sprague-Dawley rats, and intensity and duration of sensory blockade was tested blindly with different Tectin-bupivacaine-epinephrine combinations. Between-group comparisons were analyzed using ANOVA and post-hoc Sidak tests. Nerves were examined blindly for signs of injury. Blocks containing bupivacaine 0.25% with Tectin 10 µM and epinephrine 5 µg/mL were prolonged by roughly 3-fold compared to blocks with bupivacaine 0.25% plain (P < 0.001 or bupivacaine 0.25% with epinephrine 5 µg/mL (P < 0.001. Nerve histology was benign for all groups. Combinations of Tectin in bupivacaine 0.25% with epinephrine 5 µg/mL appear promising for prolonged duration of local anesthesia.

  19. Comparison of Local Anesthetic Effect of Bupivacaine versus Bupivacaine plus Dexamethasone in Nasal Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhosein Ma’somi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction: Adequate pain control is an important consideration in the post-surgical management of patients. Local nerve blockade added to general anesthesia can provide excellent pain control during and after most nasal surgical procedures. The aim of this study was to determine the combined effect of local anesthetic drugs with corticosteroids in nasal surgery. Materials and Methods: In this double-blind clinical study, 60 patients who underwent different nasal surgical procedures were matched and divided into two equal groups. Bilateral local nerve blockade was used in both groups. Bupivacaine or bupivacaine plus dexamethasone was administered by injection (groups B and B+D, respectively. Postoperative visual analog scale (VAS pain values and the need for oral/intramuscular analgesic treatment in the first 24 h were recorded in all patients. Results: Thirty-eight male (63.3% and 22 female (36.7% patients were included in this study, with a mean age of 28.3 ± 8.2 years. At 1, 2, 4, 6, and 12 h post surgery, VAS pain values were significantly lower in the B+D group than in the B group. The analgesic requirement was significantly lower in the B+D group compared with the B group. No relevant complications were seen during surgery or postoperative hospitalization. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the positive effect of a combination of a dexamethasone with a bupivacaine in reducing pain and the need for analgesic drugs after different nasal surgeries. No acute or short-term post-surgical complications were observed in this study.   

  20. Post operative analgesia after incisional infiltration of bupivacaine v/s bupivacaine with buprenorphine

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    Tanu R Mehta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Opioid receptors have been demonstrated in the peripheral nerve endings of afferent neurons. Blockade of these receptors with peripherally administered opioid is believed to result in analgesia. Aim: To evaluate whether buprenorphine added to bupivacaine for wound infiltration can enhance post-operative analgesia via peripheral mechanisms. Materials and Methods: Forty ASA I and II adult patients scheduled for open donor nephrectomy were enrolled in this randomized double blind prospective study. In group A ( n=20 patients, the wound was infiltrated with bupivacaine 0.5% (2 mg/kg and in group B ( n=20 with bupivacaine 0.5% (2 mg/kg and buprenorphine (2 μg/kg. All patients were given diclofenac 75 mg IM at 8 h interval. Post-operative quality of analgesia was assessed by VAS (0-10 for 24 h and when VAS > 4 rescue analgesic was administered. Total dose of rescue analgesic and side effects were noted. Results: The time of administration of first rescue analgesic was significantly higher in group B (10.52±5.54 h as compared to group A (3.275±1.8 h. Mean VAS was significantly lower in group B as compared to group A. The total dosage of rescue analgesic was more in group A as compared to group B patients. Conclusion: Addition of buprenorphine to the local anesthetic significantly prolonged the time to first rescue analgesic requirement and the total consumption of rescue analgesic in 24 h, thus providing evidence in support of the existence of peripheral opioid receptors.

  1. Postoperative Analgesia in Children- Comparative Study between Caudal Bupivacaine and Bupivacaine plus Tramadol

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    Meena Doda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty children, ASAI-II, aged between 2yrs-5yrs, undergoing sub umbilical operation (inguinal and penile surgery were selected for this double blind study. They were randomly divided in two groups, group Aand group B. Group A(n15 received 0.25%bupivacaine 0.5ml.kg -1 and Group B (n=15 received 0.25% bupivaeaine 0.5ml.kg -1 and tramadol 2mg.kg -1 as single shot caudal block. Postoperative pain was assessed by a modified TPPPS (Toddler-Preschool Postoperative Pain Scale and analgesic given only when the score was more than 3. In the first 24 hrs it was observed that the mean duration of time interval between the caudal block and first dose of analgesic was significantly long(9. lhrs in Group B as compared to Group A (6.3hrs which was much shorter(p< 0.01.There was no significant haemodynamie changes, motor weakness or respiratory depression in both groups. This study con-cluded that addition of tramadol 2mg.kg -1 to caudal 0.25% bupivacaine 0.5ml.kg -1 significantly prolong the duration of postoperative analgesia in children withoutprodueing much adverse effects.

  2. İntraartiküler bupivacain, morfin, bupivacain+morfin'in artroskopik diz cerrahisinde postoperatif ağrı üzerine etkileri

    OpenAIRE

    Kucukay, Suleyman; Celiker, Tulay Soner; Koyluoglu, Isil Okan; Taser, Omer; Alturfan, Aziz; Sozen, Yunus V.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of intraarticular injection of bupivacaine, morphine, bupivacaine+morphine and placebo on postoperative pain during arthroscopic knee surgery. The pain was evaluatedaccording to visualanalogousscale (VAS) at. 0.5, 1, 1. 5, 2, 6 and 24 hourafterthe operation. The need for additional analgesic administration was compared between different groups. In placebo group the values of VAS were higher than the three groups. In bupivacaine group the effective an...

  3. Bupivacaine injection remodels extraocular muscles and corrects comitant strabismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joel M; Scott, Alan B; Danh, Kenneth K; Strasser, Dirk; Sane, Mona

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and anatomic changes resulting from bupivacaine injection into extraocular muscles to treat comitant horizontal strabismus. Prospective, observational clinical series. Thirty-one comitant horizontal strabismus patients. Nineteen patients with esotropia received bupivacaine injections in the lateral rectus muscle, and 12 patients with exotropia received bupivacaine injections in the medial rectus. Sixteen of these, with large strabismus angles, also received botulinum type A toxin injections in the antagonist muscle at the same treatment session. A second treatment was given to 13 patients who had residual strabismus after the first treatment. Clinical alignment measures and muscle volume, maximum cross-sectional area, and shape derived from magnetic resonance imaging, with follow-up examinations for up to 3 years. At an average of 15.3 months after the final treatment, original misalignment was reduced by 10.5 prism diopters (Δ; 6.0°) with residual deviations of 10Δ or less in 53% of patients. A single treatment with bupivacaine alone reduced misalignment at 11.3 months by 4.7Δ (2.7°) with residual deviations of 10Δ or less in 50% of patients. Alignment corrections were remarkably stable over follow-ups for as long as 3 years. Six months after bupivacaine injection, muscle volume had increased by 6.6%, and maximum cross-sectional area had increased by 8.5%, gradually relaxing toward pretreatment values thereafter. Computer modeling with Orbit 1.8 (Eidactics, San Francisco, CA) suggested that changes in agonist and antagonist muscle lengths were responsible for the enduring changes in eye alignment. Bupivacaine injection alone or together with botulinum toxin injection in the antagonist muscle improves eye alignment in comitant horizontal strabismus by inducing changes in rectus muscle structure and length. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The safety of liposome bupivacaine following various routes of administration in animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi GP

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Girish P Joshi,1 Gary Patou,2 Vladimir Kharitonov21Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Management, University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, TX, 2Pacira Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Parsippany, NJ, USABackground: This report presents results from four preclinical studies evaluating safety and pharmacokinetics (PKs of liposome bupivacaine following intravascular (intravenous [IV], intra-arterial [IA], epidural, and intrathecal administration in dogs.Methods: Intravascular administration was initially tested in a pilot study to determine maximum tolerated doses, and then in an expanded study of systemic adverse effects and PKs. An epidural study compared properties of liposome bupivacaine alone and in combination with lidocaine/epinephrine vs bupivacaine HCl. Another study assessed effects after intrathecal administration.Results: In the initial intravascular studies, maximum doses at which no meaningful adverse events were observed with liposome bupivacaine were higher than for bupivacaine HCl (4.5 mg/kg IV vs 0.75 mg/kg IV, and 1.5 mg/kg IA vs 0.1 mg/kg IA, respectively. In the expanded intravascular study, there was no mortality or changes in pathology; adverse clinical signs included convulsions, lying on side, and decreased muscle tone (all were transient. In the epidural study, liposome bupivacaine was well tolerated at doses up to the highest dose tested (40 mg, with no evidence of spinal cord damage and with less motor blockade than bupivacaine HCl 15 mg. Intrathecal administration of liposome bupivacaine 40 mg was not associated with meaningful safety concerns and resulted in less motor blockade than bupivacaine HCl 15 mg. PK analyses showed that maximum plasma bupivacaine levels following administration of liposome bupivacaine (4.5 mg/kg IV and 40 mg epidural were similar to maximum plasma bupivacaine levels following a threefold lower dose of bupivacaine HCl (1.5 mg/kg IV and 15 mg epidural.Conclusion: Liposome bupivacaine

  5. The effects of incisional bupivacaine infusions on postoperative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-11-24

    Nov 24, 2010 ... Keywords: incisional bupivacaine infusions, total abdominal hysterectomy, postoperative pain control. Abstract. Background: The aim of this study was to determine opioid requirements and pain intensity scores in patients after a total .... complained of nausea or vomiting, prochlorperazine. 12.5 mg was ...

  6. Emerging roles of liposomal bupivacaine in anesthesia practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obaid Malik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in drug technology and improvements in technology, including peripheral nerve catheters and ultrasound, postoperative pain is still a significant problem in the clinical setting worldwide. Postoperative pain can have a critical negative impact with regard to physiological consequences to the body and therefore, the role of liposomal bupivacaine as an extended release bupivacaine with approximately 72 h of duration may have far-reaching and significant impact in clinical practice. Liposomal bupivacaine has a DepoFoam multivesicular liposome technology with particle suspension in an isotonic aqueous solution and consists of tiny lipid-based particles, which contain discrete water-filled chambers dispersed through a lipid matrix. Other advantages include a reduction in opioid consumption, while not requiring a catheter or any other device, as well as easy dilution with saline. This review summarizes current research with this novel agent in postsurgical pain, and discusses potential roles in chronic pain states. Further studies are warranted for its use in epidural and intrathecal administration. Moreover, this review will explore the expansion of liposomal bupivacaine's current clinical role.

  7. Does Topical Application of Bupivacaine (marcaine) to Skin Graft ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moriarty sign designates that when split skin donor site is more painful than recipient site, good graft take is likely. This prospective study was designed for the dual purpose of confirming the validity of Moriarty sign and to determine if bupivacaine topical anaesthetic application to split skin donor site will influence the sign.

  8. Protective effect of quercetin on bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytosolic calcium ion concentration was determined by flow cytometry while Cav3.1 protein expression was evaluated by western blot. Results: Quercetin (50 μM) significantly (p < 0.05) protected SH-SYS5 cells from bupivacaine-induced cell apoptosis and also significantly reduced intracellular calcium ion concentration (p ...

  9. Formulation and Evaluation of Bupivacaine-Loaded Glutaraldehyde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Chitosan microspheres loaded with bupivacaine were prepared by emulsification technique based on glutaraldehyde cross-linking and drug-loaded chitosan microsphere were coated with polyglycolic acid (PGA) film The formulated microspheres were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning ...

  10. Protective effect of quercetin on bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    certain side effects, especially neurotoxicity. It has been shown that neurotoxicity caused by local anesthetics such as lidocaine and bupivacaine are related to changes in calcium homeostasis, resulting in intracellular calcium overload [1]. Calcium homeostasis is regulated by many different kinds of calcium channels such.

  11. Effect of wound infiltration with bupivacaine on pulmonary function ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    2013-09-03

    Sep 3, 2013 ... Postoperative analgesia was provided with intramuscular morphine 0.15mg/kg 4hourly and 10mg/kg of intravenous paracetamol ... Conclusion: Bupivacaine wound infiltration produced statistically significant elevations in pulmonary function tests results ... (appendix IV), the Micro spirometer (Micro Medical.

  12. Effect of wound infiltration with bupivacaine on pulmonary function ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of wound infiltration with bupivacaine on pulmonary function after elective lower abdominal operations. ... Postoperative analgesia was provided with intramuscular morphine 0.15mg/kg 4hourly and 10mg/kg of intravenous paracetamol as rescue analgesia. Results: PEFR, FVC and FEV1 were reduced in both the ...

  13. [Comparison of ropivacaine and bupivacaine for epidural analgesia during labor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Conde, P; Nicolás, J; Rodríguez, J; García-Castaño, M; del Barrio, E; Muriel, C

    2001-05-01

    To compare the analgesic efficacy and level of motor block using two local anesthetics, ropivacaine and bupivacaine, during labor. Sixty nulliparous women were enrolled during labor after full-term pregnancies. They were randomly assigned to receive epidural analgesia with ropivacaine (group R) or bupivacaine (group B). Group R patients received 10 ml of 0.18% ropivacaine with 5 microgram/ml of fentanyl followed by continuous epidural infusion of 0.1% ropivacaine with 2 microgram/ml of fentanyl at a rate of 10 ml/h. Group B patients received 10 ml of 0.15% bupivacaine with 5 microgram/ml of fentanyl followed by continuous epidural perfusion of 0.0625% bupivacaine with 2 microgram/ml of fentanyl at the same rate. Pain intensity was assessed on a visual analog scale, motor blockade on a Bromage scale, and level of sensory block at different moments. We also recorded total doses of local anesthetic employed during continuous epidural infusion, manner of final delivery, Apgar score, degree of maternal satisfaction and side effects. The demographic and delivery characteristics were similar in both groups. We found no statistically significant differences between the two groups for level of motor blockade, which was nil for 29 patients (96.66%) in group R and 28 patients (93.33%) in group B. No differences in degree of pain or level of sensory block (T8-T10 in both groups) were observed. The total doses of local anesthetic used were similar at 23.7 +/- 11.6 mg in group R and 16.5 +/- 7.3 mg in group B (non-significant difference). Nor did we find differences in manner of delivery, neonatal Apgar scores, degree of maternal satisfaction or side effects. Ropivacaine and bupivacaine are equally effective for epidural analgesia during labor at the doses used and they do not cause a relevant level of motor blockade.

  14. Bupivacaine hydrochloride complexation with some alpha- and beta-cyclodextrins studied by potentiometry with membrane electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopecký, Frantisek; Vojteková, Mária; Kaclík, Pavol; Demko, Marek; Bieliková, Zuzana

    2004-05-01

    Membrane electrodes selective to bupivacaine cations were developed and those with PVC-dibutylphthalate membrane containing sparingly soluble bupivacaine phosphotungstate appeared to be the most suitable. Inclusion complexation of bupivacaine cations with cyclodextrins was studied by potentiometric measurements of the free bupivacaine cation concentration in aqueous solutions of bupivacaine hydrochloride with cyclodextrin using the prepared electrodes. Native alpha-cyclodextrin (alpha-CD) and beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD), as well as their random-substituted derivatives hydroxypropyl-alpha-cyclodextrin (HP-alpha-CD), hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CD) and methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (M-beta-CD), were chosen for the study. The measured potentiometric data processed both by a linear and nonlinear regression corroborated the formation of weak 1:1 bupivacaine cation-cyclodextrin complexes and the corresponding complexation constants K(11) approximately 50-155 M(-1) were evaluated by the non-linear least-squares method. The mutual order of K(11) values, especially alpha-CD > beta-CD, suggested that the bupivacaine butyl group was mainly responsible for the inclusion complexation; the highest K(11) was exhibited by M-beta-CD followed by alpha-CD. The observed complexation may substantially modify properties of bupivacaine hydrochloride dosage forms with sufficient concentration of cyclodextrin but bupivacaine cations are readily released from the weak cyclodextrin complexes by dilution.

  15. Effect of Baricity of Bupivacaine on Median Effective Doses for Motor Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Quan; Chen, Chun; Li, Lin

    2017-10-01

    BACKGROUND The median effective dose (ED50) of a drug gives the amount or dose of drug needed to produce effective therapeutic response or desired effect in at least 50% of the population taking it. Our study focused on determining the ED50 required for effective motor block using hyperbaric and plain bupivacaine, and evaluated the influence of baricity on the ED50 required for motor block. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 38 patients were randomly assigned into 2 groups according to the baricity of bupivacaine: group P received plain bupivacaine and group H received hyperbaric bupivacaine. The patients were administered 0.5% plain or hyperbaric bupivacaine intrathecally. The dosage of anesthetics in each patient was calculated according to the standard up-down sequential allocation method of Dixon. The first patient in each group received a dose of 7.5 mg bupivacaine, and a dose of 1.0 mg was used as the testing interval. The dose was increased or decreased by 1.0 mg for each patient according to the estimated score of motor block. RESULTS The ED50 required for effective motor block in spinal anesthesia was 7.20 and 10.05 mg in groups H and P, respectively. Their relative motor blocking potency ratio was found to be 0.72. CONCLUSIONS The ED50 for motor block was significantly decreased using hyperbaric bupivacaine intrathecally compared with plain bupivacaine, and the baricity of bupivacaine obviously affected the ED50 for the motor block.

  16. Comparison of the maternal and neonatal effects of bupivacaine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to compare the anesthetic efficacy, and fetal and maternal effects of 7.5 mg (1 ml) intrathecal 0.75% hyperbaric ropivacaine + 25 ìg (0.5 ml) fentanyl versus 5 mg (l ml) intrathecal 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine + 25 ìg (0.5 ml) fentanyl in elective cesarean delivery. Materials and ...

  17. Delayed postoperative gastric emptying following intrathecal morphine and intrathecal bupivacaine.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lydon, A M

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: A decrease in the rate of gastric emptying can delay resumption of enteral feeding, alter bioavailability of orally administered drugs, and result in larger residual gastric volumes, increasing the risk of nausea and vomiting. We compared the effects of 1) intrathecal bupivacaine (17.5 mg) and 2) the combination of intrathecal morphine (0.6 mg) and intrathecal bupivacaine (17.5 mg) on the rate of gastric emptying in patients undergoing elective hip arthroplasty. METHODS: Twenty four fasting ASA 1-3 patients were randomly assigned, in a double blind manner, to receive intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine (17.5 mg), either alone (group 1), or followed by intrathecal morphine (0.6 mg) (group 2). Gastric emptying was measured (using an acetaminophen absorption technique), twice in each patient; preoperatively, and approximately one hour postoperatively. Gastric emptying parameters are: AUC (area under the plasma acetaminophen concentration time curve), maximum plasma acetaminophen concentration (Cmax), and time to Cmax (tCmax), analyzed using paired Student\\'s t tests. RESULTS: Gastric emptying rates were reduced in both group 1 (AUC = 14.98 (3.8) and 11.05 (4.6) pre- and postoperatively, respectively) and group 2 (AUC = 13.93 (3.59) and 6.4 (3.42) pre- and postoperatively, respectively); the magnitude of the reduction was greater in group 2 [AUC (P = 0.04), Cmax (P = 0.05), tCmax (P = 0.13)]. CONCLUSION: The combination of intrathecal morphine (0.6 mg) and intrathecal bupivacaine (17.5 mg) delays gastric emptying postoperatively.

  18. Subcutaneous bupivacaine for treatment of spasticity: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, B S; Jann, B B; Haddox, J D; Denson, D

    1995-02-01

    In a previous report, we described heretofore undiscovered possibilities that neuropathic pain and spasticity may share some common pathophysiological mechanisms. Currently, systemically delivered local anesthetics are being used for the evaluation and treatment of neuropathic pain. We present a case describing the treatment of spasticity of spinal origin with continuous subcutaneous infusion of 0.75% bupivacaine in a patient who did not respond to traditional treatments and has become tolerant to intrathecal baclofen.

  19. Analgesic efficacy of intraperitoneal administration of bupivacaine in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, Javier; Monteiro, Beatriz; Lavoie, Anne-Marie; Beauchamp, Guy; Lascelles, B Duncan X; Steagall, Paulo V

    2016-11-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of intraperitoneal (IP) bupivacaine in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy (OVH). Methods Forty-five cats were included in a randomized, prospective, blinded study after owners' written consent was obtained. The anesthetic protocol included acepromazine-buprenorphine-propofol-isoflurane. A ventral midline incision was made and cats (n = 15/group) were administered either IP saline 0.9% (negative and positive control groups; NG and PG, respectively) or IP bupivacaine (2 mg/kg; bupivacaine group; BG). Cats in the PG received meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg SC). An OVH was performed and postoperative pain was evaluated using a dynamic interactive visual analog scale (DIVAS), the UNESP-Botucatu multidimensional composite pain scale (MCPS) and mechanical nociceptive thresholds (MNT) for up to 8 h after the end of surgery. Postoperative sedation was evaluated using DIVAS. Rescue analgesia was provided with buprenorphine and/or meloxicam. Repeated measures linear models and a Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test were used for statistical analysis ( P cats after OVH.

  20. Dexamethasone as Adjuvant to Bupivacaine Prolongs the Duration of Thermal Antinociception and Prevents Bupivacaine-Induced Rebound Hyperalgesia via Regional Mechanism in a Mouse Sciatic Nerve Block Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ke; Elkassabany, Nabil M.; Liu, Jiabin

    2015-01-01

    Background Dexamethasone has been studied as an effective adjuvant to prolong the analgesia duration of local anesthetics in peripheral nerve block. However, the route of action for dexamethasone and its potential neurotoxicity are still unclear. Methods A mouse sciatic nerve block model was used. The sciatic nerve was injected with 60ul of combinations of various medications, including dexamethasone and/or bupivacaine. Neurobehavioral changes were observed for 2 days prior to injection, and then continuously for up to 7 days after injection. In addition, the sciatic nerves were harvested at either 2 days or 7 days after injection. Toluidine blue dyeing and immunohistochemistry test were performed to study the short-term and long-term histopathological changes of the sciatic nerves. There were six study groups: normal saline control, bupivacaine (10mg/kg) only, dexamethasone (0.5mg/kg) only, bupivacaine (10mg/kg) combined with low-dose (0.14mg/kg) dexamethasone, bupivacaine (10mg/kg) combined with high-dose (0.5mg/kg) dexamethasone, and bupivacaine (10mg/kg) combined with intramuscular dexamethasone (0.5mg/kg). Results High-dose perineural dexamethasone, but not systemic dexamethasone, combined with bupivacaine prolonged the duration of both sensory and motor block of mouse sciatic nerve. There was no significant difference on the onset time of the sciatic nerve block. There was “rebound hyperalgesia” to thermal stimulus after the resolution of plain bupivacaine sciatic nerve block. Interestingly, both low and high dose perineural dexamethasone prevented bupivacaine-induced hyperalgesia. There was an early phase of axon degeneration and Schwann cell response as represented by S-100 expression as well as the percentage of demyelinated axon and nucleus in the plain bupivacaine group compared with the bupivacaine plus dexamethasone groups on post-injection day 2, which resolved on post-injection day 7. Furthermore, we demonstrated that perineural dexamethasone

  1. Effects of combined perioperative epidural bupivacaine and morphine, ibuprofen, and incisional bupivacaine on postoperative pain, pulmonary, and endocrine-metabolic function after minilaparotomy cholecystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, J B; Hjortsø, N C; Stage, J G

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES. The study investigates the effects of combined perioperative continuous epidural bupivacaine and morphine, ibuprofen, and incisional bupivacaine, compared with intermittent systemic morphine, ibuprofen, and incisional bupivacaine, on postoperative pain, respiratory...... function, and endocrine-metabolic alterations associated with minilaparotomy cholecystectomy. METHODS. Thirty-two patients scheduled for cholecystectomy, performed through a minilaparotomy, were randomized to receive general anesthesia with pre- and postoperative thoracic (T7-9) epidural analgesia...... cholecystectomy improves pain relief in the immediate postoperative period, compared to intramuscular morphine. Pulmonary and endocrine-metabolic function is not changed to such degree after minicholecystectomy that epidural analgesia can be demonstrated to have beneficial effects....

  2. The addition of lidocaine to bupivacaine does not shorten the duration of spinal anesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jon; Husum, Bent; Staffeldt, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The duration of spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine is often too long for day surgery. A recent study of patients presenting for transurethral surgery suggested that the addition of a small amount of lidocaine to intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine could shorten the duration of the sensory and motor...

  3. Caudal additives in pediatrics: a comparison among midazolam, ketamine, and neostigmine coadministered with bupivacaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P; Rudra, A; Pan, A K; Acharya, A

    2005-07-01

    Single-shot "kiddie caudal" with bupivacaine alone is losing popularity because of its duration of 4-8 h. In a prospective randomized double-blind clinical study, we assessed and compared the efficacy of ketamine, midazolam, and neostigmine coadministered with bupivacaine in a caudal epidural to provide intraoperative and postoperative pain relief. Eighty children (ASA status I) aged 5-10 yr undergoing unilateral inguinal herniotomy were allocated randomly in equal numbers (n = 20) into 4 groups to receive a caudal injection of 0.25% bupivacaine (1 mL/kg) with or without ketamine (0.5 mg/kg), midazolam (50 microg/kg), and neostig-mine (2 microg/kg), after the induction of standardized general anesthesia without premedication. Monitoring for pain, sedation, postoperative nausea/vomiting, dizziness, and pruritus was performed by anesthesiologists blinded to the study allocation. The time to first analgesic administration (paracetamol syrup) was longer (P < 0.05) in the bupivacaine-neostigmine group and the bupivacaine-midazolam group than in the other groups. Undesirable effects, such as emesis, pruritus, and dizziness, were comparable in all groups. However, the incidence of hallucination was more frequent in the bupivacaine-ketamine group compared with the other groups. This study shows that single-shot caudal coadministration of bupivacaine-neostigmine and bupivacaine-midazolam was associated with an extended duration of postoperative pain relief.

  4. Thoracic epidural catheter for postoperative pain control following an ineffective transversus abdominis plane block using liposome bupivacaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrien, Brian D; Espinoza, David; Stehman, Charles C; Rodriguez, Gabriel A; Connolly, Nicholas C

    2017-01-01

    A 24-year-old female with a history of ulcerative colitis underwent colectomy. The patient received an ineffective transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block with liposome bupivacaine (Exparel) intraoperatively and was started on a hydromorphone patient-controlled analgesia 5 hours after the TAP block, which did not relieve her pain. A continuous thoracic epidural (CTE) was then placed after blood levels of bupivacaine were drawn, and the patient immediately experienced significant pain relief. The combined use of liposome bupivacaine and bupivacaine CTE infusion in the postoperative management of this patient demonstrated no safety concerns, provided excellent analgesia and plasma concentrations of bupivacaine remained far below toxic levels.

  5. Synergistic effect of intrathecal fentanyl and bupivacaine in spinal anesthesia for cesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava Pratima

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Potentiating the effect of intrathecal local anesthetics by addition of intrathecal opiods for intra-abdominal surgeries is known. In this study by addition of fentanyl we tried to minimize the dose of bupivacaine, thereby reducing the side effects caused by higher doses of intrathecal bupivacaine in cesarean section. Methods Study was performed on 120 cesarean section parturients divided into six groups, identified as B8, B10 and B 12.5 8.10 and 12.5 mg of bupivacaine mg and FB8, FB10 and FB 12.5 received a combination of 12.5 μg intrathecal fentanyl respectively. The parameters taken into consideration were visceral pain, hemodynamic stability, intraoperative sedation, intraoperative and postoperative shivering, and postoperative pain. Results Onset of sensory block to T6 occurred faster with increasing bupivacaine doses in bupivacaine only groups and bupivacaine -fentanyl combination groups. Alone lower concentrations of bupivacaine could not complete removed the visceral pain. Blood pressure declined with the increasing concentration of Bupivacaine and Fentanyl. Incidence of nausea and shivering reduces significantly whereas, the postoperative pain relief and hemodynamics increased by adding fentanyl. Pruritis, maternal respiratory depression and changes in Apgar score of babies do not occur with fentanyl. Conclusion Spinal anesthesia among the neuraxial blocks in obstetric patients needs strict dose calculations because minimal dose changes, complications and side effects arise, providing impetus for this study. Here the synergistic, potentiating effect of fentanyl (an opiod on bupivacaine (a local anesthetic in spinal anesthesia for cesarian section is presented, fentanyl is able to reduce the dose of bupivacaine and therefore its harmful effects.

  6. Single dose intravenous dexmedetomidine prolongs spinal anesthesia with hyperbaric bupivacaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubre, Jyotsna; Sethi, Ashish; Mahobia, Mamta; Bindal, Deeksha; Narang, Neeraj; Saxena, Anudeep

    2016-01-01

    Spinal block, a known technique to obtain anaesthesia for infraumblical surgeries. Now physician have advantage of using adjuvant to prolong the effect of intrathecal block, which can be given either intravenously or intrathecally, dexmedetomidine is one of them. We studied effect of intravenous dexmedetomidine for prolongation of duration of intrathecal block of 0.5% bupivacaine block. To evaluate the effect of intravenous dexmedetomidine on sensory regression, hemodynamic profile, level of sedation and postoperative analgesia. 60 patients of ASA grade I and II posted for elective infraumblical surgeries were included in the study and randomly allocated into two groups. Group D recieved intrathecal 0.5% bupivacaine heavy, followed by infusion of intravenous dexmedetomidine 0.5mic/kg over 10 min, patients in group C received intrathecal 0.5% bupivacaine heavy 3ml followed by infusion of same volume of normal saline as placebo. Two segment regression of sensory block was achieved at 139.0 ± 13.797 in group D whereas in group C it was only 96.67 ± 7.649min, the total duration of analgesia achieved in both study groups was 234.67 ± 7.649min and 164.17 ± 6.170min respectively in group D and group C. The time at which first analgesic was given to the patients when VAS >3 achieved that is in group D at 234.67 ± 7.649min and in group C at 164.17 ± 6.170min. Inj diclofenac sodium 75mg intramuscular was used as rescue analgesic.

  7. Epidural blood flow and regression of sensory analgesia during continuous postoperative epidural infusion of bupivacaine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, T; Højgaard, L; Scott, N B

    1988-01-01

    Epidural blood flow was measured in seven patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery during combined lumbar epidural and general anesthesia. After an initial dose of 20 ml plain bupivacaine 0.5%, a continuous epidural infusion of bupivacaine 0.5% (8 ml/hr) was given for 16 hours for postopera......Epidural blood flow was measured in seven patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery during combined lumbar epidural and general anesthesia. After an initial dose of 20 ml plain bupivacaine 0.5%, a continuous epidural infusion of bupivacaine 0.5% (8 ml/hr) was given for 16 hours...... surgery, and 8, 12, and 16 hours later during the continuous infusion. Initial blood flow was 6.0 +/- 0.7 ml/min per 100 g tissue (mean +/- SEM). After epidural bupivacaine, blood flow increased in all seven patients to 7.4 +/- 0.7 ml (P less than 0.02). Initial level of sensory analgesia was T4.5 +/- 0...... than 0.03) in the other five patients as the level of sensory analgesia regressed postoperatively. These data suggest that changes in epidural blood flow during continuous epidural infusion of bupivacaine, and thus changes in rates of vascular absorption of bupivacaine from the epidural space, may...

  8. Effect of intravenous lipid emulsion on bupivacaine plasma concentration in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litonius, E; Tarkkila, P; Neuvonen, P J; Rosenberg, P H

    2012-06-01

    Intravenous lipid emulsion is the recommended treatment for severe local anaesthetic intoxication. Lipid emulsion may entrap lipid soluble drugs by functioning as a 'lipid sink', but its effect on bupivacaine pharmacokinetics remains unknown. In this randomised, double-blind, crossover study, eight healthy male volunteers were infused bupivacaine 0.5mg.kg(-1) intravenously over 20 min, followed by an infusion of either intravenous lipid emulsion or Hartmann's solution for 30 min. At 20 and 30 min after the start of the infusion, the total plasma bupivacaine concentration was lower while receiving lipid emulsion than Hartmann's solution (mean difference 111 (95% CI 55-167) μg.l(-1) and 75 (95% CI 26-124 μg.l(-1) at 20 and 30 min, respectively; p<0.02). However, there were no differences in un-entrapped (non-lipid bound) or free (non-protein bound) bupivacaine plasma concentrations during the infusion. Intravenous lipid emulsion infusion reduced the context-sensitive half-life of total plasma bupivacaine from 45 (95% CI 32-76)min to 25 (95% CI 20-33)min; p=0.01. We observed no significant adverse effects of lipid emulsion. In conclusion, lipid emulsion may slightly increase the rate of bupivacaine tissue distribution. No 'lipid sink' effect was observed with the non-toxic dose of bupivacaine used. Anaesthesia © 2012 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  9. Safety of Liposome Extended-Release Bupivacaine for Postoperative Pain Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Guillermo Portillo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ideal postoperative pain management requires a multidisciplinary approach in combination with a variety of dosage regimens. Approximately 21-30% of patients experience moderate to severe pain in the postoperative period, which may have a significant impact on recovery rate, standard of living, psychological health, and postoperative complications.Objective: Analysis of the incidence and characterization of reported adverse effects with DepoFoam bupivacaine compared to conventional bupivacaine or placebo. Methods: A systematic review of prospective studies on the use of DepoFoam versus bupivacaine or placebo was performed in order to answer the clinically-relevant question: Is DepoFoam a safer formulation in place of bupivacaine single injection or continuous local infusion techniques for postoperative pain management? Inclusion criteria required randomized, controlled, double-blind trials in patients 18 years old or older, single dose used for postoperative pain control, and a primary procedure performed. Results: Six studies fit the inclusion criteria for analysis, DepoFoam bupivacaine used in therapeutic doses was well-tolerated, had a higher safety margin, and showed a favorable safety profile compared to bupivacaine and control groups.Conclusion: Extended drug delivery system of DepoFoam bupivacaine is a promising drug formulation that may significantly improve postoperative care and pain control in surgical patients.

  10. Growth Inhibition by Bupivacaine Is Associated with Inactivation of Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinase 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushtaq Ahmad Beigh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bupivacaine is an amide type long acting local anesthetic used for epidural anesthesia and nerve blockade in patients. Use of bupivacaine is associated with severe cytotoxicity and apoptosis along with inhibition of cell growth and proliferation. Although inhibition of Erk, Akt, and AMPK seemingly appears to mediate some of the bupivacaine effects, potential downstream targets that mediate its effect remain unknown. S6 kinase 1 is a common downstream effector of several growth regulatory pathways involved in cell growth and proliferation known to be affected by bupivacaine. We have accordingly attempted to relate the growth inhibitory effects of bupivacaine with the status of S6K1 activity and we present evidence that decrease in cell growth and proliferation by bupivacaine is mediated through inactivation of S6 kinase 1 in a concentration and time dependent manner. We also show that ectopic expression of constitutively active S6 kinase 1 imparts substantial protection from bupivacaine induced cytotoxicity. Inactivation of S6K1 though associated with loss of putative mTOR mediated phosphorylation did not correspond with loss of similar phosphorylations in 4EBP1 indicating that S6K1 inhibition was not mediated through inactivation of mTORC1 signaling pathway or its down regulation.

  11. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF HEAMOD Y NAMIC PARAMETERS IN LSCS WITH INTRATHECAL FENTANYL - BUPIVACAINE COMBINATION AND BUPIVACAINE ALONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramana Prasad

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Caesarean section is considered as a major abdominal surgery, which requires profound blockade of spinal segments. Spinal anaesthesia is the most elegant approach providing profound anaesthesia and excellent operative conditions. Hypotension, the most clinically significant effect of spinal anaesthesia can occur rapidly and have a significant impact on neonatal outcome. There has been interest in using analgesic additives to local anaesthetics to decrease the dose of local anaesthetics and reduce in incidence of hypotension without compromising intra - operative analgesia, enabling faster motor recovery and providing efficient post - operative analgesia. This study was conducted t o compare the incidence of hypotension between intrathecal fentanyl - bupivacaine combinations with bupivacaine alone in patients undergoing elective LSCS. INTRODUCTION: In Caesarean section, the surgery is major and profound blockade of many spinal segments is required. Strong visceral stimulation is present, sudden cardiovascular changes is compounded by posture and fetal wellbeing may be influenced by several physiologic variables and drugs. Spinal anaesthesia is perhaps the most efficient and elegant appr oach to this challenge. With a small needle and little amount of drug, profound anaesthesia and excellent operating conditions can be readily provided for this major intrabdominal surgery. Spinal hypotension, the most clinically significant aspect of spina l anaesthesia can occur rapidly and may have a significant impact on the neonatal outcome. Recently, there has been an interest in using analgesic additives to subarachnoid local anaesthetic dose so as to reduce the incidence and degree of hypotension but at the same time without compromising intraoperative analgesia and also to enable faster recovery and providing efficient post - operative analgesia. Opioids were the first clinically used selective spinal analgesics after the discovery of opioids

  12. Comparative analgesic efficacy of buprenorphine or clonidine with bupivacaine in the caesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Agarwal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for early ambulation for caring of the neonate by mothers makes postoperative pain management after cesarean delivery unique. Favorable results have been observed with buprenorphine, clonidine and bupivacaine as epidural analgesics. This prospective, randomised triple blind control study was carried out among 112 lower segment caesarean segment (LSCS patients, divided into three groups, to assess the analgesic efficacy and side effects of epidural analgesia, with an intermittent top up of (i bupivacaine (0.125% and buprenorphine (0.075 mg (ii bupivacaine (0.125% and clonidine (37.5 microgram and (iii bupivacaine (0.125% alone, in LSCS cases. The demographic characteristics (age, weight and height of the three groups were comparable and the differences were not statistically significant. The mean duration of the analgesia was significantly longer in the group one patients receiving buprenorphine plus bupivacaine (690 ± 35 minutes and it was lowest in group three patients receiving bupivacaine (170 ± 31 minutes alone. The mean highest pain score (VAS scale was significantly lower (3.4 ± 0.6 in group one patients and it was highest in group three (6.7 ± 0.8 patients. Requirement of continuation of epidural analgesia after 15 hours of operation and requirement of diclonfenac injections as well as incidence of itching and pruritus was significantly lower in group one patients. Incidence of nausea and vomiting was the lowest in group one patients. Incidence of respiratory depression, sedation and hypotension were nil in all three group of patients. Epidural buprenorphine combined with bupivacaine produced significantly longer duration and better quality of analgesia than bupivacaine combined with clonidine or bupivacaine alone, and it was safe in LSCS patients, for post-operative analgesia.

  13. Systemic Safety of Liposomal Bupivacaine in Simultaneous Bilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Bryan D; Mason, J Bohannon; Odum, Susan M

    2017-08-01

    Intraoperative periarticular injections (PAIs) with local anesthetic are an important component of multimodal pain control in total joint arthroplasty. Liposomal bupivacaine is an extended-release formulation of bupivacaine designed to provide extended pain relief, approved for use in a single surgical site. The systemic safety profile for use in simultaneous bilateral TKA (bTKA) with a full dose in each knee has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to determine the safety and pharmacokinetics of bilateral full-dose PAI liposomal bupivacaine in the blood collected in patients undergoing simultaneous bTKA. In this prospective study, patients had an identical PAI consisting of 20 cc of liposomal bupivacaine (266 mg), 30 cc of 0.25% bupivacaine (75 mg) with epinephrine, and 10 cc of normal saline injected into each knee during bTKA. Blood samples were collected at predefined intervals until patient discharge. No exogenous bupivacaine was administered. Pharmacokinetic evaluations were subsequently performed and compared to bupivacaine toxicity levels. Patients were monitored for adverse events related to anesthetic toxicity (cardiac and neurologic). Fifteen patients (mean age, 60.7 years; range, 57-64 years) were enrolled in the study. The mean peak level (Cmax) was 0.8 μg/mL (range, 0.4-1.2 μg/mL). All patients were well below the reported systemic cardiac and toxicity levels reported as 2-4 μg/mL. There were no reported cardiac and neurotoxic events in any patients. The use of full-dose PAI with liposomal bupivacaine placed into each knee during simultaneous bTKA is safe with systemic bupivacaine levels well below reported cardiac and neurotoxic levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Bupivacaine administered intrathecally versus rectally in the management of intractable rectal cancer pain in palliative care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaporowska-Stachowiak I

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Iwona Zaporowska-Stachowiak,1,2 Grzegorz Kowalski,3 Jacek Łuczak,2 Katarzyna Kosicka,4 Aleksandra Kotlinska-Lemieszek,3 Maciej Sopata,3 Franciszek Główka4 1Chair and Department of Pharmacology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland; 2Palliative Medicine In-patient Unit, University Hospital of Lord's Transfiguration, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland; 3Palliative Medicine Chair and Department, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland; 4Department of Physical Pharmacy and Pharmacokinetics, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland Background: Unacceptable adverse effects, contraindications to and/or ineffectiveness of World Health Organization step III "pain ladder" drugs causes needless suffering among a population of cancer patients. Successful management of severe cancer pain may require invasive treatment. However, a patient's refusal of an invasive procedure necessitates that clinicians consider alternative options. Objective: Intrathecal bupivacaine delivery as a viable treatment of intractable pain is well documented. There are no data on rectal bupivacaine use in cancer patients or in the treatment of cancer tenesmoid pain. This study aims to demonstrate that bupivacaine administered rectally could be a step in between the current treatment options for intractable cancer pain (conventional/conservative analgesia or invasive procedures, and to evaluate the effect of the mode of administration (intrathecal versus rectal on the bupivacaine plasma concentration.Cases: We present two Caucasian, elderly inpatients admitted to hospice due to intractable rectal/tenesmoid pain. The first case is a female with vulvar cancer, and malignant infiltration of the rectum/vagina. Bupivacaine was used intrathecally (0.25–0.5%, 1–2 mL every 6 hours. The second case is a female with ovarian cancer and malignant rectal infiltration. Bupivacaine was adminstered rectally (0.05–0.1%, 100 m

  15. Topical versus caudal ketamine/bupivacaine combination for postoperative analgesia in children undergoing inguinal herniotomy

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    Hala Saad Abdel-Ghaffar

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Wound instillation of bupivacaine/ketamine is a simple, noninvasive, and effective technique that could be a safe alternative to CK for postoperative analgesia in children undergoing inguinal hernia repair.

  16. Plasma concentrations and pharmacokinetics of bupivacaine with and without adrenaline following caudal anaesthesia in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Morton, N S; Cullen, P M

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the use of adrenaline 1/400000 added to 0.25% bupivacaine significantly delays the systemic absorption of the drug from the caudal epidural space in young infants....

  17. The comparative study of epidural levobupivacaine and bupivacaine in major abdominal surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Uzuner

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: The results of our study suggest that same concentration of epidural levobupivacaine and bupivacaine with fentanyl provide stable postoperative analgesia and both were found safe for the patients undergoing major abdominal surgery.

  18. Dexamethasone prolongs local analgesia after subcutaneous infiltration of bupivacaine microcapsules in human volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Werner, Mads U; Lacouture, Peter G

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The addition of small amounts of dexamethasone to extended-release formulations of bupivacaine in microcapsules has been found to prolong local analgesia in experimental studies, but no clinical data are available. METHODS: In a double-blinded study, 12 healthy male volunteers were...... randomized to receive simultaneous subcutaneous injections of bupivacaine microcapsules with dexamethasone and bupivacaine microcapsules without dexamethasone in each calf. Local analgesia was assessed with a validated human pain model; main parameters evaluated were thermal, mechanical, and pain detection...... curve [AUC]) were considered best estimate of analgesia. Safety evaluations were performed daily for the first week and at 2 weeks, 6 weeks, and 6 months after injection. RESULTS: The addition of dexamethasone significantly prolonged local analgesia of bupivacaine microcapsules without influence...

  19. Efficacy of triamcinolone acetonide and bupivacaine for pain after lumbar discectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bahari, Syah

    2012-02-01

    The study is a prospective blinded randomised controlled trial to compare the efficacy of triamcinolone acetonide, bupivacaine or in combination in managing pain after lumbar discectomy. Patients undergoing primary single-level lumbar discectomy were randomised. Triamcinolone acetonide, bupivacaine or in combination was instilled at the nerve root as decompression. Preoperative, day 1 and 6 weeks pain score, 24-h postoperative opiate requirements and duration of inpatient stay were recorded. Data was analysed using Mann-Whitney test for statistical significance. 100 patients were recruited. A significant difference was noted in day one postoperative mean pain score, mean 24-h opiate requirement and mean inpatient stay in the triamcinolone acetonide and bupivacaine group. At 8 weeks postoperatively, no significant differences were seen in the pain score in all groups. Significant postoperative pain reduction and opiate requirements in the first 24 h, and significantly shortened duration of inpatient stay were achieved in the triamcinolone acetonide and bupivacaine group compared with other groups.

  20. Absorption of Bupivacaine after Administration of a Lozenge as Topical Treatment for Pain from Oral Mucositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Stine; Sverrisdóttir, Eva; Sveinsdóttir, Kolbrún

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to investigate systemic exposure after administration of a novel bupivacaine lozenge in healthy individuals with normal mucosa and in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients with oral mucositis. A lozenge containing 5 mg, 10 mg, 25 mg and 50mg bupivacaine, respectively, was administered...... as single dose to 10 healthy invididuals and lozenge containing 25 mg bupivacaine was administered as single dose to 10 HNC patients with oral mucositis and as multiple doses to 5 HNC patients. Blood samples were collected for 6 hr from the healthy individuals and 3 hr from the HNC patients, respectively......-compartment distribution model with absorption transit compartments. All observed plasma concentrations were well below bupivacaine concentrations (2000-2250 ng/ml) which have caused toxic symptoms. The PK model suggested that relative bioavailability was 2-fold higher in HNC patients with oral mucositis grade 1-2, and 3...

  1. Investigating the Effects of Adding Fentanyl to Bupivacaine in Spinal Anesthesia of Opium-addicted Patients

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    H Satari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Spinal anesthesia in opium-addicted patients can be associated with many complications. Hence, this study aimed to investigate sensory and motor block characteristics, duration of postoperative analgesia, hemodynamic and side effects by adding Fentanyl to bupivacaine in spinal Anesthesia of opium-addicted patients. Methods: In a double-blind randomized clinical trial, 60 American society of Anesthesiology (ASA class I and II opium-addicted patients under spinal anesthesia in lower abdominal and lower limb operations were randomly classified into two groups of spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine and bupivacaine-fentanyl. Clinical symptoms, side effects, the duration of sensory and motor block, initiation of analgesia requirement and sensory block were assessed. Results: The study results indicated no significant difference between bupivacaine and bupivacaine-fentanyl groups in regard with demographic, side effects, blood pressure and heart rate, though a significant difference was observed in respiratory rate 5min, 10min, 45min, 75min and 90 min after block. Duration of sensory (100.33 to 138.83 and motor block (93.43 to 107.66 and , initiation of analgesia requirement (165.33 to 187.76 was significantly longer in bupivacaine-fentanyl, though initiation of sensory block (8.83 to 4.93 was significantly longer in bupivacaine. Conclusion: Addition of fentanyl to bupivacaine in spinal anesthesia increases the duration of sensory and motor block and initiation of analgesia requirement in opium-addicted patients and also decreases initiation of sensory block in these patients.

  2. Bupivacaine in microcapsules prolongs analgesia after subcutaneous infiltration in humans: a dose-finding study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Juri L; Lillesø, Jesper; Hammer, Niels A

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we examined the onset and duration of local analgesic effects of bupivacaine incorporated into biodegradable microcapsules (extended-duration local anesthetic; EDLA) administered as subcutaneous infiltrations in different doses in humans. In 18 volunteers, the skin on the medial calf...... concentrations were evaluated. No serious side effects were observed for up to 6 mo after administration. In conclusion, bupivacaine incorporated in microcapsules provided analgesia for 96 h after subcutaneous infiltration....

  3. Impact of volume expansion on the efficacy and pharmacokinetics of liposome bupivacaine

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    Hadzic A

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Admir Hadzic,1,2 John A Abikhaled,3 William J Harmon4 1Department of Anesthesiology, The New York School of Regional Anesthesia (NYSORA, New York, NY, USA; 2Department of Anesthesiology, Ziekenhouse Oost Limburgh, Genk, Belgium; 3Austin Surgeons, Austin, TX, 4Urology San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA Abstract: Liposome bupivacaine is a prolonged-release liposomal formulation of bupivacaine indicated for single-dose infiltration into the surgical site to produce postsurgical analgesia of longer duration than traditional local anesthetics. This review summarizes the available data on how volume expansion may impact the analgesic efficacy of liposome bupivacaine. The Phase II and III clinical studies that involved surgical site administration of liposome bupivacaine at various concentrations in different surgical settings revealed no apparent concentration–efficacy relationship. A single-center, prospective study comparing the efficacy of transversus abdominis plane infiltration with liposome bupivacaine administered in a lower (266 mg/40 mL vs a higher (266 mg/20 mL dose concentration in subjects undergoing robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy also reported similar postsurgical pain intensity scores and opioid usage in both treatment groups. The pharmacokinetic profile of liposome bupivacaine following subcutaneous injections in rats was unaltered by differences in drug concentration, dose, or injection volume within the ranges tested. Volume expansion of liposome bupivacaine to a total volume of 300 mL or less does not appear to impact its clinical efficacy or pharmacokinetic profile, thus allowing flexibility to administer the formulation across a wide range of diluent volumes. Keywords: pain, analgesia, liposome bupivacaine, dose, concentration, dilution 

  4. Hyperbaric spinal ropivacaine in lower limb and hip surgery: A comparison with hyperbaric bupivacaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Feroz Ahmad; Mushtaq, Mohsin Bin; Khan, Umar Mushtaq

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Bupivacaine is more cardiotoxic than ropivacaine. Ropivacaine provides effective spinal anesthesia for lower limb and hip surgeries. This prospective study was designed to compare the efficacy and safety of intrathecal hyperbaric ropivacaine with hyperbaric bupivacaine for patients undergoing limb and hip surgeries. Material and Methods: Two hundred patients aged 40-75 years, with American Society of Anesthesiologists I and II of either gender were randomly divided into Group R (Ropivacaine) and Group B (Bupivacaine) to receive an intrathecal injection of 3 ml of hyperbaric ropivacaine 0.5% or 3 ml of hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5%, respectively. Onset and duration of sensory blockade were determined using the pinprick method by a three-point scale at T-10 dermatome. Onset and duration of motor block were assessed by modified Bromage scale. Duration of postoperative analgesia, hemodynamic changes, central nervous system and cardiovascular system toxicity or any adverse effects were observed. Results: The mean onset of sensory block (6 ± 1.3 min vs. 3 ± 1.1 min; P < 0.001) and motor block (13 ± 1.6 min vs. 9 ± 1.3 min; P < 0.05) was significantly slower in ropivacaine group as compared to bupivacaine group. The total duration of sensory block was significantly shorter in the ropivacaine group (160 ± 12.9 min) than in the bupivacaine group (260 ± 16.1 min; P < 0.05). The mean duration of motor block was also shorter in the ropivacaine group compared to bupivacaine group (126 ± 9.2 min vs. 174 ± 12.6 min; P < 0.05). Quality of anesthesia was comparable in two groups (P = 0.04). Conclusion: We conclude that hyperbaric bupivacaine used intrathecally has a faster onset of sensory block and prolonged duration of analgesia compared to hyperbaric ropivacaine. PMID:26702202

  5. Bupivacaine for pain reduction after iliac crest bone graft harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Kevin R; Lockney, Dennis T; Bible, Jesse E; Crosby, Colin G; Devin, Clinton J

    2014-05-01

    Iliac crest bone graft remains the gold standard in achieving spinal arthrodesis, but chronic pain from graft harvest occurs in up to 39% of patients. Studies have shown that a single administration of local anesthetic reduces short-term pain, but they have not adequately investigated possible longer-term benefits. The goal of this study was to determine whether local administration of bupivacaine after iliac crest bone graft harvesting reduces pain and improves patient-reported outcomes. In this prospective, randomized, controlled, and blinded clinical study, 40 patients were identified who underwent posterior spine fusion with iliac crest bone graft and were randomized to receive either bupivacaine (treatment group, n=20) or saline (control group, n=20) at the iliac crest bone graft site. Pain at the harvest site was determined by a series of 12 visual and numeric pain scale assessments. Short Form-12 mental and physical component scores, EuroQol-5D, and Oswestry Disability Index assessments were made, along with determination of patient satisfaction and self-reported outcome of surgery. Baseline pain and outcome assessments were statistically similar (P>.05). Average pain scores were lower for all 12 assessments in the treatment group at mean follow-up of 5 weeks (significant differences in 6 assessments) and 20 weeks (significant differences in 2 assessments). No significant differences were found in Short Form-12 and EuroQol-5D scores. For patients who underwent lumbar fusion, the treatment group had significantly improved Oswestry Disability Index scores (mean±SD=10.8±7.1 vs 18.7±5.9, P=.012). Significantly more patients in the treatment group reported that surgery met all expectations (90% vs 50%, P=.016). This study is the 1st to show that a single administration of bupivacaine at the iliac crest bone graft harvest site during posterior spine fusion surgery can result in improved outcomes and reduced pain far beyond the anesthetic duration of activity

  6. The inhibitory effects of bupivacaine, levobupivacaine, and ropivacaine on K2P (two-pore domain potassium) channel TREK-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hye Won; Soh, Jeong Seop; Kim, Hee Zoo; Hong, Jinpyo; Woo, Dong Ho; Heo, Jun Young; Hwang, Eun Mi; Park, Jae-Yong; Lee, C Justin

    2014-02-01

    Bupivacaine, levobupivacaine, and ropivacaine are amide local anesthetics. Levobupivacaine and ropivacaine are stereoisomers of bupivacaine and were developed to circumvent the bupivacaine's severe toxicity. The recently characterized background potassium channel, K(2P) TREK-1, is a well-known target for various local anesthetics. The purpose of study is to investigate the differences in inhibitory potency and stereoselectivity among bupivacaine, levobupivacaine, and ropivacaine on K(2P) TREK-1 channels overexpressed in COS-7 cells. We investigated the effects of bupivacaine, levobupivacaine, and ropivacaine (10, 50, 100, 200, and 400 μM) on TREK-1 channels expressed in COS-7 cells by using the whole cell patch clamp technique with a voltage ramp protocol ranging from -100 to 100 mV for 200 ms from a holding potential of -70 mV. Bupivacaine, levobupivacaine, and ropivacaine showed reversible inhibition of TREK-1 channels in a concentration-dependent manner. The half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) of bupivacaine, levobupivacaine, and ropivacaine were 95.4 ± 14.6, 126.1 ± 24.5, and 402.7 ± 31.8 μM, respectively. IC(50) values indicated a rank order of potency (bupivacaine > levobupivacaine > ropivacaine) with stereoselectivity. Hill coefficients were 0.84, 0.93, and 0.89 for bupivacaine, levobupivacaine, and ropivacaine, respectively. Inhibitory effects on TREK-1 channels by bupivacaine, levobupivacaine, and ropivacaine demonstrated stereoselectivity: bupivacaine was more potent than levobupivacaine and ropivacaine. Inhibition of TREK-1 channels and consecutive depolarization of the cell membrane by bupivacaine, levobupivacaine, and ropivacaine may contribute to the blockade of neuronal conduction and side effects.

  7. Modification of Bupivacaine-Induced Myotoxicity with Dantrolene and Caffeine In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank, Christoph; Hofmann, Petra; Gruber, Michael; Bollwein, Gabriele; Graf, Bernhard M; Zink, Wolfgang; Metterlein, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Local anesthetics, especially bupivacaine, have myotoxic effects in clinically used concentrations and context. Detailed mechanisms of these effects are unknown, but an increase in intracellular calcium levels is suspected to be the most important trigger. Dantrolene and caffeine modify cellular calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of dantrolene and caffeine on bupivacaine-induced myotoxicity in vitro. A cell culture model of primary muscle cells of BALB/c AnNCrl mice was established. Cells were incubated simultaneously with increasing concentrations of bupivacaine, dantrolene, and caffeine. The fraction of dead cells was calculated after staining with propidium iodide and analysis by flow cytometry. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration of bupivacaine was calculated for each concentration. Group differences were determined by using 1-way analysis of variances with subsequent post hoc 1-way Dunnett t test. Both dantrolene and caffeine alone had no effect on muscle cell survival. Increasing concentrations of bupivacaine caused increasing cell death. Dantrolene dose-dependently reduced the fraction of necrotic cells, whereas caffeine dose-dependently increased the fraction of dead cells. Dantrolene attenuated, and caffeine enhanced, bupivacaine-induced myotoxicity, presumably by modifying sarcoplasmic calcium release. This indicates that intracellular calcium release is an important factor for local anesthetic-induced cell death.

  8. Analgesic Efficacy of Transverse Abdominal Plane Block after Elective Cesarean Delivery - Bupivacaine with Fentanyl versus Bupivacaine Alone: A Randomized, Double-blind Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Roshan; Ranjan, R V; Ramachandran, T R; George, Sagiev Koshy

    2017-01-01

    The analgesic benefit of transversus abdominis plane (TAP) blocks for cesarean delivery remains controversial. In our study, we compared the analgesic efficacy of TAP block using local anesthetic bupivacaine and adjunct fentanyl with bupivacaine alone in patients undergoing elective cesarean section. Our study was a randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial where sixty patients undergoing elective cesarean delivery under subarachanoid block (2 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine) were randomized into two groups, A and B. At the end of the surgical procedure, bilateral TAP block was performed guided by the ultrasound. Group A received 38 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine and 2 ml of 50 μg of fentanyl, whereas Group B received 38 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine + 2 ml of normal saline. The total volume was divided equally and administered bilaterally. Each patient was assessed for 24 h after TAP block, for time to rescue analgesia, pain using visual analog scale (VAS) score at rest and on movement, hemodynamic parameters (heart rate and blood pressure), nausea, vomiting, and sedation. Diclofenac 75 mg was given as rescue analgesia when the patient complained of pain or when VAS score >4. Prolonged postoperative analgesia was noticed with both the groups, with a mean time to rescue analgesia of approximately 6.5 h. There was no significant difference in time to rescue analgesia (6.49 ± 0.477 vs. 6.5 ± 0.480) when both the groups were compared among themselves. The pain scores among the two groups when compared did not show any added benefit. Incidence of nausea, vomiting, and sedation when compared between both the groups showed no difference. The TAP block as a part of a multimodal analgesic regimen definitely has a role in providing superior analgesia in the postoperative period. However, adjunct fentanyl to local anesthetic bupivacaine was found to have no added advantage when quality and duration of analgesia was compared.

  9. Liposomal bupivacaine versus interscalene nerve block for pain control after shoulder arthroplasty: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zeng; Chen, Zong; Ma, Chuangen

    2017-07-01

    Postoperative pain control after total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) can be challenging. Liposomal bupivacaine and interscalene nerve block are 2 common pain control protocol for TSA patients. However, whether liposomal bupivacaine was superior than interscalene nerve block was unknown. This meta-analysis aimed to illustrate the efficacy liposomal bupivacaine versus interscalene nerve block for pain control in patients undergoing TSA. In May 2017, a systematic computer-based search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Google database. Data on patients prepared for TSA in studies that compared liposomal bupivacaine versus interscalene nerve block were retrieved. The endpoints were the visual analogue scale (VAS) at 4 hours, 8 hours, 12 hours, 24 hours, and 2 weeks, total morphine consumption at 24 hours, and the length of hospital stay. Software of Stata 12.0 was used for pooling the final outcomes. Five clinical studies with 573 patients (liposomal bupivacaine group = 239, interscalene nerve block group = 334) were ultimately included in the meta-analysis. There was no significant difference between the VAS at 4 hours, 8 hours, and 2 weeks between liposomal bupivacaine group and interscalene nerve block group (P > .05). Compared with interscalene nerve block group, liposomal bupivacaine was associated with a reduction of VAS score at 12 hours, 24 hours by appropriately 3.31 points and 6.42 points respectively on a 100-point VAS. Furthermore, liposomal bupivacaine was associated with a significantly reduction of the length of hospital stay by appropriately by 0.16 days compared with interscalene nerve block group. Current meta-analysis indicates that compared with interscalene nerve block, liposomal bupivacaine had comparative effectiveness on reducing both pain scores and the length of hospital stay. However, studies with more patients and better-designed methods are needed to

  10. Bupivacaine decreases cell viability and matrix protein synthesis in an intervertebral disc organ model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Vo, Nam V; Sowa, Gwendolyn A; Hartman, Robert A; Ngo, Kevin; Choe, So Ra; Witt, William T; Dong, Qing; Lee, Joon Y; Niedernhofer, Laura J; Kang, James D

    2011-02-01

    Bupivacaine is a local anesthetic commonly used for back pain management in interventional procedures. Cytotoxic effects of bupivacaine have been reported in articular cartilage and, recently, in intervertebral disc cell culture. However, the relevance of these effects to discs in vivo remains unclear. This study examines the effect of bupivacaine on disc cell metabolism using an organotypic culture model system that mimics the in vivo environment. To assess the effect of bupivacaine on disc cell viability and matrix protein synthesis using an organotypic model system and to determine whether this anesthetic has toxic effects. Mouse intervertebral discs were isolated and maintained ex vivo in an organotypic culture then exposed to clinically relevant concentrations of bupivacaine, and the impact on disc cell viability and matrix proteoglycan (PG) and collagen syntheses were measured in the presence and absence of the drug. Mouse functional spine units (FSUs) were isolated from the lumbar spines of 10-week-old mice. Cell viability was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Total PG and collagen syntheses were determined by measuring the incorporation of radioactive (35)S-sulfate and (3)H-l-proline into PG and collagen, respectively. Organotypic cultures of mouse FSUs were exposed to different concentrations (0%-0.5%) of bupivacaine for variable amounts of time (0-2 hours). Cell viability within disc tissue was quantified by MTT staining and histologic assay. Matrix protein synthesis was measured by incorporation of radioactive (35)S-sulfate (for PG synthesis) and (3)H-l-proline (for collagen synthesis). Untreated mouse disc organs were maintained in culture for up to 1 month with minimal changes in tissue histology, cell viability, and matrix protein synthesis. Exposure to bupivacaine decreased cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Exposure to bupivacaine at concentrations less than or equal to 0.25% did

  11. Comparison of the Effects of 3 Methods of Intrathecal Bupivacaine, Bupivacaine-Fentanyl, and Bupivacaine-Fentanyl-Magnesium Sulfate on Sensory Motor Blocks and Postoperative Pain in Patients Undergoing Lumbar Disk Herniation Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attari, Moahammad A; Najafabadi, Fereidoun Mortazavi; Talakoob, Reyhanak; Abrishamkar, Saeid; Taravati, Hosein

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of adding intrathecal (IT) fentanyl and magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) to bupivacaine on sensory motor blocks and postoperative pain in patients undergoing lumbar disk herniation surgery. In a double-blind randomized clinical trial, the patients undergoing lumbar disk herniation surgery were allocated to receive hyperbaric bupivacaine (A), or hyperbaric bupivacaine and fentanyl (B), hyperbaric bupivacaine, fentanyl and MgSO4 (C) IT. Data were collected regarding the onset of sensory block and time to regression to T10, time to complete motor block and full motor recovery, time to first analgesic requirement, postoperative pain score, and analgesic consumption and side effects. Prandomized and assigned to 3 groups (n=35 in each groups). There were no significant differences between groups in regard to time to reach the T10 level of sensory block (P=0.82), time to regression to T10 (P=0.11), and the time to complete motor block (P=0.58). Meanwhile, the time to complete recovery of motor function was significantly longer in group C (116.4±18.4, 126.4±25.5, 130.2±15.7 min, respectively, P=0.016). Time to first analgesic requirement was also significantly longer in group C (3.26±1.12, 5.57±0.92, 6.91±1.27 h, respectively, P<0.001). Total morphine consumption was significantly less in group C (14.3±4.3, 8.3±3.5, 6±3.6 mg, respectively, P<0.001). The severity of pain was significantly less in C group (P<0.001). In patients undergoing lumbar disk herniation surgery, IT MgSO4 in combination with bupivacaine-fentanyl can decrease severity of postoperative pain and analgesic consumption without additional side effect.

  12. L-carnitine reduces susceptibility to bupivacaine-induced cardiotoxicity: an experimental study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Gail K; Pehora, Carolyne; Crawford, Mark W

    2017-03-01

    The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of acute administration of L-carnitine 100 mg·kg -1 iv on susceptibility to bupivacaine-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. In the first of two experiments, L-carnitine 100 mg·kg -1 iv (n = 10) or saline iv (n = 10) was administered to anesthetized and mechanically ventilated Sprague-Dawley rats following which an infusion of bupivacaine 2.0 mg·kg -1 ·min -1 iv was given until asystole occurred. The primary outcome was the probability of survival. Secondary outcomes included times to asystole, first dysrhythmia, and to 50% reductions in heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP). To determine whether the same dose of L-carnitine is effective in treating established bupivacaine cardiotoxicity, we also conducted a second experiment in which bupivacaine 20 mg·kg -1 iv was infused over 20 sec. Animals (n = 10 per group) received one of four iv treatments: 30% lipid emulsion 4.0 mL·kg -1 , L-carnitine 100 mg·kg -1 , 30% lipid emulsion plus L-carnitine, or saline. The primary outcome was the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) during resuscitation. In the first study, L-carnitine 100 mg·kg -1 increased the probability of survival during bupivacaine infusion (hazard ratio, 12.0; 95% confidence interval, 3.5 to 41.5; P L-carnitine-treated animals, the times to asystole, first dysrhythmia, and to 50% reductions in HR and MAP increased by 33% (P L-carnitine alone groups achieved ROSC when compared with the lipid emulsion groups (P L-carnitine 100 mg·kg -1 decreases susceptibility to bupivacaine cardiotoxicity, but is ineffective during resuscitation from bupivacaine-induced cardiac arrest.

  13. Comparison of adding neostigmine and fentanyl to bupivacaine in caudal analgesia in pediatric inguinal herniorrhaphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Aghadavoudi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective: The aim of the present trial was to compare efficacy and adverse effects of neostigmine against fentanyl when used as adjuvant to bupivacaine in caudal anesthesia.Method: A total of 140 children, aged 1-6 year scheduled to elective herniorrhaphy, were enrolled. Exclusion criteria were sacral area infection, history of allergic reactions to local anesthetics, bleeding tendency, neurological or spinal disease and lack of parent consent. Patients were assigned, using permuted block randomization method, into four groups of 35. Children in the first group received a caudal injection of 0.5 ml/kg bupivacaine 0.25% plus fentanyl 1µ/kg. The second group received 0.5 ml/kg bupivacaine 0.25% plus neostigmine 1µ/kg. Patients in the third group received 0.5 ml/kg bupivacaine 0.25% plus combination of fentanyl 1µ/kg and neostigmine 1µ/kg, and those in the fourth group only received 0.5 ml/kg bupivacaine 0.25% concentration. To assess pain intensity, Wong-Baker Scale was used. Time to first analgesic request and the dosage of analgesic agent was recorded. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17.0.Results:Significant differences were observed among groups in terms of number of patients needing analgesic (p=0.01, time to first analgesic request (p=0.005 and analgesic dose. (p=0.05 The lowest number of requests for analgesia, lowest dose of pethidine and longest time to first analgesic request were in patients receiving combination of bupivacaine, neostigmine and fentanyl.Conclusion: The present study shows that the combination of fentanyl and neostigmine, could prolong duration of analgesia, and decrease severity of pain when added to bupivacaine

  14. Thoracic epidural catheter for postoperative pain control following an ineffective transversus abdominis plane block using liposome bupivacaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terrien BD

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Brian D Terrien,1 David Espinoza,2 Charles C Stehman,3 Gabriel A Rodriguez,1 Nicholas C Connolly1 1Department of Anesthesiology, Naval Medical Center San Diego, 2Surface Warfare Medical Institute, San Diego, 3Department of Anesthesiology, Robert E. Bush Naval Hospital, Twenty Nine Palms, CA, USA Abstract: A 24-year-old female with a history of ulcerative colitis underwent colectomy. The patient received an ineffective transversus abdominis plane (TAP block with liposome bupivacaine (Exparel intraoperatively and was started on a hydromorphone patient-controlled analgesia 5 hours after the TAP block, which did not relieve her pain. A continuous thoracic epidural (CTE was then placed after blood levels of bupivacaine were drawn, and the patient immediately experienced significant pain relief. The combined use of liposome bupivacaine and bupivacaine CTE infusion in the postoperative management of this patient demonstrated no safety concerns, provided excellent analgesia and plasma concentrations of bupivacaine remained far below toxic levels. Keywords: liposome bupivacaine (bupivacaine liposome injectable suspension, plasma bupivacaine levels, transversus abdominis plane (TAP nerve block, thoracic epidural

  15. Role of buprenorphine in prolonging the duration of post-operative analgesia in percutaneous nephrolithotomy: Comparison between bupivacaine versus bupivacaine and buprenorphine combination

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    Jonnavithula Nirmala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL is the treatment of choice for large renal calculi. Pain around the nephrostomy tube is a clinical problem and we have previously reported alleviation of pain by peritubal block with bupivacaine, which lasted for 14 hours. The present study aimed to investigate the role of buprenorphine and bupivacaine combination in prolonging the duration of analgesia in peritubal block. Materials and Methods: A prospective, randomized controlled study was undertaken in 40 American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA grade I and II patients who were scheduled for PCNL. Group I patients received 20 mL of 0.25% bupivacaine and group II patients received 20 mL of 0.25% bupivacaine with 100 μg of buprenorphine. Peritubal infiltration was given under fluoroscopic guidance along the nephrostomy tube from the renal capsule to the skin. Post-operative pain was assessed by Visual Analog Score (VAS, dynamic VAS (DVAS, sedation score, duration of analgesia and number of rescue analgesic demands. Rescue analgesia was inj tramadol 1 mg/kg IV if pain score exceeded 3. Results: Demographic data were comparable between the groups. Median duration of analgesia was 16 h in group I and 20 h in group II (P = 0.002. The maximum median VAS was 4 in group I and 2 in group II (P = 0.002. The median area under curve (AUC for VAS was 7 and 5 in groups I and II, respectively (P = 0.047. The median maximum DVAS in group I was 6 and 4 in group II. The median AUC for DVAS in 24 h was 16 in group I and 15 in group II (P = 0.017. Conclusions: Peritubal infiltration of 0.25% bupivacaine with 100 μg buprenorphine around a nephrostomy tube increased the duration of analgesia following PCNL without any side-effects.

  16. Improving total knee arthroplasty perioperative pain management using a periarticular injection with bupivacaine liposomal suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Snyder, MD

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA report low satisfaction with postoperative pain control. The purpose of this study is to examine if there is a difference in post-operative pain for TKA patients without femoral nerve block receiving an intra-operative pericapsular injection of bupivacaine liposome suspension (EXPAREL; Pacira Pharmaceuticals, Inc., San Diego, California versus a concentrated multi drug cocktail. Seventy TKA patients were randomly assigned to either the bupivacaine liposome or the multi-drug cocktail. Post-operative pain scores, morphine sulfate equivalence consumption values, adverse events, and overall pain control satisfaction scores were collected. Patients reported significantly higher pain level for the cocktail group on post-op day 1 (p < .05 and post-op day 2 (p < .01 versus the bupivacaine liposome group. This same trend was found for morphine sulfate equivalence consumption in the PACU (p < .01 and post-op day 2 (p < .01. Higher satisfaction in pain control (p < .001 and overall experience (p < .01 was also found in the bupivacaine liposome group. Finally, significantly more adverse events were found in the multi-drug group versus the bupivacaine liposome group (p < .05. The study findings demonstrated a non-inferior difference, albeit not a clinically significant difference, in patient-perceived pain scores, morphine sulfate equivalence consumption, adverse events, and overall satisfaction.

  17. Epidural blood flow and regression of sensory analgesia during continuous postoperative epidural infusion of bupivacaine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, T; Højgaard, L; Scott, N B

    1988-01-01

    surgery, and 8, 12, and 16 hours later during the continuous infusion. Initial blood flow was 6.0 +/- 0.7 ml/min per 100 g tissue (mean +/- SEM). After epidural bupivacaine, blood flow increased in all seven patients to 7.4 +/- 0.7 ml (P less than 0.02). Initial level of sensory analgesia was T4.5 +/- 0......Epidural blood flow was measured in seven patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery during combined lumbar epidural and general anesthesia. After an initial dose of 20 ml plain bupivacaine 0.5%, a continuous epidural infusion of bupivacaine 0.5% (8 ml/hr) was given for 16 hours...... for postoperative pain relief. The epidural blood flow was measured by a local 133Xe clearance technique in which 15-35 MBq 133Xe diluted in 1 ml saline was injected through the epidural catheter on the day before surgery (no bupivacaine), 30 minutes after the initial dose of bupivacaine on the morning before...

  18. Estimation of the minimum motor blocking potency ratio for intrathecal bupivacaine and lidocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camorcia, M; Capogna, G; Columb, M O

    2008-07-01

    The up-down sequential allocation model has been adapted to investigate a variety of clinical and pharmacological issues in neuraxial anaesthesia including the estimation of relative potency ratios for analgesia and motor block of the most commonly used epidural and intrathecal local anaesthetics. The aim of this study was to establish the median effective doses (ED50) for motor block with intrathecal lidocaine and bupivacaine and to define the relative motor blocking potency ratio. In this prospective, randomised, double blind, parallel group, up-down sequential allocation study, we enrolled 71 parturients undergoing elective caesarean section under combined spinal-epidural anaesthesia. The women received either intrathecal lidocaine 2% w/v or bupivacaine 0.5% w/v. The initial dose was 4 mg for bupivacaine and 12 mg for lidocaine. Subsequent doses were determined by the outcome in the previous parturient, according to the up-down sequential allocation technique. The end point was the occurrence of any motor block in either lower limb within 5 min. The intrathecal ED50 for motor block was 13.7 mg for lidocaine (95% CI, 13.1 to 14.4) and 3.4 mg for bupivacaine (95% CI, 2.6 to 4.1) (Pmotor blocking potency ratio was 4.1 (95% CI 3.3 to 5.2). Intrathecal bupivacaine was 4.1 times more potent than lidocaine for motor block.

  19. Comparison of the effects of intrathecal ropivacaine, levobupivacaine, and bupivacaine for Caesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, P; De Kock, M; Huberty, L; Demir, T; Izydorczic, M; Vanderick, B

    2003-11-01

    This study aimed to detect if intrathecal (i.t.) ropivacaine and levobupivacaine provided anaesthesia (satisfactory analgesia and muscular relaxation) and postoperative analgesia of similar quality to bupivacaine in patients undergoing Caesarean section. Ninety parturients were enrolled. A combined spinal-epidural technique was used. Patients were randomly assigned to receive one of the following isobaric i.t. solutions: bupivacaine 8 mg (n=30), levobupivacaine 8 mg (n=30), or ropivacaine 12 mg (n=30), all combined with sufentanil 2.5 microg. An i.t. solution was considered effective if an upper sensory level to pinprick of T4 or above was achieved and if intraoperative epidural supplementation was not required. Sensory changes and motor changes were recorded. Anaesthesia was effective in 97, 80, and 87% of patients in the bupivacaine 8 mg, levobupivacaine 8 mg, and ropivacaine 12 mg groups, respectively. Bupivacaine 8 mg was associated with a significantly superior success rate to that observed in the levobupivacaine group (Plevobupivacaine and ropivacaine). The racemic mixture of bupivacaine combined with sufentanil remains an appropriate choice when performing Caesarean sections under spinal anaesthesia.

  20. Effect of Concentration on Median Effective Dose (ED50) for Motor Block of Intrathecal Plain Bupivacaine in Elderly Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-quan; Xia, Zhong-yuan

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the median effective dose (ED50) for motor block of various concentrations of intrathecally administered plain bupivacaine. Between 2011 and 2013, 64 patients aged ≥70 years, undergoing transurethral, or lower limb surgery with combined spinal and epidural anesthesia in a single hospital were enrolled. The patients were randomized into 3 groups to receive intrathecal 0.75% bupivacaine (Group 1), 0.375% bupivacaine (Group 2) or 0.25% bupivacaine (Group 3). Spinal anesthesia was achieved using injections of up-and-down doses of 0.75%, 0.375%, or 0.25% plain bupivacaine. The first patient in each group received 7.5 mg bupivacaine, and the testing interval was set at 0.75 mg. The efficacy of motor block in both legs was determined using a modified Bromage and a hip motor function scale. The ED50 for motor block was estimated according to the Dixon's up-and-down method. The ED50 for motor block of bupivacaine was 6.10 (95% CI 5.58-6.66) mg in Group 1, 6.04 (95% CI 5.82-6.28) mg in Group 2, and 5.43 (95% CI 5.19-5.67) mg in Group 3. There were significant differences in the ED50 for motor block among the groups (P=0.008). The ED50 doses for motor block with 3 bupivacaine concentrations were significantly different in elderly patients; the ED50 dose of 0.75% bupivacaine being significantly higher than that of 0.25% bupivacaine.

  1. Multimodal Analgesia in Breast Surgical Procedures: Technical and Pharmacological Considerations for Liposomal Bupivacaine Use

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    Anoushka M. Afonso, MD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced recovery after surgery is a multidisciplinary perioperative clinical pathway that uses evidence-based interventions to improve the patient experience as well as increase satisfaction, reduce costs, mitigate the surgical stress response, accelerate functional recovery, and decrease perioperative complications. One of the most important elements of enhanced recovery pathways is multimodal pain management. Herein, aspects relating to multimodal analgesia following breast surgical procedures are discussed with the understanding that treatment decisions should be individualized and guided by sound clinical judgment. A review of liposomal bupivacaine, a prolonged-release formulation of bupivacaine, in the management of postoperative pain following breast surgical procedures is presented, and technical guidance regarding optimal administration of liposomal bupivacaine is provided.

  2. Comparison of lidocaine with and without bupivacaine for local dental anesthesia.

    OpenAIRE

    Oka, S; Shimamoto, C; Kyoda, N.; Misaki, T.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a combination of bupivacaine and lidocaine and that of lidocaine alone for local dental anesthesia. First, on different days, healthy volunteers were given 2% lidocaine with 1/80,000 epinephrine or 2% lidocaine with 1/80,000 epinephrine + 0.5% bupivacaine, after which pain was produced with a pulp tester. No difference was found in the time until onset of anesthetic effect between the preparations. However, the duration of anes...

  3. Orthostatic hypotension during postoperative continuous thoracic epidural bupivacaine-morphine in patients undergoing abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crawford, M E; Møiniche, S; Orbæk, Janne

    1996-01-01

    Fifty patients undergoing colonic surgery received combined thoracic epidural and general anesthesia followed by continuous epidural bupivacaine 0.25% and morphine 0.05 mg/mL, 4 mL/h, for 96 h postoperatively plus oral tenoxicam 20 mg daily. Heart rate (HR) and arterial blood pressure (BP) were...... hypotension. The results suggest that patients undergoing abdominal surgery and treated with continuous small-dose thoracic epidural bupivacaine-morphine are subjected to a decrease of BP at rest and during mobilization, but not to an extent that seriously impairs ambulation in most patients....

  4. Bupivacaine Lozenge Compared with Lidocaine Spray as Topical Pharyngeal Anesthetic before Unsedated Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salale, Nesrin; Treldal, Charlotte; Mogensen, Stine

    2014-01-01

    Unsedated upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE) can induce patient discomfort, mainly due to a strong gag reflex. The aim was to assess the effect of a bupivacaine lozenge as topical pharyngeal anesthetic compared with standard treatment with a lidocaine spray before UGE. Ninety-nine adult...... outpatients undergoing unsedated diagnostic UGE were randomized to receive either a bupivacaine lozenge (L-group, n = 51) or lidocaine spray (S-group, n = 42). Primary objective was assessment of patient discomfort including acceptance of the gag reflex during UGE. The L-group assessed the discomfort...... with a lidocaine spray proved to be a superior option as topical pharyngeal anesthetic before an UGE....

  5. Dosisfindungsstudie von Levobupivacain versus Bupivacain zur elektiven Sectio Caesarea in Spinalanästhesie

    OpenAIRE

    Kuschel, Stefanie

    2006-01-01

    Bupivacain, ein langwirksames Lokalanästhetikum (LA) vom Amidtyp, gilt als das Standardlokalanästhetikum zur Regionalanästhesie bei Kaiserschnittentbindung. Nach einer Episode maternaler Todesfälle infolge intravasaler Fehlinjektion von Bupivacain (Albright 1979) stellte sich die Forderung nach einem LA mit ähnlichen klinischen Eigenschaften aber mit einer größeren therapeutischen Breite. Obwohl bei der Spinalanästhesie (SPA) nur 10 % der LA-Menge verwendet wird, die bei Periduralanästhesie (...

  6. Ultrasound Guided Stellate Ganglion Block in Postmastectomy Pain Syndrome: A Comparison of Ketamine versus Morphine as Adjuvant to Bupivacaine

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    Ola T. Abdel Dayem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The postmastectomy pain syndrome (PMPS is chronic pain after breast cancer surgery and is reported to influence quality of life. The aim of this study was to provide long term reduction of PMPS, improve range of motion of the shoulder, and decrease the need for postoperative analgesia using ultrasound guided stellate ganglion block. Method. Sixty patients with PMPS were randomly allocated into 1 of 3 groups: bupivacaine group (group 1, bupivacaine plus ketamine group (group 2, and bupivacaine plus morphine group (group 3. Each patient received 3 blocks with an interval of one week in between. Patients were assessed for: pain visual analogue score (VAS, movement of the shoulder, skin temperature, and the need for analgesic drugs. Results. The pain VAS was significantly decreased in group 2 as compared to the other two groups. Shoulder movement improved significantly in the three studied groups with the best results observed after the third block. The need for the analgesic drugs in the form of gabapentin was more in the bupivacaine and bupivacaine plus morphine groups than in bupivacaine plus ketamine group. Conclusion. Treatment of PMPS with ultrasound guided stellate ganglion block using ketamine (0.5 mg/kg as adjuvant to bupivacaine (0.25% successfully decreased pain VAS and the need for analgesic drugs.

  7. "COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ONSET AND DURATION OF ACTION OF 0.5% BUPIVACAINE AND A MIXTURE OF 0.5% BUPIVACAINE AND 2% LIDOCAINE FOR EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Z

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Local anesthetic solutions are frequently mixed to take advantage of the useful properties of each drug but the medical literature is surprisingly deficient in well controlled studies about the onset and duration of action of these mixtures for epidural anesthesia. A total of 32 patients scheduled for elective operation were enrolled in this prospective randomized controlled study; in group I, 16 patients received 15 ml solution containing bupivacaine 0.5% and lidocaine 2% as a single injection epidural anesthesia after 3 ml test dose containing 15 mcg epinephrine; in group II, 16 patients received 15 ml bupivacaine 0.5% with the same technique. The times from injection of the test dose to the onset of sensory anesthesia at inguinal ligament and umbilicus and the time of termination of anesthesia at the maximum sensory level and two levels regression of anesthesia level were checked with pinprick test. The results were compared with two sample t test. Times to onset of sensory block in L1 and T10 levels (mean±SD were 14.87±3.1 min and 21±3.37 min in group I and 17.12±2.18 min and 24.9±2.54 min in group II, respectively (P< 0.025 and P< 0.001, respectively. Times to termination of sensory anesthesia at the maximum level of anesthesia and two dermatomes regression were 75.12±8.26 min and 87.8±7.01 min in group I and 116.37±22.4 min and 134.87±21.64 min in group II, respectively ( P= 0 and P=0,respectively. Mixing lidocaine 2% with bupivacaine 0.5% in a 1:1 ratio compared to 0.5% bupivacaine solution results in significantly more rapid initiation and termination of sensory block.

  8. [Maternal hypotension with low doses of spinal bupivacaine or levobupivacaine and epidural volume expansion with saline for cesarean section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guasch, E; Gilsanz, F; Díez, J; Alsina, E

    2010-05-01

    Epidural volume extension (EVE) with saline solution can contribute to greater cephalad spread of drugs injected into the subarachnoid space during cesarean section. We studied the incidence of material hypotension with spinal bupivacaine or levobupivacaine (L-bupivacaine) and the spread after epidural saline injection. After ethics committee approval, we randomized women scheduled for cesarean section to 4 groups to receive 5 mg of 0.25% bupivacaine with (n=51) or without (n=6) saline EVE; 5 mg of 025% L-bupivacaine (n=50); or 6 mg of 03% L-bupivacaine (n=50). All patients also received 25 microg of fentanyl per 2 mL of local hyperbaric spinal anesthetic. In all except the non-EVE group, 10 mL of saline was infused through an epidural catheter 5 minutes after anesthetic infusion. We recorded patient demographic data, procedural and anesthetic times, incision-clamping times, occurrence of hypotension, ephedrine dose required, motor and sensory blockade, requirement for rescue analgesics, and neonatal outcome. After 6 patients had been randomized to the non-EVE group, no further patients were assigned because all the women required rescue analgesics. Demographic data, duration of procedure, time between. incision and delivery, and Apgar scores were similar in all the groups. The incidence of hypotension was lower in the group receiving 5 mg of L-bupivacaine (26% vs. 52.9% in the bupivacaine 5-mg group, and 56% in the 6-mg L-bupivacaine group, P = .04). More women given 5 mg of L-bupivacaine required rescue analgesia (46%) than did those receiving 5 mg of bupivacaine (235%) or 6 mg of L-bupivacaine (28%) (P = .039). Hypotension was associated with a lower umbilical cord pH (P = .001). Ephedrine doses over 20 mg were also associated with a lower umbilical cord pH (P = .031). The incidence of hypotension was lowest in the group anesthetized with 5 mg of L-bupivacaine, but the need for rescue analgesia was greater in this group. Doses of 5 mg and 6 mg may be sufficient

  9. Minidose Bupivacaine – Fentanyl Spinal Anesthesia for Cesarean Section In Preeclamptic Parturients

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    N. Fatholahzadeh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:Spinal anesthesia for cesarean section is associated with a high incidence of hypotension. The synergism between intrathecal opioids and local anesthetics may make it possible to achieve reliable spinal anesthesia with minimal hypotension using a minidose of local anesthetic. Methods: Forty-four preeclamptic parturients undergoing cesarean section were randomized in two groups of 22 patients. Group A received a spinal anesthetic of bupivacaine 6 mg plus fentanyl 20 µg , and group B received 12 mg bupivacaine. Hypotension was defined as a 30% decrease in systolic and diastolic pressure from baseline. Hypotension was treated with intravenous ephedrine boluses 2.5-5 mg up to maximum 50 mg. Results: All patients had satisfactory anesthesia. Five of 22 patients in group A required ephedrine, a single dose of 5 mg. Seventeen of 22 patients in group B required vasopressor support of blood pressure.The lowest recorded systolic,diastolic and mean blood pressures as fractions of the baseline pressures were 71.2%, 64.5% and 70.3% versus 59.9%, 53.5% and 60.2% respectively for group A versus group B. Conclusion: A “minidose” of 6 mg bupivacaine in combination with 20 µg fentanyl may provide satisfactory spinal anesthesia for cesarean section in the preeclamptic patient. The minidose combination caused dramatically less hypotension than 12 mg bupivacaine and nearly eliminated the need for vasopressor support of blood pressure. 

  10. Unpredictability of regression of analgesia during the continuous postoperative extradural infusion of bupivacaine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, T; Hjortsø, N C; Bigler, D

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-four otherwise healthy patients scheduled for elective major abdominal surgery received general anaesthesia plus lumbar extradural analgesia. A loading dose of 0.5% plain bupivacaine was given to produce sensory analgesia (pin prick) from T4 to S5 and followed by a continuous infusion of 0...

  11. Caudal bupivacaine supplemented with caudal or intravenous clonidine in children undergoing hypospadias repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Henneberg, Steen Winther; Walther-Larsen, Søren

    2004-01-01

    Clonidine is used increasingly in paediatric anaesthetic practice to prolong the duration of action of caudal block with a local anaesthetic agent. Which route of administration of clonidine is the most beneficial remains unknown. We compared the effects of caudal and i.v. clonidine on postoperat...... on postoperative analgesia produced by caudal bupivacaine after hypospadias repair....

  12. Chemical stability of an admixture combining ziconotide and bupivacaine during simulated intrathecal administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, David; Montenegro, Rick; Aclan, Jennifer

    2007-10-01

    Objective.  To determine the stability of an admixture combining ziconotide with bupivacaine hydrochloride during simulated intrathecal infusion under laboratory conditions at 37°. Materials and Methods.  An admixture containing ziconotide (25 µg/mL) and bupivacaine hydrochloride (5 mg/mL) was stored in SynchroMed® II pumps at 37° and in control vials at either 37° or 5°. Using high-performance liquid chromatography, drug concentrations were determined from samples obtained at varying intervals during the 30-day study. Results.  After 30 days, pump ziconotide and bupivacaine hydrochloride concentrations measured an average of 86.9% and 99.4% of their initial concentrations, respectively. Control vials displayed similar degradation rates for both drugs. Statistical evaluation of the ziconotide 95% confidence interval indicated that the ziconotide concentration would meet or exceed 90% and 80% of initial concentration for 22 days and 45 days, respectively. Conclusions.  An admixture containing 25 µg/mL ziconotide and 5 mg/mL bupivacaine hydrochloride was 90% stable for 22 days and 80% stable for 45 days (extrapolated) in SynchroMed® II infusion pumps.

  13. Effect of epidural 0.25% bupivacaine on somatosensory evoked potentials to dermatomal stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, C; Hansen, O B; Kehlet, H

    1989-01-01

    The effect of lumbar epidural analgesia with similar volumes (about 25 ml) of 0.25% and 0.5% bupivacaine on early (less than 0.5 seconds) somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) to electrical stimulation of the S1, L1, and T10 dermatomes was examined in two groups of ten patients. Level of sensory...

  14. Combined intra-articular glucocorticoid, bupivacaine and morphine reduces pain and convalescence after diagnostic knee arthroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Sten; Lorentzen, Jan S; Larsen, Allan S

    2002-01-01

    the procedure. Pain during movement and walking, leg muscle force and joint effusion, use of crutches and duration of sick leave were assessed. A combination of bupivacaine and morphine reduced pain, duration of immobilization and of convalescence. The addition of methylprednisolone further reduced pain, use...

  15. [Multiple linear regression analysis for predictability of the extent of spinal anesthesia by plain bupivacaine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Takayuki; Ogawa, Makoto; Otsuji, Mikiya; Ohno, Nagara; Saito, Yuichiro; Yamada, Yoshitsugu

    2008-12-01

    Predictability of the extent of spinal anesthesia by plain bupivacaine has been controversial. Two hundred and twenty-eight patients undergoing elective surgery with spinal anesthesia were enrolled in this retrospective study. Using gender, age, height, body mass index (BMI), chosen spinal interspace for spinal tap (L2-3 or L3-4), and dose of plain bupivacaine as independent variables, we performed stepwise multiple linear regression analysis to examine predictability of the extent of sensory blockade produced by spinal anesthesia using plain bupivacaine. Following equation was obtained. Extent of sensory blockade = 14.9 + (male : 0.540, female: -0.540) -0.0774 x height + 0.124 x BMI + (L2-3 : 0.345, L3-4: -0.345): r2 = 0.0604. P values of gender, height and BMI were less than 0.05; however, r2 of each variable was very low. Results of this retrospective study imply the unpredictability of the extent of spinal anesthesia produced by plain bupivacaine.

  16. NERVE BLOCKING (PAIN CONTROL AFTER THORACOTOMY WITH BUPIVACAINE:EPIDURAL VS INTERCOSTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A GHAFOURI

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Use of analgesics is an evitable and necessary part of thoracic surgery. This study was designed to compare analgesic effects of persistent thoracic epidural anesthesia versus persistent intercostal nerve block and determine their role in opioid need after thoracotomy. Methods. 116 patients above 20 years old who were candidate for thoracotomy through either posterolateral or thoracoabdominal incision were situatedin one of three group for pain relief. For the first group, pain relieved by petidine and pentazosin. In 2nd group, pain relived by thoracic epidural anesthesia with bupivacaine catheters which were inserted between costal and plural space. In 3rd group, bupivacaine was introduced through 3rd and 4th intercostal space by catheter (2 mg/kg in devided doses. Pain was meseared by visual analogue scale and quantified by surgical residents through a method bupivacaine was injected. If Bupivacaine did not relieve pain, then opioid was used as adjuvant. Results. The study showed that epidural group needed less opioids and had more cooperation in comparison with two other group. The intercostal group complained of pain at chest tube site. Discussion. In thoracotomized patients, pain control is more effective via epidural anesthesia in turns of opioid side effects, expenses and patient comfort.

  17. Postoperative analgesia in children when using clonidine in addition to fentanyl with bupivacaine given caudally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarraya, Anouar; Elleuch, Sahar; Zouari, Jawhar; Smaoui, Mohamed; Laabidi, Sofiene; Kolsi, Kamel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of clonidine in association with fentanyl as an additive to bupivacaine 0.25% given via single shot caudal epidural in pediatric patients for postoperative pain relief. In the present prospective randomized double blind study, 40 children of ASA-I-II aged 1-5 years scheduled for infraumblical surgical procedures were randomly allocated to two groups to receive either bupivacaine 0.25% (1 ml/kg) with fentanyl 1 μg/kg and clonidine 1μg/kg (group I) or bupivacaine 0.25% (1 ml/kg) with fentanyl 1 μg/kg (group II). Caudal block was performed after the induction of general anesthesia. Postoperatively patients were observed for analgesia, sedation, hemodynamic parameters, and side effects or complications. Both the groups were similar with respect to patient and various block characteristics. Heart rate and blood pressure were not different in 2 groups. Significantly prolonged duration of post-operative analgesia was observed in group I (Pfentanyl as additives to bupivacaine in single shot caudal epidural in children may provide better and longer analgesia after infraumblical surgical procedures.

  18. Post-operative pain relief in children following caudal bupivacaine and buprenorphine--a comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anilkumar T

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available Eighty-five paediatric patients (age range: 6 mths-12yrs undergoing lower abdominal surgery were studied for post-operative pain relief following either caudal bupivacaine (GpI: n = 43 or buprenorphine (GpII: n = 42. Bupivacaine was administered as 0.5ml/kg body weight of 0.25% solution and buprenorphine as 4 micrograms/ml and volume of 0.5 ml/Kg body weight in normal saline. Post-operatively pain was graded on a 4-point scale and behaviour on a 5-point scale. Any post-operative complications and need for additional analgesia were also noted. Bupivacaine provided good pain relief in the early post-operative hours but buprenorphine provided pain relief lasting for 24 hrs or more post-operatively. Post-operative behaviour of 10 patients receiving buprenorphine was graded as cheerful as compared to 2 from bupivacaine group. Till the end of observation period (i.e. 8 hr post-operatively, majority of patients receiving buprenorphine remained cheerful.

  19. Levobupivacaine versus racemic bupivacaine for spinal anaesthesia in orthopaedic major surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattorini, F; Ricci, Z; Rocco, A; Romano, R; Pascarella, M A; Pinto, G

    2006-01-01

    Levobupivacaine, a new local anaesthetic, has been recently introduced into clinical practice because of its lower toxic effects for heart and central nervous system. It has been already investigated in epidural and loco-regional techniques, but more has to be known regarding its characteristics in spinal anaesthesia. The aim of our study was to compare clinical and anaesthetic features of levobupivacaine and racemic bupivacaine when intrathecally administered in 60 patients undergoing major orthopaedic surgical procedures. Three ml of glucose-free levobupivacaine 0.5% (group L) or 3 ml of isobaric bupivacaine 0.5% (group B) were administered in 30 patients each. Sensory and motor blockades were evaluated by the pinprick test and a modified Bromage score, respectively. Vital parameters, postoperative VAS and rescue analgesia were recorded as well. No statistically significant differences between groups were observed either in anaesthetic potencies or postoperative pain. Either heart rate or mean arterial pressure slightly decreased in both groups, with no preoperative significant differences. Nevertheless, spinal puncture was accompanied by severe hypotension and bradycardia in 2 patients of group B. In both cases, hemodynamics were promptly and successfully treated, with no sequelae. In conclusion, levobupivacaine results a valid alternative to racemic bupivacaine for spinal anaesthesia, the latter remaining a cheap and effective local anaesthetic yet. Notwithstanding the complete absence of any significant hemodynamic complications in the patients of group L, further and larger studies are needed in order to assess if levobupivacaine is preferable to bupivacaine for minimizing the possible cardiovascular impact of spinal anaesthesia.

  20. Hyperbaric spinal ropivacaine in lower limb and hip surgery: A comparison with hyperbaric bupivacaine

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    Feroz Ahmad Dar

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: We conclude that hyperbaric bupivacaine used intrathecally has a faster onset of sensory block and prolonged duration of analgesia compared to hyperbaric ropivacaine group. A more rapid postoperative recovery of sensory and motor function was seen in Group R compared with Group B. However, side effects observed were more in Group B.

  1. In vivo release of bupivacaine from subcutaneously administered oily solution. Comparison with in vitro release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Dorrit Bjerg; Joergensen, Stig; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    2002-01-01

    administration of oily solution showed a prolonged bupivacaine release with lower peak plasma levels as compared to administration of an aqueous formulation applied in the same compartment. t(1/2), t(max), C(max) and AUC(0-infinity) for the aqueous solution were 63+/-8 min, 19+/-16 min, 194+/-46 ng x ml(-1...

  2. [Pharmacokinetic and clinical effects of two bupivacaine concentrations on axillary brachial plexus block].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Leonardo H C; Takeda, Alexandre; Barreto, Cleber N; Faria, Bernadete; Assunção, Nilson A

    2017-10-16

    The risk of systemic bupivacaine toxicity is a persistent problem, which makes its pharmacokinetic study fundamental for regional anesthesia safety. There is little evidence of its influence on plasma peak at different concentrations. The present study compares two bupivacaine concentrations to establish how the concentration affects this drug plasma peak in axillary brachial plexus block. Postoperative latency and analgesia were also compared. 30 patients were randomized. In the 0.25% Group, 0.25% bupivacaine (10mL) was injected per nerve. In the 0.5% Group, 0.5% bupivacaine (5mL) was injected per nerve. Peripheral blood samples were collected during the first 2hours after the blockade. For sample analyses, high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry was used. Plasma peak occurred 45minutes after the blockade, with no difference between groups at the assessed time-points. Plasma peak was 933.97 ± 328.03 ng.mL-1 (mean ± SD) in 0.25% Group and 1022.79 ± 253.81 ng.mL-1 in 0.5% Group (p = 0.414). Latency was lower in 0.5% Group than in 0.25% Group (10.67 ± 3.71 × 17.33min ± 5.30, respectively, p = 0.004). No patient had pain within the first 4hours after the blockade. For axillary brachial plexus block, there was no difference in bupivacaine plasma peak despite the use of different concentrations with the same local anesthetic mass. The concentration inversely influenced latency. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  3. COMPARISON OF DEXMEDETOMIDINE, BUPRENORPHINE AND FENTANYL AS AN ADJUVANT TO BUPIVACAINE DURING SPINAL ANAESTHESIA FOR HEMIARTHROPLASTY

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    Pradeep R

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Opioids such as fentanyl or buprenorphine are being added as adjuvant to local anaesthetic for spinal anaesthesia. Dexmedetomidine, a new α2 agonist is being tried as an adjuvant in the recent times. MATERIALS AND METHODS The patients were randomised into three Groups (n=30 each by closed envelope technique. Patients in Group 1 received 10 µg fentanyl with 15 mg of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine, Group 2 received 15 mg of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine supplemented with 30 µg of buprenorphine and Group 3 received 15 mg of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine plus 5 µg dexmedetomidine intrathecally. The time to reach maximum sensory and motor level, the regression time of the same, any adverse effects were recorded. Data were analysed using chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test for categorical data and analysis of variance for continuous data. A value of P<0.05 was accepted as statistically significant. Settings and Design- The study was conducted in a prospective, randomised and double-blind manner. It included ninety American Society of Anaesthesiologists class I and II patients undergoing hemiarthroplasty under spinal anaesthesia. RESULTS In this study, the patients in dexmedetomidine group showed significantly longer duration of motor block (240±20 mins. and sensory blockade (180±22.2 mins. compared to other groups, which is statistically significant (P=0.0001 and P=0.006, respectively. The time to first request of analgesic postoperatively was also longer (260±30.2 in dexmedetomidine group when compared with other groups (P=0.0001. Haemodynamic parameters were stable and there were no complications in any group. CONCLUSIONS We concluded that intrathecal dexmedetomidine (5 µg with bupivacaine provides significantly longer duration of sensory and motor blockade and longer duration for first request of analgesia in the recovery than intrathecal buprenorphine (30 µg or fentanyl (10 µg with bupivacaine for spinal anaesthesia for

  4. The analgesic efficacy of continuous presternal bupivacaine infusion through a single catheter after cardiac surgery

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    Dalia Abdelhamid Nasr

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Median sternotomy, sternal spreading, and sternal wiring are the main causes of pain during the early recovery phase following cardiac surgery. Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of continuous presternal bupivacaine infusion through a single catheter after parasternal block following cardiac surgery. Materials and Methods: The total of 40 patients (American Society of Anesthesiologist status II, III, 45-60 years old, undergoing coronary - artery bypass grafting were enrolled in this prospective, randomized, double-blind study. A presternal catheter was inserted with continuous infusion of 5 mL/h bupivacaine 0.25% (Group B or normal saline (Group C during the first 48 postoperative hrs. Primary outcomes were postoperative morphine requirements and pain scores, secondary outcomes were extubation time, postoperative respiratory parameters, incidence of wound infection, Intensive Care Unit (ICU and hospital stay duration, and bupivacaine level in blood. Statistical Methods: Student′s t-test was used to analyze the parametric data and Chi-square test for categorical variables. Results: During the postoperative 48 h, there was marked reduction in morphine requirements in Group B compared to Group C, (8.6 ± 0.94 mg vs. 18.83 ± 3.4 mg respectively, P = 0.2, lower postoperative pain scores, shorter extubation time (117 ± 10 min vs. 195 ± 19 min, respectively, P = 0.03, better respiratory parameters (PaO 2 /FiO 2, PaCO 2 and pH, with no incidence of wound infection, no differences in ICU or hospital stay duration. The plasma concentration of bupivacaine remained below the toxic threshold (at T24, 1.2 ug/ml ± 0.3 and T48 h 1.7 ± 0.3 ug/ml. Conclusion: Continuous presternal bupivacaine infusion has resulted in better postoperative analgesia, reduction in morphine requirements, shorter time to extubation, and better postoperative respiratory parameters than the control group.

  5. Levobupivacaine plus fentanyl versus racemic bupivacaine plus fentanyl in epidural anaesthesia for lower limb surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casimiro, C; Rodrigo, J; Mendiola, M A; Rey, F; Barrios, A; Gilsanz, F

    2008-01-01

    To compare the anaesthetic epidural effects of levobupivacaine plus fentanyl versus bupivacaine plus fentanyl in patients undergoing lower limb surgery. A single blind, randomised, prospective, multicentre study was designed to compare both therapies. The study was conducted in 10 tertiary hospitals. A total of 96 patients who were ASA I or II, who required at least a 24-hour-stay in the hospital and who were subjected to surgery of lower limbs with epidural anaesthesia were enrolled in this study. Treatments were administered at a dosage of 1.2 ml per metamera,including a test dose (3 mL) and the dose of fentanyl (100 mg). Patients were then randomly allocated to receive either Levobupivacaine (n = 49) or bupivacaine (N.= 47). The primary endpoint was sensory blockade (SB) duration. Secondary evaluations included motor blockade (MB), post-surgery analgesic medication usage, safety and the investigator global evaluation. SB duration was similar for both interventions: 195 min (165-205) in the bupivacaine group versus 170 min (140-185) in the levobupivicaine group (log-rank test, P=0.884). However, the lack of MB as evaluated by the modified Bromage scale was significantly higher in the levobupivacaine group than in the bupivacaine group (39% vs 13%, P=0.017). Although no significant differences in MB duration were observed between the groups, a trend was observed in the levobupivacaine group, which had a lesser MB (P=0.093). Investigator satisfaction was high and was assessed to a similar extent for both interventions. Forty-one adverse events were detected in 28 patients, with no differences between groups: 15 (33%) with bupivacaine and 13 (27%) with levobupivacaine, P=0.516. Although both interventions showed similar anaesthetic effects, a higher proportion of patients receiving levobupivacaine lacked MB.

  6. Haemodynamic changes during spinal anaesthesia with slow continuous infusion or single dose of plain bupivacaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkänen, M; Rosenberg, P; Silvanto, M; Tuominen, M

    1992-08-01

    Forty elderly patients, scheduled for orthopaedic surgery of the hip or knee were studied. Twenty patients received a single-dose spinal anaesthesia with 3 ml of plain 0.5% bupivacaine (SDSA group). Twenty patients received continuous spinal anaesthesia using a 32- or 22-gauge catheter. A bolus of 1.0 ml of plain 0.5% bupivacaine was given to ten patients and 0.5 ml to another ten, continued by an infusion at a rate of 2 ml/h. The spread of analgesia and haemodynamic changes (central venous pressure, arterial pressures, need for sympathomimetic medication) were registered. The mean dose of bupivacaine was 2.9 ml (range 1.5-5 ml) in the CSA group (3.0 ml in the SDSA group). Eight patients in the CSA group needed medication for pain during surgery compared to five patients in the SDSA group (n.s.). The median level of pinprick analgesia at 60 min was T11 in the CSA and T6.5 in the SDSA group (P less than 0.01). The mean maximum decreases in CVP and MAP were quite similar in the CSA and SDSA group (2.1 vs 2.8 mmHg (0.3 vs 0.4 kPa) and 17 vs 21 mmHg (2.3 vs 2.8 kPa), respectively) (n.s.). Six patients in the SDSA group and four patients in the CSA group needed sympathomimetic medication. It is concluded that titration of bupivacaine for spinal anaesthesia caused only minor haemodynamic changes which were similar to those after single-dose spinal bupivacaine.

  7. Measurement of the efficacy of 2% lipid in reversing bupivacaine- induced asystole in isolated rat hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongfei; Xia, Yun; Zhu, Binbin; Hu, Xiawei; Xu, Shihao; Chen, Limei; Papadimos, Thomas J; Wang, Wantie; Wang, Quanguang; Xu, Xuzhong

    2014-01-01

    The reversal efficacy of 2% lipid emulsion in cardiac asystole induced by different concentrations of bupivacaine is poorly defined and needs to be determined. Forty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into seven groups: B40, B60, B80, B100, B120, B140 and B160, n = 6. The Langendorff isolated heart perfusion model was used, which consisted of a balanced perfusion with Krebs-Henseleit solution for 25 minutes and a continuous infusion of 100 μmol/L bupivacaine until asystole had been induced for 3 minutes. The hearts in the seven groups were perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution containing a 2% lipid emulsion, and 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140 or 160 μmol/L bupivacaine, respectively. Cardiac recovery was defined as a spontaneous and regular rhythm with a rate-pressure product > 10% of the baseline value for more than 1 minute. Our primary outcome was the rate-pressure product 25 minutes after cardiac recovery. Other cardiac function parameters were also recorded. All groups demonstrated cardiac recovery. During the recovery phase, heart rate, rate-pressure product, the maximum left ventricular pressure rise and decline in heart rate in the B120-B160 groups was significantly lower than those in the B40-B80 groups (P < 0.05). The concentration of bupivacaine and the reversal effects of a 2% lipid emulsion showed a typical transoid S-shaped curve, R(2) = 0.9983, IC50 value was 102.5 μmol/L (95% CI: 92.44 - 113.6). There is a concentration-response relationship between the concentrations of bupivacaine and the reversal effects of 2% lipid emulsion.

  8. Leukocyte-poor platelet-rich plasma versus bupivacaine for recalcitrant lateral epicondylar tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Prateek; Dhillon, Mandeep; Aggarwal, Sameer; Marwaha, Neelam; Prakash, Mahesh

    2015-04-01

    To compare a single leukocyte-poor (type-4B) platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection versus bupivacaine injection for recalcitrant lateral epicondylar tendinopathy (LET). 25 patients aged 27 to 50 years with painful and recalcitrant LET of the humerus were randomised to receive leukocyte-poor (type-4B) PRP (n=15) or bupivacaine (n=10) injection. Outcome measures included visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain, modified Mayo clinic performance index for elbow (MMCPIE) for elbow function, and Nirschl score for activity-related pain at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months by a single assessor. At baseline, the PRP and bupivacaine groups were comparable in terms of age, sex, duration of symptoms, VAS for pain, MMCPIE score, and Nirschl score. After one month, the percentage of improvement was less in the PRP than bupivacaine group in terms of the VAS for pain (17.7% vs. 26.5%), MMCPIE score (24.0% vs. 27.6%), and Nirschl score (20.7% vs. 31.1%). Nonetheless, improvement in the respective scores was greater in the PRP than bupivacaine group after 3 months (42.5% vs. 30.9%, 34.1% vs. 27.2%, and 50.7% vs. 39.6%), 6 months (67.3% vs. 20.1%, 40.6% vs. 16.3%, and 71.4% vs. 31.1%), and one year (83.2% vs. 45.6%, 47.0% vs. 21.7%, and 76.6% vs. 56.3%). The differences in scores between groups were significant at 6 months and one year only (pPRP injection for recalcitrant LET enabled good improvement in pain and function.

  9. Comparative study of caudal clonidine and midazolam added to bupivacaine during infra-umbilical surgeries in children

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    Sadhana Sanwatsarkar

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: This study showed that the addition of both clonidine (1 μg/kg and midazolam (30 μg/kg with bupivacaine administered caudally significantly increase the duration of postoperative analgesia with minimal side-effects in children. The use of clonidine as an additive to bupivacaine in caudal epidural is a superior choice to midazolam as it reduces the demand of postoperative rescue analgesics significantly.

  10. Lipid Emulsion Inhibits Vasodilation Induced by a Toxic Dose of Bupivacaine via Attenuated Dephosphorylation of Myosin Phosphatase Target Subunit 1 in Isolated Rat Aorta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Seong-Ho; Byon, Hyo-Jin; Kwon, Seong-Chun; Park, Jungchul; Lee, Youngju; Hwang, Yeran; Baik, Jiseok; Choi, Mun-Jeoung; Sohn, Ju-Tae

    2015-01-01

    Lipid emulsions are widely used for the treatment of systemic toxicity that arises from local anesthetics. The goal of this in vitro study was to examine the cellular mechanism associated with the lipid emulsion-mediated attenuation of vasodilation induced by a toxic dose of bupivacaine in isolated endothelium-denuded rat aorta. The effects of lipid emulsion on vasodilation induced by bupivacaine, mepivacaine, and verapamil were assessed in isolated aorta precontracted with phenylephrine, the Rho kinase stimulant NaF, and the protein kinase C activator phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu). The effects of Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632 on contraction induced by phenylephrine or NaF were assessed. The effects of bupivacaine on intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i) and tension induced by NaF were simultaneously measured. The effects of bupivacaine alone and lipid emulsion plus bupivacaine on myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT1) phosphorylation induced by NaF were examined in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells. In precontracted aorta, the lipid emulsion attenuated bupivacaine-induced vasodilation but had no effect on mepivacaine-induced vasodilation. Y-27632 attenuated contraction induced by either phenylephrine or NaF. The lipid emulsion attenuated verapamil-induced vasodilation. Compared with phenylephrine-induced precontracted aorta, bupivacaine-induced vasodilation was slightly attenuated in NaF-induced precontracted aorta. The magnitude of the bupivacaine-induced vasodilation was higher than that of a bupivacaine-induced decrease in [Ca2+]i. Bupivacaine attenuated NaF-induced MYPT1 phosphorylation, whereas lipid emulsion pretreatment attenuated the bupivacaine-induced inhibition of MYPT1 phosphorylation induced by NaF. Taken together, these results suggest that lipid emulsions attenuate bupivacaine-induced vasodilation via the attenuation of inhibition of MYPT1 phosphorylation evoked by NaF. PMID:26664257

  11. Bupivacaine 0.5 % versus articaine 4 % for the removal of lower third molars. A crossover randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho-Puchades, Manuel; Vílchez-Pérez, Miguel A.; Paredes-García, Jordi; Berini-Aytés, Leonardo; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the anesthetic action of 0.5% bupivacaine in relation to 4% articaine, both with 1:200,000 epinephrine, in the surgical removal of lower third molars. As a secondary objective hemodynamic changes using both anesthetics were analyzed. Study Design: Triple-blind crossover randomized clinical trial. Eighteen patients underwent bilateral removal of impacted lower third molars using 0.5% bupivacaine or 4% articaine in two different appointments. Preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative variables were recorded. Differences were assessed with McNemar tests and repeated measures ANOVA tests. Results: Both solutions exhibited similar latency times and intraoperative efficacy. Statistical significant lower pain levels were observed with bupivacaine between the fifth (p=0.011) and the ninth (p=0.007) postoperative hours. Bupivacaine provided significantly longer lasting soft tissue anesthesia (p<0.05). Systolic blood pressure and heart rate values were significantly higher with articaine. Conclusions: Bupivacaine could be a valid alternative to articaine especially due to its early postoperative pain prevention ability. Key words:Bupivacaine, articaine, third molar, anesthesia, postoperative pain. PMID:22143739

  12. Effect of 50% enantiomeric excess bupivacaine mixture combined with pancuronium on neuromuscular transmission in rat phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation; a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assunção Braga, Angelica de Fátima; Carvalho, Vanessa Henriques; da Silva Braga, Franklin Sarmento; Potério, Gloria Maria Braga; Santos, Filipe Nadir Caparica; Junqueira, Fernando Eduardo Féres

    2015-11-01

    Local anaesthetics are drugs that are widely used in clinical practice. However, the effects of these drugs on the neuromuscular junction and their influence on the blockade produced by non-depolarising neuromuscular blocking drugs are still under investigation. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, the influence of a 50% enantiomeric excess bupivacaine mixture on neuromuscular transmission and neuromuscular block produced by pancuronium. Rats were distributed into three groups (n = 5) according to the drug studied namely, 50% enantiomeric excess bupivacaine mixture (5 μg/mL); pancuronium (2 μg/mL); 50% enantiomeric excess bupivacaine mixture + pancuronium. The following parameters were evaluated: (1) Effects of a 50% enantiomeric excess bupivacaine mixture on membrane potential (MP) and miniature endplate potentials (MEPPs); (2) amplitude of diaphragmatic response before and 60 min after the addition of a 50% enantiomeric excess bupivacaine mixture; the degree of neuromuscular block with pancuronium and pancuronium combined with a 50% enantiomeric excess bupivacaine mixture. A 50% enantiomeric excess bupivacaine mixture did not alter the amplitude of muscle response (MP) but decreased the frequency and amplitude of MEPP. The block produced by pancuronium was potentiated by a 50% enantiomeric excess bupivacaine mixture. A 50% enantiomeric excess bupivacaine mixture used alone did not affect neuromuscular transmission, but potentiated the neuromuscular block produced by pancuronium. No action was shown on the muscle fibre, and alterations on MEPPs demonstrated a presynaptic action.

  13. CLINICAL COMPARISON BETWEEN 0.25% BUPIVACAINE AND BUPIVACAINE 0.25% AND TRAMADOL (2MG/KG IN BRACHIAL PHLEXUS BLOCK BY SUPRACLAVICULAR APPROACH

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    Suresh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES : Adjunc ts to local anaesthetics for brachial plexus block may enhance the quality and duration of analgesia. Tramadol a synthetic 4 - phenylpiperidine analog of codeine is known to produce antinociception and enhance the effect of local anaesthetics when given epid urally , intrathecally or in various peripheral nerve blocks. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of Tramadol added to brachial plexus block by supraclavicular approach. METHODS : A prospective , randomized , single blinded study was conducted o n 60 ASA I or II adult patients undergoing upper limb surgeries under supraclavicular brachial plexus block. Patients were randomly divided into two groups. Patients in Group I (n=30 were given 38mL of 0.25% Bupivacaine plus 2ml NS and Group II (n = 30 w ere given 38 mL of 0.25% Bupivacaine plus 2 ml Tramadol (2mg/kg. The onset time and duration of sensory and motor blockade were recorded. Haemodynamic variables (i.e. heart rate , noninvasive blood pressure , oxygen saturation , and rescue analgesic require ments were recorded for 24 hrs postoperatively. RESULTS: the onset of sensory and motor block was significantly faster in Group II compared to Group I (P <0.05. Rescue analgesic requirements were significantly less in Group II compared to Group I (P , 0.05 . Haemodynamic variables did not differ between groups in the post - operative period. CONCLUSION: Tramadol (2mg/kg in combination with 38mL of Bupivacaine (0.25% hastened onset of sensory and motor block , and improved postoperative analgesia when used in brachial plexus block , without producing any adverse events.

  14. The stability and microbial contamination of bupivacaine, lidocaine and mepivacaine used for lameness diagnostics in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, D. M. T.; Cornett, C.; Damborg, P.

    2016-01-01

    Local anaesthetics (LAs) are frequently used for diagnostic procedures in equine veterinary practice. The objective of this study was to investigate the physico-chemical stability and bacterial contamination of bupivacaine, lidocaine and mepivacaine used for lameness examinations in horses. The LAs....... The minor changes in concentration documented in this study are unlikely to affect anaesthetic efficacy during equine lameness examinations. When using products containing methylparaben, degradation of the preservative over time is to be expected....

  15. Chest tube-delivered bupivacaine improves pain and decreases opioid use after thoracoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmy, Todd L; Nwogu, Chukwumere; Solan, Patrick; Yendamuri, Saikrishna; Wilding, Gregory; DeLeon, Oscar

    2009-04-01

    This study compared a simplified method of intrapleural bupivacaine administration with traditional analgesic therapy to decrease postoperative pain and opioid usage in patients after thoracoscopy. Thirty patients who had non-rib-spreading thoracoscopic operations under general anesthesia were prospectively randomized to no local anesthetic infusion (control), intermittent bolus (30 mL every 6 hours), or continuous infusion (5 mL/h). Bupivacaine (0.25%) was delivered through the pleural infusion channel of a specially designed single silicone 28F chest tube. Total intravenous fentanyl patient-controlled analgesia (boluses with basal rate) infused in the first 24 hours postoperatively was the designated primary study end point. Escalations of analgesic therapy, including ketorolac administration, were standardized across all groups. Nurses assessed pain control at onset and every 6 hours by visual analog pain scales (VAPS, 100 mm). VAPS were repeated 10 minutes later to assess any opioid or bupivacaine bolus effects. No study-related adverse events occurred. Compared with controls, pooled VAPS scores and 24-hour fentanyl consumption were significantly lower for the intermittent and continuous administration groups (1753 vs 1180 vs 1177 microg/24 h, respective median; p = 0.04) Early (6-hour) VAPS analgesic responses were more certain for intermittent (10 of 10) and continuous (10 of 10) patients than controls (7 of 10, p = .04). Five continuous patients successfully maintained VAPS scores below 20 mm throughout the study vs 3 intermittent and 2 controls (p = .045). Intermittent or continuous intrapleural bupivacaine infused through the chest tube reliably reduces postoperative pain and 24-hour opioid usage in thoracoscopy patients.

  16. Comparison of adding neostigmine and fentanyl to bupivacaine in caudal analgesia in pediatric inguinal herniorrhaphy

    OpenAIRE

    Omid Aghadavoudi; Amir Shafa; Zahra Nowrozi

    2017-01-01

    AbstractObjective: The aim of the present trial was to compare efficacy and adverse effects of neostigmine against fentanyl when used as adjuvant to bupivacaine in caudal anesthesia.Method: A total of 140 children, aged 1-6 year scheduled to elective herniorrhaphy, were enrolled. Exclusion criteria were sacral area infection, history of allergic reactions to local anesthetics, bleeding tendency, neurological or spinal disease and lack of parent consent. Patients were assigned, using permuted ...

  17. The stability of a sulphite-free epidural analgesic solution containing fentanyl, bupivacaine, and adrenaline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brustugun, J; Troland, S; Breivik, H

    2013-11-01

    Thoracic epidural infusion analgesia is optimised by using a triple component infusion containing a local anaesthetic, an opioid, and adrenaline. Adrenaline in solution is prone to oxidation, and stabilisers, such as antioxidants (e.g. sulphites) or chelators (edetates), are therefore commonly added. Sulphites may, however, have unwanted effects, especially allergic reactions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of an analgesic infusion solution for epidural administration free of sulphites, containing adrenaline, fentanyl, bupivacaine, and disodium edetate. An epidural infusion solution containing adrenaline 2 μg/ml, fentanyl 2 μg/ml, bupivacaine 1 mg/ml, and disodium edetate 0.18 μg/ml was stored at 2-8°C for 4.5 months. A concentrate 11 times more potent, used for the production of the ready-to-use solution, was stored at 2-8°C for 9 months. Concentrations of the active ingredients were determined, pH was measured throughout the period, the clarity of the solutions was investigated, and the weight of the infusion bags recorded. After 4.5 months at 2-8°C, the infusion solution contained adrenaline 97.5%, bupivacaine 100.9%, and fentanyl 102.6%. The pH stayed between 4.76 and 4.79, the solutions remained clear, and the weight was 99.9% of that found initially. The solution was also stable for 7 days at room temperature. The concentrate was stable (> 90%) for 9 months at 2-8°C. The solution containing adrenaline, fentanyl, and bupivacaine, stabilised with disodium edetate, is stable for several months at 2-8°C, and at least for 7 days at room temperature without the addition of sulphites. © 2013 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Post-operative pain and analgesic requirements after paravertebral block for mastectomy: A randomized controlled trial of different concentrations of bupivacaine and fentanyl

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    V Bhuvaneswari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Paravertebral block (PVB is useful for post-operative analgesia after breast surgery. Bupivacaine is used for PVB at higher concentrations (0.5%, which may lead to systemic toxicity after absorption. Therefore, we proposed to evaluate the efficacy of lower concentrations of bupivacaine with and without fentanyl for thoracic PVB in patients undergoing surgery for carcinoma breast. Methods: Forty-eight patients scheduled for surgery for breast cancer were enrolled in this prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial and were allocated to one of four groups: 0.25% bupivacaine with epinephrine 5 mcg/ ml, 0.25% bupivacaine + epinephrine 5 mcg/ ml with 2 mcg/ml fentanyl, 0.5% bupivacaine + epinephrine 5 mcg/ml or isotonic saline. PVB was performed and 0.3 ml/kg of the test drug was administered before induction of general anaesthesia. The primary outcome assessed was post-operative analgesic requirement for a period of 24 h. Secondary outcome measures were post-operative pain scores at rest and on movement of the arm, latency to first opioid, post-operative nausea and vomiting, quality of sleep, ability to move arm and patient satisfaction. Results: The patient characteristics and anaesthetic technique were comparable among the groups. The rescue analgesic consumption as well as cumulative pain scores at rest and on movement were significantly less in 0.25% bupivacaine+epinephrine with fentanyl and 0.5% bupivacaine+epinephrine groups (P<0.05. The average duration of analgesia was found to be 18 h after either 0.25% bupivacaine with epinephrine+fentanyl or 0.5% bupivacaine with epinephrine. Conclusions: Lower concentrations of bupivacaine can be combined with fentanyl to achieve analgesic efficacy similar to bupivacaine at higher concentrations, decreasing the risk of toxicity in PVB.

  19. Low-dose bupivacaine spinal anaesthesia for percutaneous nephrolithotomy: the suitability and impact of adding intrathecal fentanyl.

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    Atallah, M M; Shorrab, A A; Abdel Mageed, Y M; Demian, A D

    2006-08-01

    Unilateral spinal anaesthesia has been used for lower limb surgery with a stable cardiovascular state and a short recovery unit stay. We sought to test the suitability of low-dose bupivacaine spinal anaesthesia for percutaneous nephrolithotomy, a procedure hitherto performed under general anaesthesia. Furthermore, we hypothesized that adding intrathecal fentanyl to bupivacaine may improve the quality of anaesthesia. We randomly allocated, through computer-generated randomization, 108 patients subjected to percutaneous nephrolithotomy to receive either 7.5 mg of hyperbaric bupivacaine 5 mg/ml alone or with the addition of 10 microg of fentanyl. Drugs were given at the L(2)-L(3) interspace with the patient in the lateral decubitus position. The patients remained in this position for 10 min, after which the sensory and motor blocks were assessed. Intra-operative analgesic supplementation, when deemed necessary, was achieved with intravenous fentanyl boluses (25 microg). The sensory and motor blocks after intrathecal bupivacaine and bupivacaine-fentanyl were similar. Sensory block, in both groups, reached the fifth and eighth thoracic dermatomes on the operative and non-operative sides, respectively. Deep motor block occurred on the operative side in all patients and in nearly 50% of patients on the non-operative side. The patients in the bupivacaine-fentanyl group required less intra-operative and post-operative analgesics, and both patients and endoscopists were better satisfied. This study demonstrated, for the first time, that intrathecal low-dose bupivacaine and fentanyl offers a reliable neuraxial block for patients subjected to percutaneous nephrolithotomy, with stable haemodynamics, good post-operative analgesia and acceptable patient and endoscopist satisfaction.

  20. Epidural blood flow and regression of sensory analgesia during continuous postoperative epidural infusion of bupivacaine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, T; Højgaard, L; Scott, N B

    1988-01-01

    for postoperative pain relief. The epidural blood flow was measured by a local 133Xe clearance technique in which 15-35 MBq 133Xe diluted in 1 ml saline was injected through the epidural catheter on the day before surgery (no bupivacaine), 30 minutes after the initial dose of bupivacaine on the morning before...... surgery, and 8, 12, and 16 hours later during the continuous infusion. Initial blood flow was 6.0 +/- 0.7 ml/min per 100 g tissue (mean +/- SEM). After epidural bupivacaine, blood flow increased in all seven patients to 7.4 +/- 0.7 ml (P less than 0.02). Initial level of sensory analgesia was T4.5 +/- 0.......17 (mean +/- SEM). Postoperatively, two patients maintained the initial level of sensory analgesia and low pain score throughout the 16-hour study. In these two patients epidural blood flow remained constant after the initial increase. Flow increased further to 10.3 +/- 0.8 ml/min per 100 g tissue (P less...

  1. Evaluation of sciatic nerve damage following intraneural injection of bupivacaine, levobupivacaine and lidocaine in rats

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    Oznur Sen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The local anesthetics may cause neurotoxicity. We aimed to compare the neurotoxic potential of different local anesthetics, local anesthetic induced nerve damage and pathological changes of a peripheral nerve. METHODS: Sixty Wistar rats weighing 200-350 g were studied. Rats were assigned into 3 groups and 26-gauge needle was inserted under magnification into the left sciatic nerve and 0.2 mL of 0.5% bupivacaine, 5% levobupivacaine, and 2% lidocaine were injected intraneurally. An individual who was blind to the specifics of the injection monitored the neurologic function on postoperative 1st day, and daily thereafter. Neurologic examination included assessment for the presence and severity of nociception and grasping reflexes. At the 7th day sciatic nerve specimen was taken for evaluation of histopathologic changes. RESULTS: There was no statistical difference detected among groups regarding grasping reflex and histopathologic evaluation. Two cases in bupivacaine group, 1 case in levobupivacaine group and 2 cases in lidocaine group had slight grasping, while 1 case in lidocaine group had no grasping reflex on the seventh day. Severe axonal degeneration was observed in all groups, respectively in bupivacaine group 4 (20%, levobupivacaine group 3 (15%, and lidocaine group 6 (30%. CONCLUSION: In all groups, histopathological damage frequency and severity were more than the motor deficiency.

  2. Evaluation of sciatic nerve damage following intraneural injection of bupivacaine, levobupivacaine and lidocaine in rats.

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    Sen, Oznur; Sayilgan, Nevzat Cem; Tutuncu, Ayse Cigdem; Bakan, Mefkur; Koksal, Guniz Meyanci; Oz, Huseyin

    2016-01-01

    The local anesthetics may cause neurotoxicity. We aimed to compare the neurotoxic potential of different local anesthetics, local anesthetic induced nerve damage and pathological changes of a peripheral nerve. Sixty Wistar rats weighing 200-350g were studied. Rats were assigned into 3 groups and 26-gauge needle was inserted under magnification into the left sciatic nerve and 0.2mL of 0.5% bupivacaine, 5% levobupivacaine, and 2% lidocaine were injected intraneurally. An individual who was blind to the specifics of the injection monitored the neurologic function on postoperative 1st day, and daily thereafter. Neurologic examination included assessment for the presence and severity of nociception and grasping reflexes. At the 7th day sciatic nerve specimen was taken for evaluation of histopathologic changes. There was no statistical difference detected among groups regarding grasping reflex and histopathologic evaluation. Two cases in bupivacaine group, 1 case in levobupivacaine group and 2 cases in lidocaine group had slight grasping, while 1 case in lidocaine group had no grasping reflex on the seventh day. Severe axonal degeneration was observed in all groups, respectively in bupivacaine group 4 (20%), levobupivacaine group 3 (15%), and lidocaine group 6 (30%). In all groups, histopathological damage frequency and severity were more than the motor deficiency. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Bupivacaine as an Adjunct to Lidocaine in Mohs Micrographic Surgery: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peggy; Smith, Harvey; Vinciullo, Carl

    2017-11-14

    In Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS), the standard local anesthetic agent used is lignocaine with adrenaline. However, MMS can be prolonged; thus reinjections of local anesthetics are often required. Is 0.5% bupivacaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine a useful adjunctive treatment when compared with the use of 1% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine in MMS for the nose? Participants undergoing MMS received 2.5 mL of 1% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine before commencement of Stage 1. At the end of Stage 1, participants were randomized sequentially to either 2.5 mL 0.5% bupivacaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine (Group A) or 2.5 mL of 1% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine (Group B). Effectiveness of anesthesia was assessed using 30 G needle to 5 points of the wound before further stage or repair. Fifty-one patients were randomized, 26 to Group A, and 25 to Group B. No differences between the 2 groups in size of defect and time lapse between time of injection and time of testing were observed. Seven of 25 were tested positive in Group B. Zero of 26 tested positive in Group A (p = .003, 95% confidence interval: 10%-46%). Adjunctive use of 0.5% bupivacaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine is effective in prolonging anesthesia in MMS.

  4. Cerebrospinal fluid and spinal cord distribution of baclofen and bupivacaine during slow intrathecal infusion in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernards, Christopher M

    2006-07-01

    Increasing numbers of patients are receiving chronic intrathecal infusions of local anesthetics, baclofen, opioids, and other analgesics via implanted pumps. These infusions typically deliver drugs at rates measured in microliters per hour. However, to date, there have been no studies aimed at characterizing drug distribution within cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and spinal cord during these slow infusion rates. Therefore, this study was designed to address this knowledge gap. Anesthetized pigs were instrumented with eight intrathecal microdialysis probes placed at multiple points along the neuroaxis in both the anterior and posterior intrathecal space to permit continuous CSF sampling for measurement of bupivacaine and baclofen concentrations. Animals were divided into three groups and received bupivacaine and baclofen infusions at 20 or 1,000 microl/h or as a 1,000-microl bolus over 5 min every hour. Drug administration continued for 8 h, at which time the animals were killed, and the spinal cord was removed and divided into 1-cm-long sections that were further divided into anterior and posterior portions for measurement of bupivacaine and baclofen concentrations. In all groups, drug concentration in CSF and spinal cord decreased rapidly as a function of distance from the site of administration, with most drug found within a few centimeters. In addition, there were significant anterior-posterior differences in both CSF and spinal cord drug concentrations. During slow intrathecal infusion, drug distribution in CSF and spinal cord is severely limited in all groups, although significantly more so in the 20-microl/h infusion group.

  5. Comparison of bupivacaine, xylazine and buprenorphine with ketamine combination for spinal analgesia in buffalo calves

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    Rekha Pathak

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was undertaken to compare the clinical efficacy of lumbosacral spinal analgesia produced using bupivacaine, xylazine and buprenorphine with ketamine combination in buffalo calves. Materials and Methods: 36 male buffalo calves of seven to eight months of age and weighing 60 to 75 kg were used to evaluate the efficacy and safety of lumbosacral spinal analgesia produced by bupivacaine 0.25mg/kg, xylazine 0.05 mg/kg and buprenorphine 20 μg/kg in combination with ketamine 2.5mg/ kg and divided into groups A, B and C, respectively with 12 animals in each group. Results: The onset of analgesia in animals of group A (bupivacaine + ketamine was 3.0±0.3 min, group B (xylazine + ketamine was recorded as 2.6±0.4 min and group C (buprenorphine + ketamine 4.0±0.4 min. Ketamine-bupivacaine in animals of group A produced complete analgesia of almost all the dermatomes for varying lengths of time. So also the group B except that it produced only moderate analgesia of thorax, abdomen and flank. Animals of group C produced only mild analgesia of thorax, abdomen and flank and moderate analgesia of digits , perineum, inguinal, himd limbs and tail region. The longest (>180 min. duration of complete analgesia was recorded in animals of group A. The heart rate and respiration rate significantly decreased in group A and B than group C, so also the rectal temperature. Sedation recorded was maximum in group B fallowed by group A and least sedation scores were given by group C animals. Similiarly the scores of motor incordination was higher in group B and group A than group C. Conclusion: It was concluded that the combinations viz. Bupivacaine+ Ketamine and Xylazine + ketamine when given intraspinally at the lumbosacral space have similar analgesic potency on spinal administration in buffaloes. The synergism is more pronounced in xylazine-ketamine combination,whereas Buprenorphine +ketamine combination in the above said dose is a poor analgesic agent

  6. Intraperitoneal And Incisional Bupivacaine Analgesia For Major Abdominal/Gynecologic Surgery: A Placebocontrolled

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    R. Azarfarin

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Background:Postoperative pain is an important surgical problem. Recent studies in pain pathophysiology have led to the hypothesis that with perioperative administration of analgesics (pre-emptive analgesia it may be possible to prevent or reduce postoperative pain. This study was planned to investigate the efficacy of pre-emptive analgesia on postoperative pain after major gynecologic abdominal surgeries. Methods: In this prospective, double-blinded, randomized, and placebocontrolled trial, 60 ASA physical status I and II patients undergoing major abdominal gynecologic surgeries were randomized to receive 45 mL of bupivacaine 0.375% or 45mL of normal saline; 30 mL and 15 mL of the treatment solution was administered into the peritoneal cavity and incision, respectively, before wound closure. The pain score of the patients was evaluated by the visual analogue scale (VAS on awakening, and at 6, 12, and 24h after surgery. Time to first analgesia request and total analgesic requirements in the first 24h were recorded. Results: Pain scores were significantly higher in the placebo group than in the bupivacaine group on awakening (5.98±1.01 v.s 1.05±1.05; p<0.001, and at 6h after surgery (5.37±0.85 vs. 2.51±1.02; p<0.001. First request to analgesia was significantly longer in the bupivacaine patients than in the placebo group (5.87±3.04 h vs.1.35±0.36; p<0.001.Meperidine consumption over 24h was 96.00 ±17.53 mg in the placebo group compared with 23.28 ±14.89 mg in the bupivacaine patients (p<0.001.Conclusion:A combination of intraperitoneal and incisional bupivacaine infiltration at the end of abdominal gynecologic surgeries reduces postoperative pain on awakening and for 6 hours after surgery, and provides significant opioidsparing analgesia for 24 h after gynecologic abdominal surgeries.

  7. The effect of intravenous Dexamethasone and local Bupivacaine in post -tonsillectomy vomiting and pain

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    Dabirmoghaddam P

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available  Background: Tonsillectomy is the second most common pediatric surgery. Despite improvements in anesthetic and surgical technique, post-tonsillectomy pain continues to be a significant clinical concern for the patient, family, and physician. Young patients undergoing tonsillectomy experience postoperative pain and vomiting resulting in delays in oral feeding and in discharge from the hospital. Reduction of these side effects will lead to the improved quality of postoperative care. This study was performed to compare the efficacies of local Bupivacaine and intravenous Dexamethasone with that of a placebo on post-tonsillectomy pain and vomiting.Methods: This clinical trial included 120 ASA I children, aged 3-15 years, undergoing tonsillectomy. The patients were randomly categorized into three groups: 1- local infiltration of 2 ml normal saline into the tonsillar pillar as a placebo; 2- IV Dexamethasone (0.5 mg/kg, with a maximum of 16 mg; 3- local infiltration of 2 ml 0.5% Bupivacaine into the tonsillar pillar. After the operation, patients were observed regarding vomiting and pain at 0.5, 4, 24, 120 hours postextubation.Results: Of 120 patients, 70 were male and 50 were female. The mean age of patients was 8.4 years. Three patients were missed in follow up. The questionnaire was completed for 117 patients. The mean duration of operation was longest in the placebo group (55 minutes and shortest in Dexamethasone group (50 minutes. We noticed significant reduction in postoperative pain only in the Bupivacaine group and at the fourth postoperative hour. In the Dexamethasone group, during the first 24 hours, we could not statistically analyze the effect on vomiting. Since Bupivacaine and Dexamethasone reduce postoperative pain and vomiting, respectively, and are safe, cost-effective and available, we recommend using these drugs for tonsillectomy patients.Conclusion: Considering the greater efficacy of Dexamethasone in the reduction of vomiting and

  8. Pain Reduction in Untreated Symptomatic Irreversible Pulpitis Using Liposomal Bupivacaine (Exparel): A Prospective, Randomized, Double-blind Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultema, Kristy; Fowler, Sara; Drum, Melissa; Reader, Al; Nusstein, John; Beck, Mike

    2016-12-01

    In the treatment of patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis, endodontic debridement is a predictable method to relieve pain. However, there are clinical situations in which emergency care cannot be provided immediately. An unexplored treatment option in these cases may be the use of a long-acting anesthetic to reduce pain in untreated irreversible pulpitis. Some medical studies have shown potential for infiltrations of liposomal bupivacaine (Exparel; Pacira Pharmaceuticals, San Diego, CA) to prolong pain relief and reduce opioid use postoperatively. The Food and Drug Administration has approved Exparel only for infiltrations; therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare an infiltration of liposomal bupivacaine versus bupivacaine for pain control in untreated, symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Ninety-five emergency patients received 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine via infiltration or an inferior alveolar nerve block to relieve their initial presenting pain. Patients then randomly received either 4 mL liposomal bupivacaine (13.3 mg/mL) or 4 mL 0.5% bupivacaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine by infiltration. Patients received a diary for the day of the appointment and 3 days postinjection to record soft tissue numbness, pain levels, and analgesic (non-narcotic and narcotic) use. No significant differences (P irreversible pulpitis. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Efficiency of bupivacaine and association with dexmedetomidine in transversus abdominis plane block ultrasound guided in postoperative pain of abdominal surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksu, Recep; Patmano, Gülçin; Biçer, Cihangir; Emek, Ertan; Çoruh, Aliye Esmaoğlu

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of bupivacaine and dexmedetomidine added to bupivacaine used in tranversus abdominis plane (TAP) block on postoperative pain and patient satisfaction in patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery. Patients submitted to lower abdominal surgery were enrolled in the study. After anesthesia induction, ultrasound guided TAP block was performed. TAP block was obtained with 21mL 0.9% saline in Group C (n=31), 20mL 0.5% bupivacaine+1mL saline in Group B (n=31), and 20mL 0.5% bupivacaine+1mL dexmedetomidine (100μg) in Group BD (n=31). Visual analog scale scores were lower in Group BD compared to Group C, at all time points (p0.05). The addition of dexmedetomidine to bupivacaine on TAP block decreased postoperative pain scores and morphine consumption; it also increased patient satisfaction in patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery. Dexmedetomidine did not have any effect on nausea and vomiting score and antiemetic requirement. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficiency of bupivacaine and association with dexmedetomidine in transversus abdominis plane block ultrasound guided in postoperative pain of abdominal surgery

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    Recep Aksu

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objectives We aimed to evaluate the effect of bupivacaine and dexmedetomidine added to bupivacaine used in tranversus abdominis plane (TAP block on postoperative pain and patient satisfaction in patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery. Methods Patients submitted to lower abdominal surgery were enrolled in the study. After anesthesia induction, ultrasound guided TAP block was performed. TAP block was obtained with 21 mL 0.9% saline in Group C (n = 31, 20 mL 0.5% bupivacaine + 1 mL saline in Group B (n = 31, and 20 mL 0.5% bupivacaine + 1 mL dexmedetomidine (100 µg in Group BD (n = 31. Results Visual analog scale scores were lower in Group BD compared to Group C, at all time points (p 0.05. Conclusions The addition of dexmedetomidine to bupivacaine on TAP block decreased postoperative pain scores and morphine consumption; it also increased patient satisfaction in patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery. Dexmedetomidine did not have any effect on nausea and vomiting score and antiemetic requirement.

  11. Liposomal bupivacaine decreases pain following retropubic sling placement: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazloomdoost, Donna; Pauls, Rachel N; Hennen, Erin N; Yeung, Jennifer Y; Smith, Benjamin C; Kleeman, Steven D; Crisp, Catrina C

    2017-07-08

    Midurethral slings are commonly used to treat stress urinary incontinence. Pain control, however, may be a concern. Liposomal bupivacaine is a local anesthetic with slow release over 72 hours, demonstrated to lower pain scores and decrease narcotic use postoperatively. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of liposomal bupivacaine on pain scores and narcotic consumption following retropubic midurethral sling placement. This randomized, placebo-controlled trial enrolled women undergoing retropubic midurethral sling procedures with or without concomitant anterior or urethrocele repair. Subjects were allocated to receive liposomal bupivacaine (intervention) or normal saline placebo injected into the trocar paths and vaginal incision at the conclusion of the procedure. At the time of drug administration, surgeons became unblinded, but did not collect outcome data. Participants remained blinded to treatment. Surgical procedures and perioperative care were standardized. The primary outcome was the visual analog scale pain score 4 hours after discharge home. Secondary outcomes included narcotic consumption, time to first bowel movement, and pain scores collected in the mornings and evenings until postoperative day 6. The morning pain item assessed "current level of pain"; the evening items queried "current level of pain," "most intense pain today," "average pain today with activity," and "average pain today with rest." Likert scales were used to measure satisfaction with pain control at 1- and 2-week postoperative intervals. Sample size calculation deemed 52 subjects per arm necessary to detect a mean difference of 10 mm on a 100-mm visual analog scale. To account for 10% drop out, 114 participants were needed. One hundred fourteen women were enrolled. After 5 exclusions, 109 cases were analyzed: 54 women received intervention, and 55 women received placebo. Mean participant age was 52 years, and mean body mass index was 30.4 kg/m(2). Surgical and

  12. Comparative effect of lidocaine and bupivacaine on glucose uptake and lactate production in the perfused working rat heart

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    Cronau, L.H. Jr.; Merin, R.G.; Aboulish, E.; Steenberg, M.L.; Maljorda, A.

    1986-03-01

    It has been suggested that at equivalent therapeutic concentrations, lidocaine and bupivacaine may have different cardiotoxic potency. In the isolated working rat heart preparation, the effect of a range of lidocaine and bupivacaine concentrations on glucose uptake and lactate production (LP) were observed. Insulin was added, 10 ..mu../L, to Ringer's solution containing /sup 3/H-labeled glucose to measure the glycolytic flux (GF). The effect of the local anesthetics on LP at the indicated concentrations were similar. Lidocaine appears to depress the glycolytic flux from exogenous glucose to a lesser degree. Bupivacaine, 10 mg/L, depresses VO/sub 2/ to a greater degree than does lidocaine, 40 mg/L.

  13. Intraarticular glucocorticoid, morphine and bupivacaine reduces pain and convalescence after arthroscopic ankle surgery: a randomized study of 36 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, S; Kehlet, H

    2000-01-01

    In a double-blind randomized study, 36 patients undergoing arthroscopic removal of bony spurs and synovitis causing impingement of the ankle were allocated to intraarticular saline or bupivacaine 15 mg + morphine 5 mg + intraarticular methylprednisolone 40 mg. Combined methylprednisolone, bupivac......In a double-blind randomized study, 36 patients undergoing arthroscopic removal of bony spurs and synovitis causing impingement of the ankle were allocated to intraarticular saline or bupivacaine 15 mg + morphine 5 mg + intraarticular methylprednisolone 40 mg. Combined methylprednisolone......, bupivacaine and morphine reduced pain, joint swelling, time of immobilization, duration of sick leave and return to sports after the arthroscopic procedure. In the treatment group, 1 patient had transitory purulent arthritis requiring antibiotics and arthroscopic synovectomy occurred....

  14. Comparison between intrathecal morphine with paravertebral patient controlled analgesia using bupivacaine for intraoperative and post-thoracotomy pain relief

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    Haitham Abou Zeid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This study was designed to compare the intrathecal morphine and paravertebral block with bupivacaine given before induction of anesthesia for intra-operative and post-thoracotomy pain relief for 48 hours using patient controlled paravertebral analgesia in post-operative period. Methods : After taken an approval from the ethics committee of the University, 40 patients were randomly assigned to receive either preservative-free intrathecal morphine 0.3 mg in 3 ml normal saline together with paravertebral block (group I or paravertebral block alone using bupivacaine (group II before an induction of anesthesia. No continuous infusion of bupivacaine was started in both groups. Primary outcomes were Visual Analogue Score (VAS at rest and on coughing. Hemodynamic and respiratory effects, bupivacaine consumption, patient′s satisfaction, and side effects like nausea, vomiting, urinary retention, and itching were considered as secondary outcomes. All patients in both groups received paracetamol 1 gram (gm IV every 6 hourly for the 1 st 24 hr. Amount of rescue analgesic (pethidine 0.5 mg/kg IV in both groups and total bupivacaine cumulative doses in 48 hrs were calculated. Results : VAS at rest and on coughing did not differ significantly between the 2 groups at 0, 1, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 48 hours (P=>0.1. At 24 hours, VAS increased in both the groups, but the increase in VAS was comparable in both groups. There were insignificant incidences of nausea, purities, and urinary retention in intrathecal group compared with paravertebral group. The other side effects and patient satisfaction did not show any statistical significant difference between 2 groups. Conclusion : Intrathecal morphine 0.3 mg is safe and effective way to improves pain control for thoracic surgery and was comparable to paravertebral patient control analgesia (PPCA with bupivacaine for the 1 st 48 hours post-thoracotomy.

  15. The Efficacy of Postoperative Wound Infusion with Bupivacaine for Pain Control after Cesarean Delivery: Randomized Double Blind Clinical Trial

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    Azin Alavi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study investigated the efficacy of bupivacaine wound infusion for pain control and opioid sparing effect after cesarean delivery.Materials and methods: We conducted a randomized double blind, placebo controlled clinical trial on 60 parturients undergoing cesarean section at a university hospital in Tehran. Patients were randomized to receive a pump infusion system that was filled with either 0.25% bupivacaine or equal volume of distilled water. A catheter was placed above the fascia and connected to electronic pump for 24 hours. Postoperative analog pain scores and morphine consumption were assessed at 6, 12 and 24 hours. Also time interval to first ambulation, length of hospitalization, complications and patient satisfaction were recorded. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Mann-Whitney u-test, student t-test and chi-square were used. Results: There were no differences in patient demographics and length of hospitalization and patient-generated resting pain scores between the two groups. Pain scores after coughing and leg raise during the first 6 postoperative hours were significantly less in the Bupivacaine group (P<0.001. The total dose of morphine consumption during the 24 hours study period was 2.5 ± 2.5 mg vs. 7.3 ± 2.7 mg for the bupivacaine and control groups, respectively (P<0.001. Compared with the control group, time to first ambulation was shorter in the bupivacaine group (11± 5h vs. 16 ± 4h (P< 0.01. Conclusion: Bupivacaine wound infusion was a simple and safe technique that provides effective analgesia and reduces morphine requirements after cesarean delivery.

  16. Effect of bupivacaine and adjuvant drugs for regional anesthesia on nerve tissue oximetry and nerve blood flow

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    Wiesmann T

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Wiesmann,1 Stefan Müller,1,2 Hans-Helge Müller,3 Hinnerk Wulf,1 Thorsten Steinfeldt1,4 1Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University Hospital Marburg, Philipps University, Marburg, 2Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Giessen, Justus-Liebig-University, Giessen, 3Institute of Medical Biometry and Epidemiology, Philipps University, Marburg, 4Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Diakoniekrankenhaus Schwäbisch Hall, Schwäbisch Hall, Germany Background: Nerve blood flow has a critical role in acute and chronic pathologies in peripheral nerves. Influences of local anesthetics and adjuvants on tissue perfusion and oxygenation are deemed as relevant factors for nerve damage after peripheral regional anesthesia. The link between low tissue perfusion due to local anesthetics and resulting tissue oxygenation is unclear.Methods: Combined tissue spectrophotometry and laser-Doppler flowmetry were used to assess nerve blood flow in 40 surgically exposed median nerves in pigs, as well as nerve tissue oximetry for 60 min. After baseline measurements, test solutions saline (S, bupivacaine (Bupi, bupivacaine with epinephrine (BupiEpi, and bupivacaine with clonidine (BupiCloni were applied topically.Results: Bupivacaine resulted in significant decrease in nerve blood flow, as well as tissue oximetry values, compared with saline control. Addition of epinephrine resulted in a rapid, but nonsignificant, reduction of nerve blood flow and extensive lowering of tissue oximetry levels. The use of clonidine resulted in a reduction of nerve blood flow, comparable to bupivacaine alone (relative blood flow at T60 min compared with baseline, S: 0.86 (0.67–1.18, median (25th–75th percentile; Bupi: 0.33 (0.25–0.60; BupiCloni: 0.43 (0.38–0.63; and BupiEpi: 0.41(0.30–0.54. The use of adjuvants did not result in any relevant impairment of tissue oximetry

  17. Compartment syndrome in a patient treated with perineural liposomal bupivacaine (Exparel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soberón, José Raul; Sisco-Wise, Leslie E; Dunbar, Ross M

    2016-06-01

    Acute compartment syndrome is a condition that may result in sensorimotor deficits and loss of function of the affected limb as a result of ischemic injury. It is considered a surgical emergency and prompt diagnosis and treatment results in more favorable outcomes. The use of regional anesthesia is controversial in patients at risk for compartment syndrome due to concern of its potential to mask symptoms of the condition. A 44-year-old African American male presented to surgery for open reduction and internal fixation of a comminuted distal radius fracture. As part of an off-label, investigator-initiated, and institutional review board-approved study, he received a perineural injection of liposomal bupivacaine (Exparel) around the median, ulnar, and radial nerves at the level of the proximal forearm. The following morning, his initial complaints of numbness and incisional pain progressively evolved into worsening numbness, diffuse discomfort, and pain with passive movement. A diagnosis of compartment syndrome was made and he underwent an emergency fasciotomy. The diagnosis of compartment syndrome requires a high index of suspicion and prompt treatment. This patient's changing pattern of symptoms-rather than his pain complaints alone-resulted in the diagnosis of compartment syndrome treated with emergent fasciotomy in spite of finger numbness that was initially attributed to the liposomal bupivacaine. While the use of liposomal bupivacaine did not preclude the diagnosis of compartment syndrome in our patient, it should be used with caution in patients at risk for compartment syndrome until additional data, particularly regarding block characteristics, are available. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A case of trigeminal hypersensitivity after administration of intrathecal sufentanil and bupivacaine for labor analgesia

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    Adriano Bechara de Souza Hobaika

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rostral spread of intrathecal drugs and sensitization of supraspinal sites may provoke several adverse effects. This case describes a patient with right hemifacial paresthesia, trismus and dysphasia on the trigeminal nerve distribution after intrathecal sufentanil administration. Primigravida, 34 years, 39 weeks of pregnancy, with hypothyroidism and pregnancy induced hypertension. Allergic to latex. In the use of puran T4, 50 μg /day. When the patient presented cervical dilatation of 4 cm, she requested analgesia. She was placed in the sitting position and a spinal puncture was performed with a 27G needle pencil point in L4/L5 (1.5 mg of bupivacaine plus 7.5 μg of sufentanil. Next, was performed an epidural puncture in the same space. It was injected bupivacaine 0.065%, 10 ml, to facilitate the passage of the catheter. After 5 min lying down in the lateral upright position, she complained of perioral and right hemifacial paresthesia, mainly maxillary and periorbital, as well as trismus and difficulty to speak. The symptoms lasted for 30 min and resolved spontaneously. After 1 h, patient requested supplementary analgesia (12 ml of bupivacaine 0.125% and a healthy baby girl was born. Temporary mental alterations have been described with the use of fentanyl and sufentanil in combined epidural-spinal analgesia, such as aphasia, difficulty of swallowing, mental confusion and even unconsciousness. In this patient, facial areas with paresthesia indicated by patient appear in clear association with the ophthalmic and maxillary branches of the trigeminal nerve and the occurrence of trismus and dysphagia are in association with the mandibular motor branch. The exact mechanism of rostral spread is not known, but it is speculated that after spinal drug administration, a subsequent epidural dose may reduce the intratecal space and propel the drug into the supraspinal sites.

  19. Comparison of co-administration of clonidine and pethidine with bupivacaine during spinal anesthesia

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    Farnad Imani

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate using the combination of pethidine and clonidine in order to produce synergistic effect for blocking of pain pathways in spinal cord and decrease the adverse effects of each drug and comparison it with bupivacaine.Materials and Method: This is a randomized double blind controlled clinical trial which was approved by the ethics committee of Iran University of Medical Sciences. Fifty patients (25 patients in each groups in ASA class 1 or 2 which were selected for surgery on lower limbs, entered into the study. The patients were randomly allocated in two groups and received following regimens: CP (spinal anesthesia with combination of clonidine 0.75 µgr/kg and pethidine 0.75 mg/kg and B (spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine 0.5%, 15 mg.Results: The onset time of sensory block on T10 in group CP (5.9±1.6 min was significantly less than group B (9.2±2.3 min [p<0.001]. The time to complete motor block in group CP (38.8±5.7 min was significantly longer than group B (19.6±4.7 min [p<0.001]. The time to the first analgesic request was significantly longer in the group CP (11.6±2 h than the group B (6±0.8 h [p<0.001]. Mean drop in the systolic blood pressure in group CP (22.6%±2.4% was significantly more than group B (11%±4.3% (p<0.001.Conclusion: It is recommended to use bupivacaine for anesthesia in operations on pelvis and lower limbs but it is better to co-administer clonidine and pethidine in patients who must be avoided from raising blood pressure and heart rate and with less than two hours operation time

  20. Evaluation of the effect of added fentanyl to hyperbaric bupivacaine for spinal anesthesia

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    Mina Jafari-Javid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Potentiating the effect of the intrathecal local anesthetics by intrathecal injection of opiods for intra-abdominal surgeries is known. The objective of this study is to investigate the pain-relieving effects of intrathecal fentanyl to bupivacaine in elective caesarean surgery.Materials and Method: In a double blind clinical trial 60 patients candidate for elective cesarean section. They were studied in two groups. Cases in the control group received 12.5 mg of bupivacaine and in the study group received 8 mg of bupivacaine and 20 µg fentanyl. The parameters taken into consideration were hemodynamic stability, visceral pain, nausea and vomiting, intraoperative shivering, the amount of intraoperative administered dose of fentanyl and ephedrine and postoperative pain. Results: The average blood pressure changes after 5, 10, 20, 60 minutes were lower in the study group. Shivering and ephedrine dose during operation were lower in study group and statistically significant respectively (p=0.01, p=0.001, respectively. Duration of analgesia after operation increased from (115.5±7.5 min in control group to (138.5±9.9 min in study group, but the quality of analgesia during peritoneal manipulation did not change. Pulse rate and vomiting during operation were not statistically different between two groups.Conclusion: Reduction of local anesthetic dose with adding fentanyl may cause hemodynamic stability, increasing the postoperative pain-free time, decrease shivering and vasopressor consumption in spinal anesthesia and reduction of the amount of blood pressure drop during elective cesarean surgery

  1. The stability and microbial contamination of bupivacaine, lidocaine and mepivacaine used for lameness diagnostics in horses.

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    Adler, D M T; Cornett, C; Damborg, P; Verwilghen, D R

    2016-12-01

    Local anaesthetics (LAs) are frequently used for diagnostic procedures in equine veterinary practice. The objective of this study was to investigate the physico-chemical stability and bacterial contamination of bupivacaine, lidocaine and mepivacaine used for lameness examinations in horses. The LAs were stored in 12 different groups at different temperatures (-18 °C to 70 °C), light intensities and in common veterinary field conditions for up to 16 months. The pH, presence of bacterial contamination and concentrations of LAs and methylparaben (a preservative present in lidocaine) were determined serially in both new and repeatedly punctured (RP) vials. Mepivacaine remained chemically stable. A 1.9% increase in bupivacaine concentration was evident in one group, whereas a 1.9-3.7% decrease was noted in six groups. Risk factors associated with a change in concentration were light and RP vials. Lidocaine concentration decreased 6.3% in one group and increased 5.3-7.2% in two groups. Risk factors for degradation were heat and RP vials whereas storage in practice vehicles was a risk factor for increased concentrations. Methylparaben decreased 8.3-75.0% in seven groups, and RP vials, heat and storage in practice vehicles were risk factors for degradation. No contamination was present in any of the LAs and pH remained stable. Commercially available solutions of lidocaine, mepivacaine and bupivacaine stored under common veterinary field conditions are extremely stable and sterile for extended periods. The minor changes in concentration documented in this study are unlikely to affect anaesthetic efficacy during equine lameness examinations. When using products containing methylparaben, degradation of the preservative over time is to be expected. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF INTRATHECAL DEXMEDETOMIDINE AND FENTANYL AS ADJUVANTS TO BUPIVACAINE

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    Gollapalli Hanumanth

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Uncontrolled postoperative pain may produce a range of detrimental acute and chronic effects. Spinal anaesthesia provided by bupivacaine may be too short for providing postoperative analgesia. This study is conducted to evaluate the efficacy of intrathecal fentanyl and intrathecal dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant to hyperbaric bupivacaine with regards to the onset and duration of sensory and motor blockade, as well as postoperative analgesia and adverse effects. Hundred patients aged 18-55 years were randomly divided into two groups, each group consisting of 50 patients of either sex belonging to ASA class I and II posted for elective lower abdominal surgeries were given spinal anaesthesia using bupivacaine 0.5%, heavy 2.5 ml with either fentanyl 25µg (group F or 5µg of preservative free dexmedetomidine (group D. Assessment of the sensory and motor blockade were done at the end of each minute till the maximum level achieved. Measurement of blood pressure, pulse rate, respiratory rate and arterial oxygen saturation were obtained. Postoperatively the patients were observed for the duration of analgesia, time taken for complete regression of sensory blockade to S1 and time taken for complete recovery of motor power. RESULTS Our results showed a statistically highly significant prolongation of sensory and motor blockade, and postoperative analgesia in the dexmedetomidine group compared to the fentanyl group. In dexmedetomidine group four out of fifty patients, and in fentanyl group two out of fifty patients developed hypotension. In dexmedetomidine group five out of fifty patients, and in fentanyl group two out of fifty patients developed bradycardia. Incidence of pruritis is significantly high in fentanyl group.

  3. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF INTRATHECAL DEXMEDETOMIDINE AND FENTANYL AS ADJUVANTS TO BUPIVACAINE FOR LOWER ABDOMINAL SURGERIES

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    Hari Kishore

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Various adjuvants have been used with local anesthetics in spinal anesthesia to improve the quality of block and to provide prolonged postoperative analgesia. Dexmedetomidine, the new highly selective α2 - agonist drug, is now being used as a neuraxial adju vant. AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the onset and duration of sensory and motor block, hemodynamic effect, postoperative analgesia, and adverse effects of dexmedetomidine or fentanyl given intrathecally with hyperbaric 0.5% bupivacaine. METHOD OLOGY: Fifty patients classified in American Society of Anesthesiologists classes I and II scheduled for lower abdominal surgeries were included in this prospective cohort study at Amala Institute of Medical Sciences. Patients received either 15 mg hyperba ric bupivacaine plus 25 μg fentanyl (group 1, n = 25 or 15 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine plus 5 μg dexmedetomidine (group 2, n = 25 intrathecally . RESULTS : Patients in dexmedetomidine group (2 had a significantly longer duration of motor and sensory block t han patients in fentanyl group . (1 The mean time regression of motor block to reach Bromage 0 was 17 6 . 2± 5.71 min in d exmeditomid ine group and 16 6 . 36 ± 5.97 min in fentanyl group (P<0.05. Duration of analgesia was 2 39.52 ± 9.05 min in D exmed i tomidine gro up and 189.96 ± 5.35 min in fentanyl group ( p< 0.05. A significant decrease in heart rate was noted in dexmedetomidine group. CONCLUSION : Intrathecal dexmedetomidine is associated with prolonged duration of analgesia and motor block along with significant dec rease in heart rate.

  4. The antimicrobial activity of bupivacaine, lidocaine and mepivacaine against equine pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, D. M. T.; Damborg, P.; Verwilghen, D. R.

    2017-01-01

    Lameness is the most commonly reported health problem in horses, and lameness investigations which include local anaesthetic injections are routinely performed by equine practitioners. Through this process, bacteria can enter the tissues perforated by the needle and may cause local infections...... the antimicrobial activity of the local anaesthetics bupivacaine, lidocaine and mepivacaine against 40 equine clinical bacterial isolates of the Actinobacillus, Corynebacterium, Enterobacter, Escherichia, Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus genera. Minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal...... also bactericidal. The tested local anaesthetics possessed antimicrobial activity against equine pathogens at concentrations that are routinely applied in clinical cases. However, this antimicrobial activity should not discourage antiseptic preparation prior to local anaesthetic injections....

  5. Caudal bupivacaine supplemented with caudal or intravenous clonidine in children undergoing hypospadias repair: a double-blind study

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    Hansen, T G; Henneberg, S W; Walther-Larsen, S

    2004-01-01

    Clonidine is used increasingly in paediatric anaesthetic practice to prolong the duration of action of caudal block with a local anaesthetic agent. Which route of administration of clonidine is the most beneficial remains unknown. We compared the effects of caudal and i.v. clonidine on postoperat...... on postoperative analgesia produced by caudal bupivacaine after hypospadias repair....

  6. Correlation of bupivacaine 0.5% dose and conversion from spinal anesthesia to general anesthesia in cesarean sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seljogi, D; Wolff, A P; Scheffer, G J; van Geffen, G J; Bruhn, J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Failed spinal anesthesia for cesarean sections may require conversion to general anesthesia. The aim of this study was to determine whether the administered spinal bupivacaine dose for performing a cesarean section under spinal anesthesia was related to the conversion rate to general

  7. Comparative effects of vitamin C on the effects of local anesthetics ropivacaine, bupivacaine, and lidocaine on human chondrocytes

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    Jun Tian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intra-articular injections of local anesthetics are commonly used to enhance post-operative analgesia following orthopedic surgery as arthroscopic surgeries. Nevertheless, recent reports of severe complications due to the use of intra-articular local anesthetic have raised concerns. OBJECTIVES: The study aims to assess use of vitamin C in reducing adverse effects of the most commonly employed anesthetics - ropivacaine, bupivacaine and lidocaine - on human chondrocytes. METHODS: The chondrocyte viability following exposure to 0.5% bupivacaine or 0.75% ropivacaine or 1.0% lidocaine and/or vitamin C at doses 125, 250 and 500 µM was determined by LIVE/DEAD assay and annexin V staining. Expression levels of caspases 3 and 9 were assessed using antibodies by Western blotting. Flow cytometry was performed to analyze the generation of reactive oxygen species. RESULTS: On exposure to the local anesthetics, chondrotoxicity was found in the order ropivacaine < bupivacaine < lidocaine. Vitamin C effectively improved the reduced chondrocyte viability and decreased the raised apoptosis levels following exposure to anesthesia. At higher doses, vitamin C was found efficient in reducing the generation of reactive oxygen species and as well down-regulate the expressions of caspases 3 and 9. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin C was observed to effectively protect chondrocytes against the toxic insult of local anesthetics ropivacaine, bupivacaine and lidocaine.

  8. Comparison of the anesthetic efficacy between bupivacaine and lidocaine in patients with irreversible pulpitis of mandibular molar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Roberta Moura; Carnaval, Talita Girio; Lanfredi, Camila Bernardeli; Horliana, Anna Carolina Ratto Tempestini; Rocha, Rodney Garcia; Tortamano, Isabel Peixoto

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the anesthetic efficacy of 0.5% bupivacaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine with that of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine during pulpectomy in patients with irreversible pulpitis in mandibular posterior teeth. Seventy volunteers, patients with irreversible pulpitis admitted to the Emergency Center of the School of Dentistry at the University of São Paulo, randomly received a conventional inferior alveolar nerve block containing 3.6 mL of either 0.5% bupivacaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine or 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. During the subsequent pulpectomy, we recorded the patients' subjective assessments of lip anesthesia, the absence/presence of pulpal anesthesia through electric pulp stimulation, and the absence/presence of pain through a verbal analog scale. All patients reported lip anesthesia after the application of either inferior alveolar nerve block. By measuring pulpal anesthesia success with the pulp tester, lidocaine had a higher success rate (42.9%) than bupivacaine (20%). For patients reporting none or mild pain during pulpectomy, the success rate of bupivacaine was 80% and lidocaine was 62.9%. There were only statistically significant differences to the success of pulpal anesthesia. Neither of the solutions resulted in an effective pain control during irreversible pulpitis treatments of mandibular molars. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of intrathecal magnesium and fentanyl as adjuvants to hyperbaric bupivacaine in preeclamptic parturients undergoing elective cesarean sections

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    Bharat Arora

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The addition of magnesium sulfate 50 mg to bupivacaine for sub-arachnoid block in patients with mild preeclampsia undergoing elective cesarean section prolongs the duration of analgesia and reduces postoperative analgesic requirements without additional side effects and adverse neonatal outcomes

  10. Comparison of Spinal Block Levels between Laboring and Nonlaboring Parturients Using Combined Spinal Epidural Technique with Intrathecal Plain Bupivacaine

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    Yu-Ying Tang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It was suggested that labor may influence the spread of intrathecal bupivacaine using combined spinal epidural (CSE technique. However, no previous studies investigated this proposition. We designed this study to investigate the spinal block characteristics of plain bupivacaine between nonlaboring and laboring parturients using CSE technique. Methods. Twenty-five nonlaboring (Group NL and twenty-five laboring parturients (Group L undergoing cesarean delivery were enrolled. Following identification of the epidural space at the L3-4 interspace, plain bupivacaine 10 mg was administered intrathecally using CSE technique. The level of sensory block, degree of motor block, and hemodynamic changes were assessed. Results. The baseline systolic blood pressure (SBP and the maximal decrease of SBP in Group L were significantly higher than those in Group NL (=0.002 and =0.03, resp.. The median sensory level tested by cold stimulation was T6 for Group NL and T5 for Group L (=0.46. The median sensory level tested by pinprick was T7 for both groups (=0.35. The degree of motor block was comparable between the two groups (=0.85. Conclusion. We did not detect significant differences in the sensory block levels between laboring and nonlaboring parturients using CSE technique with intrathecal plain bupivacaine.

  11. Influence of timing on the effect of continuous extradural analgesia with bupivacaine and morphine after major abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, J B; Hansen, B L; Hjortsø, N C

    1992-01-01

    We have studied the effect of continuous extradural analgesia with bupivacaine and morphine, initiated before or after colonic surgery, in a double-blind, randomized study. Thirty-two patients were allocated randomly to receive an identical extradural block initiated 40 min before surgical incision...

  12. A COMPARISON OF EPIDURAL LEVOBUPIVACAINE 0.5% WITH RACEMIC BUPIVACAINE 0.5% FOR LOWER ABDOMINAL SURGERY

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    Shilpashri; Anand

    2015-01-01

    Epidural anaesthesia is one of the regional techniques for lower abdominal , lower limb , pelvic and vascular surgeries where complications are very less compared to spinal anaesthesia. Several central nervous system and cardiovascular adverse reactions have been linked to the R ( +) isomer of bupivacaine , one of the most widely used ...

  13. COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN INTRATHECAL BUPIVACAINE 0.5% HEAVY + FENTANYL (0.5 MICROGRAMS/KG VERSUS INTRATHECAL BUPIVACAINE 0.5% HEAVY + BUPRENORPHINE (2 MICROGRAMS/KG IN LOWER ABDOMINAL AND LOWER LIMB SURGERIES

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    Naresh Bhukya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Various adjuvants have been added to bupivacaine to shorten the onset of block and prolong the duration of block. Present study was undertaken to compare the efficacy of intrathecal fentanyl or buprenorphine with bupivacaine for all infraumbilical surgeries. MATERIALS AND METHODS 100 ASA I and II patients of both sexes posted for various infraumbilical surgeries were chosen for the study and the patients were divided into two groups of 50 each. Group F received 3mL of 0.5% bupivacaine heavy with 0.5mcg/kg of fentanyl and groupB received 3mL of 0.5% bupivacaine heavy with 2mcg/kg of buprenorphine. The time of onset of sensory block was tested with pinprick method and motor block was assessed by onset of Bromage scale 3 and it was found that the onset of sensory block with buprenorphine was earlier compared to fentanyl. RESULTS Bradycardia observed in Group B in 7 patients (14%, which was successfully treated with vagolytic agents. In Group B, it was observed that there was hypotension in 14 patients (28%, and in Group F, 7 patients developed hypotension, which was successfully treated with vasopressors. Also, few patients developed pruritus, nausea and vomiting, which were negligible. Intraoperatively, sedation score was assessed using modified Ramsay. Sedation scale and there was higher incidence of sedation with buprenorphine group. Regression of motor block to Bromage0 was observed and the time to regression was significantly prolonged to 205±37.71 in the buprenorphine group, while it was 152.90±8.31 in the fentanyl group. Postoperatively, VAS scores were significantly low for the buprenorphine group when compared with fentanyl. CONCLUSION To summarise, buprenorphine has higher efficacy with intrathecal bupivacaine with prolonged duration of sensory and motor blockade with decreased incidence of side effects, better haemodynamic stability and intraoperative sedation and also analgesic sparing effect in the postoperative period

  14. Syndrome coronarien aigue suite à une injection accidentelle intraveineuse de Bupivacaine

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    Koita, Siriman Abdoulaye; Bouhabba, Najib; Salaheddine, Fjouji; Bensghir, Mustapha; Charki, Haimeur

    2015-01-01

    Les erreurs médicamenteuses constituent une complication très redoutable en anesthésie. La fréquence des erreurs médicamenteuses par administration serait de l'ordre 1/10 000 à 1/1000. Nous rapportons un cas d'injection accidentelle de bupivacaine en intraveineuse directe. Il s'agissait d'un jeune patient classé ASA I qui était prévu pour cure chirurgicale d'une hydrocèle unilatérale sous rachianesthésie. Une injection de 12,5 mg de bupivacaine et 25 µg de fentanyl étaient injectés après un reflux net du liquide céphalorachidien sans incident. Après installation de la rachianesthésie, le début de l'intervention était autorisé sans incidents. Une sédation de confort était décidée. Juste après apparaissait des troubles de rythme à type tachycardie ventriculaire avec une élévation de taux de troponines en post opératoire. L’évolution était marquée par une normalisation de la troponine au troisième jour post opératoire et sorti de l'hôpital au cinquième jour. PMID:26889325

  15. Efficacy of Analgesic Effects of Low Dose Intrathecal Clonidine as Adjuvant to Bupivacaine

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    B S Sethi

    2007-01-01

    The maximum dose of clonidine used was70 μg. The meantime from injection to regression of the level of sensory analgesia by two segments was longer in the Clonidine group than in Control group (P< 0.001. The duration of motor blockade was longer in Clonidine group than in Control group (P< 0.05. There was also a significant difference in the duration of analgesia between the two groups (P< 0.001. The rescue analgesia was required earlier in the Control group(mean 223 min compared to the Clonidine group(mean614 min. The number of injections of diclofenacin24 hours was higher for Control group (mean2.66 than Clonidine group (mean 1.16 (P < 0.05. The patients in the Clonidine group had a significant fall in mean arterial pressure and heart rate and were more sedated than those in Control group, however, no therapeutic interventions needed. We concluded that addition of clonidine to bupivacaine in the dose of 1μg.kg -1 significantly increases the duration of spinal analgesia as compared to bupivacaine alone with clinically insignificant influence on haemodynamic parameters and level of sedation.

  16. Minimum effective concentration of bupivacaine for axillary brachial plexus block guided by ultrasound

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    Alexandre Takeda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The use of ultrasound in regional anesthesia allows reducing the dose of local anesthetic used for peripheral nerve block. The present study was performed to determine the minimum effective concentration (MEC90 of bupivacaine for axillary brachial plexus block. METHODS: Patients undergoing hand surgery were recruited. To estimate the MEC90, a sequential up-down biased coin method of allocation was used. The bupivacaine dose was 5 mL for each nerve (radial, ulnar, median, and musculocutaneous. The initial concentration was 0.35%. This concentration was changed by 0.05% depending on the previous block; a blockade failure resulted in increased concentration for the next patient; in case of success, the next patient could receive or reduction (0.1 probability or the same concentration (0.9 probability. Surgical anesthesia was defined as driving force ≤2 according to the modified Bromage scale, lack of thermal sensitivity and response to pinprick. Postoperative analgesia was assessed in the recovery room with numeric pain scale and the amount of drugs used within 4 h after the blockade. RESULTS: MEC90 was 0.241% [R 2: 0.978, confidence interval: 0.20-0.34%]. No patient, with successful block, reported pain after 4 h. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that ultrasound guided axillary brachial plexus block can be performed with the use of low concentration of local anesthetics, increasing the safety of the procedure. Further studies should be conducted to assess blockade duration at low concentrations.

  17. Clinical parameters of the local anesthetic effects of bupivacaine applied with and without a vasoconstrictor in oral implantology

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    Duka Miloš

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Bupivacaine (Marcaine®, homologue of mepivacaine, chemically related to lidocaine, is used as a local anesthetic for local infiltration, peripheral nerve block, retrobulbar block, symphathetic block, and caudal and epidural anesthesia. The aim of this investigation was to determine and to compare clinical parameters of the local anesthetic effects of bupivacaine applied with and without a vasoconstrictor. Methods. This investigation included a total of 30 randomly selected patients, who ranged in age from 30−60 years, with partial or total anodontia in the molar region of the mandible. These patients with total or partial edentulous molar part of the mandible, scheduled for dental implantation placement, were asked to participate in the study. In the first phase of the investigation, the patients were subjected to local anesthesia with 3.5 cm3 of 0.5% bupivacaine with a vasoconstrictor (adrenalin, 1: 200 000 in the right side of the mandible. After administering local anesthesia, the placement of blade, cylindrical, transdental (B.C.T. implants was performed. In the second stage of the investigation, in 7−10 days period after the first oral surgery, the patients were subjected to local anesthesia with 3.5 cm3 of 0.5% bupivacaine, but without a vasoconstrictor, in the left side of the mandible. After administering local anesthesia, the placement of B.C.T. implants was performed. During the performance of both oral surgery procedures, the following clinical parameters of the local anesthetic effects were monitored: latent period, duration and the potency of anesthesia, and the evaluation of the postoperative pain level. Results. The latent period under local anesthesia with 3.5 cm3 of 0.5% bupivacaine and vasoconstrictor was statistically significantly shorter than without vasoconstrictor. The duration of local anesthesia was longer without vasoconstrictor. There was no difference in the potency of anesthesia with or without a

  18. Comparison of toxicity effects of ropivacaine, bupivacaine, and lidocaine on rabbit intervertebral disc cells in vitro.

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    Cai, Xian-Yi; Xiong, Li-Ming; Yang, Shu-Hua; Shao, Zeng-Wu; Xie, Mao; Gao, Fei; Ding, Fan

    2014-03-01

    It has been shown that bupivacaine, the most commonly used local anesthetic to relieve or control pain in interventional spine procedures, is cytotoxic to intervertebral disc (IVD) cells in vitro. However, some other common local anesthetics, such as ropivacaine and lidocaine, are also frequently used in the treatment of spine-related pain, and the potential effects of these agents remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of various local anesthetics on rabbit IVD cells in vitro and further compare the cytotoxicity of ropivacaine, bupivacaine, lidocaine, and saline solution control. Controlled laboratory study. Rabbit annulus fibrosus (AF) and nucleus pulposus (NP) cells were isolated from Japanese white rabbits. Both AF and NP cells at the second generation maintained in monolayer were exposed to various concentrations of local anesthetics (eg, bupivacaine) or different durations of exposure and evaluated for cell viability by use of cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8). In addition, to compare the cytotoxicity of ropivacaine, bupivacaine, lidocaine, and saline solution control in commercial concentration, the viability was analyzed by flow cytometry after 60-minute exposure, and the morphologic changes were observed by the phase-contrast microscopy. Apoptosis and necrosis of IVD cells were confirmed by using fluorescence microscopy with double staining of Hoechst 33342 and propidium iodide. Rabbit IVD cell death demonstrated a time and dose dependence in response to bupivacaine and lidocaine. However, ropivacaine only exerted a significant time-dependent effect on IVD cells. There was no significant difference in IVD viability after treatment with different doses of ropivacaine. In addition, the results showed that lidocaine was the most toxic of the three local anesthetics and that ropivacaine presented less cytotoxicity than lidocaine and bupivacaine. Fluorescence microscopy also confirmed that the short-term toxic effect of local

  19. Comparative study of intrathecal dexmedetomidine with intrathecal magnesium sulfate used as adjuvants to bupivacaine

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    Deepika Shukla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : No drug, used as adjuvant to spinal bupivacaine, has yet been identified that specifically inhibits nociception without its associated side-effects. Aims : This prospective randomized double-blind study was conducted to evaluate the onset and duration of sensory and motor block as well as perioperative analgesia and adverse effects of dexmedetomidine and magnesium sulfate given intrathecally with 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine for spinal anesthesia. Materials and Methods : A total of 90 patients classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists status I and II scheduled for lower abdominal and lower limb procedures were prospectively studied. Patients were randomly allocated to receive intrathecally either 15 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine plus 0.1 ml (10 μg dexmedetomidine (group D, n=30 or 15 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine plus 0.1 ml (50 mg magnesium sulfate (group M, n=30 or 15 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine plus 0.1 ml saline (group C, n=30 as control. The onset time to reach peak sensory and motor level, the regression time for sensory and motor block, hemodynamic changes and side-effects were recorded. Statistical Analysis Used : All statistical analyses were performed using INSTAT for windows. Continuous variables were tested for normal distribution by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Data was expressed as either mean and standard deviation or numbers and percentages. Continuous covariates (age, body mass index and height were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA. For the times to reach T10 dermatomes, Bromage 3 scale and the regression of the sensory block to S1 dermatome and Bromage scale 0, one-way ANOVA was used to compare the means. The level of significance used was P<0.05. Results : The onset times to reach T10 dermatome and to reach peak sensory level as well as onset time to reach modified Bromage 3 motor block were significantly different in the three groups. The onset time to reach peak sensory and motor level was shorter in

  20. Efficacy and safety of 0.5% levobupivacaine versus 0.5% bupivacaine for peribulbar anesthesia

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    Pacella E

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Elena Pacella,1 Fernanda Pacella,1 Fabiana Troisi,2 Domenico Dell'Edera,3 Paolo Tuchetti,4 Tommaso Lenzi,1 Saul Collini21Department of Sense Organs, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Rome, 2Department of Medical Surgical Sciences and Translational Medicine Sapienza, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, Roma, University of Rome, Rome, 3Unit of Cytogenetic and Molecular Genetics, Madonna delle Grazie Hospital, Matera, 4National Institute for Health, Migration and Poverty, Rome, ItalyBackground: This randomized double-blind study examined the use of a new anesthetic agent, levobupivacaine 0.5%, which is the S(−-enantiomer of a racemic mixture of bupivacaine, for peribulbar anesthesia and compared it with racemic bupivacaine 0.5% alone or in combination with hyaluronidase 10 IU/mL.Methods: A total of 160 patients undergoing ophthalmic surgery were randomized into four groups (n = 40 each to receive inferotemporal peribulbar injection of levobupivacaine 0.5% (group L, racemic bupivacaine 0.5% (group B, levobupivacaine + hyaluronidase 10 IU/mL (group LH, or racemic bupivacaine + hyaluronidase 10 IU/mL (group BH by two anesthetists and two ophthalmologists in a ratio of 25% each. Ocular akinesia and orbicularis oculi function were evaluated using a three-point scale; a value < 5 points was considered as requiring surgery, and movements were re-evaluated the day following surgery to confirm regression of the block.Results: The time to onset (12 ± 2.6 minutes versus 13 ± 2.8 minutes and duration of anesthesia (185 ± 33.2 minutes versus 188 ± 35.7 minutes were similar between groups L and B. Complete akinesia (score 0 was obtained more frequently when hyaluronidase was used in addition to the anesthetic, with occurrences of 72.5% versus 57.5% in group LH versus L, respectively, and 67.5% versus 45% in group BH versus B. Moderate hypotension (<30% of baseline was observed in four patients (10% in group L, two (5.0% in group B, one (2.5% in group LH

  1. In vitro characterization and in vivo analgesic and anti-allodynic activity of PLGA-bupivacaine nanoparticles

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    Garcia, Xavier, E-mail: xavier.garcia@ipsen.com; Escribano, Elvira; Domenech, Josep; Queralt, Josep; Freixes, Joan [University of Barcelona, Department of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Technology, Biopharmaceuticals and Pharmacokinetics Unit, School of Pharmacy (Spain)

    2011-05-15

    An injectable controlled release system containing local anesthetics able to provide long-lasting analgesia in nociceptive and neuropathic pain could have a marked impact in pain management. In order to address this issue, bupivacaine, a widely used local anesthetic, has been nanoencapsulated using poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) from an oil-in-water emulsion by the solvent evaporation technique. Nanoparticles were evaluated in vitro studying their drug release mechanism by fitting different model equations, and in vivo by testing its analgesic and anti-allodynic activity in front of heat-induced nociceptive pain and sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury in rats, respectively. The particle size of the PLGA nanoparticles obtained was of 453 {+-} 29 nm, the encapsulation efficiency, drug loading, and burst effect at 30 min were 82.10 {+-} 0.001, 45.06 {+-} 0.001, and 4.6 {+-} 0.6%, respectively. A prolonged release of the drug in comparison to bupivacaine solution was seen. The mean dissolution time (MDT) obtained for nanoparticles was relatively long (9.44 {+-} 0.56 h) proving the sustained release process, while the dissolution efficiency (DE) (84.10 {+-} 1.01%) was similar to the maximum percentage of drug released. Korsmeyer-Peppas was the best model that fitted our release data. A non-Fickian mechanism was concluded to be involved in the release of bupivacaine from the nanoparticles, taking into account the value of the diffusional exponent obtained (n = 0.95). After local infiltration in the rat, the antinociceptive and anti-allodynic activity of the nanoencapsulated bupivacaine was longer lasting than that of bupivacaine solution. An increase in the values of the area under the curve (AUC) of the antinociceptive and anti-allodynic effect versus time of 67 and 36%, respectively, was observed when the drug was encapsulated.

  2. In vitro characterization and in vivo analgesic and anti-allodynic activity of PLGA-bupivacaine nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Xavier; Escribano, Elvira; Domenech, Josep; Queralt, Josep; Freixes, Joan

    2011-05-01

    An injectable controlled release system containing local anesthetics able to provide long-lasting analgesia in nociceptive and neuropathic pain could have a marked impact in pain management. In order to address this issue, bupivacaine, a widely used local anesthetic, has been nanoencapsulated using poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) from an oil-in-water emulsion by the solvent evaporation technique. Nanoparticles were evaluated in vitro studying their drug release mechanism by fitting different model equations, and in vivo by testing its analgesic and anti-allodynic activity in front of heat-induced nociceptive pain and sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury in rats, respectively. The particle size of the PLGA nanoparticles obtained was of 453 ± 29 nm, the encapsulation efficiency, drug loading, and burst effect at 30 min were 82.10 ± 0.001, 45.06 ± 0.001, and 4.6 ± 0.6%, respectively. A prolonged release of the drug in comparison to bupivacaine solution was seen. The mean dissolution time (MDT) obtained for nanoparticles was relatively long (9.44 ± 0.56 h) proving the sustained release process, while the dissolution efficiency (DE) (84.10 ± 1.01%) was similar to the maximum percentage of drug released. Korsmeyer-Peppas was the best model that fitted our release data. A non-Fickian mechanism was concluded to be involved in the release of bupivacaine from the nanoparticles, taking into account the value of the diffusional exponent obtained ( n = 0.95). After local infiltration in the rat, the antinociceptive and anti-allodynic activity of the nanoencapsulated bupivacaine was longer lasting than that of bupivacaine solution. An increase in the values of the area under the curve (AUC) of the antinociceptive and anti-allodynic effect versus time of 67 and 36%, respectively, was observed when the drug was encapsulated.

  3. Dissociation of the vacuolar and macroautophagic cytopathology from the cytotoxicity induced by the lipophilic local anesthetic bupivacaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morissette, Guillaume; Bawolak, Marie-Thérèse; Marceau, François

    2011-07-01

    Local anesthetics, like many other cationic drugs, induce a vacuolar and macroautophagic cytopathology that has been observed in vivo and in various cell types; some also induce cytotoxicity of mitochondrial origin (apoptosis and necrosis) and it is not known whether the 2 types of toxicity overlap or interact. We compared bupivacaine with a more hydrophilic agent, lidocaine, for morphological, functional, and toxicological responses in a previously exploited nonneuronal system, primary smooth muscle cells. Bupivacaine induced little vacuolization (≥2.5 mmol/L, 4 h), but elicited autophagic accumulation (≥0.5 mmol/L, 4 h) and was massively cytotoxic at 2.5-5 mmol/L (4-24 h), the latter effect being unabated by the V-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1. Lidocaine exerted little cytotoxicity at and below 5 mmol/L for 24 h, but intensely induced the V-ATPase-dependent vacuolar and autophagic cytopathology. Bupivacaine was more potent than lidocaine in disrupting mitochondrial potential, as judged by Mitotracker staining (significant proportions of cells affected in the 1-5 and 5-10 mmol/L concentration ranges, respectively). The addition of mitochondrial-inactivating toxins antimycin A and oligomycin to lidocaine (2.5 mmol/L) reproduced the profile of bupivacaine action (low intensity of vacuolization and retained autophagic accumulation). The high potency of bupivacaine as a mitochondrial toxicant eclipses the benign vacuolar and autophagic response seen with more hydrophilic local anesthetics.

  4. Intrathecal Bupivacaine Monotherapy with a Retrograde Catheter for the Management of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome of the Lower Extremity.

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    McRoberts, W Porter; Apostol, Catalina; Haleem, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) presents a therapeutic challenge due to its many presentations and multifaceted pathophysiology. There is no approved treatment algorithm and clinical interventions are often applied empirically. In cases of CRPS where symptoms are localized to an extremity, a targeted treatment is indicated. We describe the use of intrathecal bupivacaine monotherapy, delivered through a retrograde catheter, in the treatment of CRPS affecting the lower extremity. The patient, a 57-year-old woman with a history of failed foot surgery, was seen in our office after 2 years of ineffective treatments with local blocks and neurolytic procedures. We advanced therapy to moderately invasive procedures with an emphasis on neuromodulation. A combined central and peripheral stimulation technique that initially provided 75% pain relief, failed to provide lasting analgesia. We proceeded with an intrathecal pump implant. Based on the results of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) mapping, L5-S1 was identified as the optimal target for therapy and a retrograde catheter was placed at this level. Various intrathecal medications were tested individually. An intrathecal morphine trial was ineffective (visual analog scale [VAS] 7), while intrathecal clonidine provided excellent pain relief (VAS 0) that was limited by severe side effects. Bupivacaine provided 100% analgesia with tolerable side effects (lower extremity weakness and minor bladder incontinence) and was selected for intrathecal infusion. After 14 months, bupivacaine treatment continued to control pain exacerbations. We conclude that CRPS patients benefit from early identification of the predominant underlying symptoms and a targeted treatment with moderately invasive techniques when less invasive techniques fail. Intrathecal bupivacaine, bupivacaine monotherapy, retrograde catheter, complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), dual stimulation, dosal root ganglion (DRG) testing.

  5. Clonidine as an adjuvant to hyperbaric bupivacaine for spinal anesthesia in elderly patients undergoing lower limb orthopedic surgeries

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    Deepti Agarwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In elderly patients, use of adjuvant with small doses of local anesthetics is a preferred technique for spinal anesthesia for lower limb surgeries. This study tested the hypothesis that addition of small doses of clonidine augments the spinal block levels produced by hyperbaric bupivacaine in elderly without affecting the side-effects if any of clonidine in these patients. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind study. Above 60 years male patients were allocated to three equal groups. Group C received 9 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine without clonidine while Group C 15 and Group C 30 received 15 μg and 30 μg clonidine with hyperbaric bupivacaine respectively for spinal anesthesia. Effect of clonidine on sensory block levels was the primary study outcome measure. Motor blockade and hemodynamic parameters were also studied. Results: A significantly higher median block levels were achieved in Group C 15 (P < 0.001 and Group C 30 (P = 0.015 than Group C. Highest median sensory block level, the mean times for sensory regression to T 12 level and motor block regression were statistically significant between Groups C 15 and C and between Groups C 30 and C. On comparison of fall in systolic blood pressure trends, there was no significant difference in the clonidine groups as compared with the control group. Conclusions: In elderly patients, clonidine when used intrathecally in doses of 15 μg or 30 μg with bupivacaine, significantly potentiated the sensory block levels and duration of analgesia without affecting the trend of systolic blood pressure as compared to bupivacaine alone. Clonidine in doses of 30 μg however facilitated the ascent of sensory level block to unexpectedly higher dermatomes for a longer time.

  6. Clinical Concentrations of Local Anesthetics Bupivacaine and Lidocaine Differentially Inhibit Human Kir2.x Inward Rectifier K+ Channels.

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    Nakahira, Kei; Oshita, Kensuke; Itoh, Masayuki; Takano, Makoto; Sakaguchi, Yoshiro; Ishihara, Keiko

    2016-04-01

    Inward rectifier K channels of the Kir2.x subfamily are widely expressed in neuronal tissues, controlling neuronal excitability. Previous studies reported that local anesthetics (LAs) do not affect Kir2 channels. However, the effects have not been studied at large concentrations used in regional anesthesia. This study used the patch-clamp technique to examine the effects of bupivacaine and lidocaine on Kir2.1, Kir2.2, and Kir2.3 channels expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. When applied extracellularly in whole-cell recordings, both LAs inhibited Kir2.x currents in a voltage-independent manner. Inhibition with bupivacaine was slow and irreversible, whereas that with lidocaine was fast and reversible. Kir2.3 displayed a greater sensitivity to bupivacaine than Kir2.1 and Kir2.2 (50% inhibitory concentrations at approximately 5 minutes, 0.6 vs 8-10 mM), whereas their sensitivities to lidocaine were similar (50% inhibitory concentrations, 1.5-2.7 mM). Increases in the charged/neutral ratio of the LAs at an acidic extracellular pH attenuated their inhibitory effects, and a permanently charged lidocaine derivative QX-314 exhibited no effects when applied extracellularly. Inside-out experiments demonstrated that inhibition of Kir2.1 with cytoplasmic lidocaine and QX-314 was rapid and reversible, whereas that induced by bupivacaine was slow and irreversible. Furthermore, dose-inhibition relations for the charged form of bupivacaine and lidocaine obtained at different cytoplasmic pHs could be approximated by a single relation for each LA. The results indicate that both LAs at clinical concentrations equilibrated rapidly with the intracellular milieu, differentially inhibiting Kir2.x channel function from the cytoplasmic side.

  7. Efficacy and safety of bupivacaine versus lidocaine in dental treatments: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Naichuan; Wang, Hang; Zhang, Shu; Liao, Shuang; Yang, Shuying; Huang, Yi

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of bupivacaine compared with lidocaine in local anaesthesia in dental treatment. Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, Chinese BioMedical Literature Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and the World Health Organisation (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched electronically. Relevant journals and references of studies included were hand-searched for randomised controlled trials comparing bupivacaine with lidocaine in terms of efficacy and safety. Sixteen studies were included, of which nine had low, six had moderate and one had high risk of bias. In comparison with 2% lidocaine plus 1:100,000 adrenaline, 0.5% bupivacaine plus 1:200,000 adrenaline showed a higher success rate in inflamed pulp (P = 0.03) but a lower success rate in vital pulp (P analgesics (P < 0.00001), a longer onset times of pulpal anaesthesia and a longer duration of pulpal anaesthesia (P < 0.00001). In comparison with 2% lidocaine plus 1:80,000 adrenaline, 0.75% bupivacaine plus 1:200,000 adrenaline had same level of success rate (P = 0.29), and was better in postoperative pain control (P = 0.001) while 0.75% levobupivacaine had same level of postoperative pain control (P = 0.16); 0.5% levobupivacaine had higher success rate (P = 0.04) and was better in postoperative pain control (P = 0.001) than 2% lidocaine. There was no statistically significance in adverse events between two groups. Given the efficacy and safety, the bupivacaine group is better than the lidocaine group in dental operations that take a relatively long time, especially in endodontic treatments or where there is a need for postoperative pain management. © 2013 FDI World Dental Federation.

  8. Sciatic and femoral nerve blockade using bupivacaine alone, or in combination with dexmedetomidine or buprenorphine in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, M C; Doodnaught, G M; Fantoni, D T; Steagall, P V M

    2017-06-17

    The aim of this study was to determine the onset and offset of antinociception after sciatic (ScN) and femoral (FN) nerve blocks. Six healthy adult cats (4.8±1.3years; 4.3±0.4 kg) were included in a randomised, crossover, blinded and controlled study. Following sedation with dexmedetomidine (25 µg/kg, intramuscular), each ScN and FN injection was performed using 0.1 ml/kg of saline (CONTROL), bupivacaine (0.46 per cent, 0.46 mg/kg; BUPI), bupivacaine and dexmedetomidine (1 µg/kg; BUPI-DEX) or bupivacaine and buprenorphine (2.5 µg/kg; BUPI-BUPRE). Atipamezole (250 µg/kg) was administered after injections. Paw withdrawal thresholds (PWT) and motor blockade were evaluated before sedation and up to 24 hours. The PWT were significantly increased at half an hour in CONTROL, from two to four hours in BUPI and BUPI-DEX when compared with baseline. Motor blockade was observed between one and three hours in treatments using bupivacaine. Ability to walk was significantly impaired in BUPI at half an hour to two hours, BUPI-DEX at one to two hours and BUPI-BUPRE at two hours. Antinociception was observed in BUPI between one and eight hours, and in BUPI-DEX and BUPI-BUPRE between one and four hours. This study could not demonstrate a benefit of administering bupivacaine with dexmedetomidine or buprenorphine in cats. Results in BUPI-DEX may have been biased by the administration of atipamezole. British Veterinary Association.

  9. Liposome Bupivacaine for Postsurgical Analgesia in Adult Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Colectomy: Results from Prospective Phase IV Sequential Cohort Studies Assessing Health Economic Outcomes

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    Keith A. Candiotti, MD

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Compared with intravenous opioid PCA, a liposome bupivacaine-based multimodal analgesia regimen reduced postsurgical opioid use, hospital length of stay, and ORAEs, and may lead to improved postsurgical outcomes following laparoscopic colectomy.

  10. The comparative effects of lipid, epinephrine, and their combination in the reversal of bupivacaine-induced asystole in the isolated rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Le; Xia, Yun; Chen, Ying; Wang, Quanguang; Shi, Tong; Wang, Fangyan; Small, Robert H; Xu, Xuzhong

    2012-04-01

    It remains unclear whether lipid combined with epinephrine is superior or inferior to either drug alone in treating bupivacaine cardiotoxicity. We compared the effects of lipid, epinephrine, and the combination of the two in reversing bupivacaine-induced asystole in the isolated rat heart model. We also measured the effects of lipid, epinephrine, and the combination of the two on bupivacaine content in cardiac tissue. Hearts from male Sprague-Dawley rats were excised and retrograde-perfused in a nonrecirculating Langendorff preparation. Bupivacaine 100 μmol/L was perfused until 3 minutes after asystole. Two percent lipid and 30 μmol/L bupivacaine mixture was then perfused in the lipid group; 0.15 μg/mL epinephrine and 30 μmol/L bupivacaine mixture in the epinephrine group; 2% lipid combined with 0.15 μg/mL epinephrine and 30 μmol/L bupivacaine in the combination group; and 30 μmol/L bupivacaine alone in the control group. Recovery of heartbeat was defined as unassisted regular rhythm with a rate-pressure product (RPP) >10% of baseline for >1 minute. We compared the time from the end of 100 μmol/L bupivacaine infusion to recovery of heartbeat (T(recovery)) for each group. The variables of cardiac function were recorded for 40 minutes after recovery of heartbeat. The cardiac apex of each heart was taken for measurement of the bupivacaine content by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry at the end of the experiment. Time to recovery (T(recovery)) in the lipid and combination groups was significantly shorter than that in the epinephrine and control groups (P the lipid and epinephrine groups > the control group (P maximum)) and the ratio of RPP(maximum) to baseline value (RPP(maximum)/RPP(baseline)) from highest to lowest was the combination group > the lipid and epinephrine groups > the control group (P maximum), and RPP(maximum)/RPP(baseline). Cardiac tissue bupivacaine content in the epinephrine and control groups was higher than that in the lipid

  11. A COMPARISON OF SPINAL ANAESTHESIA WITH LEVOBUPIVACAINE AND HYPERBARIC BUPIVACAINE COMBINED WITH FENTANYL IN CAESAREAN SECTION

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    Kurmanadh Kalepalli

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Recent trends in obstetric anaesthesia show increased popularity of regional anaesthesia among obstetric anaesthetists. General anaesthesia in caesarean section is associated with high morbidity and mortality rate when compared with regional anaesthesia. Regional anaesthesia has its own demerits which are primarily related to excessively high spinal blocks and toxicity of local anaesthetics. Reduction in doses and improvement in technique to avoid high level blocks and increased awareness of toxicity of local anaesthetics have contributed to reduction in complications related to regional anaesthesia. The challenges presented by a parturient requiring anaesthesia or analgesia, or both, make the role of obstetric anaesthesiologist both challenging and rewarding. Spinal anesthesia is a popular technique for caesarean delivery. Hyperbaric Bupivacaine in 8% glucose is often used. Plain or glucose-free, Bupivacaine has been frequently referred to as “Isobaric” in the literature, even after Blomqvist and Nilsson demonstrated its hypobaricity. More recently, several studies have confirmed that plain Bupivacaine is indeed hypobaric in comparison with human CSF. Although hyperbaric local anesthetic solutions have a remarkable record of safety, their use is not totally without risk. To prevent unilateral or saddle blocks, patients should move from the lateral or sitting position rapidly to supine position. Hyperbaric solutions may cause sudden cardiac arrest after spinal anesthesia because of the extension of the sympathetic block. The use of truly isobaric solutions may prove less sensitive to position issues. Hyperbaric solutions may cause hypotension or bradycardia after mobilization. Isobaric solutions are favored with respect to their less sensitivity to postural changes. MATERIALS AND METHODS 60 full term parturients of ASA Grade 1 and 2 posted for elective caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia were divided in to two groups. GROUP

  12. Determination of the median effective dose for motor block of intrathecally administered different concentrations of bupivacaine in younger patients. The influence of solution concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Quan; Chen, Chun; Ke, Qi-Bin

    2014-01-01

    To determine the median effective dose (ED50) for motor block of intrathecally administered different concentrations of bupivacaine in younger patients. This study was conducted at the Department of Anesthesiology, The First College of Clinical Medical Science, China Three Gorges University, China, on 40 American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) I-II younger patients (18-40 years) undergoing lower limb surgery. These patients were classified into 2 groups according to a computer-generated random number table (Group A - 0.375% bupivacaine, and Group B - 0.75% bupivacaine). Spinal anesthesia was established by bolus administration of various up-and-down doses of 0.375%, or 0.75% plain bupivacaine. These up-and-down doses were determined by Dixon's up-and-down method. The first patient of each group was given 7.5 mg bupivacaine, and the testing interval was set at 0.75 mg. The dose was up, or down, 0.75 mg increments according to the failure or success of the preceding patient's motor block. The degree of motor block after intrathecal administration of bupivacaine was evaluated by the modified Bromage and Hip motor function score. The ED50 were estimated from the up-down sequences using the method of Dixon and Massey. Our results showed that ED50 for motor block of intrathecal bupivacaine was 8.890 mg in Group A, and 9.998 mg in Group B, and the relative motor blocking potency ratio was 1.12. The ED50 for motor block of intrathecally administered bupivacaine with higher concentration was slightly higher than that of a lower concentration.

  13. Walking epidural with low dose bupivacaine plus tramadol on normal labour in primipara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Zahid Akhtar; Choudhri, Abeera; Naqvi, Shahab; Ehsan-Ul-Haq

    2010-05-01

    To determine the obstetric outcome in terms of duration of labour and mode of delivery between the walking epidural analgesia with 0.1% Bupivacaine + 0.5% tramadol and routine labour practice. Non-randomized controlled trial. Department of Anaesthesia, Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, from August 2004 to July 2007. Consecutive 50 primiparous patients, ASA-I, coming to antenatal clinic for routine delivery were included in control group-A, and consecutive 50 primiparous ASA-I, coming to antenatal clinic and requesting for painless delivery were included in group-B. In group-A, only injection Nalbuphine 10 mg intramuscular was given when pain was unbearable, on patient's request as a routine practice. In group-B epidural analgesia was given with 15 ml of 0.1% Bupivacaine + 0.5 mg/ml Tramadol. First stage, second stage and total duration of labour were noted. Mode of delivery was also recorded in both groups. Patient satisfaction was assessed by interviewing the parturient at evening round after delivery. In group-A, first stage duration of labour was 6.72 + or - 1.16 hours and in group-B, it was 4.03 + or - 1.00 hours, (p < 0.001). Second stage of labour in group-A was 0.55 + or - 0.35 hours and in group-B it was 0.67 + or - 0.33 hours; (p=0.072). Total duration of labour, in group-A was 7.57 + or - 1.13 hours and in group-B it was 4.77 + or - 1.21 hours, (p < 0.001). In group-A 46/50 (92%) patients were delivered spontaneously, while 4/50 (8%) required instrumental assistance. In group-B 36/50 (72%) patients were delivered spontaneously and instrumental deliveries were 13/50 (26%) (p=0.015). One patient developed fetal distress and went through cesarean section in group B. Patient satisfaction was excellent in 88% of group-B parturients. Epidural analgesia with combination of low concentration of Bupivacaine, injection Tramadol and ambulation markedly reduce the duration of labour.

  14. Chronopharmacodynamics of Intrathecal Co-injection of Sufentanyl and Bupivacaine in Orthopedic Surgery of Lower Extremities

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    B Sadri

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available  

    Background and objectives: In chronopharmacology the biological rhythm variations caused by drug administration is assessed. Evaluation of the time of drug administration and the qualitative and quantitative effects of reactions to drugs is called chronopharmacodynamics. In this study, we assessed the chronopharmacodynamics of intrathecal co-administration of sufentanyl and bupivacaine in surgical operations of lower extremities.  

    Methods: In 2006, patients aged 20-50 with ASA physical status of I and II, who underwent surgical operation of lower extremities were entered into this prospective study. The patients received a slow intrathecal injection of 10 μg sufentanyl and 15 mg bupivacaine into subarachnoid of third and fourth lumbar spaces in 30 seconds. After the operation, the time of first pain sensation and the visual analogue scale (VAS score, as the measure of severity of pain, were recorded.  

    Results: 115 patients were studied in this project. The pain-free interval was considered as the time between injection and patient’s demand for pain relief. This interval was 746 (± 322 minutes. The average score of pain severity on VAS at the time of demand for pain relief was 24.7 (± 9.3. The average pain-free duration in patients injected about noon or at midnight was significantly longer than the pain-free interval of other patients. 

    Conclusion: The results show that intrathecal co-administration of sufentanyl and bupivacaine at noon or midnight (conforming to the circadian rhythm causes better pain-relief with longer duration in comparison with other times of the day or night. 

  15. Baricity of Bupivacaine on Maternal Hemodynamics after Spinal Anesthesia for Cesarean Section: A Randomized Controlled Trial

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    Simin Atashkhoei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: After spinal anesthesia, patients undergoing cesarean section are more likely to develop hemodynamic changes. The baricity of local anesthetic has an important role on spinal blockade effects. The aim of this study was to compare the isobar and hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% plus fentanyl on maternal hemodynamics after spinal anesthesia for C/S. Methods: In this double-blind study, 84 healthy pregnant women undergoing C/S using bupivacaine 0.5% isobar (study group, n=42 or hyperbaric (control group, n=42 for spinal anesthesia were scheduled. The study was conducted from 21 April 2014 to 21 November 2014 at Al-Zahra Hospital, Tabriz, Iran. Parameters such as maternal hemodynamics, block characteristics, side effects, and neonatal Apgar scores were recorded. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software by performing chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, one-way ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U-test, and student’s t test. Results: The incidence of hypotension in the isobar group was lower than the hyperbaric group, although it was not statistically significant (40.47% vs. 61.9%, P=0.08. The duration of hypotension was shorter in the study group (1.6±7.8 min vs. 7.4±12.5 min, P=0.004. The dose of ephedrine was lower in the study group (2.4±6.6 mg vs. 5.3±10.7 mg, P=0.006. The main maternal side effect is sustained hypotension that was seen in 0 patients of the isobar and 7 (16.66% of hyperbaric groups (P=0.006. None of the neonates had Apgar score≤7 at 5 min of delivery (P=1.0. Sensory and motor block duration was shorter in the study group (P=0.01. Conclusion: Isobaric bupivacaine is associated with more hemodynamic stability and shorter sensory and motor blockade in mothers under spinal anesthesia for C/S. Trial Registration Number: IRCT201401287013N7

  16. Caudal epidural sufentanil and bupivacaine decreases stress response in paediatric cardiac surgery

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    Sendasgupta Chaitali

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgery and anaesthesia are known to cause stress response. Attenuation of stress response can decrease morbidity, postoperative hospital length of stay and, thus, cost. Intrathecal and epidural techniques produce reliable analgesia in patients undergoing surgery along with stress response attenuation. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of caudal sufentanil and bupivacaine combination on perioperative stress response in paediatric patients undergoing open heart surgery. Thirty patients (ASA grade II-III undergoing elective corrective cardiac surgery for acyanotic congenital heart disease, were randomly allocated to two groups. In group GA ( n = 15, patients received balanced general anaesthesia. In group GC ( n = 15, in addition to general anaesthesia, caudal block with bupivacaine and sufentanil combination was given after endotracheal intubation. Monitoring included electrocardiography, invasive arterial pressure, end-tidal carbon dioxide, pulse oximetry, arterial blood gases including serum electrolytes, blood glucose, serum cortisol, urine output, central venous pressure and temperature. Haemodynamic responses in both groups were statistically similar. Serum cortisol levels were significantly lower in GC group than GA group ( P 0.05 after sternotomy (9.8±7.5 vs. 34.74±27.35, on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB (12.17 ± 6.2 vs. 35.36 ± 24.15, after sternal closure (14.03 ± 5.1 vs. 37.62 ± 20.69, 4 hours (26.64 ± 14.61 vs. 37.62 ± 9.13 and 24 hours (14.30 ± 8.11 vs. 28.12 ± 16.31 after intubation. Blood glucose levels were significantly higher in GA group as compared to GC group at sternal closure (277.46 ± 77.25 vs.197.73 ± 42.17 and 4 hours (255.26 ± 73.73 vs. 185.26 ± 57.41 after intubation ( P 0.05. To conclude, supplementation of caudal epidural bupivacaine and sufentanil could effectively attenuate the stress response in paediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery under CPB in acyanotic congenital heart

  17. Liposome bupivacaine for postsurgical pain in an obese woman with chronic pain undergoing laparoscopic gastrectomy: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction To reduce incidence and severity of postsurgical pain and minimize the effect of its clinical and economic correlates, multimodal therapy for surgical patients is recommended. In this report, we discuss the use of liposome bupivacaine, a novel multivesicular formulation of bupivacaine indicated for single-dose infiltration into the surgical site to produce postsurgical analgesia, as part of a multimodal analgesic regimen in a patient with a history of chronic pain scheduled to undergo laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first published report of liposome bupivacaine in the setting of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. Case presentation A 35-year-old white woman with morbid obesity was admitted for laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy to lose weight prior to hip replacement surgery. Because of a complicated medical history that included rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and chronic pain, for which she was receiving high doses of opioid analgesics, postsurgical pain management was a concern and she was considered a candidate for multimodal analgesia. At initiation of surgery, 50mL of lidocaine and epinephrine was infiltrated around the port sites. At the conclusion, 25mL of normal sterile saline was added to a 20mL vial of liposome bupivacaine (266mg) and injected around the port sites and at the site of liver retraction. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy was successfully completed. Our patient was discharged to the postanesthesia care unit for approximately four hours before discharge to the surgical floor with a pain score of 5 (11-point scale; 0 = no pain, 10 = worst possible pain). Her postoperative course was uneventful; no adverse events were recorded during surgery or during the remainder of her hospital stay. Our patient was discharged on the same opioid regimen used previously for control of her preexisting chronic pain. Conclusions Liposome bupivacaine use in this morbidly obese

  18. Dexamethasone prolongs local analgesia after subcutaneous infiltration of bupivacaine microcapsules in human volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Werner, Mads U; Lacouture, Peter G

    2002-01-01

    thresholds and suprathreshold responses to heat and mechanical stimulation. Measurements were performed every 2 h for the first 8 h and daily for the week after injection. Primary endpoints were evaluation of maximal analgesic effect, time of onset, and duration of analgesia. Summary measures (area under...... on maximal analgesic effect. AUC in all thermal measurements and the sensory mechanical threshold were significantly increased between 1-7 days after drug injection in the group given dexamethasone compared with the group not given dexamethasone. No serious side effects were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Addition......BACKGROUND: The addition of small amounts of dexamethasone to extended-release formulations of bupivacaine in microcapsules has been found to prolong local analgesia in experimental studies, but no clinical data are available. METHODS: In a double-blinded study, 12 healthy male volunteers were...

  19. The influence of intraperitoneal bupivacaine on pain following major laparoscopic gynaecological procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, I C; Stevens, J; Krishnamurthy, S

    2001-11-01

    We present the results of a randomised, double-blind controlled trial to determine the effect of adding bupivacaine to intraperitoneal Hartmann's solution, used to reduce the incidence of postoperative adhesions, on postoperative pain and on analgesic consumption in patients presenting for major laparoscopic gynaecological procedures. Fifty-six women were studied and postoperative analgesic requirements and visual analogue scores were used to assess the pain experienced by the treatment group when compared with the control group. There was no statistical difference in the pain scores between the two groups at any time during the study period (Student's t-test; p = 0.29-0.74) nor was there any difference in analgesic consumption (Mann-Whitney U-test; p = 0.34-0.79).

  20. Liposomal Bupivacaine Versus Continuous Popliteal Sciatic Nerve Block in Total Ankle Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Ryan P; Morash, Joel G; DeOrio, James K; Parekh, Selene G

    2017-11-01

    Liposomal bupivacaine (LB) is widely used in joint arthroplasty, but there is little reported on the use of LB in foot and ankle surgery. Continuous popliteal sciatic nerve block (CPSNB) is more commonly used for major foot and ankle reconstructions. The purpose of this study was to compare use of intraoperative LB injection to CPSNB as a regional anesthetic for total ankle arthroplasty (TAA), with attention to postoperative pain scores, narcotic use, and complications. Retrospective review of TAA patients of 2 fellowship-trained orthopedic foot and ankle surgeons was performed. Patients received either preoperative single-shot popliteal sciatic nerve block with 0.2% ropivacaine followed by intraoperative injection of LB or preoperative CPSNB alone. Outcomes examined were visual analog scale (VAS) pain score at 8 hours, 24 hours, 1 week, and 3 weeks following surgery; need for opioid pain medication refill; physician office notification for pain issues or other adverse events; and complications within the first 90 days following surgery. Standard statistical analysis was performed, and P < .05 was considered significant. Seventy-five patients were identified who underwent TAA and met inclusion criteria. Forty-one received LB, and 34 received CPSNB. No statistical difference was seen between groups with regard to complications, emergency department visits, readmissions, reoperations, VAS pain score at any time point, physician office contacts, and narcotic refills. Sixteen of 41 (39%) LB patients had narcotic refills, versus 12 of 34 (35%) CPSNB patients ( P = .81). Two of 41 (5%) LB patients had a complication postoperatively, versus 4 of 34 (12%) CPSNB patients. There were no complications specific to the anesthetic used in either group. This is the first study evaluating the use of LB for total ankle arthroplasty. Liposomal bupivacaine was safe and effective as an option for regional anesthetic and postoperative pain control, with comparable results to CPSNB

  1. A comparative randomized study of paravertebral block versus wound infiltration of bupivacaine in modified radical mastectomy

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    Parul Bansal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Paravertebral block (PVB has the potential to offer long-lasting pain relief because it can uniquely eliminate cortical responses to thoracic dermatomal stimulation. Benefits include a reduction in postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV, prolonged postoperative pain relief, and potential for ambulatory discharge. Aims: To compare PVB with local infiltration for postoperative analgesia following modified radical mastectomy (MRM. Methods: Forty patients undergoing MRM with axillary dissection were randomly allocated into two groups. Following induction of general anesthesia in group P, a catheter was inserted in the paravertebral space and 0.3 ml/kg of 0.25 % of bupivacaine was administered followed by continuous infusion, while in group L, the surgical incision was infiltrated with 0.3 ml/kg of 0.25 % bupivacaine. Statistical Analysis: The statistical tests were applied as unpaired student ′t′ test/nonparametric test Wilcoxon Mann Whitney test for comparing different parameters such as VAS score and consumption of drugs. The categorical variables such as nausea and vomiting scores, sedation score, and patient satisfaction score were computed by Chi square test/Fisher exact test. Results: VAS score was significantly lower in group P than in group L throughout the postoperative period. The mean alertness score (i.e., less sedation was higher in group P in the postoperative period than group L. The incidence of PONV was less in PVB group. Conclusion: PVB at the end of the surgery results in better postoperative analgesia, lesser incidence of PONV, and better alertness score.

  2. Pain Control Following Impacted Third Molar Surgery with Bupivacaine Irrigation of Tooth Socket: A Prospective Study

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    Reza Khorshidi Khiavi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. The surgical removal of the lower third molars is a procedure generally followed by side effects such as postoperative pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of socket irrigation with an anesthetic solution in relieving pain following impacted third molar surgery. Materials and methods. Thirty-four patients (17 males and 17 females, aged 18-24 years, with bilateral impacted lower third molars were selected. Both third molars were extracted in one surgical session. Tooth sockets in each patient were rinsed randomly either with 4 mL of 0.5% bupivacaine hydrochloride plain (without vasoconstrictor anesthetic solution or 4 mL of normal saline, used as control. The patients were instructed not to use analgesics as long as possible, and if not, they were instructed to use an analgesic, and record the time. Pain severity was assessed using a visual analogue pain scale (VAPS at 1-, 6-, 12-, and 24-hour intervals post-operatively. Data were analyzed using Pearson’s chi-square test and P <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. Post-operative pain difference between the two groups was statistically significant at 1-, 6-, 12- and 24-hour postoperative intervals (P <0.05. Post-operative pain increased in both groups to a maximum 12 hours after surgery with significant improvements after that. Conclusion. Based on the results, the irrigation of surgery site with bupivacaine after third molar surgery significantly reduces post-operative pain.

  3. Minimum effective concentration of bupivacaine for axillary brachial plexus block guided by ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Alexandre; Ferraro, Leonardo Henrique Cunha; Rezende, André Hosoi; Sadatsune, Eduardo Jun; Falcão, Luiz Fernando dos Reis; Tardelli, Maria Angela

    2015-01-01

    The use of ultrasound in regional anesthesia allows reducing the dose of local anesthetic used for peripheral nerve block. The present study was performed to determine the minimum effective concentration (MEC90) of bupivacaine for axillary brachial plexus block. Patients undergoing hand surgery were recruited. To estimate the MEC90, a sequential up-down biased coin method of allocation was used. The bupivacaine dose was 5 mL for each nerve (radial, ulnar, median, and musculocutaneous). The initial concentration was 0.35%. This concentration was changed by 0.05% depending on the previous block; a blockade failure resulted in increased concentration for the next patient; in case of success, the next patient could receive or reduction (0.1 probability) or the same concentration (0.9 probability). Surgical anesthesia was defined as driving force ≤ 2 according to the modified Bromage scale, lack of thermal sensitivity and response to pinprick. Postoperative analgesia was assessed in the recovery room with numeric pain scale and the amount of drugs used within 4h after the blockade. MEC90 was 0.241% [R(2): 0.978, confidence interval: 0.20-0.34%]. No patient, with successful block, reported pain after 4h. This study demonstrated that ultrasound guided axillary brachial plexus block can be performed with the use of low concentration of local anesthetics, increasing the safety of the procedure. Further studies should be conducted to assess blockade duration at low concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. [Minimum effective concentration of bupivacaine for axillary brachial plexus block guided by ultrasound].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Alexandre; Ferraro, Leonardo Henrique Cunha; Rezende, André Hosoi; Sadatsune, Eduardo Jun; Falcão, Luiz Fernando Dos Reis; Tardelli, Maria Angela

    2015-01-01

    The use of ultrasound in regional anesthesia allows reducing the dose of local anesthetic used for peripheral nerve block. The present study was performed to determine the minimum effective concentration (MEC90) of bupivacaine for axillary brachial plexus block (ABPB). Patients undergoing hand surgery were recruited. To estimate the MEC90, a sequential up-down biased coin method of allocation was used. The bupivacaine dose was 5mL for each nerve (radial, ulnar, median, and musculocutaneous). The initial concentration was 0.35%. This concentration was changed by 0.05% depending on the previous block: a blockade failure resulted in increased concentration for the next patient; in case of success, the next patient could receive or reduction (0.1 probability) or the same concentration (0.9 probability). Surgical anesthesia was defined as driving force ≤ 2 according to the modified Bromage scale, lack of thermal sensitivity and response to pinprick. Postoperative analgesia was assessed in the recovery room with numeric pain scale and the amount of drugs used within 4hours after the blockade. MEC90 was 0.241% [R2: 0.978, confidence interval: 0.20%-0.34%]. No successful block patient reported pain after 4hours. This study demonstrated that ultrasound guided ABPB can be performed with the use of low concentration of local anesthetics, increasing the safety of the procedure. Further studies should be conducted to assess blockade duration at low concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Efficacy of epidural administration of morphine with bupivacaine for orthopaedic surgery in sheep

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    Durej M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that epidural administration of morphine with bupivacaine provides more intense and sufficient perioperative analgesia compared with parenterally administrated butorphanol during orthopaedic surgery. Sheep were assigned to group C (control group, 6 sheep and group E (epidural, 5 sheep. Sheep from group C were pre-medicated with midazolam (0.3 mg/kg, i.m. and butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg, i.m.. Propofol was used for induction of general anesthesia in both groups. Sheep from group E were pre-medicated with midazolam, but without butorphanol. Sacrococcegeal epidural analgesia with morphine (0.1 mg/kg and bupivacaine (1 mg/kg was performed. We detected a significant increase in heart rate (19%, p=0.021 during surgery in group C. Two hours after surgery, the heart rate was 14.9% lower than prior to surgery in group E (p=0.017. In group E, throughout the surgery, we measured an insignificant increase in respiratory rate of 1.99%. In the same group, 120 minutes post surgery, we measured an increase in respiratory rate of 14.7%, while in group C there was a smaller increase of only 10.9%. The result from both groups was insignificant (p>0.05. The consumption of isoflurane in group C was higher than in group E by 27.3% (p=0.0043. The mean MAC was in group C higher by 27.6% as it was in group E (0.75% ± 0.25, 0.95 ± 0.3 in Group E and C, respectively. This distinction, according to the Mann-Whitney test, was not significant (p=0.329.

  6. Comparison of Epidural Bupivacaine, Levobupivacaine and Dexmedetomidine in Patients Undergoing Vascular Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyanarayana, Lakshmi Adalagere; Heggeri, Vijayakumar M; Simha, Parimala Prasanna; Narasimaiah, Satish; Narasimaiah, Manjunath; Subbarao, Bharathi Katheraguppa

    2016-01-01

    Levobupivacaine is the s-isomer of racemic Bupivacaine. It is less cardio, neurotoxic and equally potent local anaesthetic compared to its racemate. It is known to cause less Depression of myocardial contractility. Dexmeditomidine when used via epidural route has synergistic effect with local anaesthetics. Majority of patients presenting for vascular surgery are elderly and have associated co-morbidities like diabetes, hypertension, and coronary artery disease. We intend to study safety and efficacy of epidural Levoupivacaine and Dexmedetomidine in this group of patients. Sixty adult patients undergoing lower limb vascular surgery under lumbar epidural anaesthesia were randomly allocated to three groups. All groups were preloaded with 10ml/kg of crystalloid solution. B group was scheduled to receive 15 ml of racemic Bupivacaine, L-group was scheduled to receive 15ml of Levobupivacaine and LD-group received 15ml of Levobupivacaine with 0.5 mics/kg Dexmeditomedine. Time to onset of sensory block to T-10, maximum sensory level achieved, Bromage scale, time to two segment regression, time to total regression, sedation level achieved and patients assessment of quality of anaesthesia were assessed. Haemodynamic parameters were monitored throughout study period. Adverse effects were noted and treated appropriately. Baseline parameters were comparable among all the groups. Time to onset of sensory block to T-10 and maximum level of block achieved, was comparable among the groups. Time to two segment regression and time to total regression was significantly prolonged in LD group compared to other two groups. There was significant bradycardia noted in LD group which required treatment. Levobupivacaine can be safely used in elderly high risk patients undergoing vascular surgery. Addition of dexmedetomidine prolongs the duration of anaesthesia and postoperative analgesia.

  7. Possible delayed respiratory depression following intrathecal injection of morphine and bupivacaine in an alpaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Miguel; Murison, Pamela J; Murrell, Jo

    2014-01-01

    To describe general anesthesia and successful treatment of an alpaca, which developed respiratory arrest 2 hours after intrathecal injection of morphine and bupivacaine. A 10-day-old female alpaca weighing 7.3 kg was presented to our hospital with a fractured right tibia. The cria was anesthetized to repair the fracture with a dynamic compression plate. Anesthesia was induced with IV propofol and maintained with sevoflurane in 100% oxygen. Prior to the start of surgery the alpaca received an unintended intrathecal injection of 0.6 mL of a solution of 0.5 mg morphine (0.068 mg/kg) and 1.5 mg bupivacaine (0.2 mg/kg), after an attempted lumbo-sacral epidural. The alpaca developed respiratory arrest 120 minutes after the intrathecal injection was administered. Adequate hemoglobin-oxygen saturation was maintained despite minimal intermittent manual ventilation, but marked hypercapnia developed (PaCO2 of 17.3 KPa [130 mm Hg]). Delayed respiratory depression resulting from cephalad migration of intrathecal morphine was suspected. Ventilation was supported until the end of surgery when sevoflurane was discontinued. The trachea remained intubated, 100% oxygen was supplied, and ventilation was supported at 2-4 breaths/min for the next 60 minutes, but no attempts to breathe spontaneously were detected. Intravenous naloxone (0.3 mg [0.04 mg/kg]) was administered slowly to effect until adequate spontaneous ventilation and full consciousness returned. The anesthetic recovery of the alpaca was rapid and uneventful after the opioid antagonist was given. Delayed respiratory depression is a potential complication after intrathecal administration of morphine. Careful dose-adjustment may reduce the risk, and close monitoring will result in early detection and treatment of this complication. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2014.

  8. The roles of acute and chronic pain in regression of sensory analgesia during continuous epidural bupivacaine infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, T; Scott, N B; Lund, Claus

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether regression of sensory analgesia during constant epidural bupivacaine infusion was different in postoperative patients with acute pain than in patients with chronic nonsurgical pain. Sensory levels of analgesia (to pinprick) and pain (on a five.......8 +/- 0.5) in the surgical and chronic pain patients, respectively (mean +/- SEM). Of the surgical patients, only 4 of the 30 (13%) maintained the initial level of sensory analgesia, and a pain score below 2 throughout the study compared with 7 of the 12 patients with chronic pain (58%) (P less than 0.......01). Mean duration of sensory blockade was significantly longer (P less than 0.005) in the patients with chronic pain than in surgical patients (13.1 +/- 1.2 and 8.5 +/- 0.7 hours, respectively). Thus, surgical injury hastens regression of sensory analgesia during continuous epidural bupivacaine infusion...

  9. Preemptive perineural bupivacaine attenuates the maintenance of mechanical and cold allodynia in a rat spinal nerve ligation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, John L; Mares, Alberto; Hansen, Jacob; Averitt, Dayna L

    2015-10-06

    Neuropathic pain is evasive to treat once developed, however evidence suggests that local administration of anesthetics near the time of injury reduces the development of neuropathic pain. As abnormal electrical signaling in the damaged nerve contributes to the initiation and maintenance of neuropathic pain, local administration of anesthetics prior to injury may reduce its development. We hypothesized that local treatment with bupivacaine prior to nerve injury in a rat model of spinal nerve ligation (SNL) would attenuate the initiation and/or maintenance of neuropathic pain behaviors. On the day prior to SNL, baseline measures of pre-injury mechanical, thermal, and/or cold sensitivity were recorded in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Immediately prior to SNL or sham treatment, the right L5 nerve was perineurally bathed in either 0.05 mL bupivacaine (0.5 %) or sterile saline (0.9 %) for 30 min. Mechanical allodynia, thermal hyperalgesia, and/or cold allodynia were then examined at 3, 7, 10, 14 and 21 days following SNL. Rats exhibited both mechanical and cold allodynia, but not thermal hyperalgesia, within 3 days and up to 21 days post-SNL. No significant pain behaviors were observed in sham controls. Preemptive local bupivacaine significantly attenuated both mechanical and cold allodynia as early as 10 days following SNL compared to saline controls and were not significantly different from sham controls. These data indicate that local treatment with bupivacaine prior to surgical manipulations that are known to cause nerve damage may protect against the maintenance of chronic neuropathic pain.

  10. Structural elucidation of phase I and II metabolites of bupivacaine in horse urine and fungi of the Cunninghamella species using liquid chromatography/multi-stage mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydevik, Axel; Bondesson, Ulf; Hedeland, Mikael

    2012-06-15

    Bupivacaine is a local anaesthetic prohibited in equine sports. It is highly metabolized in the horse but a thorough description of its metabolite profile is lacking. An administration study should find appropriate analytical targets for doping control. Furthermore, knowledge of an in vitro system for production of metabolites would be beneficial. Marcain® (bupivacaine hydrochloride) was administered subcutaneously to a horse and urine samples were collected. In vitro metabolic systems consisting of the fungi Cunninghamella elegans and Cunninghamella blakesleeana were incubated with bupivacaine and bupivacaine-d(9). Samples were analyzed directly after dilution or cleaned up using liquid-liquid extraction. Separation was achieved with liquid chromatography. Mass spectrometric analysis was performed using positive electrospray ionization with both a tandem quadrupole and an ion trap instrument using MS(n) and hydrogen/deuterium exchange. In horse urine, seven phase I metabolites were found: 3'- and 4'-hydroxybupivacaine, N-desbutylbupivacaine, two aliphatically hydroxylated metabolites, one N-oxide, and dihydroxybupivacaine. Sulfated hydroxybupivacaine and glucuronides of 3'- and 4'-hydroxybupivacaine and of dihydroxybupivacaine were also detected. All these metabolites were previously undescribed in the horse, except for 3'-hydroxybupivacaine. 3'- and 4'-Hydroxybupivacaine were designated as appropriate targets for doping control. Interestingly, all the equine phase I metabolites were also detected in the samples from C. elegans and C. blakesleeana. The qualitative aspects of the metabolism of bupivacaine in the horse have been investigated with many novel metabolites described. The fungi C. elegans and C. blakesleeana have proven to be relevant models for mammalian metabolism of bupivacaine and they may in the future be used to produce analytical reference materials. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. The analgesic efficacy of peritubal infiltration of 0.25% bupivacaine in percutaneous nephrolithotomy - A prospective randomized study

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    Geeta P Parikh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is a routine endourologic procedure in patients with renal stones. Although it is less painful than open surgery, good postoperative analgesia is required to alleviate pain around nephrostomy tube. Materials and Methods : Sixty ASA grade I patients, 18 to 60 years of age, of either sex were randomized to receive 20 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine (group S or 20 ml of normal saline (group C through 23-gauge spinal needle along the nephrostomy tube under fluroscopic guidance at the end of the surgery. Postoperative pain score was assessed by visual and dynamic visual analog scores. When the scores were ≥4, rescue analgesia was given in the form of tramadol 1 mg/kg i.v. upto maximum 400 mg in 24 hours. Time to first demand analgesia and total dose of tramadol in first 24 hours was noted. Results : Pain scores at rest and during coughing as well as rescue analgesic requirements for first 24 hours were significantly less in the bupivacaine group than those of the control group (P < 0.05. The first request for demand analgesia was around 9 hours in group S, while in group C it was around 2.6 hours (P < 0.05. Total requirement of tramadol in group S was 119.3 mg and in C group it was 276.8 mg (P < 0.05. Conclusion : Peritubal infiltration of 0.25% bupivacaine is efficient in alleviating postoperative pain after PCNL.

  12. N-acetylcysteine protects against bupivacaine-induced myotoxicity caused by oxidative and sarcoplasmic reticulum stress in human skeletal myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbes, Olivier; Bourret, Annick; Nouette-Gaulain, Karine; Pillard, Fabien; Matecki, Stefan; Py, Guillaume; Mercier, Jacques; Capdevila, Xavier; Philips, Alexandre

    2010-09-01

    Local anesthetics offer the benefits of extended analgesia with greater patient satisfaction and faster rehabilitation compared with intravenous morphine. These benefits, however, can be offset by adverse iatrogenic muscle pain. Here, the authors investigate the mechanisms of local anesthetic-induced myotoxicity and assess the protective effect of N-acetylcysteine. The authors used primary cell cultures of human skeletal muscle myoblasts to study local anesthetic adverse effects. Production of reactive oxygen species was investigated in human skeletal myotubes by fluorescence microscopy. Expression of sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum stress markers and induction of apoptosis were followed by immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis. Finally, the effect of N-acetylcysteine on bupivacaine-induced myotoxicity was investigated in vitro. Bupivacaine sequentially induced reactive oxygen species production, oxidative stress, sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum stress, and activation of caspases 9 and 7 in human differentiated myoblasts. These iatrogenic effects were prevented by N-acetylcysteine. The authors demonstrated a protective effect of N-acetylcysteine against bupivacaine-induced sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis in primary human skeletal muscle cell.

  13. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF INTRATHECAL HYPERBARIC 0.5% BUPIVACAINE VERSUS INTRATHECAL 0.5% ISOBARIC LEVOBUPIVACAINE

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    Kurmanadh K

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Bupivacaine is a long-acting agent capable of producing prolonged anaesthesia and analgesia that can be prolonged even further by the addition of epinephrine. It is substantially more cardiotoxic than lidocaine. The cardiotoxicity of bupivacaine is cumulative and substantially greater than would be predicted by its LA potency. At least part of the cardiotoxicity of bupivacaine maybe mediated centrally because direct injection of small quantities of bupivacaine into the medulla can produce malignant ventricular arrhythmias. Bupivacaine-induced cardiotoxicity can be difficult to treat.[1] Levobupivacaine contains a single enantiomer of bupivacaine hydrochloride and is less cardiotoxic than bupivacaine. It is extensively metabolised with no unchanged drug detected in urine or faeces. Research results suggest that levobupivacaine is a suitable less toxic alternative to bupivacaine.[2] METHODS The study entitled “A Randomised Controlled Double-Blind Comparative Study of 0.5% Levobupivacaine vs. 0.5% Heavy Bupivacaine For Surgeries Below Umbilicus During Spinal Anaesthesia” for various procedures done in the Department of Anaesthesiology at Andhra Medical College at King George Hospital, Visakhapatnam, from November 2011 to October 2012. The study was undertaken after obtaining Hospital Ethics Committee clearance as well as written informed consent from all patients after explaining and reassuring about the spinal procedure. A total of 100 patients of both sexes scheduled for elective lower abdominal surgeries under spinal anaesthesia in the age group of 18 to 55 years and belonging to American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA Physical Status I and II were enrolled for the study. The enrolled patients were randomised to one of the two groups of equal-sized prospective, comparative study group using a double-blind protocol design Group B (n=50 received 3.0 mL volume of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine intrathecally and Group L (n=50

  14. Comparative effects of vitamin C on the effects of local anesthetics ropivacaine, bupivacaine, and lidocaine on human chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jun; Li, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Intra-articular injections of local anesthetics are commonly used to enhance post-operative analgesia following orthopedic surgery as arthroscopic surgeries. Nevertheless, recent reports of severe complications due to the use of intra-articular local anesthetic have raised concerns. The study aims to assess use of vitamin C in reducing adverse effects of the most commonly employed anesthetics - ropivacaine, bupivacaine and lidocaine - on human chondrocytes. The chondrocyte viability following exposure to 0.5% bupivacaine or 0.75% ropivacaine or 1.0% lidocaine and/or vitamin C at doses 125, 250 and 500 μM was determined by LIVE/DEAD assay and annexin V staining. Expression levels of caspases 3 and 9 were assessed using antibodies by Western blotting. Flow cytometry was performed to analyze the generation of reactive oxygen species. On exposure to the local anesthetics, chondrotoxicity was found in the order ropivacaineC effectively improved the reduced chondrocyte viability and decreased the raised apoptosis levels following exposure to anesthesia. At higher doses, vitamin C was found efficient in reducing the generation of reactive oxygen species and as well down-regulate the expressions of caspases 3 and 9. Vitamin C was observed to effectively protect chondrocytes against the toxic insult of local anesthetics ropivacaine, bupivacaine and lidocaine. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. [Comparative effects of vitamin C on the effects of local anesthetics ropivacaine, bupivacaine, and lidocaine on human chondrocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jun; Li, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Intra-articular injections of local anesthetics are commonly used to enhance post-operative analgesia following orthopedic surgery as arthroscopic surgeries. Nevertheless, recent reports of severe complications due to the use of intra-articular local anesthetic have raised concerns. The study aims to assess use of vitamin C in reducing adverse effects of the most commonly employed anesthetics - ropivacaine, bupivacaine and lidocaine - on human chondrocytes. The chondrocyte viability following exposure to 0.5% bupivacaine or 0.75% ropivacaine or 1.0% lidocaine and/or vitamin C at doses 125, 250 and 500μM was determined by Live/Dead assay and annexin V staining. Expression levels of caspases 3 and 9 were assessed using antibodies by Western blotting. Flow cytometry was performed to analyze the generation of reactive oxygen species. On exposure to the local anesthetics, chondrotoxicity was found in the order ropivacaineC effectively improved the reduced chondrocyte viability and decreased the raised apoptosis levels following exposure to anesthesia. At higher doses, vitamin C was found efficient in reducing the generation of reactive oxygen species and as well down-regulate the expressions of caspases 3 and 9. Vitamin C was observed to effectively protect chondrocytes against the toxic insult of local anesthetics ropivacaine, bupivacaine and lidocaine. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of low doses of intrathecal bupivacaine in combined spinal epidural anaesthesia with epidural volume extension for caesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Gaurav; Singh, Dinesh K; Bansal, Pranav; Ahmed, Bashir; Dhama, Satyavir S

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to compare relative efficacy of three different doses of intrathecal bupivacaine in combined spinal epidural anaesthesia (CSEA) for caesarean delivery. In a double blinded manner, 204 cases were randomized into three groups: I, II, and III to receive a dose of 4, 5.5, and 7 mg of hyperbaric bupivacaine with a fixed dose of 25 μg fentanyl intrathecally, and Dextran 40 w/v 10 mL given for epidural volume extension (EVE), in CSEA. Our primary outcome was the number of effective doses. The block characteristics and side effects were also monitored. Out of 198 patients completing the study, 53, 63, and 65 in group I, II and III had effective doses. Mean Pi (probability of an effective dose) in group I, II, and III, was 0.81, 0.95, and 0.97, respectively. The Pb (superiority of one group over the other) of group II and III was higher than group I. The maximal sensory block height in group II and III (T2) was higher than group I (T3), with a shorter time required to achieve the same. Group I and II exhibited lesser motor blockade, lesser hypotension with early recovery as compared to group III. No significant adverse effects were observed between the groups. The intermediate dose of bupivacaine (5.5 mg) provided safe and effective anaesthesia for caesarean delivery with an additional advantage of lesser episodes of hypotension and partial motor blockade in CSEA.

  17. The effect of age on the median effective dose (ED50) of intrathecally administered plain bupivacaine for motor block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingquan; Chen, Chun; Ke, Qibin

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we sought to determine the median effective dose (ED50) for motor block of intrathecally administered plain bupivacaine in adults (20-80 years) and to assess the effect of age on ED50 required for motor block. This study was performed in 129 adult patients undergoing transurethral, urological, or lower limb surgery under combined spinal and epidural anesthesia. Patients were stratified according to age as follows: 20 to 30, 31 to 40, 41 to 50, 51 to 60, 61 to 70, and 71 to 80 years. The spinal component of the anesthetic was established by bolus administration of up-and-down doses of 0.75% plain bupivacaine, determined by Dixon's method. The degree of motor block after intrathecal administration of each dose was evaluated by the modified Bromage and hip motor function score. The ED50 values were estimated from the up-and-down sequences using the method of Dixon and Massey and logistic regression. Other end points were included on the basis of sensory block level, duration of motor blockade, hypotension, and vasopressor requirements. ED50 for motor block using intrathecal bupivacaine was 10.22 mg (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.96-10.49 mg) in 20- to 30-, 9.52 mg (95% CI, 9.02-10.07 mg) in 31- to 40-, 8.37 mg (95% CI, 7.56-9.26 mg) in 41- to 50-, 7.30 mg (95% CI, 6.84-7.79 mg) in 51 to 60, 6.55 mg (95% CI, 6.01-7.13 mg) in 61- to 70-, and 5.78 mg (95% CI, 5.01-6.67 mg) in 71- to 80-year-old patients. The maximum cephalic analgesic level was L1-L2 level at 5 minutes and T10-L1 at 10 minutes after administration of intrathecal plain bupivacaine in the 6 age groups. There was a significant difference in the duration of motor blockade among groups. The ED50 for motor block of intrathecally administered plain bupivacaine decreased steeply with advancing age.

  18. Ropivacaine and Bupivacaine prevent increased pain sensitivity without altering neuroimmune activation following repeated social defeat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, Caroline M; Kim, January K; Weber, Michael D; Jarrett, Brant L; Godbout, Jonathan P; Sheridan, John F; Humeidan, Michelle

    2017-11-08

    Mounting evidence indicates that stress influences the experience of pain. Exposure to psychosocial stress disrupts bi-directional communication pathways between the central nervous system and peripheral immune system, and can exacerbate the frequency and severity of pain experienced by stressed subjects. Repeated social defeat (RSD) is a murine model of psychosocial stress that recapitulates the immune and behavioral responses to stress observed in humans, including activation of stress-reactive neurocircuitry and increased pro-inflammatory cytokine production. It is unclear, however, how these stress-induced neuroimmune responses contribute to increased pain sensitivity in mice exposed to RSD. Here we used a technique of regional analgesia with local anesthetics in mice to block the development of mechanical allodynia during RSD. We next investigated the degree to which pain blockade altered stress-induced neuroimmune activation and depressive-like behavior. Following development of a mouse model of regional analgesia with discrete sensory blockade over the dorsal-caudal aspect of the spine, C57BL/6 mice were divided into experimental groups and treated with Ropivacaine (0.08%), Liposomal Bupivacaine (0.08%), or Vehicle (0.9% NaCl) prior to exposure to stress. This specific region was selected for analgesia because it is the most frequent location for aggression-associated pain due to biting during RSD. Mechanical allodynia was assessed 12 h after the first, third, and sixth day of RSD after resolution of the sensory blockade. In a separate experiment, social avoidance behavior was determined after the sixth day of RSD. Blood, bone marrow, brain, and spinal cord were collected for immunological analyses after the last day of RSD in both experiments following behavioral assessments. RSD increased mechanical allodynia in an exposure-dependent manner that persisted for at least one week following cessation of the stressor. Mice treated with either Ropivacaine or

  19. Bupivacaine mandibular nerve block affects intraoperative blood pressure and heart rate in a Yucatan miniature swine mandibular condylectomy model: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bova, Jonathan F; da Cunha, Anderson F; Stout, Rhett W; Bhumiratana, Sarindr; Alfi, David M; Eisig, Sidney B; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Lopez, Mandi J

    2015-02-01

    The primary objective was to evaluate the effect of a bupivacaine mandibular nerve block on intraoperative blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) in response to surgical stimulation and the need for systemic analgesics postoperatively. We hypothesized that a mandibular nerve block would decrease the need for systemic analgesics both intraoperatively and postoperatively. Fourteen adult male Yucatan pigs were purchased. Pigs were chemically restrained with ketamine, midazolam, and dexmedetomidine and anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane inhalant anesthesia. Pigs were randomized to receive a mandibular block with either bupivacaine (bupivacaine group) or saline (control group). A nerve stimulator was used for administration of the block with observation of masseter muscle twitch to indicate the injection site. Invasive BP and HR were measured with the aid of an arterial catheter in eight pigs. A rescue analgesic protocol consisting of fentanyl and lidocaine was administered if HR or BP values increased 20% from baseline. Postoperative pain was quantified with a customized ethogram. HR and BP were evaluated at base line, pre-rescue, 10 and 20 min post-rescue. Pre-rescue mean BP was significantly increased (p = .001) for the bupivacaine group. Mean intraoperative HR was significantly lower (p = .044) in the bupivacaine versus saline group. All other parameters were not significant. Addition of a mandibular nerve block to the anesthetic regimen in the miniature pig condylectomy model may improve variations in intraoperative BP and HR. This study establishes the foundation for future studies with larger animal numbers to confirm these preliminary findings.

  20. Differential analgesic effects of low-dose epidural morphine and morphine-bupivacaine at rest and during mobilization after major abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, J B; Rosenberg, J; Hansen, B L

    1992-01-01

    In a double-blind, randomized study, epidural infusions of low-dose morphine (0.2 mg/h) combined with low-dose bupivacaine (10 mg/h) were compared with epidural infusions of low-dose morphine (0.2 mg/h) alone for postoperative analgesia at rest and during mobilization and cough in 24 patients after...... elective major abdominal surgery. All patients in addition received systemic piroxicam (20 mg daily). No significant differences were observed between the groups at any assessment of pain at rest (P greater than 0.05), whereas pain in the morphine/bupivacaine group was significantly reduced during...... mobilization from the supine into the sitting position 12 and 30 h after surgical incision and during cough 8, 12, and 30 h after surgical incision (P less than 0.05). We conclude, that low-dose epidural bupivacaine potentiates postoperative low-dose epidural morphine analgesia during mobilization and cough...

  1. [Subarachnoid blockade with ropivacaine versus bupivacaine in urologic and orthopedic surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa-Sánchez, Oscar; Alamilla-Beltrán, Irma; Han-Alonso, Rosario; Solano-Moreno, Héctor; Alvarez-Villaseñor, Andrea Socorro; Ramírez-Contreras, Juan Pablo; Fuentes-Orozco, Clotilde; González-Ojeda, Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    To compare the effects of intrathecal isobaric ropivacaine (IR) versus isobaric bupivacaine (IB) in a dose ratio of 3:2 in non-ambulatory urologic and orthopedic surgery. One hundred and seventeen patients scheduled for surgery were randomized and assigned in a double-blind fashion to receive either 15 mg of IR (n = 58) or 10 mg of IB (n = 59) into the subarachnoid space. There were no differences about age, sex distribution, body mass index, type of surgical interventions and operative time. Both groups were similar respect to latency time and extension of sensory block. Complete motor blockade was reached in more than 90 % of patients of both groups ten minutes after the intrathecal injection and the length was significantly longer in the IB group (226.4 +/- 22.3 minutes versus 266.5 +/- 29.5, p bradicardia during the transoperative period. Three and a half hours after the end of the surgery, more patients of the IB group required intravenous analgesics and opiaceous derivates (p < 0.001). The motor blockade was longer in the IB group but postoperative analgesia was better in the IR group.

  2. Bilateral interpleural versus lumbar epidural bupivacaine-morphine analgesia for upper abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demian, Atef D; Wahba, Ashraf M; Atia, Emad M; Hussein, Sami H

    2003-10-01

    This randomized study was designed to compare the effectiveness of bilateral interpleural analgesia with lumbar epidural analgesia, on postoperative pain relief in upper abdominal surgery. The studied patients were randomely allocated into either interpleural group "IP" (n = 15) or epidural group "EP" (n = 15). In "IP" group, preanesthetic bilateral interpleural block was done using a mixture of bupivacaine 0.5% (0.8 mg/kg) and 2 mg morphine diluted to 50 ml saline for each side. In "EP" group, the same mixture-diluted in 20 ml saline-was injected in the epidural space (L2-3). The general anesthetic technique was the same in both groups. Hemodynamic, gasometric, verbal pain score (VPS) values and complications were compared in both techniques. Heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) readings were in the accepted normal range in the perioperative period although significant lower readings were detected in "EP" group. No significant differences were displayed in blood gasometric variables between the two groups. There were considerable level of analgesia in both groups in the postoperative period although "EP" analgesia was superior to "IP". More pain free patients (9 versus 4) and significant lower consumption of nalbuphine were detected in "EP" group. The results of this study indicate that bilateral "IP" analgesia may offer a satisfactory analgesia for upper abdominal surgery when the use of other analgesic techniques may be contraindicated.

  3. COMPARISON OF EFFECT OF MAGNESIUM SULPHATE AND PRESERVATIVE-FREE KETAMINE AS AN ADJUNCT TO EPIDURAL BUPIVACAINE FOR POSTOPERATIVE ANALGESIA IN ABDOMINAL HYSTERECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Korumbil Raghavan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Neuraxial blocks are the most common method of anaesthesia in abdominal hysterectomies and epidural technique has been used widely to provide both anaesthesia and postoperative analgesia. It has become a common practice to use polypharmacy approach for treatment of intra and postoperative pain, because no drug has yet been identified that specifically inhibit nociception without side effects. The aim of the study is to compare the effects of magnesium sulphate versus preservative-free ketamine as an adjunct to epidural bupivacaine for postoperative analgesia in abdominal hysterectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS After obtaining informed consent, the patients were divided into 3 groups of 40 each to receive 20 mL 0.5% bupivacaine (group B, 19 mL 0.5% bupivacaine + 50 mg magnesium sulphate (group BM, 19 mL 0.5% bupivacaine + 50 mg preservative-free ketamine (group BK. Epidural catheter was inserted at L1-L2 space using standard technique. Correct placement was confirmed by a test dose of 2% lignocaine + adrenaline 1 in 2 lakhs. Postoperative analgesia were assessed by VAS score and 0.125% bupivacaine infusion and 1 g paracetamol IV infusion was given as rescue analgesics when VAS ≥4. Onset duration, motor block and side effects were also monitored. RESULTS Mean time of duration of onset in group B, BM, BK were 20, 14, 18 minutes, respectively. Mean time for rescue analgesia were 180, 240 and 480 minutes in group 1, 2 and 3, respectively. These differences were statistically significant. The side effects noticed in each group were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION The onset of effect is faster when magnesium sulphate were added as an adjunct to bupivacaine as compared to preservativefree ketamine. The postoperative analgesia is found to be more with preservative-free ketamine as compared to magnesium sulphate without any significant side effects.

  4. The Effect of Lipid Emulsion on Pharmacokinetics of Bupivacaine in Rats: Long-Chain Triglyceride Versus Long- and Medium-Chain Triglyceride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wan; Wang, Quanguang; Shi, Kejian; Dong, Jiaojiao; Lin, Shengxian; Zhao, Shishi; Wu, Cong; Xia, Yun; Papadimos, Thomas J; Xu, Xuzhong

    2016-11-01

    Lipid infusions have been proposed to treat local anesthetic-induced cardiac toxicity. This study compared the effects of long-chain triglyceride (LCT) emulsions with those of long- and medium-chain triglyceride (LCT/MCT) emulsions on the pharmacokinetics of bupivacaine in a rat model. After administration of intravenous infusion of bupivacaine at 2 mg·kg·min for 5 minutes in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, either Intralipid 20%, an LCT emulsion (LCT group, n = 6), or Lipovenoes 20%, an LCT/MCT emulsion (LCT/MCT group, n = 6), was infused at 2mg·kg·min for 5 minutes. The concentrations of total plasma bupivacaine and bupivacaine that were not bound by lipid (lipid unbound) were measured by a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method. A 2-compartmental analysis was performed to calculate the lipid-bound percentage of bupivacaine and its pharmacokinetics. In the LCT group, the clearance (15 ± 2 vs 10 ± 1 mL·min·kg, P = .003) was higher; the volume of distribution (0.57 ± 0.10 vs 0.36 ± 0.11 L·kg, P = .007) and K21 (0.0100 ± 0.0018 vs 0.0070 ± 0.0020 min, P = .021, P' = .032) were larger; and the area under the blood concentration-time curve 0 - t; (605 ± 82 vs 867 ± 110 mgL·min, P =.001) and the area under the blood concentration-time curve (0 - ∞) (697 ± 111 vs 991 ± 121 mgL·min, P =.001) were less, when compared with the LCT/MCT group. LCT emulsions are more effective than LCT/MCT emulsions in the metabolism of bupivacaine through demonstration of a superior pharmacokinetic profile.

  5. Comparing the Effect of Topical and Subcutaneous Bupivacaine Infiltration with Cutaneous Ketamin on Postoperative Pain in Patients Candidating Abdominal Hysterectomy under General Anedthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Maktabi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Hysterectomy is one of the most common surgical procedures. Only after cesarian section, hysterectomys considered as second major surgical procedure. Problems such as severe pelvic pain, irregular or heavy bleeding and uterine cancer are cases that hysterectomy is used to care them. Abdominal pain after abdominal hysterectomy is one of the most common complaints of patients undergoing this type of surgery. This study aimed to compare the effects of bupivacaine into the subcutaneous tissue and skin ketamine to control pain after surgery in patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy under general anesthesia. Materials and Methods: This study is a randomized, double-blind clinical trial involving 99 women candidating for TAH referred to Taleghani center in Arak who were divided into three groups. The average duration of analgesia and pain and pain score were recorded. Results: The average duration of analgesia in ketamine group, in the bupivacaine group and in the placebo group was 65.1±8.8, 65.4±8.7, and 57.6±5.5, respectively. According to p≤0.01, there was a significant difference between the three groups. The duration of analgesia in the placebo group was significantly lower than ketamine and bupivacaine groups, while that between ketamine and bupivacaine in terms of the average duration of analgesia, no significant difference was observed. Conclusion: The results of our study indicate that the use of bupivacaine and cutaneous ketamine is effective in reducing postoperative pain in patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy and further doses of ketamine and bupivacaine single dose resulted in a significant reduction of postoperative pain in patients compared to the placebo group.

  6. Influence of local anesthetics on the neuromuscular blockade produced by rocuronium: effects of lidocaine and 50% enantiomeric excess bupivacaine on the neuromuscular junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Angélica de Fátima de Assunção; Carvalho, Vanessa Henriques; Braga, Franklin Sarmento da Silva; Rodrigues-Simioni, Léa; Loyola, Yolanda Christina S; Potério, Glória Braga

    2009-01-01

    The effects of local anesthetics (LA) on neuromuscular transmission and their influence on the neuromuscular blockade produced by competitive neuromuscular blockers have not been fully investigated. The objective of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, the effects of lidocaine and 50% enantiomeric excess bupivacaine (S75-R25) on the neuromuscular blockade produced by rocuronium. The rats were divided in five groups (n = 5) according to the drug used: isolated lidocaine, bupivacaine (S75-R25), or rocuronium (groups I, II, and II); and rocuronium in preparations previously exposed to LAs (groups IV and V). The concentrations used were as follows: 20 microg x mL(-1), 5 microg x mL(-1), and 4 microg x mL(-1) of lidocaine, bupivacaine (S75-R25), and rocuronium, respectively. The following parameters were evaluated: 1) the strength of muscular contraction of the diaphragm to indirect electrical stimulations, before and 60 minutes after the isolated addition of the LAs and rocuronium, and the association AL-rocuronium; and 2) the effects of LAs on membrane potential (MP) and miniature end-plate potentials (MEPP). The effect of LAs on muscle contraction in response to acetylcholine was evaluated in chick biventer cervicis preparations. Isolated lidocaine and bupivacaine (S75-R25) did not change the muscular response and the levels of MPs. In preparations exposed to LAs, rocuroniuminduced blockade was significantly greater than that produced by rocuronium alone. In chick biventer cervicis preparations, lidocaine and bupivacaine (S75R25) decreased contraction in response to acetylcholine. Lidocaine increased the frequency of MEPPs, which was followed by the blockade; bupivacaine (S75R25) caused a reduction in MEPPs followed by blockade. Local anesthetics caused a potentiation of the neuromuscular blockade produced by rocuronium. The results showed pre- and post-synaptic effects.

  7. Evaluation of spinal anesthesia blockade time with 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine, with or without sufentanil, in chronic opioid users: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Mostafa; Yekta, Reza Atef; Azimaraghi, Omid; Barzin, Gilda; Movafegh, Ali

    2016-01-01

    The primary outcome of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding sufentanil to hyperbaric bupivacaine on duration of sensory blockade of spinal anesthesia in chronic opioid users in comparison with non-addicts. Sixty patients scheduled for orthopedic surgery under spinal anesthesia were allocated into four groups: group 1 (no history of opium use who received intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine along with 1mL saline as placebo); group 2 (no history of opium use who received intrathecal bupivacaine along with 1mL sufentanil [5μg]); group 3 (positive history of opium use who received intrathecal bupivacaine along with 1mL saline as placebo) and group 4 (positive history of opium use who received intrathecal bupivacaine along with 1mL sufentanil [5μg]). The onset time and duration of sensory and motor blockade were measured. The duration of sensory blockade in group 3 was 120±23.1min which was significantly less than other groups (G1=148±28.7, G2=144±26.4, G4=139±24.7, p=0.007). The duration of motor blockade in group 3 was 145±30.0min which was significantly less than other groups (G1=164±36.0, G2=174±26.8, G4=174±24.9, p=0.03). Addition of 5μg intrathecal sufentanil to hyperbaric bupivacaine in chronic opioid users lengthened the sensory and motor duration of blockade to be equivalent to blockade measured in non-addicts. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. [Evaluation of spinal anesthesia blockade time with 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine, with or without sufentanil, in chronic opioid users: a randomized clinical trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Mostafa; Yekta, Reza Atef; Azimaraghi, Omid; Barzin, Gilda; Movafegh, Ali

    2016-01-01

    The primary outcome of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding sufentanil to hyperbaric bupivacaine on duration of sensory blockade of spinal anesthesia in chronic opioid users in comparison with non-addicts. Sixty patients scheduled for orthopedic surgery under spinal anesthesia were allocated into four groups: group 1 (no history of opium use who received intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine along with 1mL saline as placebo); group 2 (no history of opium use who received intrathecal bupivacaine along with 1mL sufentanil [5μg]); group 3 (positive history of opium use who received intrathecal bupivacaine along with 1mL saline as placebo) and group 4 (positive history of opium use who received intrathecal bupivacaine along with 1mL sufentanil [5μg]). The onset time and duration of sensory and motor blockade were measured. The duration of sensory blockade in group 3 was 120±23.1min which was significantly less than other groups (G1=148±28.7, G2=144±26.4, G4=139±24.7, p=0.007). The duration of motor blockade in group 3 was 145±30.0min which was significantly less than other groups (G1=164±36.0, G2=174±26.8, G4=174±24.9, p=0.03). Addition of 5μg intrathecal sufentanil to hyperbaric bupivacaine in chronic opioid users lengthened the sensory and motor duration of blockade to be equivalent to blockade measured in non-addicts. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Pharmacokinetics of lidocaine and bupivacaine following subarachnoid administration in surgical patients: simultaneous investigation of absorption and disposition kinetics using stable isotopes

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    Burm, A.G.; Van Kleef, J.W.; Vermeulen, N.P.; Olthof, G.; Breimer, D.D.; Spierdijk, J.

    1988-10-01

    The pharmacokinetics of lidocaine and bupivacaine following subarachnoid administration were studied in 12 surgical patients using a stable isotope method. After subarachnoid administration of the agent to be evaluated, a deuterium-labelled analogue was administered intravenously. Blood samples were collected for 24 h. Plasma concentrations of the unlabelled and the deuterium-labelled local anesthetics were determined using a combination of capillary gas chromatography and mass fragmentography. Bi-exponential functions were fitted to the plasma concentration-time data of the deuterium-labelled local anesthetics. The progression of the absorption was evaluated using deconvolution. Mono- and bi-exponential functions were then fitted to the fraction absorbed versus time data. The distribution and elimination half-lives of the deuterium-labelled analogues were 25 +/- 13 min (mean +/- SD) and 121 +/- 31 min for lidocaine and 19 +/- 10 min and 131 +/- 33 min for bupivacaine. The volumes of the central compartment and steady-state volumes of distribution were: lidocaine 57 +/- 10 l and 105 +/- 25 l, bupivacaine 25 +/- 6 l and 63 +/- 22 l. Total plasma clearance values averaged 0.97 +/- 0.21 l/min for lidocaine and 0.56 +/- 0.14 l/min for bupivacaine. The absorption of lidocaine could be described by a single first order absorption process, characterized by a half-life of 71 +/- 17 min in five out of six patients. The absorption of bupivacaine could be described adequately assuming two parallel first order absorption processes in all six patients. The half-lives, characterizing the fast and slow absorption processes of bupivacaine, were 50 +/- 27 min and 408 +/- 275 min, respectively. The fractions of the dose, absorbed in the fast and slow processes, were 0.35 +/- 0.17 and 0.61 +/- 0.16, respectively.

  10. Levobupivacaine for epidural anaesthesia and postoperative analgesia in hip surgery: a multi-center efficacy and safety equivalence study with bupivacaine and ropivacaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, T; Fichtner, A; Schwemmer, U; Standl, T; Volk, T; Engelhard, K; Stevens, M F; Putzke, C; Scholz, J; Zenz, M; Motsch, J; Hempel, V; Heinrichs, A; Zwissler, B

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this randomized, single blind phase IIIb study was to evaluate the efficacy of 0.5% levobupivacaine versus 0.5% bupivacaine and 0.75% ropivacaine administered as epidural anesthesia and 0.125% levobupivacaine versus 0.125% bupivacaine and 0.2% ropivacaine for postoperative analgesia. The study was designed to test the equivalence of the overall profile of levobupivacaine against bupivacaine and ropivacaine. In addition, parameters of clinical safety were assessed. A total of 88 patients undergoing hip surgery at 12 German academic hospitals were randomly assigned to 3 different treatment groups. Criteria for drug evaluation were the required epidural volume and time until onset and offset of sensory and motor block, the quality of postoperative analgesia using a pain visual analogue scale and verbal rating scale, as well as the need for rescue medication based on statistical non-inferiority testing. With respect to onset and offset of sensory and motor blockade, 0.5% levobupivacaine, 0.5% bupivacaine and 0.75% ropivacaine showed clinically significant equivalent profiles for all primary study endpoints. However, the levobupivacaine group showed a higher demand for intraoperative anesthesia. Postoperative analgesia request and pain scales did not differ significantly between groups, but comparatively lower total drug volumes were required in the bupivacaine group. No relevant differences between the trial groups concerning safety parameters were observed. The efficacy of epidural levobupivacaine for hip surgery and postoperative analgesia is equivalent and shows a comparable clinical profile to bupivacaine and 50-60% higher concentrated ropivacaine. The results of this equivalence study confirm suggestions derived from previous comparative studies.

  11. Minimum Effective Concentration of Bupivacaine in Ultrasound-Guided Femoral Nerve Block after Arthroscopic Knee Meniscectomy: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Ed Carlos Rey; de Oliveira Honda, Claudio A; Bringel, Roberto Cesar Teixeira; Leal, Plinio da Cunha; Filho, Gasper de Jesus Lopes; Sakata, Rioko Kinmiko

    2016-01-01

    Adequate analgesia is important for early hospital discharge after meniscectomy. A femoral nerve block may reduce the need for systemic analgesics, with fewer side effects; however, motor block can occur. Ultrasound-guided femoral nerve block may reduce the required local anesthetic concentration, preventing motor block. The primary objective of this study was to determine the lowest effective analgesic concentration of bupivacaine in 50% (EC50) and in 90% (EC90) of patients for a successful ultrasound-guided femoral nerve block in arthroscopic knee meniscectomy. This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. This study was conducted at Hospital São Domingos. A total of 52 patients undergoing arthroscopic knee meniscectomy were submitted to ultrasound-guided femoral nerve block using 22 mL bupivacaine. The bupivacaine concentration given to a study patient was determined by the response of the previous patient (a biased-coin design up-down sequential method). If the previous patient had a negative response, the bupivacaine concentration was increased by 0.05% for the next case. If the previous patient had a positive response, the next patient was randomized to receive the same bupivacaine concentration (with a probability of 0.89) or to have a decrease by 0.05% (with a probability of 0.11). A successful block was defined by a numerical pain intensity scale score block was considered failed. General anesthesia was induced with 30 µg/kg alfentanil and 2 mg/kg propofol, followed by propofol maintanance, plus remifentanil if needed. Postoperative analgesia supplementation was performed with dipyrone; ketoprofen and tramadol were given if needed. The following parameters were evaluated: numerical pain intensity score, duration of analgesia, supplementary analgesic dose in 24 hours, and need for intraoperative remifentanil. The EC50 was 0.160 (95% CI: 0.150 - 0.189), and EC90 was 0.271 (95% CI: 0.196 - 0.300). There was no difference in numerical

  12. Assessment of the combined approach of N-alkylation and salt formation to enhance aqueous solubility of tertiary amines using bupivacaine as a model drug

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Bach; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea; Liljefors, Tommy

    2005-01-01

    investigated using bupivacaine as a model compound. X-ray structure analyses of selected salts were included to investigate the potential existence of correlations between salt solubility and crystal packing modes. Alkyl groups were methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl and the derivatives were isolated...... as their iodide salts. Chloride, mesylate, formate, acetate, glycolate, and tosylate salts were obtained by anion exchange of the N-methyl-bupivacaine derivative. N-Alkylation and salt formation afforded quaternary ammonium salts possessing pH-independent aqueous solubilities far exceeding that of the parent...

  13. Intraperitoneal injection of Bupivacaine and Lidocaine in reducing postoperative pain in gynecologic laparoscopic surgeries: a comparative study

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    Alleyassin A

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: As less invasive surgical procedures, such as laparoscopy, become more common, patients can go home soon after the surgery. However, some pain is accompanied by such procedures due to peritoneal stretching, diaphragmatic irritation, or, to a lesser extent, abdominal puncture. It is important to reduce the level of pain to the point that narcotics are not necessary. The administration of opioids for pain after abdominal surgeries is common. The receptors involved seem to be susceptible to blockade with low-dose local anesthesia, although this is subject to some controversy. In this study, we assess and compare the effectiveness of intraperitoneal Bupivacaine and Lidocaine in pain reduction after diagnostic gynecologic laparoscopy in infertility patients. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 150 patients admitted to Dr. Shariati Hospital for diagnostic gynecologic laparoscopy were entered into three randomized groups. Group B received Bupivacaine after the diagnostic laparoscopic procedure, group L received Lidocaine and group C, the control group, received a placebo after the surgery, all administered intraperi- toneally. Postsurgerical pain was assessed using the numeric visual analogue scale at 6 and 24 hours after surgery. Results: In group B, the pain scores at 6 and 24 hours after surgery were significantly less than those of group L. Conclusions: Administration of Bupivacaine after diagnostic gynecologic laparoscopic procedures is more effective in pain control than Lidocaine. The effect of this drug is temporary, yet it significantly decreases early postoperative pain, reducing the need for additional postoperative analgesics. Furthermore, the time at which patients can be discharged from the hospital is significantly reduced.

  14. Intra-articular morphine versus bupivacaine for knee motion among patients with osteoarthritis: randomized double-blind clinical trial

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    Miriam Bellini Gazi

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Osteoarthritis causes pain and disability in a high percentage of elderly people. The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy of intra-articular morphine and bupivacaine on the joint flexion and extension angles of patients with knee osteoarthritis. DESIGN AND SETTING: A randomized double-blind study was performed at a pain clinic of Universidade Federal de São Paulo. METHODS: Thirty-nine patients with pain for more than three months, of intensity greater than three on a numerical scale (zero to 10, were included. G1 patients received 1 mg (1 ml of morphine diluted in 9 ml of saline, intra-articularly, and G2 patients received 25 mg (10 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine without epinephrine. Pain was assessed on a numerical scale and knee flexion and extension angles were measured after administration of the drugs at rest and during movement. The total amount of analgesic supplementation using 500 mg doses of paracetamol was also determined. RESULTS: No significant difference in pain intensity was observed between G1 and G2. Significant decreases in pain at rest and during movement and significant increases in mean flexion and extension angles were observed in both groups, with no significant difference between the two groups. The mean total amount of paracetamol used over a seven-day period was 3578 mg in G1 and 5333 mg in G2 (P = 0.2355; Mann-Whitney test. CONCLUSION: The analgesic effects of 1 mg of morphine and 25 mg of 0.25% bupivacaine were similar among patients with osteoarthritis of the knee.

  15. Impact of subcutaneous infiltration of 0.5% bupivacaine on postoperative C-reactive protein serum titer after craniotomy surgery

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    Reza Shariat Moharari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available  Abstract Background: Tissue injuries may provoke neuro-hormonal response which in turn may lead to release of inflammatory cytokines. We hypothesize that block of afferent sensory pathways by infiltration of 0.5% bupivacaine in the scalp may decrease neuro-hormonal response in the neurosurgical patient. Methods: After obtaining informed consent, forty ASA physical statuses I, II, or III patients between the ages of 18 and 65 years were enrolled randomly into two equal groups to receive either 20 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine (group A or 20 ml of 0.9% normal saline as a placebo (group B in the site of pin insertion and scalp incision. As the primary outcome we checked serum C-reactive protein (CRP levels before implementation of noxious stimulus, 24h, and 48h after the end of surgery to compare these values between groups. In addition, mean arterial pressure (MAP and heart rate (HR were checked at baseline (after the induction of anesthesia, one minute after pin fixation and 5, 10, and 15 minute after skin incision and the recorded values were compared between groups. Results: No significant difference was found between serum CRP levels of the two groups. Comparison of mean HR between groups shows no significant difference. The mean of MAP was significantly lower in the group A in comparison with the group B (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The results of this study confirm that 0.5% bupivacaine scalp infiltration before skull-pin holder fixation and skin incision could not decrease post-operative C-reactive protein level. 

  16. Effects of hypertonic sodium chloride solution on the electrophysiologic alterations caused by bupivacaine in the dog heart

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    Scalabrini A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of various hypertonic solutions on the intraventricular conduction, ventricular repolarization and the arrhythmias caused by the intravenous (iv injection of bupivacaine (6.5 mg/kg were studied in sodium pentobarbital-anesthetized mongrel dogs. Hypertonic solutions, given iv 5 min before bupivacaine, were 7.5% (w/v NaCl, 5.4% (w/v LiCl, 50% (w/v glucose (2,400 mOsm/l, 5 ml/kg, or 20% (w/v mannitol (1,200 mOsm/l, 10 ml/kg. Bupivacaine induced severe arrhythmias and ventricular conduction and repolarization disturbances, as reflected by significant increases in QRS complex duration, HV interval, IV interval and monophasic action potential duration, as well as severe hemodynamic impairment. Significant prevention against ventricular electrophysiologic and hemodynamic disturbances and ventricular arrhythmias was observed with 7.5% NaCl (percent increase in QRS complex duration: 164.4 ± 21.8% in the non-pretreated group vs 74.7 ± 14.1% in the pretreated group, P<0.05; percent increase in HV interval: 131.4 ± 16.1% in the non-pretreated group vs 58.2 ± 7.5% in the pretreated group, P<0.05; percent increase in monophasic action potential duration: 22.7 ± 6.8% in the non-pretreated group vs 9.8 ± 6.3% in the pretreated group, P<0.05; percent decrease in cardiac index: -46 ± 6% in the non-pretreated group vs -28 ± 5% in the pretreated group, P<0.05. The other three hypertonic solutions were ineffective. These findings suggest an involvement of sodium ions in the mechanism of hypertonic protection.

  17. Intraperitoneal sub-diaphragmatic instillation of bupivacaine plus morphine for reducing postoperative shoulder pain after gynecologic endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutchritpongsa, Pavit; Chaipakdi, Pakprapa; Sirimai, Korakot; Chalermchokcharoenkit, Amphan; Tanmahasamut, Prasong

    2013-05-01

    Gynecologic endoscopic surgery is a minimally invasive surgical technique for treatment of various gynecologic diseases. When compared to conventional laparotomy, this procedure has advantages in many aspects such as reduced postoperative pain, short hospital stay, and decreased morbidity associated with laparotomy. However 15 to 30% of the patients experienced moderate or severe postoperative shoulder pain. Methods to minimize postoperative shoulder pain after gynecologic endoscopy are essential to maximize the quality of life of the patients. To evaluate the benefit of intraperitoneal instillation of bupivacaine plus morphine for reducing postoperative shoulder pain incidence after gynecologic endoscopy. A randomized clinical trial was conducted in 158 patients undergoing laparoscopic procedures. The patients were randomly assigned to receive either 0.5% bupivacaine hydrochloride 20 mL mixed with morphine 3 mg (study group) or normal saline (control group) instillation to subdiaphragmatic area before finishing the procedure. Shoulder pain was evaluated at immediate post-operative time, and at 12 and 24 hours from the termination of surgery. The data of requested analgesic drugs after surgery was also recorded. Baseline characteristics were comparable between the two groups. Diagnosis, laparoscopic procedures, and duration of operation were also comparable. There were comparable proportions of patients reporting shoulder pain at 12 and 24 hours between the study and control group (30.4% and 30.4% at 12 hours, and 11.3% and 21.5% at 24 hours, respectively). Median pain scores at 12 and 24 hours were comparable between the study and control group (3 and 2 at 12 hours, and 4 and 4 at 24 hours, respectively). Requirement of analgesics was slightly greater among control than study group, but without statistical significance (17.7% and 24.1% respectively). Intraperitoneal instillation of bupivacaine plus morphine had no efficiency for reducing postoperative shoulder

  18. Comparing caudal and penile nerve blockade using bupivacaine in hypospadias repair surgeries in children

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    Mahin Seyedhejazi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caudal anaesthesia is recommended for most surgical procedures of the lower part of the body, mainly below the umbilicus. It has been well established that a dorsal penile nerve block immediately after surgery decreases postoperative pain in children undergoing hypospadias repair. This study aimed to compare caudal or penile nerve block using bupivacaine in postoperative pain control in hypospadias repair in children. Patients and Methods: After local ethical committee approval and obtaining informed parental consent, 85 American society of Anesthesiologists status I and II patients, aged 6 months to 6 years old, undergoing hypospadias repair, were prospectively enrolled in this study. The patients were randomly divided into the following two groups: Caudal block was performed in 44 and penile block was performed in 41 patients. Cardiorespiratory systems data, analgesic requirement and complications were compared between the groups. Results: There were statistically significant haemodynamic (blood pressureand heart rate alteration during operation in each group (P<0.01. The haemodynamic parameters were stable during operation in successful blocks in both groups. Caudal block success rate is 97.7%, whereas in penile block is 92.6%. Nineteen of 43 patients (44% in caudal group and 29 of 41 patients (70% in penile group received analgesia in the postoperative period and this difference was significant between the two groups (P = 0.025. Conclusions: Without ultrasonography and with blind block, with anatomic landmarks only, the caudal block success rate is high and if there is no contraindication for caudal block, it is the best choice in children under 6 years old (or 25 kg for hypospadias repai.

  19. The roles of template complexation and ligand binding conditions on recognition in bupivacaine molecularly imprinted polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Jesper G; Karlsson, Björn; Andersson, Lars I; Nicholls, Ian A

    2004-05-01

    A model for the molecular basis for ligand recognition in bupivacaine imprinted methacrylic acid-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate co-polymers has been developed based upon a series of (1)H-NMR studies in conjunction with HPLC and radioligand binding analyses. (1)H-NMR studies indicated that functional monomer-template complexes survive the polymerisation process, at least up until the stage of gelation. Polymers were synthesised and characterised by surface area analysis (BET), FT-IR and SEM. A combination of zonal and frontal chromatographic studies in aqueous and non-polar media indicate that selectivity arises from a combination of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. However, in the concentration regime employed for LC-based studies, ligand recognition in aqueous media was shown to be predominantly non-specific and hydrophobic in character. Radioligand binding studies, in lower ligand binding concentration regimes, permitted closer examination of the higher affinity binding sites. It was shown that the presence of a polar modifier in a non-polar solvent, or an organic modifier in water, produced enhanced selectivity. Variable temperature studies showed that the temperature of binding influences selectivity as well as the apparent number of sites available and that this effect is different in organic and aqueous environments. This indicates that the system studied is more complex in character than is generally appreciated. A comparison of the techniques employed here indicates that although chromatographic studies provide a valuable first-round screen for polymer-ligand selectivities, the level of detail obtainable using radioligand binding studies (lower concentrations and true equilibrium binding) makes them superior for detailed evaluations of molecularly imprinted polymers.

  20. The success rate of bupivacaine and lidocaine as anesthetic agents in inferior alveolar nerve block in teeth with irreversible pulpitis without spontaneous pain

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    Masoud Parirokh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Achieving adequate anesthesia with inferior alveolar nerve blocks (IANB is of great importance during dental procedures. The aim of the present study was to assess the success rate of two anesthetic agents (bupivacaine and lidocaine for IANB when treating teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Materials and Methods Sixty volunteer male and female patients who required root canal treatment of a mandibular molar due to caries participated in the present study. The inclusion criteria included prolonged pain to thermal stimulus but no spontaneous pain. The patients were randomly allocated to receive either 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine or 0.5% bupivacaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine as an IANB injection. The sensitivity of the teeth to a cold test as well as the amount of pain during access cavity preparation and root canal instrumentation were recorded. Results were statistically analyzed with the Chi-Square and Fischer's exact tests. Results At the final step, fifty-nine patients were included in the study. The success rate for bupivacaine and lidocaine groups were 20.0% and 24.1%, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups at any stage of the treatment procedure. Conclusions There was no difference in success rates of anesthesia when bupivacaine and lidocaine were used for IANB injections to treat mandibular molar teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Neither agent was able to completely anesthetize the teeth effectively. Therefore, practitioners should be prepared to administer supplemental anesthesia to overcome pain during root canal treatment.

  1. The success rate of bupivacaine and lidocaine as anesthetic agents in inferior alveolar nerve block in teeth with irreversible pulpitis without spontaneous pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosefi, Mohammad Hosein; Nakhaee, Nouzar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Achieving adequate anesthesia with inferior alveolar nerve blocks (IANB) is of great importance during dental procedures. The aim of the present study was to assess the success rate of two anesthetic agents (bupivacaine and lidocaine) for IANB when treating teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Materials and Methods Sixty volunteer male and female patients who required root canal treatment of a mandibular molar due to caries participated in the present study. The inclusion criteria included prolonged pain to thermal stimulus but no spontaneous pain. The patients were randomly allocated to receive either 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine or 0.5% bupivacaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine as an IANB injection. The sensitivity of the teeth to a cold test as well as the amount of pain during access cavity preparation and root canal instrumentation were recorded. Results were statistically analyzed with the Chi-Square and Fischer's exact tests. Results At the final step, fifty-nine patients were included in the study. The success rate for bupivacaine and lidocaine groups were 20.0% and 24.1%, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups at any stage of the treatment procedure. Conclusions There was no difference in success rates of anesthesia when bupivacaine and lidocaine were used for IANB injections to treat mandibular molar teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Neither agent was able to completely anesthetize the teeth effectively. Therefore, practitioners should be prepared to administer supplemental anesthesia to overcome pain during root canal treatment. PMID:25984478

  2. Effects of interpleurally administered bupivacaine 0.5% on opioid analgesic requirements and endocrine response during and after cholecystectomy: a randomized double-blind controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rademaker, B. M.; Sih, I. L.; Kalkman, C. J.; Henny, C. P.; Filedt Kok, J. C.; Endert, E.; Zuurmond, W. W.

    1991-01-01

    In 30 patients undergoing cholecystectomy, a randomized double-blind saline-controlled study was performed using interpleural 0.5% bupivacaine with or without epinephrine (5 micrograms.ml-1) in combination with 0.8% halothane inspired concentration in oxygen. The aim of the study was to investigate

  3. Postoperative analgesia with intramuscular morphine at fixed rate versus epidural morphine or sufentanil and bupivacaine in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekema, AA; Veen, A; Fidler, [No Value; Gielen, MJM; Hennis, PJ

    1998-01-01

    We assessed the efficacy and side effects of postoperative analgesia with three different pain regimens in 90 patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. The patients were randomly assigned to one of three groups: epidural morphine (EM) or sufentanil (ES), both combined with bupivacaine, or IM

  4. Six years of continuous intrathecal infusion of opioid and bupivacaine in the treatment of refractory pain due to intrapelvic extrusion of bone cement after total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahm, P O; Nitescu, P V; Appelgren, L K; Curelaru, I D

    1998-01-01

    There is at present no reliable method for long-term treatment of severe pain following complications of total hip arthroplasty. We explored the long-term use of continuous intrathecal opioid/bupivacaine analgesia in a case not amendable to corrective surgery. A 77-year-old woman, having a total hip arthroplasty, developed refractory nociceptive-neuropathic pain located at the ventral and dorsal aspects of the left hip. Radiographs showed a mandarine-sized intrapelvic mass of bone cement adhering to the roof of the acetabular cup. Further surgery had been declined by the surgeon and by the patient. An 18-gauge Portex intrathecal catheter was inserted, and an intrathecal infusion of 4.75 mg/mL bupivacaine and 0.015 mg/mL buprenorphine was started from a portable Pharmacia-Deltec (St. Paul, Minnesota) pump. The mean daily doses during the treatment period (more than 6 years up to now) were 37 mg for bupivacaine and 0.114 mg for buprenorphine. The intrathecal treatment gave the patient 85-100% pain relief. The patient could transport herself in a wheelchair, was able to perform her own hygiene, receive visits, read, watch television, and also shop and visit restaurants. There has been no need to replace the intrathecal catheter. Intrathecal infusion of opioid/bupivacaine can provide satisfactory long-term analgesia in patients with refractory pain from the hip joint.

  5. Spinal anaesthesia with articaine 5% vs bupivacaine 0.5% for day-case lower limb surgery: A double-blind randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Dijkstra; J.A. Reesink; B.C. Verdouw; W.S.C.J.M. van der Pol; T. Feberwee; A.G. Vulto (Arnold)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground. A local anaesthetic with fast onset and short reliable duration of anaesthesia may be preferable for out-patient lower limb surgery. Articaine is believed to act faster and to have a shorter duration of action than bupivacaine, but there are no conclusive data available. The

  6. The hemodynamic effects of spinal block with low dose of bupivacaine and sufentanil in patients with low myocardial ejection fraction.

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    Mehdi Sanatkar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effect of spinal block with low dose of bupivacaine and sufentanil on patients with low cardiac output who underwent lower limb surgery. Fifteen patients who had ejection fraction less than 40% (group 1 were compared with 65 cases with ejection fraction more than 40% (group 2 in our study. Our subjects underwent spinal block with 7.5 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% and 5 µg sufentanil. We recorded early events such as hypotension, bradycardia, vasopressor need and ST segment change in our cases. The average mean arterial pressure decreased 13% (110 mmHg to 95.7 mmHg in group 1 and 20% (160 mmHg to 128 mmHg in group 2 (P<0.001. Hypotension due to spinal anesthesia was observed in none of our subjects in both groups and none of our cases need to vasopressor support. All patients remained alert, and no ST segment changes were observed in two groups. In our study none of subjects complained of pain intraoperatively. The subjects were without complaints during the spinal anesthetic in both groups. Spinal block with low dose local anesthetic and sufentanil was a safe and effective method for lower limb surgery in patients with low ejection fraction.

  7. Analgesic control after hip arthroscopy: a randomised, double-blinded trial comparing portal with intra-articular infiltration of bupivacaine.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Baker, Joseph F

    2011-06-07

    Abstract: The optimum anaesthetic and analgesic management following hip arthroscopy is yet to be determined. There is, in addition, some concern over the use of intraarticular local anaesthetic. We compared the analgesic efficacy of intra-articular infiltration compared with portal infiltration of bupivacaine following hip arthroscopy. Patients were randomised to receive either 10ml of 0.25% bupivacaine either into the joint or around the portal sites following completion of surgery. 73 patients were recruited (40 intra-articular). The portal infiltration group required significantly more rescue analgesia immediately after surgery (2.33mg vs.0.57mg, p=0.036). Visual Analogue Scale pain scores were not significantly different at 1 and 2 hours following surgery, but at 6 hours the portal group had significantly lower VAS scores (p=0.0036). We believe that the initial pain following surgery results from capsular injury and this explains the need for more rescue analgesia in the portal infiltration group. Further work is needed to establish the ideal regimen. A combination of portal and intra-articular infiltration may be the most efficacious.

  8. Pain management in peripheral arterial obstructive disease: oral slow-release oxycodone versus epidural l-bupivacaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samolsky Dekel, B G; Melotti, R M; Gargiulo, M; Freyrie, A; Stella, A; Di Nino, G

    2010-06-01

    To compare the effectiveness of oral slow-release oxycodone (group OX, n=18) with that of epidural l-bupivacaine (group LRA, n=13) for the control of moderate/severe pain of advanced-stage peripheral arterial obstructive disease (PAOD) patients. Observational and retrospective analysis of advanced stage and hospitalised PAOD patients treated for pain management for at least 7 days prior to surgery or discharged from the hospital without surgery. The outcome measures were pain intensity using the visual analogue scale under static, (VASs) and dynamic (VASd) conditions; vital signs, treatment side effects and patient satisfaction. In both groups, pain control was satisfactory and VAS scores median were VASs<3 and VASd<4; under dynamic conditions, pain control was better in the LRA group (p<0.01). Against few and transient side effects, most patients (n=30) found both pain treatments good or excellent. Results should be confirmed by studies with larger samples. In the perioperative setting, the epidural infusion of local anaesthetics, such as l-bupivacaine, is an effective technique for pain control in PAOD patients; for patients with contraindication for this technique or for non-surgical or outpatients, slow-release oxycodone is suggested as a possible alternative for the control of severe pain in these patients. Copyright (c) 2010 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Safety of EXPAREL ® (Bupivacaine Liposome Injectable Suspension Administered by Peripheral Nerve Block in Rabbits and Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte M. Richard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A sustained-release DepoFoam injection formulation of bupivacaine (EXPAREL, 15 mg/mL is currently being investigated for postsurgical analgesia via peripheral nerve block (PNB. Single-dose toxicology studies of EXPAREL (9, 18, and 30 mg/kg, bupivacaine solution (Bsol, 9 mg/kg, and saline injected around the brachial plexus nerve bundle were performed in rabbits and dogs. The endpoints included clinical pathology, pharmacokinetics, and histopathology evaluation on Day 3 and Day 15 (2/sex/group/period. EXPAREL resulted in a nearly 4-fold lower Cmax versus Bsol at the same dose. EXPAREL was well tolerated at doses up to 30 mg/kg. The only EXPAREL-related effect seen was minimal to mild granulomatous inflammation of adipose tissue around nerve roots (8 of 24 rabbits and 7 of 24 dogs in the brachial plexus sites. The results indicate that EXPAREL was well tolerated in these models and did not produce nerve damage after PNB in rabbits and dogs.

  10. The Effect of Peritubal Infiltration with Bupivacaine and Morphine on Postoperative Analgesia in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

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    Isra Karaduman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We aimed to investigate the effect of peritubal local anesthetic and opioid infiltration on pain scores and analgesic consumption in patients who underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Material and Methods. Patients aged between 18 and 65 years and ASA I-III were included in this double-blind, randomized study. The patients were divided into two groups. All patients underwent spinoepidural anesthesia. 20 mL of 0.25 percent bupivacaine + 5 mg morphine (0.5 mL, in Group P (n=66, infiltrated the renal capsule, perinephric fat, muscles, subcutaneous tissue, and skin under fluoroscopy. In Group C (n=64, none of the patients received a peritubal injection. In the first 24 h pain scores, time of the first analgesic demand, the mean number of analgesic demands, and postoperative complications were compared between groups. Results. The mean VAS score at postoperative 8, 12, and 24 h and dynamic VAS score at postoperative 4, 8, 12, and 24 h were significantly lower in Group P. VAS score at postoperative 4 h was not significant. Time of the first analgesic demand was significantly longer in Group P. Conclusion. Our study results suggest that peritubal infiltration of bupivacaine with morphine after percutaneous nephrolithotomy is an effective method for postoperative pain control and reduces analgesic consumption.

  11. Comparison of bupivacaine alone and in combination with fentanyl or pethidine for bilateral infraorbital nerve block for postoperative analgesia in paediatric patients for cleft lip repair: A prospective randomized double blind study

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    Rajesh S Mane

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: Thus we conclude that addition of fentanyl or pethidine to bupivacaine for Bilateral Intraoral Infraorbital Nerve Block prolong the duration of analgesia with no complications and can be used safely in paediatric patients.

  12. Bupivacaina ou bupivacaina e morfina intra-articular pós reconstrução do LCA Intra-articular bupivacaine or bupivacaine and morphine after ACL reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Danieli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A cirurgia de reconstrução do LCA é hoje uma das mais realizadas e o controle da dor pós-operatória faz parte das prioridades do cirurgião. Dentro do arsenal de analgesia temos a aplicação intra-articular de drogas, sendo a mais estudada a bupivacaina associada ou não a morfina. Neste estudo comparamos a aplicação de bupivacaina associada ou não a morfina com grupo controle, após reconstrução do LCA com enxerto de tendões flexores. MÉTODOS: Quarenta e cinco pacientes foram randomizados em três grupos, sendo que no grupo I foi aplicado ao fim da cirurgia 20ml de soro fisiológico intra-articular, no grupo II 20ml de bupivacaina 0,25% e no grupo III bupivacaina 0,25% associado a 1mg de morfina. Os grupos foram avaliados quanto ao grau de dor pela escala analógica visual com 6, 24 e 48 horas de pós-operatório. RESULTADOS: O grupo III teve menos dor em todos os momentos, porém a dor não foi tão intensa em todos os grupos a ponto de necessitar medicações extras além do protocolo estabelecido. CONCLUSÃO: A aplicação intra-articular destas medicações pós-reconstrução do LCA com enxerto dos tendões flexores quando realizada sob anestesia raquideana não traz vantagens suficientes para fazer seu uso regularmente. Nível de Evidência II, Ensaio Clínico Randomizado de Menor Qualidade.OBJECTIVE: Reconstructive surgery of the ACL is one of the most commonly performed surgeries today and the control of postoperative pain is part of the priorities of the surgeon. Within the arsenal of analgesia we have the intra-articular application of drugs, and the most studied one is bupivacaine with or without morphine. This study compared the application of bupivacaine with or without morphine with a control group after ACL reconstruction with flexor tendon graft. METHODS: Forty-five patients were randomized into three groups: in group I, 20 ml of saline were applied intra-articularly at the end of the surgery; in group II

  13. Best Practices for Periarticular Infiltration With Liposomal Bupivacaine for the Management of Pain After Shoulder Surgery: Consensus Recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Girish P; Hawkins, Richard J; Frankle, Mark A; Abrams, Jeffrey S

    Postsurgical pain, like that associated with major upper extremity surgery, can be significant and usually require the use of opioid analgesics. However, opioids are associated with significant adverse effects, including respiratory depression, which often drive the use of multimodal therapy with nonopioid analgesics, including local and regional analgesia techniques. However, use of older local anesthetics provides a limited duration of analgesia. An innovative formulation of liposomal bupivacaine (Exparel), which is approved for surgical site infiltration, can provide a longer duration of analgesia. Because optimal pain relief relies on the success of the surgical site infiltration technique, a group convened to address best practices for periarticular injection techniques for shoulder surgery. This article reviews the neuroanatomy of the shoulder, recommends optimal solutions (i.e., analgesic cocktails) and volume for injection, and provides a detailed description of the infiltration technique to develop the best approach to periarticular injection for major shoulder surgery.

  14. EVALUATION OF EFFECT OF EPIDURAL ADMINISTRATION OF FENTANYL ADDED TO BUPIVACAINE, ON POST - OPERATIVE ANALGESIA, IN GYNAECOLOGICAL SURGICAL PATIENTS

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    Balasubramanyam

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Post - operative pain, which is most stressful, is receiving more attention recently. Almost each surgical procedure is associated with post - operative pain and severity depends on site and nature of surgery . 1 since the newer narcotic analgesics are no more effective as analgesics than the old; and various traditional modes of administration are associated with significant complications role of Epidural administration of Narcotic drugs has come into vogue . 2 Despite the availability of many techniques to reduce postoperative pain, the search is on for a safe, simple and readily available procedure to lessen the post - operative pain. In this study we are trying to assess the effect of Epidural administration of Fentanyl added to Bupivacaine in Gynaecological surgical patients, studying its efficacy and duration of post - operative analgesia, which is likely to reduce the complications associated with narcotic usage and effective post - operative analgesia

  15. Blood pressure and heart rate during orthostatic stress and walking with continuous postoperative thoracic epidural bupivacaine/morphine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møiniche, S; Hjortsø, N C; Blemmer, T

    1993-01-01

    Thirty-one patients scheduled for elective cholecystectomy performed through a mini-laparotomy, were randomized to received either combined thoracic epidural anaesthesia/light general anaesthesia and postoperative balanced analgesia with continuous epidural bupivacaine 10 mg.h-1 and morphine 0.2 mg.......h-1 for 38 h after surgery plus systemic ibuprofen 600 mg x 8 h-1 (N = 15) or general anaesthesia and postoperative analgesia with systemic morphine and ibuprofen 600 mg x 8 h-1 (N = 16). During postoperative epidural infusion sensory blockade to pinprick was Th4 to L1, and analgesia at rest...... lower heart rate (approximately 10 bpm) 48 h after surgery at rest and during orthostatic stress in the epidural group. There was no significant difference between groups in number of patients with a reduction > 20 mmHg (2.7 kPa) in systolic blood pressure during orthostatic stress (two in each group...

  16. Usefulness of intra-articular bupivacain and lidocain adjunction in MR or CT arthrography: A prospective study in 148 patients

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    Mosimann, Pascal J., E-mail: pascal.mosimann@chuv.ch [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, University of Lausanne, Rue du Bugnon 46, 1011 Lausanne (Switzerland); Richarme, Delphine; Becce, Fabio; Knoepfli, Anne-Sophie; Mino, Vincent; Meuli, Reto [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, University of Lausanne, Rue du Bugnon 46, 1011 Lausanne (Switzerland); Theumann, Nicolas [Department of Radiology, Clinique Hirslanden Bois-Cerf, 1006 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2012-09-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the influence of shorter- and longer-acting intra-articular anaesthetics on post-arthrographic pain. Materials and methods: 154 consecutive patients investigated by MR or CT arthrographies were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: 1 – intra-articular contrast injection only; 2 – lidocain 1% adjunction; or 3 – bupivacain 0.25% adjunction. Pain was assessed before injection, at 15 min, 4 h, 1 day and 1 week after injection by visual analogue scale (VAS). Results: At 15 min, early mean pain score increased by 0.96, 0.24 and 0 in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Differences between groups 1 and 3 and 1 and 2 were statistically significant (p = 0.003 and 0.03, respectively), but not between groups 2 and 3 (p = 0.54). Delayed mean pain score increase was maximal at 4 h, reaching 1.60, 1.22 and 0.29 in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Differences between groups 1 and 2 and 2 and 3 were statistically significant (p = 0.002 and 0.02, respectively), but not between groups 1 and 2 (p = 0.46). At 24 h and 1 week, the interaction of local anaesthetics with increase in pain score was no longer significant. Results were independent of age, gender and baseline VAS. Conclusion: Intra-articular anaesthesia may significantly reduce post-arthrographic pain. Bupivacain seems to be more effective than lidocain to reduce both early and delayed pain.

  17. Cerebrospinal fluid and spinal cord distribution of hyperbaric bupivacaine and baclofen during slow intrathecal infusion in pigs.

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    Flack, Sean H; Bernards, Christopher M

    2010-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of implanted pumps for continuous intrathecal drug delivery, there have been no studies aimed at defining the effect of baricity and posture on drug distribution in the cerebrospinal fluid and spinal cord during the very slow infusion rates typically used for chronic intrathecal drug administration. Intrathecal microdialysis probes were placed at six points along the neuraxis in both the anterior and posterior intrathecal space of anesthetized pigs to permit cerebrospinal fluid sampling. Animals were then positioned either vertically or horizontally (prone), and a hyperbaric solution containing bupivacaine (7.5 mg/ml) and baclofen (2 mg/ml) was infused at 20 microl/h for 6 h, while the cerebrospinal fluid was collected for measurement of drug concentration. At the end of the experiment, the animals were killed, and the spinal cord was removed and divided into 1-cm sections that were further divided into anterior and posterior portions for measurement of drug concentration. Bupivacaine and baclofen distribution was biased caudally in the vertical group and cephalad in the horizontal group. Drug concentration decreased rapidly in the cerebrospinal fluid and spinal cord as a function of distance from the site of administration in both groups, resulting in most drugs being located in very close proximity to the site of infusion. Even at very slow infusion rates, drug distribution within the cerebral spinal fluid and spinal cord are affected by baricity/posture. These findings suggest that patient position and solution baricity may be important clinical factors determining the distribution and ultimate efficacy of chronic intrathecal drug infusions.

  18. A comparison of the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of bupivacaine, ropivacaine (with epinephrine) and their equal volume mixtures with lidocaine used for femoral and sciatic nerve blocks: a double-blind randomized study.

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    Cuvillon, Philippe; Nouvellon, Emmanuel; Ripart, Jacques; Boyer, Jean-Christophe; Dehour, Laurence; Mahamat, Aba; L'hermite, Joel; Boisson, Christophe; Vialles, Nathalie; Lefrant, Jean Yves; de La Coussaye, Jean Emmanuel

    2009-02-01

    Mixtures of lidocaine with a long-acting local anesthetic are commonly used for peripheral nerve block. Few data are available regarding the safety, efficacy, or pharmacokinetics of mixtures of local anesthetics. In the current study, we compared the effects of bupivacaine 0.5% or ropivacaine 0.75% alone or in a mixed solution of equal volumes of bupivacaine 0.5% and lidocaine 2% or ropivacaine 0.75% and lidocaine 2% for surgery after femoral-sciatic peripheral nerve block. The primary end point was onset time. In a double-blind, randomized study, 82 adults scheduled for lower limb surgery received a sciatic (20 mL) and femoral (20 mL) peripheral nerve block with 0.5% bupivacaine (200 mg), a mixture of 0.5% bupivacaine 20 mL (100 mg) with 2% lidocaine (400 mg), 0.75% ropivacaine (300 mg) or a mixture of 0.75% ropivacaine 20 mL (150 mg) with 2% lidocaine (400 mg). Each solution contained epinephrine 1:200,000. Times to perform blocks, onset times (end of injection to complete sensory and motor block), duration of sensory and motor block, and morphine consumption via IV patient-controlled analgesia were compared. Venous blood samples of 5 mL were collected for determination of drug concentration at 0, 5, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 90 min after placement of the block. Patient demographics and surgical times were similar for all four groups. Sciatic onset times (sensory and motor block) were reduced by combining lidocaine with the long-acting local anesthetic. The onset of bupivacaine-lidocaine was 16 +/- 9 min versus 28 +/- 12 min for bupivacaine alone. The onset of ropivacaine-lidocaine was 16 +/- 12 min versus 23 +/- 12 for ropivacaine alone. Sensory blocks were complete for all patients within 40 min for those receiving bupivacaine-lidocaine versus 60 min for those receiving bupivacaine alone and 30 min for those receiving ropivacaine-lidocaine versus 40 min for those receiving ropivacaine alone (P block was significantly shorter in mixture groups. There was no difference

  19. Spinal Anesthesia with Low-Dose Bupivacaine for Therapeutic Abortion in a Patient with Eisenmenger’s Syndrome: A Case Report Study

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    Parviz Amri Maleh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Eisenmenger syndrome associated with pregnancy increases the maternal morbidity and mortality . Therefore, in the most of such patients the termination of pregnancy is recommended.   Case report: A 29 -year-old woman at the 7 th week of gestational age was candidate for therapeutic abortion with history of Eisenmenger syndrome due to atrial septal defect (ASD . Spinal a nesthesia was performed in sitting position at the L4-5 interspace with 10 mg of bupivacaine . The p atient was laid in the supine position after 2 minutes. The surgery lasted about an hour . Blood pressure and heart rate did not change significantly during operation.   Conclusion : Modified s pinal anesthesia with bupivacaine is recommended for therapeutic abortion in patients with Eisenmenger syndrome.

  20. Diaphragm function after interscalene brachial plexus block: a double-blind, randomized comparison of 0.25% and 0.125% bupivacaine.

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    Thackeray, Elizabeth M; Swenson, Jeffrey D; Gertsch, Matthew C; Phillips, Kathleen M; Steele, John W; Burks, Robert T; Tashjian, Robert Z; Greis, Patrick E

    2013-03-01

    Interscalene brachial plexus block (ISBPB) provides excellent analgesia after rotator cuff surgery but is associated with diaphragm dysfunction. In this study, ISBPB with 20 mL of 0.125% or 0.25% bupivacaine were compared to assess the effect on diaphragm function, oxygen saturation, pain control, opioid requirements, and patient satisfaction. In this prospective, randomized, double-blind study, 30 adults undergoing outpatient arthroscopic rotator cuff repair were enrolled to receive ultrasound-guided interscalene brachial plexus catheter placement with 20 mL of 0.125% (n = 15) or 0.25% bupivacaine (n = 15). Diaphragm function and oxygen saturation were assessed before ISBPB placement and on discharge from the postanesthesia care unit. Postoperative pain scores, opioid requirements, and patient satisfaction were compared. Diaphragm function and oxygen saturation were superior in the low concentration group. Absent or paradoxic motion of the diaphragm was present in 78% of the 0.25% group compared with 21% of patients in the 0.125% group (P = .008). Oxygen saturation decreased 4.3% in the 0.25% group compared with a decrease of 2.6% in the 0.125% group (P = .04). Pain scores averaged 1 of 10 in the 0.25% group and 0 of 10 in the 0.125% group (P = .02). Opioid requirements and patient satisfaction were not different between the two groups. In this randomized, double-blind comparison of ISBPB performed with 20 mL of 0.125% or 0.25% bupivacaine, diaphragm function and oxygen saturation were superior in patients treated with more dilute bupivacaine. Furthermore, there were no clinically significant differences in pain scores, and no statistically significant differences in opioid requirements and patient satisfaction. Copyright © 2013 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A prospective randomised controlled study for evaluation of high-volume low-concentration intraperitoneal bupivacaine for post-laparoscopic cholecystectomy analgesia

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    Shruti Jain

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Low-volume high-concentration bupivacaine irrigation of the peritoneal cavity has been reported to be ineffective for short-term analgesia after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of intraperitoneal instillation of high-volume low-concentration bupivacaine for post-operative analgesia in LC. Methods: Sixty patients undergoing LC were included in this prospective, double-blind, randomised study. Patients were divided into two (n = 30 groups. In Group S, intraperitoneal irrigation was done with 500 ml of normal saline. In Group B, 20 ml of 0.5% (100 mg bupivacaine was added to 480 ml of normal saline for intraperitoneal irrigation during and after surgery. Post-operative pain was assessed by numeric pain rating scale (NRS at fixed time intervals. Duration of analgesia (DOA, total rescue analgesic requirement (intravenous tramadol, presence of shoulder pain, nausea and vomiting were recorded for the initial 24 h post-operatively. Results: Mean DOA in Group S was 0.06 ± 0.172 h (3.6 ± 10.32 min and that in Group B was 19.35 ± 8.64 h (P = 0.000. Cumulative requirement of rescue analgesic in 24 h in Group S was 123.33 ± 43.01 mg and that in Group B was 23.33 ± 43.01 mg (P = 0.000. There was no significant difference in incidence of shoulder pain, nausea and vomiting between the groups. Conclusion: High-volume low-concentration of intraperitoneal bupivacaine significantly increases post-operative DOA and reduces opioid requirement after LC.

  2. Evaluating the Effects of local Injections of Bupivacaine and Triamcinolone Acetate on Shoulder Joint Pain and Restricted Range of Motion Following Cerebrovascular Accidents

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    Asadollah Saadat Niaki M.D.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Shoulder pain is a common complication of cerebrovascular accidents. This study was conducted to assess the effects of local injections of bupivacaine and triamcinolone acetate on shoulder joint pain and on restricted range of motion following brain events. Methods: This single-blind clinical trial study included 35 patients with chronic shoulder pain (the controls and 35 patients with chronic shoulder pain due to brain events (the case group. The study was done at Imam Hossein Hospital & Gandhi Day Clinic during the year 2008-2010. The patients in the two groups received bupivacaine and triamcinolone acetate for subacromial bursa injection and suprascapular nerve block by following the protocol described by Dangoisse et al. The patients were followed up for 12 weeks and they were evaluated for pain and range of motion 1, 6, and 12 weeks after the injections.Results: The mean age of the patients was 60.9±9.07 years. Statistically significant improvements in pain score (P=0.001 and shoulder joint range of motion (P=0.001 were observed in patients with chronic shoulder pain versus patients with brain events 12 weeks after suprascapulare nerve block and subacromial bours injections by bupivacaine and triamcinolone acetate.Conclusion: Suprascapular nerve block and subacromial bursa injections of bupivacaine and triamcinolone acetate is a safe and efficacious treatment for the treatment of chronic shoulder pain and restricted range of motion but it is not efficacious or of significant value for the treatment of shoulder pain in patients with brain events.

  3. Ultrasound guided peritubal infiltration of 0.25% Bupivacaine versus 0.25% Ropivacaine for postoperative pain relief after percutaneous nephrolithotomy: A prospective double blind randomized study

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    Geeta P Parikh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL is a common for managing renal calculi. Pain in the initial post operatie period is relieved by infiltration of local anaesthetic around the nephrostomy tract.We aimed to compare the analgesic efficacy of bupivacaine and ropivacaine. Methods: A total of 100 adult patients undergoing elective PCNL- under balanced general anaesthesia were randomly divided into bupivacaine group (Group B and ropivacaine group (Group R. After completion of procedure, 23G spinal needle was inserted at 6 and 12 O′clock position under ultrasonic guidance up to renal capsule along the nephrostomy tube. A volume of 10 ml of either 0.25% bupivacaine or 0.25% ropivacaine solution was infiltrated in each tract while withdrawing the needle. Post-operative pain was assessed using visual analogue scale (VAS and dynamic visual analogue scale (D-VAS for initial 24 h. Intravenous tramadol was given as rescue analgesia when VAS >4. Time to first rescue analgesic, number of doses and total amount of tramadol required in initial 24 h and side-effects were noted. Results: Visual analogue scale and D-VAS at 6 h and 8 h in Group B was significantly higher than Group R. Mean time to first rescue analgesia in Group R was significantly longer than Group B. Mean number of doses of tramadol and total consumption of tramadol in 24 h was less in Group R, though not statistically significant. Conclusion: Peritubal infiltration of 0.25% ropivacaine infiltration along the nephrostomy tract is more effective than 0.25% bupivacaine in alleviating initial post-operative pain after PCNL.

  4. Effect of bupivacaine on postoperative pain for inferior alveolar nerve block anesthesia after single-visit root canal treatment in teeth with irreversible pulpitis.

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    Parirokh, Masoud; Yosefi, Mohammad Hosein; Nakhaee, Nouzar; Manochehrifar, Hamed; Abbott, Paul V; Reza Forghani, Farshid

    2012-08-01

    Pain control after root canal treatment is of great importance in endodontic practice. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a long-acting anesthetic (bupivacaine) on postoperative pain and the use of analgesics after root canal treatment. In a randomized double-blinded clinical trial, 60 patients (30 per group) having first or second mandibular molars with irreversible pulpitis randomly received either 0.5% bupivacaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine or 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine as the anesthetic solutions for inferior alveolar nerve blocks. After single-visit root canal treatment, each patient recorded their pain score on a visual analogue scale at 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 72 hours after treatment. Data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney, χ(2), Cochrane Q, and t tests as well as Pearson correlation analysis. The results indicate that patients who received bupivacaine had significantly lower pain scores at 6 and 12 hours after root canal treatment compared with the patients who received lidocaine (P irreversible pulpitis in mandibular molars had significantly less early postoperative pain and used fewer analgesics than those who had lidocaine as the anesthetic. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF INTRATHECAL MIDAZOLAM AND FENTANYL AS ADDITIVES TO INTRATHECAL HYPERBARIC BUPIVACAINE (0.5% FOR LOWER ABDOMINAL SURGERIES

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    Syed Ali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND This prospective randomized double-blind study was designed to compare the analgesic efficacy and safety of intrathecal midazolam and fentanyl as an additive agent to bupivacaine for lower abdominal elective surgeries. METHODS Sixty patients classified in American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA classes I and II scheduled for lower abdominal surgeries were studied. Patients were randomly divided to receive either 12.5 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine plus 1mg midazolam (group BM, n=30 or 12.5 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine plus 25 μg fentanyl (group BF, n=30 intrathecal. RESULTS The time of onset and the duration of motor blockade were comparable among the groups while the time to sensory block regression was same in group BM and group BF. The duration of postoperative analgesia was similar in group BM and group BF. While it was same for group BM and BF. Symptoms of pruritus and vomiting was more in group BF. CONCLUSION We conclude that midazolam is as effective as fentanyl in prolonging the durations of both sensory block and analgesia with less side effects.

  6. Ropivacaine 7.5 mg/ml versus bupivacaine 5 mg/ml for interscalene brachial plexus block--a comparative study.

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    Hofmann-Kiefer, K; Herbrich, C; Seebauer, A; Schwender, D; Peter, K

    2002-06-01

    We investigated ropivacaine 75 mg/ml in comparison with bupivacaine 5 mg/ml in patients receiving interscalene brachial plexus block (ISB) and general anaesthesia. In this randomized, double-blind, prospective clinical trial, each patient received an ISB block according to the technique originally described by Winnie and a catheter technique as per Meier. The rapidity of onset and the quality of sensory and motor block were determined. After general anaesthesia had been induced further parameters evaluated were consumption of local anaesthetic, opioid and neuromuscular blocking drug. After arrival in the recovery room, the patients were assessed for intensity of pain using a visual analog scale (VAS). One hundred and twenty patients were included in the study. The onset and development of sensory block was similar in both groups. Development and quality of motor block was also nearly identical for both local anaesthetics. Consumption of neuromuscular blocking drug and opioid did not differ between ropivacaine and bupivacaine. In the recovery room the mean pain score was less than 25 in both groups. There were no significant differences in terms of onset and quality of sensory or motor block during the intraoperative and early postoperative period. In addition we did not identify any side-effects related to the administration of the local anaesthetics. Ropivacaine 7.5 mg/ml and bupivacaine 5mg/ml proved to be nearly indistinguishable when administered for interscalene brachial plexus block.

  7. The addition of lidocaine to bupivacaine does not shorten the duration of spinal anesthesia: a randomized, double-blinded study of patients undergoing knee arthroscopy.

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    Jacobsen, Jon; Husum, Bent; von Staffeldt, Henrik; Qvist, Thorkild F; Jensen, Peer Eske; Kledal, Susanne

    2011-11-01

    The duration of spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine is often too long for day surgery. A recent study of patients presenting for transurethral surgery suggested that the addition of a small amount of lidocaine to intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine could shorten the duration of the sensory and motor blocks. In this prospective, randomized double-blind study we investigated these findings in patients undergoing unilateral knee arthroscopy. Fifty patients were randomized to receive 2 mL hyperbaric 0.5% bupivacaine plus either 0.6 mL 1% lidocaine (lidocaine group) or 0.6 mL saline (control group). The sensory and motor blocks were monitored until complete regression and the patient was ready for discharge. The patients were interviewed 2 and 7 days after the operation about any side effects and any signs of transient neurologic syndrome. Data on 45 patients were available for analysis (24 in the lidocaine group). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups regarding time to readiness for surgery, maximum level of sensory block, total duration of sensory, and motor blocks or time to discharge from the postoperative care unit. Two patients in the control group and 1 patient in the study group had symptoms of transient neurologic syndrome for blocks or time to readiness for discharge from the postanesthesia care unit.

  8. Cell Toxicity in Fibroblasts, Tenocytes, and Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells-A Comparison of Necrosis and Apoptosis-Inducing Ability in Ropivacaine, Bupivacaine, and Triamcinolone.

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    Zhang, Anja Z; Ficklscherer, Andreas; Gülecyüz, Mehmet F; Paulus, Alexander C; Niethammer, Thomas R; Jansson, Volkmar; Müller, Peter E

    2017-04-01

    To analyze the ability of ropivacaine, bupivacaine, and triamcinolone to induce apoptosis and necrosis in fibroblasts, tenocytes, and human mesenchymal stem cells. Human dermal fibroblasts, adipose-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), and tenocytes gained from the rotator cuff tendon were seeded with a cell density of 0.5 × 10(4)/cm(2). One specimen of ropivacaine, bupivacaine, and triamcinolone was tested separately on the cells with separate concentrations of 0.5%, 0.25%, and 0.125% for each specimen. The negative control received no agent, only a change of medium. The incubation period for each agent was 30 minutes. After a change of medium and 1 hour, 24 hours, and 7 days of incubation, 10(4) cells were harvested and analyzed via fluorescence-activated cell sorting with double-staining with annexin V and propidium iodide. Statistical analysis to determine significant difference (P necrosis-inducing effects on fibroblasts and tenocytes, with the necrotic effect peaking at 0.5% and 0.25%. Ropivacaine and triamcinolone caused no significant necrosis. Compared with fibroblasts and tenocytes, hMSCs did not show significant necrotic or apoptotic effects after exposure to bupivacaine. Overall, no significant differences in apoptosis were detected between different cell lines, varying concentrations, or time measurements. Bupivacaine 0.5% and 0.25% have the most necrosis-inducing effects on fibroblasts and tenocytes. Ropivacaine caused less necrosis than bupivaine. Compared with fibroblasts and tenocytes, hMSCs were not affected by necrosis using any of the tested agents. A significant apoptosis-inducing effect could not be detected for the different cell lines. Possible cell toxicity raises questions of concern for intra-articular injections using local anesthetics and corticosteroids. The present study demonstrates the necrotic and apoptotic effects of ropivacaine, bupivacaine, and triamcinolone and may give recommendations for intra-articular use of

  9. Intrathecal magnesium sulfate as a spinal adjuvant in two different doses, combined with 0.5% heavy bupivacaine for infraumbilical surgeries.

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    Yadav, Monu; Kumar, P Bhanu; Singh, Madhavi; Gopinath, Ramachandran

    2015-01-01

    The spinal anesthesia has the definitive advantage that profound nerve block can be produced in a large part of the body by the relatively simple injection of a small amount of local anesthetic. The use of adjuvant drugs with local anesthetics for spinal is intended to improve the success of regional anesthesia. The present study evaluated magnesium sulfate in two different doses and fentanyl as an adjuvant to bupivacaine for spinal anesthesia. Following Institutional Ethical Committee approval and written informed consent, a prospective randomized double-blinded study was conducted in 81 cases. Patients included were of either gender belonging to American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) I or ASA II status undergoing elective infraumbilical surgeries of <3 h. Patients were randomized into four groups and were administered an intrathecal solution of (1) Group NS: 3 cc of 0.5% bupivacaine + 0.5 cc of NS. (2) Group F: 3 cc of 0.5% bupivacaine + 25 mcg fentanyl (0.5 cc). (3) Group M 50: 3 cc of 0.5% bupivacaine + 50 mg magnesium sulfate diluted to 0.5 cc with NS. (4) Group M 100: 3 cc of 0.5% bupivacaine + 100 mg magnesium sulfate diluted to 0.5 cc with NS. The variables assessed were visual analog pain scale, pruritus, intensity of motor block and somnolence before and after intrathecal injection at 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, and 60 min in the 1(st) h, at every 30 min in next hour and then hourly thereafter. The mean duration of analgesia in normal saline group, fentanyl group, M 50 and M 100 groups are 272.8 (standard error [S.E.] of mean 22.9), 360.0 (S.E. of mean 28.8), 252.5 (S.E. of mean 15.0), 276.6 (S.E. of mean 29.5) min, respectively. The addition of magnesium sulfate in the two different doses (50, 100 mg) does not affect the quality of block or duration of analgesia. However, M 100 is as effective as fentanyl as far as the duration of analgesia is concerned.

  10. Comparison of clinical effects of epidural levobupivacaine morphine versus bupivacaine morphine in dogs undergoing elective pelvic limb surgery.

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    Cerasoli, Ilaria; Tutunaru, Alexandru; Cenani, Alessia; Ramirez, Juan; Detilleux, Johann; Balligand, Marc; Sandersen, Charlotte

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy, in terms of the amount of rescue analgesia required, and the clinical usefulness of epidural injection of morphine with bupivacaine or levobupivacaine for elective pelvic limb surgery in dogs during a 24-hour perioperative period. Prospective, blinded, randomized clinical study. A group of 26 dogs weighing 31.7 ± 14.2 (mean ± standard deviation) kg and aged 54 ± 36 months. All dogs were premedicated with methadone intravenously (0.2 mg kg(-1)) and anaesthesia induced with diazepam (0.2 mg kg(-1)) and propofol intravenously to effect. After induction of anaesthesia, dogs randomly received a lumbosacral epidural injection of morphine 0.1 mg kg(-1) with either levobupivacaine 0.5% (1 mg kg(-1); group LevoBM) or bupivacaine 0.5% (1 mg kg(-1); group BM). Cardiovascular, respiratory and temperature values were recorded during the intra- and postoperative period. A visual analogue scale, subjective pain scale, sedation scale and the short form of the Glasgow pain scale were assessed every 6 hours after epidural injection during 24 hours. The ability to stand and walk, neurological deficits and other side effects were assessed at the same time points. The amount of rescue analgesia (sufentanil intraoperatively and methadone postoperatively) was recorded. No statistically significant differences were found between groups for any of the recorded data, with the exception of the incidence of spontaneous urination and postoperative rescue analgesia requirement. In group LevoBM four dogs spontaneously urinated at recovery while none of the dogs in group BM did (p = 0.03) and seven dogs of group LevoBM required postoperative rescue analgesia versus none of the dogs in the BM group (p = 0.005). and clinical relevance Epidural LevoBM is a suitable alternative to BM in healthy dogs during elective pelvic limb surgery. Epidural BM produced more urinary retention but better pain control compared to the same concentration and dose of LevoBM in dogs

  11. Buprenorphine with bupivacaine for intraoral nerve blocks to provide postoperative analgesia in outpatients after minor oral surgery.

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    Modi, Mancy; Rastogi, Sanjay; Kumar, Ashish

    2009-12-01

    The demonstration that opioid receptors exist in the peripheral nervous system offers the possibility of providing postoperative analgesia in the ambulatory surgical patient. Over the previous decade, many investigators have studied this approach and have compared the efficacy of various opioids added to the local anesthetic near the brachial plexus; and it appears from several of these studies that buprenorphine provides the longest duration of analgesia, the most important parameter of postoperative analgesia in outpatients. One of these studies indicated that the agonist-antagonist, buprenorphine, added to bupivacaine provided a longer period of postoperative analgesia than the traditional opiates, but none of the studies was performed in patients undergoing minor oral surgery to check the efficacy of buprenorphine to provide postoperative analgesia in dental patients. The present study was undertaken to ascertain the efficacy of buprenorphine in providing prolonged postoperative analgesia when added to 0.5% bupivacaine with epinephrine 1:200,000. Fifty healthy, consenting adult patients scheduled for upper extremity surgery were enrolled in the study. Patients were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 equal groups based on the agents used for the blocks. Patients in group I received 40 mL of a local anesthetic alone, and those in group II received the same local anesthetic plus buprenorphine 0.3 mg. The study was kept double-blind by having one dentist prepare the solutions, a second dentist perform the blocks, and a third dentist monitor the anesthesia and analgesia thereafter, up to and including the time of the first request for an analgesic medication. The data were reported as means +/- standard errors of the mean, and differences between groups were determined using t test. A P value less than .01 was considered statistically significant. The mean duration of postoperative pain relief after injection of the local anesthetic alone was 8.34 +/- 0.11 hours compared

  12. Shrimp Protein Hydrolysate Modulates the Timing of Proinflammatory Macrophages in Bupivacaine-Injured Skeletal Muscles in Rats

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    Junio Dort

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine whether marine-derived proteins other than cod could have beneficial effects on inflammation following muscle injury. Macrophage and neutrophil densities were measured from bupivacaine-injured tibialis anterior muscle of rats fed isoenergetic diets containing either shrimp hydrolysate (Shr, casein hydrolysate (CaH, or whole casein (Ca. In this study, Shr reduced ED1+-macrophages at day 2 (p=0.013, day 5 (p=0.006, and day 14 after injury (p=0.038 compared with Ca, indicating faster resolution of inflammation in Shr. Except for day 2 after injury where Shr led to lower ED1+-macrophages compared with CaH (p=0.006, both Shr and CaH responded similarly at days 5, 14, and 28 after injury. This findings suggest that beneficial effects of Shr on ED1+-cells might be related to generation of anti-inflammatory peptides through the hydrolysis process, in addition to its high content of anti-inflammatory amino acids. However, while increasing myofiber cross-sectional area in noninjured muscles compared with both Ca and CaH, Shr failed to have a positive effect in corresponding injured muscles. These data indicate that shrimp hydrolysate can facilitate resolution of inflammation after muscle injury mainly through modulating proinflammatory macrophage accumulation but have less effect on optimal recovery in terms of muscle mass and fiber size.

  13. Shrimp Protein Hydrolysate Modulates the Timing of Proinflammatory Macrophages in Bupivacaine-Injured Skeletal Muscles in Rats.

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    Dort, Junio; Leblanc, Nadine; Bryl, Piotr; Fortin, Marie-Gil; Carbonneau, Marie-Elise; Lavigne, Charles; Jacques, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether marine-derived proteins other than cod could have beneficial effects on inflammation following muscle injury. Macrophage and neutrophil densities were measured from bupivacaine-injured tibialis anterior muscle of rats fed isoenergetic diets containing either shrimp hydrolysate (Shr), casein hydrolysate (CaH), or whole casein (Ca). In this study, Shr reduced ED(1+)-macrophages at day 2 (p = 0.013), day 5 (p = 0.006), and day 14 after injury (p = 0.038) compared with Ca, indicating faster resolution of inflammation in Shr. Except for day 2 after injury where Shr led to lower ED(1+)-macrophages compared with CaH (p = 0.006), both Shr and CaH responded similarly at days 5, 14, and 28 after injury. This findings suggest that beneficial effects of Shr on ED(1+)-cells might be related to generation of anti-inflammatory peptides through the hydrolysis process, in addition to its high content of anti-inflammatory amino acids. However, while increasing myofiber cross-sectional area in noninjured muscles compared with both Ca and CaH, Shr failed to have a positive effect in corresponding injured muscles. These data indicate that shrimp hydrolysate can facilitate resolution of inflammation after muscle injury mainly through modulating proinflammatory macrophage accumulation but have less effect on optimal recovery in terms of muscle mass and fiber size.

  14. Intrathecal fentanyl added to bupivacaine and morphine for cesarean delivery may induce a subtle acute opioid tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, B; Drover, D R; Ginosar, Y; Cohen, S E; Riley, E T

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the addition of intrathecal fentanyl to a spinal anesthetic for cesarean delivery improves intraoperative analgesia. However, intrathecal fentanyl may induce acute tolerance to opioids. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the addition of intrathecal fentanyl to spinal anesthesia with intrathecal morphine increases postoperative analgesic requirements and pain scores. In this randomized, double-blinded study, 40 women having elective cesarean delivery were enrolled. Patients received spinal anesthesia with hyperbaric bupivacaine 12 mg, morphine 200 μg, and fentanyl 0, 5, 10 or 25 μg. Each patient received intravenous patient-controlled analgesia morphine for 24h postoperatively. Outcome measures included postoperative morphine usage and pain scores, as well as intraoperative pain, nausea, hypotension and vasopressor use. Total morphine use over the 24-h post-spinal study period was similar among the study groups (P=0.129). Postoperative pain scores were higher in patients receiving fentanyl 5, 10 and 25 μg compared to fentanyl 0 μg control group (P=0.003). The study results suggest that intrathecal fentanyl may induce acute tolerance to intrathecal morphine. However, because there was no difference in postoperative analgesia requirement and the difference in pain scores was small, the clinical significance of this finding is uncertain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Caudal bupivacaine supplemented with morphine or clonidine, or supplemented with morphine plus clonidine in children undergoing infra-umbilical urological and genital procedures: a prospective, randomized and double-blind study.

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    Fernandes, Magda L; Pires, Kleber C C; Tibúrcio, Moacir A; Gomez, Renato S

    2012-04-01

    We aimed to evaluate postoperative analgesia of morphine, or clonidine, or morphine plus clonidine, added to caudal bupivacaine in children undergoing infra-umbilical urological and genital procedures. Eighty patients aged 1-10 years were prospectively enrolled. After the induction of general anesthesia, the patients were randomized to four caudal anesthesia groups: Group B (1.0 mL/kg of bupivacaine 0.166% with epinephrine 1:600,000); Group BM (1.0 mL/kg of bupivacaine 0.166% with epinephrine 1:600,000 plus morphine 20 μg/kg); Group BC (bupivacaine 0.166% with epinephrine 1:600,000 plus clonidine 1.0 μg/kg), and Group BMC (bupivacaine 0.166% with epinephrine 1:600,000 plus morphine 20 μg/kg and clonidine 1.0 μg/kg). Duration of surgery, emergence time, postoperative pain score measured by the face, legs, activity, cry, consolability (FLACC) scale, postoperative analgesia time, and overall use of rescue analgesics were recorded. The FLACC pain score (6, 12, and 24 h after the surgery) and the number of patients requiring analgesics during the first 24 h of the postoperative period were higher in Groups B and BC than in Groups BM and BMC (p  0.05). However, the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) was higher in Groups BM (35%) and BMC (25%) than in Groups B (5%) and BC (5%) (p < 0.05). To conclude, we showed that 20 μg/kg of morphine added to caudal bupivacaine 0.166% plus epinephrine 1:600,000 decreased the use of analgesics in the postoperative period, although it was associated with an increased incidence of PONV. However, the addition of clonidine (1.0 μg/kg) to caudal bupivacaine provided no additional clinical benefit over bupivacaine alone.

  16. To evaluate the efficacy of intrathecal magnesium sulphate for hysterectomy under subarachnoid block with bupivacaine and fentanyl: A prospective randomized double blind clinical trial

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    Mridu Paban Nath

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intrathecal magnesium has been found to prolong the duration of analgesia in various surgical procedures like lower limb surgeries and as adjuncts to general anesthesia for pain management. The present study was designed to examine whether addition of intrathecal magnesium sulfate would enhance the analgesic efficacy of intrathecal bupivacaine and fentanyl in patients undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy. Methods: After taking informed consent, 60 patients were randomised into two groups with 30 patients. Group "S" received 2.5 mL (12.5 mg of hyperbaric bupivacaine + 0.5 mL (25 mcg of fentanyl + 0.5 mL of normal saline and Group "M" received 2.5 mL (12.5 mg of hyperbaric bupivacaine + 0.5 mL (25 mcg of fentanyl + 0.5 mL (100 mg of magnesium sulfate. Onset of sensory, motor block and duration of analgesia was noted. Results: Demographic profile and duration of surgery were comparable (P>0.5. Time of onset of sensory and motor blockade was delayed in Group M compared with Group S, and this was statistically significant. A statistically significant longer duration of analgesia was observed in Group M compared with the control Group S. However, the recovery of motor blockade was found to be statistically insignificant in both the groups. The hemodynamic parameters were comparable in the perioperative period (P>0.05. The incidence of side-effects in both the groups were also comparable (P>0.05. Conclusion: The addition of 100 mg intrathecal magnesium led to prolonged duration of analgesia significantly without increasing the incidence of side-effects. Also, there was a significant delay in the onset of both sensory and motor blockade.

  17. Levosimendan combined with epinephrine improves rescue outcomes in a rat model of lipid-based resuscitation from bupivacaine-induced cardiac arrest.

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    Nan, Fubei; Cai, Xixi; Ye, Yingchao; Xu, Xuzhong; Li, Zhengqian; Li, Min; Chen, Limei

    2017-09-15

    The effectiveness of a combination of a lipid emulsion with epinephrine in reversing local anesthetic-induced cardiac arrest has been confirmed. The combination of a lipid emulsion with levosimendan, was shown to be superior to administration of a lipid emulsion alone with regard to successful resuscitation. In this study, we compared the reversal effects of levosimendan, epinephrine, and a combination of the two agents in lipid-based resuscitation in a rat model of bupivacaine-induced cardiac arrest. Fifty-four adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to bupivacaine (15 mg·kg(-1)) -induced asystole and were then randomly divided into 3 groups. A lipid emulsion was used as the basic treatment, and administration of drug combinations varied in each group as follows: (1) levosimendan combined with epinephrine (LiEL); (2) epinephrine (LiE); and (3) levosimendan (LiL). The resuscitation outcomes were recorded and included the rate of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and survival at 40 min, time to first heartbeat, time to ROSC, and cumulative dose of epinephrine. We calculated the wet-to-dry ratio of the lung, blood gas values at 40 min and bupivacaine concentration of cardiac tissue and plasma. The rates of ROSC in LiEL and LiE groups were higher than LiL group (P rate in LiEL group was higher than LiE group (P = 0.003; LiEL vs LiE, P = 0.008; LiEL vs LiL, P = 0.001). The time to first heart beat in LiEL group was shorter than LiE, LiL groups. (P weight ratio, and ratio of damaged alveoli among groups. The LiEL group had the best result for all parameters (P rate as well as decreased epinephrine consumption and lung damage.

  18. A Study on Epidural Tramadol Compared with Epidural Fentanyl Combined with Low Dose Bupivacaine for the Control of Metastatic Cancer Pain

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    Resham Bahadur Rana

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite advances in the knowledge of pathophysiology of pain and its management, patients continue to suffer from pain in many terminal stage cancer. Tramadol hydrochloride is a weak opioid with analgesic properties, and can be tried for cancer pain management. Objectives: This study was performed to find out the efficacy of the analgesic property of Tramadol through epidural route in cancer patients as an combination with low dose(.125% Bupivacaine and to compare with Fentanyl, a μ opioid agonist. Methods: 50 Cancer patients with or without previous pain management were randomly allocated to one of the two study regime- Group-A (tramadol 50 mg and Group-B (Fentanyl 50 mgm in combination with .125% Bupivacaine. Drugs were administered epidurally 6 hourly, 8 hourly and 12 hourly respectively for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd day. Low dose bupivacaine was added to both groups to enhance quality. Pain scores, blood pressure, respiratory rate, heart rate, side effects and patients' satisfaction score was recorded 6 hourly for 72 hrs. The data yielded from this study were compiled and analyzed by unpaired and paired ‘t' test with 95% confidence limit. A value of P< 0.05 was considered to be significant. ÷ square test was done for some of the data. Results: Pain scores were significantly decreased in both the groups but were not significantly different. The incidence of side effects including nausea and vomiting was found in both the groups and was not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion: The use of epidural Tramadol in selected cancer pain patients (especially pain in lower abdomen and lower back may be very useful and is comparable to opioid in certain situations. Key words: Metastatic cancer pain; Epidural tramadol. DOI: 10.3329/bsmmuj.v2i2.4760 BSMMU J 2009; 2(2: 66-72

  19. The Comparison of the Effects of Epidural Bupivacaine and Levobupivacaine on the Autonomic Nervous System and Cardiac Arrhythmia Parameters in Inguinal Hernia Surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Aynur; Kaya, Ayşe Günay; Yavuz, Bünyamin; Kantekin, Çiğdem Ünal; Başar, Hülya

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of bupivacaine and levobupivacaine, used to create epidural anaesthesia in inguinal hernia operations, on heart rate variability and cardiac arrhythmia parameters. Sixty male patients of the American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) I-II group, scheduled to be operated on for inguinal hernia surgery with epidural anaesthesia, were randomly divided into two groups. The patients, with a 12-channel Holter recorder (Rozinn RZ153+12-USA) attached 1 hour before the operation to record until the end of the surgery, were taken into the preparation room and anaesthetised. In group L (n=30), 17 mL of 0.5% levobupivacaine (Chirocain 0.5%-Abbot, El-verum, Norway) was given into the epidural space within 10 minutes, versus 17 mL of 0.5% bupivacaine in (Marcain 0.5%, Astra Zeneca, İstanbul, Turkey) group B (n=30). After 30 minutes, when there was enough block, the operation had been started. Holter recordings, starting 1 hour before the anaesthetic procedure and completed by the end of the operations, were transferred to the computer. The records were evaluated by the cardiologists. When analysing the frequency effect measurement results of the heart rate variability, it was seen that neither of the medications created any statistically significant change in or among the groups in total, very-low-frequency (VLF), low-frequency (LF), high-frequency (HF) and LF/HF ratio levels. Only normalised low-frequency band was significantly lower in Group L (p=0.013). In the volumes and concentrations that were used in our study, levobupivacaine and bupivacaine created sensory blockade at the same level on average and did not reduce heart rate variability at the levels of these blockages.

  20. Long-term intrathecal (i.t.) infusion of bupivacaine relieved intractable pain and spasticity in a patient with multiple sclerosis.

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    Dahm; Nitescu; Appelgren; Curelaru

    1998-03-01

    There is no reliable method to relieve both 'refractory' pain and spasticity in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). This paper reports on the long-term use of continuous intrathecal bupivacaine infusion in such a patient. The patient under study was a 56-year-old woman affected for 18 years by MS, unsuccessfully treated with analgesics, baclofen, opioids, peripheral neurolysis (obturator nerves, lumbar plexus) and six intrathecal neurolyses of the L4-S3 nerve roots, each time with 1.5 ml of 50% phenol in glycerol. Intrathecal baclofen was not considered (MS with bulbar location and neurogenic pains). An intrathecal catheter was inserted via the L3-L4 interspace and its tip was placed at the height of the T12-L1 intervertebral disc. An intrathecal infusion of 0.5% bupivacaine at a rate of 3 ml (=15 mg)/day was started. The infusion rate was gradually increased from 20 mg on the first day to 95 mg/day after 68 days. The pain intensity decreased from a mean visual analogue score (VAS(mean)) of 7 before treatment to 1 (on a 0-10 scale) during the intrathecal treatment. The patient became free from pain and spasticity. No side-effects or complications were recorded. The treatment was given for 712 days, at which point the patient died (unrelated to the treatment). Intrathecal infusion of bupivacaine relieved 'refractory' spasticity and pain in a MS patient in whom administration of intrathecal baclofen was contraindicated and neurodestructive procedures had been inefficient. Copyright 1998 European Federation of Chapters of the International Association for the Study of Pain.

  1. Comparison of intravenous labetalol and bupivacaine scalp block on the hemodynamic and entropy changes following skull pin application: A randomized, open label clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharne, Sidhesh; Bidkar, Prasanna Udupi; Badhe, Ashok Shankar; Parida, Satyen; Ramesh, Andi Sadayandi

    2016-01-01

    The application of skull pins in neurosurgical procedures is a highly noxious stimulus that causes hemodynamic changes and a rise in spectral entropy levels. We designed a study to compare intravenous (IV) labetalol and bupivacaine scalp block in blunting these changes. Sixty-six patients undergoing elective neurosurgical procedures were randomized into two groups, L (labetalol) and B (bupivacaine) of 33 each. After a standard induction sequence using fentanyl, propofol and vecuronium, patients were intubated. Baseline hemodynamic parameters and entropy levels were noted. Five minutes before, application of the pins, group L patients received IV labetalol 0.25 mg/kg and group B patients received scalp block with 30 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine. Following application of the pins, heart rate (HR), systolic arterial pressure (SAP), diastolic arterial pressure (DAP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and response entropy (RE)/state entropy (SE) were noted at regular time points up to 5 min. The two groups were comparable with respect to their demographic characteristics. Baseline hemodynamic parameters and entropy levels were also similar. After pinning, the HR, SAP, DAP, MAP, and RE/SE all increased in both groups but were lower in the scalp block group patients. HR increased by 19.8% in group L and by 11% in group B. SAP increased by 11.9% in group L and remained unchanged in group B. DAP increased by 19.7% in group L and by 9.9% in group B, MAP increased by 15.6% in group L and 5% in group B (P labetalol in attenuating the rise in hemodynamic parameters and entropy changes following skull pin application.

  2. PROSPECTIVE RANDOMIZED DOUBLE BLINDED PLACEBO CONTROLLED STUDY TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTS OF INTRAVENOUS DEXMEDETOMIDINE ON SPINAL BUPIVACAINE ANAESTHESIA

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    Janaki Babu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS There is a dearth of studies on the effect of intravenously administered Dexmedetomidine in Sub Arachnoid Block hence, this study was conducted to compare the effects of intravenously administered Dexmedetomidine prior to the administration of subarachnoid block with bupivacaine 0.5% heavy, on hemodynamic variables and the level and onset and duration of sensory and motor blockade. MATERIAL AND METHODS After obtaining ethical Committee approval, a double-blind, randomized prospective clinical study was conducted on 90 American Society of Anesthesiologist Grade I and II patients in the age group of 18-55 years, divided randomly into two groups: Group D received 50 ml solution containing Inj. Dexmedetomidine infusion at 0.5 mcg/kg for 10 minutes, and Group P received 50 ml of solution 0.9% Normal Saline as infusion at 10 minutes time. Subsequently Spinal Anaesthesia is carried out with Bupivacaine heavy 0.5%, and carried out recordings as per protocol. Besides Hemodynamic parameters other parameters observed were effectiveness, Sedation score; highest level of sensory block achieved; Motor and Sensory block; Time for first rescue analgesic requirement were recorded. RESULTS Group D (n=45 (Mean±SD Sedation Score 3.42±0.621 and Group P (n=45 (Mean±SD Sedation Score 1.80±0.405. Better sedation was seen in Group – D with a p value of less than 0.0001.The highest level of sensory blockade achieved was significantly higher in Group D when compared to the control group, and mean duration (in minutes to achieve the highest sensory blockade in both the groups: Group D (n=45 (Mean±SD 7.91±2.42 and Group P (n=45 (Mean±SD 9.82±3.973 p Value< 0.0001. The highest level of sensory blockade achieved was significantly higher in Group D when compared to the control group, and mean duration (in minutes to achieve the highest sensory blockade in both the groups. Group D (n=45 (Mean±SD 7.91±2.42 and Group P(n=45 (Mean±SD 9.82±3.973 p

  3. Comparison of Bupivacaine Alone and in Combination with Fentanyl or Pethidine for Bilateral infraorbital Nerve Block for Postoperative Analgesia in Paediatric Patients for Cleft Lip Repair: A Prospective Randomized Double Blind Study.

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    Mane, Rajesh S; Sanikop, C S; Dhulkhed, Vithal K; Gupta, Tuhina

    2011-01-01

    Cleft lip repair is one of the common surgeries performed in India and the usual method used for post operative analgesia is perioperative opioids and NSAIDs. There has been an increase in use of regional techniques and Opioids are the common adjuvants but their efficacy and safety have not been studied extensively in children. PATIENTS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; A prospective, randomized, double blind study was done to compare the efficacy, duration and safety of intraoral infraorbital nerve block on post operative pain relief using bupivacaine alone or in combination with fentanylor pethidine in paediatric cleft lip repair. 45 children between the age group 5 - 60 months undergoing cleft lip surgery randomly allocated into 3 groups of 15 each received bilateral intraoral infraorbital nerve block with 0.75ml of solution. Group B received 0.25% bupivacaine; group P received 0.25% bupivacaine with 0.25mg kg(-1) pethidine, group F received 0.25% bupivacaine with 0.25microgm kg(-1) fentanyl. Sedation after recovery, post operative pain intensity and duration of post operative analgesia were assessed using Modified Hannallah Pain Score. The mean duration of analgesia was 17.8 hrs in Group B, 23.53 hrs in Group F and 35.13 hrs in Group P. There was statistically significant difference between the means of the three groups- ANOVA (p Infraorbital Nerve Block prolong the duration of analgesia with no complications and can be used safely in paediatric patients.

  4. A CASE-CONTROL STUDY TO DETERMINE THE EFFECT OF INTRATHECAL NEOSTIGMINE WITH BUPIVACAINE ON THE DURATION OF ANALGESIA IN A TERTIARY CARE CENTER, KOTTAYAM

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    Unnikrishnannair Muralikrishnan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pain is derived from the Latin word “poena”, which means penalty or punishment.1 The relief of pain is one of the paramount goals of medical science. The surgical operation causes extensive tissue damage, thereby causing stress response, which peaks during the postoperative period and has major effects on almost all body systems. MATERIALS AND METHODS Patients aged between 30 to 50 years scheduled for surgery below the umbilicus were systematically randomised into 2 groups. Both the groups received bupivacaine with transdermal nitroglycerine patch, only group 1 received neostigmine. Both the group were assessed for vitals, duration of analgesia, number of analgesia requirement and adverse effects. RESULTS The mean age was 36.1 ± 10.4 in group I and 35.9 ± 9.22 years in group II. There was no statistically significant difference in the vitals. Duration of analgesia was longest in group I and the difference between two groups was statistically significant. Requirement of rescue analgesic in 1st 24 hrs. was least in group I. CONCLUSION Addition of 5 mcg neostigmine alone to bupivacaine does not produce much difference in duration of analgesia and analgesic requirement.

  5. Molecularly imprinted polymer in microextraction by packed sorbent for the simultaneous determination of local anesthetics: lidocaine, ropivacaine, mepivacaine and bupivacaine in plasma and urine samples.

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    Daryanavard, Seyed Mosayeb; Jeppsson-Dadoun, Amin; Andersson, Lars I; Hashemi, Mahdi; Colmsjö, Anders; Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed

    2013-11-01

    This study presents the use of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) as packing material for microextraction by packed syringe (MEPS) to achieve higher extraction selectivity. Pentycaine was used as template for MIP. Development and validation of the determination of lidocaine, ropivacaine, mepivacaine and bupivacaine in human plasma and urine samples utilizing MIP-MEPS and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were carried out. The MEPS MIP-cartridge could be used for 100 extractions before it was discarded. The extraction recovery ranged from 60 to 80%. The correlation coefficients values were >0.999 for all assays using lidocaine, ropivacaine, mepivacaine and bupivacaine in the calibration range 5-2000 nmol/L. The accuracy of the studied compounds, given as a percentage variation from the nominal concentration values, ranged from -4.9 to 8.4% using plasma and urine samples. The between-batch precision, given as the relative standard deviation, at three different concentrations (quality control samples) was ranged from -4.7 to 14.0% and from 1.8 to 12.7% in plasma and urine, respectively. The lower limit of quantification and limit of detection of the studied substances were 5.0 and 1.0 nm, respectively. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. The Effects of Single-Dose Rectal Midazolam Application on Postoperative Recovery, Sedation, and Analgesia in Children Given Caudal Anesthesia Plus Bupivacaine

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    Sedat Saylan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study aimed to compare the effects of rectal midazolam addition after applying bupivacaine and caudal anesthesia on postoperative analgesia time, the need for additional analgesics, postoperative recovery, and sedation and to find out its adverse effects in children having lower abdominal surgery. Methods. 40 children between 2 and 10 years of ASA I-II were randomized, and they received caudal anesthesia under general anesthesia. Patients underwent the application of caudal block in addition to saline and 1 mL/kg bupivacaine 0.25%. In the postoperative period, Group C (n = 20 was given 5 mL saline, and Group M (n = 20 was given 0.30 mg/kg rectal midazolam diluted with 5 mL saline. Sedation scale and postoperative pain scale (CHIPPS of the patients were evaluated. The patients were observed for their analgesic need, first analgesic time, and adverse effects for 24 hours. Results. Demographic and hemodynamic data of the two groups did not differ. Postoperative sedation scores in both groups were significantly lower compared with the preoperative period. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of sedation and sufficient analgesia. Conclusions. We conclude that caudal anesthesia provided sufficient analgesia in peroperative and postoperative periods, and rectal midazolam addition did not create any differences. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02127489.

  7. The efficiency and safety of local liposomal bupivacaine infiltration for pain control in total hip arthroplasty: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Zhang, Xin; Yang, Qing; Zhang, Zhi

    2017-12-01

    This meta-analysis aimed to compare the efficiency and safety of local liposomal bupivacaine infiltration and traditional cocktail analgesia for pain management in total hip arthroplasty (THA). PubMed, Embase, Web of science, Medline, and Cochrane library databases were systematically searched. Participants: patients planned for a THA with a diagnosis of hip osteoarthritis. liposomal bupivacaine was administrated in the experimental groups for pain control. Comparisons: the control groups received local infiltration of traditional analgesics. pain scores, opioids consumption, and postoperative complications among the patients. randomized control trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs. Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies scale was used to assess the methodological quality of the included studies. Meta-analysis was conducted by Stata 11.0 software. Systematic review registration number is CRD42017120981. Four articles involving 308 participants were included. Current meta-analysis revealed that there were significant differences regarding postoperative pain score at 12 hours (standard mean difference [SMD] = -0.496, 95% CI: -0.717 to -0.275, P = .000), 24 hours (SMD = -0.537, 95% CI: -0.760 to -0.313, P = .000), and 48 hours (SMD = -0.802, 95% CI: -1.029 to -0.576, P = .000). Liposomal bupivacaine intervention was found to significantly decrease opioid consumption at 12 hours (SMD = -0.544, 95% CI: -0.766 to -0.323, P = .000), 24 hours (SMD = -0.357, 95% CI: -0.577 to -0.138, P = .001), and 48 hours (SMD = -0.370, 95% CI: -0.589 to -0.151, P = .001). Local liposomal bupivacaine infiltration could significantly reduce visual analogue scale (VAS) scores and opioid consumption within the first 48 hours following THA surgery. In addition, there was a decreased risk of nausea and vomiting in liposomal bupivacaine groups. The overall evidence level was low, which means that further research is likely to

  8. Does Subcutaneous Infiltration of Liposomal Bupivacaine Following Single-Level Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion Surgery Improve Immediate Postoperative Pain Control?

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    Tomov, Marko; Tou, Kevin; Winkel, Rose; Puffer, Ross; Bydon, Mohamad; Nassr, Ahmad; Huddleston, Paul; Yaszemski, Michael; Currier, Bradford; Freedman, Brett

    2018-02-01

    Retrospective case-control study using prospectively collected data. Evaluate the impact of liposomal bupivacaine (LB) on postoperative pain management and narcotic use following standardized single-level low lumbar transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). Poor pain control after surgery has been linked with decreased pain satisfaction and increased economic burden. Unfortunately, opioids have many limitations and side effects despite being the primary treatment of postoperative pain. LB may be a form of pre-emptive analgesia used to reduce the use of postoperative narcotics as evidence in other studies evaluating its use in single-level microdiskectomies. The infiltration of LB subcutaneously during wound closure was performed by a single surgeon beginning in July 2014 for all single-level lumbar TLIF spinal surgeries at Landstuhl Regional Medical Center. This cohort was compared against a control cohort of patients who underwent the same surgery by the same surgeon in the preceding 6 months. Statistical analysis was performed on relevant variables including: morphine equivalents of narcotic medication used (primary outcome), length of hospitalization, Visual Analog Scale pain scores, and total time spent on a patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) pump. A total of 30 patients were included in this study; 16 were in the intervention cohort and 14 were in the control cohort. The morphine equivalents of intravenous narcotic use postoperatively were significantly less in the LB cohort from day of surgery to postoperative day 3. Although the differences lost their statistical significance, the trend remained for total (oral and intravenous) narcotic consumption to be lower in the LB group. The patients who received the study intervention required an acute pain service consult less frequently (62.5% in LB cohort vs. 78.6% in control cohort). The amount of time spent on a PCA pump in the LB group was 31 hours versus 47 hours in the control group ( p =0.1506). Local

  9. Single shot spinal anesthesia with very low hyperbaric bupivacaine dose (3.75 mg) for hip fracture repair surgery in the elderly. A randomized, double blinded study.

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    Errando, C L; Peiró, C M; Gimeno, A; Soriano, J L

    2014-11-01

    Single shot spinal anesthesia is used worldwide for hip fracture repair surgery in the elderly. Arterial hypotension is a frequent adverse effect. We hypothesized that lowering local anesthetics dose could decrease the incidence of arterial hypotension, while maintaining quality of surgical anesthesia. In a randomized double blinded study, 66 patients over the age of 65 years, with hip fracture needing surgical repair, were assigned to B0.5 group 7.5mg hyperbaric bupivacaine 5mg/ml (control group), and B0.25 group 3.75mg hyperbaric bupivacaine 2.5mg/ml (study group). Sensory and motor block level, and hemodynamic parameters including blood presure, heart rate and vasopressor dose administration were registered, along with rescue anesthesia needs, the feasibility of surgery, its duration, and regression time of sensory anesthesia to T12. After exclusions, 61 patients were included in the final analysis. Arterial hypotension incidence was lower in the B0.25 group (at the 5, 10, and 15min determinations), and a lower amount of vasopressor drugs was needed (mean accumulated ephedrine dose 1.6mg vs. 8.7mg in the B0.5 group, p<0.002). Sensory block regression time to T12 was shorter in the B0.25 group, mean 78.6±23.6 (95% CI 51.7-110.2)min vs. 125.5±37.9 (95% CI 101.7-169.4)min in the B0.5 group, p=0.033. All but one patient in the B0.25 group were operated on under the anesthetic procedure first intended. No rescue anesthesia was needed. Lowering bupivacaine dose for single shot spinal anesthesia for hip fracture repair surgery in elderly patients was effective in decreasing the occurrence of arterial hypotension and vasopressor use, while intraoperative quality remained. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. A novel lozenge containing bupivacaine as tropical alleviation of oral mucositis pain in patients with head and neck cancer: apilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Stine; Treldal, Charlotte; Sveinsdóttir, Kolbrún

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Introduction: Oral mucositis induces severe oral pain in head and neck cancer patients. There is at this point no effective pain treatment without considerable side effects. Objective: The aim of this pilot study was to investigate pain reduction in oral cavity and pharynx in patients...... with head and neck cancer (HNC) with oral mucositis, the location of anesthetic effect, and duration of pain relief, after a single-dose administration of a 25 mg bupivacaine lozenge. Methods: Ten patients with HNC suffering from oral mucositis pain were included. The patients assessed pain in the oral...... cavity and pharynx on a visual analogue scale (from 0 to 100 mm) at baseline and up to 3 hours after the lozenge was dissolved. Possible adverse events were registered. Results: The baseline pain was 51 mm (range: 30–73 mm) in the oral cavity and 58 mm (range: 35–70 mm) in the pharynx. When the lozenge...

  11. Comparative study of two doses of intrathecal dexmedetomidine as adjuvant with low dose hyperbaric bupivacaine in ambulatory perianal surgeries: A prospective randomised controlled study

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    K Sudheesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Dexmedetomidine (DMT, as intrathecal adjuvant has been shown to successfully prolong duration of analgesia but delay the motor recovery. Hence, this study was designed to find out the dose of DMT which can provide satisfactory analgesia without prolonging motor block. Methods: A total of 50 patients scheduled for elective perianal surgeries were randomly allocated to Groups C or D (n = 25. Group D received hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% 4 mg + DMT 5 μg and Group C received hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% 4 mg + DMT 3 μg intrathecally. Onset and duration of sensory and motor blockade, duration of analgesia, time for ambulation and first urination were recorded. Adverse effects if any were noted. Results: Demographic characters, duration of surgery were comparable. The onset of sensory block to S1 was 9.61 ± 5.53 min in Group C compared to 7.69 ± 4.80 min in Group D (P = 0.35. Duration of sensory (145.28 ± 83.17 min – C, 167.85 ± 93.75 min – D, P = 0.5 and motor block (170.53 ± 73.44 min – C, 196.14 ± 84.28 min, P = 0.39 were comparable. Duration of analgesia (337.86 ± 105.11 min – C, 340.78 ± 101.81 min – D, P = 0.9 and time for ambulation (252.46 ± 93.72 min – C, 253.64 ± 88.04 min – D, P = 0.97 were also comparable. One patient in each group had urinary retention requiring catheterization. No other side effects were observed. Conclusion: Intrathecal DMT 3 μg dose does not produce faster ambulation compared to intrathecal DMT 5 μg though it produces comparable duration of analgesia for perianal surgeries.

  12. [The influence of the bupivacaine regional anesthesia on the contractile activity of the uterus and the functional state of the fetus].

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    Baziian, E V; Konstantinova, N N; Nazarova, L A; Pervak, V A; Pavlova, N G

    2013-01-01

    The study in chronic experiment on 26 pregnant rabbit females induced in labor by oxytocin on the 30th day ofpregnancy was conducted. The effects of bupivacaine (0,5% - I ml) epidural anesthesia (EA) on the contractile activity of the uterus, the functional state of the females and their fetuses were studied. On the 28th day of pregnancy under thiopental anesthesia electrodes were administered: to thefetus - ECG, in the female myometrium for recording electrical activity. In order to check the uterus mechanical activity the original sensor was used filled by graphite, which was placed around one horn of the uterus. The contractile activity of the myometrium was evaluatedfor each 5-minute interval by the number ofuterine contractions, duration and amplitude of one uterine contraction. The functional state offemale fetuses and rabbit female were evaluated by the frequency change of the heart rate. In 12 females occured to delivery. Registration of uterine contractions, heart rate of the female and fetuses were carried out simultaneously and continuously throughout the whole experiment. It was shown that under standard conditions EA didn't induce changes in uterine activity parameters of the female located in its natural position, and didn't affect on the fetal heart rate (3-factor analysis of variance - ANOVA). 10minutes after EA, the momentary acceleration of female heart rate (9%) was recorded in relation to the reference level, which may be associated with transient hypotension. Thus, in conditions of our experience the bupivacaine (0,5% - 1,0 ml) EA in induced labor of female rabbit has no significant effect on the uterus contractile activity and the functional state of the fetus. Short-term adaptive tachycardia is registered in females.

  13. Comparative Evaluation of Anesthetic Efficacy of 2% Lidocaine, 4% Articaine, and 0.5% Bupivacaine on Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block in Patients with Symptomatic Irreversible Pulpitis: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-blind Clinical Trial.

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    Aggarwal, Vivek; Singla, Mamta; Miglani, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    To compare the anesthetic efficacy of 1.8 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine, 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine, and 0.5% bupivacaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine on producing inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. A total of 91 adult patients who were actively experiencing mandibular molar pain were involved in this study. The patients were randomly divided into three groups on the basis of the anesthetic solution used. The first group received IANB with 1.8 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine, the second group received IANB with 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine, and the third group received IANB with 0.5% bupivacaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine. After 15 minutes of IANB, conventional endodontic access preparation was started. The pain during the treatment was noted on a Heft-Parker visual analog scale (HP VAS). The primary outcome measure was anesthetic success, and anesthesia was considered successful if the patient reported no pain or weak/mild pain (HP VAS score .05). The 2% lidocaine solution used for IANB had similar success rates when compared with 4% articaine and 0.5% bupivacaine.

  14. COMPARISON OF SINGLE BOLUS DOSE OF DEXMEDETOMIDINE WITH BOLUS PLUS CONTINUOUS INFUSION OF DEXMEDETOMIDINE ON CHARACTERISTIC OF SPINAL ANAESTHESIA WITH HYPERBARIC BUPIVACAINE

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    Jigar Ashokkumar Rupareliya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND This was a prospective randomised double-blind study to compare the single bolus dose of I.V. dexmedetomidine (0.5 mcg/kg diluted in 10 mL normal saline given slowly before spinal anaesthesia followed by continuous infusion of I.V. dexmedetomidine at the rate of 0.2 mcg/kg/hr. with only single bolus dose of I.V. dexmedetomidine (0.5 mcg/kg diluted in 10 mL normal saline given slowly over 10 mins. before spinal anaesthesia to find out the better technique, which has all the desired effects like prolongation of sensory and motor block and prolong postoperative analgesia with minimal side effects like hypotension and bradycardia. MATERIALS AND METHODS 60 elective surgical patients posted for below umbilical abdominal surgeries and lower limb surgeries with ASA grade I and II with age, weight and height between 20-70 years, 40-70 kg and 150 to 170 cm respectively were selected. Patient was randomly allotted in two group of 30 patients. Patients in both the groups received I.V. dexmedetomidine bolus at the rate of 0.5 mcg/kg diluted in 10 mL normal saline slowly over 10 mins. using infusion pump prior to spinal anaesthesia with 3 mL 0.5% bupivacaine. After spinal anaesthesia, patient in Group D received infusion of dexmedetomidine at the rate of 0.2 mcg/kg/hr. (100 mcg dexmedetomidine diluted in 50 mL normal saline, i.e. 2 mcg/mL by infusion pump till the end of surgery. In Group N, patient received infusion of 50 mL normal saline at predetermined rate till end of surgery. The onset of sensory and motor block, duration of sensory and motor block, haemodynamic stability and quality of surgical anaesthesia, intraoperative complications, postoperative analgesia and side effects were recorded. RESULTS Our study concluded that I.V. supplementation of bolus followed by continuous infusion of Inj. Dexmedetomidine prolong the duration of sensory and motor block induced with spinal bupivacaine 0.5% hyperbaric. It provides the stable haemodynamic

  15. The incidence of transient neurologic syndrome after spinal anesthesia with lidocaine or bupivacaine: The effects of needle type and surgical position: brief report

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    Etezadi F

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available "nBurning Transient Neurologic Syndrome (TNS which was first described by Schneider et al in 1993, is defined as a transient pain and dysesthesia in waist, buttocks and the lower limbs after spinal anesthesia.1,2 The incidence of TNS after spinal anesthesia with lidocaine is reported to be as high as 10-40%.3,4 This prospective study was designed to determine the incidence of TNS with two different types of drugs, lidocaine and bupivacaine, in lithotomy or supine positions as the primary outcomes and to determine the association between two different types of needles and surgical positions with the occurrence of TNS as the secondary outcome."nThe present study was conducted on 250 patients (ASA I-II, aged 18-60 years old, who were candidates for surgery in supine or lithotomy positions. According to the needle type (Sprotte or Quincke and the local anesthetic (lidocaine or bupivacaine all patients were randomly divided into four groups. After establishing standard monitoring, spinal anesthesia was performed in all sitting patients by attending anesthesiologists at L2-L3 or L3-L4 levels. The patients were placed in supine or lithotomy position, in regards to the surgical procedure. During the first three postoperative days, patients were observed for post spinal anesthesia complications, especially TNS. Any sensation of pain, dysesthesia, paresthesia or hyperalgesia in the low back area, buttocks, the anterior or posterior thigh, knees, either foot or both feet were recorded. Moreover, duration of pain, its radiation and its relation to sleep and the patients' position were all carefully considered. Ultimately, the patients' response to opioid (pethidine for analgesia was determined."nThe incidence of TNS was higher when spinal anesthesia was induced with lidocaine (68% vs. 22%, P=0.003. TNS developed in 85% of the patients in lidocaine group and 58% in bupivacaine group after surgery in lithotomy position (P=0.002. In 77 patients pain

  16. COMBINED SPINAL EPIDURAL ANALGESIA IN LABOUR: COMPARISON OF BUPIVACAINE 1.25 MG WITH FENTANYL AND ROPIVACAINE 2.5 MG WITH FENTANYL INTRATHECAL

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    Prakash T. S. N

    2016-10-01

    with ASA I and ASA II in established labour with cervical dilatation less than 5 cm was selected and randomly allocated into two groups using closed envelope method. Informed written consent was taken from all participants. They were divided into 2 groups of 20 each. Group I received intrathecal Inj. Bupivacaine 1.25 mg and Inj. Fentanyl 20 µg. Group II received intrathecal Inj. Ropivacaine 2.5 mg and Inj. Fentanyl 20 µg for combined spinal epidural. IV line was secured with 18G cannula. Patient was preloaded with 500 mL of Hartmann’s solution. Basal vital parameter like pulse rate, blood pressure, respiration, O2 saturation were recorded. The patient was positioned in a sitting position with the help of an assistant. Under aseptic conditions, the back was prepared with 5% povidone-iodine solution, spirit and area was draped. L3-L4 interspace was identified. Skin was infiltrated with 2 mL of 1% Xylocaine. After infiltration of local anaesthetic by using needle through needle technique 18-gauge Tuohy needle, epidural space was identified with loss of resistance to air technique. Then, a 15 mm (27 G long ‘Whitacre’ spinal needle was introduced through the epidural needle and the correct position of the tip in the intrathecal space was confirmed by observation of free flow of CSF. Patients were allocated randomly to receive intrathecal injection of bupivacaine 1.25 mg (0.5% bupivacaine 0.25 mL with fentanyl 20 µg (Group I n=30 or ropivacaine 2.5 mg/0.2% ropivacaine 1.25 mL with fentanyl 20 µg (Group II, n=30 both made up to total volume of 2 mL with saline. Injection of intrathecal drug was completed in 10 secs., then 20G epidural catheter was threaded through the epidural needle into the epidural space in cephalad direction. The epidural needle was slowly pulled out without disturbing the catheter. About 3 to 5 cm of catheter was left in epidural space. The catheter was well secured with plaster. Patients vitals was recorded every 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90

  17. Clinical evaluation of XaraColl®, a bupivacaine-collagen implant, for postoperative analgesia in two multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot studies

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    Cusack SL

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Susan L Cusack,1 Mark Jaros,2 Michael Kuss,3 Harold S Minkowitz,4 Peter Winkle,5 Lisa Hemsen61Cusack Pharmaceutical Consulting, Burlington, NJ, 2Summit Analytical, Denver, CO, USA; 3Premier Research Group, Austin, TX, USA; 4Memorial Hermann Memorial City Medical Center, Houston, TX, USA; 5Advanced Clinical Research Institute, Anaheim, CA, USA; 6Innocoll Technologies, Athlone, IrelandBackground: XaraColl®, a collagen-based implant that delivers bupivacaine to the site of surgical trauma, is under development for postoperative analgesia. Because of differing patient attitudes to postoperative pain control and the inability to assess baseline pain, standard clinical methods for evaluating analgesic efficacy are compromised and justify application of novel integrated approaches.Methods: We conducted two independent, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in men undergoing unilateral inguinal hernioplasty by open laparotomy to evaluate the safety and efficacy of XaraColl at different doses (100 mg and 200 mg of bupivacaine hydrochloride; study 1 and 2, respectively. Enrolled patients (50 in study 1 and 53 in study 2 were randomized to receive active or placebo implants in a 1:1 ratio. Postoperative pain intensity and use of supplementary opioid medication were recorded through 72 hours. Safety was assessed through 30 days. The principal efficacy variables were the summed pain intensity (SPI, total use of opioid analgesia (TOpA, and an integrated endpoint (I-SPI-TOpA. Each variable was analyzed at 24, 48, and 72 hours after implantation. A pooled analysis of both studies was also performed retrospectively.Results: Through 24 and 48 hours, XaraColl-treated patients experienced significantly less pain in study 1 (P < 0.001 and P = 0.012, respectively whereas they took significantly less opioid analgesia in study 2 (P = 0.004 and P = 0.042, respectively. Over the same time intervals in the pooled analysis, treated patients experienced

  18. Is There a Benefit for Liposomal Bupivacaine Compared to a Traditional Periarticular Injection in Total Knee Arthroplasty Patients With a History of Chronic Opioid Use?

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    Schwarzkopf, Ran; Drexler, Michael; Ma, Michael W; Schultz, Vanessa M; Le, Khanhvan T; Rutenberg, Tal Frenkel; Rinehart, Joseph B

    2016-08-01

    Postoperative pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) poses a major challenge. It delays mobilization, increases opioid consumption and side effects, and lengthens hospitalization. This challenge multiplies when treating an opioid-dependent population. We examined whether a novel suspended release local anesthetic, liposomal bupivacaine (LB) would improve pain control and decrease opioid consumption after TKA compared to a standard periarticular injection in opioid-dependent patients. Thirty-eight patients undergoing TKA were randomly assigned to receive either a periarticular injection (PAI) with LB (n = 20) or with a standard PAI (including a combination of ropivacaine, clonidine, Toradol, Epinepherine, and saline; n = 18) as part of a multimodal pain management approach. All periarticular injections were done by a single surgeon. Perioperative treatment was similar between groups. Postoperative information regarding pain level was evaluated by a pain visual analog scale score. Postoperative opioid consumption was recorded. After controlling baseline narcotic usage before surgery, no differences were found between groups in daily postoperative narcotic usage (P = .113), average daily pain score (P = .332), or maximum daily pain score (P = .881). However, when examining pain levels separately for each day, pain visual analog scale scores were reported higher in post operative day 1 in the LB group (P = .033). LB was not found to be superior to standard PAI in opioid-dependent patients undergoing TKA. This patient population continues to present a challenge even with modern multimodal pain protocols. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Raquianestesia unilateral com bupivacaína hipobárica Raquianestesia unilateral con bupivacaína hipobárica Unilateral spinal anesthesia with hypobaric bupivacaine

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    Luiz Eduardo Imbelloni

    2002-09-01

    raquianestesia unilateral son la estabilidad hemodinámica, la satisfacción del paciente y la ausencia de cefalea pós-punción.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Restricted sympathetic block during spinal anesthesia may minimize hemodynamic changes. In theory, the use of non-isobaric local anesthetics may induce unilateral anesthesia and limit sympathetic blockade to one side of the body. The local anesthetic dose and the time patients need to remain in the lateral position for achieving unilateral spinal anesthesia are not known. This prospective study investigated the incidence of unilateral spinal anesthesia following injection through a 27G Quincke needle of 0.15% hypobaric bupivacaine, prepared with 1.5 ml standard isobaric bupivacaine plus fentanyl (25 µg, in patients in the lateral position with the limb to be operated upwards. METHODS: Spinal anesthesia with 0.15% bupivacaine + fentanyl (25 µg was induced through a 27G Quincke needle in 22 ASA I and II patients undergoing orthopedic surgery. Dural puncture was performed with the patient in the lateral position with the side to be operated upwards. After removal of 3 to 5 ml of CSF, 5 ml of the hypobaric bupivacaine-fentanyl mixture were injected at a speed of 1 ml.15 s-1. Sensory and motor block (pinprick/scale 0 to 3 were compared between operated and contralateral sides. RESULTS: Motor and sensory blocks in operated and contralateral sides were significantly different in all moments for both groups. Unilateral spinal anesthesia was obtained in 71% of the patients. No hemodynamic changes were observed in any patient. No patient developed post-dural puncture headache. CONCLUSIONS: Hypobaric 0.15% bupivacaine (7.5 mg associated to fentanyl provided a predominantly unilateral block after twenty minutes in the lateral position. Major advantages of unilateral spinal anesthesia were hemodynamic stability, patient satisfaction and the absence of post-dural puncture headache.

  20. The efficacy of preventive parasternal single injection of bupivacaine on intubation time, blood gas parameters, narcotic requirement, and pain relief after open heart surgery: A randomized clinical trial study

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    Mahmoud Saeidi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postsurgical pain usually results in some complications in the patients. This study has tried to investigate the effects of parasternal single injection of bupivacaine on postoperative pulmonary and pain consequences in patients after open heart surgery. Methods: : In a prospective double blind clinical study, 100 consenting patients undergoing elective open heart surgery were randomized into two groups. In case group, bupivacaine was injected at both sides of sternum, immediately before sternal closure. In the control group, no intervention was performed. Then, the patients were investigated regarding intubation period, length of ICU stay, arterial blood gas (ABG parameters, morphine requirement, and their severity of postoperative pain using a visual analogue scale (VAS device. Results: No differences were found between the two groups regarding to age, sex, pump time, operation time, and body mass index and preoperative cardiac ejection fraction. Mean intubation length in case group was much shorter than that in control group. Mean PaO 2 in case group was lower in different checking times in postoperative period. The patients in the case group needed less morphine compared to those in the control group during the 24-hour observation period in the ICU. Finally, mean VAS scores of pain in case group were significantly lower than those in control group at 6, 12, and 24 hours postoperatively. Conclusions: Patients′ pain relief by parasternal single injection of bupivacaine in early postoperative period can facilitate earlier ventilator weaning and tracheal extubation after open heart surgery as well as achieving lower pain scores and narcotic requirements.

  1. A dose-ranging study of 0.5% bupivacaine or ropivacaine on the success and duration of the ultrasound-guided, nerve-stimulator-assisted sciatic nerve block: a double-blind, randomized clinical trial.

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    Nader, Antoun; Kendall, Mark C; De Oliveira, Gildasio S; Puri, Lalit; Tureanu, Luminita; Brodskaia, Alina; Asher, Yogen; Parimi, Vamsi; McCarthy, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Before bifurcation, the sciatic nerve is composed of 2 component nerves encased in a common investing extraneural layer (CIEL). We examined the effect of various volumes injected beneath the CIEL on the success and duration of sciatic nerve block. Ultrasound-guided nerve-stimulator-assisted sciatic nerve blocks were performed on 142 subjects. Subjects were randomized into 14 groups (0.5% ropivacaine or bupivacaine) with epinephrine 1:300,000 in volumes ranging from 2.5 to 30 mL. Successful block was defined as a complete sensory and motor block at 60 minutes. The minimum threshold current, time to complete block, duration of sensory and motor block, postoperative pain, and analgesic requirements were recorded. The mean threshold current external to the CIEL was 0.52 (0.15) mA compared to 0.19 (0.09) mA beneath the CIEL (P block was achieved in 30 of 40 subjects that received 5 mL or less of ropivacaine or bupivacaine compared with 97 of 99 that received 10 mL or greater volume (P = 0.006). Injection volumes greater than or equal to 10 mL produced complete sensory and motor block within 30 minutes. Volumes greater than 10 mL did not extend the duration of the sensory or motor block. Injection volumes of 2.5 and 5 mL were associated with delayed onset and decreased block duration and a greater fraction of subjects experiencing pain behind the knee. Injecting 10 mL of 0.5% bupivacaine or ropivacaine below the CIEL produces comparable onset and duration of sensory and motor blockade as volumes as large as 30 mL.

  2. Single shot spinal anaesthesia with hypobaric bupivacaine for hip fracture repair surgery in the elderly. Randomized, double blinded comparison of 3.75 mg vs. 7.5 mg.

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    Errando, C L; Soriano-Bru, J L; Peiró, C M; Ubeda, J

    2014-12-01

    Arterial hypotension is the most frequent adverse effect of subarachnoid anaesthesia in the elderly sustaining a femoral proximal fracture. Decreasing the local anaesthetic dose reduces the incidence of hypotension but shortens sensory block duration that could be insufficient in some surgical procedures. Sensory block duration could be prolonged using hypobaric local anaesthetics. We evaluated whether low hypobaric bupivacaine doses were adequate for this type of surgery while maintaining the haemodynamic stability. A prospective, randomized, double blinded study was designed. Patients over 65 years old, sustaining traumatic hip fracture, were assigned to one of two groups: B0.5 group, hypobaric bupivacaine 7.5mg 5mg/ml (control group), and B0.25 group, hypobaric bupivacaine 3.75 mg 2.5mg/ml (study group). After subarachnoid injection, sensory level and motor blockade degree were registered, as were blood pressure, and heart rate at basal time and at 2, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 min after injection. The doses of vasopressor needed were registered as well. Surgical conditions and the duration of the surgical procedure-whether rescue analgesia or anaesthesia was needed-and sensory level regression to T12, were registered as well. Sixty four patients was the calculated sample size. The study was stopped in an interim analysis because an elevated number of patients in the B0.25 group needed iv rescue anaesthesia. In the analyzed cases, blood pressure was significantly lower in the B0.5 group at the 15 and 30 min measurements. Vasopressor drugs needs were similar between groups [ephedrine accumulated mean (SD) doses 11.4 (5.2) mg vs. 9.1 (2.7) mg, p=0.045)]. Sensory block regression to T12 was faster in the B0.25 group, [(mean (SD) 68.2 (29.0) min vs. 112.8 (17.3) min in the B0.5 group, p<0.05]. Five out of 19 patients in the B0.25 group needed intravenous anaesthesia rescue before surgery started. Lowering hypobaric bupivacaine dose to 3.75 mg in subarachnoid anaesthesia

  3. COMPARISON BETWEEN FENTANYL 2 μG/mL VERSUS DEXMEDETOMIDINE 1.5 μG/mL AS ADJUVANTS WITH ISOBARIC BUPIVACAINE 0.0625% IN EPIDURAL LABOUR ANALGESIA

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    Karuna Harsoor

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Low-dose bupivacaine with opioids like fentanyl have been used traditionally as an adjunct for epidural labour analgesia, but has side effects like pruritus, urinary retention, nausea, vomiting, etc. Dexmedetomidine, an α-2 adrenergic agonist with a high placental retention, decreased sympathetic outflow and norepinephrine release thereby causing sedation, anxiolysis, analgesia, sympatholysis and maternal haemodynamic stability. Hence, this study was carried out to compare dexmedetomidine and fentanyl as adjuvants in epidural labour analgesia. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective randomised, double-blind study was conducted in 60 term parturients in active labour of ASA I and II physical status. They were randomised into 2 groups with 30 parturients in each and received 15 mL of 0.0625% Inj. Bupivacaine plus either 1.5 μg/mL Inj. Dexmedetomidine (BD group or 2 μg/mL Inj. Fentanyl (BF group. VAS, sedation scores, modified four grade Bromage scale, haemodynamics, peripheral oxygen saturation were recorded at baseline and regular intervals. When VAS was ≥4, subsequent doses of 5 mL of the respective group drug was administered. Parturients were ambulated when Bromage scale was 0 with no postural hypotension. Duration of analgesia, labour outcome, neonatal Apgar scores and side effects were noted. RESULTS Demography and haemodynamic stability were similar and comparable. Duration of analgesia was significantly longer in BD group (131.83±45.760 than BF group (85.33±22.512 (p<0.0001. More no. of top-ups was needed in BF group (1.80±1.518 than BD group (0.17±0.461 (p<0.0001. Significantly reduced VAS scores was observed in BD group than BF group. Mean sedation scores (p<0.05 and maximum Bromage scores (p=0.004 were significantly higher in BD group than BF group. Ambulation was less in BD group (3 parturients than BF group (26 parturients. Side effects were significantly more in BF group than BD group (p=0.007. The labour outcomes

  4. An extended paIn relief trial utilizing the infiltration of a long-acting Multivesicular liPosome foRmulation Of bupiVacaine, EXPAREL (IMPROVE: a Phase IV health economic trial in adult patients undergoing ileostomy reversal

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    Marcet JE

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Jorge E Marcet,1 Valentine N Nfonsam,2 Sergio Larach31Department of Surgery, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; 2Department of Surgery, University of Arizona Cancer Center, Tucson, AZ, USA; 3The Center for Colon and Rectal Surgery, Florida Hospital Cancer Institute, Orlando, FL, USABackground: Opioid analgesics are effective for postsurgical pain but are associated with opioid-related adverse events, creating a significant clinical and economic burden. Gastrointestinal surgery patients are at high risk for opioid-related adverse events. We conducted a study to assess the impact of an opioid-sparing multimodal analgesia regimen with liposome bupivacaine, compared with the standard of care (intravenous [IV] opioid-based, patient-controlled analgesia [PCA] on postsurgical opioid use and health economic outcomes in patients undergoing ileostomy reversal.Methods: In this open-label, multicenter study, sequential cohorts of patients undergoing ileostomy reversal received IV opioid PCA (first cohort; or multimodal analgesia including a single intraoperative administration of liposome bupivacaine (second cohort. Rescue analgesia was available to all patients. Primary outcome measures were postsurgical opioid use, hospital length of stay, and hospitalization costs. Incidence of opioid-related adverse events was also assessed.Results: Twenty-seven patients were enrolled, underwent the planned surgery, and did not meet any intraoperative exclusion criteria; 16 received liposome bupivacaine-based multimodal analgesia and eleven received the standard IV opioid PCA regimen. The multimodal regimen was associated with significant reductions in opioid use compared with the IV opioid PCA regimen (mean, 20 mg versus 112 mg; median, 6 mg versus 48 mg, respectively; P < 0.01, postsurgical length of stay (median, 3.0 days versus 5.1 days, respectively; P < 0.001, and hospitalization costs (geometric mean, $6482 versus $9282

  5. Quality of analgesia after lower third molar surgery: A randomised, double-blind study of levobupivacaine, bupivacaine and lidocaine with epinephrine

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    Brajković Denis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Surgical extraction of lower third molars is followed by mild or severe postoperative pain which peaks at maximal intensity in the first 12 hours and has a significant impact on a patient’s postoperative quality of life. The use of long-acting local anaesthetics is a promising strategy to improve postoperative analgesia. The aim of the present study was to investigate analgesic parameters and patient satisfaction after using 0.5% levobupivacaine (Lbup, 0.5% bupivacaine (Bup and 2% lidocaine with epinephrine 1:80,000 (Lid + Epi for an inferior alveolar nerve block following lower third molar surgery. Methods. A total of 102 patients (ASA I were divided into three groups, each of which received either 3 mL of Lbup, Bup or Lid + Epi. The intensity of postoperative analgesia was measured using a verbal rating scale (VRS. The total amounts of rescue analgesics were recorded on the first and during seven postoperative days. Patients satisfaction was noted using a modified verbal scales. Results. A significantly higher level of postoperative pain was recorded in Lid + Epi group compared to Bup and Lbup groups. No significant differences were seen between Bup and Lbup, but a significant reduction in the need for rescue analgesics was seen postoperatively in both Lbup and Bup (50% in comparison with Lid + Epi (80% in the first 24 hours. The same significant trend in rescue analgesic consumption was recorded for seven postoperative days. Patients’ overall satisfaction was significantly lower for Lid + Epi (10% than for Lbup (56% and Bup (52%. Conclusion. The use of a new and long-acting local anaesthetic 0.5% levobupivacaine is clinically relevant and effective for an inferior alveolar nerve block and postoperative pain control after third molar surgery. In our study Lbup and Bup controled postoperative pain more efficiently after lower third molar surgery compared to Lid + Epi. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175021

  6. Ultrasound guided transversus abdominis plane vs surgeon administered intraoperative regional field infiltration with bupivacaine for early postoperative pain control in children undergoing open pyeloplasty.

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    Lorenzo, Armando J; Lynch, Johanne; Matava, Clyde; El-Beheiry, Hossam; Hayes, Jason

    2014-07-01

    Regional analgesic techniques are commonly used in pediatric urology. Ultrasound guided transversus abdominis plane block has recently gained popularity. However, there is a paucity of information supporting a benefit over regional field infiltration. We present a parallel group, randomized, controlled trial evaluating ultrasound guided transversus abdominis plane block superiority over surgeon delivered regional field infiltration for children undergoing open pyeloplasty at a tertiary referral center. Following ethics board approval and registration, children 0 to 6 years old were recruited and randomized to undergo perioperative transversus abdominis plane block or regional field infiltration for early post-pyeloplasty pain control. General anesthetic delivery, surgical technique and postoperative analgesics were standardized. A blinded assessor regularly captured pain scores in the recovery room using the FLACC (Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability) scale. The primary outcome was the need for rescue morphine administration based on a FLACC score of 3 or higher. Two pediatric urologists performed 57 pyeloplasties during a 2.5-year period, enrolling 32 children (16 in each group, balanced for age and weight). There were statistically significant differences in the number of children requiring rescue morphine administration (13 of 16 receiving transversus abdominis plane block and 6 of 16 receiving regional field infiltration, p = 0.011), mean ± SD total morphine consumption (0.066 ± 0.051 vs 0.028 ± 0.040 mg/kg, p = 0.021) and mean ± SD pain scores (5 ± 5 vs 2 ± 3, p = 0.043) in the recovery room, in favor of surgeon administered regional field infiltration. No local anesthetic specific adverse events were noted. Ultrasound guided transversus abdominis plane block is not superior to regional field infiltration with bupivacaine as a strategy to minimize early opioid requirements following open pyeloplasty in children. Instead, our data suggest that

  7. Coelomic implantation of satellite transmitters in the bar-tailed godwit (Limosa lapponica) and the bristle-thighed curlew (Numenius tahitiensis) using propofol, bupivacaine, and lidocaine

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    Mulcahy, Daniel M.; Gartrell, Brett D.; Gill, Robert E.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Ruthrauff, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Intravenous propofol was used as a general anesthetic with a 2∶1 (mg∶mg) adjunctive mixture of lidocaine and bupivacaine as local anesthetics infiltrated into the surgical sites for implantation of satellite transmitters into the right abdominal air sac of 39 female and 4 male bar-tailed godwits (Limosa lapponica baueri and Limosa lapponica menzbeiri) and 11 female and 12 male bristle-thighed curlews (Numenius tahitiensis). The birds were captured on nesting grounds in Alaska, USA, and on overwintering areas in New Zealand and Australia from 2005 through 2008. As it was developed, the mass of the transmitter used changed yearly from a low of 22.4 ± 0.2 g to a high of 27.1 ± 0.2 g and weighed 25.1 ± 0.2 g in the final year. The mean load ratios ranged from 5.2% to 7.7% for godwits and from 5.7% to 7.5% for curlews and exceeded 5% for all years, locations, and genders of both species. The maximum load ratio was 8.3% for a female bar-tailed godwit implanted in Australia in 2008. Three godwits and no curlews died during surgery. Most birds were hyperthermic upon induction but improved during surgery. Two godwits (one in New Zealand and one in Australia) could not stand upon release, likely due to capture myopathy. These birds failed to respond to treatment and were euthanized. The implanted transmitters were used to follow godwits through their southern and northern migrations, and curlews were followed on their southern migration.

  8. Thoracic epidural analgesia with low concentration of bupivacaine induces thoracic and lumbar sympathetic block: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial.

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    Freise, Hendrik; Meissner, Andreas; Lauer, Stefan; Ellger, Björn; Radke, Robert; Bruewer, Mathias; Brodner, Gerd; Van Aken, Hugo K; Sielenkämper, Andreas W; Fischer, Lars G

    2008-12-01

    Clinical benefits of thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA) are partly ascribed to thoracic sympathetic block. However, data regarding sympathetic activity during TEA are scarce and contradictory. This prospective, randomized, double-blind study evaluated the segmental propagation of sympathetic block after low-concentration, high-volume TEA using digital thermography. Twenty-four patients were included in the study. Thoracic epidural catheters were placed at a median insertion level of T8-T9. Patients were accommodated for 20 min to the room temperature of 23 degrees +/- 0.3 degrees C. Skin temperature was recorded by digital thermography. After baseline measurement of heart rate, arterial pressure, and core body and skin temperature, 10 ml saline (control group) or 10 ml bupivacaine, 0.25% (TEA group), respectively, was administered epidurally. Five minutes (t5) and 20 min (t20) after baseline measurements, hemodynamic parameters and core body temperature were again measured, and sensory block was identified by loss of cold-warm discrimination. In the thumb, the toe, and each thoracic dermatome, difference from baseline temperature was calculated at t5 and t20. Data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U test. Baseline characteristics did not differ among groups. Median spread of sensory block at t20 was T5-L5. At both t5 and t20, skin temperature decreased more in the control group than in the TEA group in all thoracic dermatomes (P lumbar sympathetic block that precedes and exceeds sensory block. Caudal limit of sympathetic block could not be demonstrated in this study.

  9. Bupivacaína racêmica, levobupivacaína e ropivacaína em anestesia loco-regional para oftalmologia: um estudo comparativo Racemic bupivacaine, levobupi vacaine and ropivacaine in regional anesthesia for ophtalmology: a comparative study

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    Edno Magalhães

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A bupivacaína racêmica, utilizada largamente em anestesia peribulbar devido à boa qualidade de bloqueio motor, apresenta menor margem de segurança para cardiotoxicidade em relação a ropivacaína e bupivacaína levógira. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar o grau de bloqueio motor e alteração da pressão intra-ocular (PIO em anestesia peribulbar produzida pela bupivacaína racêmica, levobupivacaína e ropivacaína. MÉTODOS: Noventa e sete pacientes, estado físico I e II da classificação da Sociedade Americana de Anestesiologistas, submetidos a anestesia peribulbar, foram divididos em três grupos: grupo A-(n=16 bupivacaína racêmica 0,75% com adrenalina 1:200.000; grupo B -(n=16 bupivacaína levógira 0,75% com adrenalina 1:200.000; grupo C -(n=15 ropivacaína 0,75%. Utilizou-se 7ml da solução anestésica com 280 UI de hialuronidase, em punção única no rebordo orbital inferior. Foram registrados a PIO e grau de bloqueio motor 5 minutos antes da punção e 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 e 10 minutos após a punção. O bloqueio motor foi avaliado pela escala de Nicoll. Para a análise estatística, foram utilizados os testes de Wilcoxon, análise de freqüência simples e t de Student. Foi considerado significativo pBACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Racemic bupivacaine, used in peribulbar anesthesia owing to its high potential to promote motor blockade, presents a smaller safety margin for cardiotoxicity in relation to ropivacaine and levobupivacaine. The objective of this study was to compare the degree of motor blockade and alteration of intraocular pressure (IOP produced by racemic bupivacaine, levobupivacaine and ropivacaine in peribulbar block. METHOD: Ninety seven patients, ASA physical status I and II, submitted to peribulbar anesthesia, were randomly allocated into three groups: group A-(n=16 receiving racemic bupivacaine 0.75% with epinephrine 1:200.000; group B -(n=16 levobupivacaine 0.75% with epinephrine 1:200.000; group C -(n=15

  10. Large A-fiber activity is required for microglial proliferation and p38 MAPK activation in the spinal cord: different effects of resiniferatoxin and bupivacaine on spinal microglial changes after spared nerve injury

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    Decosterd Isabelle

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After peripheral nerve injury, spontaneous ectopic activity arising from the peripheral axons plays an important role in inducing central sensitization and neuropathic pain. Recent evidence indicates that activation of spinal cord microglia also contributes to the development of neuropathic pain. In particular, activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK in spinal microglia is required for the development of mechanical allodynia. However, activity-dependent activation of microglia after nerve injury has not been fully addressed. To determine whether spontaneous activity from C- or A-fibers is required for microglial activation, we used resiniferatoxin (RTX to block the conduction of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1 positive fibers (mostly C- and Aδ-fibers and bupivacaine microspheres to block all fibers of the sciatic nerve in rats before spared nerve injury (SNI, and observed spinal microglial changes 2 days later. Results SNI induced robust mechanical allodynia and p38 activation in spinal microglia. SNI also induced marked cell proliferation in the spinal cord, and all the proliferating cells (BrdU+ were microglia (Iba1+. Bupivacaine induced a complete sensory and motor blockade and also significantly inhibited p38 activation and microglial proliferation in the spinal cord. In contrast, and although it produced an efficient nociceptive block, RTX failed to inhibit p38 activation and microglial proliferation in the spinal cord. Conclusion (1 Blocking peripheral input in TRPV1-positive fibers (presumably C-fibers is not enough to prevent nerve injury-induced spinal microglial activation. (2 Peripheral input from large myelinated fibers is important for microglial activation. (3 Microglial activation is associated with mechanical allodynia.

  11. The influence of lidocaine and racemic bupivacaine on neuromuscular blockade produced by rocuronium: a study in rat phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation Influência da lidocaína e da bupivacaína racêmica no bloqueio neuromuscular produzido pelo rocurônio: estudo em preparação nervo frênico-diafragma de rato

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    Vanessa Henriques Carvalho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate in vitro lidocaine and racemic bupivacaine effects in neuromuscular transmission and in neuromuscular blockade produced by rocuronium. METHODS: Rats were distributed in 5 groups (n = 5 in agreement with the studied drugs: lidocaine, racemic bupivacaine, rocuronium, separately (Groups I, II, III; rocuronium in preparations exposed to local anesthetics (Groups IV, V. The concentrations used were: 20 µg/mL, 5 µg/mL and 4 µg/mL, for lidocaine, bupivacaine and rocuronium, respectively. It was evaluated: 1 amplitude of diaphragm muscle response to indirect stimulation, before and 60 minutes after separately addition of lidocaine, racemic bupivacaine and rocuronium and the association of local anesthetics - rocuronium; 2 membrane potentials (MP and miniature end-plate potentials (MEPP. RESULTS: Lidocaine and bupivacaine separately didn't alter the amplitude of muscle response and MP. In preparations previously exposed to lidocaine and racemic bupivacaine, the rocuronium blockade was significantly larger (90.10 ± 9.15% and 100%, respectively, in relation to the produced by rocuronium separately (73.12 ± 9.89%. Lidocaine caused an increase in the frequency of MEPP, being followed by blockade; racemic bupivacaine produced decrease being followed by blockade. CONCLUSIONS: Local anesthetics potentiated the blockade caused by rocuronium. The alterations of MEPP identify presynaptic action.OBJETIVO: Avaliar in vitro os efeitos da lidocaína e bupivacaína racêmica na transmissão neuromuscular e no bloqueio neuromuscular produzido pelo rocurônio. MÉTODOS: Ratos foram distribuídos em 5 grupos (n = 5 de acordo com a droga estudada: lidocaina, bupivacaína racêmica, rocurônio, isoladamente (Grupos I, II, III; rocurõnio em preparações expostas aos anestésicos locais (Grupos IV, V. As concentrações utilizadas foram: 20 µg/mL, 5 µg/mL e 4 µg/mL, para lidocaína, bupivacaína e rocurônio, respectivamente. Avaliou-se: 1

  12. A Comparative Study of Trigger Point Therapy with Local Anaesthetic (0.5 % Bupivacaine) Versus Combined Trigger Point Injection Therapy and Levosulpiride in the Management of Myofascial Pain Syndrome in the Orofacial Region.

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    Gupta, Pranav; Singh, Virendra; Sethi, Sujata; Kumar, Arun

    2016-09-01

    To compare the efficacy of combined local anesthetic injection with 0.5 % bupivacaine and levosulpiride versus local anesthetic injection alone on outcome measures including levels of pain intensity and depression in the management of myofascial pain syndrome in orofacial region. This was a prospective, randomized, controlled and open-label comparative clinical study. Seventy-four patients diagnosed to have myofascial pain syndrome and fulfilling the inclusion criteria were enrolled for the study. Patients were randomly assigned into 2 groups. Group A received local anesthetic injection (0.5 % bupivacaine) on trigger points and Group B received combined trigger point injection therapy and 50 mg of tablet Levosulpiride orally B.I.D. They were assessed for pain intensity and depression at baseline and at follow-up of 1, 4, 6 and 12 week intervals. The mean age of patients was 44.54 + 15.977 years in group A and 39.97 + 14.107 years in group B (P value = 0.2). Group A comprised of 25 females (67.567 %) and 12 males (32.432 %) while group B had 27 females (75 %) and 9 males (25 %). 70.27 % were diagnosed with moderate depression in group A and 75 % in group B. 18.91 % in group A and 19.44 % in group B were diagnosed with severe depression. When the VAS score and BDI score was compared at the follow-up intervals with the baseline scores in both treatment groups, the mean difference was highly significant at all the follow-up intervals. However when the relative efficacies of two interventions were compared between the two groups, improvement in pain was significant at all the follow-up intervals except the 1st week follow-up whereas the improvement in depression was non-significant at 1st and 4th week interval while it was highly significant at 6th and 12th week intervals. The combined therapy with trigger point injection and levosulpiride as antidepressant significantly reduces pain and depression in the study subjects suffering from chronic

  13. Extended pain relief trial utilizing infiltration of Exparel®, a long-acting multivesicular liposome formulation of bupivacaine: a Phase IV health economic trial in adult patients undergoing open colectomy

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    Cohen SM

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Stephen M CohenAtlanta Colon and Rectal Surgery, PA, Atlanta, GA, USABackground: The majority of surgical patients experience significant levels of pain after a procedure. While opioid analgesics have been a mainstay of postsurgical analgesic regimens, recent evidence has supported the use of multimodal therapy as a way to decrease opioid usage with its concomitant opioid-related adverse events. The goal of multimodal therapy is to minimize the negative effects of these events on clinical and economic outcomes. The purpose of this study was to assess the opioid burden and health economic outcomes in patients undergoing open colectomy who received a liposomal bupivacaine-based multimodal analgesic regimen as compared with a standard opioid-based regimen for postsurgical pain.Methods: In this open-label, single-center, sequential-cohort study, adults undergoing open colectomy were assigned to treatment via patient-controlled analgesia with opioids (first cohort or multimodal analgesia therapy including a single administration of liposomal bupivacaine (second cohort. Both treatment groups were offered rescue analgesia as needed. The main outcome measures were total mg amount of opioids consumed after surgery, total hospital costs, and length of hospital stay. Adverse events, including opioid-related adverse events, were recorded.Results: Thirty-nine patients were enrolled, 18 in the opioid-based analgesia group and 21 in the multimodal analgesia group. Mean total amount of postsurgical opioids consumed was significantly less in the multimodal analgesia group (57 mg compared with the opioid analgesia group (115 mg; P = 0.025. The average total cost of hospitalization in the multimodal group was $8766 versus $11,850 in the opioid group (P = 0.027, and the median length of hospital stay was 2.0 days versus 4.9 days, respectively (P = 0.004.Conclusion: This study confirmed that a liposomal bupivacaine–based multimodal analgesic regimen resulted in

  14. Estudo comparativo entre bupivacaína a 0,5% e mistura enantiomérica de bupivacaína (S75-R25 a 0,5% em anestesia peridural Estudio comparativo entre bupivacaína a 0,5% y mezcla enantiomérica de bupivacaína (S75-R25 a 0,5% en anestesia peridural Comparative study between 0.5% bupivacaine and 0.5% enantiomeric mixture of bupivacaine (S75-R25 in epidural anesthesia

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    Rosane Fossatti Gonçalves

    2003-04-01

    analgésico en el período pós-operatorio fue superior para el grupo S75-R25, comparado al grupo Bupivacaína (596 ± 436 minutos versus 463 ± 270 minutos, respectivamente; p = 0,04572. La incidencia de efectos adversos fue semejante entre los grupos. CONCLUSIONES: La mezcla enantiomérica de bupivacaína (S75-R25 presentó mayor tiempo analgésico y menor grado de bloqueo motor, comparada con la solución de bupivacaína racémicaBACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A bupivacaine formulation containing 25% of R(+ and 75% of S(- isomer has been used because its anesthetic properties with less toxicity than the racemic bupivacaine. This study aimed at evaluating the racemic bupivacaine as compared to B25/75 in epidural anesthesia. METHODS: Participated in this study 44 patients who were distributed in two groups (n = 22, namely Bupivacaine and S75-R25. Patients were premedicated with intravenous midazolam. Epidural anesthesia was induced at L3-L4 or L2-L3 interspace with 16 to 24 ml of the anesthetic solution. Group Bupivacaine received 0.5% bupivacaine with vasoconstrictor. Group S75-R25 received the enantiomeric mixture of 0.5% bupivacaine with vasoconstrictor. The following parameters were evaluated: lower limb temperature before and after epidural block, blockade onset, type of sensation referred by the patient, possible sensory failures, metameric sensory level and motor block level. Time for first analgesic request in the PACU was also recorded. RESULTS: Forty-one patients completed the study. Groups were demographically similar. Perioperative midazolam dose, epidural anesthetic volume, blockade onset, sensory failures at pinprick, lower limb temperature in different moments, type of paresthesia sensation and anesthetic depth in dermatomes were similar between groups. Motor block was less intense in group S75-R25 (p = 0.0117 as compared to group Bupivacaine. Time to first postoperative analgesic dose was longer for group S75-R25 as compared to group Bupivacaine (596 ± 436

  15. Estudo comparativo entre clonidina associada à bupivacaína e bupivacaína isolada em bloqueio de plexo cervical para endarterectomia de carótida Estudio comparativo entre la clonidina asociada a la bupivacaína y la bupivacaína aislada en bloqueo de plexo cervical para endarterectomía de carótida A comparative study between bupivacaine and clonidine associated with bupivacaine in cervical plexus block for carotid endarterectomy

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    Walter Pinto Neto

    2009-08-01

    este estudio fue comparar el efecto analgésico de la clonidina con la bupivacaína con relación a la bupivacaína aislada en bloqueo de plexo cervical. MÉTODO: Se evaluaron 30 pacientes, de forma aleatoria y en doble ciego, divididos en dos grupos: G1 recibió 1,5 mg.kg-1 de bupivacaína a 0,375% asociados a 150 ¼g de clonidina (2 mL y G2, 1,5 mg.kg-1 de bupivacaína a 0,375% asociados a la solución fisiológica (2 mL. Se evaluaron la frecuencia cardiaca y la presión arterial en los momentos 0 (bloqueo, 30, 60, 90 y 120 minutos; la necesidad de complementación anestésica; el momento para la primera complementación analgésica; la cantidad de analgésico usado y la intensidad del dolor en el momento 0 (término de la operación, 30, 60, 120, 240 y 360 minutos. RESULTADOS: La complementación anestésica con lidocaína fue de 3,8 mL en el G1 y 3,6 mL en el G2 sin diferencias estadísticas significativas. El momento para la primera complementación fue de 302,6 ± 152,6 minutos en el G1, y de 236,6 ± 132,9 minutos en el G2, sin diferencia significativa. No hubo diferencia en la dosis de dipirona y tramadol usada. No hubo diferencia en la intensidad del dolor entre los grupos. CONCLUSIÓN: La asociación de 150 ¼g de clonidina a bupivacaína en el bloqueo de plexo cervical para la endarterectomía de carótida, no generó ninguna mejoría significativa del efecto analgésico evaluado por la intensidad del dolor, en la primera complementación analgésica y en la cantidad de analgésico complementario.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Neurological evaluation can be done during cervical plexus block for endarterectomy, which also maintains postoperative analgesia. The objective of this study was to compare the analgesic effects of clonidine associated with bupivacaine to those of bupivacaine in cervical plexus block. METHODS: A randomized double-blind study was undertaken with 30 patients divided in two groups: G1 received 1.5 mg.kg-1 of 0.375% bupivacaine associated

  16. Hemodynamic effects of local anesthetics intoxication: experimental study in swine with levobupivacaine and bupivacaine Efeitos hemodinâmicos da intoxicação com anestésicos locais: estudo experimental em suínos com levobupivacaína e bupivacaína

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    Artur Udelsmann

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare the hemodynamic repercussions following a toxic dose of levobupivacaine and bupivacaine intravascularly injected in swines. Methods: Large White pigs were anesthetized with thiopental, tracheal intubation was performed and mechanical ventilation was instituted. Hemodynamic variables were recorded with invasive pressure monitoring and pulmonary artery catheterization (Swan-Ganz catheter. After a 30-minute resting period, the animals were randomly divided into two groups in a double-blinded fashion and received a bolus injection of 4 mg/kg of either agent for intoxication. Hemodynamic results were then evaluated at 1, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 minutes. RESULTS: Levobupivacaine had greater hemodynamic repercussions than racemic bupivacaine. These results disagree with those found when the levorotatory isomer of bupivacaine was used in humans, but are in agreement with recently reported findings in animals. CONCLUSION: Levobupivacaine was shown to be more toxic in pigs than racemic bupivacaine when large doses are injected intravenously.OBJETIVO: Comparar as repercussões hemodinâmicas da levobupivacaína e bupivacaína após uma dose tóxica intravascular em suínos. MÉTODOS: Porcos Large-White foram anestesiados com tiopental, entubados e mantidos em ventilação controlada mecânica. Parâmetros hemodinâmicos foram registrados através de pressão invasiva e cateterização da artéria pulmonar (cateter de Swan-Ganz. Após 30 minutos de repouso, os animais foram divididos aleatoriamente em dois grupos e receberam injeção endovenosa em duplo-cego de 4 mg/kg de um ou outro agente anestésico simulando uma intoxicação. Foram avaliados resultados hemodinâmicos aos 1, 5, 10, 15, 20 e 30 minutos. RESULTADOS: Levobupivacaína teve maiores repercussões hemodinâmicas que a bupivacaína racêmica. Estes resultados discordam daqueles encontrados com o isômero levógiro em humanos, mas estão de acordo com resultados recentemente

  17. Comparison of intra-articular injections of Hyaluronic Acid and Corticosteroid in the treatment of Osteoarthritis of the hip in comparison with intra-articular injections of Bupivacaine. Design of a prospective, randomized, controlled study with blinding of the patients and outcome assessors

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    Bellemans Johan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although intra-articular hyaluronic acid is well established as a treatment for osteoarthritis of the knee, its use in hip osteoarthritis is not based on large randomized controlled trials. There is a need for more rigorously designed studies on hip osteoarthritis treatment as this subject is still very much under debate. Methods/Design Randomized, controlled trial with a three-armed, parallel-group design. Approximately 315 patients complying with the inclusion and exclusion criteria will be randomized into one of the following treatment groups: infiltration of the hip joint with hyaluronic acid, with a corticosteroid or with 0.125% bupivacaine. The following outcome measure instruments will be assessed at baseline, i.e. before the intra-articular injection of one of the study products, and then again at six weeks, 3 and 6 months after the initial injection: Pain (100 mm VAS, Harris Hip Score and HOOS, patient assessment of their clinical status (worse, stable or better then at the time of enrollment and intake of pain rescue medication (number per week. In addition patients will be asked if they have complications/adverse events. The six-month follow-up period for all patients will begin on the date the first injection is administered. Discussion This randomized, controlled, three-arm study will hopefully provide robust information on two of the intra-articular treatments used in hip osteoarthritis, in comparison to bupivacaine. Trial registration NCT01079455

  18. Hemodynamic changes in lipid emulsion therapy (SMOFlipid for bupivacaine toxicity in swines Alterações hemodinâmicas na terapia por emulsão lipídica (SMOFlipid na intoxicação por bupivacaína em suínos

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    Marcos De Simone Melo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the hemodynamic changes following SMOFlipid emulsion therapy with after bupivacaine intoxication in swines. METHODS: Large White pigs were anesthetized with thiopental, tracheal intubation was performed and mechanical ventilation was instituted. Hemodynamic variables were recorded with invasive pressure monitoring and pulmonary artery catheterization (Swan-Ganz catheter. After a 30-minute resting period, 5 mg.kg-1 of bupivacaine by intravenous injection was administered and new hemodynamic measures were performed 1 minute later; the animals were than randomly divided into two groups and received 4 ml.kg-1 of saline solution or 4 ml.kg-1 of SMOFlipid emulsion 20%. Hemodynamic changes were then re-evaluated at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 minutes. RESULTS: Bupivacaine intoxication caused fall in arterial blood pressure, cardiac index, ventricular systolic work index mainly and no important changes in vascular resistances. SMOFlipid emulsion therapy was able to improve blood pressure mainly by increasing vascular resistance since the cardiac index had no significant improvement in our study. Hemodynamic results of the use of lipid emulsion in bupivacaine intoxication were better than the control group. CONCLUSION: The SMOFlipid emulsion is a option for reversing hypotension in cases of intoxication by bupivacaine.OBJETIVO: Avaliar as alterações hemodinâmicas da terapia lipídica com SMOFlipid após intoxicação com bupivacaína em suínos. MÉTODOS: Suínos da raça Large White foram anestesiados com tiopental, realizada intubação traqueal e mantidos em ventilação mecânica. As variáveis hemodinâmicas foram registradas através de pressão invasiva e cateterização da artéria pulmonar (cateter de Swan-Ganz. Após período de 30 minutos de repouso, 5 mg.kg-1 de bupivacaína foram injetados por via endovenosa e novas medidas hemodinâmicas foram realizadas 1 minuto após; os animais foram então aleatoriamente divididos em

  19. Bupivacaine 0,25% versus ropivacaine 0,25% in brachial plexus block in dogs of beagle breedBupivacaína 0,25% versus ropivacaína 0,25% no bloqueio do plexo braquial em cães da raça beagle

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    Thiago Ignácio Wakoff

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The brachial plexus block (BPB is a regional anesthesia technique which enables the attainment of surgical procedures distal scapulohumeral articulation. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of ropivacaine and bupivacaine 0.25% without vasoconstrictor in BPB guided by electrical stimulation in dogs. Thirteen male and female beagle dogs underwent a BPB using bupivacaine and ropivacaine 0.25% (4mg/kg, both alone and in different times. The anesthesic block was performed in the right forelimb and as control group the block proceeded in the left forelimb using a solution of sodium chloride 0.9% in volume corresponding to the drug in the contralateral limb. The block was performed after the localization of the radial nerve with the aid of eletrical stimulation, which was infiltrated half the volume of anesthetic calculated and subsequently the remaining solution was administered on the median nerve. We evaluated sensitive and motor latencies and sensitive and motor block total time by clamping technique. In the present study, a technique for electrical stimulation was effective in 100% of animals. Bupivacaine had lower motor latency period, however, the sensitive latency between the two groups showed no statistically significant differences. In the block total time, bupivacaine obtained time significantly higher. Clinical signs characteristic of Horner’s syndrome were present in 15% of animals treated with bupivacaine. Furthermore, two animals presented signs of cardiotoxicity in bupivacaine group. The use of bupivacaine (4mg/kg without vasoconstrictor in dogs brachial plexus block provided longer analgesia and motor blockade, however, ropivacaine at the same dose and concentration was found to be free of deleterious effects associated of cardiovascular instability, hemodynamic and respiratory. O bloqueio do plexo braquial (BPB é uma técnica de anestesia regional que possibilita a realização de procedimentos cirúrgicos distais a articula

  20. Evaluación costo-efectividad de lidocaína al 5 % y bupivacaína al 0,5 % en anestesia espinal Cost-effectiveness evaluation of 5% lidocaine and 0,5% bupivacaine in spinal anesthesia

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    Eréndira González Orozco

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio económico prospectivo de costo-efectividad con datos primarios de efectividad obtenidos de un ensayo clínico aleatorizado, donde se comparan 2 anestésicos vía espinal: lidocaína al 5 % y bupivacaína al 0,5 %. La efectividad se evaluó como la probabilidad de aparición de síntomas neurológicos transitorios, reacción adversa propia de este grupo de medicamentos. Se formaron aleatoriamente 2 grupos de pacientes que requerían cirugías por debajo del ombligo con una duración no mayor de 120 min, con la aplicación de cada una de las opciones de anestesia estudiada a cada grupo, 109 pacientes en el grupo de lidocaína y 97 en el grupo de bupivacaína. Un especialista en Neurología evaluó a ciegas la condición neurológica posquirúrgica de cada paciente antes y 24 h después de la intervención. Se calcularon los costos de cada alternativa, que incluyeron los ocasionados por la toxicidad neurológica, y se determinaron las relaciones costo-efectividad y los costos incrementales. El grupo de bupivacaína resultó la alternativa con mejor relación costo-efectividadA prospective economic study of cost-effectiveness with primary effectiveness data from a randomized clinical assay was carried out, in which two spinal anesthetic substances were compared: 5% lidocaine and 0,5% bupivacaine. The effectiveness was evaluated in terms of the probabilities of occurrence of transient neurological symptoms, which are an adverse reaction inherent to this group of drugs. Two groups of patients were randomly assigned, who required a less than 120 min. surgery under the navel, with the application of each studied anesthetic options to each group. One hundred and nine patients were administered lidocaine and 97 were applied bupivacaine. An expert in Neurology blindly evaluated the neurological condition of each patient before and 24 hours after the surgery. The costs of each option were estimated including those due to neurological

  1. Bupivacaína a 0,15% hipobárica para raquianestesia posterior (dorsal versus bupivacaína a 0,5% hiperbárica para procedimentos cirúrgicos anorretais em regime ambulatorial Bupivacaína a 0,15% hipobárica para raquianestesia posterior (dorsal versus bupivacaína a 0,5% hiperbara para procedimientos quirúrgicos anorrectales en régimen ambulatorial Hypobaric 0.15% bupivacaine versus hyperbaric 0.5% bupivacaine for posterior (dorsal spinal block in outpatient anorectal surgery

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    Luiz Eduardo Imbelloni

    2006-12-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to study low dose hypobaric 0.15% bupivacaine and hyperbaric 0.5% bupivacaine in outpatient anorectal surgical procedures. METHODS: Two groups of 50 patients, physical status ASA I and II, undergoing anorectal surgical procedures in a jackknife position, received 6 mg of hypobaric 0.15% bupivacaine in the surgical position (Group 1 or 6 mg of hyperbaric 0.5% bupivacaine in the sitting position for 5 minutes, after which they were placed in a jackknife position (Group 2. Sensitive and motor blockade, time of first urination, ambulation, complications, and the need for analgesics were evaluated. Patients were followed until the third postoperative day and questioned whether they experienced post-puncture headache or temporary neurological symptoms, and until the 30th day and questioned about permanent neurological complications. The test t Student, Mood's median, and Fisher Exact test were used for statistical analysis, and a p < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Every patient in Group 1 presented selective blockade of the posterior sacral nerve roots, while patients in Group 2 experienced blockade of the anterior and posterior nerve roots. Blockade was significantly higher in Group 1. Motor blockade was significantly less severe in Group 1. Forty-nine patients in Group 1 transferred to the stretcher unassisted while only 40 patients in Group 2 were able to do so. Recovery in Group 1 occurred in 105 ± 25 minutes and in 95 ± 15 minutes in Group 2, and this difference was not statistically significant. There were no hemodynamic changes, nausea or vomiting, urine retention, or post-puncture headache. CONCLUSIONS: Anorectal surgical procedures under spinal block with low dose bupivacaine, hyperbaric or hypobaric, can be safely done.

  2. Bupivacaína levógira a 0,5% pura versus mistura enantiomérica de bupivacaína (S75-R25 a 0,5% em anestesia peridural para cirurgia de varizes Bupivacaína levógira a 0,5% pura versus mezcla enantiomerica bupivacaína (S75-R25 a 0,5% en anestesia peridural para cirugía de várices Plain 0.5% levogyrous bupivacaine versus 0.5% bupivacaine enantiomeric mixture (S75-R25 in epidural anesthesia for varicose vein surgery

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    José Delfino

    2001-12-01

    inferiores. La casuística, entretanto, no es aún suficiente para permitir conclusiones definitivas.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The cardiotoxic effect of racemic bupivacaine (50:50 is still the major safety-related variable for regional blocks requiring higher concentrations and volumes. Recent animal studies suggested that the manipulation of racemic bupivacaine enantiomers could contribute for a better therapeutic efficacy by decreasing its potential toxicity. This study aimed at evaluating the efficacy of 0.5% bupivacaine enantiomeric mixture (S75-R25 as compared to plain S(-100% bupivacaine in lumbar epidural anesthesia for varicose vein surgery. METHODS: Participated in this randomized double-blind study 30 female patients aged 15 to 65 years, physical status ASA I or II scheduled for elective lower limb varicose vein surgery, who were allocated into two groups: S75-R25 Group - 20 ml (100 mg of 0.5% (S75-R25 bupivacaine; and Levogyrous Group - 20 ml (100 mg of 0.5% plain S(-100 bupivacaine without adjuvants. Characteristics of sensory and motor block as well as the incidence of side effects were investigated. RESULTS: Significant demographic differences and a longer surgical time were found in the S75-R25 Group. Faster spread and lower analgesic effects of the isomeric mixture were statistically significant. Motor block was significantly deeper in the S75-R25 Group. Side effects were negligible for both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Fewer side effects, good patients acceptance and the lack of post-operative transient neurological symptoms point towards the safety of both solutions in lumbar epidural anesthesia for elective varicose vein surgery. The sample, however, is still small for final conclusions.

  3. Postoperative Analgesia using Bupivacaine Wound Infiltration with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-30

    Jan 30, 2018 ... infiltration with either intravenous (IV) dexamethasone or tramadol after CS. Setting and Design: This study was a ... surgery.[2]. The provision of effective postoperative analgesia is of key importance to facilitate early ambulation, infant care (including breastfeeding .... Nausea and vomiting. 8 (13.3). 10 (16.7).

  4. Comparative Effects of Intrathecal Midazolam and Bupivacaine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pain assessment was done by VAS score. Duration of pain free period up to rescue analgesia or VAS score greater than 40mm was noted. Unwanted side effects were also noted. There was no significant difference in demographic distribution of patients. There was no statistically significant difference in onset of sensory ...

  5. Estudo comparativo entre soluções a 0,5% de levobupivacaína, bupivacaína em excesso enantiomérico de 50% e bupivacaína racêmica em anestesia peridural para cirurgia de abdômen inferior Estudio comparativo entre soluciones a 0,5% de levobupivacaína, bupivacaína en exceso enantiomérico del 50% y bupivacaína racémica en anestesia peridural para cirugía de abdomen inferior Levobupivacaine 0.5%, 50% enantiomeric excess bupivacaine and racemic bupivacaine in epidural anesthesia for lower abdominal procedures. Comparative study

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    Pedro Paulo Tanaka

    2005-12-01

    la edad en el grupo I. Los parámetros hemodinámicos fueron semejantes entre los grupos. Hubo una diferencia significativa con relación a la intensidad del bloqueo motor relatado entre los grupos estudiados (menor intensidad en el grupo I comparada a los grupos II y III. CONCLUSIONES: Fue observado un adecuado bloqueo motor y sensitivo para la realización de la cirugía en los grupos estudiados con pocos efectos colaterales, sugiriendo que las soluciones son eficaces en la anestesia peridural para cirugía de abdomen inferior. La levobupivacaína presentó menor bloqueo motor que los otros dos grupos.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: With the purpose of finding a local anesthetic agent safer than racemic bupivacaine, several animal studies have been performed with its isomers. This study aimed at evaluating, for one hour after injection, the efficacy of 50% enantiomeric excess bupivacaine as compared to levobupivacaine and racemic bupivacaine for epidural anesthesia in patients submitted to lower abdominal procedures. METHODS: After the Research Ethics Committee approval, 87 patients aged 18 to 65 years, physical status ASA I and II, undergoing lower abdominal procedures were included in this randomized double-blind study. Patients were distributed in three groups which received 27 mL (including test dose of local anesthetics with epinephrine (1:200,000 and fentanyl (100 µg solutions. Group I was given 0.5% levobupivacaine, group II received 50% enantiomeric excess 0.5% bupivacaine, and group III received 0.5% bupivacaine. Monitoring consisted of pulse oximetry, cardioscopy and noninvasive blood pressure. Motor and sensory block profiles were evaluated, in addition to the incidence of side effects. Unidentified local anesthetic vials were numbered, and the randomized distribution list was opened only at the end of the experiment. RESULTS: There were no significant differences regarding height and physical status between groups. There was a significant age difference in

  6. Efeitos antinociceptivos, analgésicos e histopatológicos de dexmedetomidina e bupivacaína intratecal em rato Efectos antinociceptivos, analgésicos e histopatológicos de dexmedetomidina y bupivacaína intratecal en ratones Anti-nociceptive, analgesic and pathohistological effects of intrathecal dexmedetomidine and bupivacaine in rats

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    Başar Erdivanli

    2013-04-01

    prolonga la duración del bloqueo.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study investigates analgesic and nociceptive effects of adding dexmedetomidine to bupivacaine neuraxial anesthesia through Tail-flick (TF and Hot-plate (HP tests and the pathohistological changes on spinal nerves and nerve roots through light microscopy. METHODS: Forty anesthetized, male Sprague-Dawley rats were intrathecally catheterized. Basal values of TF and HP tests were measured before and after catheterization. Thirty-six successfully catheterized rats were assigned to four groups. Group B received 10 µg bupivacaine, Group BD3 received 10 µg bupivacaine + 3 µg dexmedetomidine, Group BD10 received 10 µg bupivacaine + 10 µg dexmedetomidine and Control group received 10 µL volume of artificial cerebrospinal fluid. TF and HP tests were performed between the 5th and 300th minutes of drug administration. Twenty-four hours after administration of drugs, rats were sacrificed and spinal cord and nerve roots were removed for pathological investigation. RESULTS: Baseline values of the TF and HP tests were not statistically different among the groups (6.8 ± 0.15 s. TF and HP latencies in the Control group did not change significantly during the study. TF and HP test results showed that adding 3 and 10 µg dexmedetomidine caused a dosedependent increase in duration and amplitude of analgesic and nociceptive effect of bupivacaine (TF: 37.52 ± 1.08%, 57.86 ± 1.16% respectively, HP: 44.24 ± 1.15%, 68.43 ± 1.24% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: There were no apparent pathohistological changes at least 24 hours after the intrathecal administration of a single dose of dexmedetomidine 3 µg and 10 µg. Dexmedetomidine added to bupivacaine for spinal block improves analgesia and prolongs block duration.

  7. Flunixin meglumine ou bupivacaína como técnicas analgésicas pós-toracotomia lateral intercostal em cães Flunixin meglumine or bupivacaine as postoperative analgesic techniques for lateral intercostal thoracotomy in dogs

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    Simone Dal Pai

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Dezesseis cães, adultos, sem raça definida, foram submetidos à toracotomia lateral intercostal e separados em dois grupos para estudo de diferentes protocolos analgésicos. Os animais receberam como terapia analgésica flunixin meglumine no período pré-operatório (grupo I ou bupivacaína intratorácica (grupo II. Todos os crães estiveram sob cuidados intensivos em sala de recuperação durante quatro horas de período pós-operatório quando foram monitorados o volume corrente pulmonar, a gasometria arterial, o tempo de reperfusão capilar, a coloração das mucosas ocular e oral, as freqüências respiratória e cardíaca e a temperatura retal. Uma ficha de escores para avaliação de dor pós-operatória foi elaborada para o acompanhamento dos animais de ambos os grupos. Os resultados demonstraram a ocorrência de diminuição dos valores de pressão parcial arterial de oxigênio abaixo dos índices fisiológicos após a toracotomia. A análise estatística de comparação entre os valores meédios calculados, não revelou diferença significativa entre os cães do grupo I e os do grupo II. No presente estudo, tanto a utilização intravenosa do flunixin meglumine quanto a administração intratorácica de bupivacaína foram efetivas na analgesia pós-operatória.Lateral intercostal thoracotomy was performed in sixteen mongrel adult dogs divided in two groups for diferent analgesic treatments. The dogs of group I received intravenous flunixin meglumine before surgery as an analgesic protocol, and those of group II received interpleural bupivacaine for the same purpose of pain control. All animals were maintained in a recovery room during four hours in which were monitored the pulmonary tidal volume, blood gas, capillary refill time, mucous membrane color, respiratory and heart rates and rectal temperature. Pain scores were used to evaluate the effect of the analgesic technics in groups I and II. The results showed a reduction on the

  8. Anestesia peridural para cesariana: estudo comparativo entre Bupivacaína Racêmica (S50-R50 e Bupivacaína com excesso enantiomérico de 50% (S75-R25 a 0,5% associadas ao Sufentanil Anestesia epidural para cesárea: estudio comparativo entre Bupivacaína Racémica (S50-R50 y Bupivacaína con exceso enantiomérico de 50% (S75-R25 a 0,5% asociadas al Sufentanil Epidural block for cesarean section: a comparative study between 0.5% racemic Bupivacaine (S50-R50 and 0.5% enantiomeric excess Bupivacaine (S75-R25 associated with Sufentanil

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    Angélica de Fátima de Assunção Braga

    2009-06-01

    étrica.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Epidural 0.5% racemic bupivacaine associated with opioids is a technique used in cesarean sections; however, its toxicity has been questioned. 50% Enantiomeric excess bupivacaine has lower cardio- and neurotoxicity. The efficacy of epidural 0.5% racemic bupivacaine and 0.5% enantiomeric excess bupivacaine associated with sufentanil in parturients undergoing cesarean sections was evaluated. METHODS: Fifty gravida at term, undergoing elective cesarean section under epidural block, were divided in two groups according to the local anesthetic used: Group I - 0.5% racemic bupivacaine with vasoconstrictor; and Group II - 0.5% enantiomeric excess bupivacaine (S75-R25 with vasoconstrictor. In both groups, the local anesthetic (100 mg was associated with sufentanil (20 µg, and a total of 24 mL of the solution was used. The following parameters were evaluated: latency of the sensitive blockade; maximal level of the sensitive blockade; degree for motor blockade; time of motor blockade regression; duration of analgesia; maternal side effects; and neonatal repercussions. RESULTS: Latency, maximal level of sensitive blockade, degree of motor blockade, and duration of analgesia were similar in both groups; the mean time for regression of the motor blockade was significantly smaller in Group II. The incidence of side effects was similar in both groups. Maternal cardiocirculatory changes and neonatal repercussions were not observed. CONCLUSIONS: Epidural racemic bupivacaine and 50% enantiomeric excess bupivacaine provided adequate anesthesia for cesarean sections. 50% Enantiomeric excess bupivacaine is a promising alternative for this procedure, since it has faster regression of the motor blockade, which is desirable in obstetric patients.

  9. Sufentanil subaracnóideo associado à bupivacaína hiperbárica para analgesia de parto: É possível reduzir a dose do opióide? Sufentanil subaracnóideo asociado a la bupivacaína hiperbárica para analgesia de parto: Es posible reducir la dosis del opioide? Spinal sufentanil associated to hyperbaric bupivacaine: Is it possible to decrease opioid dose?

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    Eduardo Tsuyoshi Yamaguchi

    2004-04-01

    trabajo de parto. Las embarazadas fueron aleatoriamente divididas en tres grupos que recibieron, en el espacio subaracnóideo, la combinación de 2,5 mg de bupivacaína hiperbárica y 1 mL de solución fisiológica (Grupo Control; 2,5 mg de bupivacaína hiperbárica y 2,5 µg de sufentanil (Grupo S2,5 o 2,5 mg de bupivacaína hiperbárica y 5 µg de sufentanil (Grupo S5. El dolor, de acuerdo con la escala analógico visual (EAV de dolor y la incidencia de efectos colaterales fueron evaluadas a cada 5 minutos en los primeros quince minutos y a seguir a cada 15 minutos hasta el nacimiento. El estudio terminaba con el nacimiento, o cuando la paciente solicitaba medicación analgésica de rescate (EAV > 3 cm. RESULTADOS: Los grupos S2,5 y S5 presentaron mayor duración de analgesia (67,2 ± 38,6 y 78,9 ± 38,7 minutos, respectivamente y mayor porcentaje de pacientes con analgesia efectiva (100% y 95,6%, respectivamente que el grupo Control, en el cual la duración media de analgesia fue de 35,9 ± 21,6 minutos (p BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The association of isobaric bupivacaine to lower spinal sufentanil dose provides satisfactory analgesia and lower incidence of side effects. This study aimed at evaluating quality of analgesia and incidence of side effects of decreased spinal sufentanil doses associated to hyperbaric bupivacaine for labor analgesia. METHODS: Participated in this study 69 healthy term pregnant patients in active labor. Patients were randomly allocated in three groups receiving spinal combination of 2.5 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine and 1 mL saline solution (Control Group; 2.5 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine and 2.5 µg sufentanil (S2.5 Group or 2.5 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine and 5 µg sufentanil (S5 Group. Pain, using a visual analogue scale (VAS, and side effects were evaluated at 5-minute intervals for the first 15 minutes and then at 15-minute interval until delivery. Study would end with delivery or when patient requested rescue analgesia (VAS > 3 cm. RESULTS

  10. Raquianestesia unilateral com baixa dose de bupivacaína a 0,5% hiperbárica Raquianestesia unilateral con baja dosis de bupivacaína a 0,5% hiperbárica Unilateral spinal anesthesia with low 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine dose

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    Luiz Eduardo Imbelloni

    2004-10-01

    spinal anesthesia with 5 mg of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine injected with 27G Quincke needle with patients in the lateral position and limb to be operated on facing downward. METHODS: Spinal anesthesia with 0.5% bupivacaine and 27G Quincke needle was induced in 30 patients physical status ASA I-II submitted to orthopedic surgeries. Spinal puncture was performed with patients previously placed with the side to be operated on facing downward and 5 mg of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine were injected at 1 mL.15s-1. Sensory and motor blocks (pinprick and 0 to 3 scores were compared between operated and contralateral sides. RESULTS: Motor and sensory blocks between operated and contralateral sides were significantly different in all moments. Unilateral spinal anesthesia was obtained in 85.7% of patients. There has been hemodynamic stability in all patients. No patient has developed post dural puncture headache. CONCLUSIONS: In the conditions of our study, 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine (5 mg has provided predominantly unilateral block. Twenty minutes were enough for blockade installation. Major unilateral spinal anesthesia advantages are hemodynamic stability, patients’ satisfaction and faster anesthetic recovery.

  11. Baixas doses de bupivacaína a 0,5% isobárica para raquianestesia unilateral Bajas dosis de bupivacaína a 0,5% isobárica para raquianestesia unilateral Low isobaric 0.5% bupivacaine doses for unilateral spinal anesthesia

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    Luiz Eduardo Imbelloni

    2004-06-01

    bupivacaína se moviliza dentro del LCR después de 20 minutos, resultando en un bloqueo unilateral en apenas 28% de los pacientes. La principal ventaja de la raquianestesia unilateral es la estabilidad hemodinámica y su rápida regresión, pudiendo ser una nueva opción para cirugía ambulatorial.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Unilateral spinal anesthesia may be advantageous, especially in the outpatient setting. Low local anesthetic doses, slow spinal injection rate and the lateral position have been related to the easiness of inducing unilateral spinal anesthesia. This study aimed at investigating the possibility of inducing unilateral spinal anesthesia with isobaric 0.5% bupivacaine. METHODS: Spinal anesthesia with 1 mL isobaric 0.5% bupivacaine (5 mg was induced through 27G Quincke needle in 25 physical status ASA I and II patients undergoing orthopedic procedures. Dural puncture was performed with patients in lateral decubitus with the limb to be operated facing upwards. One mililiter of isobaric bupivacaine was injected in 30 seconds. Sensory and motor blocks were compared between the operated and the contralateral side. RESULTS: Motor and sensory blocks on operated and contralateral sides were significantly different in all studied moments. All patients presented surgical anesthesia in the operated limb. At 20 minutes, nine patients presented sensory block in the contralateral side; at 40 minutes they were 18 and at 60 minutes they were 17 patients. So, unilateral block was present in seven patients (28% and bilateral block was present in the remaining 18 patients (72%. No patient developed post-dural puncture headache. CONCLUSIONS: Isobaric bupivacaine (5 mg provides predominant unilateral block after 20 minutes in the lateral position. Isobaric bupivacaine moves in the CSF after 20 minutes resulting in just 28% unilateral blocks. Major advantages of unilateral spinal anesthesia are hemodynamic stability and short duration and it might be a new alternative for

  12. Baixa dose de bupivacaína isobárica, hiperbárica ou hipobárica para raquianestesia unilateral Baja dosis de bupivacaína isobara, hiperbara o hipobara para anestesia raquidea unilateral Low dose isobaric, hyperbaric, or hypobaric bupivacaine for unilateral spinal anesthesia

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    Luiz Eduardo Imbelloni

    2007-06-01

    outpatient basis surgeries. Low dose, slow speed of administration, and the lateral positioning make easier the unilateral distribution in spinal anesthesia. Isobaric, hyperbaric, and hypobaric solutions of bupivacaine were compared in the unilateral spinal anesthesia in patients undergoing outpatient basis orthopedic surgeries. METHODS: One hundred and fifty patients were randomly divided in three groups to receive 5 mg of 0.5% isobaric bupivacaine (Iso Group, 5 mg of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine (Hyper Group, or 5 mg of 0.15% hypobaric bupivacaine (Hypo Group. The solutions were administered in the L3-L4 space with the patient in the lateral decubitus and remaining in this position for 20 minutes. Sensitive anesthesia was evaluated by the pin prick test. Motor blockade was determined by the modified Bromage scale. Both blockades were compared with the opposite side and among themselves. RESULTS: There was a significant difference between the side of the surgery and the opposite side in all three groups at 20 minutes, but the frequency of unilateral spinal anesthesia was greater with the hyperbaric and hypobaric solutions. Sensitive and motor blockades were observed in 14 patients in the Iso Group, 38 patients in the Hyper Group, and 40 patients in the Hypo Group. Patients did not develop any hemodynamic changes. Postpuncture headache and transitory neurological symptoms were not observed. CONCLUSIONS: Spinal anesthesia with hypobaric and hyperbaric solutions present a higher frequency of unilateral anesthesia. After 20 minutes, isobaric bupivacaine mobilized into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF resulted in unilateral spinal anesthesia in only 28% of the patients.

  13. Analgesia preemptiva com S(+cetamina e bupivacaína peridural em histerectomia abdominal Analgesia preemptiva con S(+cetamina y bupivacaína peridural en histerectomía abdominal Preemptive analgesia with epidural bupivacaine and S(+ketamine in abdominal hysterectomy

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    Ferdinand Edson de Castro

    2005-02-01

    fue posible demostrar efecto preemptivo con la utilización peridural de S(+cetamina y bupivacaína en las dosis utilizadas en histerectomía abdominal.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study investigates the ability of epidural S(+ketamine, NMDA receptor antagonist, plus local anesthetic (bupivacaine injection to promote preemptive analgesia in patients undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy, when this solution is administered before surgical incision. METHODS: Participated in this prospective double-blind study 30 patients were randomly assigned in two equal groups. Epidural injection and catheter insertion were performed at L1-L2 interspace. Group 1 (G1 patients received 17 mL bupivacaine 0.25% plus 3 mL S(+ketamine (30 mg, 30 min before surgical incision, followed by 20 mL saline 30 min after incision. Group 2 (G2 patients received 20 mL saline 30 min before surgical incision, followed by 17 mL bupivacaine 0.25% plus 3 mL S(+ketamine (30 mg 30 min after incision. General anesthesia was induced with propofol, pancuronium, O2 and isoflurane. Postoperative analgesia consisted of epidural fentanyl plus bupivacaine bolus with 4h minimal interval. If necessary, IV dipyrone supplementation was administered. Patients were evaluated for analgesia by a verbal and numeric scale (at recovery and every six hours until 24 postoperative hours. Time to first analgesic request and total analgesic requirements were recorded. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between groups in time to first analgesic request, total analgesic consumption and numeric or verbal scale pain scores. CONCLUSIONS: This study failed to demonstrate a preemptive effect of epidural administration of bupivacaine and S(+ketamine in the doses tested for abdominal hysterectomy.

  14. Estudo comparativo entre bupivacaína racêmica (S50-R50 a 0,125% e bupivacaína em excesso enantiomérico de 50% (S75-R25 a 0,125% e 0,25% em anestesia peridural para analgesia de parto Estudio comparativo entre bupivacaina racémica (S50-R50 a 0,125% y bupivacaina en exceso enantiomérico de 50% (S75-R25 a 0,125% y 0,25% en anestesia peridural para analgesia de parto A comparative study of 0.125% racemic bupivacaine (S50-R50 and 0.125% and 0.25% 50% enantiomeric excess bupivacaine (S75-R25 in epidural anesthesia for labor analgesia

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    Nádia Maria da Conceição Duarte

    2008-02-01

    estudio fue comparar la analgesia y el bloqueo motor entre la Bupivacaina (S50-R50 a 0,125% y la Bupivacaina en exceso enantiomérico de 50% (S75-R25 a 0,125% e 0,25% en peridural continua para analgesia de parto. MÉTODO: Se realizó un ensayo clínico doblemente encubierto, con distribución aleatoria de 75 participantes en trabajo de parto, distribuidas en tres grupos: GI - Bupivacaina (S50-R50 a 0,125%, GII - Bupivacaina (S75-R25 a 0,125% y GIII - Bupivacaina (S75-R25 a 0,25%. La inclusión en el estudio fue hecha después de la firma del Consentimiento Libre y Aclarado. RESULTADOS: No se encontraron diferencias estadísticas significativas en cuanto a la latencia de la analgesia, nivel sensorial del bloqueo, volumen de anestésico local, duración del trabajo de parto y de la analgesia, frecuencia de parto instrumental, puntuaciones de Apgar o pH del cordón umbilical. El intervalo para la primera dosis rescate fue mayor y los puntajes de dolor en 45 minutos fueron menores en el grupo Bupivacaina (S75-R25 a 0,25%. La intensidad del bloqueo motor fue mayor en el grupo Bupivacaina (S50-R50 a 0,125%. CONCLUSIONES: La Bupivacaina (S75-R25 determinó un bloqueo motor menos intenso, incluso cuando se utilizó en mayor concentración (0,25%, resultando en una mejor calidad de analgesia, sin interferir en la evolución del trabajo de parto o en la vitalidad de los recién nacidos.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Continuous epidural block is used for relief of labor pain and it is associated with a low incidence of complications. Studies with the levorotatory isomer of local anesthetics demonstrated that they are safer regarding the cardiotoxicity. The objective of this study was to compare analgesia and motor blockade of 0.125% bupivacaine (S50-R50 and 0.125% and 0.25% 50% enantiomeric excess bupivacaine (S75-R25 in continuous epidural block for labor analgesia. METHODS: Seventy-five patients in labor participated in this randomized, double-blind study after signing an informed

  15. Raquianestesia para cesariana: estudo comparativo entre bupivacaína isobárica e hiperbárica associadas à morfina Raquianestesia para cesárea: estudio comparativo entre bupivacaína isobárica e hiperbárica asociadas a la morfina Spinal anesthesia for cesarean section: comparative study between isobaric and hyperbaric bupivacaine associated to morphine

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    José Francisco Nunes Pereira das Neves

    2003-09-01

    (14,17 mg, sin diferencia estadística. La evaluación estadística en la SRPA mostró diferencia significativa para bloqueo motor. CONCLUSIONES: El estudio permitió concluir que la bupivacaína isobárica e hiperbárica en dosis de 12,5 mg, asociados a la morfina (100 µg en raquianestesia para cesárea en gestante a término, son eficientes y presentan perfiles semejantes.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Bupivacaine preparations, plain or with glucose, are frequently used in the clinical practice. Blockade upper level is determined by local anesthetic spread in the CSF. This study aimed at comparing isobaric and hyperbaric bupivacaine in patients submitted to spinal anesthesia for Cesarean section. METHODS: In this prospective, randomized and double-blind study 60 patients submitted to spinal anesthesia for Cesarean section were distributed in two groups: IB - (0.5% isobaric bupivacaine, 12.5 mg and HB - (0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine, 12.5 mg. After monitoring, venous puncture was performed followed by hydration with lactated Ringer’s solution. Spinal puncture was paramedially performed at L3-L4 interspace with 27G Quincke needle. Following the CSF dripping, morphine (100 µg and bupivacaine were separately injected at the speed of 1 ml.15 s-1. With the patient back to supine position, two parameters were recorded: onset time (absence of sensitivity in L3 at 1-minute intervals as well as motor and sensory block after 20 minutes. All patients were kept with preanesthetic blood pressure levels until umbilical cord clamping, and if necessary, ephedrine was administered. Neonates were evaluated by Apgar’s score at 1 and 5 minutes. Sensory and motor blocks were also evaluated at PACU 120 minutes after local anesthetic injection. RESULTS: Groups were homogeneous. Onset time: Group IB (1’, 50" and HB (1’,33", with no statistical difference. Motor and sensory block at twenty minutes showed no significant difference. Ephedrine consumption: IB (11.83 mg and HB (14.17 mg

  16. Bupivacaína racêmica a 0,5% e mistura com excesso enantiomérico de 50% (S75-R25 a 0,5% no bloqueio do plexo braquial para cirurgia ortopédica. Estudo comparativo Bupivacaína racémica a 0,5% y mezcla con exceso enantiomérico del 50% (S75-R25 a 0,5% en el bloqueo del plexo braquial para cirugía ortopédica. Estudio comparativo Comparative study of 0.5% racemic bupivacaine versus enantiomeric mixture (S75-R25 of 0.5% bupivacaine in brachial plexus block for orthopedic surgery

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    Roberto Tsuneo Cervato Sato

    2005-04-01

    segura y efectiva para el bloqueo del plexo braquial para cirugía ortopédica de miembro superior.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Several studies were performed with bupivacaine isomers in the attempt to find a safer drug than racemic bupivacaine. This study aimed at evaluating the efficacy of 0.5% bupivacaine enantiomeric mixture (MEE50% as compared to 0.5% racemic bupivacaine in brachial plexus block for upper limb orthopedic surgery. METHODS: Participated of this randomized double-blind study 40 patients aged 18 to 90 years, physical status ASA I and II, submitted to upper limb orthopedic surgeries, who were divided in two groups: Group R received 0.5% racemic bupivacaine; and Group L received 0.5% enantiomeric mixture (S75-R25 of bupivacaine both with 1:200,000 epinephrine, in a volume of 0.6 mL.kg-1 (3 mg.kg-1, limited to 40 mL. Motor and/or sensory characteristics of each nerve involved (musculocutaneous, radial, median, ulnar and medial cutaneous nerve of forearm, as well as the incidence of side effects were evaluated. RESULTS: There were no statistical differences in demographics. Hemodynamic parameters were similar between groups but systolic pressure was higher for Group R. There were no statistically significant differences in time to reach the greatest intensity of sensory and motor blocks. With one exception, the onset of motor block within the muscles innervated by the ulnar nerve was longer for Group L (10.75 versus 14.25 minutes. CONCLUSIONS: There were adequate sensory and motor blocks in both groups, with few side effects, suggesting that the 0.5% enantiomeric mixture (S75-R25 of bupivacaine with epinephrine is safe and effective for brachial plexus block of upper limb orthopedic surgeries.

  17. Evaluation of two regional anesthetic methods on the front limb of dogs using hyperbaric bupivacaine Avaliação de dois métodos de bloqueios anestésicos regionais no membro anterior em cães usando bupivacaína hiperbárica

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    Gustavo Guerino Macedo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of bupivacaine 0.5 and 0.25% in intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA and brachial plexus block (BPB, respectively, on anesthesia, motor block and cardiovascular parameters in dogs. METHODS: Fourteen healthy adult dogs averaging 10 kilograms (kg of body weight. Animals were randomly assigned to receive one of the two treatments IVRA (n=7 or BPB (n=7. All the animals were sedated with acepromazine (0.1 mg/kg intramuscular. To execute the BPB was used an electrical nerve stimulation. Anesthesia, motor block, sedation, cardiovascular and respiratory effects were measured as effect of the treatment. RESULTS: BPA showed superior efficiency and duration of anesthesia (BPB - 456 ± 94 minutes vs IVRA - 138 ± 44 as well as motor block. There only physiologic parameter which change were the systolic pressure in BPB and respiratory rate for both treatments. CONCLUSION: In dogs the 0.25 % hyperbaric bupivacaine in BPB produces a front limb anesthesia about three times more than the 0.5 % in IVRA, with ptosis of the limb blocked and little interference in the cardiovascular system but with decrease in respiratory rate.OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da bupivacaína 0,5 e 0,25 % na anestesia regional endovenosa (IVRA e no bloqueio do plexo braquial (BPB respectivamente, na anestesia, bloqueio motor e parâmetros cardiovasculares em cães. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 14 cães sadios adultos pesando em média 10 kilos. Animais foram aleatoriamente designados a um de dois tratamentos IVRA (n = 7 ou BPB (n = 7. Todos os animais foram sedados com acepromazina (0,1 mg/kg intramuscular. Para realizar o BPB foi usado um estimulador elétrico nervoso. Anestesia, bloqueio motor, sedação, efeitos cardiovascular e respiratório foram mensurados como efeitos dos respectivos bloqueios. RESULTADOS: O bloqueio BPB demonstrou eficiência superior e maior duração da anestesia (BPB - 456 ± 94 minutos vs IVRA - 138 ± 44 minutos bem como maior

  18. Efeitos da associação da clonidina à bupivacaína hiperbárica na anestesia subaracnóidea alta Efectos de la asociación de la clonidina a la bupivacaína hiperbárica en la anestesia subaracnoidea alta Effects of clonidine associated to hyperbaric bupivacaine during high-level spinal anesthesia

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    José Reinaldo Cerqueira Braz

    2003-09-01

    sinergismo entre dosis diferentes de clonidina, de 45 y 75 µg, y bupivacaína hiperbárica en las características y en los efectos hemodinámicos del bloqueo subaracnoideo alto (T4. MÉTODO: En estudio aleatorio y duplamente encubierto, fueron evaluados 60 pacientes estado físico ASA I, sometidos a cirugía del abdomen inferior y miembros inferiores. Los pacientes fueron sometidos a anestesia subaracnoidea, con bupivacaína hiperbárica a 0,5% (17,5 mg - 3,5 ml más la asociación de las siguientes drogas: grupo Control (n = 20 - solución fisiológica (0,5 ml; grupo Clon 45 (n = 20 - clonidina, en la dosis de 45 µg (0,3 ml, asociada a la solución fisiológica (0,2 ml; grupo Clon 75 (n = 20 - clonidina, en la dosis de 75 µg (0,5 ml. La cirugía solamente fue realizada cuando el nivel del dermátomo atingido por el bloqueo analgésico fue de T4. RESULTADOS: A latencia de los bloqueos analgésico y motor de la anestesia subaracnóidea no discordó significativamente entre los grupos (p > 0,05. Ambas dosis de clonidina prolongaron, de manera significativa, la duración del bloqueo analgésico en T8 y del bloqueo motor grado 3 (determinado por la escala modificada de Bromage (p 0,05. Ambas dosis de clonidina prolongaron la analgesia pos-operatoria (intervalo de tiempo decorrido entre el bloqueo subaracnoideo y la primera solicitación de analgésico por el paciente en el pos-operatorio (p BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Published data suggest that clonidine, an alpha2-adrenergic agonist, in association with bupivacaine, may increase the incidence of intraoperative hypotension and bradycardia during high-level spinal anesthesia. This study aimed at determining the synergistic potential of two clonidine doses (45 and 75 µg and hyperbaric bupivacaine on characteristics and hemodynamic effects of high-level (T4 spinal anesthesia. METHODS: Participated in this randomized double-blind study, 60 ASA I patients scheduled for lower abdominal and limb surgery. Spinal anesthesia was

  19. Efeitos hemodinâmicos da intoxicação aguda com bupivacaína e a mistura enantiomérica: estudo experimental em suínos Haemodynamic effects of intoxication with bupivacaine and enantiomeric excess mixture: experimental study in swine

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    Artur Udelsmann

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: A bupivacaína racêmica tem sido o anestésico local de escolha nos bloqueios regionais pela qualidade e duração de sua anestesia. Sua cardiotoxicidade é motivo de preocupações, e pesquisas têm sido realizadas para encontrar drogas com menor impacto. Seu isômero levógiro, a levobupivacaína, seria menos cardiotóxico pela menor afinidade aos receptores dos canais de sódio do coração, e é uma opção. Em nosso país, uma apresentação contendo 75% do isômero levógiro e 25% do isômero dextrógiro, denominada mistura enantiomérica, está disponível. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar as repercussões hemodinâmicas da injeção intravascular de uma dose tóxica destes dois agentes em suínos. MÉTODOS: Suínos da raça Large White foram anestesiados com tiopental, entubados e ventilados mecanicamente, sendo, em seguida, instalada monitorização hemodinâmica com pressão invasiva e cateter de Swan-Ganz numa artéria pulmonar. Após repouso de 30 minutos, os animais foram divididos aleatoriamente em dois grupos, e foi realizada em duplo-cego intoxicação com um dos agentes na dose de 4 mg/kg. Os resultados hemodinâmicos foram avaliados então a um minuto, aos cinco, 10, 15, 20 e 30 minutos. RESULTADOS: A mistura enantiomérica causou maiores repercussões hemodinâmicas do que a bupivacaína racêmica. Estes resultados se opõem aos encontrados em humanos com o isômero levógiro, mas estão de acordo com achados recentes em animais. Extrapolar resultados de animais para seres humanos requer cautela, e novas pesquisas são necessárias. CONCLUSÃO: Em suínos, a mistura enantiomérica mostrou-se mais tóxica do que a bupivacaína racêmica, quando grandes doses são injetadas por via endovenosa.BACKGROUND: Racemic bupivacaine has been the local anaesthetic of choice in regional blocks due to quality and duration of anesthesia. However its cardiovascular toxicity has been a source of concern and research has been

  20. Efeito da lavagem peritoneal com bupivacaína na sobrevida de ratos com peritonite fecal Efecto del lavado peritoneal con bupivacaína en la sobrevida de ratones con peritonitis fecal Effects of peritoneal lavage with bupivacaine on survival of mice with fecal peritonitis

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    Marcos Célio Brocco

    2008-10-01

    abdominal con 3 mL de solución fisiológica a 0,9% y secado (n = 12; 4 - Lavado de la cavidad abdominal con 8 mg.kg-1 (± 0,5 mL de bupivacaína 0,5%, adicionada a 2,5 mL de solución fisiológica a 0,9% y secado (n = 12. Los animales que murieron fueron llevados a necropsia y el horario del óbito se anotó. Los animales sobrevivientes se sacrificaron al 11º día del postoperatorio y se realizó la necropsia. RESULTADOS: Hubo un 100% de mortalidad en los animales del Grupo 1 en 52 horas, 100% en los animales del Grupo 2, en 126 horas y un 50% en los animales del Grupo 3 en 50 horas. Los animales del Grupo 4 sobrevivieron. La sobrevida, al 11° día del postoperatorio, fue mayor en los grupos 3 y 4 con relación a los grupos 1 y 2 (p BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Based on the knowledge of the anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial actions of local anesthetics (LA, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of peritoneal lavage with bupivacaine on survival of mice with fecal peritonitis. METHODS: Forty-eight Wistar mice, weighing between 300 and 330 g (311.45 ± 9.67 g, undergoing laparotomy 6 hours after induction of peritonitis were randomly divided in 4 groups: 1 - Control, without treatment (n = 12; 2 - Drying of the abdominal cavity (n = 12; 3 - Lavage with 3 mL NS and posterior drying of the abdominal cavity (n = 12; and 4 - Lavage with 8 mg.kg-1 (± 0.5 mL of 0.5% bupivacaine added to 2.5 mL of NS followed by drying out of the abdominal cavity (n = 12. Animals that died underwent necropsy and the time of death was recorded. Surviving animals were killed on the 11th postoperative day and underwent necropsy. RESULTS: Group 1 presented a 100% mortality rate in 52 hours, 100% mortality rate in Group 2 in 126 hours, and Group 3 presented a 50% mortality rate in 50 hours. Animals in Group 4 survived. Survival on the 11th day was greater in groups 3 and 4 than in Groups 1 and 2 (p < 0.001 and greater in Group 4 than in Group 3 (p < 0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Peritoneal

  1. Estudo comparativo da analgesia entre bupivacaína e morfina intra-articular em osteoartrite de joelho Estudio comparativo de la analgesia entre bupivacaína y morfina intra-articular en osteoartritis de la rodilla Intra-articular bupivacaine and morphine for knee osteoarthritis analgesia. Comparative study

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    Miriam C B Gazi

    2005-10-01

    recibieron 1 mg (1 mL de morfina diluida en 9 mL de solución fisiológica a 0,9% y los del G2 (n = 21 25 mg (10 mL de bupivacaína a 0,25% sin vasoconstrictor, por vía intra-articular. La intensidad del dolor fue evaluada por la escala numérica y verbal en los tiempos 0, 30, 60 minutos y 7 días, en reposo y en movimiento. Fueron evaluados la necesidad de complementación analgésica con paracetamol (500 mg, la dosis total de analgésico utilizado, la duración de la analgesia y la calidad de la analgesia (por el paciente. RESULTADOS: De los 39 pacientes estudiados, 31 completaron el estudio. No hubo diferencia significativa de la intensidad del dolor en reposo y en movimiento entre los dos grupos en los tiempos estudiados. No hubo diferencia entre los dos grupos en el tiempo entre la administración de la solución y la necesidad de complementación analgésica. La dosis media del paracetamol utilizada en el primer día de la semana fue de 796 mg del G1 y de 950 mg en el G2; la complementación en la semana fue de 3578 mg G1 y 5333 mg en el G2. CONCLUSIONES: El efecto analgésico de 1 mg de morfina y de 25 mg de bupivacaína a 0,25% sin vasoconstrictor intra-articular fueron semejantes.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Osteoarthritis is the most common joint disease among elderly people. This study aimed at comparing the analgesic effects of intra-articular bupivacaine and morphine in knee osteoarthritis patients. METHODS: Thirty-nine patients were included in this randomized double-blind study and divided in two groups: G1 (n = 18 patients were given intra-articular 1 mg (1 mL morphine diluted in 9 mL of 0.9% saline, while G2 (n = 21 received intra-articular 25 mg (10 mL of 0.25% plain bupivacaine. Pain intensity was evaluated by numerical and verbal scale at 0, 30, 60 minutes and 7 days at rest and in movement. Evaluated parameters were analgesic supplementation requirement with paracetamol (500 mg, total analgesic dose throughout the study, analgesia duration and quality

  2. Bupivacaína com excesso enantiomérico (S75-R25 a 0,5%, bupivacaína racêmica a 0,5% e lidocaína a 2% no bloqueio do nervo facial pela técnica de O'Brien: estudo comparativo Bupivacaína con exceso enantiomérico (S75-R25 a 0,5%, bupivacaína racémica a 0,5% y lidocaína a 2% en el bloqueo del nervio facial por la técnica de O'Brien: estudio comparativo 0.5% enantiomeric excess bupivacaine (S75-R25, 0.5% racemic bupivacaine, and 2%lidocaine for facial nerve block by the O'Brien technique: a comparative study

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    Luis Henrique Cangiani

    2007-04-01

    segundos não havia mais diferença na intensidade deste entre as três soluções estudadas.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Enantiomeric mixtures of bupivacaine in different formulations, S75-R25 or S90-R10, were proposed aiming at reducing the cardiotoxicity and with a satisfactory motor blockade. The aim of this study was to compare the length of time until the appearance of the motor blockade and its degree using 50% enantiomeric excess 0.5% bupivacaine (S75-R25, 0.5% racemic bupivacaine, and 2% lidocaine for facial nerve block by the O'Brien technique. METHODS: Forty-five patients, over 60 years old, scheduled for the surgical treatment of cataracts under retrobulbar block preceded by O'Brien paralysis participated in this study. Patients were randomly divided in three groups of 15 patients, according to the anesthetic used for the facial nerve block: Group L (Lidocaine, Group B (Bupivacaine, and Group M (S75-R25. Three milliliters of the solution were administered. The length of time for motor blockade to become apparent and the degree of the motor block (Grades 1, 2, and 3 were evaluated 15 seconds after the injection and every 15 seconds until it reached 180 seconds. RESULTS: The initial manifestations of the blockade were faster (15 s in Group L. There were no differences between Groups B and M. Every patient in Group L showed Grade 3 motor block in up to 60 seconds, which was faster than Groups B and M (120 and 135 seconds, respectively. Groups B and M had similar behavior during the study, without any statistically significant difference. At 180 seconds, the incidence of Grade 3 motor block was similar in all three groups. CONCLUSIONS: The beginning of the motor blockade and its maximal degree were achieved faster with 2% lidocaine. The same degree was achieved by racemic bupivacaine and S75-R25, but it took longer. These two anesthetics showed the same behavior regarding the latency and the maximal degree of motor block, but at the end of 180 seconds there were no

  3. Estudo comparativo entre bupivacaína a 0,5%, mistura enantiomérica de bupivacaína (S75-R25 a 0,5% e ropivacaína a 0,75% associadas ao fentanil em anestesia peridural para cesarianas Estudio comparativo entre bupivacaína a 0,5%, mezcla enantiomérica de bupivacaína (S75-R25 a 0,5% y ropivacaína a 0,75% asociadas al fentanil en anestesia peridural para cesáreas Comparative study between 0.5% bupivacaine, 0.5% enantiomeric mixture of bupivacaine (S75-R25 and 0.75% ropivacaine, all associated to fentanyl, for epidural cesarean section anesthesia

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    Carlos Alberto Figueiredo Côrtes

    2003-04-01

    /fetal repercussions of 0.5% bupivacaine, enantiomeric 0.5% bupivacaine (S75-R25 and 0.75% ropivacaine, all associated to fentanyl, in epidural cesarean section anesthesia. METHODS: Participated in this study 90 full-term pregnant women, physical status ASA I, submitted to elective cesarean section under epidural anesthesia, who were divided into tree groups: group I - 23 ml racemic 0.5% bupivacaine with epinephrine; Group II -23 ml enantiomeric 0.5% bupivacaine (S75-R25 with epinephrine; Group III - 23 ml of 0.75% ropivacaine. Fentanyl (2 ml was associated to local anesthetics in all groups. The following parameters were evaluated: onset, analgesia duration, sensory and motor block degree, time to hysterotomy and delivery, quality of muscle relaxation and anesthesia, maternal hemodynamic and respiratory changes, newborn vitality (evaluated through Apgar score and cord-blood gases analysis, and side-effects. RESULTS: There were no differences among groups, except for anesthesia quality. In groups with predominant levo-enantiomer fraction were clinically worse with the need for anesthetic complementation in three cases. Analgesia duration was longer in the ropivacaine group. CONCLUSIONS: Enantiomeric mixture 0.5% bupivacaine (S75-R25 and 0.75% ropivacaine for epidural anesthesia have provided as good conditions as racemic 0.5% bupivacaine for the surgical act. Newborn repercussions have shown that all solutions were equally safe.

  4. Bloqueio do plexo braquial por via supraclavicular: estudo clínico comparativo entre bupivacaína e levobupivacaína Bloqueo del plexo braquial por vía supraclavicular: estudio clínico comparativo entre bupivacaína y levobupivacaína Supraclavicular brachial plexus block: a comparative clinical study between bupivacaine and levobupivacaine

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    José Ricardo Pinotti Pedro

    2009-12-01

    anesthetics. Studies on bupivacaine isomers have shown reduced cardiovascular toxicity of its levorotatory form (levobupivacaine. However, the anesthetic efficacy (sensorial and motor blockades of levobupivacaine in neuroaxis blocks has been debated. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the anesthetic efficacy of levobupivacaine in brachial plexus block, using the perivascular subclavian approach, by comparing it to racemic bupivacaine. METHODS: Fifty adult patients of both genders, ASA I and II, underwent subclavian perivascular brachial plexus block, with the aid of a peripheral neurostimulator, for orthopedic surgeries of the upper limbs. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: G BUPI - racemic bupivacaine, and G LEVO - levobupivacaine, and they received 30 mL of the 0.5% solution. Sensorial blockade was evaluated by pinprick stimulation from C5 to C8 metameres; and the motor blockade was assessed 1, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 minutes after the administration of the local anesthetic or until blockade of fingers, hand, forearm, and arm movements was observed. RESULTS: Statistical differences in latency, failure rate, and degree of the motor blockade, and failure of the sensorial blockade between both groups were not observed, but the latency of the sensorial blockade in all metameres analyzed showed statistically significant differences. Adverse events inherent to the administration of local anesthetics were not observed. CONCLUSIONS: The anesthetic efficacy of levobupivacaine in brachial plexus block was similar to that of the racemic solution commonly used.

  5. Estudo comparativo entre concentrações de bupivacaína a 0,125% e a 0,25% associada ao fentanil para analgesia de parto por via peridural Estudio comparativo entre concentraciones de bupivacaína a 0,125% y a 0,25% asociada al fentanil para analgesia de parto por vía peridural Comparison between 0.125% and 0.25% bupivacaine associated to fentanyl for epidural labor analgesia

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    Marcos Emanuel Wortmann Gomes

    2004-08-01

    (0,25% [n = 23] ó 0,125% [n = 28]. Para la mensuración de la analgesia, fue utilizada la escala numérica de dolor, y para la evaluación del bloqueo motor, la escala de Bromage. Para la comparación de las medias, fue utilizado el teste t de Student, y, para la comparación de las proporciones, el teste Qui-cuadrado, con p BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Epidural analgesia aims at decreasing or even abolishing maternal suffering during labor. It is considered a safe and effective method for pain relief. This study aimed at comparing two bupivacaine concentrations (0.25% and 0.125% associated to fentanyl in epidural labor analgesia to determine its efficacy on pain relief and its effect on motor block. We have also observed the influence of these two concentrations on labor duration, fetal outcome and maternal satisfaction. METHODS: Participated in this prospective and double blind study 51 primiparous women who were randomized to receive one out of two bupivacaine concentrations for epidural labor analgesia (0.25% [n = 23] or 0.125% [n = 28]. Analgesia was measured using a numeric pain scale, and motor block was verified using Bromage scale. Means were compared using Student's t test, while proportions were compared using Qui-square test, with p < 0.05. RESULTS: There has been no statistical difference in pain, degree of motor block and fetal outcome between groups. Cesarean delivery rate was statistically higher in the group receiving 0.25% bupivacaine (p < 0.05. Lower concentration group patients were more satisfied with the procedure (p < 0.01. CONCLUSIONS: The association of fentanyl and 0.125% bupivacaine proved to be more beneficial as compared to 0.25% concentration. With this dose, there has been a lower incidence of adverse effects without compromising analgesia, and yet a higher rate of maternal satisfaction.

  6. Sistemas de liberação controlada com bupivacaína racêmica (S50-R50 e mistura enantiomérica de bupivacaína (S75-R25: efeitos da complexação com ciclodextrinas no bloqueio do nervo ciático em camundongos Sistemas de liberación controlada con bupivacaína racémica (S50-R50 y mescla enantiomérica de bupivacaína (S75-R25: efectos de la complexación con ciclodextrinas en el bloqueo del nervio ciático en ratones Drug-delivery systems for racemic bupivacaine (S50-R50 and bupivacaine enantiomeric mixture (S75-R25: cyclodextrins complexation effects on sciatic nerve blockade in mice

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    Daniele Ribeiro de Araújo

    2005-06-01

    preparaciones como la mezcla enantiomérica de bupivacaína (S75-R25. Los sistemas de liberación controlada, conteniendo AL en carreadores como ciclodextrinas (CD, tienen como objetivo mejorar la eficacia anestésica y el índice terapéutico de esas drogas. Este estudio visó la preparación, caracterización y evaluación de la eficacia anestésica de los complejos de inclusión de la mezcla enantiomérica de la bupivacaína (S75-R25 y de la bupivacaína racémica (S50-R50 con hidroxipropilb-ciclodextrina (HPb-CD comparándolos con las preparaciones actualmente utilizadas en la clínica. MÉTODO: Los complejos de inclusión fueron preparados mezclándose cantidades apropiadas de HPb-CD y S50-R50 ó S75-R25 en las razones molares (1:1 y 1:2 y caracterizados por estudios de solubilidad de fases. Se determinaron las constantes de afinidad (K de cada AL por la HPb-CD. Los bloqueos motor y sensorial inducidos por las drogas libres y complejadas fueron evaluados en ratones, a través del bloqueo del nervio ciático. Para la realización de los experimentos, se utilizaron tres concentraciones de AL: 0,125; 0,25 y 0,5%. RESULTADOS: Los estudios de solubilidad indicaron la formación de complejos de inclusión de S50-R50 y S75-R25 con HPb-CD, con valores de constante de afinidad (K análogos para los dos anestésicos: 14,7 M-1 (S50-R50: HP-bCD y 14,3 M-1 (S75-R25: HP-bCD. Las pruebas en animales mostraron que la complejidad potenció el bloqueo nervioso diferencial inducido por los AL: i la duración del bloqueo motor inducido por S75-R25 fue análogo al del S50-R50, pero menos intenso (p BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Bupivacaine-induced side effects have led to the search for new local anesthetics (LA with similar potency and lower toxicity, such as bupivacaine enantiomeric mixture (S75-R25. Drug-delivery systems for LA in carriers, such as cyclodextrins (CD, have been developed to improve anesthetic potency and therapeutic index of those drugs. This study aimed at preparing

  7. Avaliação da bupivacaína hipobárica a 0,5% na raquianestesia Evaluación de la bupivacaína hipobárica a 0,5% en la anestesia espinal Evaluation of 0.5% hypobaric bupivacaine in spinal anesthesia

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    Marcelo Cursino Pinto dos Santos

    2007-08-01

    blocked and, consequently, with the level of the sympathetic blockade and reduction in blood pressure (BP, is one of those factors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dispersion of 0.5% hypobaric bupivacaine prepared aseptically in a laboratory, with controlled and uniform density. METHODS: Thirty patients, physical status ASA I, II, or III, ages ranging from 18 to 60 years, without cardiovascular comorbidities, who underwent orthopedic surgery of the lower limb, were enrolled in this study. They were sedated with diazepam, 0.03 mg.kg-1, placed in lateral decubitus, with the side to be operated on top. A lumbar puncture in the L3-L4 space was performed with a 27G Quincke needle, and the direction of the bevel and rate of injection were standardized. The sensitive and motor levels (modified Bromage scale were evaluated. RESULTS: At the end of the surgery, two patients (6.6% did not present a level 3 motor blockade in the Bromage scale, and the sensitive blockade varied from T4 to T12. Only 12.9% of the patients presented a level of sensitive blockade considered "high" for the proposed surgery (above T6. The reduction in blood pressure was statistically significant, but it did not fall below 20% of basal levels and, therefore, was not clinically significant. The change in heart rate was non-significant. CONCLUSIONS: It was demonstrated that 0.5% hypobaric bupivacaine is a safe choice, with little hemodynamic repercussion in orthopedic surgeries of the lower limbs. The mean duration of the anesthesia, 250 minutes, allows the realization of minor and medium orthopedic procedures.

  8. Estudo comparativo entre bupivacaína racêmica a 0,25% e bupivacaína com excesso enantiomérico de 50% (S75-R25 a 0,25%, associadas ao fentanil para analgesia de parto com deambulação da parturiente Estudio comparativo entre bupivacaína racémica a 0,25% y bupivacaína con exceso enantiomérico de 50% (S75-R25 a 0,25% asociadas con fentanil para analgesia de parto con deambulación de la gestante Racemic 0.25% bupivacaine and 50% enantiomeric excess (S75-R25 0.25% bupivacaine associated to fentanyl for labor analgesia with patient’s ambulation. Comparative study

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    Carlos Alberto Figueiredo Côrtes

    2006-02-01

    aimed at comparing anesthetic quality and maternal and fetal repercussions, as well as patients’ ambulation and spontaneous micturition ability with continuous epidural racemic or 50% enantiomeric excess (S75-R25 0.25% bupivacaine, associated to fentanyl during labor. METHODS: Participated in this study 40 parturients, physical status ASA I and II, single fetus and in labor, submitted to continuous epidural analgesia, who were divided in two groups: Group I received 8 mL (20 mg of 0.25% bupivacaine (S75-R25 and epinephrine, associated to 100 mug fentanyl; and Group II received racemic 0.25% bupivacaine and epinephrine associated to 100 mug fentanyl. The following parameters were evaluated: onset time, sensory block level, motor block level, Romberg’s test, ambulation and spontaneous micturition ability, labor and delivery time, maternal hemodynamic and respiratory changes in addition to neonates vitality. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences between groups in all evaluated parameters. All parturients presented with muscle strength and ambulation ability and when this was not observed, the reason was Cesarean delivery indication (1 in Group II or delivery before the time needed to observe such parameter (4 in Group I and 5 in Group II. CONCLUSIONS: Both racemic and S75-R25 0.25% bupivacaine associated to fentanyl were effective for labor analgesia.

  9. Raquianestesia para cesariana com bupivacaína a 0,5% isobárica associada ao fentanil e morfina: estudo prospectivo com diferentes volumes Raquianestesia para cesariana con bupivacaína a 0,5% isobárica asociada al fentanil y morfina: estudio prospectivo con diferentes volúmenes Spinal anesthesia for cesarean section with 0.5% isobaric bupivacaine plus fentanyl and morphine: prospective study with different volumes

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    Luiz Eduardo Imbelloni

    2003-06-01

    section was described few years after the first report of spinal anesthesia by Bier in 1899. It was not until the last 5 years that spinal anesthesia has become the most frequent anesthetic method for cesarean section at our hospital. This prospective study aimed at evaluating 0.5% spinal isobaric bupivacaine for cesarean section, injected after fentanyl and morphine, in the lateral position, and at correlating the incidence of hemodynamic changes and cephalad spread with different volumes. METHODS: Participated in this study 100 patients undergoing spinal anesthesia for elective cesarean delivery who were randomly allocated into three groups to receive: 4 ml (20 mg, 3 ml (15 mg or 2.5 ml (12.5 mg of 0.5% isobaric bupivacaine after 25 µg fentanyl plus 50 µg morphine. The following parameters were evaluated and compared: analgesia and motor block onset, cephalad spread of analgesia, cardiovascular changes and the incidence of nausea and vomiting. RESULTS: The three volumes of 0.5% isobaric bupivacaine produced comparable effects. Onset was longer for the lowest dose. There were no differences in cephalad spread, number of patients with high cervical levels, cardiovascular changes and post dural puncture headache. Maximum analgesic level was T4 (range: T3-T6 with 4 ml, T4 (range: T4-T11 with 3 ml and T4 (range: T4-T8 with 2.5 ml. No patient required ephedrine to treat arterial hypotension. Motor block was incomplete for all patients. One patient developed post dural puncture headache. CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study confirm that 0.5% isobaric bupivacaine, following fentanyl and morphine injected with separate syringes and in the lateral position, in doses of 2.5, 3 and 4 ml provides a fast and effective anesthesia for cesarean section.

  10. Addition of adenosine to hyperbaric bupivacaine in spinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Postoperative analgesia was provided with patient-controlled fentanyl. Time of administration of rescue analgesia and total dose of fentanyl were recorded. The times to full recovery of sensory and motor block were noted. Results: There were no differences in time to rescue analgesia and postoperative fentanyl ...

  11. Comparing caudal and penile nerve blockade using bupivacaine in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Caudal anaesthesia is recommended for most surgical procedures of the lower part of the body, mainly below the umbilicus. It has been well established that a dorsal penile nerve block immediately after surgery decreases postoperative pain in children undergoing hypospadias repair. This study aimed to ...

  12. Comparison of two doses of hypobaric bupivacaine in unilateral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Hip fracture is a frequent and severe disease. Its prognosis depends on the perioperative hemodynamic stability which can be preserved by the unilateral spinal anesthesia especially with low doses of local anesthetics. This study aims to compare the efficacy and hemodynamic stability of two doses of ...

  13. Formulation and Evaluation of Bupivacaine-Loaded Glutaraldehyde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    based on glutaraldehyde cross-linking and drug-loaded chitosan microsphere were coated with poly- glycolic acid (PGA) film The ..... Nanoparticles for nasal vaccination. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2009; 61: 140-157. 9. Garcia-Fuentes M, Alonso MJ. Chitosan-based drug nano carriers: Where do we stand? Rev J Cont Release ...

  14. Post-operative analgesic effect of epidural bupivacaine alone and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haemoglobin, Packed cell volume, total erythrocyte and leukocyte counts showed a significant (p<0.05) ..... leading to a direct depressant effect on brain stem respiratory centres. (Tranquilli et al., 2004). Tramadol was .... Adjunctive drug therapy for canine osteoarthritis pain. Proceeding of the North American Veterinary ...

  15. The effects of incisional bupivacaine infusions on postoperative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morphine was administered via a patient-controlled analgesia pump (PCA) for rescue analgesia. Dynamic, static and worst pain scores were assessed one, six and 30 hours after surgery by using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Morphine consumption was recorded at set intervals. Results: There were statistically significant ...

  16. Addition of adenosine to hyperbaric bupivacaine in spinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Systemic administration of adenosine produces anti-nociception. Although literature supports intrathecal adenosine for neuropathic pain, its efficacy in postoperative pain remains unproven. There has been no study on the efficacy of adenosine on postoperative pain when administered with hyperbaric ...

  17. Clonidine versus fentanyl as adjuvants to bupivacaine in peribulbar anesthesia

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    Maha M.I. Youssef

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: The addition of either clonidine or fentanyl to the local anesthetic during peribulbar block results in a faster onset and longer duration of the block with a longer period of postoperative analgesia. The addition of clonidine was found to prolong the duration of the block more than fentanyl.

  18. Comparison of the maternal and neonatal effects of bupivacaine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-02-20

    Feb 20, 2012 ... iPhone App. A free application to browse and search the journal's content is now available for iPhone/iPad. The application provides “Table of Contents” of the latest issues, which are stored on the device for future offline browsing. Internet connection is required to access the back issues and search facility.

  19. The efficacy of two bupivacaine hydrochloride injection products

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1996-06-06

    Jun 6, 1996 ... operating theatres of National and Pelonomi Hospitals,. Bloemfontein, South Africa. Patients. Thirty male and 74 female patients who needed extra-capsular lens extraction plus intra-ocular lens implantation, extra-capsular lens extraction, or trabeculectomy were selected for the study. Outcome measures.

  20. The efficacy of two bupivacaine hydrochloride injection products

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1996-06-06

    Jun 6, 1996 ... patients who were undergoing intra-ocular eye surgery. Design. Patients took part in this double-blind, .... The total volume administered did not exceed 10 ml. After 5 minutes, another evaluation of ... 5, 6 and 7 - partial akinesia that requires additional anaesthetic; 4 and lower - akinesia not suitable for.

  1. Analgesia intra-articular com morfina, bupivacaína ou fentanil após operação de joelho por videoartroscopia Analgesia intra-articular con morfina, bupivacaína o fentanil después de operación de rodilla por videoartroscopia Intra-articular analgesia with morphine, bupivacaine or fentanyl after knee video-arthroscopy surgery

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    Rogério Helcias de Souza

    2002-09-01

    por vía intra-articular después de operación de rodilla por videoartroscopia. MÉTODO: Sesenta pacientes fueron divididos de forma aleatoria, en cuatro grupos: GI (n=15 - 10 ml de solución fisiológica; GII (n = 15 - 2 mg de morfina diluidos para 10 ml de solución fisiológica; GIII (n = 15 - 10 ml de bupivacaína a 0,25%; GIV (n = 15 - 100 µg de fentanil diluidos para 10 ml de solución fisiológica, inyectados al término de la operación. Todos los pacientes fueron sometidos a anestesia subaracnóidea con 15 mg de bupivacaína hiperbárica. La intensidad del dolor fue evaluada por la escala analógica visual (inmediatamente después del término de la operación y después 6, 12, 18 y 24 horas, bien como la necesidad de complemento analgésico (dipirona 1 g por vía venosa. Fueron anotados los posibles efectos colaterales. RESULTADOS: No hubo diferencia significativa en la intensidad del dolor entre los grupos, en la casi totalidad de los tiempos estudiados. Hubo diferencia estadística hasta seis horas, cuando el grupo fentanil presentó intensidad de dolor significativamente menor. El grupo morfina necesitó de mayor número de complementos con dipirona. Los efectos colaterales fueron mínimos, sin significación estadística. CONCLUSIONES: No hubo diferencia significativa entre la analgesia promovida por las soluciones estudiadas en la mayoría de los tiempos investigados.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Methods to promote knee pain analgesia without impairing motor function have been widely researched. This study aimed at comparing intra-articular morphine, bupivacaine, and fentanyl analgesic effects (as compared to saline solution, after knee video-arthroscopy. METHODS: Participated in this study 60 patients who were randomly distributed in four groups: GI (n = 15 10 ml saline solution; GII (n = 15 2 mg morphine diluted in 10 ml saline solution; GIII (n = 15 10 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine; GIV (n = 15 100 µg fentanyl diluted in 10 ml saline solution, injected at

  2. Estudo comparativo entre bupivacaína (S75-R25 e ropivacaína em bloqueio peridural para analgesia de parto Estudio comparativo entre la bupivacaína (S75-R25 y la ropivacaína en bloqueo epidural para analgesia de parto A comparative study between bupivacaine (S75-R25 and ropivacaine in spinal anesthesia for labor analgesia

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    Celso Schmalfuss Nogueira

    2010-10-01

    las repercusiones maternas y fetales con el uso de la bupivacaína (S75-R25 y de la ropivacaína cuando se usan para la analgesia de parto por bloqueo epidural. MÉTODOS: Realizamos un ensayo clínico prospectivo, encubierto y randomizado, con 49 pacientes gestantes a término, que presentaban bajo riesgo, con indicación de parto vaginal, y una edad entre los 15 y los 35 años, ASA I o II distribuidas en dos grupos: GI - bupivacaína (S75-R25 0,25%; GII - ropivacaína a 0,20%. RESULTADOS: Quedó evidenciada la diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre los dos grupos, 30 minutos después de la administración de la epidural, siendo que las puntuaciones de dolor fueron más elevadas en el grupo que utilizó la ropivacaína. No se encontraron diferencias estadísticas significativas en cuanto a la latencia de la analgesia, nivel sensorial del bloqueo, volumen del anestésico local, dosis de rescate, duración del parto y de la analgesia, frecuencia de parto instrumental, alteraciones hemodinámicas, puntuaciones de Apgar o pH del cordón umbilical e incidencia de eventos adversos. CONCLUSIONES: El uso de la bupivacaína (S75-R25 y la ropivacaína para la analgesia de parto, proporcionó buenas condiciones para la realización de la anestesia epidural con pequeñas incidencias de eventos adversosBACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Spinal anesthesia is used for relief of pain during labor and it is associated with low indices of complications. Studies with levorotatory enantiomers of local anesthetics demonstrate higher safety due to the lower cardiotoxicity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the latency and duration of analgesia and maternal and fetal repercussions with bupivacaine (S75-R25 and ropivacaine in spinal anesthesia for labor analgesia. METHODS: A prospective, double-blind, randomized clinical assay was undertaken with 49 labouring parturients with low risk, with indication of vaginal delivery, ages 15 to 35 years, ASA I or II, divided into two groups

  3. Mistura com excesso enantiomérico de 50% (S75-R25 de bupivacaína complexada com ciclodextrinas e anestesia por via subaracnóidea em ratos Mezcla con exceso enantiomérico de 50% (S75-R25 de bupivacaina con complejo de ciclodextrinas y anestesia por vía subaracnoidea en ratones Complexation of 50% enantiomeric excess (S75-R25 bupivacaine with cyclodextrins and spinal block anesthesia in rats

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    Daniele Ribeiro de Araujo

    2006-10-01

    concentraciones de HP-beta-CD y la temperatura. Fueron determinadas las constantes de afinidad (K por la HP-beta-CD y los parámetros termodinámicos para los complejos. Los bloqueos motor y sensitivo fueron evaluados en ratones, a través de la administración subaracnoidea de las formulaciones en la concentración clínica de 0,5%. RESULTADOS: La formación de complejos de inclusión se observó a través del aumento de la solubilidad acuosa del AL bajo diferentes temperaturas y concentraciones de HP-beta-CD. Las pruebas in vivo mostraron que S50-R50HP-beta-CD y S75-R25HP-beta-CD redujeron la latencia (p BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In order to prolong the action and reduce systemic toxicity, formulations of local anesthetic (LA complexed with cyclodextrins (CD have been developed. This study determined the physical-chemical characterization and evaluated the effects of inclusion complexes of racemic bupivacaine (S50-R50 and 50% enantiomeric excess (S75-R25 bupivacaine with hydroxypropil-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CD in rats, and comparing them with the solutions currently used in the clinical practice. METHODS: Inclusion complexation of S75-R25 with HP-beta-CD (equimolar ratio 1:1 was characterized by phase-solubility studies varying the concentrations of HP-beta-CD and the temperature. Affinity constants (K for HP-beta-CD and the thermodynamic parameters for complexation were determined. Motor and sensitive anesthesias were evaluated through the subarachnoid administration of the formulations in the concentration of 0.5%. RESULTS: Inclusion complexation was observed through the increase in aqueous solubility of LA in different temperatures and concentrations of HP-beta-CD. The in vivo tests demonstrated that S50-R50HP-beta-CD and S75-R25HP-beta-CD reduced latency (p < 0.001 without changing the recovery time of the motor block, time for maximal effect, and total effect of the drugs. Besides, both formulations increased the intensity (1.5 times, p < 0.001 and prolonged the

  4. Preparação, caracterização e avaliação in vitro de microesferas de bupivacaína em excesso enantiomérico de 50% (S75-R25 Preparación, caracterización y evaluación in vitro de microesferas de bupivacaina en exceso enantiomérico de 50% (S75-R25 Preparation, characterization and in vitro evaluation of 50% enantiomeric excess bupivacaine (S75-R25-loaded microspheres

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    Pedro Paulo Tanaka

    2008-02-01

    system to prolong the duration of action of local anesthetics. The objective of this study was the preparation, characterization and analysis of the in vitro release of 50% enantiomeric excess bupivacaine (S75-R25-loaded microspheres. METHODS: Microspheres were prepared using the copolymer of polylactide-co-glycolic acid by the spray-dryed method. RESULTS: Characterization of microspheres regarding their size and content were similar to the theoretical values. The in vitro release demonstrated a biphasic pattern. CONCLUSIONS: Manufacturing of 50% enantiomeric excess bupivacaine-loaded microspheres by the spray-dryed method with results similar to bupivacaine-loaded microspheres can be done.

  5. Comparação das alterações histológicas da medula espinal e neurológicas de cobaias após anestesia subaracnóidea com grandes volumes de bupivacaína racêmica, de mistura com excesso enantiomérico de 50% de bupivacaína (S75-R25 e de levobupivacaína Comparación de las alteraciones histológicas de la medula espinal y neurológicas de hámsteres después de la anestesia subaracnoidea con grandes volúmenes de bupivacaina racémica, de mezcla con exceso enantiomérico de 50% de bupivacaína (S75-R25 y de levobupivacaína Comparison of histologic spinal cord and neurologic changes in guinea pigs after subarachnoid block with large volumes of racemic bupivacaine, 50% enantiomeric excess bupivacaine (S75-R25, and levobupivacaine

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    Paulo de Oliveira Vasconcelos Filho

    2008-06-01

    central, si los comparamos con los inducidos por la bupivacaína racémica, sin embargo el efecto anestésico es menos intenso. Fue realizado un estudio experimental para comparar efectos adversos de grandes volúmenes de bupivacaína, de bupivacaína S75-R25 y de levobupivacaína cuando se inyectaron en el espacio subaracnoideo de los hámsteres. MÉTODO: Cuarenta hámsteres se dividieron en cuatro grupos. Anestesiados con O2 a 100% e isoflurano a 2%, con posterior punción en el espacio intervertebral L6-S1. En los animales del Grupo I se administraron 2 mL de solución fisiológica a 0,9%; en el Grupo II, 2 mL de bupivacaína 0,5%; en el Grupo III, 2 mL de bupivacaína S75-R25 0,5% y en el Grupo IV, 2 mL de levobupivacaína 0,5%. Después del despertar, en los momentos 0, 60, 120 y 180 minutos, fue realizado examen neurológico diariamente por una semana. Los animales fueron sacrificados y sometidos a la perfusión con paraformaldeido a 4%. Después de la fijación, la médula espinal fue aislada por disección y analizada histológicamente para evaluar el grado de lesión medular. RESULTADOS: Los hámsteres del grupo control no presentaron bloqueo nervioso. Los del Grupo II presentaron bloqueo sensitivo y motor por más de 180 minutos. En los Grupos III (S75-R25 y IV (levobupivacaína hubo un bloqueo motor y sensitivo al momento 0 minuto, sin embargo al momento 60 minutos el bloqueo motor era mínimo. En el examen histológico, el Grupo I no presentó alteraciones. En el Grupo II fueron encontradas alteraciones medulares intensas. En el Grupo III y IV las alteraciones medulares fueron poco intensas. CONCLUSIONES: La levobupivacaína en grandes volúmenes causó poco daño al sistema nervioso comparada a la bupivacaína. Entre la levobupivacaína y la bupivacaína S75-R25, no hubo diferencia estadística significativa.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Levobupivacaine has less central nervous system side effects than racemic bupivacaine, but its anesthetic effect is not as

  6. Anestesia espinhal com 10 mg de bupivacaína hiperbárica associada a 5 µg de sufentanil para cesariana: estudo de diferentes volumes Anestesia espinal con 10 mg de bupivacaína hiperbárica asociada a 5 µg de sufentanil para cesárea: estudio de diferentes volúmenes Spinal Block with 10 mg of hyperbaric bupivacaine associated with 5 µg of sufentanil for cesarean section: study of different volumes

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    Angélica de Fátima de Assunção Braga

    2010-04-01

    the effectivity and side effects of different volumes of the subarachnoid administration of the association of hyperbaric bupivacaine and sufentanil in cesarean sections. METHODS: Forty patients, ASA I and II, undergoing elective cesarean section under spinal block were divided in two groups, according to the volume of the anesthetic solution: Group I (4 mL and Group II (3 mL. The association of hyperbaric bupivacaine (10 mg-2 mL and sufentanil (5 µg-1 mL was used in both groups. In Group I, 1 mL of NS was added to the solution to achieve the volume of 4 mL. The following parameters were evaluated: latency of the blockade; upper limit of the sensorial blockade; degree of motor blockade; time for regression of the motor blockade; total duration of analgesia; maternal side effects; and neonatal repercussions. RESULTS: Latency, the upper limit of the sensorial blockade, and the degree and time for regression of the motor blockade were similar in both groups; duration of analgesia was greater in Group I than in Group II, which was statistically significant. The incidence of side effects was similar in both groups. Maternal cardiocirculatory changes and neonatal repercussions were not observed. CONCLUSIONS: Four milliliter of anesthetic solution composed of hyperbaric bupivacaine, 10 mg, associated with 5 µg of sufentanil was more effective than 3 ml of the same solution, providing better intra-and postoperative analgesia without maternal-fetal repercussions.

  7. Estudo comparativo entre toxina botulínica e bupivacaína para infiltração de pontos-gatilho em síndrome miofascial crônica Estudio comparativo entre toxina botulínica y bupivacaína para infiltración de puntos-gatillo en síndrome miofascial crónica Comparative study between botulin toxin and bupivacaine for triggering-points infiltration in chronic myofascial syndrome

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    Eduardo Keiichi Unno

    2005-04-01

    dos grupos. Los pacientes del G1 (n = 10 recibieron 25U de toxina botulínica y los del G2 (n = 10, bupivacaína a 0,25%, de un a tres puntos-gatillo, siendo 0,5 mL por punto. Los pacientes fueron evaluados semanalmente, durante 8 semanas. Fueron asociados 35 mg de orfenadrina, y 300 mg de dipirona, a cada 8 horas, los pacientes fueron sometidos a estimulación eléctrica transcutánea, dos veces por semana, durante 1 hora por sesión. La intensidad del dolor fue evaluada a través de la escala numérica verbal y la calidad de la analgesia, por el paciente, en los momentos cero (antes de la inyección, y después de 30 minutos, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 y 8 semanas. Los resultados fueron sometidos al análisis estadístico (Mann-Whitney y Exacto de Fisher. RESULTADOS: Después de 30 minutos de la aplicación y con 1 y 4 semanas, la intensidad del dolor en el G1 fue menor que en el G2. Después de 2, 3, 5, 7 y 8 semanas de la infiltración, no hubo diferencia significativa entre los grupos. La calidad de la analgesia fue considerada mejor por los pacientes del G1 que del G2, excepto después de 2 semanas. CONCLUSIONES: El efecto analgésico fue mejor con toxina botulínica (25U que con bupivacaína a 0,25% para infiltración de puntos-gatillo.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There are controversies about the efficacy of botulin toxin as compared to local anesthetics for triggering-points infiltration. This study aimed at comparing the analgesic effect of botulin toxin and bupivacaine for triggering-points infiltration in chronic myofascial syndrome. METHODS: Participated in this study 20 patients divided in two groups. G1 patients (n = 10 received 25U botulin toxin and G2 patients (n = 10 received 0.25% bupivacaine in one to three triggering-points, being 0.5 mL per point. Patients were weekly evaluated for 8 weeks. Orphenadrine (35 mg and dipirone (300 mg were associated every 8 hours and patients were submitted to transcutaneous electrical stimulation twice a week during 1 hour

  8. Efeito de levobupivacaína e bupivacaína nas dispersões da onda P, QT e QT corrigido (QTc em cesariana Efecto de la levobupivacaína y la bupivacaína en las dispersiones de la onda P, QT y QT corregido (QTc en cesárea The Effect of levobupivacaine and bupivacaine on QT, corrected QT (Qtc, and P wave dispersions in cesarean section

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    Yeliz Deniz

    2013-04-01

    área. MÉTODOS: Sesenta parturientes programadas para cesárea electiva en grupos de riesgo ASA I-II fueron incluidas en el estudio. Los exámenes electrocardiográficos (ECG se hicieron después de la entrada de las pacientes al quirófano. Se registraron la frecuencia cardíaca (FC, presión arterial no invasiva (PANI, saturación periférica de oxígeno (SpO2 y frecuencia respiratoria (RR. Para el acceso venoso, se usó una cánula de calibre 18. La precarga de líquidos fue hecha con una solución de Ringer con lactato (10 mL.kg-1. Después de la precarga de líquidos, un segundo examen electrocardiográfico se hizo y las pacientes fueron designadas aleatoriamente para dos grupos. El Grupo B (n = 30 recibió 10 mg de bupivacaína y el Grupo L (n = 30 recibió 10 mg de levobupivacaína para la raquianestesia. Los exámenes ECG se repitieron en los minutos 1, 5 y 10 después de la anestesia. FC, PANI, SpO2, FR y los niveles de bloqueo sensorial también fueron registrados en los mismos intervalos de tiempo. En intervalos de tiempo predeterminados de raquianestesia, las duraciones de la dispersión de la onda P (OPd, QT (QTd y QTc (QTcd fueron medidas a partir de los registros del ECG. Las duraciones de QT y QTc fueron calculadas con la fórmula de Bazzett. RESULTADOS: No hubo diferencia entre los dos grupos en cuanto a los niveles de bloqueo, parámetros hemodinámicos, OPd, QTd, QTc y QTcd. CONCLUSIONES: La levobupivacaína y la bupivacaína pueden ser los anestésicos de elección para la raquianestesia en las embarazadas con dispersiones prolongadas de la OPd y QTcd en el período preoperatorio.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In our study we aimed to investigate the effect of bupivacaine and levobupivacaine on QT, corrected QT (QTc, and P wave dispersion durations during spinal anesthesia in cesarean section. METHODS: Sixty parturients scheduled for elective cesarean section in ASA I-II risk groups were included in the study. Baseline electrocardiographic (ECG records of

  9. Estudo comparativo entre bupivacaína a 0,25% e ropivacaína a 0,2% em anestesia peridural para cirurgia torácica Estudio comparativo entre bupivacaína a 0,25% y ropivacaína a 0,2% en anestesia peridural para cirugía de tórax Comparison between 0.25% bupivacaine and 0.2% ropivacaine in epidural anesthesia for thoracic surgery

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    Marcus Vinícius Martins Novaes

    2001-12-01

    ventilatorios de la anestesia peridural torácica con bupivacaína a 0,25% y ropivacaína a 0,2% asociada a anestesia general en pacientes sometidos a toracotomia. MÉTODO: Participaron de este estudio prospectivo, comparativo y aleatorio, cuarenta pacientes divididos en dos grupos de veinte. Cada grupo recibió un volumen de 10 ml de anestésico local, por vía peridural torácica. Grupo B (Bupivacaína 0,25% y el Grupo R (Ropivacaína 0,2%. El bloqueo peridural fue realizado con los pacientes en decúbito lateral, punción paramediana y catéter para inyección de los fármacos A seguir, todos los pacientes recibieron anestesia general con IOT. Fueron analizados parámetros hemodinámicos y ventilatorios en 9 momentos. RESULTADOS: La presión arterial sistólica fue menor en el momento 5 y la presión arterial diastólica en los momentos 1 y 5, ambas en el grupo B. La necesidad de efedrina para corregir hipotensión arterial fue de 8/20 en el grupo B, contra 6/20 en el grupo R. La presión de pico en las vías aéreas superiores fue siempre mas elevada en el grupo R y los valores de la CAM del isoflurano fueron mas elevados en los momentos 5 y 6 también en el Grupo R. CONCLUSIONES: La técnica combinada peridural torácica y anestesia general se mostró eficaz y segura en los pacientes sometidos a toracotomia. Cuando se utilizó bupivacaína, la diminución de la presión arterial fue mayor y la presión máxima en las vías aéreas fue menor de que cuando fue utilizada ropivacaína.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Combined general/epidural anesthesia has been used for several surgical procedures. Little has been published in the literature about its use in thoracic surgery. This study aimed to evaluate hemodynamic and ventilatory effects of combined general/epidural anesthesia with 0.25% bupivacaine and 0.2% ropivacaine in patients submitted to thoracotomy METHODS: Participated in this prospective, comparative and randomized study 40 patients divided in two groups of 20. Each

  10. Estudo comparativo entre ropivacaína a 0,5% e bupivacaína a 0,5% ambas hiperbáricas, na raquianestesia Estudio comparativo entre ropivacaína a 0,5% y bupivacaína a 0,5% ambas hiperbáricas, en la raquianestesia Spinal anesthesia with 0.5% hyperbaric ropivacaine and 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine: a comparative study

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    Afonso Cláudio dos Reis e Carvalho

    2002-11-01

    (50% de los pacientes en el grupo R vs 30% en el grupo B; tiempo para regresión completa del bloqueo sensorial (178,5 ± 65,2 vs 181 ± 26,9 minutos; tiempo para regresión completa del bloqueo motor (192 ± 50,7 vs 162,5 ± 37,8 min; tiempo para la primera queja espontánea de dolor (183,9 ± 37,1 vs 206,5 ± 46,6 minutos. CONCLUSIONES: En este estudio las características clínicas del bloqueo subaracnóideo con ropivacaína o bupivacaína hiperbáricas en dosis equipotentes fueron semejantes. Los datos parecen confirmar observaciones anteriores de que en estas condiciones la potencia de la ropivacaína es aproximadamente igual a la mitad de aquella de la bupivacaína.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Spinal anesthesia with ropivacaine has been proven safe both in experimental and clinical studies. On the other hand, ropivacaine is approximately half as potent as bupivacaine in spinal anesthesia when both drugs are used in hyperbaric solutions. This study aimed at comparing clinical spinal block features obtained with hyperbaric ropivacaine or bupivacaine in equipotent doses. METHODS: Twenty ASA I or II patients, aged 20 to 60 years, scheduled for elective surgeries of lower limbs, perineum and inguinal hernioplasty, were randomly allocated into two groups . Group R (n = 10 were given 4 ml 0.5% hyperbaric ropivacaine and Group B (n = 10 were given 2 ml of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine intratecally. Puncture was performed with a 25G needle in the sitting position. Monitoring consisted of SBP, DBP, MBP, HR, ECG and SpO2. Sensory and motor block onset and recovery times, hemodynamic and respiratory changes, and the incidence of adverse effects were recorded. RESULTS: There were no differences between groups in demographics data, sensory block onset (174.4 ± 75.9 vs. 191 ± 51.7 s, motor block onset (373.6 ± 214.6 vs. 240 ± 60 s, upper level of sensory block T8 - T10 (90% of group R patients vs. 70% of group B, motor block grade 3 (50% of group R patients vs. 30% of group B

  11. Volumes anestésicos efetivos no bloqueio do nervo isquiático: comparação entre as abordagens parassacral e infraglútea-arabiceptal com bupivacaína a 0,5% com adrenalina e ropivacaína a 0,5% Volúmenes anestésicos efectivos en el bloqueo del nervio isquiático: comparación entre los abordajes parasacral e infraglúteo-parabicipital con bupivacaína a 0,5% con adrenalina y ropivacaína a 0,5% Effective anesthetic volumes in sciatic nerve block: comparison between the parasacral and infragluteal-parabiceps approaches with 0.5% bupivacaine with adrenaline and 0.5% ropivacaine

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    Pablo Escovedo Helayel

    2009-10-01

    %: 14,9 - 20,8 y el de la bupivacaína 16,4 mL (IC 95%: 12,3 - 21,9. En el abordaje infraglúteo-parabicipital el volumen efectivo promedio de la ropivacaína fue 21,8 mL (IC 95%: 18,7 - 25,5 y bupivacaína 20,4 mL (IC 95%: 18,6 - 22,5. Los volúmenes fueron significativamente menores (p BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The volume and mass of local anesthetics (LA affect the success rate of peripheral nerve blocks. Thus, the main objective of this study was to determine the volumes of local anesthetics in parasacral and infragluteal-parabiceps sciatic nerve block (SNB. METHODS: One hundred and one patients undergoing infragluteal-parabiceps or parasacral SNB with 0.5% ropivacaine or 0.5% bupivacaine with 5 µg.mL-1 of adrenaline were randomly divided into 4 groups. Success was defined as complete sensitive and motor blockades of the sciatic nerve 30 minutes after the administration of the LA. Volumes were calculated by the up-and-down method. RESULTS: In the parasacral approach, the mean effective volume of ropivacaine was 17.6 mL (95% CI: 14.9-20.8 and of bupivacaine it was 16.4 mL (95% CI: 12.3-21.9. In the infragluteal-parabiceps approach, the mean effective volume of ropivacaine was 21.8 mL (95% CI: 18.7-25.5, and that of bupivacaine was 20.4 mL (95% CI: 18.6-22.5. Volumes were significantly lower (p < 0.01 in the parasacral than in the infragluteal-parabiceps approach. In Probit regression, the estimated effective volume in 95% of the patients in the parasacral approach was 21.8 mL for ropivacaine, and 20.5 mL for bupivacaine; in the infragluteal-parabiceps approach the volumes were 27.2 mL for ropivacaine and 25.5 mL for bupivacaine. The effective volume in 99% of the patients in parasacral SNB was 24 mL for ropivacaine, and 24 mL for bupivacaine; and in the infragluteal-parabiceps approach, 29.9 mL for ropivacaine, and 28.0 mL for bupivacaine. CONCLUSIONS: In sciatic nerve block, significantly smaller volumes were necessary in the parasacral than in the infragluteal

  12. Analgesia controlada pelo paciente reduz consumo de bupivacaína no bloqueio femoral no tratamento da dor pós-operatória após reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior do joelho Analgesia controlada por el paciente reduce consumo de bupivacaína en bloqueo femoral para manejo de dolor postoperatorio en reconstrucción de ligamento cruzado anterior de rodilla Patient controlled analgesia reduces the consumption of bupivacaine in femoral nerve block for the treatment of postoperative pain after reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament of the knee

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    Victor A. Contreras-Domínguez

    2007-08-01

    a cada 30 min; Grupo 3 (n = 30: 5 mL.h-1 de B + C en PCA cada 30 min. Los pacientes fueron intervenidos bajo anestesia espinal. Se registró dolor posquirúrgico a las 2, 4, 6, 24 y 48 horas mediante Escala Visual Análoga (EVA, consumo de morfina y bupivacaína. RESULTADOS: No se registraron diferencias en las variables demográficas entre ambos grupos. El EVA postoperatorio entre las 2 y 48 horas no mostró diferencias. El consumo de morfina entre las 4 y 48 horas fue similar en los 3 grupos (p = 0,07. En el grupo en que sólo se utilizó modo PCA, el consumo de bupivacaína fue significativamente menor (p BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Continuous femoral nerve block (CFNB is used in postoperative analgesia of hip and knee replacement surgeries with good results. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of CFNB, comparing 3 administration schedules of bupivacaine in the arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL repair of the knee. METHODS: A prospective, controlled study with 90 stable patients, physical status ASA I and II was undertaken. Patients were divided in three groups: Group 1 (n = 30: continuous infusion (CI at a rate of 10 mL.h-1 of 0.125% bupivacaine + clonidine 1 µg.ml-1 (B+C; Group 2 (n = 30: CI at a rate of 5 mL.h-1 + PCA with 2.5 ml of B+C every 30 minutes; Group 3 (n = 30: PCA with 5 mL.h-1 of B+C every 30 minutes. Patients underwent spinal anesthesia. Postoperative pain at 2, 4, 6, 24, and 48 hours, using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, and consumption of morphine and bupivacaine were recorded. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences regarding the demographic data in both groups. The postoperative VAS between 2 and 48 hours did not show any differences. Morphine consumption between 4 and 48 hours was similar in all 3 groups (p = 0.07. The consumption of bupivacaine was significantly lower in the group that used only PCA (p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Continuous femoral nerve block is a useful technique to manage

  13. Raquianestesia com a mistura enantiomérica de bupivacaína a 0,5% isobárica (S75-R25 em crianças com idades de 1 a 5 anos para cirurgia ambulatorial Raquianestesia con mezcla enantiomérica de bupivacaína a 0,5% isobárica (S75-R25 en niños con edad de 1 a 5 años para cirugía ambulatorial Spinal anesthesia for outpatient pediatric surgery in 1 - 5 years old children with 0.5% isobaric enantiomeric mixture of bupivacaine (S75-R25

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    Luiz Eduardo Imbelloni

    2002-06-01

    enantiomérica de la bupivacaína (S75-R25 a 0,5% isobárica produce una anestesia segura en pacientes de 1 a 5 años en régimen ambulatorial, con alto índice de suceso, bloqueo motor de corta duración de acción, relativa baja incidencia de efectos colaterales y un costeo menor. Cefalea pós-punción parece ser rara en pacientes abajo de 5 años cuando se utiliza agujas de calibre fino. Nuestros resultados mostraron que la raquianestesia es segura y fácilmente realizable en niños de 1 a 5 años en régimen ambulatorial.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Commercially available bupivacaine is a racemic mixture of S(- and R(+ enantiomers. Although the S(- bupivacaine enantiomer is less toxic than R(+ bupivacaine to cardiovascular and central nervous systems, its relative efficacy has not yet been determined in spinal anesthesia for pediatric surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of spinal anesthesia with a 0.5% isobaric mixture of S(- bupivacaine(75% + R(+ bupivacaine(25% in 40 children aged 1 to 5 years scheduled for outpatient surgery. METHODS: Participated in this prospective study 40 patients aged 1 to 5 years submitted to spinal anesthesia with 0.5 mg.kg-1 of a 0.5% isobaric mixture of 75% S(- bupivacaine + 25% R(+ bupivacaine. The following parameters were observed: onset of analgesia, degree of motor block, duration of effects, cephalad spread of analgesia, cardiovascular changes, incidence of headache and transient neurological symptoms. RESULTS: Mean onset time was 2.29 ± 0.64 min. Duration of analgesia was 4.13 ± 0.89 h. Time to ambulate was 3.50 ± 0.81 h. Mean PACU stay was 43.80 ± 31.34 min. Motor block duration was 1.89 ± 0.78 h. Sensory block level varied from T9 to T4 (Mode=T6. Motor block onset time was less than two minutes in all children, all reaching grade 3 motor block (modified Bromage scale in the beginning of surgery. Over 55% of all patients recovered to motor block 1 or zero at the end of the surgery. No patient developed

  14. Comparação das alterações hemodinâmicas na intoxicação aguda com bupivacaína e ropivacaína por via venosa em suínos Comparación de las alteraciones hemodinámicas en la intoxicación aguda con bupivacaina y ropivacaína por vía venosa en cerdos Comparison of hemodynamic changes in acute intoxication with intravenous bupivacaine and ropivacaine in swine

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    Marcos De Simone Melo

    2009-10-01

    locorregionales. El objetivo de este estudio fue el de comparar las repercusiones hemodinámicas después de una inyección por vía venosa de los dos agentes en cerdos, simulando una intoxicación que puede ocurrir durante la anestesia locorregional en los humanos. MÉTODO: Se utilizaron cerdos de la raza Large-White, los cuales fueron anestesiados con tiopental, y fue realizada intubación traqueal e instituida la ventilación controlada mecánica. Las variables hemodinámicas se midieron a través de la monitorización invasiva de la presión arterial y de la cateterización de la arteria pulmonar. Después del período de reposo de 30 minutos, los animales fueron aleatoriamente divididos en dos grupos y recibieron por vía venosa 4 mg.kg-1 de uno u otro agente, sin que el investigador lo supiese. Los resultados hemodinámicos fueron evaluados en reposo y 1, 5, 10, 15, 20 y 30 minutos después de la intoxicación. RESULTADOS: Las repercusiones hemodinámicas de la intoxicación aguda con bupivacaina fueron más importantes y más prolongadas que las de la ropivacaina. Con la bupivacaina, el índice cardíaco se redujo más y fue más prolongado, la presión arterial promedio y la frecuencia cardiaca registraron reducciones más prolongadas, la presión venosa central aumento más y la presión capilar pulmonar también aumentó más y durante más tiempo. El impacto en el índice de resistencia vascular sistémica mostró que la vasomotricidad se mantuvo parcialmente. También se registró un aumento en los dos grupos y, paradójicamente, un tiempo mayor con la bupivacaina. CONCLUSIONES: En los cerdos, la ropivacaína causó menos repercusiones hemodinámicas que la bupivacaina, cuando las mismas dosis se inyectaron por vía venosa.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pure levorotatory ropivacaine was introduced to provide a safer alternative to bupivacaine in regional blocks. The objective of this study was to compare the hemodynamic repercussions after the intravenous administration

  15. Efeito da adição de clonidina subaracnóidea à solução anestésica de sufentanil e bupivacaína hiperbárica ou hipobárica para analgesia de parto Efecto de la adición de clonidina subaracnoidea a la solución anestésica de sufentanil y bupivacaína hiperbárica o hipobárica para la analgesia de parto Effects of the addition of subarachnoid clonidine to the anesthetic solution of sufentanil and hyperbaric or hypobaric bupivacaine for labor analgesia

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    Thaís Cristina Tebaldi

    2008-12-01

    ,5% (grupo CLON/HIPER; n = 11 o 2,5 mg de bupivacaína isobárica 0,5% (grupo CLON/ISO; n = 11 en asociación con el sufentanil 2,5 µg y la clonidina 30 µg. El dolor evaluado por la Escala Analógica Visual, la frecuencia cardíaca y la presión arterial promedio, fueron estudiados a cada 5 minutos en los primeros 15 minutos y a continuación, a cada 15 minutos hasta el nacimiento. Fue evaluada la prevalencia de efectos colaterales (náusea, vómito, prurito y sedación. El estudio fue terminado en el momento en que se hizo necesaria la complementación analgésica epidural (dolor > 3 cm o al nacimiento. El análisis estadístico fue realizado a través de los tests t de Student, Chi-cuadrado, Fisher y ANOVA de dos vías para medidas repetidas, considerando como significativo p BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The addition of subarachnoid clonidine (α-agonist prolongs the analgesia produced by the combination of sufentanil and isobaric bupivacaine in combined labor analgesia¹. The objective of this study was to compare the quality of analgesia and the prevalence of side effects after the addition of subarachnoid clonidine to the anesthetic solution in labor analgesia. METHODS: After approval by the Ethics Commission, 22 pregnant women in labor were randomly assigned to the subarachnoid administration of either 2.5 mg of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine (CLON/HYPER Group; n = 11 or 2.5 mg of 0.5% isobaric bupivacaine (CLON/ISO Group; n = 11 associated with 2.5 µg of sufentanil and 30 µg of clonidine. Pain, evaluated by the Visual Analogue Scale, heart rate, and mean arterial pressure were assessed every 5 minutes during the first 15 minutes, and then every 15 minutes afterwards until delivery. The prevalence of side effects (nausea, vomiting, pruritus, and sedation was evaluated. The study was terminated whenever the patient needed supplemental epidural analgesia (pain > 3 or upon delivery of the fetus. The Student t test, Chi-square test, Fisher exact test, and two-way ANOVA for

  16. Administração intraperitoneal da mistura com excesso enantiomérico de 50% de bupivacaína (S75-R25 para analgesia pós-operatória em colecistectomias videolaparoscópicas Administración intraperitoneal de la mezcla con exceso enantiomérico de 50% de bupivacaína (S75-R25 para analgesia postoperatoria en colecistectomías videolaparoscópicas Intraperitoneal administration of 50% enantiomeric excess (S75-R25 bupivacaine in postoperative analgesia of laparoscopic cholecystectomy

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    João Batista Santos Garcia

    2007-08-01

    40 pacientes sometidos a colecistectomía videolaparoscópica divididos en dos grupos: GI (n = 20 que recibió 80 mL de solución de bupivacaína S75-R25 a 0,125% intraperitoneal al final de la operación; y GII (n = 20 que recibió 80 mL de solución fisiológica a 0,9%. Los dos grupos recibieron 40 mg de tenoxican y 30 mg.kg-1 de dipirona, por vía venosa, poco antes del final de la operación. La analgesia en el postoperatorio (PO se hizo con tramadol. Se evaluaron las puntuaciones de dolor en reposo, al sentarse y en la maniobra de Valsalva, según la escala numérica al despertar y 2, 4, 8, 12 y 24 horas en el PO; la presencia de dolor en el hombro; el tiempo para la primera solicitación del analgésico y su consumo acumulativo. RESULTADOS: Hubo una diferencia estadística significativa entre los puntajes de dolor a las 12 horas en el PO con el paciente en reposo (GI BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The analgesic effect of intraperitoneal administration of local anesthetics after laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a controversial issue, and the results described vary from considerable pain relief to little reduction in pain. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the intraperitoneal administration of 50% enantiomeric excess bupivacaine (S75-R25 for the postoperative pain relief of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHODS: A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study was conducted with 40 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy, who were divided in two groups: GI (n = 20 received 80 mL of intraperitoneal 0,125% S75-R25 bupivacaine at the end of the procedure; and GII (n = 20 received 80 mL of intraperitoneal normal saline. Both groups received 40 mg of tenoxicam and 30 mg.kg-1 of intravenous dypirone shortly before the end of the surgery. Tramadol was used for postoperative analgesia (PO. Pain scores were evaluated at rest, sitting up, and during the Valsalva maneuver, according to a numeric scale upon waking up and 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24

  17. Influência de anestésicos locais sobre o bloqueio neuromuscular produzido pelo rocurônio: ação da lidocaína e da mistura enantiomérica em excesso de 50% de bupivacaína na junção neuromuscular Influencia de anestésicos locales sobre el bloqueo neuromuscular producido por el rocuronio: acción de la lidocaína y de la mezcla enantiomérica en exceso de 50% de bupivacaína en la junción neuromuscular Influence of local anesthetics on the neuromuscular blockade produced by rocuronium: effects of lidocaine and 50% enantiomeric excess bupivacaine on the neuromuscular junction

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    Angélica de Fátima de Assunção Braga

    2009-12-01

    acción presináptica y postsináptica.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The effects of local anesthetics (LA on neuromuscular transmission and their influence on the neuromuscular blockade produced by competitive neuromuscular blockers have not been fully investigated. The objective of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, the effects of lidocaine and 50% enantiomeric excess bupivacaine (S75-R25 on the neuromuscular blockade produced by rocuronium. METHODS: The rats were divided in five groups (n = 5 according to the drug used: isolated lidocaine, bupivacaine (S75-R25, or rocuronium (groups I, II, and II; and rocuronium in preparations previously exposed to LAs (groups IV and V. The concentrations used were as follows: 20 µg.mL-1, 5 µg.mL-1, and 4 µg.mL-1 of lidocaine, bupivacaine (S75-R25, and rocuronium, respectively. The following parameters were evaluated: 1 the strength of muscular contraction of the diaphragm to indirect electrical stimulations, before and 60 minutes after the isolated addition of the LAs and rocuronium, and the association AL-rocuronium; and 2 the effects of LAs on membrane potential (MP and miniature end-plate potentials (MEPP. The effect of LAs on muscle contraction in response to acetylcholine was evaluated in chick biventer cervicis preparations. RESULTS: Isolated lidocaine and bupivacaine (S75-R25 did not change the muscular response and the levels of MPs. In preparations exposed to LAs, rocuroniuminduced blockade was significantly greater than that produced by rocuronium alone. In chick biventer cervicis preparations, lidocaine and bupivacaine (S75R25 decreased contraction in response to acetylcholine. Lidocaine increased the frequency of MEPPs, which was followed by the blockade; bupivacaine (S75R25 caused a reduction in MEPPs followed by blockade. CONCLUSIONS: Local anesthetics caused a potentiation of the neuromuscular blockade produced by rocuronium. The results showed pre- and post-synaptic effects.

  18. Bloqueio peribulbar com a associação da mistura enantiomérica de bupivacaína (S75-R25 a 0,5% e lidocaína a 2%: efeitos da adição de hialuronidase Bloqueo peribulbar con la asociación de la mezcla enantiomérica de bupivacaína (S75-R25 a 0,5% y lidocaína a 2%: efectos de la adición de hialuronidasa Peribulbar block with the association of 0.5% enantiomeric mixture of bupivacaine (S75-R25 and 2% lidocaine: effects of hyaluronidase addition

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    Luiz Fernando Soares

    2002-07-01

    realización de bloqueo peribulbar con la asociación de la mezcla enantiomérica de bupivacaína (S75-R25 a 0,5% y lidocaína a 2%. MÉTODO: Fueron estudiados 35 pacientes divididos en grupo 1, que recibió una combinación de iguales volúmenes de mezcla enantiomérica de bupivacaína (S75-R25 a 0,5% y lidocaína a 2% con adrenalina 5 µg.ml-1 y grupo 2, que recibió la misma solución anestésica adicionada de hialuronidasa 50 UI.ml-1. La motilidad de los músculos rectos, orbicular del ojo y elevador de la pálpebra fue evaluada 1, 5, 10 y 15 minutos después del bloqueo. RESULTADOS: Los escores de motilidad de los músculos extra-oculares diminuyeron significativamente durante el período de observación, sin diferencias entre los grupos. Los porcentuales de pacientes que presentaron acinesia del globo ocular en cada momento del estudio no diferiran significativamente entre los grupos. Los escores de dolor a la inyección del anestésico local no diferiran entre los grupos. La anestesia quirúrgica fue satisfactoria en todos los pacientes. CONCLUSIONES: Este estudio no demostró ningún efecto de la adición de hialuronidasa en la concentración de 50 UI.ml-1 sobre la acinesia de los músculos rectos, elevador de la pálpebra y orbicular del ojo durante la instalación de bloqueo peribulbar realizado con la asociación de la mistura enantiomérica de bupivacaína (S75-R25 a 0,5% y lidocaína a 2% con adrenalina 5 µg.ml-1.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The benefits of adding hyaluronidase to local anesthetics for peribulbar blockade remain controversial. This study aimed at comparing the effects of hyaluronidase on the akinesia of rectis muscles, elevator muscle of upper eyelid and orbicular muscle of the eye after peribulbar blockade with 0.5% enantiomeric mixture of bupivacaine (S75-R25 and 2% lidocaine. METHODS: Participated in this study 35 adult patients, who were distributed in group 1, receiving a 1:1 association of 0.5% enantiomeric mixture of bupivacaine (S75-R25

  19. Volumes efetivos de anestésicos locais para o bloqueio do compartimento da fáscia ilíaca: estudo comparativo duplamente encoberto entre ropivacaína a 0,5% e bupivacaína a 0,5% Volúmenes efectivos de anestésicos locales para el bloqueo del compartimiento de la fascia ilíaca: estudio comparativo doblemente encubierto entre ropivacaína a 0,5% y bupivacaína a 0,5% Effective volume of local anesthetics for fascia iliac compartment block: a double-blind, comparative study between 0.5% ropivacaine and 0.5% bupivacaine

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    Pablo Escovedo Helayel

    2006-10-01

    utilizado volúmenes fijos de ropivacaína o de bupivacaína. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo calcular los volúmenes de ropivacaína a 0,5% y de bupivacaína a 0,5% efectivos en 50% (VE50, 95% (VE95 y 99% (VE99 de los casos para la realización de bloqueos del compartimento de la fascia ilíaca. MÉTODO: Cincuenta y un adultos con cirugías marcadas electivas de la cadera, diáfisis femoral y rodilla se sometieron al bloqueo del compartimento de la fascia ilíaca. Los pacientes fueron aleatoriamente distribuidos y recibieron ropivacaína a 0,5% (n = 25 o bupivacaína a 0,5% (n = 26. El éxito del bloqueo fue definido como bloqueo sensitivo completo de las regiones anterior, media y lateral del muslo. El volumen anestésico fue determinado por el método up-and-down de Massey y Dixon y los volúmenes efectivos fueron calculados por las formulas de Massey y Dixon (VE50 y por regresión de probits (VE50, VE95 y VE99. RESULTADOS: Los volúmenes anestésicos capaces de producir bloqueo nervioso efectivo en 50% de los casos, calculados por la formula de Massey y Dixon, fueron 28,79 mL (IC 95% : 26,31 -31,5 mL para ropivacaína y 29,56 mL (IC 95% : 25,22 - 34,64 mL para bupivacaína (p = 0,62. Los volúmenes efectivos de ropivacaína capaces de bloquear 50%, 95% y 99% de los casos se estimaron por la regresión de probits como 28,8 mL (27,2 - 30,4, 34,3 mL (32,5 - 37,3 y 36,6 mL (34,3 - 40,5, respectivamente. Los volúmenes correspondientes de bupivacaína fueron 29,5 mL (28,1 - 31,1, 36,1 mL (33,5 - 38,1, y 37,3 mL (35,1 - 41,3 (p > 0,05. CONCLUSIONES: Los volúmenes necesarios de ropivacaína a 0,5% y bupivacaína a 0,5% con adrenalina 1:200.000 para el bloqueo del compartimento de la fascia ilíaca son semejantes.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Fascia iliac compartment block is widely used as one of the anesthetic techniques used for surgical interventions of the hip, thigh, and knee. The majority of the studies have used fixed volumes of ropivacaine or bupivacaine. The objective

  20. Efeitos hemodinâmicos da intoxicação aguda com bupivacaína, levobupivacaína e mistura com excesso enantiomérico de 50%: estudo experimental em suínos Efectos hemodinámicos de la intoxicación aguda con bupivacaína, levobupivacaína y mezcla con exceso enantiomérico de 50%: estudio experimental en cerdos Hemodynamic effects of the acute intoxication with bupivacaine, levobupivacaine and 50% enantiomeric excess mixture: an experimental study in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Udelsmann

    2007-02-01

    utiliza el isómero levógiro puro, pero están a tono con los resultados recientes también obtenidos en animales. Rebasar los datos obtenidos en cerdos con los obtenidos en seres humanos, exige mucha cautela y nuevos estudios se hacen necesarios. CONCLUSIONES: En cerdos, la mezcla con exceso enantiomérico de 50% particularmente, y la levobupivacaína fueron más tóxicas cuando se administraron por vía venosa que la bupivacaína racémica.BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Until recently, bupivacaine had been the anesthetic of choice for loco-regional blocks due to the quality and duration of the anesthesia. But its cardiovascular toxicity is a source of concern for anesthesiologists who seek new pharmacological options with a smaller degree of this problem. Its levorotatory isomer, levobupivacaine, that would be less cardiotoxic due a smaller affinity for the receptors of the sodium channels of the cardiac cell, is one of these options. In Brazil, a presentation containing 75% of the levorotatory isomer and 25% of the dextrorotatory isomer, called 50% enantiomeric excess mixture is available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hemodynamic repercussions of the intravascular injection of a toxic dose of those three agents to determine which one has the least impact in the case of an accident. METHODS: Large White pigs were anesthetized with thiopental, intubated, and placed on mechanical ventilation. Hemodynamic monitoring was achieved with a Swan-Ganz catheter and invasive blood pressure. After a period of rest, the animals were randomly divided in three groups. The intoxication was performed, on a double-blind fashion, with 4 mg.kg-1 of one of the drugs. Hemodynamic parameters were evaluated during 30 minutes. Analytical tests were used to compare the results among the groups. RESULTS: The 50% enantiomeric excess mixture and levobupivacaine had greater hemodynamic repercussions than the racemic mixture, which were more pronounced with the first drug. These results go

  1. A COMPARISON OF SPINAL ANAESTHESIA WITH LEVOBUPIVACAINE AND HYPERBARIC BUPIVACAINE COMBINED WITH FENTANYL IN CAESAREAN SECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Kurmanadh Kalepalli

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Recent trends in obstetric anaesthesia show increased popularity of regional anaesthesia among obstetric anaesthetists. General anaesthesia in caesarean section is associated with high morbidity and mortality rate when compared with regional anaesthesia. Regional anaesthesia has its own demerits which are primarily related to excessively high spinal blocks and toxicity of local anaesthetics. Reduction in doses and improvement in technique to avoid high level blocks and ...

  2. Sciatic nerve block with bupivacaine-loaded microspheres prevents hyperalgesia in an inflammatory animal model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Estèbe, Jean-Pierre; Gentili, Marc E; Le Corre, Pascal; Le Verge, Roger; Moulinoux, Jacques-Philippe; Ecoffey, Claude

    2002-01-01

    ... model.Inflammation was obtained by injection of carrageenan in the righ hind paw. Hyperalgesia was determined by measuring the threshold of response to increasing mechanical stimuli on the contralateral and on the ipsilateral paw...

  3. Orthostatic hypotension during postoperative continuous thoracic epidural bupivacaine-morphine in patients undergoing abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crawford, M E; Møiniche, S; Orbæk, Janne

    1996-01-01

    postoperatively compared with preoperatively (P orthostatic hypotension. There was no correlation between ASA classification, intraoperative bleeding, or postoperative dizziness and incidence of orthostatic...... measured at supine rest, during orthostatic stress, and after walking prior to and 24, 48, and 72 h and 48 h postoperatively compared to preoperatively (P ... orthostatic stress the decrease in systolic BP and concomitant increase in HR was similar post- versus preoperatively (BP, P > 0.3; HR, P > 0.34) and 12 vs 8 patient; (P = 0.45) experienced a systolic BP decrease > 20 mm Hg post- versus preoperatively. After walking, systolic BP was significantly lower...

  4. Walking epidural with low dose bupivacaine plus tramadol on normal labour in primipara

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rao, Zahid Akhtar; Choudhri, Abeera; Naqvi, Shahab; Ehsan-Ul-Haq

    2010-01-01

    ... and requesting for painless delivery were included in group-B. In group-A, only injection Nalbuphine 10 mg intramuscular was given when pain was unbearable, on patient's request as a routine practice...

  5. Lidocaine and ropivacaine, but not bupivacaine, demethylate deoxyribonucleic acid in breast cancer cells in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lirk, P.; Hollmann, M. W.; Fleischer, M.; Weber, N. C.; Fiegl, H.

    2014-01-01

    Lidocaine demethylates deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in breast cancer cells. This modification of epigenetic information may be of therapeutic relevance in the perioperative period, because a decrease in methylation can reactivate tumour suppressor genes and inhibit tumour growth. The objectives of

  6. Insulin Signaling in Bupivacaine-induced Cardiac Toxicity: Sensitization during Recovery and Potentiation by Lipid Emulsion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fettiplace, Michael R; Kowal, Katarzyna; Ripper, Richard; Young, Alexandria; Lis, Kinga; Rubinstein, Israel; Bonini, Marcelo; Minshall, Richard; Weinberg, Guy

    2016-01-01

    ...′-adenosine monophosphate–activated protein kinase (AMPK) is unclear but important because of the implications for both local anesthetic toxicity and its reversal by IV lipid emulsion (ILE). METHODS:Sprague...

  7. Erratum for “Protective effect of quercetin on bupivacaine- induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is indexed by Science Citation Index (SciSearch), Scopus,. International Pharmaceutical Abstract, Chemical Abstracts, Embase, Index Copernicus, EBSCO, African. Index Medicus, JournalSeek, Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition, Directory of Open Access Journals.

  8. The effect of intravenous Dexamethasone and local Bupivacaine in post -tonsillectomy vomiting and pain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dabirmoghaddam P; Baradarnfar M H; Ayatallahi V; Shakibapoor M

    2007-01-01

    ... continues to be a significant clinical concern for the patient, family, and physician. Young patients undergoing tonsillectomy experience postoperative pain and vomiting resulting in delays in oral feeding and in discharge from the hospital...

  9. Liposomal bupivacaine – New trends in Anesthesia and Intensive Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Florin Rogobete

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Progress made on local anesthetics controlled release formulation and their ability to induce motor and sensory block for a longer period of time brings significant advantages in clinical practice. The use of sustained release formulations provides analgesia for a long period of time with one administration, thus limiting the complications that can occur with conventional analgesia. Also, controlled release of a biologically active compound prevents overdosing, minimizing the side effects, especially cardiotoxicity, neurotoxicity and tissue lesions. Clinical use of liposomal formulation brings high impressive results in pain control and quick patient recovery. Increased patient comfort, reducing to half the hospital length of stay, and treatment costs are able to provide a higher level of healthcare.

  10. Analgesia pós-operatória com bloqueio bilateral do nervo pudendo com bupivacaína S75:R25 a 0,25%: estudo piloto em hemorroidectomia sob regime ambulatorial Analgesia pos-operatoria con bloqueo bilateral del nervio pudendo con bupivacaína S75:R25 a 0,25%: estudio piloto en hemorroidectomia bajo régimen ambulatorial Bilateral pudendal nerves block for postoperative analgesia with 0.25% S75:R25 bupivacaine: pilot study on outpatient hemorrhoidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eduardo Imbelloni

    2005-12-01

    , justificado por la anestesia en el pene. CONCLUSIONES: El bloqueo bilateral de los nervios pudendos, orientado por estimulador de nervios proporciona una analgesia de excelente calidad, con baja necesidad de opioides, sin complicaciones local o sistémica y sin retención urinaria. Estudios controlados permitirán demostrar si esta técnica debe ser la primera opción para la analgesia en hemorroidectomias. La permanencia de anestesia perineal por 20,21 horas deberá inducir nuevos trabajos con el bloqueo de los nervios pudendos orientado por estimulador para el acto quirúrgico.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hemorrhoidectomy may be performed under several anesthetic techniques and in outpatient regimen. Postoperative pain is severe and may delay discharge. This study aimed at evaluating bilateral pundendal nerves block for post- hemorrhoidectomy analgesia. METHODS: Bilateral pundendal nerves block with 0.25% S75:R25 bupivacaine was performed with nerve stimulator in 35 patients submitted to hemorrhoidectomy under spinal anesthesia. Evaluated parameters were pain severity, duration of analgesia, demand analgesia and possible technique-related complications. Data were evaluated 6, 12, 18, 24 and 30 hours after surgery completion. RESULTS: Successful pudendal nerves stimulation was achieved in all patients. There has been no severe pain in all evaluated moments. At 12 hours after blockade, all patients had perineal anesthesia; at 18 hours, 17 patients and at 24 hours, 10 patients still presented perineal anesthesia. Postoperative analgesia was optimal for 18 patients; satisfactory, for 5 patients; and unsatisfactory, for 7 patients. Mean analgesic duration was 23.77 hours. There were no changes in blood pressure, heart rate, no nausea and vomiting were observed. All patients had spontaneous micturition. No local anesthetic-related local or systemic complications were observed. Technique was considered excellent by 27 patients and only 3 male patients considered it satisfactory due

  11. Comparação de morfina administrada por via intravenosa e via epidural com/sem bupivacaína ou ropivacaína no tratamento da dor pós-toracotomia com a técnica de analgesia controlada pelo paciente Comparación de la morfina administrada por vía intravenosa y vía epidural con /sin bupivacaína o ropivacaína en el tratamiento del dolor pos toracotomía con la técnica de analgesia controlada por el paciente Comparison of intravenous morphine, epidural morphine with/without bupivacaine or ropivacaine in postthoracotomy pain management with patient controlled analgesia technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Mercanoğlu

    2013-04-01

    ón por vía intravenosa o epidural de morfina, bupivacaína o ropivacaína en el tratamiento del dolor pos toracotomía. MÉTODOS: Sesenta pacientes sometidos a procedimientos de toracotomía electiva fueron aleatoriamente ubicados en cuatro grupos con el uso de la técnica de sobres lacrados. Los grupos MIV, ME, MEB y MER recibieron morfina controlada por el paciente por vía intravenosa, epidural, morfina-bupivacaína y morfina-ropivacaína, respectivamente. La frecuencia cardíaca, presión arterial y la saturación de oxígeno perioperatorias y el dolor postoperatorio en reposo y durante la tos, los efectos colaterales y la necesidad de analgésicos de rescate fueron registrados a los 30 y 60 minutos y las 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 y 72 horas. RESULTADOS: La necesidad de sodio diclofenaco durante el estudio fue menor en el grupo ME. El área bajo la curva de tiempo en la VAS fue menor en el grupo ME en comparación con el Grupo MIV, pero similar al Grupo MEB y MER. Las puntuaciones de dolor en reposo fueron mayores en los tiempos 12, 24, 36 y 48 horas en el Grupo MIV en comparación con el grupo ME. Las puntuaciones de dolor en reposo fueron mayores a los 30 y 60 minutos en los Grupos ME y MIV en comparación con el Grupo MEB. Las puntuaciones de dolor durante la tos a los 30 minutos fueron mayores en el grupo ME en comparación con el Grupo MEB. No hubo diferencia entre los Grupos MIV y MER. CONCLUSIONES: La morfina administrada por vía epidural fue más eficaz que por la vía intravenosa. La eficacia fue mayor en el grupo EM en el período postoperatorio tardío y en el Grupo MEB en el período postoperatorio inicial. Concluimos entonces que la morfina administrada por vía epidural fue la más eficaz y nuestra preferida.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVEs: The aim of this randomized, double-blinded, prospective study was to determine the effectiveness and side effects of intravenous or epidural use of morphine, bupivacaine or ropivacaine on post-thoracotomy pain management

  12. Comparação entre os efeitos hemodinâmicos da intoxicação aguda com bupivacaína racêmica e a mistura com excesso enatiomérico de 50% (S75-R25: estudo experimental em cães Comparación entre los efectos hemodinámicos de la intoxicación aguda con bupivacaína racémica y la mezcla con exceso enatiomérico de 50% (S75-R25: estudio experimental en perros Comparison of the hemodynamic effects in acute intoxication with racemic bupivacaine and with 50% enantiomeric excess mixture (S75-R25: an experimental study in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Udelsmann

    2006-08-01

    anestesia proporcionada. Su toxicidad cardiovascular, sin embargo ya hace mucho tiempo preocupa a los anestesiólogos y nuevas opciones han sido buscadas. Una de ellas es la utilización de su isómero levógiro que por una menor afinidad con los receptores de los canales de sodio de la célula cardiaca que sería menos cardiotóxico. En nuestro medio existe la presentación que contiene un 75% del isómero levógiro y 25% del isómero dextrógiro, denominada mezcla con exceso enantiomérico de 50% (S75-R25. El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar en animales los efectos hemodinámicos de la intoxicación aguda con bupivacaína racémica y con la mezcla S75-R25. MÉTODO: Cuarenta y cuatro perros fueron anestesiados con pentobarbital, entubados y ventilados mecánicamente, siendo en seguida instalada la monitorización hemodinámica con catéter de Swan-Ganz y presión invasiva. Después del período de reposo fueron divididos aleatoriamente en dos grupos de estudio encubierto, según la intoxicación con uno u otro agente en la dosis de 5 mg.kg-1. Los resultados hemodinámicos se recolectaron durante 30 minutos, tratados estadísticamente permitiendo la comparación de la acción de los dos agentes. RESULTADOS: La mezcla S75-R25 causó mayores repercusiones hemodinámicas, particularmente, con importante disminución de la presión arterial promedio, del índice cardiaco y del índice de trabajo del ventrículo izquierdo. CONCLUSIONES: Esos resultados se contraponen con los encontrados en humanos, cuando se utiliza el isómero levógiro puro, pero están de acuerdo con estudios recientes en animales. Rebasar datos obtenidos en animales para seres humanos exige mucha cautela. Nuevos estudios se hacen necesarios en muestras más abarcadoras y en grupos más homogéneos.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Racemic bupivacaine has been widely used in locoregional anesthesia due to the quality and duration of its anesthetic action. However, its cardiovascular toxicity has worried

  13. A comparison of intrathecal dexmedetomidine verses intrathecal fentanyl with epidural bupivacaine for combined spinal epidural labor analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P K Dilesh

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: 10 μg dexmedetomidine intrathecally provides a longer duration of analgesia with lesser incidence of pruritus compared to 20 μg fentanyl intrathecally for CSE labor analgesia with comparable neonatal side-effects.

  14. Caudal bupivacaine supplemented with caudal or intravenous clonidine in children undergoing hypospadias repair: a double-blind study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, T G; Henneberg, S W; Walther-Larsen, S

    2004-01-01

    Clonidine is used increasingly in paediatric anaesthetic practice to prolong the duration of action of caudal block with a local anaesthetic agent. Which route of administration of clonidine is the most beneficial remains unknown. We compared the effects of caudal and i.v. clonidine on postoperat...

  15. Blood pressure and heart rate during orthostatic stress and walking with continuous postoperative thoracic epidural bupivacaine/morphine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møiniche, S; Hjortsø, N C; Blemmer, T

    1993-01-01

    and during mobilisation was superior compared to systemic morphine and NSAID. There were no significant differences between groups in haemodynamic responses (BP and heart rate) during rest, orthostatic stress and after walking assessed before, 24 and 48 h after operation except for a clinically unimportant...... lower heart rate (approximately 10 bpm) 48 h after surgery at rest and during orthostatic stress in the epidural group. There was no significant difference between groups in number of patients with a reduction > 20 mmHg (2.7 kPa) in systolic blood pressure during orthostatic stress (two in each group...

  16. Vaginismus: review of current concepts and treatment using botox injections, bupivacaine injections, and progressive dilation with the patient under anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacik, Peter T

    2011-12-01

    Vaginismus is a poorly understood condition affecting approximately 1-7% of females worldwide. This article aims to bring attention to this disorder and to review the use of Botox injections to treat these patients. Vaginismus, also known as vaginal penetration disorder, is an aversion to any form of vaginal penetration as a result of painful attempts and a fear of anticipated pain. It is involuntary and uncontrolled and functions much the same as any reflex to avoid injury. It is the most common reason for unconsummated marriages. The etiology is thought to be unknown. Numerous papers note a history of religious or strict sexual upbringing or aversion to penetration because of perceived pain and bleeding with first-time intercourse. Sexual molestation may be more prevalent in this group of patients. The Lamont classification is very helpful in stratifying these patients for treatment. Lamont grade 5 vaginismus is introduced. Vaginal Botox injections for the treatment of vaginismus has received increasing attention since the technique was first described in a 1997 case report. Plastic surgeons worldwide with their experience using Botox are well positioned to learn more about this relatively unknown entity and render treatment.

  17. Intravenous Dexmedetomidine Promotes Spinal Bupivacaine Anesthesia and Postoperative Analgesia in Lower Limb Surgery: A Double-Blind, Randomized Clinical CONSORT Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Hao; Li, Ming; Zhang, Sai-Yu; Fu, Min; Zhang, Si-Yan

    2016-01-01

    .... This prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical study was designed to observe the efficacy of intravenous DEX without loading dose on spinal blockade duration, postoperative sedation, patient...

  18. Raman and Infrared spectroscopies and X-ray diffraction data on bupivacaine and ropivacaine complexed with 2-hydroxypropyl−β−cyclodextrin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longo Martins, Murillo; Eckert, Juergen; Jacobsen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Probing the dynamics of complexed local anesthetics via neutron scattering spectroscopy and DFT calculations (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2017.03.051)” (Martins et al., 2017) [1]. This work shows the molecular...

  19. Ertapenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... imipenem/cilastatin (Primaxin), doripenem (Doribax), or meropenem (Merrem); local anesthetics such as bupivacaine (Marcaine), etidocaine (Duranest), lidocaine, mepivacaine (Carbocaine, Prolocaine), or prilocaine (Citanest); cephalosporins such ...

  20. Imipenem and Cilastatin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as doripenem (Doribax), ertapenem (Invanz), or meropenem (Merrem); local anesthetics such as bupivacaine (Exparel, Marcaine, Sensorcaine), etidocaine (Duranest), lidocaine, mepivacaine (Carbocaine, Prolocaine), or prilocaine (Citanest); cephalosporins such ...

  1. Intrathecal tri-cyclic antidepressants produce spinal anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Wen; Huang, Kuo-Lun; Liu, Shynn-Yeu; Tzeng, Jann-Inn; Chu, Koung-Shing; Lin, Mao-Tsun; Wang, Jhi-Joung

    2004-11-01

    Tri-cyclic antidepressants (TCAs) have been widely used in treating major depressive disorders. Recent studies further demonstrated that TCAs have potent sodium channel blocking effect, and amitriptyline, one of the TCAs, has a potent spinal anesthetic effect. The aim of the study was to evaluate the spinal anesthetic effect of various TCAs and to see whether these TCAs could likewise act as local anesthetics after a single intrathecal injection. Bupivacaine, a potent and long-acting traditional local anesthetic, acted as control. The spinal anesthetic effect of nine TCAs (amitriptyline, doxepin, imipramine, trimipramine, clomipramine, protriptyline, desipramine, nortriptyline, and amoxapine) and three traditional local anesthetics (bupivacaine, lidocaine, and mepivacaine) was evaluated in rats and so were dose-response studies of amitriptyline, bupivacaine, and lidocaine. Under a given concentration of 5mM, bupivacaine had the most potent spinal blockade of motor, propioception, and nociception (Ppropioception, and nociception (P<0.001) than did bupivacaine, whereas several other TCAs had similar or less potencies of spinal blockade than did bupivacaine. In dose-response studies, amitriptyline had a more potent (P<0.005) and longer duration (P<0.001) of spinal blockade than did bupivacaine. We concluded that intrathecal amitriptyline had a more potent and longer duration of spinal anesthetic effect than did bupivacaine, whereas several other TCAs had similar or less potencies than did bupivacaine.

  2. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PREEMPTIVE USE OF 0.2% ROPIVACAINE AND 0.125% BUPIVACAINE ALONG WITH FENTANYL AND FENTANYL INCREMENTS TO PROVIDE POSTOPERATIVE EPIDURAL ANALGESIA UP TO 24 HOURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiranji Lal Khedia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES The present study was carried out to compare duration of analgesia, haemodynamic changes (Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure, Pulse Rate, Respiratory Rate, total incremental doses of epidural fentanyl required to maintain VAS 3 up to 24 hours in each group and total required incremental fentanyl doses were compared between both the groups. Once the data were collected from all the patients, they were compared using, chi-square test, two sample t-test. The p-value was calculated and P <0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS The duration of analgesia was more with Group BF (245+17.58 min. than Group RF (217.6+22.41 min., thus it is concluded that difference in duration of analgesia was statistically significant between the groups (P<0.05. In this study, it was noticed that patients of Group RF required much more incremental doses of epidural fentanyl (218+31.88 μg to maintain VAS<3 up to 24 hours than group BF (170+32.27 μg, and difference was statistically significant (P<0.05. Haemodynamic parameters like SBP, DBP, HR and RR were comparable in both the groups. Hypotension and bradycardia were noted in two patients of group BF. CONCLUSION Duration of analgesia was longer and comparatively better in group BF and less incremental doses were required to maintain VAS <3 up to 24 hours as compared to group RF, but haemodynamic stability was more in group RF as compared to group BF.

  3. Comparison of Bupivacaine Alone and in Combination with Fentanyl or Pethidine for Bilateral infraorbital Nerve Block for Postoperative Analgesia in Paediatric Patients for Cleft Lip Repair: A Prospective Randomized Double Blind Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh S Mane; Sanikop, C. S.; Vithal K Dhulkhed; Tuhina Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Background: Cleft lip repair is one of the common surgeries performed in India and the usual method used for post operative analgesia is perioperative opioids and NSAIDs. There has been an increase in use of regional techniques and Opioids are the common adjuvants but their efficacy and safety have not been studied extensively in children. Patients & Methods: A prospective, randomized, double blind study was done to compare the efficacy, duration and safety of intraoral infraorbital nerve ...

  4. Comparison of forced expiratory spirometric flow changes following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Group B received intrathecal anaesthesia 15 mgs of bupivacaine with 0.5 ml of normal saline and Group BF received 15 mgs of bupivacaine with 0.5 ml of fentanyl (25 μg) intrathecally. The patients were instructed about the performance of the spirometry on the previous evening of the surgery. Forced vital capacity, forced ...

  5. Epidural anaesthesia for surgery in advanced cancer | Soyannwo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patients with advanced cancer often present for surgery in a very poor clinical state. We report the use of epidural bupivacaine anaesthesia for surgical excision of a tumor and subsequent continuous infusion of bupivacaine and fentanyl for postoperative pain management in a 46 year old man with advanced sarcoma of the ...

  6. Subarachnoid block for transurethral resection of the prostate: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Spinal anaesthesia is commonly administered for transurethral resection of prostate (TURP). Aim: To compare the block characteristics of 0.5% isobaric bupivacaine with fentanyl versus 0.5% isobaric bupivacaine alone in TURP. Methods: Sixty male patients aged 40 - 90 years, scheduled for elective TURP ...

  7. Intrathecal sufentanil versus fentanyl for lower limb surgeries - A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Motiani

    2010-01-01

    Conclusions: Intrathecal sufentanil (5 μg and fentanyl (25 μg, as adjuvants lead to an earlier onset and prolonged duration of sensory block. The duration of effective analgesia with intrathecal sufentanil and fentanyl as adjuvants to hyperbaric bupivacaine is longer than that of bupivacaine alone.

  8. Sectio og Brugadas syndrom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammundsen, Henriette Berg; Ekelund, Kim; Afshari, Arash

    2016-01-01

    to induce fatal arrhythmias in patients with BS and in particular sodium channel blockers i.e. local anaesthetics such as bupivacaine. We report the anaesthetic management of two women with BS during caesarean section and provide a general discussion on the use of bupivacain for neuraxial blockade...

  9. More about … Anaesthetics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sensation along nerve fibres and providing local anaesthesia and analgesia. The amide group of local anaesthetic agents include: bupivacaine, L-bupivacaine, lidocaine, ropivacaine, prilocaine, dibu- caine, etidocaine and mepivacaine. This group is primarily metabolised in the liver and the metabolites are excreted in the.

  10. Cutaneous analgesia after subcutaneous injection of memantine and amantadine and their systemic toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Wen; Shieh, Ja-Ping; Chen, Yu-Chung; Leung, Yuk-Man; Hung, Ching-Hsia; Wang, Jhi-Joung

    2012-10-15

    The purpose of the study is to find subcutaneous equianalgesic doses of memantine, amantadine and bupivacaine and use these doses to quantify the cardiovascular and central nervous system toxicity of these agents after intravenous administration. Memantine, amantadine and bupivacaine, a local anesthetic, in a dose-related fashion were determined for cutaneous analgesia by a block of the cutaneous trunci muscle reflex in rats, and equipotent doses were calculated. Following rapid intravenous infusion of equianalgesic bupivacaine, memantine, amantadine and saline (vehicle) in rats, we observed the onset time of seizure, apnea and impending death, and monitored mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate. Memantine and amantadine elicited dose-dependent cutaneous analgesia. At the 50% effective dose (ED(50)), the rank of potencies was bupivacaine [1.8 (1.7-2.0)]>memantine [19.1 (17.6-21.8)]>amantadine [36.1 (32.0-40.3)] (Pamantadine. At equianalgesic doses, the infusion time of memantine or amantadine required to induce seizure, impending death, and apnea was longer than that of bupivacaine during rapid intravenous infusion (Pamantadine when compared with bupivacaine at equivalent doses (Pamantadine (i) were equal to bupivacaine at producing durations of cutaneous analgesia but (ii) were less likely than bupivacaine to cause cardiovascular and central nervous system toxicity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF DEXMEDETOMIDINE AND CLONIDINE AS ADJUVANTS TO LEVOBUPIVACAINE IN EPIDURAL ANAESTHESIA FOR LOWER LIMB ORTHOPAEDIC SURGERIES

    OpenAIRE

    Karthik; Sahajananda; Rangalakshmi; Sudheer

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are always efforts to find a better and safer local anaesthetic along with adjuvants in epidural anaesthesia. Bupivacaine is a long acting , effective local anaesthetic that is commonly administered in anaesthesia practice. Despite its undoubted efficacy, bupivacaine is associated with cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Central nervous ...

  12. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 151 ... Vol 19, No 1 (2015), Phenotypic characteristics and sexual behavior of Sennar Jacks ( Equus asinus), Abstract PDF. Aweke Tsega, Alemayehu Lemma. Vol 20, No 2 (2016), Post- operative analgesic effect of epidural bupivacaine alone and bupivacaine with tramadol for ovariohysterectomy in bitches ...

  13. Treatment with lipid therapy to resuscitate a patient suffering from toxicity due to local anesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Monti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, although without a universal recognition, the use of lipid emulsions as a rescue therapy for the bupivacaine cardiac toxicity has been proposed. In this article we report a successful resuscitation of a patient after the injection of bupivacaine in emergency room and a commented review of the related literature. The patient is a 73 years old man that, after a subcutaneous injection of bupivacaine (0.5%, i.e. 0.5 mL/h, developed circulatory arrest. After the failure of the initial treatment based on the advanced life support protocol, we have successfully performed a therapy with lipid emulsion. The bupivacaine intravascular injection, together with its interaction with amitriptyline and carbamazepine, could lead to cardiac depression, severe arrhythmias, hypotension, and/or cardiac arrest. In the case of failure of traditional life support treatment, intravenous lipid emulsion proves to be the best therapy to treat bupivacaine systemic toxicity.

  14. Efficacy of premixed versus sequential administration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine premixed with dexmeditomidine compared with sequential administration in separate syringes on block characteristics, haemodynamic parameters, side effect profile and postoperative analgesic requirement. Trial design: This was a prospective, ...

  15. In Vitro Effect of Local Anesthetics on Candida albicans Germ Tube Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acácio Rodrigues

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was planned to clarify the in vitro effect of lidocaine and bupivacaine on germ tube formation by Candida albicans isolates from cases of clinical vaginal candidiasis.

  16. Continuous spinal anesthesia versus single small dose bupivacaine–fentanyl spinal anesthesia in high risk elderly patients: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabab Saber

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: CSA provided fewer episodes of hypotension and no severe hypotension versus SD 7.5 mg bupivacaine. CSA offers the added advantage of the ability to titrate dose of local anesthetic as needed while maintaining hemodynamic stability.

  17. Systemic versus local analgesia for chest drain removal in post cardiac surgery patients: The taming of a beast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Abd Al Jawad

    2017-12-01

    Conclusions: There was a significant difference with regards to patients’ pain control between both groups. Concerning pain scores (VAS reduction at post procedural point, a local subcutaneous infiltration of 0.5% bupivacaine is a superior analgesic modality.

  18. Concepts for Injectable Nanoparticles for In Vivo Removal of Overdose Toxins from Blood

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Partch, Richard; Shah, Dinesh; Martin, Chuck; Dennis, Donn; Morey, Timothy

    2002-01-01

    ... micelles and microemulsions (ME) to reduce the concentration of amitriptyline in human plasma, Attenuation of The Cardiotoxic Effects of Bupivacaine in Guinea Pig Isolated Heart by Macroemulsion, Particle Synthesis for CWA Removal...

  19. Maternal and neonatal effects of adding morphine to low‑dose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A catheter was inserted, and 0.1% bupivacaine + 2 μg/mL fentanyl in 15 mL saline were given to Group bupivacaine‑fentanyl (Group BF), while 0.0625% bupivacaine + 2 μg/ml fentanyl + 2 mg morphine in 15 mL saline were given to Group bupivacaine‑fentanyl‑morphine (Group BFM) with no test dosing from the needle.

  20. ブタ前脊髄動脈に及ぼす局所麻酔薬及びエピネフリンの直接作用

    OpenAIRE

    黒川, 智; Kurokawa, Satoshi

    1997-01-01

    Effects of lidocaine, mepivacaine, bupivacaine and epinephrine on intraluminal diameter of the pressurized porcine anterior spinal artery were studied using a micro-circulation analyzing system with a video dimension analyzer. Lidocaine, 10^ to 10^M, induced vasodilation in a dose-dependent manner. By contrast, low concentration of mepivacaine and bupivacaine constricted the arteries, whereas high concentrations dilated them. Epinephrine dose-dependently dilated the artery. When 10^M epinephr...

  1. Perbandingan Waktu Awitan dan Lama Kerja Kombinasi Bupivakain 0,5% dan Lidokain 2% dengan Bupivakain 0,5% pada Blokade Infraklavikular untuk Operasi Lengan Bawah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Pawana Destiara

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The combination of local anesthetic drugs bupivacaine and lidocaine can produce rapid onset and long duration of action. The purpose of this study was to compare the onset and duration of action between 0.5% bupivacaine and 2% lidocaine combination and 0.5% bupivacaine on infraclavicular block for forearm surgery. This study was conducted using a randomized double blind controlled clinical trial on 36 adult patients aged 18–60 years who underwent forearm surgery under infraclavicular block using nerve stimulator guidance in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital between the period of April to June 2015. Patients were divided into two groups: patients in bupivacaine and lidocaine (BL group and bupivacaine (Bgroup. The statistical analysis were performed using the student’s t-test, chi-square, Fisher’s Exact, Kolmogorov Smirnov, and Mann-Whitney U-test. The onsets of sensory and motor blocks in BL group were 7.1±2 min and 10.9±5.3 min, repectively and B group were 19.8±4.5 min and 29±7.7 min, respectively. The durations of sensory and motor blocks in BL group were 540.9±195.1 min and 445.6±158.9 min and B group were 837.6±376.6 min and 653.9±304.3 min. This study reveals that the combination of 0.5% bupivacaine and 2% lidocaine in infraclavikular block had a faster onset of sensory and motor blocks compared to 0.5% bupivacaine and a shorter duration of action compared to 0.5% bupivacaine.

  2. Caudal Epidural Analgesia in Pediatric Patients: Comparison of 0.25% Levobupivacaine and 0.25% Ropivacaine in Terms of Motor Blockade and Postoperative Analgesia

    OpenAIRE

    P Praveen; Remadevi, R.; Pratheeba, N.

    2017-01-01

    Context: Ropivacaine and Levo-Bupivacaine have been safely used for caudal anaesthesia in children, but there are limited studies comparing the efficacy of 0.25% Ropivacaine and 0.25% Levo-Bupivacaine for caudal anaesthesia in infraumbilical surgeries. Aims: The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of motor blockade and postoperative analgesia with 0.25% ropivacaine and 0.25% levobupivacaine for the caudal block in children receiving infraumbilical surgery. Settings and Design: This...

  3. Ifenprodil for prolonged spinal blockades of motor function and nociception in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Wen; Chiu, Chong-Chi; Wang, Jieh-Neng; Hung, Ching-Hsia; Wang, Jhi-Joung

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the proposed spinal anesthetic effect of ifenprodil, an a1 adrenergic receptor antagonist, with that of the long-acting local anesthetic bupivacaine. After intrathecally injecting the rats with five different doses of each drug, the dose-response curves of ifenprodil and bupivacaine were constructed to obtain the 50% effective dose (ED50). The spinal blockades of motor function and nociception of ifenprodil were compared with that of bupivacaine. We showed that either ifenprodil or bupivacaine produced spinal blockades of motor function and nociception dose-dependently. On the ED50 basis, the potency of ifenprodil (0.42(0.38-0.46) μmol; 0.40(0.36-0.44) μmol) was equal (p>0.05) to that of bupivacaine (0.38(0.36-0.40) μmol; 0.35(0.32-0.38) μmol) in motor function and nociception, respectively. At the equianesthetic doses (ED25, ED50, and ED75), duration produced by ifenprodil was greater than that produced by bupivacaine in motor function and nociception (p<0.05 for the differences). Furthermore, both ifenprodil and bupivacaine showed longer duration of sensory blockade than that of motor blockade (p<0.05 for the differences). The resulting data demonstrated that ifenprodil produces a dose-dependent local anesthetic effect in spinal anesthesia. Ifenprodil shows a more sensory-selective duration of action over motor block, whereas the duration of anesthesia is significantly longer with ifenprodil than with bupivacaine. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of the effects of two intrathecal anaesthetic techniques for transurethral prostatectomy on haemodynamic and pulmonary function.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, K H

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Transurethral prostatectomy is routinely performed under spinal anaesthesia. This technique can cause hypotension, which is particularly undesirable in the elderly. The objective was to compare spinal anaesthesia for transurethral prostatectomy using hyperbaric bupivacaine 15 mg (control group) and hyperbaric bupivacaine 10 mg (limiting spread by maintaining the upright position for 15 min) and fentanyl 25 microg (fentanyl group) in terms of haemodynamic and pulmonary function. METHODS: Thirty ASA I-III patients were randomly selected and underwent spinal anaesthesia with either hyperbaric bupivacaine 15 mg (immediately positioned supine) or hyperbaric bupivacaine 10 mg (upright for 15 min) and fentanyl 25 microg. RESULTS: The greatest changes in mean arterial pressure (P = 0.9), ephedrine requirements (P = 0.8) and mean maximum change in forced vital capacity (P = 0.5) were similar in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of fentanyl 25 microg to bupivacaine 10 mg and limiting the spread of the block does not improve either haemodynamic or pulmonary function compared with bupivacaine 15 mg in patients undergoing transurethral prostatectomy.

  5. Evaluation of S1 motor block to determine a safe, reliable test dose for epidural analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoud, Z; Collis, R E; Ateleanu, B; Mapleson, W W

    2002-09-01

    Accidental intrathecal injection of bupivacaine during epidural analgesia in labour remains a hazard, with the potential to cause total spinal anaesthesia and maternal collapse. Sacral block appears early after intrathecal injections compared with epidural ones, and we therefore used SI motor block to determine a safe and reliable test dose for epidural catheter misplacement. Mothers booked for elective Caesarean section were given various intrathecal doses of bupivacaine with fentanyl during routine combined spinal-epidural anaesthesia. Using sequential allocation we found that the ED50 for SI motor block 10 min after intrathecal injection was bupivacaine 7 mg with fentanyl 14 micrograms (95% CI, 6.2-7.8 mg). We then used intrathecal bupivacaine 13 mg to look for the ED95. We found the calculated ED97.5 to be bupivacaine 9.7 mg with fentanyl 19.4 micrograms (95% CI, 8.7-11.4). We conclude that testing for SI motor block 10 min after epidural injection of bupivacaine 10 mg is a reliable test to detect accidental intrathecal injection in the obstetric population.

  6. Hyaluronan Does Not Affect Bupivacaine’s Inhibitory Action on Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel Activities in Bovine Articular Chondrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Hester

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The objective of this paper is to determine if hyaluronan affects bupivacaine’s anesthetic function. Methods. Whole cell patch clamp recordings were performed on bovine articular chondrocytes cultured in 60 mm dishes. The chondrocytes were treated with phosphate-buffered saline (control group, 7.5 mg/mL hyaluronan (Orthovisc, 0.25% bupivacaine, or a mixture of 7.5 mg/mL hyaluronan and 0.25% bupivacaine. Outward currents were elicited by step depolarization from −90 mV to 150 mV with 5 mV increments and holding for 200 ms. Results. The amplitude of outward currents elicited at 150 mV was 607.1±135.4 pA (mean ± standard error in the chondrocytes treated with phosphate buffered saline, 550.0±194.9 pA in the chondrocytes treated with hyaluronan, 18.4±8.3 pA in the chondrocytes treated with bupivacaine, and 12.8±2.6 pA in the chondrocytes treated with a mixture of hyaluronan and bupivacaine. Conclusion. Hyaluronan does not affect bupivacaine’s inhibitory action on the potassium channel activities in bovine articular chondrocytes. This finding suggests that intra-articular injection of a mixture of hyaluronan and bupivacaine may not affect the anesthetic effects of bupivacaine.

  7. Analgesia postoperatoria en la queiloplastia del lactante. Estudio comparativo: bloqueo infraorbitario intraoral bilateral con bupivacaína 0,25% con adrenalina vs. analgesia intravenosa con tramadol Postoperative analgesia for the management of chieloplasty in the breast-fed baby. Comparative study: bilateral intraoral blockade of the infraorbitary nerve with bupivacaine 0.25% plus adrenaline versus intravenous analgesia with tramadol

    OpenAIRE

    J. A. Delgado; A. Martínez-Tellería; M. E. Cano; J. Galera; R. Fernández-Valades; A. Ruiz-Montes

    2005-01-01

    Objetivo: Comparar la eficacia y duración del bloqueo del nervio infraorbitario intraoral bilateral frente a la analgesia intravenosa convencional con tramadol en el control del dolor postoperatorio en lactantes sometidos a queiloplastia por labio leporino. Material y métodos: Tras la realización de una adecuada valoración preanestésica y la obtención del consentimiento informado de los padres, realizamos un estudio prospectivo, controlado aleatorizado y doble ciego en 25 niños, ASA I, con ed...

  8. Comparison of intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid and corticosteroid in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the hip in comparison with intra-articular injections of bupivacaine. Design of a prospective, randomized, controlled study with blinding of the patients and outcome assessors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colen, Sascha; van den Bekerom, Michel P. J.; Bellemans, Johan; Mulier, Michiel

    2010-01-01

    Although intra-articular hyaluronic acid is well established as a treatment for osteoarthritis of the knee, its use in hip osteoarthritis is not based on large randomized controlled trials. There is a need for more rigorously designed studies on hip osteoarthritis treatment as this subject is still

  9. Comparison of intra-articular injections of Hyaluronic Acid and Corticosteroid in the treatment of Osteoarthritis of the hip in comparison with intra-articular injections of Bupivacaine. Design of a prospective, randomized, controlled study with blinding of the patients and outcome assessors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colen, S.; van den Bekerom, M.P.J.; Bellemans, J.; Mulier, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Although intra-articular hyaluronic acid is well established as a treatment for osteoarthritis of the knee, its use in hip osteoarthritis is not based on large randomized controlled trials. There is a need for more rigorously designed studies on hip osteoarthritis treatment as this

  10. Comparison of local anesthetics for digital nerve blocks: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinycomb, Toby I; Sahhar, Lukas J

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the time to onset of anesthesia, duration of anesthesia, and pain on injection of local anesthetics. A systematic search of the English literature was performed of the Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, The Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED), and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases. The study selection process was adapted from the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses statement, and 6 articles were complied with the study inclusion criteria. Six studies (335 nerve blocks) were included in our final analysis measuring 6 local anesthetic preparations (lidocaine, lidocaine with epinephrine, bupivacaine, bupivacaine with epinephrine, lidocaine with bupivacaine, and ropivacaine). Lidocaine demonstrated the shortest mean onset of anesthesia (3.1 min) and bupivacaine the longest (7.6 min). Lidocaine also demonstrated the shortest mean duration of anesthesia (1.8 h) and ropivacaine the longest mean duration (21.5 h). Lidocaine with epinephrine demonstrated the least mean pain on injection (26 mm on a visual analog scale) and bupivacaine with epinephrine the most mean pain (53 mm). Lidocaine with epinephrine provides a good short-term anesthesia and may reduce the risk of injury or complication while the finger in still anesthetized. Bupivacaine with lidocaine provides good long-term anesthesia and may reduce the need for postprocedural anesthesia. Ropivacaine likely provides the longest duration of anesthesia but the absence of epinephrine means a tourniquet must be used to create a bloodless field and thus is contraindicated in some procedures such as flexor tendon repairs where active testing may be required. Lidocaine with epinephrine, bupivacaine with epinephrine, and ropivacaine all provide benefits in digital nerve blocks. The surgeon may choose the most appropriate local anesthetic or combination of local anesthetics based on the procedure to be

  11. [Analgesia using continuous axillary block after surgery of severe hand injuries: self-administration versus continuous injection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandar, H; Rakotondriamihary, S; Dixmérias, F; Binje, B; Maurette, P

    1998-01-01

    To compare analgesia produced after surgery for severe hand trauma, by a continuous axillary block obtained either with a continuous injection (CA) or controlled by the patient (PCA). Prospective, randomized study. Forty-two ASA physical class 1 and 2 patients were enrolled over a twelve-month period and randomly allocated either into the CA or the PCA group. After recovery from the surgical block, the axillary plexus was located using a nerve stimulator and a 20 G catheter (Contiplex B Braun) inserted over 5 centimeters into the axillary sheath. In the CA group (n = 21) patients received 0.1 mL.kg-1.h-1 of 0.25% bupivacaine and in the PCA group (n = 21) patients received 0.1 mL.kg-1 boluses of 0.25% bupivacaine with a one hour lock-out period. Data collected were pain intensity rated according to he visual analog scale (VAS), the total volume of bupivacaine injected, the quantity of nalbuphine administered as 10 mg boluses when VAS was = 5, and the patient's satisfaction after removal of the catheter. Statistical analysis used Student t test, ANOVA and chi 2 test. The mean duration of catheter use was 5 +/- 3 days. During this period the amount of bupivacaine was significantly reduced in the PCA group when compared to the CA group (P plexus blockade provides safe and effective postoperative analgesia. With the PCA technique results a lower quantity of bupivacaine is required and patient's satisfaction better.

  12. Pengaruh Penambahan Petidin 0,25 mg/kgBB pada Bupivakain 0,25% untuk Blok Infraorbital terhadap Lama Analgesia Pascabedah pada Operasi Labioplasti Anak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthon Vermana Ritonga

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Labioplasty postoperative pain can be prevented by bilateral infraorbital regional block. Bupivacaine 0.25% is usually used in infraorbital block and pethidine as an adjuvant can prolong the postoperative analgesic. The research was a single-blind randomized clinical trial included 40 children ASA II aged 3 months–1 year underwent labioplasty surgery in central operating theatre Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital-Bandung during March–May 2012. After block of permutation randomization, the subjects were grouped into two, 20 subjects (group B using bupivacaine 0.25% 1 mL on each side and 20 subjects (group of BP using combination of pethidine bupivacaine 0.25% and 0.25 mg/kgBW 1 mL on each side after the induction of anesthesia. Measurement data of length of analgesia were tested with the Mann-Whitney Test. Statistical analysis showed that the difference of the length of analgesia between two groups analgesia was highly significant (p<0.0001. The conclusion of this study is that the increase of the length of analgesia in combination of bupivacaine 0.25% and pethidine 0.25 mg/kgBW produce pain-free period to 36 hours, whereas bupivacaine 0.25% is shorter, about 18 hours. The incidence of adverse effect was not found in this study.

  13. Adding different doses of intrathecal magnesium sulfate for spinal anesthesia in the cesarean section: A prospective double blind randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabalameli, Mitra; Pakzadmoghadam, Seyed Hamid

    2012-01-01

    There is uncertainty as to whether addition of magnesium sulfate to spinal local anesthetics improves quality and duration of block in the caesarean section. In this randomized double blind clinical trial study, we investigated the effect of adding different doses of intrathecal magnesium sulfate to bupivacaine in the caesarean section. After institutional approval and obtaining informed patient consent, 132 ASA physical status I-II women undergoing elective cesarean section with spinal anesthesia were randomized to four groups: 1 - 2.5 cc Bupivacaine 0.5%+ 0.2 cc normal saline (group C) 2 - 2.5 cc Bupivacaine 0.5%+ 0.1 cc normal saline+ 0.1 cc magnesium sulfate 50% (group M(50)) 3- 2.5 cc Bupivacaine 0.5%+ 0.05 cc normal saline+ 0.15 cc magnesium sulfate 50% (group M(75)) 4- 2.5 cc Bupivacaine 0.5%+ 0.2 cc magnesium sulfate 50% (group M(100)). Patients and staff involved in data collections were unaware of the patient group assignment. We recorded the following: onset and duration of block, time to complete motor block recovery, and analgesic requirement. Magnesium sulfate caused a delay in the onset of both sensory and motor blockade. The duration of sensory and motor block were longer in M(75) and M(100) groups than group C (P motor blockade, and prolonged the duration of sensory and motor blockade, without increasing major side effects.

  14. Doxepin Has a Potent and Long-Acting Spinal Anesthetic Effect in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor-Chin Cheng

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Doxepin, a tricyclic antidepressant, was recently found to be effective in the treatment of various acute and chronic painful conditions. However, the mechanism of its actions was not clear, especially when involving the spine. The aim of our study was to evaluate the spinal anesthetic effect of doxepin. Two commonly used traditional local anesthetics, bupivacaine and lidocaine, were used as controls. The potencies and durations of the drugs' action were evaluated in male Sprague-Dawley rats. We found that intrathecally administered doxepin, like bupivacaine and lidocaine, produced dose-related spinal anesthetic effects on motor activity, proprioception, and nociception. Among the three drugs, doxepin produced spinal anesthetic effects in rats more potent than that of lidocaine (p < 0.001, in each comparison and longer than that of bupivacaine and lidocaine (p < 0.001, in each comparison. The spinal activity of doxepin may provide some explanation of its clinical effect in pain management.

  15. Effects of helium-neon laser irradiation and local anesthetics on potassium channels in pond snail neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatov, Yu D; Vislobokov, A I; Vlasov, T D; Kolpakova, M E; Mel'nikov, K N; Petrishchev, I N

    2005-10-01

    Intracellular dialysis and membrane voltage clamping were used to show that He-Ne laser irradiation of a pond snail neuron at a dose of 0.7 x 10(-4) J (power density 1.5 x 10(2) W/m2) increases the amplitude of the potential-dependent slow potassium current, while a dose of 0.7 x 10(-3) J decreases this current. Bupivacaine suppresses the potassium current. Combined application of laser irradiation at a dose of 0.7 x 10(-3) J increased the blocking effect of 10 microM bupivacaine on the slow potassium current, while an irradiation dose of 0.7 x 10(-4) J weakened the effect of bupivacaine.

  16. Class I antiarrhythmic drugs produced a spinal anesthetic effect in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kuo-Lun; Chu, Chin-Chen; Cheng, Kuang-I; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Yeh, Mou-Yung

    2011-11-14

    Class I antiarrhythmic drugs are commonly used to treat cardiac rhythm disorders. Some of those drugs were recently reported to have both a cutaneous analgesic and a neural blocking effect. We evaluated whether these drugs have a spinal anesthetic effect. Three Class I antiarrhythmic drugs (class IA: quinidine, IB: mexiletine, and IC: flecainide) were tested. After they had been intrathecally injected in rats, the potencies and durations of these drugs on spinal anesthesia were recorded. Bupivacaine, a commonly used local anesthetic, and 5% dextrose solution were used as controls. Bupivacaine, flecainide, quinidine, and mexiletine produced a dose-related spinal blockade of motor function, proprioception, and nociception, but dextrose solution produced no spinal anesthetic effect. The descending order of potency was bupivacaine>flecainide>quinidine>mexiletine (pantiarrhythmic drugs produced a dose-related spinal anesthetic effect. These drugs may be potential candidates for developing new local anesthetics. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of the sensation of warmth as a method of detecting inadvertent subarachnoid injection of local anaesthetic when performing extradural blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalso, E; Aromaa, U; Tammisto, T

    1991-05-01

    In order to test if the rate of onset of sensation of warmth in the legs after the injection of 0.5% bupivacaine might discriminate between subarachnoid and extradural injection, 150 urological patients were allocated randomly to receive either spinal anaesthesia with isobaric (IS) or hyperbaric (HS) 0.5% bupivacaine, or extradural anaesthesia with isobaric 0.5% bupivacaine. The volume of the local anaesthetic for spinal anaesthesia and for the extradural test dose was 3-4 ml. The patients were asked to report at once if they had a sensation of warmth in the legs during or after injection of local anaesthetic. The mean time to the sensation of warmth was significantly shorter in the spinal groups (80 (SEM 10) s in IS and 76 (8.0) s in HS) than in the extradural group (558 (38) s). However, six patients in the IS and two in the HS group had no sensation of warmth.

  18. [Chirocaine in ophthalmology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazal, Z

    2003-06-01

    The author presents an account on the properties and initial own experience with a new long acting amide local anaesthetic levobupivacaine. Levobupivacaine supplied under the name Chirocaine is a laevorotatory enanciomere of racemic bupivacaine known this country under the name Marcaine. Contrary to racemic bupivacaine levobupivacaine has a lower cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity while it has the same anaesthetic and analgetic effect. The author tested the anaesthetic in 100 patients using the same dosage as in hitherto commonly used bupivacaine. Based on data in the literature and their own experience the authors consider levobupivacaine very suitable also for ophthalmosurgery, in particular in risk patients and in long operations where a larger amount of anaesthetic is necessary.

  19. Effect of a local anesthetic lozenge in relief of symptoms in burning mouth syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treldal, Charlotte; Jacobsen, C B; Mogensen, Stine

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients with burning mouth syndrome (BMS) often represent a clinical challenge as available agents for symptomatic treatment are few and often ineffective. The aim was to evaluate the effect of a bupivacaine lozenge on oral mucosal pain, xerostomia, and taste alterations in patients....... Assessment of oral mucosal pain, xerostomia, and taste alterations was performed in a patient diary on a visual analog scale (ranging from 0 to 100 mm) before and after the lozenge was dissolved. RESULTS: The bupivacaine lozenge significantly reduced the burning oral pain (P ... of taste disturbances (P xerostomia, when adjusted for the treatment period. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the bupivacaine lozenge offers a novel therapeutic modality to patients with BMS, although without alleviating effect on the associated symptoms, taste...

  20. Mucosal immunization against dental caries with plasmid DNA encoding pac gene of Streptococcus mutans in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Rong; Guo, Ji Hua; Fan, Ming Wen; Bian, Zhuan; Chen, Zhi; Peng, Bin; Fan, Bing

    2004-06-30

    Salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA) antibodies act as the first line of defense against dental caries by blocking of adherence of Streptococcus mutans to tooth surfaces. This study focused on finding proper mucosal immunization route and delivery system to induce higher level of specific anti-S. mutans saliva S-IgA and inhibit dental caries in animal model. By immunizing rats with an anti-caries DNA vaccine, pCIA-P, via different mucosal routes, we found that intranasal (i.n.) immunization with pCIA-P/bupivacaine DNA complexes elicited the highest specific anti-S. mutans saliva S-IgA mucosal antibody responses compared with naked DNA and other routes. Correspondingly, rats immunized with pCIA-P/bupivacaine DNA complex via i.n. displayed the least carious lesions. Our findings suggested that DNA vaccination via intranasal immunization with bupivacaine delivery system be a promising approach against dental caries.

  1. Painless delivery--a short experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharjan, S K; Karki, C B

    2003-01-01

    To determine efficacy and safety a randomized comparison of continuous infusion versus intermittent injection of epidural bupivacaine for labor analgesia was performed in the Maternity Hospital, Thapathali Kathmandu. Twenty healthy parturient received a loading dose of 10 ml of epidural 0.1% bupivacaine with 25 mg of pethidine. They were then randomized to receive continuous infusion of 0.1% bupivacaine 10 ml/hour with the help of infusion pump or intermittent injection of 0.1% bupivacaine 10 ml hourly. For breakthrough pain 10 ml of 0.1% bupivacaine top ups given in both groups. The two groups were compared for analgesic efficacy, mode of delivery, patient assessment of analgesia, motor block and other complications. Data analyzed in Pentium III version with SPSS and statistical significance test is done with independent samples t-test. The 10 patients in each group were comparable in age but not in parity. Analgesic efficacy was excellent in 10 cases and comfortable in another 10 cases [excellent/comfortable 6:4 with infusion and 4:6 with intermittent injection]. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in pain scores or duration of active first or second stage of labor. Fifteen women had spontaneous vaginal deliveries, one caesarian section (infusion group) and four instrumental deliveries (intermittent injection group). Four women in the infusion group had hypotension and motor block, but none in the intermittent injection group. APGAR scores in both groups were 7-8/10 at 1 minute and 9-10/10 at 5 minutes. Both continuous infusion and intermittent injection of low dose bupivacaine are very good methods of relieving labor pain in our context. Analgesic efficacy was similar in both groups and there was no prolongation of second stage of labor.

  2. Local anesthetics inhibit glutamate release from rat cerebral cortex synaptosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Yu; Chung, Chih-Yang; Lu, Cheng-Wei; Huang, Shu-Kuei; Shieh, Jiann-Sing; Wang, Su-Jane

    2013-09-01

    Local anesthetics have been widely used for regional anesthesia and the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. Recent studies have also demonstrated that low-dose systemic local anesthetic infusion has neuroprotective properties. Considering the fact that excessive glutamate release can cause neuronal excitotoxicity, we investigated whether local anesthetics might influence glutamate release from rat cerebral cortex nerve terminals (synaptosomes). Results showed that two commonly used local anesthetics, lidocaine and bupivacaine, exhibited a dose-dependent inhibition of 4-AP-evoked release of glutamate. The effects of lidocaine or bupivacaine on the evoked glutamate release were prevented by the chelation of extracellular Ca²⁺ ions and the vesicular transporter inhibitor bafilomycin A1. However, the glutamate transporter inhibitor dl-threo-beta-benzyl-oxyaspartate did not have any effect on the action of lidocaine or bupivacaine. Both lidocaine and bupivacaine reduced the depolarization-induced increase in [Ca²⁺]C but did not alter 4-AP-mediated depolarization. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of lidocaine or bupivacaine on evoked glutamate release was prevented by blocking the Ca(v)2.2 (N-type) and Ca(v)2.1 (P/Q-type) channels, but it was not affected by blocking of the ryanodine receptors or the mitochondrial Na⁺/Ca²⁺ exchange. Inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) and protein kinase A (PKA) also prevented the action of lidocaine or bupivacaine. These results show that local anesthetics inhibit glutamate release from rat cortical nerve terminals. This effect is linked to a decrease in [Ca²⁺]C caused by Ca²⁺ entry through presynaptic voltage-dependent Ca²⁺ channels and the suppression of the PKA and PKC signaling cascades. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Obesity is independently associated with spinal anesthesia outcomes: a prospective observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo-Jin Kim

    Full Text Available The influence of body-mass index (BMI on spinal anesthesia is still controversial, with discrepant results reported in previous studies. To compare spinal anesthesia in obese and non-obese subjects, the anesthesia profiles in patients who underwent spinal anesthesia using intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine were compared. A total of 209 patients undergoing elective total knee replacement arthroplasty (TKRA surgery under spinal anesthesia were divided into an NO (non-obese group (BMI < 30 kg/m2, n = 141 and an O (obese group (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2, n = 68. Anesthesia was deemed successful if a bilateral T12 sensory block occurred within 15 minutes of intrathecal drug administration, and if the level of sensory block was higher than T12 when the surgery ended. Logistic regression analysis with multiple variables known to influence spinal anesthesia was performed to identify which parameters independently determined the spinal anesthesia outcome. Similar doses of bupivacaine were administered to the NO and O groups. The incidence of anesthesia failure was significantly lower in the O group [n = 43 (30.5% in the NO group vs. n = 10 (18.9% in the O group, p = 0.014]. The independent predictors for successful anesthesia in all patients were dose of hyperbaric bupivacaine [odds ratio (OR 2.12, 95% CI: 1.64-2.73] and obese status (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2, OR 2.86, 95% CI: 1.25-6.52. Time to first report of postoperative pain and time to first self-void were significantly longer in the O group. These results suggest that the duration of block with hyperbaric bupivacaine is prolonged in obese patients and obesity is independently associated with spinal anesthesia outcomes, as is bupivacaine dosage. A further study enrolling patients with morbid obesity and using a fixed bupivacaine dosage is required to confirm the effect of obesity on spinal anesthesia.

  4. Is there a dose response of dexamethasone as adjuvant for supraclavicular brachial plexus nerve block? A prospective randomized double-blinded clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiabin; Richman, Kenneth A; Grodofsky, Samuel R; Bhatt, Siya; Huffman, George Russell; Kelly, John D; Glaser, David L; Elkassabany, Nabil

    2015-05-01

    The study objective is to examine the analgesic effect of 3 doses of dexamethasone in combination with low concentration local anesthetics to determine the lowest effective dose of dexamethasone for use as an adjuvant in supraclavicular brachial plexus nerve block. The design is a prospective randomized double-blinded clinical study. The setting is an academic medical center. The patients are 89 adult patients scheduled for shoulder arthroscopy. All patients were randomly assigned into 1 of 4 treatment groups: (i) bupivacaine, 0.25% 30 mL; (ii) bupivacaine, 0.25% 30 mL with 1-mg preservative-free dexamethasone; (iii) bupivacaine, 0.25% 30 mL with 2-mg preservative-free dexamethasone; and (iv) bupivacaine, 0.25% 30 mL with 4-mg preservative-free dexamethasone. All patients received ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus nerve blocks and general anesthesia. The measurements are the duration of analgesia and motor block. The median analgesia duration of supraclavicular brachial plexus nerve block with 0.25% bupivacaine was 12.1 hours; and 1-, 2-, or 4-mg dexamethasone significantly prolonged the analgesia duration to 22.3, 23.3, and 21.2 hours, respectively (P = .0105). Dexamethasone also significantly extended the duration of motor nerve block in a similar trend (P = .0247). Low-dose dexamethasone (1-2 mg) prolongs analgesia duration and motor blockade to the similar extent as 4-mg dexamethasone when added to 0.25% bupivacaine for supraclavicular brachial plexus nerve block. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Levobupivacaine: a review of its use in regional anaesthesia and pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Mark; Keating, Gillian M

    2010-04-16

    Levobupivacaine (Chirocaine) is a long-acting amide local anaesthetic that is effective when administered as an epidural, spinal, peripheral nerve or ocular block, or by topical application or local infiltration. In comparative trials, its clinical effects were not generally significantly different from those of bupivacaine or ropivacaine, although there was some variability in efficacy findings in different clinical populations. Levobupivacaine was generally well tolerated. Levobupivacaine provides effective anaesthesia and analgesia for a wide range of clinical populations and is a useful alternative to bupivacaine.

  6. No antiinflammatory effect of short-term topical and subcutaneous administration of local anesthetics on postburn inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møiniche, S; Dahl, J B; Brennum, J

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES. To investigate the effect of topical and subcutaneous administration of local anesthetics on the inflammatory response to thermal injury in human volunteers. METHODS. Sixteen healthy volunteers received identical burn injuries (49 degrees C for 6 minutes) on the right......, development of blister and ulcerations, or the intensity of inflammation after burn injury between the control legs and EMLA- or bupivacaine-treated legs, respectively. CONCLUSION. No antiinflammatory effect of short-term preinjury and postinjury topical 5% EMLA or subcutaneous 0.5% bupivacaine could...

  7. The use of ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane blocks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty patients were allocated to two groups; a TAP block group (n = 15) and a placebo group (n = 15). The TAP blocks were performed with 0.25% bupivacaine. The placebo group received sham blocks with normal saline, post induction of anaesthesia. Postoperatively, patients received patient-controlled intravenous ...

  8. Postoperative analgesia in children when using clonidine in addition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of clonidine in association with fentanyl as an additive to bupivacaine 0.25% given via single shot caudal epidural in pediatric patients for postoperative pain relief. In the present prospective randomized double blind study, 40 children of ASA-I-II aged 1-5 years scheduled for ...

  9. Spinal anaesthesia for brachytherapy for carcinoma of the cervix: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Setting and subjects: Forty female patients, presenting to Groote Schuur Hospital for brachytherapy for carcinoma of the cervix, were randomised to receive either 5 mg or 9 mg (1 ml or 1.8 ml) of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine, plus 15 μg fentanyl via the L3/L4 interspace. Results: Patients receiving the lower dose could be ...

  10. Efficacy of intrathecal midazolam versus fentanyl for endoscopic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: This prospective randomized double-blind study was designed to compare the analgesic efficacy and safety of intrathecal midazolam versus fentanyl as an adjunct to bupivacaine for endoscopic urology surgery. Methods: Sixty adult ASA grade I–II patients undergoing transurethral resection of prostate or ...

  11. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... with Intralipid Infusion, Presumed to have Bupivacaine Induced Seizures and Cardiovascular Complications: Case Report Abstract PDF · Vol 91, No 2 (2014) - Articles Randomised Double Blind Study to Compare Effectiveness of Honey, Salbutamol and Placebo in Treatment of Cough in Children with Common Cold

  12. Footpad dermatitis and pain assessment in turkey poults using analgesia and objective gait analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber Wyneken, C.; Sinclair, A.; Veldkamp, T.; Vinco, L.J.; Hocking, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    The relationships between litter moisture, footpad dermatitis (FPD) and pain in medium-heavy turkey strains was studied by gait analysis in two medium-heavy with and without analgesia (betamethasone or bupivacaine). The relationship between FPD and litter moisture was linear above a breakpoint of

  13. Maternal and neonatal effects of adding morphine to low‑dose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-07-25

    Jul 25, 2013 ... methods used for eliminating this pain is epidural analgesia. The aim of this study to determine the impact of adding morphine to low‑dose bupivacaine epidural anesthesia on labor ... and most importantly, a decrease in the incidence of adverse ..... for women in labour: An overview of systematic reviews.

  14. The safe spinal anaesthetic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Specialist, Department of Anaesthesiology, 3 Military Hospital, and Senior Lecturer, Department of Anaesthesiology,. University of the .... administration. Bupivacaine has a faster onset and longer duration (2 - 3 hours) of analgesia and motor block than both ropivacaine and levobupivacaine. The duration of action ...

  15. The management of postoperative pain in children with caudal blocks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the pre-emptive analgesic effect and duration of postoperative analgesia after caudal blocks in children. Method: Forty-five children undergoing distal hypospadias surgery were assigned to group 1 (n = 23), and received caudal 0.25% bupivacaine 0.5 mg/kg and ...

  16. Comparison of Caudal Analgesia and Intravenous Diclofenac for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Effective postoperative pain management is a vital determinant to when a child can be safely discharged from the hospital after day case surgery. This study compared the effect of caudal bupivacaine block with intravenous diclofenac for postoperative pain relief in children aged 1-7years undergoing ...

  17. Intrathecal sufentanil versus fentanyl for lower limb surgeries - A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Motiani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:To compare the efficacy and safety of intrathecal sufentanil or fentanyl as adjuvants to hyperbaric bupivacaine in patients undergoing major orthopaedic lower limb surgeries in terms of onset and duration of sensory block, motor block and post-operative pain relief. Patients & Methods: Ninety patients were recruited in this Prospective, randomized double blind study to receive either intrathecal sufentanil 5 μg (Group S, fentanyl 25 μg (Group F or normal saline 0.5 ml (Group C as adjuvants to 15 mg of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine. The onset and duration of sensory and motor block were assessed intraoperatively. The pain scores were assessed postoperatively. Duration of complete and effective analgesia was recorded. The incidence of side effects such as nausea, vomiting, pruritus, shivering and PDPH was recorded. Results: The Demographic data, hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were comparable in the three groups. There was a significantly earlier onset and prolonged duration of sensory block in the sufentanil and fentanyl groups. The duration of complete and effective analgesia were also significantly prolonged in the fentanyl and sufentanil groups. Pruritus was noticed in the study groups (Groups S&F. Conclusions: Intrathecal sufentanil (5 μg and fentanyl (25 μg, as adjuvants lead to an earlier onset and prolonged duration of sensory block. The duration of effective analgesia with intrathecal sufentanil and fentanyl as adjuvants to hyperbaric bupivacaine is longer than that of bupivacaine alone.

  18. The analgesic, haematological and some physiological effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this research is to investigate the analgesic, haematologic and some physiological effects of extradural bupivacaine on dogs using six clinically healthy adult male dogs. The method used is by obtaining baseline data for physiological variables from each dogs using the multiparameter patient monitors (GD3, ...

  19. The effect of colloid preload versus prophylactic ephedrine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: We aimed to investigate the effect of colloid infusion immediately before the spinal anesthesia, and the prophylactic intravenous (IV) infusion of ephedrine after injection of intrathecal bupivacaine on hemodynamic parameters, QT, The QT interval corrected for heart rate (QTc), and dispersion of QTc (QTcDisp) intervals ...

  20. A Randomized Controlled Trial Study on the Effect of Adding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Randomized Controlled Trial Study on the Effect of Adding Dexmedetomidine to Bupivacaine in Supraclavicular Block Using Ultrasound Guidance. ... BACKGROUND: The benefits of regional anesthetic techniques are well established. Use of additives to local anesthetics can prolong these benefits. The aim of this study ...

  1. Drug: D01450 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ]; voltage-gated sodium channel (SCN4A) blocker [HSA:6329] [KO:K04837]; voltage-gated sodium channel (SCN5A)...ate (JAN); Bupivacaine hydrochloride (USP) voltage-gated sodium channel (SCN5A) [HSA:6331] [KO:K04838] Bupiv

  2. Have Any Effect on Moriarty Sign?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Moriarty sign designates that when split skin donor site is more painful than recipient site, good graft take is likely. This prospective study was designed for the dual purpose of confirming the validity of Moriarty sign and to determine if bupivacaine topical anaesthetic application to split skin donor site will ...

  3. Investigation Of The Myometrial Stimulatory Effect Of Amide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , and benzocaine (0.05 – 500 μM) were tested on isolated non-pregnant uterine segments and compared to oxytocin (2.0 – 27 nM). The effects of lidocaine, bupivacaine, and oxytocin were further examined in calcium-free medium and in the ...

  4. The differential impact of two anesthetic techniques on cortisol levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-18

    Jun 18, 2011 ... Conclusion: Using plasma cortisol as a measure, bupivacaine-based epidural anesthesia significantly reduces the stress response to surgical ... refusal to participate in the study, allergy to local and/or general anesthetic .... cerebrospinal fluid, 3 ml of 2% lidocaine with epinephrine. 5 μg/ml was injected ...

  5. Interscalene block for shoulder surgery | Rukewe | Annals of African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    te me na, Bondy, France) with sustained biceps motor response at 0.2 mA and 40 ml of local anesthetic, comprising 0.25% bupivacaine and 1.0% of lidocaine with 1 : 200 000 epinephrine in equal parts was administered to establish the block.

  6. Cardiac Arrest Following Spinal Anaesthesia With Plain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    year old woman who was admitted for an elective caesarean section. After preoperative evaluation and premedication she received a spinal anaesthesia in the L3-4 interspace with plain bupivacaine 0.5%. After being replaced in the supine ...

  7. Cardiac Arrest after Local Anaesthetic Toxicity in a Paediatric Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Maria Torres de Araújo Azi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a paediatric patient undergoing urological procedure in which a possible inadvertent intravascular or intraosseous injection of bupivacaine with adrenaline in usual doses caused subsequent cardiac arrest, completely reversed after administration of 20% intravenous lipid emulsion. Early diagnosis of local anaesthetics toxicity and adequate cardiovascular resuscitation manoeuvres contribute to the favourable outcome.

  8. Interscalene block for shoulder surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-15

    Jun 15, 2011 ... comprising 0.25% bupivacaine and 1.0% of lidocaine with 1 : 200 000 epinephrine in equal parts was administered to establish the block. Surgical anesthesia was achieved 18 minutes after instituting the block and surgery lasted 70 minutes without complications. This technique may obviate the use of ...

  9. Comparative Evaluation of 0.5% Ropivacaine and 0.5 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Day case inguinal herniorrhaphy is a common surgical procedure performed in our environment with lidocaine used for field block. The study was aimed at comparing 0.5% ropivacaine and 0.5% bupivacaine for the field block, determine their effectiveness and safety in our environment. Methods: In a ...

  10. Seizure complicating interscalene brachail plexus block | Idehen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We describe a case of seizure occurring immediately after completion of interscalene brachial plexus block, using 20mls mixture of 10mls of 0.5% bupivacaine and 10mls of 2% lidocaine with adrenaline for post operative analgesia. Seizure occurred despite negative test aspiration and non response to the use of 0.5mls of ...

  11. DECEMBER JMBR 13 - 2 correction.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fine Print

    ABSTRACT. We describe a case of seizure occurring immediately after completion of interscalene brachial plexus block, using 20mls mixture of 10mls of 0.5% bupivacaine and 10mls of. 2% lidocaine with adrenaline for post operative analgesia. Seizure occurred despite negative test aspiration and non response to the use ...

  12. a comparative study on the efficacy of two regimens of single- shot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-01-01

    Jan 1, 2013 ... spinal analgesia with low dose bupivacaine and fentanyl during labor and concluded; “single-shot spinal block is a viable method of pain relief in most multiparous women in active labour.” Although pain relief from single shot spinal techniques can be effective, it may often be of insufficient duration to last ...

  13. AnAnkle Trial study protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sort, Rune; Brorson, Stig; Gögenur, Ismail

    2017-01-01

    . The intervention is ultrasound-guided popliteal sciatic (20 mL) and saphenal nerve (8 mL) PNB with ropivacaine 7.5 mg/mL, and controls receive spinal anaesthesia (2 mL) with hyperbaric bupivacaine 5 mg/mL. Postoperatively all receive paracetamol, ibuprofen and patient-controlled intravenous morphine on demand...

  14. Three Newly Approved Analgesics: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraghi, Mana; Hersh, Elliot V.

    2013-01-01

    Since 2008, three new analgesic entities, tapentadol immediate release (Nucynta) diclofenac potassium soft gelatin capsules (Zipsor), and bupivacaine liposome injectable suspension (EXPAREL) were granted US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval to treat acute pain. Tapentadol immediate-release is a both a mu-opioid agonist and a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, and is indicated for the treatment of moderate to severe pain. Diclofenac potassium soft gelatin capsules are a novel formulation of diclofenac potassium, which is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), and its putative mechanism of action is through inhibition of cyclooxygenase enzymes. This novel formulation of diclofenac allows for improved absorption at lower doses. Liposomal bupivacaine is a new formulation of bupivacaine intended for single-dose infiltration at the surgical site for postoperative analgesia. Bupivacaine is slowly released from this liposomal vehicle and can provide prolonged analgesia at the surgical site. By utilizing NSAIDs and local anesthetics to decrease the transmission of afferent pain signals, less opioid analgesics are needed to achieve analgesia. Since drug-related adverse events are frequently dose related, lower doses from different drug classes may be employed to reduce the incidence of adverse effects, while producing synergistic analgesia as part of a multimodal analgesic approach to acute pain. PMID:24423420

  15. Intrathecal tramadol versus intrathecal fentanyl for visceral pain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-10-29

    Oct 29, 2013 ... local anesthetic agents during management of visceral pain of appendicectomy in Africa in general and in Nigeria in particular. Intrathecal tramadol versus intrathecal fentanyl for visceral pain control during bupivacaine subarachnoid block for open appendicectomy. JM Afolayan, TO Olajumoke1, ...

  16. Hearing loss following Caesarian Section under Spinal Anaesthesia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 35-year-old parturient underwent emergency Caesarian section under subarachnoid block. A subarachnoid injection of 2.2ml hyperbaric bupivacaine and fentanyl 5μg was administered after 2 attempts at dural puncture. On the 3rd day postoperatively, she developed hearing impairment associated with postdural ...

  17. The effects of intrathecal midazolam on the duration of analgesia in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-13

    Feb 13, 2011 ... bupivacaine with saline intrathecally. Peak sensory level, total duration of analgesia, duration of motor blockade, pain score ..... cells, a region that plays a prominent role in processing nociceptive and thermoceptive ... haemodynamic disturbances, and is relatively free from common side-effects. Erdine et al ...

  18. SAJS SAJS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for pain management after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Arthroscopy 2003; 19: 855. 8. Mc Clure JH. Ropivacaine. Br J Anaesth 1996; 76: 300. 9. Albright GA. Cardiac arrest following regional anesthesia with etidocaine or bupivacaine. Anesthesiology 1979; 51: 285. 10. Reiz S, Häggmark S, Johansson G, Nath ...

  19. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Mazouz, L Amaadour, I souaf, H El Fatemi, A Amarti, MA Erraisse, T Bouhafa, Y Tahiri, MF Tazi, S Mellas, S Arifi, N Mellas. Vol 20, No 1 (2015), Syndrome cave supérieur ... intraveineuse de Bupivacaine, Abstract PDF. Siriman Abdoulaye Koita, Najib Bouhabba, Fjouji Salaheddine, Mustapha Bensghir, Haimeur Charki.

  20. Postural stability after inguinal herniorrhaphy under local infiltration anaesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, F; Kristensen, Billy Bjarne; Lund, Claus

    2001-01-01

    patients listed for elective inguinal herniorrhaphy. INTERVENTIONS: Preoperative and intraoperative infiltration anaesthesia by bupivacaine 2.5 mg/ml (median dose 41 ml, range 30-84 ml), and sedation with midazolam intraoperatively (median dose 3 mg, range 0-10 mg). Lichtenstein tension-free technique...

  1. Regional Anaesthesia and Human Error - A call for vigilance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The operation was commenced under Combined Spinal Epidural (CSE) technique with full complement of monitoring including electrocardiography. The epidural catheter was to be activated for continued maintenance of anaesthesia. Five, out of 10mls of 0.5% plain bupivacaine meant for this purpose was inadvertently ...

  2. Prospective Randomized Controlled Comparison of Caudal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Bupivacaine and ropivacaine are commonly used agents for caudal anesthesia in pediatric patients. Several studies have shown different motor and cardiovascular effects of two drugs. Aim: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of both drugs and secondary objective was to compare ...

  3. Analgesia after total hip replacement: epidural versus psoas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods Patients scheduled for hip arthroplasty received either a psoas compartment or epidural infusion of bupivacaine. The outcome measures that were examined were postoperative pain, local anaesthetic and morphine consumption, and side effects. Results There was no significant difference between the two groups ...

  4. Van die Redaksie/Editorial Non-pharmacological therapy for

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the natural history of specific arrhythmias is essential for such choice to ... sedation, decreased salivary secretions, bradycardia, lowered .... local anaesthetic agentsl2,15 (e.g. clonidine, fentanyl, bupivacaine) are now used for peri-operative anaesthesia and analgesia. Pain is then inhibited by three different mechanisms ...

  5. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hooda, S. Vol 17, No 4 (2011) - Articles Addition of adenosine to hyperbaric bupivacaine in spinal anaesthesia does not prolong postoperative analgesia in vaginal hysterectomy. Abstract PDF · Vol 20, No 2 (2014) - Articles Anaesthetic management in a patient with osteogenesis imperfecta and a fractured femur

  6. A Comparative Study of the Block Characteristics of Spinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Spinal anaesthesia with a local anaesthetic alone is often associated with relatively short duration of action. This study investigated the effect of intrathecal dexmedetomidine on duration of spinal bupivacaine during lower abdominal surgeries. Patients and Method: Seventy two patients aged 18 - 55 years and ...

  7. 438 Orig research spinal.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Correlation between spinal column length and the spread of subarachnoid hyperbaric bupivacaine in the term parturient. Abstract. Background: Anaesthetists frequently tailor the subarachnoid local anaesthetic dosage according to parturient height to achieve sensory blockade up to the T4 dermatome for lower segment ...

  8. Page 1 Nigerian Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 9, No. 1, August ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    explosion consequent upon which scalding matter entered into the right eye with ... application of topical bupivacaine. It was possible to calm the ... eyeball at the time of the explosion. It was noted that the necrotic material had partially sloughed centrally (figure 1). It was not possible to visualised the posterior segment at this.

  9. Anaesthesia and analgesia in Göttingen minipigs - examples of protocols used for neurosurgery and scanning procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen

    with buprenorphine or infusion of fentanyl and local anaesthesia (such as bupivacaine and lidocaine mixture) provides sufficient anaesthesia and analgesia during surgery. It is crucial that the Göttingen minipigs are treated sufficiently prior to starting surgery. But also the post-surgery period is of importance...

  10. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kumar, N. Vol 10, No 1 (2004) - Articles Acute hyperventilation leading to hypocalcaemia during spinal anaesthesia: case report. Abstract PDF · Vol 18, No 2 (2012) - Articles Perioperative effect of epidural dexmedetomidine with intrathecal bupivacaine on haemodynamic parameters and quality of analgesia. Abstract PDF.

  11. Comparison of hydroxyethyl starch versus normal saline for epidural volume extension in combined spinal epidural anesthesia for cesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunanda Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: We conclude that an intrathecal dose of 6 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine with 25 mcg fentanyl is adequate for cesarean section when used in CSE with the EVE technique, using 0.9% saline or 6% HES. However, EVE with HES provides optimal hemodynamic profile as compared to EVE with saline.

  12. Effectiveness of low-dose midazolam plus ketamine in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-01

    Nov 1, 2012 ... Design: This was a prospective, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Setting and subjects: ... 0.25 mg/kg (Group B), or normal saline as the control group (Group C), after an intrathecal injection of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine ... shivering in patients with bradycardia, hypotension, respiratory ...

  13. Correlation between spinal column length and the spread of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Correlation between spinal column length and the spread of subarachnoid hyperbaric bupivacaine in the term parturient. W.M Wan Rahiza, A.R Raha, A Muhd, M.N Nadia, M Muhammad, Z Azmil, I Azarinah, M.Z Jaafar ...

  14. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alici, HA. Vol 17, No 2 (2014) - Articles Maternal and neonatal effects of adding morphine to low‑dose bupivacaine for epidural labor analgesia. Abstract PDF · Vol 19, No 2 (2016) - Articles Effects of sevoflurane and propofol on S100β and neuron‑specific enolase protein levels during cardiopulmonary bypass. Abstract PDF.

  15. Transient aphasia following spinal anaesthesia in an orthopaedic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 50-year-old male [American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade II] was scheduled for lower limb orthopaedic surgery. The subarachnoid space was localised with difficulty at L3/4 interspace and 3 ml of hyperbaric bupivacaine was given. Within a few minutes, the patient developed aphasia with a very high sensory ...

  16. Magnesium sulfate in femoral nerve block, does postoperative analgesia differ? A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam A. ELShamaa

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: The current study concluded that the admixture of magnesium to bupivacaine provides a profound prolongation of the femoral nerve block, in addition to a significant decrease in postoperative pain scores and total dose of rescue analgesia, with a longer bearable pain periods in the first postoperative day.

  17. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 751 - 800 of 1605 ... Vol 17, No 3 (2014), Intrathecal tramadol versus intrathecal fentanyl for visceral pain control during bupivacaine subarachnoid block for open appendicectomy, Abstract PDF. JM Afolayan, TO ... Vol 18, No 5 (2015), Is there a relationship between Parkinson's disease and Chlamydia pneumoniae?

  18. Neurologic complications including paralysis after a medication error involving implanted intrathecal catheters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Timothy F; Feler, Claudio A; Simmons, Bryan P; Melton, Kelley; Craig, Allen S; Moore, William L; Smith, Mark D; Schaffner, William

    2002-01-01

    ... chronic pain (3) . Continuous intrathecal infusions of morphine, bupivacaine, and baclofen have been used to manage a variety of chronic medical problems. Reported complications have been rare and have included catheter failure, dose-associated effects of opiates, local infections temporally associated with pump insertion, epidural abscesse...

  19. Evidence-Based Review of the Literature on Intrathecal Delivery of Pain Medication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bennett, Gary; Serafini, Mario; Burchiel, Kim; Buchser, Eric; Classen, Ashley; Deer, Tim; Du Pen, Stuart; Ferrante, F.Michael; Hassenbusch, Samuel J; Lou, Leland; Maeyaert, Jan; Penn, Richard; Portenoy, Russell K; Rauck, Richard; Willis, K.Dean; Yaksh, Tony

    2000-01-01

    .... The exhaustive review included 5 different groups of compounds, with morphine and bupivacaine yielding the most citations in the literature. The need for additional large published controlled studies was highlighted by this review, especially for promising agents that have been shown to be safe and efficacious in recent clinical studies.

  20. A clinical study comparing clonidine with dexmedetomidine as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is a known fact that use of peripheral nerve block with local anaesthetics like lignocaine and bupivacaine for anaesthesia reduces both operating room time and length of hospital stay and provide good postoperative analgesia. Various additives can be added to local anaesthetics to accelerate the onset time, to reduce the ...

  1. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2016-11-06

    Nov 6, 2016 ... Effect of Adding Dexmedetomidine to Bupivacaine … Nazia N. et al. 561. ORIGINAL ARTICLE ... METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind study, 70 ASA I & II patients of either sex undergoing elective surgeries on the upper limb were .... In addition, a reversal drug. (Atipamezole) for the sedative effect of.

  2. Effects of combined general anesthesia and thoracic epidural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-11-02

    Nov 2, 2015 ... during the first 24 h of the intraoperative and postoperative period by suppressing cytokine levels. However, we determined that this ... Key words: Bupivacaine, combined-general-epidural anesthesia, inflammatory cytokines, laparoscopic cholecystectomy, ..... [26] Serum IL‑6 level is an early marker of tissue ...

  3. Probing the dynamics of complexed local anesthetics via neutron scattering spectroscopy and DFT calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longo Martins, Murillo; Eckert, Juergen; Jacobsen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Since potential changes in the dynamics and mobility of drugs upon complexation for delivery may affect their ultimate efficacy, we have investigated the dynamics of two local anesthetic molecules, bupivacaine (BVC, C18H28N2O) and ropivacaine (RVC, C17H26N2O), in both their crystalline forms and ...

  4. Combined spinal and epidural anaesthesia for an elective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    old parturient with achondroplasia who presented for an elective Caesarean section. A low-dose spinal block, using 5 mg 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine with 10 μg fentanyl, was inadequate (sensory loss up to T10). Sensory loss was extended ...

  5. Efficacy of intrathecal midazolam versus fentanyl for endoscopic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    intrathecal midazolam versus fentanyl as an adjunct to bupivacaine for endoscopic urology surgery. Methods: Sixty adult ASA grade I–II patients undergoing transurethral resection of prostate or bladder tumor under spinal block. Postoperative analgesia was provided with intravenous diclofenac. The onset and duration of ...

  6. successFuL resuscItatIon oF a tHree MontH oLd cHILd WItH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-08-08

    Aug 8, 2010 ... bupivacaine is seven times more potent in blocking sodium channels than the S (-) enantiomer (2). ... 2mg, hydrocortisone 20mg and sodium thiopentone. 5mg. The child was then transferred to ICU. On .... a consensus on the efficacy and aptness of this unique treatment. reFerences. 1. Meg, A. Rosenblatt ...

  7. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    this statement is confirmed in the present report. The reason for an incomplete graft take may be found in an ... 7 This protein- binding characteristic determines the duration of action of a local anaesthetic. Thus bupivacaine which binds to plasma protein to a greater degree than lignocaine has a longer action by a factor of ...

  8. pethidine study Epidural and intramuscular a pharmacokinetic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-02-05

    Feb 5, 1983 ... were placed by routine methods, bupivacaine 0,5% being used for all skin infiltration. The intravenous lines were not inserted into the same arm as the blood sample lines. TO intravenous fluids were given until all blood samples had been taken. Presen·ati\\·e-free pethidine hydrochloride 0,75 mg/kg in 10 ml.

  9. Unexpected sneezing after a peribulbar injection in a patient for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teena Bansal

    subarachnoid block five years earlier for hernia repair. As per the records, an injection of bupivacaine intrathecally and lignocaine for skin infiltration, were used for the procedure and the surgery was uneventful. An awake peribulbar block was planned for the present surgery. A 20-G intravenous cannula was secured in the ...

  10. Contralateral Hyperalgesia from Injection of Endothelin-1 into the Ipsilateral Paw Requires Efferent Conduction into the Contralateral Paw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strichartz, Gary R; Khodorova, Alla; Wang, Jeffrey Chi-Fei; Chen, Yu-Wen; Huang, Chuan-Chin

    2015-10-01

    Contralateral hyperalgesia, occurring after unilateral injury, is usually explained by central sensitization in spinal cord and brain. We previously reported that injection of endothelin-1 (ET-1) into one rat hindpaw induces prolonged mechanical and chemical sensitization of the contralateral hindpaw. Here, we examined the role of contralateral efferent activity in this process. ET-1 (2 nmol, 10 μL) was injected subcutaneously into the plantar surface of right (ipsilateral) hindpaw (ILP), and the thermal response latency and mechanical threshold for nocifensive withdrawal were determined by the use of, respectively, plantar radiant heating and von Frey filaments, for both ILP and contralateral hindpaws (CLP).