WorldWideScience

Sample records for bunyavirus

  1. Early Bunyavirus-Host Cell Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelina Albornoz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Bunyaviridae is the largest family of RNA viruses, with over 350 members worldwide. Several of these viruses cause severe diseases in livestock and humans. With an increasing number and frequency of outbreaks, bunyaviruses represent a growing threat to public health and agricultural productivity globally. Yet, the receptors, cellular factors and endocytic pathways used by these emerging pathogens to infect cells remain largely uncharacterized. The focus of this review is on the early steps of bunyavirus infection, from virus binding to penetration from endosomes. We address current knowledge and advances for members from each genus in the Bunyaviridae family regarding virus receptors, uptake, intracellular trafficking and fusion.

  2. Emerging and Reemeriging Human Bunyavirus Infections and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Laura J.; Anyamba, Assaf; LaBeaud, A. Desiree

    2013-01-01

    The Bunyaviridae family includes a growing number of viruses that have contributed to the burden of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases around the globe. Many of these viruses cause severe clinical outcomes in human and animal populations, the results of which can be detrimental to public health and the economies of affected communities. The threat to endemic and non-native regions is particularly high, and national and international public health agencies are often on alert. Many of the bunyaviruses cause severe clinical disease including hemorrhage, organ failure, and death leading to their high-risk classification. Hantaviruses and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) (genus Phlebovirus) are National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Category A priority pathogens in the United States. Viral hemorrhagic fevers, a classification that includes many bunyaviruses, are immediately notifiable in the European Union. The emergence of new and reemerging bunyaviruses has resulted in numerous human and animal fatalities. Outbreaks of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in East Africa (1997/1998, 2006/2007), Sudan (2007), Southern Africa (2008-2010), Kenya (1997/1998, 2006/2007) (Anyamba et al., 2009, 2010; Breiman et al., 2010; Grobbelaar et al., 2011; Woods et al., 2002) and Saudi Arabia & Yemen (2000, 2010) (Food and Agriculture Organization, 2000; Hjelle and Glass, 2000; Madani et al., 2003) and the emergence of Sin Nombre virus (1993) (Hjelle and Glass, 2000) and most recently Schmallenberg virus (2011) (DEFRA, 2012) are prime examples of the devastating and worldwide toll bunyaviruses have on health and economies. Climate variability (precipitation and temperature in particular) greatly influence the ecological conditions that drive arboviral disease outbreaks across the globe. Several human and animal disease outbreaks have been influenced by changes in climate associated with the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon including the bunyaviruses RVFV and Sin

  3. Viral RNA Silencing Suppression: The Enigma of Bunyavirus NSs Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Hedil

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Bunyaviridae is a family of arboviruses including both plant- and vertebrate-infecting representatives. The Tospovirus genus accommodates plant-infecting bunyaviruses, which not only replicate in their plant host, but also in their insect thrips vector during persistent propagative transmission. For this reason, they are generally assumed to encounter antiviral RNA silencing in plants and insects. Here we present an overview on how tospovirus nonstructural NSs protein counteracts antiviral RNA silencing in plants and what is known so far in insects. Like tospoviruses, members of the related vertebrate-infecting bunyaviruses classified in the genera Orthobunyavirus, Hantavirus and Phlebovirus also code for a NSs protein. However, for none of them RNA silencing suppressor activity has been unambiguously demonstrated in neither vertebrate host nor arthropod vector. The second part of this review will briefly describe the role of these NSs proteins in modulation of innate immune responses in mammals and elaborate on a hypothetical scenario to explain if and how NSs proteins from vertebrate-infecting bunyaviruses affect RNA silencing. If so, why this discovery has been hampered so far.

  4. Viral RNA Silencing Suppression: The Enigma of Bunyavirus NSs Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedil, Marcio; Kormelink, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The Bunyaviridae is a family of arboviruses including both plant- and vertebrate-infecting representatives. The Tospovirus genus accommodates plant-infecting bunyaviruses, which not only replicate in their plant host, but also in their insect thrips vector during persistent propagative transmission. For this reason, they are generally assumed to encounter antiviral RNA silencing in plants and insects. Here we present an overview on how tospovirus nonstructural NSs protein counteracts antiviral RNA silencing in plants and what is known so far in insects. Like tospoviruses, members of the related vertebrate-infecting bunyaviruses classified in the genera Orthobunyavirus, Hantavirus and Phlebovirus also code for a NSs protein. However, for none of them RNA silencing suppressor activity has been unambiguously demonstrated in neither vertebrate host nor arthropod vector. The second part of this review will briefly describe the role of these NSs proteins in modulation of innate immune responses in mammals and elaborate on a hypothetical scenario to explain if and how NSs proteins from vertebrate-infecting bunyaviruses affect RNA silencing. If so, why this discovery has been hampered so far. PMID:27455310

  5. Molecular and biochemical studies of the evolution, infection and transmission of insect bunyaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, D H; Beaty, B J

    1988-10-31

    Members of the Bunyaviridae family of RNA viruses (bunyaviruses, hantaviruses, nairoviruses, phleboviruses and uukuviruses) have been studied at the molecular and genetic level to understand the basis of their evolution and infection in vertebrate and invertebrate (arthropod) hosts. With the exception of the hantaviruses, these viruses infect and are transmitted by a variety of blood-sucking arthropods (mosquitoes, phlebotomines, gnats, ticks, etc.). The viruses are responsible for infection of various vertebrate species, occasionally causing human disease, morbidity and mortality (e.g. Rift Valley fever, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, Korean haemorrhagic fever). Genetic and molecular analyses of bunyaviruses have established the coding assignments of the three viral RNA species and documented which viral gene products determine host range and virulence. Ecological studies, with molecular techniques, have provided evidence for bunyavirus evolution in nature through genetic drift (involving the accumulation of point mutations) and shift (RNA-segment reassortment).

  6. Brus Laguna virus, a Gamboa bunyavirus from Aedeomyia squamipennis collected in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calisher, C H; Lazuick, J S; Sudia, W D

    1988-10-01

    A virus isolate from Aedeomyia squamipennis collected in Honduras in 1967 was identified as a member of the Gamboa serogroup (family Bunyaviridae, genus Bunyavirus). This is the ninth Gamboa serogroup virus and the eighth shown to be a distinct serotype. PMID:2903690

  7. Acute Thrombocytopenia, Leucopenia, and Multiorgan Dysfunction: The First Case of SFTS Bunyavirus outside China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srdjan Denic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 57-year-old man with acute thrombocytopenia, leucopenia, and multiorgan dysfunction. Patient was from North Korea and was temporarily working in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, when he fell ill in March 2009. At the same time and unknown to us, many patients with similar clinical manifestations were admitted to hospitals in China. The Chinese cases—identified between March and July 2009—were recently reported to have been infected with a tick-born strain of bunyavirus, a new disease. The virus infection was documented in patients from central China and the region that shares the border with North Korea. The clinical manifestations, the time of disease onset, and geographical link of the patient with the region in which the disease is endemic suggest that the patient had SFTS bunyavirus infection.

  8. Multilamellar structures and filament bundles are found on the cell surface during bunyavirus egress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Sanz-Sánchez

    Full Text Available Inside cells, viruses build specialized compartments for replication and morphogenesis. We observed that virus release associates with specific structures found on the surface of mammalian cells. Cultured adherent cells were infected with a bunyavirus and processed for oriented sectioning and transmission electron microscopy. Imaging of cell basal regions showed sophisticated multilamellar structures (MLS and extracellular filament bundles with attached viruses. Correlative light and electron microscopy confirmed that both MLS and filaments proliferated during the maximum egress of new viruses. MLS dimensions and structure were reminiscent of those reported for the nanostructures on gecko fingertips, which are responsible for the extraordinary attachment capacity of these lizards. As infected cells with MLS were more resistant to detachment than control cells, we propose an adhesive function for these structures, which would compensate for the loss of adherence during release of new virus progeny.

  9. Metagenomic analysis of fever, thrombocytopenia and leukopenia syndrome (FTLS in Henan Province, China: discovery of a new bunyavirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianli Xu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Since 2007, many cases of fever, thrombocytopenia and leukopenia syndrome (FTLS have emerged in Henan Province, China. Patient reports of tick bites suggested that infection could contribute to FTLS. Many tick-transmitted microbial pathogens were tested for by PCR/RT-PCR and/or indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA. However, only 8% (24/285 of samples collected from 2007 to 2010 tested positive for human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA, suggesting that other pathogens could be involved. Here, we used an unbiased metagenomic approach to screen and survey for microbes possibly associated with FTLS. BLASTx analysis of deduced protein sequences revealed that a novel bunyavirus (36% identity to Tehran virus, accession: HQ412604 was present only in sera from FTLS patients. A phylogenetic analysis further showed that, although closely related to Uukuniemi virus of the Phlebovirus genus, this virus was distinct. The candidate virus was examined for association with FTLS among samples collected from Henan province during 2007-2010. RT-PCR, viral cultures, and a seroepidemiologic survey were undertaken. RT-PCR results showed that 223 of 285 (78.24% acute-phase serum samples contained viral RNA. Of 95 patients for whom paired acute and convalescent sera were available, 73 had serologic evidence of infection, with 52 seroconversions and 21 exhibiting a 4-fold increase in antibody titer to the virus. The new virus was isolated from patient acute-phase serum samples and named Henan Fever Virus (HNF virus. Whole-genome sequencing confirmed that the virus was a novel bunyavirus with genetic similarity to known bunyaviruses, and was most closely related to the Uukuniemi virus (34%, 24%, and 29% of maximum identity, respectively, for segment L, M, S at maximum query coverage. After the release of the GenBank sequences of SFTSV, we found that they were nearly identical (>99% identity. These results show that the novel bunyavirus (HNF virus is strongly correlated

  10. Risk assessment of human infection with a novel bunyavirus in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamano Matsui

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the public health risk of human infection from a novel bunyavirus – severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV – in China.Methods: The likelihood of disease spread and the magnitude of public health impact were assessed to clarify overall risk. Literature about hazard, exposure and contextual factors associated with SFTSV infection was collected and reviewed. Information on SFTSV cases and the population in six provinces under surveillance was compared.Results: SFTSV is a member of the Phlebovirus genus of the Bunyaviridae family. A widely distributed tick species, Haemaphysalis longicornis, can act as the vector; thus the disease is likely to spread in China. Symptoms of SFTSV infection are nonspecific, but have led to multiorgan dysfunction in severe cases. High-risk populations include farmers and older females. Evidence of human-to-human transmission within family and hospital has been reported. The capacity for treatment and diagnosis of SFTSV are adequate in rural communities in China, and community awareness of the disease should be high. Discussion: There is a low to moderate public health risk related to SFTSV human infection in China. There is potential for an increase in the number of cases reported as awareness increases and when surveillance is expanded.

  11. Comparative Structural and Functional Analysis of Bunyavirus and Arenavirus Cap-Snatching Endonucleases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reguera, Juan; Gerlach, Piotr; Rosenthal, Maria; Gaudon, Stephanie; Coscia, Francesca; Günther, Stephan; Cusack, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Segmented negative strand RNA viruses of the arena-, bunya- and orthomyxovirus families uniquely carry out viral mRNA transcription by the cap-snatching mechanism. This involves cleavage of host mRNAs close to their capped 5′ end by an endonuclease (EN) domain located in the N-terminal region of the viral polymerase. We present the structure of the cap-snatching EN of Hantaan virus, a bunyavirus belonging to hantavirus genus. Hantaan EN has an active site configuration, including a metal co-ordinating histidine, and nuclease activity similar to the previously reported La Crosse virus and Influenza virus ENs (orthobunyavirus and orthomyxovirus respectively), but is more active in cleaving a double stranded RNA substrate. In contrast, Lassa arenavirus EN has only acidic metal co-ordinating residues. We present three high resolution structures of Lassa virus EN with different bound ion configurations and show in comparative biophysical and biochemical experiments with Hantaan, La Crosse and influenza ENs that the isolated Lassa EN is essentially inactive. The results are discussed in the light of EN activation mechanisms revealed by recent structures of full-length influenza virus polymerase. PMID:27304209

  12. Comparative Structural and Functional Analysis of Bunyavirus and Arenavirus Cap-Snatching Endonucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reguera, Juan; Gerlach, Piotr; Rosenthal, Maria; Gaudon, Stephanie; Coscia, Francesca; Günther, Stephan; Cusack, Stephen

    2016-06-01

    Segmented negative strand RNA viruses of the arena-, bunya- and orthomyxovirus families uniquely carry out viral mRNA transcription by the cap-snatching mechanism. This involves cleavage of host mRNAs close to their capped 5' end by an endonuclease (EN) domain located in the N-terminal region of the viral polymerase. We present the structure of the cap-snatching EN of Hantaan virus, a bunyavirus belonging to hantavirus genus. Hantaan EN has an active site configuration, including a metal co-ordinating histidine, and nuclease activity similar to the previously reported La Crosse virus and Influenza virus ENs (orthobunyavirus and orthomyxovirus respectively), but is more active in cleaving a double stranded RNA substrate. In contrast, Lassa arenavirus EN has only acidic metal co-ordinating residues. We present three high resolution structures of Lassa virus EN with different bound ion configurations and show in comparative biophysical and biochemical experiments with Hantaan, La Crosse and influenza ENs that the isolated Lassa EN is essentially inactive. The results are discussed in the light of EN activation mechanisms revealed by recent structures of full-length influenza virus polymerase. PMID:27304209

  13. Serological Survey for Antibodies to Mosquito-Borne Bunyaviruses Among US National Park Service and US Forest Service Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosoy, Olga; Rabe, Ingrid; Geissler, Aimee; Adjemian, Jennifer; Panella, Amanda; Laven, Janeen; Basile, Alison J; Velez, Jason; Griffith, Kevin; Wong, David; Fischer, Marc; Lanciotti, Robert S

    2016-03-01

    Serum samples from 295 employees of Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM), Rocky Mountain National Park (ROMO), and Grand Teton National Park with adjacent Bridger-Teton National Forest (GRTE-BTNF) were subjected to serological analysis for mosquito-borne bunyaviruses. The sera were analyzed for neutralizing antibodies against six orthobunyaviruses: La Crosse virus (LACV), Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV), snowshoe hare virus (SSHV), California encephalitis virus, and Trivittatus virus (TVTV) belonging to the California serogroup and Cache Valley virus (CVV) belonging to the Bunyamwera serogroup. Sera were also tested for immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies against LACV and JCV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The proportion of employees with neutralizing antibodies to any California serogroup bunyavirus was similar in all three sites, with the prevalence ranging from 28% to 36%. The study demonstrated a seroprevalence of 3% to CVV across the three parks. However, proportions of persons with antibodies to specific viruses differed between parks. Participants residing in the eastern regions had a higher seroprevalence to LACV, with 24% (18/75) GRSM employees being seropositive. In contrast, SSHV seroprevalence was limited to employees from the western sites, with 1.7% (1/60) ROMO and 3.8% (6/160) GRTE-BTNF employees being positive. Seroprevalence to JCV was noted in employees from all sites at rates of 6.7% in GRSM, 21.7% in ROMO, and 15.6% in GRTE-BTNF. One employee each from ROMO (1.7%) and GRTE-BTNF (1.9%) were positive for TVTV. This study also has illustrated the greater sensitivity and specificity of plaque reduction neutralization test compared to IgG ELISA in conducting serosurveys for LACV and JCV.

  14. Ticks and tick-borne novel bunyavirus collected from the natural environment and domestic animals in Jinan city, East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Wang, Yongming; Yang, Guoliang; Liu, Huiyuan; Xin, Zheng

    2016-02-01

    Since 2011, 73 cases of the severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome, a novel tick-borne disease, have been reported in Jinan city through information system for disease control and prevention. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the species, distribution, host animals of ticks and tick-borne pathogens. A total of 722 ticks were collected from two types of natural environment and six kinds of domestic animal in Jinan city. All the sampled ticks belonged to the same species, namely Haemaphysalis longicornis, and 94.7% of them were adult. The density of free-living ticks in grassland was nearly six times that in shrub. The prevalence of the goat (53.3%) was highest among the domestic animals. The host body region most frequently parasitized by H. longicornis was the head (77.8%), especially ears and periocular region. Novel bunyavirus was detected on the free-ranging goats in Jinan city. Acaricide treatment with a higher concentration on the ears, periocular region and the groin of domestic animals should be recommended to control the ticks effectively.

  15. Molecular characterization of human pathogenic bunyaviruses of the Nyando and Bwamba/Pongola virus groups leads to the genetic identification of Mojui dos Campos and Kaeng Khoi virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Groseth

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Human infection with Bwamba virus (BWAV and the closely related Pongola virus (PGAV, as well as Nyando virus (NDV, are important causes of febrile illness in Africa. However, despite seroprevalence studies that indicate high rates of infection in many countries, these viruses remain relatively unknown and unstudied. In addition, a number of unclassified bunyaviruses have been isolated over the years often with uncertain relationships to human disease.In order to better understand the genetic and evolutionary relationships among orthobunyaviruses associated with human disease, we have sequenced the complete genomes for all 3 segments of multiple strains of BWAV (n = 2, PGAV (n = 2 and NDV (n = 4, as well as the previously unclassified Mojuí dos Campos (MDCV and Kaeng Khoi viruses (KKV. Based on phylogenetic analysis, we show that these viruses populate 2 distinct branches, one made up of BWAV and PGAV and the other composed of NDV, MDCV and KKV. Interestingly, the NDV strains analyzed form two distinct clades which differed by >10% on the amino acid level across all protein products. In addition, the assignment of two bat-associated bunyaviruses into the NDV group, which is clearly associated with mosquito-borne infection, led us to analyze the ability of these different viruses to grow in bat (RE05 and Tb 1 Lu and mosquito (C6/36 cell lines, and indeed all the viruses tested were capable of efficient growth in these cell types.On the basis of our analyses, it is proposed to reclassify the NDV strains ERET147 and YM176-66 as a new virus species. Further, our analysis definitively identifies the previously unclassified bunyaviruses MDCV and KKV as distinct species within the NDV group and suggests that these viruses may have a broader host range than is currently appreciated.

  16. Caracterização e relacionamento antigênico de três novos Bunyavirus no grupo Anopheles A (Bunyaviridae dos arbovirus Characterization and antigenic relationship of three new Bunyavirus in the Anopheles A serogroup (Bunyaviridae of arboviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Fernando Soares Travassos da Rosa

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available São descritos o isolamento e a caracterização de três novos arbovirus isolados na região da Usina Hidro-Elétrica de Tucuruí (UHE-TUC. Os três novos arbovirus pertencem ao grupo Anopheles A(ANA, gênero Bunyavirus (família Bunyaviridae. Os vírus Tucuruí (TUC, Caraipé (CPE e Arumateua (ART são relacionados entre si e com o vírus Trombetas (TBT, formando dentro do grupo ANA um complexo chamado Trombetas. Os arbovirus TUC, CPE e ART foram obtidos a partir de lotes de mosquitos Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus sp capturados em Tucuruí, nas proximidades da usina hidrelétrica de Tucuruí, Estado do Pará, nos meses de fevereiro, agosto e outubro de 1984, respectivamente. Até o final de 1990 os vírus TUC, CPE e ART foram isolados 12, 32 e 28 vezes respectivamente, sempre na região da UHE-TUC, exceção feita ao vírus TUC, do qual se obteve uma amostra procedente de Balbina, onde também foi construída uma hidroelétrica. Até o presente, esses vírus só foram isolados a partir de mosquitos do grupo An. (Nys. principalmente, a partir das espécies An. (Nys. nuneztovari e An. (Nys. triannulatus também consideradas vetores secundários da malária na Amazônia Brasileira. Testes sorológicos executados com soros humanos e de diversas espécies de animais silvestres foram negativos, com exceção de um soro de um carnívoro de espécie Nasua nasua que neutralizou a amostra TUC em títulos de 2.6 índice logaritmico de neutralização (ILN.The isolation and characterization of three new viruses obtained from the Tucuruí hydroelectric dam region is repeated. These three agents belong to the Anopheles A serogroup, genus Bunyavirus, Bunyaviridae. The Tucuruí (TUC, Caraipe (CPE and Arumateua (ART viruses have close relationships with each other and with Trombetas (TBT virus, an Anopheles A virus previously isolated in the Amazon Region of Brazil. These viruses form the "Trombetas complex". TUC, CPE and ART viruses were obtained from pools of

  17. Effect of triethylamine on the recovery of selected South American alphaviruses, flaviviruses, and bunyaviruses from mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Guinn, Monica L; Turell, Michael J

    2002-09-01

    We evaluated the effect of triethylamine (TEA) on the recovery of infectious virus from pools of mosquitoes for two South American alphaviruses (eastern equine encephalomyelitis and Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis subtypes IIIC and ID), one flavivirus (Ilheus) and two bunyaviruses (Mirim [Guama group] and Itaqui [group C]). Mosquitoes were inoculated intrathoracically with virus, held for 7-10 d at 26 degrees C, and handled under one of four regimens before testing for the presence of virus by plaque assay. Mosquitoes were killed by freezing at - 70 degrees C for 3 min and tested immediately for the presence of virus; killed by freezing at -70 degrees C for 3 min and then held at room temperature for 1 h before testing for the presence of virus; anesthetized with TEA and assayed immediately for the presence of virus; or anesthetized with TEA and then held at room temperature for 1 h before being assayed for the presence of virus. For each of the viruses tested, viral titers in mosquitoes anesthetized with TEA were similar to those in mosquitoes killed by freezing at-70 degrees C. Likewise, there was no significant difference in viral titers in mosquitoes anesthetized with TEA and held at room temperature for 1 h or in mosquitoes frozen at -70 degrees C and held at room temperature for 1 h before being processed for virus by isolation. Triethylamine is advantageous for the handling of mosquitoes in a field environment. The elimination of the need for a cold chain, without compromising virus recovery, increases the feasibility of conducting research projects requiring the isolation of live virus from mosquitoes in remote tropical environments.

  18. Ultrastructural, Antigenic and Physicochemical Characterization of the Mojuí dos Campos (Bunyavirus Isolated from Bat in the Brazilian Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanzeller Ana LM

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mojuí dos Campos virus (MDCV was isolated from the blood of an unidentified bat (Chiroptera captured in Mojuí dos Campos, Santarém, State of Pará, Brazil, in 1975 and considerated to be antigenically different from other 102 arboviruses belonging to several antigenic groups isolated in the Amazon region or another region by complement fixation tests. The objective of this work was to develop a morphologic, an antigenic and physicochemical characterization of this virus. MDCV produces cytopathic effect in Vero cells, 24 h post-infection (p.i, and the degree of cellular destruction increases after a few hours. Negative staining electron microscopy of the supernatant of Vero cell cultures showed the presence of coated viral particles with a diameter of around 98 nm. Ultrathin sections of Vero cells, and brain and liver of newborn mice infected with MDCV showed an assembly of the viral particles into the Golgi vesicles. The synthesis kinetics of the proteins for MDCV were similar to that observed for other bunyaviruses, and viral proteins could be detected as early as 6 h p.i. Our results reinforce the original studies which had classified MDCV in the family Bunyaviridae, genus Bunyavirus as an ungrouped virus, and it may represent the prototype of a new serogroup.

  19. Molecular Characterization of Human Pathogenic Bunyaviruses of the Nyando and Bwamba/Pongola Virus Groups Leads to the Genetic Identification of Mojuí dos Campos and Kaeng Khoi Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groseth, Allison; Mampilli, Veena; Weisend, Carla; Dahlstrom, Eric; Porcella, Stephen F.; Russell, Brandy J.; Tesh, Robert B.; Ebihara, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Background Human infection with Bwamba virus (BWAV) and the closely related Pongola virus (PGAV), as well as Nyando virus (NDV), are important causes of febrile illness in Africa. However, despite seroprevalence studies that indicate high rates of infection in many countries, these viruses remain relatively unknown and unstudied. In addition, a number of unclassified bunyaviruses have been isolated over the years often with uncertain relationships to human disease. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to better understand the genetic and evolutionary relationships among orthobunyaviruses associated with human disease, we have sequenced the complete genomes for all 3 segments of multiple strains of BWAV (n = 2), PGAV (n = 2) and NDV (n = 4), as well as the previously unclassified Mojuí dos Campos (MDCV) and Kaeng Khoi viruses (KKV). Based on phylogenetic analysis, we show that these viruses populate 2 distinct branches, one made up of BWAV and PGAV and the other composed of NDV, MDCV and KKV. Interestingly, the NDV strains analyzed form two distinct clades which differed by >10% on the amino acid level across all protein products. In addition, the assignment of two bat-associated bunyaviruses into the NDV group, which is clearly associated with mosquito-borne infection, led us to analyze the ability of these different viruses to grow in bat (RE05 and Tb 1 Lu) and mosquito (C6/36) cell lines, and indeed all the viruses tested were capable of efficient growth in these cell types. Conclusions/Significance On the basis of our analyses, it is proposed to reclassify the NDV strains ERET147 and YM176-66 as a new virus species. Further, our analysis definitively identifies the previously unclassified bunyaviruses MDCV and KKV as distinct species within the NDV group and suggests that these viruses may have a broader host range than is currently appreciated. PMID:25188437

  20. Clinical features and factors associated with severity and fatality among patients with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome Bunyavirus infection in Northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baocheng Deng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2009, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV was identified as a novel member of the genus phlebovirus in the Bunyaviridae family in China. The detailed clinical features of cases with SFTSV infection have not been well described, and the risk factors for severity among patients and fatality among severe patients remain to be determined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Clinical and laboratory features of 115 hospitalized patients with SFTSV infection during the period from June 2010 to December 2011 in Northeast China were retrospectively reviewed. We assessed the risk factors associated with severity in confirmed cases and fatality in severe cases by multivariate analysis. One hundred and three (89.6% of 115 patients presented with multiple organ dysfunction, and 22 (19.1% of 115 proceeded to the stage of life threatening multiple organ failure. Of the 115 patients, 14 fatalities (12.2% were reported. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the independent predictors of risk for severity were: albumin ≤ 30 g/l (OR, 8.09; 95% CI, 2.58-25.32, APTT ≥ 66 seconds (OR, 14.28; 95% CI, 3.28-62.24, sodium ≤ 130 mmol/l (OR, 5.44; 95% CI, 1.38-21.40, and presence of neurological manifestations (OR, 7.70; 95% CI, 1.91-31.12. Among patients with severe disease, presence of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (HR, 4.59; 95% CI, 1.48-14.19 and disseminated intravascular coagulation (HR, 4.24; 95% CI, 1.38-13.03 were independently associated with fatality. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: SFTSV infection may present with more severe symptoms and laboratory abnormalities than hitherto reported. Due to infection with a novel bunyavirus, the patients may sufferer multiple organ dysfunction and die of multiple organ failure. In the clinical assessment of any case of SFTS, independent factors relating to prognosis need to be taken into account by clinicians.

  1. First confirmation of new bunyavirus-infected patients in Zhejiang province and molecular identification of the isolated virus%浙江省首次发现新型布尼亚病毒感染病例及分离病毒分子鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张磊; 张严峻; 丁钢强; 严杰; 冯岑; 严菊英; 梁米芳

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解浙江省是否存在新型布尼亚病毒潜在自然疫源地,分离疑似病例血清中新型布尼亚病毒并进行鉴定.方法 免疫荧光法检测浙江省台州地区野生啮齿动物不同组织标本中新型布尼亚病毒抗原.实时荧光定量RT-PCR检测疑似病人血清中新型布尼亚病毒核酸,扩增产物进行序列测定.Vero细胞分离疑似病人血清中新型布尼亚病毒,以新型布尼亚病毒株核衣壳蛋白编码基因为靶基因,采用RT-PCR及扩增产物测序对分离的疑似新型布尼亚病毒株进行鉴定,另对该序列进行同源性分析和比较.结果 70只野生啮齿动物中,免疫荧光法检测阳性率为5.71%.实时荧光定量RT-PCR检测结果显示,4例疑似病人血清中有两例检测结果阳性.1例阳性血清样本中分离出1株疑似新型布尼亚病毒,RT-PCR和测序结果证实该病毒确为新型布尼亚病毒,其核衣壳蛋白编码基因序列与湖北省新型布尼亚病毒分离株相似性高达92.2%,但与国内其他地区新型布尼亚病毒分离株序列差异较大.结论 首次证实浙江省存在新型布尼亚病毒自然疫源地及感染病人,不同群新型布尼亚病毒分布可能存在一定的地理差异.%Objective To determine the potential natural foci of new bunyavirus,and isolate and identify the new bunyavirus strain in sera from suspected new bunyavirus-infected patients.Methods Immunofluorescence assay was used to detect the antigens of new bunyavirus in different tissue specimens of wild rodent animals in Tiantai area of Zhejiang province.Fluorescence quantitative real-time RT-PCR was applied to detect the viral nucleic acid in sera of suspected new bunyavirus-infected patients and the amplification products were analyzed by sequencing.The new bunyavirus in the pateints'sera was isolated using Vero cells.Using nucleocapsid protein encoding gene of new bunyavirus as the target gene,the isolated suspected new bunyavirus strain

  2. Caracterização e relacionamento antigênico de três novos Bunyavirus no grupo Anopheles A (Bunyaviridae dos arbovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Jorge Fernando Soares Travassos da

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available São descritos o isolamento e a caracterização de três novos arbovirus isolados na região da Usina Hidro-Elétrica de Tucuruí (UHE-TUC. Os três novos arbovirus pertencem ao grupo Anopheles A(ANA, gênero Bunyavirus (família Bunyaviridae. Os vírus Tucuruí (TUC, Caraipé (CPE e Arumateua (ART são relacionados entre si e com o vírus Trombetas (TBT, formando dentro do grupo ANA um complexo chamado Trombetas. Os arbovirus TUC, CPE e ART foram obtidos a partir de lotes de mosquitos Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus sp capturados em Tucuruí, nas proximidades da usina hidrelétrica de Tucuruí, Estado do Pará, nos meses de fevereiro, agosto e outubro de 1984, respectivamente. Até o final de 1990 os vírus TUC, CPE e ART foram isolados 12, 32 e 28 vezes respectivamente, sempre na região da UHE-TUC, exceção feita ao vírus TUC, do qual se obteve uma amostra procedente de Balbina, onde também foi construída uma hidroelétrica. Até o presente, esses vírus só foram isolados a partir de mosquitos do grupo An. (Nys. principalmente, a partir das espécies An. (Nys. nuneztovari e An. (Nys. triannulatus também consideradas vetores secundários da malária na Amazônia Brasileira. Testes sorológicos executados com soros humanos e de diversas espécies de animais silvestres foram negativos, com exceção de um soro de um carnívoro de espécie Nasua nasua que neutralizou a amostra TUC em títulos de 2.6 índice logaritmico de neutralização (ILN.

  3. Caracterização e relacionamento antigênico de três novos Bunyavirus no grupo Anopheles A (Bunyaviridae dos arbovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Fernando Soares Travassos da Rosa

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available São descritos o isolamento e a caracterização de três novos arbovirus isolados na região da Usina Hidro-Elétrica de Tucuruí (UHE-TUC. Os três novos arbovirus pertencem ao grupo Anopheles A(ANA, gênero Bunyavirus (família Bunyaviridae. Os vírus Tucuruí (TUC, Caraipé (CPE e Arumateua (ART são relacionados entre si e com o vírus Trombetas (TBT, formando dentro do grupo ANA um complexo chamado Trombetas. Os arbovirus TUC, CPE e ART foram obtidos a partir de lotes de mosquitos Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus sp capturados em Tucuruí, nas proximidades da usina hidrelétrica de Tucuruí, Estado do Pará, nos meses de fevereiro, agosto e outubro de 1984, respectivamente. Até o final de 1990 os vírus TUC, CPE e ART foram isolados 12, 32 e 28 vezes respectivamente, sempre na região da UHE-TUC, exceção feita ao vírus TUC, do qual se obteve uma amostra procedente de Balbina, onde também foi construída uma hidroelétrica. Até o presente, esses vírus só foram isolados a partir de mosquitos do grupo An. (Nys. principalmente, a partir das espécies An. (Nys. nuneztovari e An. (Nys. triannulatus também consideradas vetores secundários da malária na Amazônia Brasileira. Testes sorológicos executados com soros humanos e de diversas espécies de animais silvestres foram negativos, com exceção de um soro de um carnívoro de espécie Nasua nasua que neutralizou a amostra TUC em títulos de 2.6 índice logaritmico de neutralização (ILN.

  4. Establishment of the culture process for scale production of SFTS Bunyavirus%发热伴血小板减少综合征布尼亚病毒规模化生产培养工艺的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨骏宇; 姜东林; 陈小芳; 承静; 刘培生; 金坚

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the ideal culture process of SFTS Bunyavirus and provide the basic date for scale pro-duction.Methods Vero cells were cultured using cell factory .The working seed of SFTS bunyavirus was inoculated into Vero cells when the cells grew into monolayer .The virus were harvested with continuous perfused culture system or harves-ting the supernatant of culture when the cells achieved fully lesions .The virus titers and antigen contents were used as indi-cators for selecting medium , pH of medium , added human serum albumin concentration ,virus incubation temperature ,cells age and MOI of virus.Results 3-4 days old Vero cells were inoculated with 0.01-0.001,MOI of SFTS Bunyavirus, DMEM solution containing 0.3%human serum albumin was selected as the medium (pH 7.6-7.8), the virus were cul-tured at 35 ℃for 7 days, the harvested virus titer is 7.87 LgCCID50/mL and the antigen content is 170.1 μg/mL.Con-clusion The scale culture process of SFTS Bunyavirus was initially established , and it laid a good foundation for industrial production .%目的:通过对发热伴血小板减少综合征布尼亚病毒(简称“新布尼亚病毒”)进行规模化生产培养工艺研究,为新布尼亚病毒规模化生产提供有力支持。方法采用细胞工厂培养Vero细胞,待其长成致密单层后,取工作种子批新布尼亚病毒毒种接种细胞,采用连续收获或细胞病变充分时收获培养液上清的方法收获病毒,并以病毒滴度、抗原含量作为评价指标选择基础培养基、培养基pH、人血白蛋白添加浓度、接种细胞日龄、接种病毒MOI以及病毒培养温度。结果按0.01~0.001 MOI接种3~4日龄Vero细胞,病毒培养液选择含0.3%人血白蛋白pH 7.6~7.8的DMEM溶液,35℃培养7 d收获,病毒收获液病毒滴度7.87 LgCCID50/mL、抗原含量170.1μg/mL。结论初步建立了新布尼亚病毒规模化生产培养工艺,为后续工业化生产提供了数据支持。

  5. Chapter 30. Other Bunyavirus Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-transmitted virus or arbovirus that is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. In the last decade, Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks have resulted in loss of human and animal life, as well as had significant economic impact. The disease in livestock is primarily a...

  6. 一起聚集性新布尼亚病毒感染病例的诊断与治疗分析%Analysis on the diagnosis and treatment of a cluster of cases infected by new bunyavirus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐晓燕; 陈豪敏; 刘国华; 许汴利; 崔宁; 康锴; 王海峰; 尤爱国; 赵国华; 杨家强; 黄学勇; 杜燕华

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析和总结新布尼亚病毒感染病例的临床特征和诊疗经验.方法 通过流行病学调查和收集病案资料,对2010年河南省一起聚集性新布尼亚病毒感染病例(共5例)的临床特征及诊疗效果进行描述性分析.采用实时荧光RT-PCR和病原分离方法检测病例血液标本.结果 5例病例新布尼亚病毒核酸检测均为阳性,其中2例标本中分离出新布尼亚病毒.病例出现发热(5/5)、全身酸痛(5/5)、乏力(5/5)、纳差(5/5)、恶心(5/5)、畏寒(4/5)、咳嗽(4/5)、咳痰(4/5)、呕吐(3/5)、眼结膜充血(3/5)等症状;伴有白细胞下降(5/5)、血小板减少(5/5)、谷丙转氨酶升高(4/5)、谷草转氨酶升高(4/5)、乳酸脱氢酶升高(5/5)、肌酸激酶升高(4/5)、尿蛋白阳性(3/5).经对症、支持治疗及预防性应用抗生素,首发病例死亡,4例续发病例均痊愈出院,平均病程为15.4d.结论 新布尼亚病毒感染病例临床表现复杂,呈多脏器损害,及时对症治疗,预后良好.%Objective To analyze and summarize the clinical characteristics,experience of diagnosis and treatment of cases infected by new bunyavirus,which occurred in Henan province in 2010.Methods The clinical characteristics and effect of diagnosis and treatment of 5 cases were analyzed using descriptive epidemiological method.Blood specimens were detected by RT-PCR and pathogen separation.Results PCR testing was positive for all 5 cases.New bunyavirus were isolated from 2 cases.In 5 cases,fever(5/5),the whole body aches(5/5),fatigue(5/5),anorexia(5/5),nausea(5/5),the chills (4/5),cough(4/5),expectoration(4/5),vomiting(3/5),conjunctival hyperemia(3/5); Leukocyte reduction(5/5),thrombocytopenia(5/5),elevated alanine aminotransferase(4/5),elevated aspartate aminotransferase(4/5),elevated lactate dehydrogenase(5/5),creatine kinase elevations(4/5),urinary protein(3 /5).By symptomatic and supportive treatment and prophylactic antibiotics,the first case died and the

  7. 新型布尼亚病毒感染68例临床特征及预后分析%Clinical characteristics and prognosis of novel bunyavirus infection: 68-case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周麟玲; 刘博; 常爱娜; 徐胜楠

    2015-01-01

    Objective To retrospectively analyze the clinical characteristics,prognosis and risk factors of novel bunyavirus infection.Methods The clinical data of 68 patients with novel bunyavirus infection confirmed by laboratory diagnosis at Wendeng Central Hospital of Weihai were retrospectively collected.Epidemiological characteristics,clinical manifestations,physical signs and laboratory results were analyzed.Results Twenty two patients (32.4 %) had intimate contact with ermine (breeding ermine or ermine biting) ; 4 patients (5.9%) had been bitten by tick within 2 weeks,6 patients (7.4%) had intimate contact with patients with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) ; and 25 patients (36.8 %) had a history of fieldwork before the onset of the disease.Thirty-four patients (50.0 %) were over 60 years old and 27 cases (39.7%) had underlying diseases.Initial symptoms in all patients were fever accompanied by loss of appetite,fatigue and other toxemic symptoms,followed by multi organ damage.Other clinical manifestations included nervous system damage (27 cases,39.7%),hemorrhage (4 cases,5.9%),rapid atrial fibrillation (10 cases,14.7%) and pneumonia (18 cases,26.5%).White blood cell count of 55 cases (80.9%) was less than or equal to 2.0 × 109/L,platelet count of 18 cases (26.5%) was less than or equal to 30 × 109/L.Abnormal hepatic function was found in 62 cases (91.2%); elevated myocardial enzymes was found in 68 cases (100.0%),prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time in 44 cases (64.7%),hyponatremia in 23 cases (33.8%),hypokalemia in 29 cases (42.6%),hypocalcemia in 36 cases (82.4%),hyperglycemia in 49 cases (72.1%).Serum nucleic acid quantitation of novel bunyavirus varied from 1.10 × 102 to 5.78 × 107 tissue culture infective dose (TCID)/ mL.Fifty five cases were cured,accounting for 80.9 %,while 13 (19.1%) died eventually.Conclusions High risk factors of novel bunyavirus infection included intimate contact

  8. TaqMan探针实时荧光定量反转录-聚合酶链反应检测新布尼亚病毒L基因方法的建立与应用%Establishment of real time RT-PCR assay for detecting novel Bunyavirus L gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞吉寅; 王忠发; 任宜; 毛彬

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop a sensitive and specific real time reverse transcription PCR ( RT-PCR) assay for nucleic acid detection of novel Bunyavirus. Methods Primers and TaqMan probe were designed according to the L gene of novel Bunyavirus and the real time RT-PCR was used to detect novel Bunyavirus from serum and plasma samples of 50 clinical suspected patients and from serum of 25 healthy people. Two virus strains isolated from the patients' serum were used to evaluate the specificity and sensitivity as well as the reproducibility of the established real time RT-PCR assay. Results The established real time RT-PCR assay had high specificity, with the Ct values showing good linear relation to the copy numbers of template DNA in the standard curve (R2 =0.999). In this assay, the target gene could be detected if the template DNA is more than 25 copies in 25 ΜL PCR reaction, indicating that the sensitive detection limit was 1 copy/μl. The reproducibility tests indicated that the intraassay coefficient of variation were all lower than 1. 0% . Among the 50 patients' serum samples, 30 were positive, 25 control' s serum samples and 28 rats lung and testes samples were all negative. Two of 8 blood samples were positive in virus culture. Conclusion The established real time RT-PCR assay was with high specificity, sensitivity and reproducibility, which could be used in the rapid nucleic acid detection of novel Bunyavirus in humans and animals and applied in the preliminary identification of the virus after isolation and culture.%目的 建立敏感、特异、实时荧光定量反转录-聚合酶链反应(real time fluorescent quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction,rRT-PCR)方法,用于新布尼亚病毒的核酸检测.方法 以新布尼亚病毒L基因为靶基因设计引物以及TaqMan探针,建立real-time RT-PCR方法,并对舟山市岱山县50份临床疑似患者血清、血浆、25份正常人群血清和从患者血清中分离到的2株病毒

  9. Seroepidemiology of severe fever、with thrombocytopenia syndrome bunyavirus in Jiangsu province%江苏省发热伴血小板减少综合征布尼亚病毒血清流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文帅; 曾晓燕; 周明浩; 焦永军; 温恬; 郭喜玲; 祁贤; 史智扬

    2011-01-01

    目的 调查江苏省人与动物发热伴血小板减少综合征布尼亚病毒(SFTSV)血清流行病学情况,为控制疫情提供流行病学线索.方法 2010年7-11月在江苏省南京江宁区、溧水县,常州溧阳市,无锡宜兴市,淮安盱眙县和连云港东海县共采集2853份血清,其中人血清1922份、动物(犬、羊、猪、牛、鹅、鼠和鸡)血清931份,运用双抗原夹心ELISA法检测血清中SFTSV总抗体,并进行不同地区SFTSV总抗体阳性率比较.结果 本次调查2853份血清样本中SFTSV总抗体阳性血清121份,阳性率为4.24%,提示江苏省存在SFTSV的流行.在7种被调查的动物样本中,5种动物(犬、羊、牛、猪、鸡)血清样本SFTSV总抗体阳性,阳性率分别为6.40%、57.14%、31.82%、5.33%和0.98%;人血清中SFTSV总抗体阳性率为0.94%.血清中SFTSV总抗体阳性率存在地区差异.人群与动物SFTSV血清总抗体阳性率存在正相关关系.结论 江苏省是SFTSV的流行区域,需加强SFTSV的预防意识及诊断能力.%Objective To investigate the seroprevalence of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome bunyavirus ( SFTSV) in human and animals in Jiangsu and provide scientific evidence for the development of prevention and control strategy. Methods A total of 2853 serum samples were collected in Lishui, Jiangning, Liyang, Yixing, Xuyi and Donghai in Jiangsu from July to November in 2010, including 1922 human serum samples and 931 animal serum samples (125 from dogs, 91 from goats, 225 from pigs, 88 from cattle, 50 from geese, 47 from mice, and 305 from chickens). A novel double antigen sandwich ELISA was conducted to detect the overall antibodies to SFTSV. The prevalence rates in different regions were compared with each other. Results SFTSV-specific antibodies were found in a total of 121 samples (4. 24% ), suggesting the wide circulation of SFTSV in the province. Of the 7 animal species tested, 5 species' sera, including dog, sheep, cattle, pig and

  10. Study on the clinical characteristics of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome bunyavirus patients%发热伴血小板减少综合征患者临床特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔宁; 杨君; 汤芳; 李增德; 国文; 王炳军; 王震; 张兰; 王娟; 张伟龙; 浮飞翔

    2013-01-01

    [Objective]To investigate the clinical characteristics and the RNA of severe fever with thromobocytopenia syndrome bunyavirus (SFTSV) in blood and excretion of patients with severe fever with thromobocytopenia syndrome(SFTS) for the prevention and treatment of the disease. [Methods] Epidemiologic, clinical data were collected by interviewing patients and retrieving medical records. Real time fluoresent quantitative reverse transcripion-polymerase chain reaction assays (rRT-PCR) was performed to detect the RNA of SFTSV. [Results] A total of 43 patients, including 20 males and 23 females, all were farmers. Most patients have no history of tick bite, but have history of outdoor activities in trees, bushes or field labor. The major clinical symptoms were infection and toxic symptoms included fever, malaise, muscle aches, fatigue, anorexia, headache, nausea, vomiting, cough, sputum, sore throat, abdominal pain, diarrhea, etc. The most common abnormalities of laboratory findings were thrombocytopenia and leukocytopenia, elevation of serum alanine(ALT), aspartate aminotransfer(AST), creatine kinase(CK) levels, proteinuria and hematuria. There were 90.70% (39/43) case with SFTSV RNA detection positive. No SFTSV RNA was detected in throat swabs, urine, and fecal specimens in all the cases. [Conclusion] Most patients have a moderately severe febrile illness with thrombocytopenia, leukopnia and organ failure. The existence of SFTSV RNA in the blood should be carefully treated while the non- existence of SFTSV RNA in the excretion of patients with SFTS should be further studied.%探讨发热伴血小板减少综合征(severe fever with thromobocytopenia syndrome,SFTS)患者临床特征.[方法]采用回顾性调查、现场流行病学调查方法进行问卷调查,使用实时定量反转录聚合酶链反应(rRT-PCR)方法检测SFTS患者血液、排泄物中的SFTSV RNA.[结果]共43例患者,均为农民,其中男20例,女23例.大多数病例

  11. Preliminary evaluation of a bunyavirus vector for cancer immunotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oreshkova, N.; Spel, L.; Vloet, R. P M; Wichgers Schreur, P. J.; Moormann, R. J M; Boes, M.; Kortekaas, J.

    2015-01-01

    Replicon particles of Rift Valley fever virus, referred to as nonspreading Rift Valley fever virus (NSR), are intrinsically safe and highly immunogenic. Here, we demonstrate that NSR-infected human dendritic cells can activate CD8+ T cells in vitro and that prophylactic and therapeutic va

  12. Preliminary Evaluation of a Bunyavirus Vector for Cancer Immunotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oreshkova, N.D.; Spel, L.; Vloet, R.P.M.; Wichgers Schreur, P.J.; Moormann, R.J.M.; Boes, M.; Kortekaas, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Replicon particles of Rift Valley fever virus, referred to as nonspreading Rift Valley fever virus (NSR), are intrinsically safe and highly immunogenic. Here, we demonstrate that NSR-infected human dendritic cells can activate CD8+ T cells in vitro and that prophylactic and therapeutic vaccinations

  13. Bunyaviruses are common in male and female Ixodes scapularis ticks in central Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Joyce M; Ng, Terry Fei Fan; Suzuki, Yasutsugu; Tsujimoto, Hitoshi; Deng, Xutao; Delwart, Eric; Rasgon, Jason L

    2016-01-01

    The blacklegged tick Ixodes scapularis is widely distributed in the United States and transmits multiple pathogens to humans, wildlife and domestic animals. Recently, several novel viruses in the family Bunyaviridae (South Bay virus (SBV) and Blacklegged tick phlebovirus (BTPV)) were identified infecting female I. scapularis ticks collected in New York State. We used metagenomic sequencing to investigate the distribution of viruses infecting male and female I. scapularis ticks collected in Centre County, Pennsylvania. We identified both SBV and BTPV in both male and female ticks from all collection locations. The role of male I. scapularis in pathogen epidemiology has been overlooked because they rarely bite and are not considered important pathogen vectors. However, males may act as reservoirs for pathogens that can then be transmitted to females during mating. Our data highlight the importance of examining all potential avenues of pathogen maintenance and transmission throughout the vector-pathogen life cycle in order to understand the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens. PMID:27602290

  14. Antigenic drift, antigenic shift and interferon antagonists: how bunyaviruses counteract the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Friedemann; Elliott, Richard M

    2002-09-01

    Members of the Bunyaviridae family are amongst the most widespread viruses in the world. They can be found on every inhabited continent at virtually every latitude, and are able to infect a wide range of arthropods, plants and mammals including humans. More than 300 named viruses are contained within the family Bunyaviridae (Virus Taxonomy: Seventh Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (2000) 599), and several members cause significant disease in humans or domestic animals. Despite being recognised as an emerging threat, relatively little is known about their virulence mechanisms. Here, we try to summarise the current state of knowledge about how the viruses of the Bunyaviridae succeed in establishing infection in the face of a powerful immune system. PMID:12297332

  15. AcEST: BP921688 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MK0977 ... 31 2.6 sp|P04875|VGLM_BUNSH Envelope glycoprotein OS=Bunyavirus snowsho... 30 5.6 sp|A1U7G1|AMIE_...BUNSH Envelope glycoprotein OS=Bunyavirus snowshoe hare GN=M PE=1 SV=1 Length = 1441 Score = 29.6 bits (65),

  16. 家养动物体表蜱中发热伴血小板减少综合征布尼亚病毒分离及鉴定%Isolation, Identification and Characterization of SFTS Bunyavirus from Ticks Collected on the Surface of Domestic Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜晓林; 姜梅; 梁米芳; 毕振强; 李德新; 王显军; 李建东; 丁淑军; 张全福; 曲靖; 张硕; 李川; 芜为

    2012-01-01

    To understand the maintenance and transmission of SFTS virus, the potential vector ticks were collected from sheeP. cattle and dogs in the endemic areas of SFTSV in Shandong Province. Among the collected ticks, the dominant species was H. longicornis ticks. Real-time PCR for RNA detection, virus i-solation and characterization, genomic sequencing, phylogenetic and antigenic analysis were performed in this investigation. The results showed that the SFTS viral RNA was detected in 2. 14% H. longicornis, and a SFTS virus was isolated from one of viral RNA positive ticks collected from sheep. Whole genome a-nalysis of the SFTSV isolates with 11 human-origin SFTS virus revealed a highly pairwise similarity, and the growth curve analysis showed nearly identical in virus yield and the dynamic of virus reproduction compared to human derived viral isolates. Immunofluorescence and neutralization test showed identical serolog-ical reaction character of the two different origin viral strains. In this study, the characters of a SFTSV i-solate was firstly described, which suggested that the tick species H. longicornis acting important vector role in the transmission of SFTS virus.%为了解发热伴血小板减少综合征布尼亚病毒(SFTSV)的传播机制,采集了山东疫区家养牛、羊和狗等动物体表蜱,分类鉴定后,通过Real-time PCR筛查、病毒分离培养和基因组序列分析等方法分离鉴定蜱中的病毒.所采集的蜱,以长角血蜱为主,占91.4%.其中3头SFTSV核酸检测阳性,阳性率为2.14%,并在其中一份羊体表蜱标本中分离到SFTSV病毒,命名为SDLZTick12.序列分析显示与我国在不同省份患者标本中分离的病毒全基因序列具有高度同源性,且病毒的抗原性和生长特性与人源病毒相同.本研究首次在山东疫区蜱中分离到新型布尼亚病毒,并与人源病毒进行了系统比较研究,提示蜱可能为该新病原体的传播媒介,对疾病的防控具有重要的指导意义.

  17. Oropuche virus: A virus present but ignored

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Mattar V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bunyaviruses are RNA viruses that affect animals and plants; they have five genera and four of them affect humans: Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, Phlebovirus and Hantavirus. All of them are Arbovirus, except Hantavirus. The Orthobunyaviruses comprise Oropouche, Tahyna, La Crosse virus, California encephalitis virus and Heartland virus recently discovered (1. Except for Heartland virus which is transmitted by ticks of the genus Amblyoma, these Phleboviruses have as vectors mosquitoes, which bite small mammals which are able to be as reservoirs amplifiers.

  18. Development of FGI-106 as a broad-spectrum therapeutic with activity against members of the family Bunyaviridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darci R Smith

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Darci R Smith1, Monica Ogg1, Aura Garrison1, Abdul Yunus2, Anna Honko1, Josh Johnson1, Gene Olinger1, Lisa E Hensley1, Michael S Kinch1United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRII D, Fort Detrick, MD, USA; 2Functional Genetics, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD, USAAbstract: The family Bunyaviridae is a diverse group of negative-strand RNA viruses that infect a wide range of arthropod vectors and animal hosts. Based on the continuing need for new therapeutics to treat bunyavirus infections, we evaluated the potential efficacy of FGI-106, a small-molecular compound that previously demonstrated activity against different RNA viruses. FGI-106 displayed substantial antiviral activity in cell-based assays of different bunyavirus family members, including Asian and South American hantaviruses (Hantaan virus and Andes virus, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, La Crosse virus, and Rift Valley fever virus. The pharmacokinetic profile of FGI-106 revealed sufficient exposure of the drug to critical target organs (lung, liver, kidney, and spleen, which are frequently the sites of bunyavirus replication. Consistent with these findings, FGI-106 treatment delivered via intraperitoneal injection prior to virus exposure was sufficient to delay the onset of Rift Valley fever virus infection in mouse-based models and to enhance survival in the face of an otherwise lethal infection. Altogether, these results suggest a potential opportunity for the use of FGI-106 to treat infections by members of the family Bunyaviridae.Keywords: Rift Valley fever virus, bunyavirus, hantavirus, antiviral, therapeutic

  19. Forest disturbance, mosquito vector ecology and La Crosse virus dynamics in southwestern Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Maria-Richetta Camille

    2014-01-01

    The influence of forest canopy disturbance (FCD) on La Crosse virus (LACV), leading cause of US pediatric arboviral encephalitis, is critical to understand in landscapes where forests are periodically harvested. Southwestern Virginia is part of an emerging focus of this interior forest bunyavirus. I investigated how the temperate forest mosquito community, LACV vectors, and the LACV amplifying vertebrate host (chipmunks) were impacted by logging. This research was conducted across an exper...

  20. Serological Screening Suggests Presence of Schmallenberg Virus in Cattle, Sheep and Goat in the Zambezia Province, Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Blomström, A-L; Stenberg, H; Scharin, I; Figueiredo, J; Nhambirre, O; Abilio, A P; Fafetine, J; Berg, M.

    2014-01-01

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is a novel Orthobunyavirus within the family Bunyaviridae belonging to the Simbu serogroup. Schmallenberg virus infects ruminants and has since its discovery in the autumn 2011 been detected/spread to large parts of Europe. Most bunyaviruses are arboviruses, and SBV has been detected in biting midges in different European countries, suggesting that they may play a role in the transmission of the virus. It is not known how SBV was introduced to Europe and if SBV is pr...

  1. Transovarial transmission of Gamboa virus in a tropical mosquito, Aedeomyia squamipennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutary, B E; Petersen, J L; Peralta, P H; Tesh, R B

    1989-01-01

    We report transovarial transmission of Gamboa virus (Bunyavirus) in Aedeomyia squamipennis, a tropical mosquito which is active and bloodfeeding throughout the year. Gamboa virus was isolated during each of the 28 months of the study from every mosquito stage, including eggs, demonstrating that vertical transmission is a maintenance mechanism of this virus. The overall minimum infection rate was 5.1/1,000 mosquitoes. Identification of the 567 isolates by neutralization indicated that greater than or equal to 2 serotypes or subtypes of Gamboa virus circulate at the study site. PMID:2563641

  2. An assembly model of Rift Valley fever virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirabela eRusu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV is a bunyavirus endemic to Africa and the Arabian Peninsula that infects humans and livestock. The virus encodes two glycoproteins, Gn and Gc, which represent the major structural antigens and are responsible for host cell receptor binding and fusion. Both glycoproteins are organized on the virus surface as cylindrical hollow spikes that cluster into distinct capsomers with the overall assembly exhibiting an icosahedral symmetry. Currently, no experimental three-dimensional structure for any entire bunyavirus glycoprotein is available. Using fold recognition, we generated molecular models for both RVFV glycoproteins and found significant structural matches between the RVFV Gn protein and the influenza virus hemagglutinin protein and a separate match between RVFV Gc protein and Sindbis virus envelope protein E1. Using these models, the potential interaction and arrangement of both glycoproteins in the RVFV particle was analyzed, by modeling their placement within the cryo-electron microscopy density map of RVFV. We identified four possible arrangements of the glycoproteins in the virion envelope. Each assembly model proposes that the ectodomain of Gn forms the majority of the protruding capsomer and that Gc is involved in formation of the capsomer base. Furthermore, Gc is suggested to facilitate intercapsomer connections. The proposed arrangement of the two glycoproteins on the RVFV surface is similar to that described for the alphavirus E1-E2 proteins. Our models will provide guidance to better understand the assembly process of phleboviruses and such structural studies can also contribute to the design of targeted antivirals.

  3. The Role of Phlebovirus Glycoproteins in Viral Entry, Assembly and Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Martin; Plegge, Teresa; Pöhlmann, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Bunyaviruses are enveloped viruses with a tripartite RNA genome that can pose a serious threat to animal and human health. Members of the Phlebovirus genus of the family Bunyaviridae are transmitted by mosquitos and ticks to humans and include highly pathogenic agents like Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) and severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) as well as viruses that do not cause disease in humans, like Uukuniemi virus (UUKV). Phleboviruses and other bunyaviruses use their envelope proteins, Gn and Gc, for entry into target cells and for assembly of progeny particles in infected cells. Thus, binding of Gn and Gc to cell surface factors promotes viral attachment and uptake into cells and exposure to endosomal low pH induces Gc-driven fusion of the viral and the vesicle membranes. Moreover, Gn and Gc facilitate virion incorporation of the viral genome via their intracellular domains and Gn and Gc interactions allow the formation of a highly ordered glycoprotein lattice on the virion surface. Studies conducted in the last decade provided important insights into the configuration of phlebovirus Gn and Gc proteins in the viral membrane, the cellular factors used by phleboviruses for entry and the mechanisms employed by phlebovirus Gc proteins for membrane fusion. Here, we will review our knowledge on the glycoprotein biogenesis and the role of Gn and Gc proteins in the phlebovirus replication cycle. PMID:27455305

  4. The Role of Phlebovirus Glycoproteins in Viral Entry, Assembly and Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Spiegel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bunyaviruses are enveloped viruses with a tripartite RNA genome that can pose a serious threat to animal and human health. Members of the Phlebovirus genus of the family Bunyaviridae are transmitted by mosquitos and ticks to humans and include highly pathogenic agents like Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV and severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV as well as viruses that do not cause disease in humans, like Uukuniemi virus (UUKV. Phleboviruses and other bunyaviruses use their envelope proteins, Gn and Gc, for entry into target cells and for assembly of progeny particles in infected cells. Thus, binding of Gn and Gc to cell surface factors promotes viral attachment and uptake into cells and exposure to endosomal low pH induces Gc-driven fusion of the viral and the vesicle membranes. Moreover, Gn and Gc facilitate virion incorporation of the viral genome via their intracellular domains and Gn and Gc interactions allow the formation of a highly ordered glycoprotein lattice on the virion surface. Studies conducted in the last decade provided important insights into the configuration of phlebovirus Gn and Gc proteins in the viral membrane, the cellular factors used by phleboviruses for entry and the mechanisms employed by phlebovirus Gc proteins for membrane fusion. Here, we will review our knowledge on the glycoprotein biogenesis and the role of Gn and Gc proteins in the phlebovirus replication cycle.

  5. Identification of novel viruses using VirusHunter--an automated data analysis pipeline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoyan Zhao

    Full Text Available Quick and accurate identification of microbial pathogens is essential for both diagnosis and response to emerging infectious diseases. The advent of next-generation sequencing technology offers an unprecedented platform for rapid sequencing-based identification of novel viruses. We have developed a customized bioinformatics data analysis pipeline, VirusHunter, for the analysis of Roche/454 and other long read Next generation sequencing platform data. To illustrate the utility of VirusHunter, we performed Roche/454 GS FLX titanium sequencing on two unclassified virus isolates from the World Reference Center for Emerging Viruses and Arboviruses (WRCEVA. VirusHunter identified sequences derived from a novel bunyavirus and a novel reovirus in the two samples respectively. Further sequence analysis demonstrated that the viruses were novel members of the Phlebovirus and Orbivirus genera. Both Phlebovirus and Orbivirus genera include many economic important viruses or serious human pathogens.

  6. Thrips transmission of tospoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotenberg, Dorith; Jacobson, Alana L; Schneweis, Derek J; Whitfield, Anna E

    2015-12-01

    One hundred years ago, the disease tomato spotted wilt was first described in Australia. Since that time, knowledge of this disease caused by Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and transmitted by thrips (insects in the order Thysanoptera) has revealed a complex relationship between the virus, vector, plant host, and environment. Numerous tospoviruses and thrips vectors have been described, revealing diversity in plant host range and geographical distributions. Advances in characterization of the tripartite interaction between the virus, vector, and plant host have provided insight into molecular and ecological relationships. Comparison to animal-infecting viruses in the family Bunyaviridae has enabled the identification of commonalities between tospoviruses and other bunyaviruses in transmission by arthropod vectors and molecular interactions with hosts. This review provides a special emphasis on TSWV and Frankliniella occidentalis, the model tospovirus-thrips pathosystem. However, other virus-vector combinations are also of importance and where possible, comparisons are made between different viruses and thrips vectors. PMID:26340723

  7. Application of modified shell vial culture procedure for arbovirus detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna R Caceda

    Full Text Available The isolation of arboviruses from patient's low titer sera can be difficult. Here we compared the detection efficiency of Dengue (DEN, Yellow Fever (YF, Saint Louis Encephalitis (SLE, West Nile (WN, Ilheus (ILH, Group C (GC, Oropouche (ORO, Mayaro (MAY and Venezuela Encephalitis Equine (VEE viruses using a Modified Shell Vial Culture (MSVC protocol to a Standard Cell Culture (SCC protocol. First the MSVC and SCC protocols were compared using five dilutions for each of the following stock viruses: DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, DEN-4, YF, SLE, WN, ILH, GC, ORO, MAY and VEE. Next, patients' original sera from which viruses (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, YF, GC, ORO, MAY and VEE had been previously isolated were compare by the two methods using five sera dilutions. In addition, seven sera that were positive for DEN-3 by RT-PCR and negative by SCC were processed by MSVC. The MSVC protocol was consistently 1-2 logs higher virus dilution more sensitive for virus detection than the SCC protocol for all stock Flaviviruses tested (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, DEN-4, YF, SLE, WN and ILH. MSVC was equal to or one log more sensitive for virus detection than SCC for the stock Bunyaviruses (GC and ORO. For the stock Alphavirus MAY, MSVC was equally or one log more sensitive for virus detection than SCC, while for VEE SCC was equally or one log more sensitive for virus detection than MSVC. MSVC was consistently one to two sera dilutions more sensitive than SCC for the detection of Flaviviruses from patients' sera. Both methods were approximately equally sensitive for the detection of Bunyaviruses from patients' sera and equal or one dilution less sensitive for the detection of Alphaviruses from patients' sera. Additionally, MSVC detected DEN virus in five of seven DEN-3 RT-PCR positive, SCC negative patients' sera.

  8. Roles of viroplasm-like structures formed by nonstructural protein NSs in infection with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaodong; Qi, Xian; Liang, Mifang; Li, Chuan; Cardona, Carol J; Li, Dexin; Xing, Zheng

    2014-06-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) virus is an emerging bunyavirus that causes a hemorrhagic fever with a high mortality rate. The virus is likely tick-borne and replicates primarily in hemopoietic cells, which may lead to disregulation of proinflammatory cytokine induction and loss of leukocytes and platelets. The viral genome contains L, M, and S segments encoding a viral RNA polymerase, glycoproteins G(n) and G(c), nucleoprotein (NP), and a nonstructural S segment (NSs) protein. NSs protein is involved in the regulation of host innate immune responses and suppression of IFNβ-promoter activities. In this article, we demonstrate that NSs protein can form viroplasm-like structures (VLSs) in infected and transfected cells. NSs protein molecules interact with one another, interact with NP, and were associated with viral RNA in infected cells, suggesting that NSs protein may be involved in viral replication. Furthermore, we observed that NSs-formed VLS colocalized with lipid droplets and that inhibitors of fatty acid biosynthesis decreased VLS formation or viral replication in transfected and infected cells. Finally, we have demonstrated that viral dsRNAs were also localized in VLS in infected cells, suggesting that NSs-formed VLS may be implicated in the replication of SFTS bunyavirus. These findings identify a novel function of nonstructural NSs in SFTSV-infected cells where it is a scaffolding component in a VLS functioning as a virus replication factory. This function is in addition to the role of NSs protein in modulating host responses that will broaden our understanding of viral pathogenesis of phleboviruses.

  9. Single-Molecule FISH Reveals Non-selective Packaging of Rift Valley Fever Virus Genome Segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichgers Schreur, Paul J; Kortekaas, Jeroen

    2016-08-01

    The bunyavirus genome comprises a small (S), medium (M), and large (L) RNA segment of negative polarity. Although genome segmentation confers evolutionary advantages by enabling genome reassortment events with related viruses, genome segmentation also complicates genome replication and packaging. Accumulating evidence suggests that genomes of viruses with eight or more genome segments are incorporated into virions by highly selective processes. Remarkably, little is known about the genome packaging process of the tri-segmented bunyaviruses. Here, we evaluated, by single-molecule RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), the intracellular spatio-temporal distribution and replication kinetics of the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) genome and determined the segment composition of mature virions. The results reveal that the RVFV genome segments start to replicate near the site of infection before spreading and replicating throughout the cytoplasm followed by translocation to the virion assembly site at the Golgi network. Despite the average intracellular S, M and L genome segments approached a 1:1:1 ratio, major differences in genome segment ratios were observed among cells. We also observed a significant amount of cells lacking evidence of M-segment replication. Analysis of two-segmented replicons and four-segmented viruses subsequently confirmed the previous notion that Golgi recruitment is mediated by the Gn glycoprotein. The absence of colocalization of the different segments in the cytoplasm and the successful rescue of a tri-segmented variant with a codon shuffled M-segment suggested that inter-segment interactions are unlikely to drive the copackaging of the different segments into a single virion. The latter was confirmed by direct visualization of RNPs inside mature virions which showed that the majority of virions lack one or more genome segments. Altogether, this study suggests that RVFV genome packaging is a non-selective process. PMID:27548280

  10. Jatobal virus antigenic characterization by ELISA and neutralization test using EIA as indicator, on tissue culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Tadeu M. Figueiredo

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available A virus antigenic characterization methodology using an indirect method of antibody detection ELISA with virus-infected cultured cells as antigen and a micro virus neutralisation test using EIA (NT-EIA as an aid to reading were used for antigenic characterization of Jatobal (BeAn 423380. Jatobal virus was characterized as a Bunyaviridae, Bunyavirus genus, Simbu serogroup virus. ELISA using infected cultured cells as antigen is a sensitive and reliable method for identification of viruses and has many advantages over conventional antibody capture ELISA's and other tests: it eliminates solid phase coating with virus and laborious antigen preparation; it permits screening of large numbers of virus antisera faster and more easily than by CF, HAI, or plaque reduction NT. ELISA and NT using EIA as an aid to reading can be applicable to viruses which do not produce cytopathogenic effect. Both techniques are applicable to identification of viruses which grow in mosquito cells.A caracterização antigênica do vírus Jatobal (BeAn 423380 foi efetuada utilizando uma técnica de ELISA para deteccão de anticorpos que utiliza culturas celulares infectadas como antígeno e um micro teste de neutralização para vírus que utiliza o método imunoenzimático como auxiliar para a leitura dos resultados (NT-EIA. O vírus Jatobal foi caracterizado como um Bunyaviridae, gênero Bunyavirus, pertencente ao sorogrupo Simbu. A técnica de ELISA, utilizando culturas celulares infectadas como antígeno, trata-se de método sensível e confiável na identificação de agentes virais, possuindo muitas vantagens sobre ELISA convencionais e outros testes: elimina a preparação laboriosa de antígenos para o revestimento em fase sólida; permite que se teste de forma mais rápida e fácil que por CF, HAI e neutralização por redução de plaques um grande número de antisoros de vírus. ELISA e NT-EIA podem ser utilizados para a classificação de vírus que não produzem

  11. Spatial-temporal analysis of Cache Valley virus (Bunyaviridae: Orthobunyavirus) infection in anopheline and culicine mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the northeastern United States, 1997-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreadis, Theodore G; Armstrong, Philip M; Anderson, John F; Main, Andrew J

    2014-10-01

    Cache Valley virus (CVV) is a mosquito-borne bunyavirus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus) that is enzootic throughout much of North and Central America. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been incriminated as important reservoir and amplification hosts. CVV has been found in a diverse array of mosquito species, but the principal vectors are unknown. A 16-year study was undertaken to identify the primary mosquito vectors in Connecticut, quantify seasonal prevalence rates of infection, and define the spatial geographic distribution of CVV in the state as a function of land use and white-tailed deer populations, which have increased substantially over this period. CVV was isolated from 16 mosquito species in seven genera, almost all of which were multivoltine and mammalophilic. Anopheles (An.) punctipennis was incriminated as the most consistent and likely vector in this region on the basis of yearly isolation frequencies and the spatial geographic distribution of infected mosquitoes. Other species exhibiting frequent temporal and moderate spatial geographic patterns of virus isolation within the state included Ochlerotatus (Oc.) trivittatus, Oc. canadensis, Aedes (Ae.) vexans, and Ae. cinereus. New isolation records for CVV were established for An. walkeri, Culiseta melanura, and Oc. cantator. Other species from which CVV was isolated included An. quadrimaculatus, Coquillettidia perturbans, Culex salinarius, Oc. japonicus, Oc. sollicitans, Oc. taeniorhynchus, Oc. triseriatus, and Psorophora ferox. Mosquitoes infected with CVV were equally distributed throughout urban, suburban, and rural locales, and infection rates were not directly associated with the localized abundance of white-tailed deer, possibly due to their saturation throughout the region. Virus activity in mosquitoes was episodic with no consistent pattern from year-to-year, and fluctuations in yearly seasonal infection rates did not appear to be directly impacted by overall

  12. Status of tick distribution and tick-borne pathogens in Jinan city%济南市蜱分布及带病毒状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛正; 王东; 杨国樑; 王永明; 彭文广; 李羡亭; 齐梅; 王蕾; 李殿香

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the species, host, distribution and status of tick⁃borne pathogens in Jinan city. Methods The parasitic ticks were collected from the host skin by hand or tweezers and the free ticks were collected manually with white cloth from the grassland or shrubbery. Collected ticks were classified and tested for tick⁃borne pathogens. Results There were 614 and 108 ticks collected on 6 hosts and in 2 types of environment, respectively. Collected ticks were Haemaphysalis longicornis. There were 596 ticks collected on goats with proportion of 97.1%. About 53.3%goats carried with ticks and the average number of ticks per goat was about 6.7. The results were positive in RNA detection of new bunyavirus in 3 groups of tick and positive of rickettsia in one group. Positive ticks were collected from goats. Conclusion The dominant tick species was H. longicornis in Shandong province. The dominant host animal was goats raised outside. Some ticks may carry bunyavirus and rickettsia.%目的:调查济南市丘陵地区蜱的种类、宿主、分布及其带病毒情况。方法采用宿主体表捡拾法采集寄生蜱、人工布旗法采集游离蜱,并进行分类鉴定和病原体检测。结果在宿主动物和环境中分别捕获蜱614和108只,经鉴定均为长角血蜱。其中,羊体表捕获蜱596只,占调查宿主动物的97.1%。所有宿主动物中,羊携带蜱比例最高(53.3%),带蜱指数最高(6.7只/只或头)。在3组蜱样本中检测到新型布尼亚病毒核酸阳性,1组蜱样本中检测到立克次体阳性,4份样本均来自羊群。结论济南市的优势蜱种为长角血蜱;放养羊群是当地蜱主要宿主动物;部分蜱可能携带新型布尼亚病毒和立克次体。

  13. A Global Genomic Characterization of Nairoviruses Identifies Nine Discrete Genogroups with Distinctive Structural Characteristics and Host-Vector Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Peter J; Widen, Steven G; Wood, Thomas G; Guzman, Hilda; Tesh, Robert B; Vasilakis, Nikolaos

    2016-05-01

    Nairoviruses are primarily tick-borne bunyaviruses, some of which are known to cause mild-to-severe febrile illness in humans or livestock. We describe the genome sequences of 11 poorly characterized nairoviruses that have ecological associations with either birds (Farallon, Punta Salinas, Sapphire II, Zirqa, Avalon, Clo Mor, Taggert, and Abu Hammad viruses), rodents (Qalyub and Bandia viruses), or camels (Dera Ghazi Khan virus). Global phylogenetic analyses of proteins encoded in the L, M, and S RNA segments of these and 20 other available nairovirus genomes identified nine well-supported genogroups (Nairobi sheep disease, Thiafora, Sakhalin, Keterah, Qalyub, Kasokero, Dera Ghazi Khan, Hughes, and Tamdy). Genogroup-specific structural variations were evident, particularly in the M segment encoding a polyprotein from which virion envelope glycoproteins (Gn and Gc) are generated by proteolytic processing. Structural variations include the extension, abbreviation, or absence sequences encoding an O-glycosylated mucin-like protein in the N-terminal domain, distinctive patterns of conserved cysteine residues in the GP38-like domain, insertion of sequences encoding a double-membrane-spanning protein (NSm) between the Gn and Gc domains, and the presence of an alternative long open reading frame encoding a viroporin-like transmembrane protein (Gx). We also observed strong genogroup-specific associations with categories of hosts and tick vectors. PMID:26903607

  14. Evaluation of the eastern cottontail Sylvilagus floridanus as an amplifying vertebrate host for Cache Valley virus (Bunyaviridae) in Indiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Carina G M; Grimstad, Paul R

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the importance of eastern cottontails (Sylvilagus floridanus) as amplifying hosts for Cache Valley virus (CVV), we tested hunter-provided blood samples from northern Indiana for specific neutralizing (N) antibodies against this mosquito-borne bunya-virus. Samples were collected during the winter of 1994-95. Two seronegative eastern cottontails, captured in July 1995, were also infected with CVV by subcutaneous inoculation, and two others were infected by allowing CVV-infected mosquitoes to feed on them. The results indicate that eastern cottontails probably are not important amplifying hosts for CVV. The prevalence of N antibodies against CVV was low (6.0%, n=82) among the hunter-killed animals. Low viremia (<1.8 log10 plaque-forming units/ml) of short duration (1-3 days) were seen in three of four experimentally infected eastern cottontails. The viremias were insufficient for infecting Coquillettidia perturbans, a mosquito species commonly found naturally infected with CVV. PMID:18263839

  15. Differential Use of the C-Type Lectins L-SIGN and DC-SIGN for Phlebovirus Endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léger, Psylvia; Tetard, Marilou; Youness, Berthe; Cordes, Nicole; Rouxel, Ronan N; Flamand, Marie; Lozach, Pierre-Yves

    2016-06-01

    Bunyaviruses represent a growing threat to humans and livestock globally. The receptors, cellular factors and endocytic pathways used by these emerging pathogens to infect cells remain largely unidentified and poorly characterized. DC-SIGN is a C-type lectin highly expressed on dermal dendritic cells that has been found to act as an authentic entry receptor for many phleboviruses (Bunyaviridae), including Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), Toscana virus (TOSV) and Uukuniemi virus (UUKV). We found that these phleboviruses can exploit another C-type lectin, L-SIGN, for infection. L-SIGN shares 77% sequence homology with DC-SIGN and is expressed on liver sinusoidal endothelial cells. L-SIGN is required for UUKV binding but not for virus internalization. An endocytosis-defective mutant of L-SIGN was still able to mediate virus uptake and infection, indicating that L-SIGN acts as an attachment receptor for phleboviruses rather than an endocytic receptor. Our results point out a fundamental difference in the use of the C-type lectins L-SIGN and DC-SIGN by UUKV to enter cells, although both proteins are closely related in terms of molecular structure and biological function. This study sheds new light on the molecular mechanisms by which phleboviruses target the liver and also highlights the added complexity in virus-receptor interactions beyond attachment. PMID:26990254

  16. The transient nature of Bunyamwera orthobunyavirus NSs protein expression: effects of increased stability of NSs protein on virus replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg van Knippenberg

    Full Text Available The NSs proteins of bunyaviruses are the viral interferon antagonists, counteracting the host's antiviral response to infection. During high-multiplicity infection of cultured mammalian cells with Bunyamwera orthobunyavirus (BUNV, NSs is rapidly degraded after reaching peak levels of expression at 12hpi. Through the use of inhibitors this was shown to be the result of proteasomal degradation. A recombinant virus (rBUN4KR, in which all four lysine residues in NSs were replaced by arginine residues, expresses an NSs protein (NSs4KR that is resistant to degradation, confirming that degradation is lysine-dependent. However, despite repeated attempts, no direct ubiquitylation of NSs in infected cells could be demonstrated. This suggests that degradation of NSs, although lysine-dependent, may be achieved through an indirect mechanism. Infection of cultured mammalian cells or mice indicated no disadvantage for the virus in having a non-degradable NSs protein: in fact rBUN4KR had a slight growth advantage over wtBUNV in interferon-competent cells, presumably due to the increased and prolonged presence of NSs. In cultured mosquito cells there was no difference in growth between wild-type BUNV and rBUN4KR, but surprisingly NSs4KR was not stabilised compared to the wild-type NSs protein.

  17. The transient nature of Bunyamwera orthobunyavirus NSs protein expression: effects of increased stability of NSs protein on virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Knippenberg, Ingeborg; Fragkoudis, Rennos; Elliott, Richard M

    2013-01-01

    The NSs proteins of bunyaviruses are the viral interferon antagonists, counteracting the host's antiviral response to infection. During high-multiplicity infection of cultured mammalian cells with Bunyamwera orthobunyavirus (BUNV), NSs is rapidly degraded after reaching peak levels of expression at 12hpi. Through the use of inhibitors this was shown to be the result of proteasomal degradation. A recombinant virus (rBUN4KR), in which all four lysine residues in NSs were replaced by arginine residues, expresses an NSs protein (NSs4KR) that is resistant to degradation, confirming that degradation is lysine-dependent. However, despite repeated attempts, no direct ubiquitylation of NSs in infected cells could be demonstrated. This suggests that degradation of NSs, although lysine-dependent, may be achieved through an indirect mechanism. Infection of cultured mammalian cells or mice indicated no disadvantage for the virus in having a non-degradable NSs protein: in fact rBUN4KR had a slight growth advantage over wtBUNV in interferon-competent cells, presumably due to the increased and prolonged presence of NSs. In cultured mosquito cells there was no difference in growth between wild-type BUNV and rBUN4KR, but surprisingly NSs4KR was not stabilised compared to the wild-type NSs protein. PMID:23667701

  18. Bovine Lactoferrin Inhibits Toscana Virus Infection by Binding to Heparan Sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostina Pietrantoni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Toscana virus is an emerging sandfly-borne bunyavirus in Mediterranean Europe responsible for neurological diseases in humans. It accounts for about 80% of paediatric meningitis cases during the summer. Despite the important impact of Toscana virus infection-associated disease on human health, currently approved vaccines or effective antiviral treatments are not available. In this research, we have analyzed the effect of bovine lactoferrin, a bi-globular iron-binding glycoprotein with potent antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities, on Toscana virus infection in vitro. Our results showed that lactoferrin was capable of inhibiting Toscana virus replication in a dose-dependent manner. Results obtained when lactoferrin was added to the cells during different phases of viral infection showed that lactoferrin was able to prevent viral replication when added during the viral adsorption step or during the entire cycle of virus infection, demonstrating that its action takes place in an early phase of viral infection. In particular, our results demonstrated that the anti-Toscana virus action of lactoferrin took place on virus attachment to the cell membrane, mainly through a competition for common glycosaminoglycan receptors. These findings provide further insights on the antiviral activity of bovine lactoferrin.

  19. New hosts for the mite Ornithonyssus bursa in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillán, M Á; Grande, J M; Liébana, M S; Martínez, P; Díaz, L A; Bragagnolo, L A; Solaro, C; Galmes, M A; Sarasola, J H

    2015-12-01

    The mite Ornithonyssus bursa (Berlese) (Mesostigmata: Macronyssidae) is considered a poultry pest causing important infestations in chickens and it is considered a potential vector of arbovirus. Despite being considered a common parasite in wild birds, there is scarce published information about its potential hosts and effects on them. Here we present new bird hosts for O. bursa, assess the presence of Alphavirus, Flavivirus and Bunyavirus in mites from three host species, and discuss its potential impact on wild bird populations. We found O. bursa infecting five raptor and six passerine wild bird species. For nine of these species, this is the first record of infection by O. bursa. Although all analysed mites were negative for the examined arboviruses, the small sample size of mites does not allow further conclusions at the present moment. Because of the general nature of this ectoparasite, its presence in migratory long dispersal and endangered bird species, and the seropositivity for arboviruses in some of the species studied here, we consider it critical to assess the role of O. bursa and other ectoparasites as vectors and reservoirs of pathogens and as potential deleterious agents in wild bird populations.

  20. A CRISPR screen defines a signal peptide processing pathway required by flaviviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; Miner, Jonathan J; Gorman, Matthew J; Rausch, Keiko; Ramage, Holly; White, James P; Zuiani, Adam; Zhang, Ping; Fernandez, Estefania; Zhang, Qiang; Dowd, Kimberly A; Pierson, Theodore C; Cherry, Sara; Diamond, Michael S

    2016-07-01

    Flaviviruses infect hundreds of millions of people annually, and no antiviral therapy is available. We performed a genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9-based screen to identify host genes that, when edited, resulted in reduced flavivirus infection. Here, we validated nine human genes required for flavivirus infectivity, and these were associated with endoplasmic reticulum functions including translocation, protein degradation, and N-linked glycosylation. In particular, a subset of endoplasmic reticulum-associated signal peptidase complex (SPCS) proteins was necessary for proper cleavage of the flavivirus structural proteins (prM and E) and secretion of viral particles. Loss of SPCS1 expression resulted in markedly reduced yield of all Flaviviridae family members tested (West Nile, Dengue, Zika, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, and hepatitis C viruses), but had little impact on alphavirus, bunyavirus, or rhabdovirus infection or the surface expression or secretion of diverse host proteins. We found that SPCS1 dependence could be bypassed by replacing the native prM protein leader sequences with a class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigen leader sequence. Thus, SPCS1, either directly or indirectly via its interactions with unknown host proteins, preferentially promotes the processing of specific protein cargo, and Flaviviridae have a unique dependence on this signal peptide processing pathway. SPCS1 and other signal processing pathway members could represent pharmacological targets for inhibiting infection by the expanding number of flaviviruses of medical concern.

  1. Conserved Endonuclease Function of Hantavirus L Polymerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberger, Sylvia; Torriani, Giulia; Johansson, Maria U; Kunz, Stefan; Engler, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Hantaviruses are important emerging pathogens belonging to the Bunyaviridae family. Like other segmented negative strand RNA viruses, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) also known as L protein of hantaviruses lacks an intrinsic "capping activity". Hantaviruses therefore employ a "cap snatching" strategy acquiring short 5' RNA sequences bearing 5'cap structures by endonucleolytic cleavage from host cell transcripts. The viral endonuclease activity implicated in cap snatching of hantaviruses has been mapped to the N-terminal domain of the L protein. Using a combination of molecular modeling and structure-function analysis we confirm and extend these findings providing evidence for high conservation of the L endonuclease between Old and New World hantaviruses. Recombinant hantavirus L endonuclease showed catalytic activity and a defined cation preference shared by other viral endonucleases. Based on the previously reported remarkably high activity of hantavirus L endonuclease, we established a cell-based assay for the hantavirus endonuclase function. The robustness of the assay and its high-throughput compatible format makes it suitable for small molecule drug screens to identify novel inhibitors of hantavirus endonuclease. Based on the high degree of similarity to RdRp endonucleases, some candidate inhibitors may be broadly active against hantaviruses and other emerging human pathogenic Bunyaviruses. PMID:27144576

  2. Conserved Endonuclease Function of Hantavirus L Polymerase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Rothenberger

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are important emerging pathogens belonging to the Bunyaviridae family. Like other segmented negative strand RNA viruses, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp also known as L protein of hantaviruses lacks an intrinsic “capping activity”. Hantaviruses therefore employ a “cap snatching” strategy acquiring short 5′ RNA sequences bearing 5′cap structures by endonucleolytic cleavage from host cell transcripts. The viral endonuclease activity implicated in cap snatching of hantaviruses has been mapped to the N-terminal domain of the L protein. Using a combination of molecular modeling and structure–function analysis we confirm and extend these findings providing evidence for high conservation of the L endonuclease between Old and New World hantaviruses. Recombinant hantavirus L endonuclease showed catalytic activity and a defined cation preference shared by other viral endonucleases. Based on the previously reported remarkably high activity of hantavirus L endonuclease, we established a cell-based assay for the hantavirus endonuclase function. The robustness of the assay and its high-throughput compatible format makes it suitable for small molecule drug screens to identify novel inhibitors of hantavirus endonuclease. Based on the high degree of similarity to RdRp endonucleases, some candidate inhibitors may be broadly active against hantaviruses and other emerging human pathogenic Bunyaviruses.

  3. Critical epitopes in the nucleocapsid protein of SFTS virus recognized by a panel of SFTS patients derived human monoclonal antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: SFTS virus (SFTSV is a newly discovered pathogen to cause severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS in human. Successful control of SFTSV epidemic requires better understanding of the antigen target in humoral immune responses to the new bunyavirus infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have generated a combinatorial Fab antibody phage library from two SFTS patients recovered from SFTSV infection. To date, 94 unique human antibodies have been generated and characterized from over 1200 Fab antibody clones obtained by screening the library with SFTS purified virions. All those monoclonal antibodies (MAbs recognized the nucleocapsid (N protein of SFTSV while none of them were reactive to the viral glycoproteins Gn or Gc. Furthermore, over screening 1000 mouse monoclonal antibody clones derived from SFTSV virions immunization, 462 clones reacted with N protein, while only 16 clones were reactive to glycoprotein. Furthermore, epitope mapping of SFTSV N protein was performed through molecular simulation, site mutation and competitive ELISA, and we found that at least 4 distinct antigenic epitopes within N protein were recognized by those human and mouse MAbs, in particular mutation of Glu10 to Ala10 abolished or significantly reduced the binding activity of nearly most SFTS patients derived MAbs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The large number of human recombinant MAbs derived from SFTS patients recognized the viral N protein indicated the important role of the N protein in humoral responses to SFTSV infection, and the critical epitopes we defined in this study provided molecular basis for detection and diagnosis of SFTSV infection.

  4. PREVALENCE OF ARBOVIRUS ANTIBODIES AGAINST THE FAMILY Bunyaviridae IN WATER BUFFALOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Rosário Casseb

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The State of Pará comprises 26% of Brazilian Amazon region where a large diversity of arboviruses has been described. This study sought to assess the prevalence and distribution of haemagglutination-inhibition antibodies against antigens of nine different types of arbovirus of the Bunyaviridae family, where eight were Orthobunyavirus: Guaroa virus, Maguari virus, Tacaiuma virus, Utinga virus, Belem virus, Caraparu virus, Oropouche virus and Catu virus, and one Phlebovirus: Icoaraci virus in sera samples of water buffaloes in Pará State, Brazil. For all Arboviruses investigated there were antibodies, with the exception of Belem virus. Antibodies to Maguari virus were more prevalent (7.33%. The water buffaloes of the present study showed variable levels of antibodies in monotypic and heterotypic reactions that may indicate there are movements from most bunyavirus studied in domestic buffaloes in the state of Pará, and the Maguari virus presents the largest circulation. Therefore, further studies are needed to investigate the role of water buffalo in the maintenance and dispersal of arboviruses, as well as whether these viruses can cause disease in that species, especially in cases of birth defects and abortions.

  5. A CRISPR screen defines a signal peptide processing pathway required by flaviviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; Miner, Jonathan J; Gorman, Matthew J; Rausch, Keiko; Ramage, Holly; White, James P; Zuiani, Adam; Zhang, Ping; Fernandez, Estefania; Zhang, Qiang; Dowd, Kimberly A; Pierson, Theodore C; Cherry, Sara; Diamond, Michael S

    2016-07-01

    Flaviviruses infect hundreds of millions of people annually, and no antiviral therapy is available. We performed a genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9-based screen to identify host genes that, when edited, resulted in reduced flavivirus infection. Here, we validated nine human genes required for flavivirus infectivity, and these were associated with endoplasmic reticulum functions including translocation, protein degradation, and N-linked glycosylation. In particular, a subset of endoplasmic reticulum-associated signal peptidase complex (SPCS) proteins was necessary for proper cleavage of the flavivirus structural proteins (prM and E) and secretion of viral particles. Loss of SPCS1 expression resulted in markedly reduced yield of all Flaviviridae family members tested (West Nile, Dengue, Zika, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, and hepatitis C viruses), but had little impact on alphavirus, bunyavirus, or rhabdovirus infection or the surface expression or secretion of diverse host proteins. We found that SPCS1 dependence could be bypassed by replacing the native prM protein leader sequences with a class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigen leader sequence. Thus, SPCS1, either directly or indirectly via its interactions with unknown host proteins, preferentially promotes the processing of specific protein cargo, and Flaviviridae have a unique dependence on this signal peptide processing pathway. SPCS1 and other signal processing pathway members could represent pharmacological targets for inhibiting infection by the expanding number of flaviviruses of medical concern. PMID:27383988

  6. A preliminary study of viral metagenomics of French bat species in contact with humans: identification of new mammalian viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Dacheux

    Full Text Available The prediction of viral zoonosis epidemics has become a major public health issue. A profound understanding of the viral population in key animal species acting as reservoirs represents an important step towards this goal. Bats harbor diverse viruses, some of which are of particular interest because they cause severe human diseases. However, little is known about the diversity of the global population of viruses found in bats (virome. We determined the viral diversity of five different French insectivorous bat species (nine specimens in total in close contact with humans. Sequence-independent amplification, high-throughput sequencing with Illumina technology and a dedicated bioinformatics analysis pipeline were used on pooled tissues (brain, liver and lungs. Comparisons of the sequences of contigs and unassembled reads provided a global taxonomic distribution of virus-related sequences for each sample, highlighting differences both within and between bat species. Many viral families were present in these viromes, including viruses known to infect bacteria, plants/fungi, insects or vertebrates, the most relevant being those infecting mammals (Retroviridae, Herpesviridae, Bunyaviridae, Poxviridae, Flaviviridae, Reoviridae, Bornaviridae, Picobirnaviridae. In particular, we detected several new mammalian viruses, including rotaviruses, gammaretroviruses, bornaviruses and bunyaviruses with the identification of the first bat nairovirus. These observations demonstrate that bats naturally harbor viruses from many different families, most of which infect mammals. They may therefore constitute a major reservoir of viral diversity that should be analyzed carefully, to determine the role played by bats in the spread of zoonotic viral infections.

  7. Beet yellows virus replicase and replicative compartments: parallels with other RNA viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir A. Gushchin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In eukaryotic virus systems, infection leads to induction of membranous compartments in which replication occurs. Virus-encoded subunits of the replication complex mediate its interaction with membranes. As replication platforms, RNA viruses use the cytoplasmic surfaces of different membrane compartments, e.g., endoplasmic reticulum (ER, Golgi, endo/lysosomes, mitochondria, chloroplasts and peroxisomes. Closterovirus infections are accompanied by formation of multivesicular complexes from cell membranes of ER or mitochondrial origin. So far the mechanisms for vesicles formation have been obscure. In the replication-associated 1a polyprotein of Beet yellows virus (BYV and other closteroviruses, the region between the methyltransferase (MTR and helicase (HEL domains (1a central region, 1a CR is marginally conserved. Computer-assisted analysis predicts several putative membrane-binding domains in the BYV 1a CR. Transient expression of a hydrophobic segment (referred to here as CR-2 of the BYV 1a in Nicotiana benthamiana led to reorganization of the ER and formation of ~1-m mobile globules. We propose that the CR-2 may be involved in the formation of multivesicular complexes in BYV-infected cells. This provides analogy with membrane-associated proteins mediating the build-up of virus factories in cells infected with diverse positive-strand RNA viruses (alpha-like viruses, picorna-like viruses, flaviviruses, and nidoviruses and negative-strand RNA viruses (bunyaviruses.

  8. Epidemia de febre do Oropouche em Serra Pelada, município de Curionópolis, Pará, 1994

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélia P.A.T. Rosa

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available No final de novembro de 1994, o Instituto Evandro Chagas (IEC, Belém, Pará, foi notificado de um surto de doença febril na população do garimpo de Serra Pelada, município de Curionôpolis (5°35'S; 49°30'W, no Estado do Pará. Vinte amostras de soro de pessoas, com hemoscopia negativa para tnalária, foram recebidas para esclarecimento diagnóstico. Estudos laboratoriais comprovaram que os casos eram devido ao vírus Oropouche (grupo Simbu. gênero Bunyavirus, família Bunyaviridae. Esses achados, induziram d ida de um grupo de técnicos para realização de investigações ecoepidemíológicas entre 8 e 22 de dezembro. Foram coletadas 296 amostras de sangue, de 73 grupos familiares, sendo 54 para pequisa de vírus (casos febris e 242para sorologia, bem como, procedeu-se a coleta de artrópodes hematófagos. As amostras para pesquisa de vírus foram inoculadas em camundongos recém-nascidos e os soros testados por inibição da hemaglutinação (1H e MAC ELISA. Foram isoladas dez amostras do vírus Oropouche e obtidas seis soroconversões. Ademais, 245 (82,8% amostras foram positivas por sorologia e 71 (97,3% grupos familiares apresentaram pelo menos um membro positivo. Considerando a elevada positividade de anticoipos IH e IgM específica para Oropouche na população de Serra Pelada, concluímos que a epidemia foi extensa e apresentou taxa de ataque em torno de 83%, que correspondeu a infecção de cerca de 5.000 pessoas.In the final of November 1994, an outbreak of a febrile disease was observed in the Serra Pelada gold mine (5°35'S; 49°30'W in the Southeast region of Parã State. Twenty samples were collected and sent to the laboratory of Arbovirus of Instituto Evandro Chagas. The tests showed that the disease was caused by Oropouche virus (Bunyaviridae, Bunyavirus, Simbu serological group. Between 8-22 December 296 serum samples mere taken (54 from febrile patients, 16 paired samples and 242 from contacts and convalescent patients

  9. Age is a critical risk factor for severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujun Ding

    Full Text Available Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome (SFTS is an emerging infectious disease in East Asia. SFTS is a tick borne hemorrhagic fever caused by SFTSV, a new bunyavirus named after the syndrome. We investigated the epidemiology of SFTS in Laizhou County, Shandong Province, China.We collected serum specimens of all patients who were clinically diagnosed as suspected SFTS cases in 2010 and 2011 in Laizhou County. The patients' serum specimens were tested for SFTSV by real time fluorescence quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR. We collected 1,060 serum specimens from healthy human volunteers by random sampling in Laizhou County in 2011. Healthy persons' serum specimens were tested for specific SFTSV IgG antibody by ELISA.71 SFTS cases were diagnosed in Laizhou County in 2010 and 2011, which resulted in the incidence rate of 4.1/100,000 annually. The patients ranged from 15 years old to 87 years old and the median age of the patients were 59 years old. The incidence rate of SFTS was significantly higher in patients over 40 years old and fatal cases only occurred in patients over 50 years old. 3.3% (35/1,060 of healthy people were positive to SFTSV IgG antibody. The SFTSV antibody positive rate was not significantly different among people at different age groups.Our results revealed that seroprevalence of SFTSV in healthy people in Laizhou County was not significantly different among age groups, but SFTS patients were mainly elderly people, suggesting that age is the critical risk factor or determinant for SFTS morbidity and mortality.

  10. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) in China: an integrated data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, C-T; Lu, Q-B; Ding, S-J; Hu, C-Y; Hu, J-G; Wo, Y; Fan, Y-D; Wang, X-J; Qin, S-L; Cui, N; Yang, Z-D; Zhang, X-A; Liu, W; Cao, W-C

    2016-04-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease that was caused by a novel bunyavirus, SFTSV. The study aimed to disclose the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of SFTSV infection in China so far. An integrated clinical database comprising 1920 SFTS patients was constructed by combining first-hand clinical information collected from SFTS sentinel hospitals (n = 1159) and extracted data (n = 761) from published literature. The considered variables comprised clinical manifestations, routine laboratory tests of acute infection, hospitalization duration and disease outcome. SFTSV-IgG data from 19 119 healthy subjects were extracted from the published papers. The key clinical variables, case-fatality rate (CFR) and seroprevalence were estimated by meta-analysis. The most commonly seen clinical manifestations of SFTSV infection were fever, anorexia, myalgia, chill and lymphadenopathy. The major laboratory findings were elevated lactate dehydrogenase, aminotransferase, followed by thrombocytopenia, lymphocytopenia, elevated alanine transaminase and creatine kinase. A CFR of 12·2% was estimated, significantly higher than that obtained from national reporting data, but showing no geographical difference. In our paper, the mortality rate was about 1·9 parts per million. Older age and longer delay to hospitalization were significantly associated with fatal outcome. A pooled seroprevalence of 3·0% was obtained, which increased with age, while comparable for gender. This study represents a clinical characterization on the largest group of SFTS patients up to now. A higher than expected CFR was obtained. A wider spectrum of clinical index was suggested to be used to identify SFTSV infection, while the useful predictor for fatal outcome was found to be restricted. PMID:26542444

  11. Zoonotic infections among employees from Great Smoky Mountains and Rocky Mountain National Parks, 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjemian, Jennifer; Weber, Ingrid B; McQuiston, Jennifer; Griffith, Kevin S; Mead, Paul S; Nicholson, William; Roche, Aubree; Schriefer, Martin; Fischer, Marc; Kosoy, Olga; Laven, Janeen J; Stoddard, Robyn A; Hoffmaster, Alex R; Smith, Theresa; Bui, Duy; Wilkins, Patricia P; Jones, Jeffery L; Gupton, Paige N; Quinn, Conrad P; Messonnier, Nancy; Higgins, Charles; Wong, David

    2012-11-01

    U.S. National Park Service employees may have prolonged exposure to wildlife and arthropods, placing them at increased risk of infection with endemic zoonoses. To evaluate possible zoonotic risks present at both Great Smoky Mountains (GRSM) and Rocky Mountain (ROMO) National Parks, we assessed park employees for baseline seroprevalence to specific zoonotic pathogens, followed by evaluation of incident infections over a 1-year study period. Park personnel showed evidence of prior infection with a variety of zoonotic agents, including California serogroup bunyaviruses (31.9%), Bartonella henselae (26.7%), spotted fever group rickettsiae (22.2%), Toxoplasma gondii (11.1%), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (8.1%), Brucella spp. (8.9%), flaviviruses (2.2%), and Bacillus anthracis (1.5%). Over a 1-year study period, we detected incident infections with leptospirosis (5.7%), B. henselae (5.7%), spotted fever group rickettsiae (1.5%), T. gondii (1.5%), B. anthracis (1.5%), and La Crosse virus (1.5%) in staff members at GRSM, and with spotted fever group rickettsiae (8.5%) and B. henselae (4.3%) in staff at ROMO. The risk of any incident infection was greater for employees who worked as resource managers (OR 7.4; 95% CI 1.4,37.5; p=0.02), and as law enforcement rangers/rescue crew (OR 6.5; 95% CI 1.1,36.5; p=0.03), relative to those who worked primarily in administration or management. The results of this study increase our understanding of the pathogens circulating within both parks, and can be used to inform the development of effective guidelines and interventions to increase visitor and staff awareness and help prevent exposure to zoonotic agents. PMID:22835153

  12. Zoonotic Infections Among Employees from Great Smoky Mountains and Rocky Mountain National Parks, 2008–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Ingrid B.; McQuiston, Jennifer; Griffith, Kevin S.; Mead, Paul S.; Nicholson, William; Roche, Aubree; Schriefer, Martin; Fischer, Marc; Kosoy, Olga; Laven, Janeen J.; Stoddard, Robyn A.; Hoffmaster, Alex R.; Smith, Theresa; Bui, Duy; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Jones, Jeffery L.; Gupton, Paige N.; Quinn, Conrad P.; Messonnier, Nancy; Higgins, Charles; Wong, David

    2012-01-01

    Abstract U.S. National Park Service employees may have prolonged exposure to wildlife and arthropods, placing them at increased risk of infection with endemic zoonoses. To evaluate possible zoonotic risks present at both Great Smoky Mountains (GRSM) and Rocky Mountain (ROMO) National Parks, we assessed park employees for baseline seroprevalence to specific zoonotic pathogens, followed by evaluation of incident infections over a 1-year study period. Park personnel showed evidence of prior infection with a variety of zoonotic agents, including California serogroup bunyaviruses (31.9%), Bartonella henselae (26.7%), spotted fever group rickettsiae (22.2%), Toxoplasma gondii (11.1%), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (8.1%), Brucella spp. (8.9%), flaviviruses (2.2%), and Bacillus anthracis (1.5%). Over a 1-year study period, we detected incident infections with leptospirosis (5.7%), B. henselae (5.7%), spotted fever group rickettsiae (1.5%), T. gondii (1.5%), B. anthracis (1.5%), and La Crosse virus (1.5%) in staff members at GRSM, and with spotted fever group rickettsiae (8.5%) and B. henselae (4.3%) in staff at ROMO. The risk of any incident infection was greater for employees who worked as resource managers (OR 7.4; 95% CI 1.4,37.5; p=0.02), and as law enforcement rangers/rescue crew (OR 6.5; 95% CI 1.1,36.5; p=0.03), relative to those who worked primarily in administration or management. The results of this study increase our understanding of the pathogens circulating within both parks, and can be used to inform the development of effective guidelines and interventions to increase visitor and staff awareness and help prevent exposure to zoonotic agents. PMID:22835153

  13. Establishment of cell line from embryonic tissue of Pipistrellus ceylonicus bat species from India & its susceptibility to different viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devendra T Mourya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Pipistrellus ceylonicus bat species is widely distributed in South Asia, with additional populations recorded in China and Southeast Asia. Bats are the natural reservoir hosts for a number of emerging zoonotic diseases. Attempts to isolate bat-borne viruses in various terrestrial mammalian cell lines have sometimes been unsuccessful. The bat cell lines are useful in isolation and propagation of many of the viruses harboured by bats. New stable bat cell lines are needed to help such investigations and to assist in the study of bat immunology and virus-host interactions. In this study we made an attempt to develop a cell line from P. ceylonicus bats. Methods: An effort was made to establish cell line from embryo of P. ceylonicus species of bat after seeding to Dulbecco′s modified eagle medium (DMEM supplemented with 10 per cent foetal bovine serum; a primary cell line was established and designated as NIV-BtEPC. Mitochondrial DNA profile analysis was done using cyt-b and ND-1 gene sequences from the cell line. Phylogenetic tree was constructed using neighbour-joining algorithm for cyt-b and ND-1 genes with 1000-bootstrap replicates. Results: NIV-BtEPC cell line was susceptible to Chandipura (CHPV and novel adenovirus (BtAdv-RLM isolated from Rousettus leschenaulti from India but did not support multiplication of a number of Bunyaviruses, Alphaviruses and Flavivirus. This might be useful for isolation of a range of viruses and investigation of unknown aetiological agents. Interpretation & conclusions: In this study, a new bat cell line was developed from P. ceylonicus. This cell line was successfully tested for the susceptibility to Chandipura and BtAdv-RLM virus isolated from bats. The approach developed and optimised in this study may be applicable to the other species of bats and this established cell line can be used to facilitate virus isolation and basic research into virus-host interaction.

  14. High-resolution structure of the N-terminal endonuclease domain of the Lassa virus L polymerase in complex with magnesium ions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor D Wallat

    Full Text Available Lassa virus (LASV causes deadly hemorrhagic fever disease for which there are no vaccines and limited treatments. LASV-encoded L polymerase is required for viral RNA replication and transcription. The functional domains of L-a large protein of 2218 amino acid residues-are largely undefined, except for the centrally located RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP motif. Recent structural and functional analyses of the N-terminal region of the L protein from lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV, which is in the same Arenaviridae family as LASV, have identified an endonuclease domain that presumably cleaves the cap structures of host mRNAs in order to initiate viral transcription. Here we present a high-resolution crystal structure of the N-terminal 173-aa region of the LASV L protein (LASV L173 in complex with magnesium ions at 1.72 Å. The structure is highly homologous to other known viral endonucleases of arena- (LCMV NL1, orthomyxo- (influenza virus PA, and bunyaviruses (La Crosse virus NL1. Although the catalytic residues (D89, E102 and K122 are highly conserved among the known viral endonucleases, LASV L endonuclease structure shows some notable differences. Our data collected from in vitro endonuclease assays and a reporter-based LASV minigenome transcriptional assay in mammalian cells confirm structural prediction of LASV L173 as an active endonuclease. The high-resolution structure of the LASV L endonuclease domain in complex with magnesium ions should aid the development of antivirals against lethal Lassa hemorrhagic fever.

  15. Comprehensive multiplex one-step real-time TaqMan qRT-PCR assays for detection and quantification of hemorrhagic fever viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Pang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs are a group of animal and human illnesses that are mostly caused by several distinct families of viruses including bunyaviruses, flaviviruses, filoviruses and arenaviruses. Although specific signs and symptoms vary by the type of VHF, initial signs and symptoms are very similar. Therefore rapid immunologic and molecular tools for differential diagnosis of hemorrhagic fever viruses (HFVs are important for effective case management and control of the spread of VHFs. Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR assay is one of the reliable and desirable methods for specific detection and quantification of virus load. Multiplex PCR assay has the potential to produce considerable savings in time and resources in the laboratory detection. RESULTS: Primers/probe sets were designed based on appropriate specific genes for each of 28 HFVs which nearly covered all the HFVs, and identified with good specificity and sensitivity using monoplex assays. Seven groups of multiplex one-step real-time qRT-PCR assays in a universal experimental system were then developed by combining all primers/probe sets into 4-plex reactions and evaluated with serial dilutions of synthesized viral RNAs. For all the multiplex assays, no cross-reactivity with other HFVs was observed, and the limits of detection were mainly between 45 and 150 copies/PCR. The reproducibility was satisfactory, since the coefficient of variation of Ct values were all less than 5% in each dilution of synthesized viral RNAs for both intra-assays and inter-assays. Evaluation of the method with available clinical serum samples collected from HFRS patients, SFTS patients and Dengue fever patients showed high sensitivity and specificity of the related multiplex assays on the clinical specimens. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the comprehensive multiplex one-step real-time qRT-PCR assays were established in this study, and proved to be

  16. Correlation Between HLA-A, B and DRB1 Alleles and Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-mei; Jiang, Xiao-lin; Pang, Bo; Song, Yong-hong; Wang, Jian-xing; Pei, Yao-wen; Zhu, Chuan-fu; Wang, Xian-jun; Yu, Xue-jie

    2016-01-01

    Objective Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging hemorrhagic fever caused by a tick-borne bunyavirus (SFTSV) in East Asian countries. The role of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) in resistance and susceptibility to SFTSV is not known. We investigated the correlation of HLA locus A, B and DRB1 alleles with the occurrence of SFTS. Methods A total of 84 confirmed SFTS patients (patient group) and 501 unrelated non-SFTS patients (healthy individuals as control group) from Shandong Province were genotyped by PCR-sequence specific oligonucleotide probe (PCR-SSOP) for HLA-A, B and DRB1 loci.Allele frequency was calculated and compared using χ2 test or the Fisher's exact test. A corrected P value was calculated with a bonferronis correction. Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by Woolf’s method. Results A total of 11 HLA-A, 23 HLA-B and 12 HLA-DRB1 alleles were identified in the patient group, whereas 15 HLA-A, 30 HLA-B and 13 HLA-DRB1 alleles were detected in the control group. The frequencies of A*30 and B*13 in the SFTS patient group were lower than that in the control group (P = 0.0341 and 0.0085, Pc = 0.5115 and 0.252). The ORs of A*30 and B*13 in the SFTS patient group were 0.54 and 0.49, respectively. The frequency of two-locus haplotype A*30-B*13 was lower in the patient group than in the control group(5.59% versus 12.27%, P = 0.037,OR = 0.41, 95%CI = 0.18–0.96) without significance(Pc>0.05). A*30-B*13-DRB1*07 and A*02-B*15-DRB1*04 had strong associations with SFTS resistance and susceptibility respectively (Pc = 0.0412 and 0.0001,OR = 0.43 and 5.07). Conclusion The host HLA class I polymorphism might play an important role with the occurrence of SFTS. Negative associations were observed with HLA-A*30, HLA-B*13 and Haplotype A*30-B*13, although the associations were not statistically significant. A*30-B*13-DRB1*07 had negative correlation with the occurrence of SFTS; in contrast, haplotype A*02-B*15-DRB1

  17. Oligomerization of Uukuniemi virus nucleocapsid protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katz Anna

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uukuniemi virus (UUKV belongs to the Phlebovirus genus in the family Bunyaviridae. As a non-pathogenic virus for humans UUKV has served as a safe model bunyavirus in a number of studies addressing fundamental questions such as organization and regulation of viral genes, genome replication, structure and assembly. The present study is focused on the oligomerization of the UUKV nucleocapsid (N protein, which plays an important role in several steps of virus replication. The aim was to locate the domains involved in the N protein oligomerization and study the process in detail. Results A set of experiments concentrating on the N- and C-termini of the protein was performed, first by completely or partially deleting putative N-N-interaction domains and then by introducing point mutations of amino acid residues. Mutagenesis strategy was based on the computer modeling of secondary and tertiary structure of the N protein. The N protein mutants were studied in chemical cross-linking, immunofluorescence, mammalian two-hybrid, minigenome, and virus-like particle-forming assays. The data showed that the oligomerization ability of UUKV-N protein depends on the presence of intact α-helices on both termini of the N protein molecule and that a specific structure in the N-terminal region plays a crucial role in the N-N interaction(s. This structure is formed by two α-helices, rich in amino acid residues with aromatic (W7, F10, W19, F27, F31 or long aliphatic (I14, I24 side chains. Furthermore, some of the N-terminal mutations (e.g. I14A, I24A, F31A affected the N protein functionality both in mammalian two-hybrid and minigenome assays. Conclusions UUKV-N protein has ability to form oligomers in chemical cross-linking and mammalian two-hybrid assays. In mutational analysis, some of the introduced single-point mutations abolished the N protein functionality both in mammalian two-hybrid and minigenome assays, suggesting that especially the N

  18. Viral Sequence Analysis of Two Cases with SFTSV Infections%两起新型布尼亚病毒感染病例的病毒序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石利民; 何敏; 乔梦凯; 雍玮; 曾理; 王璇; 张洪英; 丁洁

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical characteristics and epidemiology of patients infected with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome bunyavirus(SFTSV)and the genetic background of the SFTSV. Method:Clinical and epidemiological data of two cases with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome(SFTS),collected from a hospital in Nanjing during April 2014 to June 2014,were retrospectively analyzed. Nucleic acid was extracted from the serum of the two SFTSV cases. After specific polymerase chain reaction(PCR),the nucleic acid sequences were compared with those in GenBank using the BLAST facility. Result:Two patients presented typical clinical symptoms of SFTSV infection,with acute onset of fever and diarrhea. Routine blood examination showed that neutrophils and platelets progressively decreased. The results of alignment with database in GenBank,showed that RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene,the glycoprotein gene and NS protein gene of the sample 0428(Anqing)had 99%homology with AHL/China/2011,the representative strain of AnHui Province. While the genes of sample 0507(Chuzhou)had 99% homology with JS2011-013-1,the representative strain of JiangSu Province. Conclusion:The results suggest that SFTSV occur sporadically in Nanjing and its origin might be diverse.%目的:分析发热伴血小板减少综合征布尼亚病毒感染(SFTSV)感染患者的临床特点、流行病学以及SFTSV基因序列。方法:收集本市2014年4-6月某医院送检的2例重症发热伴血小板减少(SFTS)患者的血清标本,经核酸荧光PCR检测阳性确诊。对病毒核酸测序并与GenBank数据比对。结果:两名患者均有典型的SFTSV感染的临床症状,以发热、腹泻为首发症状,血常规见粒系及血小板呈进行性降低。从2例患者血清提取的核酸经测序,其基因序列与GenBank中的SFTSV进行比对,0428株(安庆)的RNA多聚酶、糖蛋白、NS蛋白的同源性与安徽代表株AHL/China/2011

  19. Suspected severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome in Tongling area:Clinical features in 24 cases%铜陵地区疑似发热伴血小板减少综合征24例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈智勇; 林建; 宋有良

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the clinical features in patients with suspected severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome ( SFTS) prevalent in Tongling area,Anhui,China.Methods:Clinical data were obtained in 24 cases with suspected SFTS undergone diagnosis and treatment in our hospital in the past three years,and reviewed regarding the important clinical manifestations and laboratory findings .Results:Although only 2 were confirmed victims of novel bunyavirus,yet the total 24 cases were commonly characterized by high fever,chill,enlarged superficial lymph nodes,nausea and vomiting,diarrhea,mus-cular soreness,dark stools,haziness,abdominal pain,headache,drowsiness,skin petechiae and ecchymosis,hypotension,coma and shock.Thrombocytope-nia occurred in 87.5%and leucopenia in 75%of the total 24 cases by laboratory detection,who simultaneously had significantly elevated level of aspartate aminotransferase(AST) and alanine transarninase(ALT).Conclusion:Attention should be given in diagnosis of the SFTS due to its absence of notable clinical manifestations in the early stage to prevent misdiagnosis .%目的:分析铜陵地区疑似发热伴血小板减少综合征病例临床特点。方法:回顾收集我院近3年收治的疑似发热伴血小板减少综合征患者临床资料,统计分析所有患者的主要临床表现及相关实验室检查结果。结果:24例疑似SFTS病例中,确诊人感染新型布尼亚病毒病2例;所有疑似病例均有发热,部分病例有畏寒、浅表淋巴结肿大、恶心呕吐、腹泻及肌肉酸痛、黑便、神志淡漠、腹痛、头痛、嗜睡及皮肤瘀点瘀斑、低血压/休克及昏迷等;87.5%的病例有血小板计数减少,75%的病例有白细胞计数减少;24例患者均有肝脏血清生化学指标异常,其中天门冬氨酸转氨酶( AST)水平较丙氨酸转氨酶( ALT)水平升高明显。结论:SFTS病例早期无显著特征性临床表现,易误诊,临床医生需提高认识。

  20. Emerging animal viruses: real threats or simple bystanders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Furtado Flores

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The list of animal viruses has been frequently added of new members raising permanent concerns to virologists and veterinarians. The pathogenic potential and association with disease have been clearly demonstrated for some, but not for all of these emerging viruses. This review describes recent discoveries of animal viruses and their potential relevance for veterinary practice. Dogs were considered refractory to influenza viruses until 2004, when an influenza A virus subtype H3N8 was transmitted from horses and produced severe respiratory disease in racing greyhounds in Florida/USA. The novel virus, named canine influenza virus (CIV, is considered now a separate virus lineage and has spread among urban canine population in the USA. A new pestivirus (Flaviviridae, tentatively called HoBi-like pestivirus, was identified in 2004 in commercial fetal bovine serum from Brazil. Hobi-like viruses are genetically and antigenically related to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV and induce similar clinical manifestations. These novel viruses seem to be widespread in Brazilian herds and have also been detected in Southeast Asia and Europe. In 2011, a novel mosquito-borne orthobunyavirus, named Schmallenberg virus (SBV, was associated with fever, drop in milk production, abortion and newborn malformation in cattle and sheep in Germany. Subsequently, the virus disseminated over several European countries and currently represents a real treat for animal health. The origin of SBV is still a matter of debate but it may be a reassortant from previous known bunyaviruses Shamonda and Satuperi. Hepatitis E virus (HEV, family Hepeviridae is a long known agent of human acute hepatitis and in 1997 was first identified in pigs. Current data indicates that swine HEV is spread worldwide, mainly associated with subclinical infection. Two of the four HEV genotypes are zoonotic and may be transmitted between swine and human by contaminated water and undercooked pork meat. The

  1. 中国首次分离的Tahyna病毒毒株的生物学特性及分子进化特征分析%Biological and Phylogenetic Analysis of First Isolate of Tahyna Virus in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕志; 付士红; 吕新军; 张松; 童苏祥; 高春代; 姚新华; 梁国栋

    2011-01-01

    2006年夏季,本课题组在新疆喀什地区伽师县库蚊标本中分离到我国首株Tahyna病毒XJ0625株,并发现当地不明原因发热患者存在该病毒感染.本研究通过细胞培养、动物实验、电镜观察、间接免疫荧光及交叉保护中和试验等研究对XJ0625病毒株的细胞易感性、动物致病性、形态学及抗原性等特征进行观察,并应用分子生物学软件对其分子进化特征加以分析.结果发现该毒株可以引起BHK-21细胞病变,乳鼠颅内接种该毒株可以引起死亡.与其他布尼亚病毒形态相似,Tahyna病毒为球形有包膜病毒.该病毒与国际流行Tahayna病毒Bardos92株的抗体作用,在间接免疫荧光试验中呈现阳性荧光信号.空斑减少中和试验结果显示该抗体对XJ0625病毒株的中和效价为1:3 200.核苷酸序列分析显示,该病毒与Bardos92株处于同一个进化分支,二者S节段同源性为91.8%,M节段同源性为81.9%.%In 2006, the first Chinese Tahyna virus isolate (XJ0625) was obtained in Xinjiang province and human infection were found in the same region. In this study, cell culture, animal experiments, electron microscopy, immunofluorescence assay and cross neutralization tests were performed to see the cell susceptibility, animal pathogenicity, morphology and antigenic and other biological characteristics of XJ0625. In addition, molecular biology software was used to analyze the characteristics of molecular evolution. The results showed that BHK-21 cell line was susceptible to XJ0625 and the virus was lethal to suckling mice when injected by intracranial ways. Similar to the other Bunyavirus, Tahyna virus is spherical enveloped virus under electron microscopy. XJ0625 infected cells showed strong fluorescent signal and could be neutralied by immune asities fluid with immnity to protype Tahyna virus Bardos 92. The sequence of the S and M segments showed 91.8% and 81.9% homology with Bardos 92.

  2. Temporal and geographic evidence for evolution of Sin Nombre virus using molecular analyses of viral RNA from Colorado, New Mexico and Montana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calisher Charles H

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All viruses in the family Bunyaviridae possess a tripartite genome, consisting of a small, a medium, and a large RNA segment. Bunyaviruses therefore possess considerable evolutionary potential, attributable to both intramolecular changes and to genome segment reassortment. Hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus are known to cause human hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome or hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. The primary reservoir host of Sin Nombre virus is the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus, which is widely distributed in North America. We investigated the prevalence of intramolecular changes and of genomic reassortment among Sin Nombre viruses detected in deer mice in three western states. Methods Portions of the Sin Nombre virus small (S and medium (M RNA segments were amplified by RT-PCR from kidney, lung, liver and spleen of seropositive peromyscine rodents, principally deer mice, collected in Colorado, New Mexico and Montana from 1995 to 2007. Both a 142 nucleotide (nt amplicon of the M segment, encoding a portion of the G2 transmembrane glycoprotein, and a 751 nt amplicon of the S segment, encoding part of the nucleocapsid protein, were cloned and sequenced from 19 deer mice and from one brush mouse (P. boylii, S RNA but not M RNA from one deer mouse, and M RNA but not S RNA from another deer mouse. Results Two of 20 viruses were found to be reassortants. Within virus sequences from different rodents, the average rate of synonymous substitutions among all pair-wise comparisons (πs was 0.378 in the M segment and 0.312 in the S segment sequences. The replacement substitution rate (πa was 7.0 × 10-4 in the M segment and 17.3 × 10-4 in the S segment sequences. The low πa relative to πs suggests strong purifying selection and this was confirmed by a Fu and Li analysis. The absolute rate of molecular evolution of the M segment was 6.76 × 10-3 substitutions/site/year. The absolute age of the M segment

  3. 我国新分离虫媒病毒的初步鉴定%Identification of Arboviruses Recently Isolated in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕新军; 付士红; 杨益良; 何海怀; 张桂筠; 陈向伟; 梁国栋; 金奇; 侯云德

    2001-01-01

    membrane; another strain(9059)was resistant to the three factors,suggesting it might be enteric RNA virus; the other four strains were resistant to 5-FudR but sensitive to acid and ether,showing they were RNA viruses with membrane.Serologically,seventeen strains did not react with immune ascitic fluids of Alphaviruses,Japanese Encephalitis virus and Bunyaviruses ,the other three strains(90260,91002,91004)reacted with immune ascitic fluids of Alphaviruses,indicating they belonged to Alphavirus.