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Sample records for bunyaviridae phlebovirus transmitidos

  1. Aguacate virus, a new antigenic complex of the genus Phlebovirus (family Bunyaviridae).

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    Palacios, Gustavo; da Rosa, Amelia Travassos; Savji, Nazir; Sze, Wilson; Wick, Ivan; Guzman, Hilda; Hutchison, Stephen; Tesh, Robert; Lipkin, W Ian

    2011-06-01

    Genomic and antigenic characterization of Aguacate virus, a tentative species of the genus Phlebovirus, and three other unclassified viruses, Armero virus, Durania virus and Ixcanal virus, demonstrate a close relationship to one another. They are distinct from the other nine recognized species within the genus Phlebovirus. We propose to designate them as a new (tenth) serogroup or species (Aguacate virus) within the genus. The four viruses were all isolated from phlebotomine sandflies (Lutzomyia sp.) collected in Central and South America. Aguacate virus appears to be a natural reassortant and serves as one more example of the high frequency of reassortment in this genus.

  2. Determination of whether tomato spotted wilt virus replicates in Toxorhynchites amboinensis mosquitoes and the relatedness of this virus to phleboviruses (family Bunyaviridae).

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    Wang, M; Mitchell, C J; Hu, J S; Gonsalves, D; Calisher, C H

    1992-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) has been reported to be morphologically, molecularly and structurally similar to viruses in the family Bunyaviridae. By various types of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and Western blot hybridizations, we tested TSWV with antibodies to 12 viruses in the Phlebovirus genus of this family. Serological relatedness was not found between TSWV and phleboviruses. However, one preparation of antibody to Arumowot virus reacted with a 53-kD protein from healthy plant extracts. Six-day-old adult Toxorhynchites amboinensis mosquitoes were inoculated with purified TSWV. Infectious virus was not detected in any of the injected insects during the 5-week test period. However, TSWV antigens were detected in these mosquitoes by ELISA at the original injected level for at least a week after injection. TSWV antigen concentration began to decrease thereafter, but remained at detectable levels for as long as 5 weeks after injection. However, there was no evidence that TSWV replicated in mosquitoes.

  3. RNA Encapsidation and Packaging in the Phleboviruses

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    Katherine E. Hornak

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Bunyaviridae represents the largest family of segmented RNA viruses, which infect a staggering diversity of plants, animals, and insects. Within the family Bunyaviridae, the Phlebovirus genus includes several important human and animal pathogens, including Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV, Uukuniemi virus (UUKV, and the sandfly fever viruses. The phleboviruses have small tripartite RNA genomes that encode a repertoire of 5–7 proteins. These few proteins accomplish the daunting task of recognizing and specifically packaging a tri-segment complement of viral genomic RNA in the midst of an abundance of host components. The critical nucleation events that eventually lead to virion production begin early on in the host cytoplasm as the first strands of nascent viral RNA (vRNA are synthesized. The interaction between the vRNA and the viral nucleocapsid (N protein effectively protects and masks the RNA from the host, and also forms the ribonucleoprotein (RNP architecture that mediates downstream interactions and drives virion formation. Although the mechanism by which all three genomic counterparts are selectively co-packaged is not completely understood, we are beginning to understand the hierarchy of interactions that begins with N-RNA packaging and culminates in RNP packaging into new virus particles. In this review we focus on recent progress that highlights the molecular basis of RNA genome packaging in the phleboviruses.

  4. Novel phleboviruses detected in ticks, Greece.

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    Papa, Anna; Kontana, Anastasia; Tsioka, Katerina; Chaligiannis, Ilias; Sotiraki, Smaragda

    2016-07-01

    Since 2009, when severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus and Heartland virus have been identified and associated with disease in humans, the interest on tick-borne phleboviruses is increasing rapidly. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of tick-borne phleboviruses in Greece and compare them with respective ones detected worldwide. Ticks collected from goats and sheep in 60 sites of 13 regional units of Greece were grouped in pools (1-3 ticks per pool) and tested for the presence of phleboviral RNA. Six of 210 pools were positive; they consisted of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks collected from sheep in 3 regional units of Greece: Pella (2/30, 6.7%), Imathia (2/21, 9.5%), and Ioannina (2/28, 7.1%). The overall tick minimum infection rate was 2.1%. The sequences of the Greek phlebovirus (provisionally named Antigone virus) form a distinct clade in the tick-borne phleboviruses, differing by >40% from the currently known phleboviruses. Any probable implication of these viruses to public health remains to be elucidated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Differential Antagonism of Human Innate Immune Responses by Tick-Borne Phlebovirus Nonstructural Proteins.

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    Rezelj, Veronica V; Li, Ping; Chaudhary, Vidyanath; Elliott, Richard M; Jin, Dong-Yan; Brennan, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, several newly discovered tick-borne viruses causing a wide spectrum of diseases in humans have been ascribed to the Phlebovirus genus of the Bunyaviridae family. The nonstructural protein (NSs) of bunyaviruses is the main virulence factor and interferon (IFN) antagonist. We studied the molecular mechanisms of IFN antagonism employed by the NSs proteins of human apathogenic Uukuniemi virus (UUKV) and those of Heartland virus (HRTV) and severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV), both of which cause severe disease. Using reporter assays, we found that UUKV NSs weakly inhibited the activation of the beta interferon (IFN-β) promoter and response elements. UUKV NSs weakly antagonized human IFN-β promoter activation through a novel interaction with mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS), confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy studies. HRTV NSs efficiently antagonized both IFN-β promoter activation and type I IFN signaling pathways through interactions with TBK1, preventing its phosphorylation. HRTV NSs exhibited diffused cytoplasmic localization. This is in comparison to the inclusion bodies formed by SFTSV NSs. HRTV NSs also efficiently interacted with STAT2 and impaired IFN-β-induced phosphorylation but did not affect STAT1 or its translocation to the nucleus. Our results suggest that a weak interaction between STAT1 and HRTV or SFTSV NSs may explain their inability to block type II IFN signaling efficiently, thus enabling the activation of proinflammatory responses that lead to severe disease. Our findings offer insights into how pathogenicity may be linked to the capacity of NSs proteins to block the innate immune system and illustrate the plethora of viral immune evasion strategies utilized by emerging phleboviruses. IMPORTANCE Since 2011, there has been a large expansion in the number of emerging tick-borne viruses that have been assigned to the Phlebovirus genus. Heartland virus (HRTV) and SFTS

  6. Molecular identification of novel phlebovirus sequences in European ticks.

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    Prinz, Maren; Fuchs, Jonas; Ehrmann, Steffen; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Kochs, Georg; Panning, Marcus

    2017-08-01

    In recent years the number of newly described tick-borne phleboviruses has been steadily growing. Some of these novel viruses are highly pathogenic in humans, e.g. the Heartland and severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus. We aimed to analyse ticks sampled across Europe to investigate the diversity of phleboviruses using a comprehensive PCR-based screening approach. A total of 4387 ticks were collected from the vegetation in regions of France, Belgium, Germany, Sweden, and Estonia, respectively. Ticks were pooled and 22/979 pools tested positive using a PCR targeting the large (L) segment of phleboviruses. Phylogenetic analysis of a 500-bp fragment of the L segment showed a distinct novel clade provisionally named Glabbeek/Osterholz group (Belgium and Germany). In addition, sequences from ticks sampled in France clustered together with the recently described Antigone virus from Greece and AnLuc from Portugal. Our results extend the current diversity of phleboviruses in Europe. Future research should address the ecological processes driving the occurrence of phleboviruses and the impact of these novel phleboviruses for public health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Generic amplification and next generation sequencing reveal Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus AP92-like strain and distinct tick phleboviruses in Anatolia, Turkey.

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    Dinçer, Ender; Brinkmann, Annika; Hekimoğlu, Olcay; Hacıoğlu, Sabri; Földes, Katalin; Karapınar, Zeynep; Polat, Pelin Fatoş; Oğuz, Bekir; Orunç Kılınç, Özlem; Hagedorn, Peter; Özer, Nurdan; Özkul, Aykut; Nitsche, Andreas; Ergünay, Koray

    2017-07-14

    Ticks are involved with the transmission of several viruses with significant health impact. As incidences of tick-borne viral infections are rising, several novel and divergent tick- associated viruses have recently been documented to exist and circulate worldwide. This study was performed as a cross-sectional screening for all major tick-borne viruses in several regions in Turkey. Next generation sequencing (NGS) was employed for virus genome characterization. Ticks were collected at 43 locations in 14 provinces across the Aegean, Thrace, Mediterranean, Black Sea, central, southern and eastern regions of Anatolia during 2014-2016. Following morphological identification, ticks were pooled and analysed via generic nucleic acid amplification of the viruses belonging to the genera Flavivirus, Nairovirus and Phlebovirus of the families Flaviviridae and Bunyaviridae, followed by sequencing and NGS in selected specimens. A total of 814 specimens, comprising 13 tick species, were collected and evaluated in 187 pools. Nairovirus and phlebovirus assays were positive in 6 (3.2%) and 48 (25.6%) pools. All nairovirus sequences were closely-related to the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) strain AP92 and formed a phylogenetically distinct cluster among related strains. Major portions of the CCHFV genomic segments were obtained via NGS. Phlebovirus sequencing revealed several tick-associated virus clades, including previously-characterized Antigone, Lesvos, KarMa and Bole tick viruses, as well as a novel clade. A wider host range for tick-associated virus strains has been observed. NGS provided near-complete sequences of the L genomic segments of Antigone and KarMa clades, as well as Antigone partial S segment. Co- infections of CCHFV and KarMa or novel phlebovirus clades were detected in 2.1% of the specimens. Widespread circulation of various tick-associated phlebovirus clades were documented for the first time in Anatolia. Genomes of CCHFV AP92 strains were

  8. Ecology of the Tick-Borne Phlebovirus Causing Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome in an Endemic Area of China.

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    Zhifeng Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS is caused by SFTS virus (SFTSV, a tick-borne phlebovirus in family Bunyaviridae. Studies have found that humans, domestic and wildlife animals can be infected by SFTSV. However, the viral ecology, circulation, and transmission remain largely unknown.Sixty seven human SFTS cases were reported and confirmed by virus isolation or immunofluorescence assay between 2011 and 2014. In 2013-2014 we collected 9,984 ticks from either vegetation or small wild mammals in the endemic area in Jiangsu, China, and detected SFTSV-RNA by real-time RT-PCR in both questing and feeding Haemaphysalis longicornis and H. flava. Viral RNA was identified in larvae of H. longicornis prior to a first blood meal, which has never been confirmed previously in nature. SFTSV-RNA and antibodies were also detected by RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively, in wild mammals including Erinaceus europaeus and Sorex araneus. A live SFTSV was isolated from Erinaceus europaeus captured during the off tick-feeding season and with a high SFTSV antibody titer. Furthermore, SFTSV antibodies were detected in the migratory birds Anser cygnoides and Streptopelia chinensis using ELISA.The detection of SFTSV-RNA in non-engorged larvae indicated that vertical transmission of SFTSV in H. longicornis might occur in nature, which suggests that H. longicornis is a putative reservoir host of SFTSV. Small wild mammals such as Erinaceus europaeus and Sorex araneus could be infected by SFTSV and may serve as natural amplifying hosts. Our data unveiled that wild birds could be infected with SFTSV or carry SFTSV-infected ticks and thus might contribute to the long-distance spread of SFTSV via migratory flyways. These findings provide novel insights for understanding SFTSV ecology, reservoir hosts, and transmission in nature and will help develop new measures in preventing its rapid spread both regionally and globally.

  9. Ecology of the Tick-Borne Phlebovirus Causing Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome in an Endemic Area of China

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    Hu, Jianli; Liu, Wendong; Wang, Xiaochen; Zhang, Lei; Ji, Zhengmin; Feng, Zhi; Li, Luxun; Shen, Aihua; Liu, Xuejian; Zhao, Hongjun; Tan, Wenwen; Zhou, Jiangang; Qi, Xian; Zhu, Yefei; Tang, Fenyang; Cardona, Carol J.; Xing, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Background Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is caused by SFTS virus (SFTSV), a tick-borne phlebovirus in family Bunyaviridae. Studies have found that humans, domestic and wildlife animals can be infected by SFTSV. However, the viral ecology, circulation, and transmission remain largely unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings Sixty seven human SFTS cases were reported and confirmed by virus isolation or immunofluorescence assay between 2011 and 2014. In 2013–2014 we collected 9,984 ticks from either vegetation or small wild mammals in the endemic area in Jiangsu, China, and detected SFTSV-RNA by real-time RT-PCR in both questing and feeding Haemaphysalis longicornis and H. flava. Viral RNA was identified in larvae of H. longicornis prior to a first blood meal, which has never been confirmed previously in nature. SFTSV-RNA and antibodies were also detected by RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively, in wild mammals including Erinaceus europaeus and Sorex araneus. A live SFTSV was isolated from Erinaceus europaeus captured during the off tick-feeding season and with a high SFTSV antibody titer. Furthermore, SFTSV antibodies were detected in the migratory birds Anser cygnoides and Streptopelia chinensis using ELISA. Conclusions/Significance The detection of SFTSV-RNA in non-engorged larvae indicated that vertical transmission of SFTSV in H. longicornis might occur in nature, which suggests that H. longicornis is a putative reservoir host of SFTSV. Small wild mammals such as Erinaceus europaeus and Sorex araneus could be infected by SFTSV and may serve as natural amplifying hosts. Our data unveiled that wild birds could be infected with SFTSV or carry SFTSV-infected ticks and thus might contribute to the long-distance spread of SFTSV via migratory flyways. These findings provide novel insights for understanding SFTSV ecology, reservoir hosts, and transmission in nature and will help develop new measures in preventing its rapid spread both regionally and

  10. Anticuerpos frente a virus West nile y otros virus transmitidos por artropodos en la poblacion del Delta del Ebro

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    Lozano Alvaro

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: El virus West Nile (VWN es un Flavivirus que se transmite al hombre a través de distintas especies de mosquitos y produce brotes y casos esporádicos de enfermedad en distintas regiones del Viejo Mundo, incluída la Cuenca Mediterránea. Las zonas húmedas europeas que acogen aves migratorias procedentes de África constituyen áreas de alto riesgo para esta infección, así como para otras infecciones víricas transmitidas por artrópodos. MÉTODOS: Con objeto de investigar la prevalencia de la infección por el VWN y otros virus de transmisión similar en la población humana del Delta del Ebro, se estudiaron 1037 muestras de suero, obtenidas en 10 localidades de la zona, para presencia de anticuerpos frente a VWN y otros 12 virus transmitidos por artrópodos (3 Alfavirus, 8 Flaviviridae y 1 Bunyaviridae mediante titulación por inhibición de la hemaglutinación (IHA. En algunos casos se estudió la presencia de IgM específica por IHA tras fraccionar el suero por centrifugación en gradientes de sacarosa. RESULTADOS: En total, se encontró reactividad significativa frente a alguno de los virus probados en 130 casos (12.5%; 4.1% frente a Alfavirus, 8.0% frente a Flaviviridae y 0.4% frente a Bunyaviridae. El análisis de los títulos de anticuerpos reveló porcentajes significativos de muestras con títulos elevados frente a antígenos de VWN y otros. La distribución de la seroprevalencia fue muy desigual, concentrándose fundamentalmente en 3 localidades del interior del Delta (Ampolla, San Jaime y Montells, donde la prevalencia de anticuerpos frente a Flaviviridae llegó a alcanzar el 30% y se observaron niveles residuales de IgM frente a VWN en algunos sueros. CONCLUSIONES: Estos resultados y los obtenidos previamente en otras regiones de la Península Ibérica sugieren que el VWN circula en la población humana de las zonas de riesgo y produce brotes epidémicos periódicos. Habida cuenta del alto porcentaje de

  11. Viruses of the family Bunyaviridae: are all available isolates reassortants?

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    Briese, Thomas; Calisher, Charles H; Higgs, Stephen

    2013-11-01

    Viruses of the family Bunyaviridae (the bunyaviruses) possess three distinct linear, single-stranded, negative sense or ambisense RNA segments (large, medium, and small). Dual infections of arthropod and perhaps vertebrate and plant hosts provide substantial opportunity for segment reassortment and an increasingly recognized number of the nearly 300 viruses in this family have been shown to be reassortants. Reassortment of RNA segments (genetic shift) complements genetic drift (accumulation of point mutations) as a powerful mechanism underlying bunyavirus evolution. Here we consider the possibility, if not likelihood, that most if not all bunyaviruses currently recognized may represent reassortants, some of which may be reassortants of existing viruses, and some of which may be reassortants of extinct viruses. If this hypothesis is correct, then the roots of the family and genus trees of bunyaviruses as currently described (or ignored) are incomplete or incorrect. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Detection of Leishmania infantum and a Novel Phlebovirus (Balkan Virus) from Sand Flies in Albania.

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    Ayhan, Nazli; Velo, Enkelejda; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Kota, Majlinda; Kadriaj, Perparim; Ozbel, Yusuf; Charrel, Remi N; Bino, Silvia

    2016-12-01

    To organize entomological campaigns to trap sand flies in selected regions of Albania and to test them for the presence of existing or new phleboviruses and for leishmania DNA. Sand flies were collected in 14 locations from May to October 2014 using three different types of traps. Pools with a maximum of 30 individuals were prepared according to gender, trapping site, and trapping date; they were tested for the presence of (1) phlebovirus RNA with three different PCR systems (2) and Leishmania DNA using two different real-time PCR assays. A total of 972 sand flies (568 females, 404 males) were aliquoted to 55 pools. Three pools (in two different regions) were positive for Leishmania infantum. Two pools (Kruje region) were positive for phlebovirus RNA and a 575-nucleotide (nt) colinearized sequence of a novel virus most closely related to but clearly distinct from Tehran virus (16% and 3% divergence at nt and amino acid levels). Next generation sequencing analysis indicated that this virus might be transmitted by either Phlebotomus neglectus, Phlebotomus tobbi, or both vectors. Visceral leishmaniasis has been clinically recognized in Albania for at least 80 years; however, this is the first time that L. infantum, detected by molecular means, has been reported in sand flies in Albania. At the outset of this study, only Adria virus (Salehabad species) was recognized in Albania. A novel virus, Balkan virus, was identified and genetic analysis revealed that it belongs to the Sandfly fever Naples virus group containing human pathogens.

  13. Novel phlebovirus detected in Haemaphysalis parva ticks in a Greek island.

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    Papa, Anna; Kontana, Anastasia; Tsioka, Katerina; Saratsis, Anastasios; Sotiraki, Smaragda

    2017-01-01

    During the last decade the number of novel tick-borne phleboviruses has increased rapidly, especially after the identification of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome and Heartland viruses which can cause severe disease in humans. A novel virus, Antigone virus was recently detected in ticks collected from the mainland of Greece. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of tick-borne phleboviruses in an island in Greece. During November 2015, 31 ticks were collected from sheep in Lesvos island. Phleboviral RNA was detected in 12/22 adult Haemaphysalis parva ticks. The virus was provisionally named Lesvos virus after the name of the island. Phylogenetic analysis of a 1108-bp L RNA fragment revealed that the Lesvos virus sequences cluster together with Dabieshan and Yongjia tick viruses detected in China in H. longicornis and H. hystricis ticks, respectively. Further studies are needed to investigate its exact distribution, epidemiology and virulence. It is expected that the research studies on tick biology and pathogen-tick-host interactions will allow a better understanding of the virus life cycle and the elucidation of the possible role of the novel tick-borne phleboviruses in public health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Mutational analysis of Rift Valley fever phlebovirus nucleocapsid protein indicates novel conserved, functional amino acids.

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    Mottram, Timothy J; Li, Ping; Dietrich, Isabelle; Shi, Xiaohong; Brennan, Benjamin; Varjak, Margus; Kohl, Alain

    2017-12-21

    Rift Valley fever phlebovirus (RVFV; Phenuiviridae, Phlebovirus) is an important mosquito-borne pathogen of both humans and ruminants. The RVFV genome is composed of tripartite, single stranded, negative or ambisense RNAs. The small (S) segment encodes both the nucleocapsid protein (N) and the non-structural protein (NSs). The N protein is responsible for the formation of the viral ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes, which are essential in the virus life cycle and for the transcription and replication of the viral genome. There is currently limited knowledge surrounding the roles of the RVFV nucleocapsid protein in viral infection other than its key functions: N protein multimerisation, encapsidation of the RNA genome and interactions with the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, L. By bioinformatic comparison of the N sequences of fourteen phleboviruses, mutational analysis, minigenome assays and packaging assays, we have further characterised the RVFV N protein. Amino acids P11 and F149 in RVFV N play an essential role in the function of RNPs and are neither associated with N protein multimerisation nor known nucleocapsid protein functions and may have additional roles in the virus life cycle. Amino acid Y30 exhibited increased minigenome activity despite reduced RNA binding capacity. Additionally, we have determined that the N-terminal arm of N protein is not involved in N-L interactions. Elucidating the fundamental processes that involve the nucleocapsid protein will add to our understanding of this important viral protein and may influence future studies in the development of novel antiviral strategies.

  15. Genomic Characterization of the Genus Nairovirus (Family Bunyaviridae)

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    Kuhn, Jens H.; Wiley, Michael R.; Rodriguez, Sergio E.; Bào, Yīmíng; Prieto, Karla; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P. A.; Guzman, Hilda; Savji, Nazir; Ladner, Jason T.; Tesh, Robert B.; Wada, Jiro; Jahrling, Peter B.; Bente, Dennis A.; Palacios, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Nairovirus, one of five bunyaviral genera, includes seven species. Genomic sequence information is limited for members of the Dera Ghazi Khan, Hughes, Qalyub, Sakhalin, and Thiafora nairovirus species. We used next-generation sequencing and historical virus-culture samples to determine 14 complete and nine coding-complete nairoviral genome sequences to further characterize these species. Previously unsequenced viruses include Abu Mina, Clo Mor, Great Saltee, Hughes, Raza, Sakhalin, Soldado, and Tillamook viruses. In addition, we present genomic sequence information on additional isolates of previously sequenced Avalon, Dugbe, Sapphire II, and Zirqa viruses. Finally, we identify Tunis virus, previously thought to be a phlebovirus, as an isolate of Abu Hammad virus. Phylogenetic analyses indicate the need for reassignment of Sapphire II virus to Dera Ghazi Khan nairovirus and reassignment of Hazara, Tofla, and Nairobi sheep disease viruses to novel species. We also propose new species for the Kasokero group (Kasokero, Leopards Hill, Yogue viruses), the Ketarah group (Gossas, Issyk-kul, Keterah/soft tick viruses) and the Burana group (Wēnzhōu tick virus, Huángpí tick virus 1, Tǎchéng tick virus 1). Our analyses emphasize the sister relationship of nairoviruses and arenaviruses, and indicate that several nairo-like viruses (Shāyáng spider virus 1, Xīnzhōu spider virus, Sānxiá water strider virus 1, South Bay virus, Wǔhàn millipede virus 2) require establishment of novel genera in a larger nairovirus-arenavirus supergroup. PMID:27294949

  16. Biogeography of Tick-Borne Bhanja Virus (Bunyaviridae in Europe

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    Zdenek Hubálek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bhanja virus (BHAV is pathogenic for young domestic ruminants and also for humans, causing fever and affections of the central nervous system. This generally neglected arbovirus of the family Bunyaviridae is transmitted by metastriate ticks of the genera Haemaphysalis, Dermacentor, Hyalomma, Rhipicephalus, Boophilus, and Amblyomma. Geographic distribution of BHAV covers southern and Central Asia, Africa, and southern (partially also central Europe. Comparative biogeographic study of eight known natural foci of BHAV infections in Europe (in Italy, Croatia, Bulgaria, Slovakia has revealed their common features. (1 submediterranean climatic pattern with dry growing season and wet mild winter (or microlimatically similar conditions, e.g., limestone karst areas in central Europe, (2 xerothermic woodland-grassland ecosystem, with plant alliances Quercetalia pubescentis, Festucetalia valesiacae, and Brometalia erecti, involving pastoral areas, (3 presence of at least one of the tick species Haemaphysalis punctata, Dermacentor marginatus, Rhipicephalus bursa, and/or Hyalomma marginatum, and (4 presence of ≥60% of the 180 BHAV bioindicator (157 plant, 4 ixodid tick, and 19 vertebrate spp.. On that basis, Greece, France (southern, including Corsica, Albania, Spain, Hungary, European Turkey, Ukraine (southern, Switzerland (southern, Austria (southeastern, Germany (southern, Moldova, and European Russia (southern have been predicted as additional European regions where BHAV might occur.

  17. The VirusBanker database uses a Java program to allow flexible searching through Bunyaviridae sequences

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    Fourment, Mathieu; Gibbs, Mark J

    2008-01-01

    Background Viruses of the Bunyaviridae have segmented negative-stranded RNA genomes and several of them cause significant disease. Many partial sequences have been obtained from the segments so that GenBank searches give complex results. Sequence databases usually use HTML pages to mediate remote sorting, but this approach can be limiting and may discourage a user from exploring a database. Results The VirusBanker database contains Bunyaviridae sequences and alignments and is presented as two spreadsheets generated by a Java program that interacts with a MySQL database on a server. Sequences are displayed in rows and may be sorted using information that is displayed in columns and includes data relating to the segment, gene, protein, species, strain, sequence length, terminal sequence and date and country of isolation. Bunyaviridae sequences and alignments may be downloaded from the second spreadsheet with titles defined by the user from the columns, or viewed when passed directly to the sequence editor, Jalview. Conclusion VirusBanker allows large datasets of aligned nucleotide and protein sequences from the Bunyaviridae to be compiled and winnowed rapidly using criteria that are formulated heuristically. PMID:18251994

  18. Diagnóstico virológico y molecular de virus transmitidos por roedores. Hantavirus y arenavirus

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    Silvana Levis

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Los hantavirus (familia Bunyaviridae y arenavirus (familia Arenaviridae son virus de roedores; cada uno de ellos parece estar estrictamente asociado con una especie de roedor en la que causa una infección persistente y asintomática. En las Américas tienen como reservorios primarios a roedores de la sub-familia Sigmodontinae, y son causantes de síndrome pulmonar por Hantavirus (SPH y fiebres hemorrágicas, respectivamente (1,2. El número de estos virus identificados en los últimos años ha aumentado significativamente; actualmente, el género Hantavirus está compuesto por más de 28 tipos diferentes, mientras que al menos 23 arenavirus conforman el género Arenavirus. Entre los hantavirus asociados con SPH se destacan el virus Sin Nombre en Norteamérica, y los virus Andes, Laguna Negra, Caño Delgadito, Araraquara y Juquitiba, en el cono sur de América, entre otros (2. Los arenavirus asociados a fiebres hemorrágicas reconocidos en Sud América al presente son: Junín (Argentina, Guanarito (Venezuela, Sabiá (Brasil, y Machupo y Chapare (Bolivia (3.

  19. Risk analysis of inter-species reassortment through a Rift Valley fever phlebovirus MP-12 vaccine strain.

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    Hoai J Ly

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease endemic to Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. The causative agent, Rift Valley fever phlebovirus (RVFV, belongs to the genus Phlebovirus in the family Phenuiviridae and causes high rates of abortions in ruminants, and hemorrhagic fever, encephalitis, or blindness in humans. Viral maintenance by mosquito vectors has led to sporadic RVF outbreaks in ruminants and humans in endemic countries, and effective vaccination of animals and humans may minimize the impact of this disease. A live-attenuated MP-12 vaccine strain is one of the best characterized RVFV strains, and was conditionally approved as a veterinary vaccine in the U.S. Live-attenuated RVF vaccines including MP-12 strain may form reassortant strains with other bunyavirus species. This study thus aimed to characterize the occurrence of genetic reassortment between the MP-12 strain and bunyavirus species closely related to RVFV. The Arumowot virus (AMTV and Gouleako goukovirus (GOLV, are transmitted by mosquitoes in Africa. The results of this study showed that GOLV does not form detectable reassortant strains with the MP-12 strain in co-infected C6/36 cells. The AMTV also did not form any reassortant strains with MP-12 strain in co-infected C6/36 cells, due to the incompatibility among N, L, and Gn/Gc proteins. A lack of reassortant formation could be due to a functional incompatibility of N and L proteins derived from heterologous species, and due to a lack of packaging via heterologous Gn/Gc proteins. The MP-12 strain did, however, randomly exchange L-, M-, and S-segments with a genetic variant strain, rMP12-GM50, in culture cells. The MP-12 strain is thus unlikely to form any reassortant strains with AMTV or GOLV in nature.

  20. Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is not a competent vector of Cache Valley virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Will K; Miller, Myrna M

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the susceptibility of Culicoides sonorensis to Cache Valley virus (CVV) (family Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus) infection and the potential that it could be a vector or site of virus reassortment. CVV is native to the New World and causes disease in livestock. Infected blood meals were fed to both a competent vector, Anopheles quadrimaculatus, and Culicoides sonorensis. All Anopheles mosquitoes were infected as expected, but only 21 % of the C. sonorensis insects were susceptible to infection. These appeared to present a midgut barrier, because virus persisted but did not disseminate. This means Culicoides sonorensis is not likely to be a vector of CVV but could be involved in viral reassortment. Schmallenberg virus (SBV) (family Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus) was recently discovered in Europe and probably is a novel virus resulting from a reassortment of two orthobunyaviruses, and an ongoing epizootic in cattle and small ruminants has caused significant economic damage.

  1. Isolation of Madre de Dios Virus (Orthobunyavirus; Bunyaviridae), an Oropouche Virus Species Reassortant, from a Monkey in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Hernandez, Rosa; Auguste, Albert J.; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.; Montañez, Humberto; Liria, Jonathan; Lima, Anderson; da Rosa, Jorge Fernando Soares Travassos; da Silva, Sandro P.; Vasconcelos, Janaina M.; Oliveira, Rodrigo; Vianez, João L. S. G.; Nunes, Marcio R. T.

    2016-01-01

    Oropouche virus (OROV), genus Orthobunyavirus, family Bunyaviridae, is an important cause of human illness in tropical South America. Herein, we report the isolation, complete genome sequence, genetic characterization, and phylogenetic analysis of an OROV species reassortant, Madre de Dios virus (MDDV), obtained from a sick monkey (Cebus olivaceus Schomburgk) collected in a forest near Atapirire, a small rural village located in Anzoategui State, Venezuela. MDDV is one of a growing number of naturally occurring OROV species reassortants isolated in South America and was known previously only from southern Peru. PMID:27215299

  2. Iris yellow spot virus (Tospovirus: Bunyaviridae): from obscurity to research priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bag, Sudeep; Schwartz, Howard F; Cramer, Christopher S; Havey, Michael J; Pappu, Hanu R

    2015-04-01

    Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) is in the genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae, with a single-stranded, tri-segmented RNA genome with an ambisense genome organization. Members of the other genera in the family infect predominantly vertebrates and insects. IYSV is present in most Allium-growing regions of the world. Virions are pleomorphic particles of 80-120 nm in size. The particle consists of RNA, protein, glycoprotein and lipids. IYSV shares the genomic features of other tospoviruses: a segmented RNA genome of three RNAs, referred to as large (L), medium (M) and small (S). The L RNA codes for the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) in negative sense. The M RNA uses an ambisense coding strategy and codes for the precursor for the GN /GC glycoprotein in the viral complementary (vc) sense and a non-structural protein (NSm) in the viral (v) sense. The S RNA also uses an ambisense coding strategy with the coat protein (N) in vc sense and a non-structural protein (NSs) in the v sense. The virus is transmitted by Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Order: Thysanoptera; Family: Thripidae; onion thrips) and with less efficiency by Frankliniella fusca Hinds (tobacco thrips). HOST: IYSV has a relatively broad host range, including cultivated and wild onions, garlic, chives, leeks and several ornamentals. Some weeds are naturally infected by IYSV and may serve as alternative hosts for the virus. IYSV symptoms in Allium spp. are yellow- to straw-coloured, diamond-shaped lesions on leaves and flowering scapes. Diamond-shaped lesions are particularly pronounced on scapes. As the disease progresses, the lesions coalesce, leading to lodging of the scapes. In seed crops, this could lead to a reduction in yield and quality. Early to mid-season infection in bulb crops results in reduced vigour and bulb size. Resistant varieties are not available, but a limited number of accessions with field tolerance have been identified. Integrated disease management tactics, including sanitation, crop

  3. Teratogenicity of Australian Simbu serogroup and some other Bunyaviridae viruses: the embryonated chicken egg as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhee, D A; Parsonson, I M; Della-Porta, A J; Jarrett, R G

    1984-01-01

    The use of embryonated chicken eggs as a model for assessing the teratogenic potential of animal viruses was investigated with 12 members of the Bunyaviridae family. Infection of 4-day-old embryonated chicken eggs via the yolk sac with 10 of the viruses resulted in deaths or congenital deformities that were similar to those observed in Akabane virus infections of fetal ruminants and included arthrogryposis, scoliosis, mandible defects, and retarded development. Statistical analysis showed that the viruses fell into three main groupings, namely, those that caused both death and deformities (Akabane, Aino, Tinaroo, and Belmont viruses), those that mainly caused death (Peaton, Thimiri, and Facey's Paddock viruses), and those that required very high doses to cause either death or deformities (Douglas and CSIR0296 viruses). In addition, two viruses (Kowanyama and Mapputta viruses) caused neither death nor deformities. A difference in the pathogenic potential between two Akabane isolates (B8935 and CSIR016) in the embryonated chicken egg model was found to correlate with differences previously observed in experimentally infected sheep; Akabane CSIR016 was the more pathogenic. It is concluded that the embryonated chicken egg model should also be of value in assessing the teratogenic potential of other Bunyaviridae and attenuated vaccine viruses, although it does not assess the ability of the virus to cross the placenta.

  4. Evaluación e influencia de un programa de formación orientado a la mejora del clima motivacional transmitido por entrenadores de baloncesto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Conde

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar y comparar la influencia de un programa de formación indagativo sobre el clima motivacional transmitido por entrenadores de baloncesto. La muestra estuvo compuesta por cinco entrenadores de baloncesto con edades comprendidas entre 26 y 32 años, dos de los cuales se sometieron a un programa de formación indagativo. El comportamiento del entrenador fue analizado a través de una adaptación del Coaching Behavior Assessment System (Smith, Smoll, y Hunt, 1977. Se llevaron a cabo seis observaciones a lo largo de tres meses y se aplicó a dos entrenadores un programa de formación  que abordaba las premisas establecidas por Ames (1992 bajo las siglas TARGET. Los resultados de las observaciones mostraron cómo éstos progresaron en un aumento de transmisión de clima tarea, mientras que dos de los entrenadores del grupo control no mejoraron. Para concluir, destacar la necesidad de fomentar un clima motivacional de implicación a la tarea, además de la importancia de los programas de formación, puesto que las recomendaciones que se dan en ellos pueden ayudar a que los entrenadores hagan del entrenamiento una experiencia agradable y positiva.
    Palabras clave:Intervención, motivación, programa formación, entrenadores

  5. Eficacia del Albendazol en dosis única sobre las infecciones por helmintos transmitidos por el suelo en escolares de una comunidad de Iquitos, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa W Gyorkos

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Determinar la eficacia en dosis única del albendazol sobre las infecciones por helmintos transmitidos por el suelo (HTS en escolares de una comunidad de la ciudad de Iquitos en Perú. Materiales y métodos. Dentro del contexto de un ensayo controlado aleatorizado realizado en una comunidad periurbana de escasos recursos, situada en Iquitos, en la Amazonía de Perú, se obtuvieron muestras de heces de escolares del quinto grado de primaria en 18 escuelas y se analizó la prevalencia y la intensidad de HTS. Un total de 1193 escolares fueron desparasitados con albendazol en dosis única (400 mg. De los 909 escolares que fueron encontrados positivos con al menos una infección por HTS, una muestra aleatoria de 385 fue seguida dos semanas más tarde, cuando se recolectó y analizó una segunda muestra de heces. Resultados. La eficacia del albendazol fue satisfactoria para las infecciones por Ascaris lumbricoides con una tasa de reducción de huevos (TRH de 99,8%; IC 95: 99,3-100 y por anquilostomideos con una TRH de 93,6%, IC 95%: 88,2-96,6 y por Trichuris trichiura con una TRH de 72,7%, IC 95: 58,5-79,1. Conclusiones. Estos resultados son indicativos de niveles satisfactorios de eficacia y son congruentes con datos publicados sobre la eficacia del albendazol y directivas de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Futuras investigaciones deben centrarse en mejorar la eficacia de las estrategias de tratamiento para la infección por Trichuris trichiura.

  6. Eficacia del Albendazol en dosis única sobre las infecciones por helmintos transmitidos por el suelo en escolares de una comunidad de Iquitos, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa W. Gyorkos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Determinar la eficacia en dosis única del albendazol sobre las infecciones por helmintos transmitidos por el suelo (HTS en escolares de una comunidad de la ciudad de Iquitos en Perú. Materiales y métodos. Dentro del contexto de un ensayo controlado aleatorizado realizado en una comunidad periurbana de escasos recursos, situada en Iquitos, en la Amazonía de Perú, se obtuvieron muestras de heces de escolares del quinto grado de primaria en 18 escuelas y se analizó la prevalencia y la intensidad de HTS. Un total de 1193 escolares fueron desparasitados con albendazol en dosis única (400 mg. De los 909 escolares que fueron encontrados positivos con al menos una infección por HTS, una muestra aleatoria de 385 fue seguida dos semanas más tarde, cuando se recolectó y analizó una segunda muestra de heces. Resultados. La eficacia del albendazol fue satisfactoria para las infecciones por Ascaris lumbricoides con una tasa de reducción de huevos (TRH de 99,8%; IC 95: 99,3-100 y por anquilostomideos con una TRH de 93,6%, IC 95%: 88,2-96,6 y por Trichuris trichiura con una TRH de 72,7%, IC 95: 58,5-79,1. Conclusiones. Estos resultados son indicativos de niveles satisfactorios de eficacia y son congruentes con datos publicados sobre la eficacia del albendazol y directivas de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Futuras investigaciones deben centrarse en mejorar la eficacia de las estrategias de tratamiento para la infección por Trichuris trichiura.

  7. Caracterização e relacionamento antigênico de três novos Bunyavirus no grupo Anopheles A (Bunyaviridae dos arbovirus Characterization and antigenic relationship of three new Bunyavirus in the Anopheles A serogroup (Bunyaviridae of arboviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Fernando Soares Travassos da Rosa

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available São descritos o isolamento e a caracterização de três novos arbovirus isolados na região da Usina Hidro-Elétrica de Tucuruí (UHE-TUC. Os três novos arbovirus pertencem ao grupo Anopheles A(ANA, gênero Bunyavirus (família Bunyaviridae. Os vírus Tucuruí (TUC, Caraipé (CPE e Arumateua (ART são relacionados entre si e com o vírus Trombetas (TBT, formando dentro do grupo ANA um complexo chamado Trombetas. Os arbovirus TUC, CPE e ART foram obtidos a partir de lotes de mosquitos Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus sp capturados em Tucuruí, nas proximidades da usina hidrelétrica de Tucuruí, Estado do Pará, nos meses de fevereiro, agosto e outubro de 1984, respectivamente. Até o final de 1990 os vírus TUC, CPE e ART foram isolados 12, 32 e 28 vezes respectivamente, sempre na região da UHE-TUC, exceção feita ao vírus TUC, do qual se obteve uma amostra procedente de Balbina, onde também foi construída uma hidroelétrica. Até o presente, esses vírus só foram isolados a partir de mosquitos do grupo An. (Nys. principalmente, a partir das espécies An. (Nys. nuneztovari e An. (Nys. triannulatus também consideradas vetores secundários da malária na Amazônia Brasileira. Testes sorológicos executados com soros humanos e de diversas espécies de animais silvestres foram negativos, com exceção de um soro de um carnívoro de espécie Nasua nasua que neutralizou a amostra TUC em títulos de 2.6 índice logaritmico de neutralização (ILN.The isolation and characterization of three new viruses obtained from the Tucuruí hydroelectric dam region is repeated. These three agents belong to the Anopheles A serogroup, genus Bunyavirus, Bunyaviridae. The Tucuruí (TUC, Caraipe (CPE and Arumateua (ART viruses have close relationships with each other and with Trombetas (TBT virus, an Anopheles A virus previously isolated in the Amazon Region of Brazil. These viruses form the "Trombetas complex". TUC, CPE and ART viruses were obtained from pools of

  8. Seroprevalence of Sandfly-Borne Phleboviruses Belonging to Three Serocomplexes (Sandfly fever Naples, Sandfly fever Sicilian and Salehabad in Dogs from Greece and Cyprus Using Neutralization Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaf Alwassouf

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Phleboviruses transmitted by sandflies are endemic in the Mediterranean area. The last decade has witnessed the description of an accumulating number of novel viruses. Although, the risk of exposure of vertebrates is globally assessed, detailed geographic knowledge is poor even in Greece and Cyprus where sandfly fever has been recognized for a long time and repeatedly. A total of 1,250 dogs from mainland Greece and Greek archipelago on one hand and 422 dogs from Cyprus on the other hand have been sampled and tested for neutralising antibodies against Toscana virus (TOSV, Sandfly fever Sicilian virus (SFSV, Arbia virus, and Adana virus i.e. four viruses belonging to the 3 sandfly-borne serocomplexes known to circulate actively in the Mediterranean area. Our results showed that (i SFSV is highly prevalent with 71.9% (50.7-84.9% depending on the region in Greece and 60.2% (40.0-72.6% in Cyprus; (ii TOSV ranked second with 4.4% (0-15.4% in Greece and 8.4% (0-11.4% in Cyprus; (iii Salehabad viruses (Arbia and Adana displayed also substantial prevalence rates in both countries with values ranging from 0-22.6% depending on the region and on the virus strain used in the test. These results demonstrate that circulation of viruses transmitted by sand flies can be estimated qualitatively using dog sera. As reported in other regions of the Mediterranean, these results indicate that it is time to shift these viruses from the "neglected" status to the "priority" status in order to stimulate studies aiming at defining and quantifying their medical and veterinary importance and possible public health impact. Specifically, viruses belonging to the Sandfly fever Sicilian complex should be given careful consideration. This calls for implementation of direct and indirect diagnosis in National reference centers and in hospital microbiology laboratories and systematic testing of unelucidated febrile illness and central and peripheral nervous system febrile

  9. Planning for Rift Valley fever virus: use of geographical information systems to estimate the human health threat of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)-related transmission

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kakani, Sravan; LaBeaud, A Desirée; King, Charles H

    2010-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus is a mosquito-borne phlebovirus of the Bunyaviridae family that causes frequent outbreaks of severe animal and human disease in sub-Saharan Africa, Egypt and the Arabian Peninsula...

  10. [Taxonomic status of the Burana virus (BURV) (Bunyaviridae, Nairovirus, Tamdy group) isolated from the ticks Haemaphysalis punctata Canestrini et Fanzago, 1877 and Haem. concinna Koch, 1844 (Ixodidae, Haemaphysalinae) in Kyrgyzstan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'vov, D K; Al'khovskiĭ, S V; Shchelkanov, M Iu; Shchetinin, A M; Deriabin, P G; Gitel'man, A K; Aristova, V A; Botikov, A G

    2014-01-01

    Complete genome sequence of the Burana virus (BURV) was determined using the next-generation sequencing approach (ID GenBank KF801651). The prototype strain of BURV LEIV-Krg760 was originally isolated from the ticks Haemaphysalis punctata Canestrini et Fanzago, 1877 (Ixodidae, Haemaphysalinae), collected from cows in Tokmak wildlife sanctuary, eastern part of the Chu valley (43 degrees 10' N, 74 degrees 40' E) near Burana village, Kirgizia, in April 1971. Molecular genetics and phylogenetic analyses showed that the BURV belonged to the Nairovirus genus, Bunyaviridae and is related to Tamdy virus (TAMV) that is also associated with the ixodidae ticks of pasture biocenosis in Central Asia. Previous studies showed that TAMV is the prototypic virus of new phylogenetic Tamdy group in the Nairovirus genus. Thus, BURV was classified as a new virus of the Tamdy group, Nairovirus, Bunyaviridae.

  11. In vivo localization of iris yellow spot tospovirus (Bunyaviridae-encoded proteins and identification of interacting regions of nucleocapsid and movement proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diwaker Tripathi

    Full Text Available Localization and interaction studies of viral proteins provide important information about their replication in their host plants. Tospoviruses (Family Bunyaviridae are economically important viruses affecting numerous field and horticultural crops. Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV, one of the tospoviruses, has recently emerged as an important viral pathogen of Allium spp. in many parts of the world. We studied the in vivo localization and interaction patterns of the IYSV proteins in uninfected and infected Nicotiana benthamiana and identified the interacting partners.Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC analysis demonstrated homotypic and heterotypic interactions between IYSV nucleocapsid (N and movement (NSm proteins. These interactions were further confirmed by pull-down assays. Additionally, interacting regions of IYSV N and NSm were identified by the yeast-2-hybrid system and β-galactosidase assay. The N protein self-association was found to be mediated through the N- and C-terminal regions making head to tail interaction. Self-interaction of IYSV NSm was shown to occur through multiple interacting regions. In yeast-2-hybrid assay, the N- and C-terminal regions of IYSV N protein interacted with an N-terminal region of IYSV NSm protein.Our studies provide new insights into localization and interactions of IYSV N and NSm proteins. Molecular basis of these interactions was studied and is discussed in the context of tospovirus assembly, replication, and infection processes.

  12. In vivo localization of iris yellow spot tospovirus (Bunyaviridae)-encoded proteins and identification of interacting regions of nucleocapsid and movement proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Diwaker; Raikhy, Gaurav; Goodin, Michael M; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Pappu, Hanu R

    2015-01-01

    Localization and interaction studies of viral proteins provide important information about their replication in their host plants. Tospoviruses (Family Bunyaviridae) are economically important viruses affecting numerous field and horticultural crops. Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV), one of the tospoviruses, has recently emerged as an important viral pathogen of Allium spp. in many parts of the world. We studied the in vivo localization and interaction patterns of the IYSV proteins in uninfected and infected Nicotiana benthamiana and identified the interacting partners. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) analysis demonstrated homotypic and heterotypic interactions between IYSV nucleocapsid (N) and movement (NSm) proteins. These interactions were further confirmed by pull-down assays. Additionally, interacting regions of IYSV N and NSm were identified by the yeast-2-hybrid system and β-galactosidase assay. The N protein self-association was found to be mediated through the N- and C-terminal regions making head to tail interaction. Self-interaction of IYSV NSm was shown to occur through multiple interacting regions. In yeast-2-hybrid assay, the N- and C-terminal regions of IYSV N protein interacted with an N-terminal region of IYSV NSm protein. Our studies provide new insights into localization and interactions of IYSV N and NSm proteins. Molecular basis of these interactions was studied and is discussed in the context of tospovirus assembly, replication, and infection processes.

  13. Isolations of Jamestown Canyon virus (Bunyaviridae: Orthobunyavirus) from field-collected mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Connecticut, USA: a ten-year analysis, 1997-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreadis, Theodore G; Anderson, John F; Armstrong, Philip M; Main, Andrew J

    2008-04-01

    Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV) (Bunyaviridae: Orthobunyavirus) is a mosquito-borne zoonosis belonging to the California serogroup. It has a wide geographic distribution, occurring throughout much of temperate North America. White-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus are the principal amplification hosts, and boreal Aedes and Ochlerotatus mosquitoes are the primary vectors. A 10-year study was undertaken to identify potential mosquito vectors in Connecticut, quantify seasonal prevalence rates of infection, and define the geographic distribution of JCV in the state as a function of land use and white-tailed deer populations, which have increased substantially over this period. Jamestown Canyon virus was isolated from 22 mosquito species. Five of them, Ochlerotatus canadensis, Oc. cantator, Anopheles punctipennis, Coquillettidia perturbans, and Oc. abserratus were incriminated as the most likely vectors, based on yearly isolation frequencies and the spatial geographic distribution of infected mosquitoes. Jamestown Canyon virus was isolated from Oc. canadensis more consistently and from a greater range of collection sites than any other species. Frequent virus isolations were also made from Aedes cinereus, Aedes vexans, and Oc. sticticus, and new North American isolation records were established for Anopheles walkeri, Culex restuans, Culiseta morsitans, Oc. sticticus, Oc. taeniorhynchus, and Psorophora ferox. Other species from which JCV was isolated included C. melanura, Oc. aurifer, Oc. communis, Oc. excrucians, Oc. provocans, Oc. sollicitans, Oc. stimulans, Oc. triseriatus, and Oc. trivittatus. Jamestown Canyon virus was widely distributed throughout Connecticut and found to consistently circulate in a diverse array of mosquito vectors. Infected mosquitoes were collected from June through September, and peak infection rates paralleled mosquito abundance from mid-June through mid-July. Infection rates in mosquitoes were consistent from year to year, and overall virus

  14. Sequence characterization, molecular phylogeny reconstruction and recombination analysis of the large RNA of Tomato spotted wilt virus (Tospovirus: Bunyaviridae) from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Shunmugiah V; Pappu, Hanu R

    2016-04-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV; Tospovirus: Bunyaviridae) has been an economically important virus in the USA for over 30 years. However the complete sequence of only one TSWV isolate PA01 characterized from pepper in Pennsylvania is available. The large (L) RNA of a TSWV WA-USA isolate was cloned and sequenced. It consisted of 8914 nucleotides (nt) encoding a single open reading frame of 8640 nts in the viral-complementary sense. The ORF potentially codes for RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of 330.9 kDa. Two untranslated regions of 241 and 33 nucleotides were present at the 5' and 3' termini, respectively that shared conserved tospoviral sequences. Phylogenetic analysis using nucleotide sequences of the complete L RNA showed that TSWV WA-USA isolate clustered with the American and Asian TSWV isolates which formed a distinct clade from Euro-Asiatic Tospoviruses. Phylogeny of the amino acid sequence of all tospoviral RdRps used in this study showed that all the known TSWV isolates including the USA isolate described in this study formed a distinct and a close cluster with that of Impateins necrotic spot virus. Multiple sequence alignment revealed conserved motifs in the RdRp of TSWV. Recombination analysis identified two recombinants including the TSWV WA-USA isolate. Among them, three recombination events were detected in the conserved motifs of the RdRp. Sequence analysis and phylogenetic analysis of the L RNA showed distinct clustering with selected TSWV isolates reported from elsewhere. Conserved motifs in the core polymerase region of the RdRp and recombination events were identified.

  15. Caracterização e relacionamento antigênico de três novos Bunyavirus no grupo Anopheles A (Bunyaviridae dos arbovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Fernando Soares Travassos da Rosa

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available São descritos o isolamento e a caracterização de três novos arbovirus isolados na região da Usina Hidro-Elétrica de Tucuruí (UHE-TUC. Os três novos arbovirus pertencem ao grupo Anopheles A(ANA, gênero Bunyavirus (família Bunyaviridae. Os vírus Tucuruí (TUC, Caraipé (CPE e Arumateua (ART são relacionados entre si e com o vírus Trombetas (TBT, formando dentro do grupo ANA um complexo chamado Trombetas. Os arbovirus TUC, CPE e ART foram obtidos a partir de lotes de mosquitos Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus sp capturados em Tucuruí, nas proximidades da usina hidrelétrica de Tucuruí, Estado do Pará, nos meses de fevereiro, agosto e outubro de 1984, respectivamente. Até o final de 1990 os vírus TUC, CPE e ART foram isolados 12, 32 e 28 vezes respectivamente, sempre na região da UHE-TUC, exceção feita ao vírus TUC, do qual se obteve uma amostra procedente de Balbina, onde também foi construída uma hidroelétrica. Até o presente, esses vírus só foram isolados a partir de mosquitos do grupo An. (Nys. principalmente, a partir das espécies An. (Nys. nuneztovari e An. (Nys. triannulatus também consideradas vetores secundários da malária na Amazônia Brasileira. Testes sorológicos executados com soros humanos e de diversas espécies de animais silvestres foram negativos, com exceção de um soro de um carnívoro de espécie Nasua nasua que neutralizou a amostra TUC em títulos de 2.6 índice logaritmico de neutralização (ILN.

  16. Caracterização e relacionamento antigênico de três novos Bunyavirus no grupo Anopheles A (Bunyaviridae dos arbovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Jorge Fernando Soares Travassos da

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available São descritos o isolamento e a caracterização de três novos arbovirus isolados na região da Usina Hidro-Elétrica de Tucuruí (UHE-TUC. Os três novos arbovirus pertencem ao grupo Anopheles A(ANA, gênero Bunyavirus (família Bunyaviridae. Os vírus Tucuruí (TUC, Caraipé (CPE e Arumateua (ART são relacionados entre si e com o vírus Trombetas (TBT, formando dentro do grupo ANA um complexo chamado Trombetas. Os arbovirus TUC, CPE e ART foram obtidos a partir de lotes de mosquitos Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus sp capturados em Tucuruí, nas proximidades da usina hidrelétrica de Tucuruí, Estado do Pará, nos meses de fevereiro, agosto e outubro de 1984, respectivamente. Até o final de 1990 os vírus TUC, CPE e ART foram isolados 12, 32 e 28 vezes respectivamente, sempre na região da UHE-TUC, exceção feita ao vírus TUC, do qual se obteve uma amostra procedente de Balbina, onde também foi construída uma hidroelétrica. Até o presente, esses vírus só foram isolados a partir de mosquitos do grupo An. (Nys. principalmente, a partir das espécies An. (Nys. nuneztovari e An. (Nys. triannulatus também consideradas vetores secundários da malária na Amazônia Brasileira. Testes sorológicos executados com soros humanos e de diversas espécies de animais silvestres foram negativos, com exceção de um soro de um carnívoro de espécie Nasua nasua que neutralizou a amostra TUC em títulos de 2.6 índice logaritmico de neutralização (ILN.

  17. Spatial-Temporal Analysis of Cache Valley Virus (Bunyaviridae: Orthobunyavirus) Infection in Anopheline and Culicine Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Northeastern United States, 1997–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Philip M.; Anderson, John F.; Main, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Cache Valley virus (CVV) is a mosquito-borne bunyavirus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus) that is enzootic throughout much of North and Central America. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been incriminated as important reservoir and amplification hosts. CVV has been found in a diverse array of mosquito species, but the principal vectors are unknown. A 16-year study was undertaken to identify the primary mosquito vectors in Connecticut, quantify seasonal prevalence rates of infection, and define the spatial geographic distribution of CVV in the state as a function of land use and white-tailed deer populations, which have increased substantially over this period. CVV was isolated from 16 mosquito species in seven genera, almost all of which were multivoltine and mammalophilic. Anopheles (An.) punctipennis was incriminated as the most consistent and likely vector in this region on the basis of yearly isolation frequencies and the spatial geographic distribution of infected mosquitoes. Other species exhibiting frequent temporal and moderate spatial geographic patterns of virus isolation within the state included Ochlerotatus (Oc.) trivittatus, Oc. canadensis, Aedes (Ae.) vexans, and Ae. cinereus. New isolation records for CVV were established for An. walkeri, Culiseta melanura, and Oc. cantator. Other species from which CVV was isolated included An. quadrimaculatus, Coquillettidia perturbans, Culex salinarius, Oc. japonicus, Oc. sollicitans, Oc. taeniorhynchus, Oc. triseriatus, and Psorophora ferox. Mosquitoes infected with CVV were equally distributed throughout urban, suburban, and rural locales, and infection rates were not directly associated with the localized abundance of white-tailed deer, possibly due to their saturation throughout the region. Virus activity in mosquitoes was episodic with no consistent pattern from year-to-year, and fluctuations in yearly seasonal infection rates did not appear to be directly impacted by

  18. Spatial-temporal analysis of Cache Valley virus (Bunyaviridae: Orthobunyavirus) infection in anopheline and culicine mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the northeastern United States, 1997-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreadis, Theodore G; Armstrong, Philip M; Anderson, John F; Main, Andrew J

    2014-10-01

    Cache Valley virus (CVV) is a mosquito-borne bunyavirus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus) that is enzootic throughout much of North and Central America. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been incriminated as important reservoir and amplification hosts. CVV has been found in a diverse array of mosquito species, but the principal vectors are unknown. A 16-year study was undertaken to identify the primary mosquito vectors in Connecticut, quantify seasonal prevalence rates of infection, and define the spatial geographic distribution of CVV in the state as a function of land use and white-tailed deer populations, which have increased substantially over this period. CVV was isolated from 16 mosquito species in seven genera, almost all of which were multivoltine and mammalophilic. Anopheles (An.) punctipennis was incriminated as the most consistent and likely vector in this region on the basis of yearly isolation frequencies and the spatial geographic distribution of infected mosquitoes. Other species exhibiting frequent temporal and moderate spatial geographic patterns of virus isolation within the state included Ochlerotatus (Oc.) trivittatus, Oc. canadensis, Aedes (Ae.) vexans, and Ae. cinereus. New isolation records for CVV were established for An. walkeri, Culiseta melanura, and Oc. cantator. Other species from which CVV was isolated included An. quadrimaculatus, Coquillettidia perturbans, Culex salinarius, Oc. japonicus, Oc. sollicitans, Oc. taeniorhynchus, Oc. triseriatus, and Psorophora ferox. Mosquitoes infected with CVV were equally distributed throughout urban, suburban, and rural locales, and infection rates were not directly associated with the localized abundance of white-tailed deer, possibly due to their saturation throughout the region. Virus activity in mosquitoes was episodic with no consistent pattern from year-to-year, and fluctuations in yearly seasonal infection rates did not appear to be directly impacted by overall

  19. Bunyaviridae and Their Replication. Part 2. Replication of Bunyaviridae

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    required for the glycoproteins of viruses causing hemorrhagic fever with renal formation of 3’ termini of sea urchin M24 mRNA. Cell syndrome (HFRS...Schmaljohn and Jean L. Patterson i M oAttachment and Entry, 1183Virion Morphology and Structure, 1175 Transcription, 1184 Morphology , 1175...group of arthropod-borne viruses CCHF, and La Crosse (LAC), but many are not known sharing morphological , morphogenic, and antigenic to infect humans

  20. [Taxonomic status of the Chim virus (CHIMV) (Bunyaviridae, Nairovirus, Qalyub group) isolated from the Ixodidae and Argasidae ticks collected in the great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus Lichtenstein, 1823) (Muridae, Gerbillinae) burrows in Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'vov, D K; Al'khovskiĭ, S V; Shchelkanov, M Iu; Shchetinin, A M; Aristova, V A; Morozova, T N; Gitel'man, A K; Deriabin, P G; Botikov, A G

    2014-01-01

    Full-length genome of the Chim virus (CHIMV) (strain LEIV-858Uz) was sequenced using the next-generation sequencing approach (ID GenBank: KF801656). The CHIMV/LEIV-858Uz was isolated from the Ornithodoros tartakovskyi Olenev, 1931 ticks collected in the great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus Lichtenstein, 1823) burrow in Uzbekistan near Chim town (Kashkadarinsky region) in July of 1971. Later, four more CHIMV strains were isolated from the O. tartakovskyi, O. papillipes Birula, 1895, Rhipicephalus turanicus Pomerantsev, 1936 collected in the great gerbil burrows in Kashkadarinsky, Bukhara, and Syrdarya regions of Uzbekistan, and three strains--from the Hyalomma asiaticum Schulze et Schlottke, 1930 from the great gerbil burrows in Dzheskazgan region of Kazakhstan. The virus is a potential pathogen of humans and camels. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the CHIMV is a novel member of the Nairovirus genus (Bunyaviridae) and closely related to the Qalyub virus (QYBV), which is prototype for the group of the same name. The amino acid homology between the CHIMV and QYBV is 87% for the RdRp catalytic center (L-segment) that is coincident with both QYBV and CHIMV associated with the Ornithodoros ticks and burrow of rodents as well. The CHIMV homologies with other nairoviruses are 30-40% for the amino acid sequences of precursor polyprotein GnGc (M-segment), whereas 50%--for the nucleocapsid N (S-segment). The data obtained permit to classify the CHIMV as a member of the QYBV group in the genus of Nairovirus (Bunyaviridae).

  1. Studies on the Antigenic Relationship among Phleboviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Vero cells, using a constant virus in- Aguacate VP-175A HS(3) oculum (40-100 plaque forming units) against Alenquer Be H 301101 GPS(3) varying dilutions...viruses Virus type* Immune reagent AGU ALE ANH AMT BUE BUJ CAC CAI CDU CHG CHI FRI GF GOR AGUACATE 1,2801 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ALENQUER 0 80 0 0 0 0

  2. Rift Valley Fever Virus Growth Curve Kinetics in Cattle and Sheep Peripheral Blood Monocyte Derived Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), is a mosquito-borne, zoonotic pathogen within genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae that typically causes outbreaks in sub-Saharan Africa and recently spread to the Arabian Peninsula. In ruminants, RVFV infections cause mass abortion and high mortality rates in neona...

  3. Pathology Review of Two New Rift Valley Fever Virus Ruminant Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), is a mosquito-borne, zoonotic pathogen within genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae that typically causes outbreaks in sub-Saharan Africa and recently spread to the Arabian Peninsula. In ruminants, RVFV infections cause mass abortion and high mortality rates in neona...

  4. Arbovirus infections and viral haemorrhagic fevers in Uganda: a serological survey in Karamoja district, 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodhain, F; Gonzalez, J P; Mercier, E; Helynck, B; Larouze, B; Hannoun, C

    1989-01-01

    Sera collected in May 1984 from 132 adult residents of Karamoja district, Uganda, were examined by haemagglutination inhibition tests for antibodies against selected arboviruses, namely Chikungunya and Semliki Forest alphaviruses (Togaviridae); dengue type 2, Wesselsbron, West Nile, yellow fever and Zika flaviviruses (Flaviviridae); Bunyamwera, Ilesha and Tahyna bunyaviruses (Bunyaviridae); and Sicilian sandfly fever phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae); and by immunofluorescence tests against certain haemorrhagic fever viruses, Lassa fever arenavirus (Arenaviridae), Ebola-Sudan, Ebola-Zaïre and Marburg filoviruses (Filoviridae), Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever nairovirus and Rift Valley fever phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae). Antibodies against Chikungunya virus were the most prevalent (47%), followed by flavivirus antibodies (16%), which were probably due mainly to West Nile virus. No evidence of yellow fever or dengue virus circulation was observed. A few individuals had antibodies against Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, Lassa, Ebola and Marburg viruses, suggesting that these viruses all circulate in the area.

  5. Chlorotic spots on Clerodendrum, a disease caused by a nuclear type of Brevipalpus (Acari:Tenuipalpidae transmitted virus Mancha clorótica do Clerodendrum, uma enfermidade causada por um vírus do tipo nuclear, transmitido pelo ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari:Tenuipalpidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot Watanabe Kitajima

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Chlorotic spots have been observed in plants of Clerodendrum x speciosum growing in residential gardens and parks in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. Thin sections of diseased tissues revealed characteristic cytopathic effects of the nuclear type of the Brevipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae mite-transmitted viruses (BTrV. Brevipalpus mites, identified as B. phoenicis, infesting symptomatic C. x speciosum plants transmitted the pathogen to healthy C. x speciosum and to C. thomsonae, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus cannabinus, H. coccineus, H. schizopetalus, Salvia leucantha, Spathiphyllum wallasi and Tetragonia expansa causing chlorotic spots on their leaves. Mechanical inoculation using leaf extracts from infected C. x speciosum resulted in chlorotic spots on inoculated C. x speciosum, Chenopodium quinoa, C. amaranticolor, G. globosa, H. cannabinus, H. coccineus and T. expansa leaves. C. amaranticolor and C. quinoa kept at 28 - 30°C became systemically infected. The same cytopathic effects caused by the nuclear type of BTrV were seen in tissues from all infected test plants by electron microscopy. The virus was purified from systemically infected leaves of C. amaranticolor and C. quinoa. A polyclonal antiserum obtained from an immunized rabbit presented a strong reaction with the homologous antigen in ELISA tests. The results suggest that this chlorotic spot disease of C. x speciosum is caused by a new species of the nuclear type of BTrV, tentatively named Clerodendrum chlorotic spot virus (ClCSV.Manchas cloróticas e necróticas foram observadas em folhas de várias plantas de coração-sangrento (Clerodendrum x speciosum cultivadas em parques e jardins em Piracicaba, SP, associadas à infestação pelo ácaro tenuipalpídeo Brevipalpus phoenicis. Exames preliminares de secções de tecido das manchas cloróticas ao microscópio eletrônico revelaram a ocorrência de efeitos citopáticos característicos dos induzidos pelos vírus do tipo nuclear, transmitido

  6. Caracterização de um vírus baciliforme isolado de Solanum violaefolium transmitido pelos ácaros Brevipalpus phoenicis e Brevipalpus obovatus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae Characterization of a bacilliform virus isolated from Solanum violaefolium transmitted by the tenuipalpid mites Brevipalpus phoenicis and Brevipalpus obovatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Tarso Oliveira Ferreira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Solano-violeta (Solanum violaefolium é uma planta ornamental rasteira usada para cobrir solos de áreas sombreadas. Um vírus que induz manchas anelares nas folhas desta planta, tentativamente designado Solanum violaefolium ringspot virus - SvRSV, transmitido pelo ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae foi encontrado em Piracicaba, SP. Trata-se de um vírus baciliforme que se assemelha a outros vírus do tipo citoplasmático transmitidos por Brevipalpus sp. Este trabalho teve como objetivo relatar propriedades biológicas e estabelecer uma caracterização molecular parcial do SvRSV. O vírus pode ser transmitido mecanicamente a várias outras espécies botânicas, causando lesões localizadas. Entre as espécies avaliadas, Datura stramonium mostrou-se a melhor hospedeira experimental. Observou-se também a manifestação de sintomas nestas plantas após infestação das mesmas por B. obovatus previamente alimentado em lesões de SvRSV, confirmando esta outra espécie de ácaro como vetor do vírus. Suas propriedades físicas in vitro foram: temperatura de inativação 40-45 ºC; ponto final de diluição 10-3-10-4; longevidade in vitro 12 dias. Em secções ultrafinas, as partículas do SvRSV mostraram-se levemente mais delgadas e mais longas que as de outros vírus do mesmo grupo. A partir do dsRNA do SvRSV foi construída uma biblioteca de cDNA e foram identificadas duas possíveis regiões codificadoras das proteínas de movimento e replicase viral. Baseado nestas regiões foram desenhados "primers" para amplificação do RNA do SvRSV por RT-PCR. Sondas baseadas nas seqüências obtidas hibridizaram com ss- e dsRNA de D. stramonium infectadas pelo vírus. Ensaios preliminares de RT-PCR e hibridização não resultaram em reação com o vírus da leprose dos citros, tipo citoplasmático (CiLV-C.Solanum violaefolium is an ornamental plant, with prostrate, trailing growth habit and is cultivated in shaded areas. A virus that causes

  7. Bunyavirus-Vector Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate McElroy Horne

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Bunyaviridae family is comprised of more than 350 viruses, of which many within the Hantavirus, Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, Tospovirus, and Phlebovirus genera are significant human or agricultural pathogens. The viruses within the Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, and Phlebovirus genera are transmitted by hematophagous arthropods, such as mosquitoes, midges, flies, and ticks, and their associated arthropods not only serve as vectors but also as virus reservoirs in many cases. This review presents an overview of several important emerging or re-emerging bunyaviruses and describes what is known about bunyavirus-vector interactions based on epidemiological, ultrastructural, and genetic studies of members of this virus family.

  8. Wolbachia Effects on Rift Valley Virus Infection in Culex tarsalis Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-25

    invertebrates [7]. Infection by Wolbachia is not innocuous; its presence 77" within a host can cause broad effects on host physiology. For example...94" across several malaria species and virus families [20,22,24–27]. Thus, it is important to examine 95" the range of Wolbachia-induced phenotypes...genus Phlebovirus in the family Bunyaviridae 101" and is predominately a disease of domestic ruminants that causes severe economic losses in the 102

  9. Planning for Rift Valley fever virus: use of geographical information systems to estimate the human health threat of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)-related transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Sravan Kakani; Desirée LaBeaud, A.; King, Charles H.

    2010-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus is a mosquito-borne phlebovirus of the Bunyaviridae family that causes frequent outbreaks of severe animal and human disease in sub-Saharan Africa, Egypt and the Arabian Peninsula. Based on its many known competent vectors, its potential for transmission via aerosolization, and its progressive spread from East Africa to neighbouring regions, RVF is considered a high-priority, emerging health threat for humans, livestock and wildlife in all parts of the world. Int...

  10. Planning for Rift Valley fever virus: Use of GIS to estimate the human health threat of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)-related transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Kakani, Sravan; LaBeaud, A. Desirée; King, Charles H.

    2010-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne phlebovirus of the Bunyaviridae family that causes frequent outbreaks of severe animal and human disease in sub-Saharan Africa, Egypt,and the Arabian Peninsula. Based on its many known competent vectors, its potential for transmission via aerosolization, and its progressive spread from East Africa to neighboring regions, RVFV is considered a high-priority, emerging health threat forhumans, livestock, and wildlife in all parts of the world. In...

  11. Studies of the Biology of Phleboviruses in Sandflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    Nacional de Salud , Bogota , Colombia; but we have been unable to maintain this species for more than 1 or 2 generations in the laboratory. During the last...was also transovarially transmitted by experi- mentally infected Lu. gomezi to their F1 progeny. Five new colonies of phlebotomine sandflies were

  12. Partial genetic characterization of Sedlec virus (Orthobunyavirus, Bunyaviridae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bakonyi, T.; Kolodziejek, J.; Rudolf, Ivo; Berčič, R.; Nowotny, N.; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 19, October (2013), s. 244-249 ISSN 1567-1348 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Sedlec virus * Leanyer virus * Simbu group * Orthobunyavirus * Acrocephalus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.264, year: 2013

  13. Análise do som transmitido por madeiras de diferentes densidades

    OpenAIRE

    Loschi Neto, Ançano

    2014-01-01

    A percepção do ambiente está ligada aos órgãos do sentido, principalmente visão e audição. Qualquer perturbação nessa percepção acarreta desconforto e até prejuízo à saúde do homem. Por isso, um ambiente fechado deve ser projetado visando também conforto acústico, o que quase nunca ocorre. Quando o problema se torna limitante, são necessárias correções que podem tornar-se onerosas. A madeira se apresenta como uma boa alternativa para tratamento acústico por apresentar características isolante...

  14. La categoria de producto y el mensaje transmitido en la publicidad infantil de alimentos

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gonzalez Diaz, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    El presente articulo, contextualizado bajo la preocupacion de la obesidad infantil y la acusacion que desde numerosos sectores se ejerce sobre la publicidad, ha pretendido desarrollar un marco teorico...

  15. Attenuation and protective efficacy of Rift Valley fever phlebovirus rMP12-GM50 strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Hoai J; Nishiyama, Shoko; Lokugamage, Nandadeva; Smith, Jennifer K; Zhang, Lihong; Perez, David; Juelich, Terry L; Freiberg, Alexander N; Ikegami, Tetsuro

    2017-12-04

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease endemic to Africa and the Arabian Peninsula that affects sheep, cattle, goats, camels, and humans. Effective vaccination of susceptible ruminants is important for the prevention of RVF outbreaks. Live-attenuated RVF vaccines are in general highly immunogenic in ruminants, whereas residual virulence might be a concern for vulnerable populations. It is also important for live-attenuated strains to encode unique genetic markers for the differentiation from wild-type RVFV strains. In this study, we aimed to strengthen the attenuation profile of the MP-12 vaccine strain via the introduction of 584 silent mutations. To minimize the impact on protective efficacy, codon usage and codon pair bias were not de-optimized. The resulting rMP12-GM50 strain showed 100% protective efficacy with a single intramuscular dose, raising a 1:853 mean titer of plaque reduction neutralization test. Moreover, outbred mice infected with one of three pathogenic reassortant ZH501 strains, which encoded rMP12-GM50 L-, M-, or S-segments, showed 90%, 50%, or 30% survival, respectively. These results indicate that attenuation of the rMP12-GM50 strain is significantly attenuated via the L-, M-, and S-segments. Recombinant RVFV vaccine strains encoding similar silent mutations will be also useful for the surveillance of reassortant strains derived from vaccine strains in endemic countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Valores, contravalores y sentimientos, transmitidos por los medios de comunicación y su percepción reflexiva

    OpenAIRE

    Donaciano BARTOLOMÉ CRESPO

    1997-01-01

    Esta investigación se refiere a la percepción de valores, antivalores y sentimientos encarnados y manifiestos en imágenes, palabras y sonidos autopresentados o mediados. Si en el pasado se han estudiado preferentemente los medios y sus mensajes, la preocupación actual mayoritaria sería investigar lo que pasa dentro del sujeto, cómo reacciona, cuáles son sus sentimientos. No hay duda que la reflexión sobre valores y propios sentimientos que suscitan la escucha, visionado o lectura de...

  17. Programa radial sobre las discapacidades a ser transmitido en radio mensaje del Catón Cayambe

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez Larraga, Carolina Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    This communication product is the consequence of an investigative process and of the managing of the communication tied to the information, and that the inhabitants of the Cantón Cayambe do not have great knowledge on disability and what it carries this topic. For what I investigate statistics of disability of the Cantón Cayambe and of the Ecuador in general, compiling little by little information from the different types of disability, right that the persons have with disability up to the in...

  18. "Escuchar devotamente, custodiar celosamente y explicar fielmente lo transmitido (DV 10": Afirmaciones definitivas y lo relativo en el magisterio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Arteaga Manieu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Para abordar el tema de las afirmaciones definitivas y lo relativo en el magisterio eclesial se intenta afrontar inicialmente la necesidad de un discernimiento acerca de lo que es pluralismo, absoluto y relativo (§ 1, para luego decir algunas palabras acerca de la teología y el magisterio, al servicio a la transmisión de la revelación cristiana (§ 2. Posteriormente se aborda el tema del magisterio como una tarea de toda la Iglesia (§ 3, y su comprensión (incomprensión en un mundo global (§ 4. Finalmente algunas luces de las reflexiones de Kart Barth (§ 5 y de Walter Kasper (§ 6, y la necesidad de una adecuada 'hermenéutica magisterial' (§7. Con esta iluminación, se enfrenta la necesaria complementariedad de los pronunciamientos del Vaticano I y Vaticano II acerca de lo definitivo y lo relativo en el magisterio eclesial (§ 8 y un ejemplo de la Declaración de la Congregación para la Doctrina de la Fe Dominus lesus, sobre la unicidad y la universalidad salvífica de Jesucristo y de la Iglesia (§ 9. Finalmente una recapitulación conclusiva (§ 10. El Magisterio es un servicios, la Iglesia y a la revelación de Dios, que en Cristo se ha automanifestado como plenitud. Siempre deberá ser pensado y ejercitado en una espiritualidad de la comunión eclesial, en una admirable concordia entre fieles y pastores, fruto de la acción del Espíritu. La 'irreformabilidad' de las verdades esenciales en la Iglesia no significa que sean 'irreformulables'. Hay un margen de reformulación que no es irrelevante, aunque esta reformulación no puede tener sentido contrario. Eso significa escuchar devotamente, custodiar celosamente y explicar fielmente lo trasmitido, como lo recordaba el Vaticano II en la constitución sobre la revelación divina. Es un servicio no un dominio, un ministerio no un poder. Y en compañía de todo el pueblo creyente, con el sentido de la fe y otros servicios a la transmisión de la revelación. Se trata de la convicción profunda que Cristo, por la fuerza del Espíritu, sigue vivo y presente en la Iglesia Dios.In order to address the theme of definitive affirmations and the relative in the ecclesial Magisterium, the author will attempt, firstly, to examine the need for a discernment of what pluralism, both absolute and relative, is (1, and then to say a few words about theology and the Magisterium, at the service of the transmission of Christian revelation (2. Afterwards, the theme of the Magisterium as a task of the entire Church will be treated (3, and its understanding (misunderstanding in a globalized world (4. Finally, the author will offer some illuminating thoughts from the reflections of Karl Barth (5 and of Walter Kasper (6 and the necessity of an adequate "Magisterial hermeneutic" (7. With this insight, the necessary complementarity of the pronouncements of Vatican I and Vatican II regarding the definitive and the relative in the ecclesial Magisterium will be explored (8. The author will present an example from the Declaration of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith Domínus lesus, on the unicity and the salvific universality of Jesús Christ and of the Church (9. Finally, the author will formúlate a conclusive summary. (10 The Magisterium is a service to the Church and to the revelation of God, who, in Christ, has manifested Himself as fullness. It must always be a process of thought, and exercised, within a spírituality of ecclesial communion, in an admirable agreement between faithful and pastors, fruit of the action of the Spirit. The "irreformability" of the essential truths in the Church does not mean that they are "unreformable". There is a margin of reformulation that is not irrelevant, although this reformulation cannot have a contrary sense. That means listeníng devoutedly, guarding scrupulously, and explaining faithfully what is transmitted, as Vatican reminds us in the Constitution on Divine Revelation. It is a service rather than a dominión, a ministryaná not a power, conducted in company with the whole believing people, with the sense of faith and other services in the transmission of revelation. In short, the author will be examining nothing less that the profound conviction that Christ, by the strength of the Spirit, continúes to live and be present in the Church of God.

  19. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome, an emerging tick-borne zoonosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quan; He, Biao; Huang, Si-Yang; Wei, Feng; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-08-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging haemorrhagic fever that was first described in rural areas of China. The causative agent, SFTS virus (SFTSV), is a novel phlebovirus in the Bunyaviridae family. Since the first report in 2010, SFTS has been found in 11 provinces of China, with about 2500 reported cases, and an average case-fatality rate of 7·3%. The disease was also reported in Japan and Korea in 2012; Heartland virus, another phlebovirus genetically closely related to SFTSV, was isolated from two patients in the USA. The disease has become a substantial risk to public health, not only in China, but also in other parts of the world. The virus could undergo rapid evolution by gene mutation, reassortment, and homologous recombination in tick vectors and vertebrate reservoir hosts. No specific treatment of SFTS is available, and avoiding tick bites is an important measure to prevent the infection and transmission of SFTSV. This Review provides information on the molecular characteristics and ecology of this emerging tick-borne virus and describes the epidemiology, clinical signs, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of human infection with SFTSV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Tick-borne viruses: a review from the perspective of therapeutic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lani, Rafidah; Moghaddam, Ehsan; Haghani, Amin; Chang, Li-Yen; AbuBakar, Sazaly; Zandi, Keivan

    2014-09-01

    Several important human diseases worldwide are caused by tick-borne viruses. These diseases have become important public health concerns in recent years. The tick-borne viruses that cause diseases in humans mainly belong to 3 families: Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Reoviridae. In this review, we focus on therapeutic approaches for several of the more important tick-borne viruses from these 3 families. These viruses are Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHF) and the newly discovered tick-borne phleboviruses, known as thrombocytopenia syndromevirus (SFTSV), Heartland virus and Bhanja virus from the family Bunyaviridae, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), Powassan virus (POWV), Louping-ill virus (LIV), Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus (OHFV), Kyasanur Forest disease virus (KFDV), and Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus (AHFV) from the Flaviviridae family. To date, there is no effective antiviral drug available against most of these tick-borne viruses. Although there is common usage of antiviral drugs such as ribavirin for CCHF treatment in some countries, there are concerns that ribavirin may not be as effective as once thought against CCHF. Herein, we discuss also the availability of vaccines for the control of these viral infections. The lack of treatment and prevention approaches for these viruses is highlighted, and we hope that this review may increase public health awareness with regard to the threat posed by this group of viruses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. The product category and the message informed in food children’s advertising / La categoría de producto y el mensaje transmitido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Cristina González Díaz [C. V.Lic. Cristina González Díaz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explains the worry about children obesity and the accusation that many sectors exert on advertising. Furthermore, it tries to develop a theoric framework in order to set out the researches, which have been done, about food children’s advertising and its connection with obesity. In adittion to this, the article talks about other researches which prove the restricted influence advertising exerts on children as regards food consumption and the factors which are necessary to affirm that there are direct causes to provoke obesity. The purpose of this essay is to analyze what type of product category exerts more advertising pressure and what kind of messages are used. This analysis will expound if children’s advertising is really surrounded by non healthy products or, however, by advisable ones in a child’s diet. Finally, it will also expound which communicative subjects are found in this kind of products.Resumen: El presente artículo, contextualizado bajo la preocupación de la obesidad infantil y la acusación que desde numerosos sectores se ejerce sobre la publicidad, ha pretendido desarrollar un marco teórico donde se expusieran las investigaciones que sobre el binomio publicidad infantil de alimentos – obesidad se han realizado; así como aquellas donde se dejaba evidencia de la limitada influencia que la misma podía realizar sobre el menor en lo concerniente a consumo de alimentos, y los numerosos factores necesarios para poder hablar de causantes directos de la problemática de la obesidad. El objetivo sobre el que subyace el trabajo trata de analizar los tipos de productos que más presión publicitaria ejercen así como los mensajes sobre los que versa su estrategia comunicativa para así poder observar si realmente la publicidad infantil está copada por productos poco saludables o recomendables en la dieta del menor y observar qué tipo de temática comunicativa impregna este tipo de productos.

  2. Incidencia y dispersión de virus transmitidos por pulgones en hortícolas de invierno y sus relaciones virus-vector

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Lozano, Aránzazu

    2011-01-01

    Durante el desarrollo de la Tesis se ha realizado, por un lado, la identificación, estudios sobre la indicencia y prevalencia de los principales virus que afectan a cultivos de lechuga y brásicas así como en la flora adventicia asociada a los mismos. Además se ha realizado el análisis de la evolución espacio-temporal del virus del mosaico de la lechuga en cultivos de lechuga en la región centro. Los resultados muestran como el Virus del mosaico de la lechuga (LMV) y el Virus del mosaico del p...

  3. Cross-neutralization study of seven California group (Bunyaviridae) strains in homoiothermous (PS) and poikilothermous (XTC-2) vertebrate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubálek, Z; Chanas, A C; Johnson, B K; Simpson, D I

    1979-02-01

    Antigenic relationships among seven California group strains were studied by a plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Cross-reactions occurred in most cases but three subgroups were noted: (1) the major serogroup contained the viruses of California encephalitis, LaCrosse, Snowshoe Hare and Trahyna (including the Lumbo strain) whereas (2) Jamestown Canyon and (3) Trivittatus viruses were distinct. There was no significant difference between the PRNT results in mammalian (PS) cells incubated at 37 degrees C and amphibian (XTC-2) cells incubated at 28 degrees C. Trivittatus virus failed to produce plaques in XTC-2 cells.

  4. Pneumonitis in Syrian golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with Rio Mamoré virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, Mary Louise; Eyzaguirre, Eduardo J; Fulhorst, Charles F

    2014-10-13

    Rio Mamoré virus is an etiological agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in South America. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Rio Mamoré virus strain HTN-007 in Syrian golden hamsters is pathogenic. None of 37 adult hamsters infected by intramuscular injection of HTN-007, including 10 animals killed on Day 42 or 43 post-inoculation, exhibited any symptom of disease. Histological abnormalities included severe or moderately severe pneumonitis in 6 (46.2%) of the 13 animals killed on Day 7 or 10 post-inoculation. The primary target of infection in lung was the endothelium of the microvasculature. Collectively, these results indicate that Rio Mamoré virus strain HTN-007 in adult Syrian golden hamsters can cause a nonlethal disease that is pathologically similar to hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Pneumonitis in Syrian golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with Río Mamoré virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, Mary Louise; Eyzaguirre, Eduardo J.; Fulhorst, Charles F.

    2014-01-01

    Rio Mamoré virus is an etiological agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in South America. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Rio Mamoré virus strain HTN-007 in Syrian golden hamsters is pathogenic. None of 37 adult hamsters infected by intramuscular injection of HTN-007, including 10 animals killed on Day 42 or 43 post-inoculation, exhibited any symptom of disease. Histological abnormalities included severe or moderately severe pneumonitis in 6 (46.2%) of the 13 animals killed on Day 7 or 10 post-inoculation. The primary target of infection in lung was the endothelium of the microvasculature. Collectively, these results indicate that Rio Mamoré virus strain HTN-007 in adult Syrian golden hamsters can cause a nonlethal disease that is pathologically similar to hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. PMID:25064267

  6. Multi-gene detection and identification of mosquito-borne RNA viruses using an oligonucleotide microarray.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan D Grubaugh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Arthropod-borne viruses are important emerging pathogens world-wide. Viruses transmitted by mosquitoes, such as dengue, yellow fever, and Japanese encephalitis viruses, infect hundreds of millions of people and animals each year. Global surveillance of these viruses in mosquito vectors using molecular based assays is critical for prevention and control of the associated diseases. Here, we report an oligonucleotide DNA microarray design, termed ArboChip5.1, for multi-gene detection and identification of mosquito-borne RNA viruses from the genera Flavivirus (family Flaviviridae, Alphavirus (Togaviridae, Orthobunyavirus (Bunyaviridae, and Phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The assay utilizes targeted PCR amplification of three genes from each virus genus for electrochemical detection on a portable, field-tested microarray platform. Fifty-two viruses propagated in cell-culture were used to evaluate the specificity of the PCR primer sets and the ArboChip5.1 microarray capture probes. The microarray detected all of the tested viruses and differentiated between many closely related viruses such as members of the dengue, Japanese encephalitis, and Semliki Forest virus clades. Laboratory infected mosquitoes were used to simulate field samples and to determine the limits of detection. Additionally, we identified dengue virus type 3, Japanese encephalitis virus, Tembusu virus, Culex flavivirus, and a Quang Binh-like virus from mosquitoes collected in Thailand in 2011 and 2012. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrated that the described assay can be utilized in a comprehensive field surveillance program by the broad-range amplification and specific identification of arboviruses from infected mosquitoes. Furthermore, the microarray platform can be deployed in the field and viral RNA extraction to data analysis can occur in as little as 12 h. The information derived from the ArboChip5.1 microarray can help to establish

  7. Heartland virus infection in hamsters deficient in type I interferon signaling: Protracted disease course ameliorated by favipiravir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westover, Jonna B; Rigas, Johanna D; Van Wettere, Arnaud J; Li, Rong; Hickerson, Brady T; Jung, Kie-Hoon; Miao, Jinxin; Reynolds, Erin S; Conrad, Bettina L; Nielson, Skot; Furuta, Yousuke; Thangamani, Saravanan; Wang, Zhongde; Gowen, Brian B

    2017-11-01

    Heartland virus (HRTV) is an emerging tick-borne virus (Bunyaviridae, Phlebovirus) that has caused sporadic cases of human disease in several central and mid-eastern states of America. Animal models of HRTV disease are needed to gain insights into viral pathogenesis and advancing antiviral drug development. Presence of clinical disease following HRTV challenge in hamsters deficient in STAT2 function underscores the important role played by type I interferon-induced antiviral responses. However, the recovery of most of the infected animals suggests that other mechanisms to control infection and limit disease offer substantial protection. The most prominent disease sign with HRTV infection in STAT2 knockout hamsters was dramatic weight loss with clinical laboratory and histopathology demonstrating acute inflammation in the spleen, lymph node, liver and lung. Finally, we show that HRTV disease in hamsters can be prevented by the use of favipiravir, a promising broad-spectrum antiviral in clinical development for the treatment of influenza. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Evasion of antiviral immunity through sequestering of TBK1/IKKε/IRF3 into viral inclusion bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaodong; Qi, Xian; Qu, Bingqian; Zhang, Zerui; Liang, Mifang; Li, Chuan; Cardona, Carol J; Li, Dexin; Xing, Zheng

    2014-03-01

    Cells are equipped with pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as the Toll-like and RIG-I-like receptors that mount innate defenses against viruses. However, viruses have evolved multiple strategies to evade or thwart host antiviral responses. Viral inclusion bodies (IBs), which are accumulated aggregates of viral proteins, are commonly formed during the replication of some viruses in infected cells, but their role in viral immune evasion has rarely been explored. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging febrile illness caused by a novel phlebovirus in the Bunyaviridae. The SFTS viral nonstructural protein NSs can suppress host beta interferon (IFN-β) responses. NSs can form IBs in infected and transfected cells. Through interaction with tank-binding kinase 1 (TBK1), viral NSs was able to sequester the IKK complex, including IKKε and IRF3, into IBs, although NSs did not interact with IKKε or IRF3 directly. When cells were infected with influenza A virus, IRF3 was phosphorylated and active phosphorylated IRF3 (p-IRF3) was translocated into the nucleus. In the presence of NSs, IRF3 could still be phosphorylated, but p-IRF3 was trapped in cytoplasmic IBs, resulting in reduced IFN-β induction and enhanced viral replication. Sequestration of the IKK complex and active IRF3 into viral IBs through the interaction of NSs and TBK1 is a novel mechanism for viral evasion of innate immunity.

  9. Viral RNA Silencing Suppression: The Enigma of Bunyavirus NSs Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedil, Marcio; Kormelink, Richard

    2016-07-23

    The Bunyaviridae is a family of arboviruses including both plant- and vertebrate-infecting representatives. The Tospovirus genus accommodates plant-infecting bunyaviruses, which not only replicate in their plant host, but also in their insect thrips vector during persistent propagative transmission. For this reason, they are generally assumed to encounter antiviral RNA silencing in plants and insects. Here we present an overview on how tospovirus nonstructural NSs protein counteracts antiviral RNA silencing in plants and what is known so far in insects. Like tospoviruses, members of the related vertebrate-infecting bunyaviruses classified in the genera Orthobunyavirus, Hantavirus and Phlebovirus also code for a NSs protein. However, for none of them RNA silencing suppressor activity has been unambiguously demonstrated in neither vertebrate host nor arthropod vector. The second part of this review will briefly describe the role of these NSs proteins in modulation of innate immune responses in mammals and elaborate on a hypothetical scenario to explain if and how NSs proteins from vertebrate-infecting bunyaviruses affect RNA silencing. If so, why this discovery has been hampered so far.

  10. Viral RNA Silencing Suppression: The Enigma of Bunyavirus NSs Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Hedil

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Bunyaviridae is a family of arboviruses including both plant- and vertebrate-infecting representatives. The Tospovirus genus accommodates plant-infecting bunyaviruses, which not only replicate in their plant host, but also in their insect thrips vector during persistent propagative transmission. For this reason, they are generally assumed to encounter antiviral RNA silencing in plants and insects. Here we present an overview on how tospovirus nonstructural NSs protein counteracts antiviral RNA silencing in plants and what is known so far in insects. Like tospoviruses, members of the related vertebrate-infecting bunyaviruses classified in the genera Orthobunyavirus, Hantavirus and Phlebovirus also code for a NSs protein. However, for none of them RNA silencing suppressor activity has been unambiguously demonstrated in neither vertebrate host nor arthropod vector. The second part of this review will briefly describe the role of these NSs proteins in modulation of innate immune responses in mammals and elaborate on a hypothetical scenario to explain if and how NSs proteins from vertebrate-infecting bunyaviruses affect RNA silencing. If so, why this discovery has been hampered so far.

  11. Temperature-sensitive mutations for live-attenuated Rift Valley fever vaccines: Implications from other RNA viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoko eNishiyama

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease endemic to the African continent. RVF is characterized by high rate of abortions in ruminants and hemorrhagic fever, encephalitis or blindness in humans. RVF is caused by the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV: genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae. Vaccination is the only known effective strategy to prevent the disease, but there are no licensed RVF vaccines available for humans. A live-attenuated vaccine candidate derived from the wild-type pathogenic Egyptian ZH548 strain, MP-12, has been conditionally licensed for veterinary use in the United States. MP-12 displays a temperature-sensitive (ts phenotype and does not replicate at 41oC. The ts mutation limits viral replication at a specific body temperature and may lead to an attenuation of the virus. Here we will review well-characterized ts mutations for RNA viruses, and further discuss the potential in designing novel live-attenuated vaccines for RVF.

  12. Risk assessment of human infection with a novel bunyavirus in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamano Matsui

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the public health risk of human infection from a novel bunyavirus – severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV – in China.Methods: The likelihood of disease spread and the magnitude of public health impact were assessed to clarify overall risk. Literature about hazard, exposure and contextual factors associated with SFTSV infection was collected and reviewed. Information on SFTSV cases and the population in six provinces under surveillance was compared.Results: SFTSV is a member of the Phlebovirus genus of the Bunyaviridae family. A widely distributed tick species, Haemaphysalis longicornis, can act as the vector; thus the disease is likely to spread in China. Symptoms of SFTSV infection are nonspecific, but have led to multiorgan dysfunction in severe cases. High-risk populations include farmers and older females. Evidence of human-to-human transmission within family and hospital has been reported. The capacity for treatment and diagnosis of SFTSV are adequate in rural communities in China, and community awareness of the disease should be high. Discussion: There is a low to moderate public health risk related to SFTSV human infection in China. There is potential for an increase in the number of cases reported as awareness increases and when surveillance is expanded.

  13. [Inclusion Bodies are Formed in SFTSV-infected Human Macrophages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Cong; Song, Jingdong; Han, Ying; Li, Chuan; Qiu, Peihong; Liang, Mifang

    2016-01-01

    The severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is a new member in the genus Phlebovirus of the family Bunyaviridae identified in China. The SFTSV is also the causative pathogen of an emerging infectious disease: severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome. Using immunofluorescent staining and confocal microscopy, the intracellular distribution of nucleocapsid protein (NP) in SFTSV-infected THP-1 cells was investigated with serial doses of SFTSV at different times after infection. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe the ultrafine intracellular structure of SFTSV-infected THP-1 cells at different times after infection. SFTSV NP could form intracellular inclusion bodies in infected THP-1 cells. The association between NP-formed inclusion bodies and virus production was analyzed: the size of the inclusion body formed 3 days after infection was correlated with the viral load in supernatants collected 7 days after infection. These findings suggest that the inclusion bodies formed in SFTSV-infected THP-1 cells could be where the SFTSV uses host-cell proteins and intracellular organelles to produce new viral particles.

  14. Evasion of Antiviral Immunity through Sequestering of TBK1/IKKε/IRF3 into Viral Inclusion Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaodong; Qi, Xian; Qu, Bingqian; Zhang, Zerui; Liang, Mifang; Li, Chuan; Cardona, Carol J.; Li, Dexin

    2014-01-01

    Cells are equipped with pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as the Toll-like and RIG-I-like receptors that mount innate defenses against viruses. However, viruses have evolved multiple strategies to evade or thwart host antiviral responses. Viral inclusion bodies (IBs), which are accumulated aggregates of viral proteins, are commonly formed during the replication of some viruses in infected cells, but their role in viral immune evasion has rarely been explored. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging febrile illness caused by a novel phlebovirus in the Bunyaviridae. The SFTS viral nonstructural protein NSs can suppress host beta interferon (IFN-β) responses. NSs can form IBs in infected and transfected cells. Through interaction with tank-binding kinase 1 (TBK1), viral NSs was able to sequester the IKK complex, including IKKε and IRF3, into IBs, although NSs did not interact with IKKε or IRF3 directly. When cells were infected with influenza A virus, IRF3 was phosphorylated and active phosphorylated IRF3 (p-IRF3) was translocated into the nucleus. In the presence of NSs, IRF3 could still be phosphorylated, but p-IRF3 was trapped in cytoplasmic IBs, resulting in reduced IFN-β induction and enhanced viral replication. Sequestration of the IKK complex and active IRF3 into viral IBs through the interaction of NSs and TBK1 is a novel mechanism for viral evasion of innate immunity. PMID:24335286

  15. Human and Murine IFIT1 Proteins Do Not Restrict Infection of Negative-Sense RNA Viruses of the Orthomyxoviridae, Bunyaviridae, and Filoviridae Families

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Amelia K.; Williams, Graham D.; Szretter, Kristy J.; White, James P.; Proença-Módena, José Luiz; Liu, Gai; Olejnik, Judith; Brien, James D.; Ebihara, Hideki; Mühlberger, Elke; Amarasinghe, Gaya; Diamond, Michael S.; Boon, Adrianus C. M.; Doms, R. W.

    2015-07-08

    Interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 1 (IFIT1) is a host protein with reported cell-intrinsic antiviral activity against several RNA viruses. The proposed basis for the activity against negative-sense RNA viruses is the binding to exposed 5'-triphosphates (5'-ppp) on the genome of viral RNA. However, recent studies reported relatively low binding affinities of IFIT1 for 5'-ppp RNA, suggesting that IFIT1 may not interact efficiently with this moiety under physiological conditions. To evaluate the ability of IFIT1 to have an impact on negative-sense RNA viruses, we infectedIfit1-/-and wild-type control mice and primary cells with four negative-sense RNA viruses (influenza A virus [IAV], La Crosse virus [LACV], Oropouche virus [OROV], and Ebola virus) corresponding to three distinct families. Unexpectedly, a lack ofIfit1gene expression did not result in increased infection by any of these viruses in cell culture. Analogously, morbidity, mortality, and viral burdens in tissues were identical betweenIfit1-/-and control mice after infection with IAV, LACV, or OROV. Finally, deletion of the human IFIT1 protein in A549 cells did not affect IAV replication or infection, and reciprocally, ectopic expression of IFIT1 in HEK293T cells did not inhibit IAV infection. To explain the lack of antiviral activity against IAV, we measured the binding affinity of IFIT1 for RNA oligonucleotides resembling the 5' ends of IAV gene segments. The affinity for 5'-ppp RNA was approximately 10-fold lower than that for non-2'-O-methylated (cap 0) RNA oligonucleotides. Based on this analysis, we conclude that IFIT1 is not a dominant restriction factor against negative-sense RNA viruses.

    IMPORTANCENegative-sense RNA viruses, including influenza virus and Ebola virus, have been responsible for some of the most deadly outbreaks in recent history. The host interferon response and induction of antiviral genes contribute to the control of infections by these viruses. IFIT1 is highly induced after virus infection and reportedly has antiviral activity against several RNA and DNA viruses. However, its role in restricting infection by negative-sense RNA viruses remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the ability of IFIT1 to inhibit negative-sense RNA virus replication and pathogenesis bothin vitroandin vivo. Detailed cell culture and animal studies demonstrated that IFIT1 is not a dominant restriction factor against three different families of negative-sense RNA viruses.

  16. Global analysis of population structure, spatial and temporal dynamics of genetic diversity, and evolutionary lineages of Iris yellow spot virus (Tospovirus: Bunyaviridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftikhar, Romana; Ramesh, Shunmugiah V; Bag, Sudeep; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Pappu, Hanu R

    2014-08-15

    Thrips-transmitted Iris yellow spot virus is an economically important viral pathogen of Allium crops worldwide. A global analysis of known IYSV nucleocapsid gene (N gene) sequences was carried out to determine the comparative population structure, spatial and temporal dynamics with reference to its genetic diversity and evolution. A total of 98 complete N gene sequences (including 8 sequences reported in this study) available in GenBank and reported from 23 countries were characterized by in-silico RFLP analysis. Based on RFLP, 94% of the isolates could be grouped into NL or BR types while the rest belonged to neither group. The relative proportion of NL and BR types was 46% and 48%, respectively. A temporal shift in the IYSV genotypes with a greater incremental incidence of IYSVBR was found over IYSVNL before 2005 compared to after 2005. The virus population had at least one evolutionarily significant recombination event, involving IYSVBR and IYSVNL. Codon substitution studies did not identify any significant differences among the genotypes of IYSV. However, N gene codons were minimally positively selected, moderately negatively selected denoting the action of purifying selection, thus rejecting the theory of neutral mutation in IYSV population. However, one codon position (139) was found to be positively selected in all the genotypes. Population selection statistics in the IYSVBR, IYSVNL genotypes and in the population as a whole also revealed the action of purifying selection or population expansion, whereas IYSVother displayed a decrease in population size. Genetic differentiation studies showed inherent differentiation and infrequent gene flow between IYSVBR and IYSVNL genotypes corroborating the geographical confinement of these genotypes. Taken together the study suggests that the observed diversity in IYSV population and temporal shift in IYSVBR genotype is attributable to genetic recombination, abundance of purifying selection, insignificant positive selection and population expansion. Restricted gene flow between the two major IYSV genotypes further emphasizes the role of genetic drift in modeling the population architecture, evolutionary lineage and epidemiology of IYSV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Immunoprecipitation of a 50-kDa protein: a candidate receptor component for tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (Bunyaviridae) in its main vector, Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, R B; Ullman, D E; Sherwood, J L; German, T L

    2000-04-01

    A 50-kDa protein that binds to viral particles in solid-phase assays and that is recognized by anti-idiotypic antibodies made against anti-viral glycoproteins G1/G2 (anti-Ids) has been proposed as a receptor candidate for tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (TSWV) in its main thrips vector, Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande (Bandla et al., 1998. Phytopathology 88, 98-104). Here we show the immunoprecipitation of the 50-kDa protein by anti-Ids and by an anti-G1/G2-TSWV conjugate - a new immunoprecipitation method. In addition, we show that anti-Ids made against anti-G1 (anti-IdG1) block virus replication in an insect tissue replication assay. The results indicate that (a) the TSWV-50-kDa protein interaction occurs in solution, as it must do in vivo; (b) G1 is a viral attachment protein; and (c) the 50-kDa protein is a candidate host factor essential for TSWV entry. These results provide additional support for the role of the 50-kDa thrips protein as a viral receptor. Additionally these experiments provide the basis for testing saturable binding and represent an important step toward the first cloning and identification of a cellular receptor for a plant virus.

  18. Long-Distance Dispersal Potential for Onion Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Iris yellow spot virus (Bunyaviridae: Tospovirus) in an Onion Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erik A; Fuchs, M; Shields, E J; Nault, B A

    2015-08-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, is a worldwide pest of onion whose feeding damage and transmission of Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) may reduce onion yields. Little is known about the seasonal dynamics of T. tabaci dispersal, the distance of dispersal, or the movement of thrips infected with IYSV during the onion-growing season. To address these questions, T. tabaci adults were collected using transparent sticky card traps in commercial onion fields three times during the onion-growing season (June, July, and late August) at varying heights above the canopy (0.5-6 m above soil surface) and with trap-equipped unmanned aircraft (UAVs) flying 50-60 m above onion fields during August sampling periods in 2012 and 2013. Randomly selected subsamples of captured T. tabaci were tested for IYSV using RT-PCR. Most T. tabaci adults were captured in late August and near the onion canopy (<2 m) throughout the season. However, 4% of T. tabaci adults captured on sticky cards were at altitudes ≥2 m, and T. tabaci were also captured on UAV-mounted traps. These data strongly suggest that long-distance dispersal occurs. More T. tabaci captured on sticky cards tested positive for IYSV in August (53.6%) than earlier in the season (2.3 to 21.5% in June and July, respectively), and 20 and 15% of T. tabaci captured on UAV-mounted traps tested positive for IYSV in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Our results indicate that T. tabaci adults, including viruliferous individuals, engage in long-distance dispersal late in the season and likely contribute to the spread of IYSV. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Role of Anopheles quadrimaculatus and Coquillettidia perturbans (Diptera: Culicidae) in the transmission cycle of Cache Valley virus (Bunyaviridae: Bunyavirus) in the midwest, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, C G; Blackmore, M S; Grimstad, P R

    1998-09-01

    Midwestern populations of Coquillettidia perturbans (Walker) and Anopheles quadrimaculatus (Say) were tested for their ability to transmit Cache Valley virus (CV), a recognized human and animal pathogen. Field-collected mosquitoes were fed artificial blood meals containing 5.2-6.2 log10 pfu/ml of CV. After 9-23 d at 28 degrees C, 75-93% of blood-fed Cq. perturbans had disseminated infections and 6-62% transmitted the virus to suckling mice. However, when infected with a lower virus titer (3.3 log10 pfu/ml), only 10-36% of the mosquitoes had disseminated infections and 0-10% transmitted the virus to suckling mice. A similar infection rate (21%) was observed in Cq. perturbans fed on viremic (3.2 log10 pfu/ml) hamsters. An. quadrimaculatus were infected (81-100%) by both doses used, with transmission rates ranging from 13-67% after 16-23 d of incubation. Transmission rates for the laboratory strain An. quadrimaculatus SAVANNAH ranged from 20 to 33% after 7-14 d of incubation. Our data show that although An. quadrimaculatus is more susceptible to CV infections than Cq. perturbans, both mosquito species could be involved in the midwestern transmission cycle of the virus.

  20. Mutational analysis of two highly conserved motifs in the silencing suppressor encoded by tomato spotted wilt virus (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Ying; Bag, Sudeep; Mitter, Neena; Turina, Massimo; Pappu, Hanu R

    2014-06-01

    Tospoviruses cause serious economic losses to a wide range of field and horticultural crops on a global scale. The NSs gene encoded by tospoviruses acts as a suppressor of host plant defense. We identified amino acid motifs that are conserved in all of the NSs proteins of tospoviruses for which the sequence is known. Using tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) as a model, the role of these motifs in suppressor activity of NSs was investigated. Using site-directed point mutations in two conserved motifs, glycine, lysine and valine/threonine (GKV/T) at positions 181-183 and tyrosine and leucine (YL) at positions 412-413, and an assay to measure the reversal of gene silencing in Nicotiana benthamiana line 16c, we show that substitutions (K182 to A, and L413 to A) in these motifs abolished suppressor activity of the NSs protein, indicating that these two motifs are essential for the RNAi suppressor function of tospoviruses.

  1. Geoestatística como metodologia para estudar a dinâmica espaço-temporal de doenças associadas a Colletotrichum spp. transmitidos por sementes

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Marcelo C.; Pozza, Edson A.; Machado, José C.; Araújo, Dejânia V.; Talamini, Viviane; Oliveira, Marcelo S.

    2006-01-01

    Objetivou-se no presente trabalho caracterizar o progresso espaço-temporal da severidade da antracnose do feijoeiro comum e da ramulose do algodoeiro por meio da Geoestatística. Os experimentos foram conduzidos no campo, durante o período das águas, em diferentes épocas. Sementes inoculadas pelo método da restrição hídrica foram semeadas no centro de parcelas experimentais constituindo fonte de inóculo do tipo ponto. Foram realizadas semanalmente seis avaliações da severidade das doenças com ...

  2. A theoretical model of the evolution of virulence in sexually transmitted HIV/AIDS Modelo teórico da evolucão da virulência do HIV/AIDS transmitido sexualmente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAB Coutinho

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The evolution of virulence in host-parasite relationships has been the subject of several publications. In the case of HIV virulence, some authors suggest that the evolution of HIV virulence correlates with the rate of acquisition of new sexual partners. In contrast some other authors argue that the level of HIV virulence is independent of the sexual activity of the host population. METHODS: Provide a mathematical model for the study of the potential influence of human sexual behaviour on the evolution of virulence of HIV is provided. RESULTS: The results indicated that, when the probability of acquisition of infection is a function both of the sexual activity and of the virulence level of HIV strains, the evolution of HIV virulence correlates positively with the rate of acquisition of new sexual partners. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that in the case of a host population with a low (high rate of exchange of sexual partners the evolution of HIV virulence is such that the less (more virulent strain prevails.INTRODUÇÃO: A evolução da virulência na relação hospedeiro-parasita tem sido objeto de várias publicações. No caso do HIV, alguns autores sugerem que a evolução da virulência do HIV correlaciona-se com a taxa de aquisição de novos parceiros sexuais. Por outro lado, outros autores argumentam que o nível de virulência do HIV é independente da atividade sexual da população hospedeira. MÉTODOS: Propõe-se um modelo matemático para estudar a influência potencial que o comportamento sexual humano possa ter na evolução da virulência do HIV. RESULTADOS: Os resultados indicam que, quando a probabilidade de aquisição da infecção pelo HIV é uma função tanto da atividade sexual da população humana quanto da virulência das cepas de HIV, a evolução da virulência do HIV correlaciona-se positivamente com a taxa de aquisição de novos parceiros sexuais. CONCLUSÃO: Concluiu-se que no caso de uma população hospedeira com uma baixa (alta taxa de troca de parceiros sexuais a evolução da virulência do HIV é tal que a cepa menos (mais virulenta predomina.

  3. Emergencia del modelo de enfermería transmitido en las universidades españolas: una aproximación analítica a través de la Teoría Fundamentada

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    Olga Rodrigo Pedrosa

    Full Text Available Resumen El objetivo fue conocer el significado del término “enfermería” para las enfermeras docentes de las universidades españolas. El diseño fue cualitativo. Como estrategia se utilizó la inducción analítica. El muestreo fue teórico y enfocado en la selección de casos extremos. La técnica de recogida de datos fue la entrevista en profundidad. El análisis se llevó a cabo mediante la técnica específica de la Teoría Fundamentada. Se establecieron estrategias para asegurar la credibilidad, transferibilidad, confirmabilidad y auditabilidad. A partir del análisis de los datos se identificaron tres categorías que dieron respuesta al objetivo planteado: es una “actividad humana vinculada a la maternidad”, una “vocación de ayuda al otro que tienen algunas personas” y una “actividad que atiende las necesidades de los demás respetando su identidad”. Se puede concluir que en las universidades españolas se está transmitiendo un modelo de enfermera donde el rol propio de cuidado es inherente al género femenino y a la vocación de servicio al otro que tienen algunas personas. Esto es causa de que la Real Academia de la Lengua Española sólo identifique el rol de asistencia técnica a la medicina como elemento profesional de la enfermería.

  4. Zika: the origin and spread of a mosquito-borne virus/Zika: origine et propagation d'un virus transmis par des moustiques/El zika: el origen y la propagacion de un virus transmitido por mosquitos

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kindhauser, Mary Kay; Allen, Tomas; Frank, Veronika; Santhana, Ravi Shankar; Dye, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the temporal and geographical distribution of Zika virus infection and associated neurological disorders, from 1947 to 1 February 2016, when Zika became a Public Health Emergency...

  5. Extracellular Vesicles Mediate Receptor-Independent Transmission of Novel Tick-Borne Bunyavirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvas, Jesus A.; Popov, Vsevolod L.; Paulucci-Holthauzen, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) virus is a newly recognized member of the genus Phlebovirus in the family Bunyaviridae. The virus was isolated from patients presenting with hemorrhagic manifestations and an initial case fatality rate of 12 to 30% was reported. Due to the recent emergence of this pathogen, there is limited knowledge on the molecular virology of SFTS virus. Recently, we reported that the SFTS virus NSs protein inhibited the activation of the beta interferon (IFN-β) promoter. Furthermore, we also found that SFTS virus NSs relocalizes key components of the IFN response into NSs-induced cytoplasmic structures. Due to the important role these structures play during SFTS virus replication, we conducted live cell imaging studies to gain further insight into the role and trafficking of these cytoplasmic structures during virus infection. We found that some of the SFTS virus NSs-positive cytoplasmic structures were secreted to the extracellular space and endocytosed by neighboring cells. We also found that these secreted structures isolated from NSs-expressing cells and SFTS virus-infected cells were positive for the viral protein NSs and the host protein CD63, a protein associated with extracellular vesicles. Electron microscopy studies also revealed that the isolated CD63-immunoprecipitated extracellular vesicles produced during SFTS virus infection contained virions. The virions harbored within these structures were efficiently delivered to uninfected cells and were able to sustain SFTS virus replication. Altogether, these results suggest that SFTS virus exploits extracellular vesicles to mediate virus receptor-independent transmission to host cells and open the avenue for novel therapeutic strategies against SFTS virus and related pathogens. IMPORTANCE SFTS virus is novel bunyavirus associated with hemorrhagic fever illness. Currently, limited information is available about SFTS virus. In the present study, we demonstrated

  6. Experimental evaluation of sand fly collection and storage methods for the isolation and molecular detection of Phlebotomus-borne viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remoli, Maria Elena; Bongiorno, Gioia; Fortuna, Claudia; Marchi, Antonella; Bianchi, Riccardo; Khoury, Cristina; Ciufolini, Maria Grazia; Gramiccia, Marina

    2015-11-09

    Several viruses have been recently isolated from Mediterranean phlebotomine sand flies; some are known to cause human disease while some are new to science. To monitor the Phlebotomus-borne viruses spreading, field studies are in progress using different sand fly collection and storage methods. Two main sampling techniques consist of CDC light traps, an attraction method allowing collection of live insects in which the virus is presumed to be fairly preserved, and sticky traps, an interception method suitable to collect dead specimens in high numbers, with a risk for virus viability or integrity. Sand flies storage requires a "deep cold chain" or specimen preservation in ethanol. In the present study the influence of sand fly collection and storage methods on viral isolation and RNA detection performances was evaluated experimentally. Specimens of laboratory-reared Phlebotomus perniciosus were artificially fed with blood containing Toscana virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebovirus). Various collection and storage conditions of blood-fed females were evaluated to mimic field procedures using single and pool samples. Isolation on VERO cell cultures, quantitative Real time-Retro-transcriptase (RT)-PCR and Nested-RT-PCR were performed according to techniques commonly used in surveillance studies. Live engorged sand flies stored immediately at -80 °C were the most suitable sample for phlebovirus identification by both virus isolation and RNA detection. The viral isolation rate remained very high (26/28) for single dead engorged females frozen after 1 day, while it was moderate (10/30) for specimens collected by sticky traps maintained up to 3 days at room temperature and then stored frozen without ethanol. Opposed to viral isolation, molecular RNA detection kept very high on dead sand flies collected by sticky traps when left at room temperature up to 6 days post blood meal and then stored frozen in presence (88/95) or absence (87/88) of ethanol. Data were

  7. Planning for Rift Valley fever virus: use of geographical information systems to estimate the human health threat of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)-related transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakani, Sravan; LaBeaud, A Desirée; King, Charles H

    2010-11-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus is a mosquito-borne phlebovirus of the Bunyaviridae family that causes frequent outbreaks of severe animal and human disease in sub-Saharan Africa, Egypt and the Arabian Peninsula. Based on its many known competent vectors, its potential for transmission via aerosolization, and its progressive spread from East Africa to neighbouring regions, RVF is considered a high-priority, emerging health threat for humans, livestock and wildlife in all parts of the world. Introduction of West Nile virus to North America has shown the potential for "exotic" viral pathogens to become embedded in local ecological systems. While RVF is known to infect and amplify within domestic livestock, such as taurine cattle, sheep and goats, if RVF virus is accidentally or intentionally introduced into North America, an important unknown factor will be the role of local wildlife in the maintenance or propagation of virus transmission. We examined the potential impact of RVF transmission via white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a typical north-eastern United States urban-suburban landscape, where livestock are rare but where these potentially susceptible, ungulate wildlife are highly abundant. Model results, based on overlap of mosquito, human and projected deer densities, indicate that a significant proportion (497/1186 km(2), i.e. 42%) of the urban and peri-urban landscape could be affected by RVF transmission during the late summer months. Deer population losses, either by intervention for herd reduction or by RVF-related mortality, would substantially reduce these likely transmission zones to 53.1 km(2), i.e. by 89%.

  8. Planning for Rift Valley fever virus: Use of GIS to estimate the human health threat of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)-related transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakani, Sravan; LaBeaud, A. Desirée; King, Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne phlebovirus of the Bunyaviridae family that causes frequent outbreaks of severe animal and human disease in sub-Saharan Africa, Egypt,and the Arabian Peninsula. Based on its many known competent vectors, its potential for transmission via aerosolization, and its progressive spread from East Africa to neighboring regions, RVFV is considered a high-priority, emerging health threat forhumans, livestock, and wildlife in all parts of the world. Introduction of West Nile virus to North America has shown the potential for ‘exotic’ viral pathogens to become embedded in local ecological systems. While RVFV is known to infect and amplify within domestic livestock, such as taurine cattle, sheep, and goats, if RVFV is accidentally or intentionally introduced into North America, an important unknown factor will be the role of local wildlife in the maintenance or propagation of virus transmission. We examined the potential impact of RVFV transmission via white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)in a typical northeastern United States urban-suburban landscape, where livestock are rare, but these potentially susceptible ungulate wildlife are highly abundant. Model results, based on overlap of mosquito, human, and projected deer densities, indicate that a significant proportion (497/1186 km2, or 42 %) of the urban and peri-urban landscape could be affected by RVFV transmission during the late summermonths. Deer population losses, either by intervention for herd reduction or by RVFV-related mortality, would substantially reduce these likely transmission zones to 53.1 km2, orby 89%. PMID:21080319

  9. A Snapshot Avian Surveillance Reveals West Nile Virus and Evidence of Wild Birds Participating in Toscana Virus Circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacioglu, Sabri; Dincer, Ender; Isler, Cafer Tayer; Karapinar, Zeynep; Ataseven, Veysel Soydal; Ozkul, Aykut; Ergunay, Koray

    2017-10-01

    Birds are involved in the epidemiology of several vector-borne viruses, as amplification hosts for viruses, dissemination vehicles for the vectors, and sources of emerging strains in cross-species transmission. Turkey provides diverse habitats for a variety of wild birds and is located along major bird migration routes. This study was undertaken to provide a cross-sectional screening of avian specimens for a spectrum of vector-borne viruses. The specimens were collected in Hatay province, in the Mediterranean coast of the Anatolian peninsula, located in the convergence zone of the known migration routes. Generic PCR assays were used for the detection of members of Nairovirus, Flavivirus, and Phlebovirus genera of Flaviviridae and Bunyaviridae families. The circulating viruses were characterized via sequencing and selected specimens were inoculated onto Vero cell lines for virus isolation. Specimens from 72 wild birds belonging in 8 orders and 14 species were collected. A total of 158 specimens that comprise 32 sera (20.3%) from 7 species and 126 tissues (79.7%) from 14 species were screened. Eight specimens (8/158, 5%), obtained from 4 individuals (4/72, 5.5%), were positive. West Nile virus (WNV) lineage 1 sequences were characterized in the spleen, heart, and kidney tissues from a lesser spotted eagle (Clanga pomarina), which distinctly clustered from sequences previously identified in Turkey. Toscana virus (TOSV) genotype A and B sequences were identified in brain and kidney tissues from a greater flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus), a great white pelican (Pelecanus onocrotalus), and a black stork (Ciconia nigra), without successful virus isolation. Partial amino acid sequences of the viral nucleocapsid protein revealed previously unreported substitutions. This study documents the involvement of avians in WNV dispersion in Anatolia as well in TOSV life cycle.

  10. Structure of the Leanyer orthobunyavirus nucleoprotein-RNA complex reveals unique architecture for RNA encapsidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Fengfeng; Shaw, Neil; Wang, Yao E; Jiao, Lianying; Ding, Wei; Li, Xiaomin; Zhu, Ping; Upur, Halmurat; Ouyang, Songying; Cheng, Genhong; Liu, Zhi-Jie

    2013-05-28

    Negative-stranded RNA viruses cover their genome with nucleoprotein (N) to protect it from the human innate immune system. Abrogation of the function of N offers a unique opportunity to combat the spread of the viruses. Here, we describe a unique fold of N from Leanyer virus (LEAV, Orthobunyavirus genus, Bunyaviridae family) in complex with single-stranded RNA refined to 2.78 Å resolution as well as a 2.68 Å resolution structure of LEAV N-ssDNA complex. LEAV N is made up of an N- and a C-terminal lobe, with the RNA binding site located at the junction of these lobes. The LEAV N tetramer binds a 44-nucleotide-long single-stranded RNA chain. Hence, oligomerization of N is essential for encapsidation of the entire genome and is accomplished by using extensions at the N and C terminus. Molecular details of the oligomerization of N are illustrated in the structure where a circular ring-like tertiary assembly of a tetramer of LEAV N is observed tethering the RNA in a positively charged cavity running along the inner edge. Hydrogen bonds between N and the C2 hydroxyl group of ribose sugar explain the specificity of LEAV N for RNA over DNA. In addition, base-specific hydrogen bonds suggest that some regions of RNA bind N more tightly than others. Hinge movements around F20 and V125 assist in the reversal of capsidation during transcription and replication of the virus. Electron microscopic images of the ribonucleoprotein complexes of LEAV N reveal a filamentous assembly similar to those found in phleboviruses.

  11. Planning for Rift Valley fever virus: use of geographical information systems to estimate the human health threat of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus-related transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sravan Kakani

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF virus is a mosquito-borne phlebovirus of the Bunyaviridae family that causes frequent outbreaks of severe animal and human disease in sub-Saharan Africa, Egypt and the Arabian Peninsula. Based on its many known competent vectors, its potential for transmission via aerosolization, and its progressive spread from East Africa to neighbouring regions, RVF is considered a high-priority, emerging health threat for humans, livestock and wildlife in all parts of the world. Introduction of West Nile virus to North America has shown the potential for “exotic” viral pathogens to become embedded in local ecological systems. While RVF is known to infect and amplify within domestic livestock, such as taurine cattle, sheep and goats, if RVF virus is accidentally or intentionally introduced into North America, an important unknown factor will be the role of local wildlife in the maintenance or propagation of virus transmission. We examined the potential impact of RVF transmission via white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus in a typical north-eastern United States urban-suburban landscape, where livestock are rare but where these potentially susceptible, ungulate wildlife are highly abundant. Model results, based on overlap of mosquito, human and projected deer densities, indicate that a significant proportion (497/1186 km2, i.e. 42% of the urban and peri-urban landscape could be affected by RVF transmission during the late summer months. Deer population losses, either by intervention for herd reduction or by RVF-related mortality, would substantially reduce these likely transmission zones to 53.1 km2, i.e. by 89%.

  12. Molecular differences in the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI) gene and development of a species-specific marker for onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, and melon thrips, T. palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), vectors of tospoviruses (Bunyaviridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asokan, R; Krishna Kumar, N K; Kumar, Vikas; Ranganath, H R

    2007-10-01

    A quick and developmental-stage non-limiting method of the identification of vectors of tospoviruses, such as Thrips tabaci and T. palmi, is important in the study of vector transmission, insecticide resistance, biological control, etc. Morphological identification of these thrips vectors is often a stumbling block in the absence of a specialist and limited by polymorphism, sex, stage of development, etc. Molecular identification, on the other hand, is not hampered by the above factors and can easily be followed by a non-specialist with a little training. The mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI) exhibits reliable inter-species variations as compared to the other markers. In this communication, we present the differences in the mtCOI partial sequence of morphologically identified specimens of T. tabaci and T. palmi collected from onion and watermelon, respectively. Species-specific markers, identified in this study, could successfully determine T. tabaci and T. palmi, which corroborated the morphological identification. Phylogenetic analyses showed that both T. tabaci and T. palmi formed different clades as compared to the other NCBI accessions. The implication of these variations in vector efficiency has to be investigated further. The result of this investigation is useful in the quick identification of T. tabaci and T. palmi, a critical factor in understanding the epidemiology of the tospoviruses, their management and also in quarantine.

  13. Functional analysis of Rift Valley fever virus NSs encoding a partial truncation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A Head

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV, belongs to genus Phlebovirus of the family Bunyaviridae, causes high rates of abortion and fetal malformation in infected ruminants as well as causing neurological disorders, blindness, or lethal hemorrhagic fever in humans. RVFV is classified as a category A priority pathogen and a select agent in the U.S., and currently there are no therapeutics available for RVF patients. NSs protein, a major virulence factor of RVFV, inhibits host transcription including interferon (IFN-β mRNA synthesis and promotes degradation of dsRNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR. NSs self-associates at the C-terminus 17 aa., while NSs at aa.210-230 binds to Sin3A-associated protein (SAP30 to inhibit the activation of IFN-β promoter. Thus, we hypothesize that NSs function(s can be abolished by truncation of specific domains, and co-expression of nonfunctional NSs with intact NSs will result in the attenuation of NSs function by dominant-negative effect. Unexpectedly, we found that RVFV NSs truncated at aa. 6-30, 31-55, 56-80, 81-105, 106-130, 131-155, 156-180, 181-205, 206-230, 231-248 or 249-265 lack functions of IFN-β mRNA synthesis inhibition and degradation of PKR. Truncated NSs were less stable in infected cells, while nuclear localization was inhibited in NSs lacking either of aa.81-105, 106-130, 131-155, 156-180, 181-205, 206-230 or 231-248. Furthermore, none of truncated NSs had exhibited significant dominant-negative functions for NSs-mediated IFN-β suppression or PKR degradation upon co-expression in cells infected with RVFV. We also found that any of truncated NSs except for intact NSs does not interact with RVFV NSs even in the presence of intact C-terminus self-association domain. Our results suggest that conformational integrity of NSs is important for the stability, cellular localization and biological functions of RVFV NSs, and the co-expression of truncated NSs does not exhibit dominant-negative phenotype.

  14. Characterization of Rift Valley fever virus MP-12 strain encoding NSs of Punta Toro virus or sandfly fever Sicilian virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A Lihoradova

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV; genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae is a mosquito-borne zoonotic pathogen which can cause hemorrhagic fever, neurological disorders or blindness in humans, and a high rate of abortion in ruminants. MP-12 strain, a live-attenuated candidate vaccine, is attenuated in the M- and L-segments, but the S-segment retains the virulent phenotype. MP-12 was manufactured as an Investigational New Drug vaccine by using MRC-5 cells and encodes a functional NSs gene, the major virulence factor of RVFV which 1 induces a shutoff of the host transcription, 2 inhibits interferon (IFN-β promoter activation, and 3 promotes the degradation of dsRNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR. MP-12 lacks a marker for differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA. Although MP-12 lacking NSs works for DIVA, it does not replicate efficiently in type-I IFN-competent MRC-5 cells, while the use of type-I IFN-incompetent cells may negatively affect its genetic stability. To generate modified MP-12 vaccine candidates encoding a DIVA marker, while still replicating efficiently in MRC-5 cells, we generated recombinant MP-12 encoding Punta Toro virus Adames strain NSs (rMP12-PTNSs or Sandfly fever Sicilian virus NSs (rMP12-SFSNSs in place of MP-12 NSs. We have demonstrated that those recombinant MP-12 viruses inhibit IFN-β mRNA synthesis, yet do not promote the degradation of PKR. The rMP12-PTNSs, but not rMP12-SFSNSs, replicated more efficiently than recombinant MP-12 lacking NSs in MRC-5 cells. Mice vaccinated with rMP12-PTNSs or rMP12-SFSNSs induced neutralizing antibodies at a level equivalent to those vaccinated with MP-12, and were efficiently protected from wild-type RVFV challenge. The rMP12-PTNSs and rMP12-SFSNSs did not induce antibodies cross-reactive to anti-RVFV NSs antibody and are therefore applicable to DIVA. Thus, rMP12-PTNSs is highly efficacious, replicates efficiently in MRC-5 cells, and encodes a DIVA marker, all of which

  15. RNA Interference Restricts Rift Valley Fever Virus in Multiple Insect Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Isabelle; Jansen, Stephanie; Fall, Gamou; Lorenzen, Stephan; Rudolf, Martin; Huber, Katrin; Heitmann, Anna; Schicht, Sabine; Ndiaye, El Hadji; Watson, Mick; Castelli, Ilaria; Brennan, Benjamin; Elliott, Richard M; Diallo, Mawlouth; Sall, Amadou A; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Schnettler, Esther; Kohl, Alain; Becker, Stefanie C

    2017-01-01

    The emerging bunyavirus Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is transmitted to humans and livestock by a large number of mosquito species. RNA interference (RNAi) has been characterized as an important innate immune defense mechanism used by mosquitoes to limit replication of positive-sense RNA flaviviruses and togaviruses; however, little is known about its role against negative-strand RNA viruses such as RVFV. We show that virus-specific small RNAs are produced in infected mosquito cells, in Drosophila melanogaster cells, and, most importantly, also in RVFV vector mosquitoes. By addressing the production of small RNAs in adult Aedes sp. and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes, we showed the presence of virus-derived Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) not only in Aedes sp. but also in C. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes, indicating that antiviral RNA interference in C. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes is similar to the described activities of RNAi in Aedes sp. mosquitoes. We also show that these have antiviral activity, since silencing of RNAi pathway effectors enhances viral replication. Moreover, our data suggest that RVFV does not encode a suppressor of RNAi. These findings point toward a significant role of RNAi in the control of RVFV in mosquitoes. IMPORTANCE Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV; Phlebovirus, Bunyaviridae) is an emerging zoonotic mosquito-borne pathogen of high relevance for human and animal health. Successful strategies of intervention in RVFV transmission by its mosquito vectors and the prevention of human and veterinary disease rely on a better understanding of the mechanisms that govern RVFV-vector interactions. Despite its medical importance, little is known about the factors that govern RVFV replication, dissemination, and transmission in the invertebrate host. Here we studied the role of the antiviral RNA interference immune pathways in the defense against RVFV in natural vector mosquitoes and mosquito cells and draw comparisons to the model insect Drosophila

  16. A geographical information system-based multicriteria evaluation to map areas at risk for Rift Valley fever vector-borne transmission in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, A; Ippoliti, C; Balenghien, T; Conte, A; Gely, M; Calistri, P; Goffredo, M; Baldet, T; Chevalier, V

    2013-11-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a severe mosquito-borne disease that is caused by a Phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae) and affects domestic ruminants and humans. Recently, its distribution widened, threatening Europe. The probability of the introduction and large-scale spread of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in Europe is low, but localized RVF outbreaks may occur in areas where populations of ruminants and potential vectors are present. In this study, we assumed the introduction of the virus into Italy and focused on the risk of vector-borne transmission of RVFV to three main European potential hosts (cattle, sheep and goats). Five main potential mosquito vectors belonging to the Culex and Aedes genera that are present in Italy were identified in a literature review. We first modelled the geographical distribution of these five species based on expert knowledge and using land cover as a proxy of mosquito presence. The mosquito distribution maps were compared with field mosquito collections from Italy to validate the model. Next, the risk of RVFV transmission was modelled using a multicriteria evaluation (MCE) approach, integrating expert knowledge and the results of a literature review on host sensitivity and vector competence, feeding behaviour and abundance. A sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the robustness of the results with respect to expert choices. The resulting maps include (i) five maps of the vector distribution, (ii) a map of suitable areas for vector-borne transmission of RVFV and (iii) a map of the risk of RVFV vector-borne transmission to sensitive hosts given a viral introduction. Good agreement was found between the modelled presence probability and the observed presence or absence of each vector species. The resulting RVF risk map highlighted strong spatial heterogeneity and could be used to target surveillance. In conclusion, the geographical information system (GIS)-based MCE served as a valuable framework and a flexible tool for mapping the

  17. Oligomerization of Uukuniemi virus nucleocapsid protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katz Anna

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uukuniemi virus (UUKV belongs to the Phlebovirus genus in the family Bunyaviridae. As a non-pathogenic virus for humans UUKV has served as a safe model bunyavirus in a number of studies addressing fundamental questions such as organization and regulation of viral genes, genome replication, structure and assembly. The present study is focused on the oligomerization of the UUKV nucleocapsid (N protein, which plays an important role in several steps of virus replication. The aim was to locate the domains involved in the N protein oligomerization and study the process in detail. Results A set of experiments concentrating on the N- and C-termini of the protein was performed, first by completely or partially deleting putative N-N-interaction domains and then by introducing point mutations of amino acid residues. Mutagenesis strategy was based on the computer modeling of secondary and tertiary structure of the N protein. The N protein mutants were studied in chemical cross-linking, immunofluorescence, mammalian two-hybrid, minigenome, and virus-like particle-forming assays. The data showed that the oligomerization ability of UUKV-N protein depends on the presence of intact α-helices on both termini of the N protein molecule and that a specific structure in the N-terminal region plays a crucial role in the N-N interaction(s. This structure is formed by two α-helices, rich in amino acid residues with aromatic (W7, F10, W19, F27, F31 or long aliphatic (I14, I24 side chains. Furthermore, some of the N-terminal mutations (e.g. I14A, I24A, F31A affected the N protein functionality both in mammalian two-hybrid and minigenome assays. Conclusions UUKV-N protein has ability to form oligomers in chemical cross-linking and mammalian two-hybrid assays. In mutational analysis, some of the introduced single-point mutations abolished the N protein functionality both in mammalian two-hybrid and minigenome assays, suggesting that especially the N

  18. Modeling Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus Infection in Golden Syrian Hamsters: Importance of STAT2 in Preventing Disease and Effective Treatment with Favipiravir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowen, Brian B; Westover, Jonna B; Miao, Jinxin; Van Wettere, Arnaud J; Rigas, Johanna D; Hickerson, Brady T; Jung, Kie-Hoon; Li, Rong; Conrad, Bettina L; Nielson, Skot; Furuta, Yousuke; Wang, Zhongde

    2017-02-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging tick-borne disease endemic in parts of Asia. The etiologic agent, SFTS virus (SFTSV; family Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebovirus) has caused significant morbidity and mortality in China, South Korea, and Japan, with key features of disease being intense fever, thrombocytopenia, and leukopenia. Case fatality rates are estimated to be in the 30% range, and no antivirals or vaccines are approved for use for treatment and prevention of SFTS. There is evidence that in human cells, SFTSV sequesters STAT proteins in replication complexes, thereby inhibiting type I interferon signaling. Here, we demonstrate that hamsters devoid of functional STAT2 are highly susceptible to as few as 10 PFU of SFTSV, with animals generally succumbing within 5 to 6 days after subcutaneous challenge. The disease included marked thrombocytopenia and inflammatory disease characteristic of the condition in humans. Infectious virus titers were present in the blood and most tissues 3 days after virus challenge, and severe inflammatory lesions were found in the spleen and liver samples of SFTSV-infected hamsters. We also show that SFTSV infection in STAT2 knockout (KO) hamsters is responsive to favipiravir treatment, which protected all animals from lethal disease and reduced serum and tissue viral loads by 3 to 6 orders of magnitude. Taken together, our results provide additional insights into the pathogenesis of SFTSV infection and support the use of the newly described STAT2 KO hamster model for evaluation of promising antiviral therapies. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging viral disease for which there are currently no therapeutic options or available vaccines. The causative agent, SFTS virus (SFTSV), is present in China, South Korea, and Japan, and infections requiring medical attention result in death in as many as 30% of the cases. Here, we describe a novel model of SFTS in hamsters genetically

  19. Emerging and Reemeriging Human Bunyavirus Infections and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Laura J.; Anyamba, Assaf; LaBeaud, A. Desiree

    2013-01-01

    The Bunyaviridae family includes a growing number of viruses that have contributed to the burden of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases around the globe. Many of these viruses cause severe clinical outcomes in human and animal populations, the results of which can be detrimental to public health and the economies of affected communities. The threat to endemic and non-native regions is particularly high, and national and international public health agencies are often on alert. Many of the bunyaviruses cause severe clinical disease including hemorrhage, organ failure, and death leading to their high-risk classification. Hantaviruses and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) (genus Phlebovirus) are National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Category A priority pathogens in the United States. Viral hemorrhagic fevers, a classification that includes many bunyaviruses, are immediately notifiable in the European Union. The emergence of new and reemerging bunyaviruses has resulted in numerous human and animal fatalities. Outbreaks of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in East Africa (1997/1998, 2006/2007), Sudan (2007), Southern Africa (2008-2010), Kenya (1997/1998, 2006/2007) (Anyamba et al., 2009, 2010; Breiman et al., 2010; Grobbelaar et al., 2011; Woods et al., 2002) and Saudi Arabia & Yemen (2000, 2010) (Food and Agriculture Organization, 2000; Hjelle and Glass, 2000; Madani et al., 2003) and the emergence of Sin Nombre virus (1993) (Hjelle and Glass, 2000) and most recently Schmallenberg virus (2011) (DEFRA, 2012) are prime examples of the devastating and worldwide toll bunyaviruses have on health and economies. Climate variability (precipitation and temperature in particular) greatly influence the ecological conditions that drive arboviral disease outbreaks across the globe. Several human and animal disease outbreaks have been influenced by changes in climate associated with the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon including the bunyaviruses RVFV and Sin

  20. Role of Culex and Anopheles mosquito species as potential vectors of rift valley fever virus in Sudan outbreak, 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galal Fatma H

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rift Valley fever (RVF is an acute febrile arthropod-borne viral disease of man and animals caused by a member of the Phlebovirus genus, one of the five genera in the family Bunyaviridae. RVF virus (RVFV is transmitted between animals and human by mosquitoes, particularly those belonging to the Culex, Anopheles and Aedes genera. Methods Experiments were designed during RVF outbreak, 2007 in Sudan to provide an answer about many raised questions about the estimated role of vector in RVFV epidemiology. During this study, adult and immature mosquito species were collected from Khartoum and White Nile states, identified and species abundance was calculated. All samples were frozen individually for further virus detection. Total RNA was extracted from individual insects and RVF virus was detected from Culex, Anopheles and Aedes species using RT-PCR. In addition, data were collected about human cases up to November 24th, 2007 to asses the situation of the disease in affected states. Furthermore, a historical background of the RVF outbreaks was discussed in relation to global climatic anomalies and incriminated vector species. Results A total of 978 mosquitoes, belonging to 3 genera and 7 species, were collected during Sudan outbreak, 2007. Anopheles gambiae arabiensis was the most frequent species (80.7% in White Nile state. Meanwhile, Cx. pipiens complex was the most abundant species (91.2% in Khartoum state. RT-PCR was used and successfully amplified 551 bp within the M segment of the tripartite negative-sense single stranded RNA genome of RVFV. The virus was detected in female, male and larval stages of Culex and Anopheles species. The most affected human age interval was 15-29 years old followed by ≥ 45 years old, 30-44 years old, and then 5-14 years old. Regarding to the profession, housewives followed by farmers, students, shepherd, workers and the free were more vulnerable to the infection. Furthermore, connection between

  1. Experiencias en la vigilancia epidemiológica de agentes patógenos transmitidos por alimentos a través de electroforesis en campo pulsado (PFGE en el Perú Experiences in the epidemiological surveillance of foodborne pathogens by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luz Zamudio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades transmitidas por alimentos (ETA y otras enfermedades entéricas infecciosas ocurren a menudo como brotes y son causa de morbilidad y mortalidad en todo el mundo. En el Perú, son un importante problema de salud pública y son causados por una gran variedad de agentes infecciosos. Para la investigación epidemiológica se utiliza una variedad de métodos de tipificación. Una de las herramientas más importantes en la subtipificación molecular de patógenos bacterianos es la técnica de la electroforesis en campo pulsado (PFGE, que es un método altamente resolutivo que permite la discriminación entre diferentes aislamientos bacterianos epidemiológicamente relacionados. El Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS del Perú integra las redes WHO Global Foodborne Infections Network y la Red PulseNet América Latina y Caribe, con quienes comparte los perfiles genéticos de las cepas patógenas aisladas, permitiendo comparar los genotipos de cepas semejantes halladas en diferentes países y reconocer la ocurrencia de brotes epidémicos en la región, fortaleciendo el sistema de vigilancia epidemiológica regional y generando una rápida respuesta conjunta entre países. Se presenta la experiencia de los dos últimos años sobre los avances en la utilización de estas herramientas estratégicas que nos ha permitido caracterizar patrones de genotipo de principales patógenos implicados en ETA a partir de aislamientos recuperados de la red de laboratorios del Perú.Foodborne diseases and other enteric infections often occur as outbreaks and cause morbidity and mortality all over the world. In Perú, they represent a serious public health problem, and are caused by a great variety of infectious agents. For epidemiological research, a wide array of typification methods are used. One of the most important tools for the molecular subtyping of bacterial pathogens is the Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE, which is a highly precise method that allows the discrimination between different bacterial isolates which are epidemiologically related. The Instituto Nacional de Salud del Perú (INS is part of the WHO Global Foodborne Infections Network (WHO-GFN and of the PulseNet Latin American and Caribbean Net (PN-AL & C, with whom it shares the genetic profiles of the isolated pathogenic strains, so that it is possible to compare de genotypes of similar strains found in different countries and to identify the occurrence of epidemic outbreaks in the region, strengthening the regional system of epidemiological surveillance and generating a rapid, coordinated response between the countries. We present the two last years´ experience including the advances in the use of these strategic tools that have allowed us to characterize genotype patterns implicated in foodborne diseases from isolates recovered in the laboratory network of Peru.

  2. Determination of average conversion coefficients between kerma in air and H⁎(10) using primary and secondary X-ray beams and transmitted in the diagnostic radiology energy range; Determinacao dos coeficientes de conversao medios entre kerma no ar e H*(10) usando feixes de raios-X primarios, secundarios e transmitidos na faixa de energia da radiologia diagnostica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Josilene C.; Gonzalez, Alejandro H.L.; Costa, Paulo R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2016-07-01

    Brazilian regulation establishes 1.14 Sv/Gy as unique conversion coefficient to convert air-kerma into the operational quantity ambient dose equivalent H⁎(10) disregarding its beam quality dependence. The present study computed mean conversion coefficients from primary, secondary and transmitted X-ray beams through barite mortar plates used in shielding of dedicated chest radiographic facilities in order to improve the current assessment of H⁎(10). To compute the mean conversion coefficients, the weighting of conversion coefficients corresponding to monoenergetic beams with the spectrum energy distribution in terms of air-kerma was considered. The maximum difference between the obtained conversion coefficients and the constant value recommended in national regulation is 53.4%. The conclusion based on these results is that a constant coefficient is not adequate for deriving the H⁎(10) from air-kerma measurements. (author)

  3. Mejoramiento de la latencia de la red mediante el cambio de tamaño de búfer para aplicaciones FTP utilizando el modelo cliente/servidor según el tamaño promedio de los archivos a ser transmitidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan de Dios Murillo

    2016-03-01

    al modelo cliente/servidor.En esta investigación se analizaran ciertas características del modelo cliente/Servidor que lo convierten en una excelente opción para generar ganancias en empresas, tanto en tiempo, costos, seguridad y desempeño de todo el sistema y cómo se puede mejorar para obtener un mejor uso de ancho de banda.

  4. Toscana virus isolated from sandflies, Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Es-sette, Nargys; Ajaoud, Malika; Anga, Latifa; Mellouki, Fouad; Lemrani, Meryem

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the transmission of phleboviruses, a total of 7,057 sandflies were collected in well-known foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis and were identified to species level according to morphological characters. Collected sandflies were tested by Nested PCR for the presence of Phleboviruses and subsequently by viral isolation on Vero cells. The corresponding products were sequenced. Toscana virus was isolated, for the first time, from 5 pools of sandflies. Hence, Toscana virus should be con...

  5. Oropuche virus: A virus present but ignored

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Mattar V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bunyaviruses are RNA viruses that affect animals and plants; they have five genera and four of them affect humans: Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, Phlebovirus and Hantavirus. All of them are Arbovirus, except Hantavirus. The Orthobunyaviruses comprise Oropouche, Tahyna, La Crosse virus, California encephalitis virus and Heartland virus recently discovered (1. Except for Heartland virus which is transmitted by ticks of the genus Amblyoma, these Phleboviruses have as vectors mosquitoes, which bite small mammals which are able to be as reservoirs amplifiers.

  6. La genética en el cine y los obstáculos para su aprendizaje formal

    OpenAIRE

    Abril Gallego, Ana María

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es comprobar si los significados sobre genética transmitidos por las películas que los estudiantes ven podrían generar concepciones alternativas sobre el tema. Así, se comparan dos fuentes de significados: los transmitidos por las películas y los personales de los estudiantes. El estudio muestra que los significados transmitidos por las películas pueden reforzar las ideas previas de los estudiantes, convirtiéndose así en obstáculos de aprendizaje.

  7. Percepciones y practicas corporales esteticas de un grupo de jovenes universitarias Afrodescendientes de Cali

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ortiz Piedrahita, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    .... Se discute como este grupo de jovenes estudiantes reproduce parcialmente ideales hegemonicos de belleza transmitidos socio-culturalmente, y en esta medida recrea un modelo estetico hibrido que valora...

  8. Haemorrhagic Fevers, Viral

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is usually applied to disease caused by Arenaviridae (Lassa fever, Junin and Machupo), Bunyaviridae (Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic ... fever Dengue and severe dengue Ebola virus disease Lassa fever Marburg haemorrhagic fever Rift Valley fever Multimedia, ...

  9. Toscana virus isolated from sandflies, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Es-sette, Nargys; Ajaoud, Malika; Anga, Latifa; Mellouki, Fouad; Lemrani, Meryem

    2015-04-03

    To investigate the transmission of phleboviruses, a total of 7,057 sandflies were collected in well-known foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis and were identified to species level according to morphological characters.Collected sandflies were tested by Nested PCR for the presence of Phleboviruses and subsequently by viral isolation on Vero cells. The corresponding products were sequenced. Toscana virus was isolated, for the first time, from 5 pools of sandflies.Hence, Toscana virus should be considered a potential risk that threatens public health and clinicians should be aware of the role of Toscana virus in cases of meningitis and encephalitis in Morocco.

  10. Sandfly Fever Sicilian Virus, Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izri, Arezki; Temmam, Sarah; Moureau, Grégory; Hamrioui, Boussad; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether sandfly fever Sicilian virus (SFSV) is present in Algeria, we tested sandflies for phlebovirus RNA. A sequence closely related to that of SFSV was detected in a Phlebotomus ariasi sandfly. Of 60 human serum samples, 3 contained immunoglobulin G against SFSV. These data suggest SFSV is present in Algeria. PMID:18439364

  11. Response to Rift Valley Fever in Tanzania: Challenges and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cattle, sheep, goats and camels), wildlife and humans caused by Phlebovirus. The disease occurs in periodic cycles of 4-15 years associated with flooding from unusually high precipitations in many flood-prone habitats. Aedes and Culex spp and ...

  12. Manipulação da fisiologia digestiva de Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae): efeito da Galactosamina na atividade tripsinolítica intestinal do principal vetor de Leishmania infantum nas Américas.

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Lima da Silva

    2015-01-01

    As leishmanioses, consideradas antropozoonoses, são um complexo de doenças causadas por espécies de protozoários parasitos pertencentes ao gênero Leishmania, sendo transmitidos aos seus hospedeiros vertebrados por insetos pequenos denominados flebotomíneos. O agente etiológico da leishmaniose visceral, Leishmania infantum, é transmitido no Brasil aos hospedeiros principalmente pela espécie Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera, Psychodidae). As fêmeas de flebotomíneos devem realizar a hematofagia pa...

  13. Early Bunyavirus-Host Cell Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelina Albornoz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Bunyaviridae is the largest family of RNA viruses, with over 350 members worldwide. Several of these viruses cause severe diseases in livestock and humans. With an increasing number and frequency of outbreaks, bunyaviruses represent a growing threat to public health and agricultural productivity globally. Yet, the receptors, cellular factors and endocytic pathways used by these emerging pathogens to infect cells remain largely uncharacterized. The focus of this review is on the early steps of bunyavirus infection, from virus binding to penetration from endosomes. We address current knowledge and advances for members from each genus in the Bunyaviridae family regarding virus receptors, uptake, intracellular trafficking and fusion.

  14. Reiko Hayama, entre los actos: el legado de Le Corbusier y Kunio Maekawa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Irène Vogel Chevroulet; Yasushi Zenno

    2014-01-01

    ... específicos de la arquitectura. Este artículo examina cómo el legado de Le Corbusier fue transmitido a Reiko Hayama, mujer japonesa, pionera en arquitectura, y quien desde 1959 a 1965, forjó...

  15. Laboratory Validation of the Sand Fly Fever Virus Antigen Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    stationed there ( Peralta et al. 1965). Rapid field assessments of sand flies for phleboviruses have been previously unavailable. The available tests are...antigenic differ- ences between viral strains ( Peralta et al. 1965, Sather 1970, Srihongse and Johnson 1974, Tesh et al. 1975). We also tested the...illness in Missouri. N Engl J Med 367:834–841. Peralta PH, Shelokov A, Brody JA. 1965. Chagres virus: a new human isolate from Panama. Am J Trop Med

  16. Phlebotomus sergenti a common vector of Leishmania tropica and Toscana virus in Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Nargys Es-Sette; Malika Ajaoud; Laurence Bichaud; Salsabil Hamdi; Fouad Mellouki; Rιmi N. Charrel; Meryem Lemrani

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: An entomological study using CDC miniature light-traps was performed in El Hanchane locality, where cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) was emerging during the summer of 2011. The aim of this study is to identify the vectors of Leishmania and of phleboviruses. Methods: In the field, a total of 643 sandfly specimens were collected, identified by morphological keys and categorized by sex and species. A total of nine distinct species were morphologically identified where sev...

  17. First detection of Toscana virus RNA from sand flies in the genus Phlebotomus (Diptera: Phlebotomidae) naturally infected in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Es-Sette, N; Nourlil, J; Hamdi, S; Mellouki, F; Lemrani, M

    2012-11-01

    In total, 656 sand flies were collected in June 2008 from Louata, a locality of Sefrou province, Morocco. Testing was conducted for the presence of phlebovirus by nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. We detected Toscana virus in four pools of male Phlebotomus perniciosus. This virus belongs to the genotype B previously recognized in France and Spain. This is the first time that Toscana virus has been detected in Morocco.

  18. Emergence of sandflies (Phlebotominae) in Austria, a Central European country

    OpenAIRE

    Poeppl, Wolfgang; Obwaller, Adelheid G.; Weiler, Martin; Burgmann, Heinz; Mooseder, Gerhard; Lorentz, Susanne; Rauchenwald, Friedrich; Aspöck, Horst; Walochnik, Julia; Naucke, Torsten J

    2013-01-01

    The possible existence of autochthonous sandfly populations in Central Europe north of the Alps has long been excluded. However, in the past years, sandflies have been documented in Germany, Belgium, and recently, also in Austria, close to the Slovenian border. Moreover, autochthonous human Leishmania and Phlebovirus infections have been reported in Central Europe, particularly in Germany. From 2010 to 2012, sandfly trapping (740 trap nights) was performed at 53 different capture sites in Aus...

  19. Phlebotomus sergenti a common vector of Leishmania tropica and Toscana virus in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Es-Sette, Nargys; Ajaoud, Malika; Bichaud, Laurence; Hamdi, Salsabil; Mellouki, Fouad; Charrel, Rémi N; Lemrani, Meryem

    2014-06-01

    An entomological study using CDC miniature light-traps was performed in El Hanchane locality, where cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) was emerging during the summer of 2011. The aim of this study is to identify the vectors of Leishmania and of phleboviruses. In the field, a total of 643 sandfly specimens were collected, identified by morphological keys and categorized by sex and species. A total of nine distinct species were morphologically identified where seven belonged to the Phlebotomus genus and two species to the Sergentomyia genus. Phlebotomus sergenti was the most abundant species (76%). Phleboviruses were detected by nested RT-PCR using 30 pooled sandflies while P. sergenti females were tested individually for infections of Leishmania species. By using ITS1-PCR-RFLP approach, Leishmania tropica DNA was detected in 10 females, caught in this emerging focus, and provide additional evidence in favour of the role of P. sergenti as vector of L. tropica in Morocco. Real-time PCR screening for phlebovirus RNA, using an assay targeting the polymerase gene, showed positive result in one pool of male P. sergenti. In this study, P. sergenti were infected by L. tropica and Toscana virus. To our knowledge, actually this is the first time that Toscana virus has been detected in P. sergenti.

  20. Management of diseases caused by thrips-transmitted tospoviruses in subsistence agriculture: the case of Peanut bud necrosis virus in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among the tospoviruses (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) reported in India, Peanut bud necrosis virus is by far the most economically significant for tomato production in subsistence agriculture. Management of PBNV has been a challenge for farmers due to the broad host-range of PBNV and its ve...

  1. Isolations of Bwamba virus from south central Uganda and north ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Bwamba virus (Genus Bunyavirus, family Bunyaviridae) is widely distributed in Africa. It causes many unidentified fevers because of its benign nature. Objectives: Samples of blood from patients were received at Uganda Virus Research Institute for diagnosis and confirmation of infections. Mosquito collections ...

  2. Tomato spotted wilt virus particle assembly : studying the role of the structural proteins in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snippe, M.

    2006-01-01

    Members of the Bunyaviridae have spherical, enveloped virus particles that acquire their lipid membrane at the Golgi complex. For the animal-infecting bunyaviruses, virus assembly involves budding of ribonucleoprotein particles (RNPs) into vacuolised lumen of the Golgi complex, after which the

  3. Spinach: A new natural host of Impatiens necrotic spot virus in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impatiens necrotic spot tospovirus (INSV; family Bunyaviridae) was detected in a spinach (Spinacia oleracea) experimental field in Monterey County, CA in October of 2008. Spinach plants exhibiting severe stunting and with leaves that showed interveinal yellowing, thickening, and deformation were obs...

  4. The role of NSm during tomato spotted wilt virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storms, M.M.H.

    1998-01-01

    In the past ten years the genome organisation of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) has been intensively studied in our laboratory. Complete genome sequence data revealed that this enveloped plant virus belongs to the Bunyaviridae, a virus family further restricted to

  5. Virus - vector relationships in the transmission of tospoviruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijkamp, I.

    1995-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), member of the genus Tospovirus within the family Bunyaviridae, ranks among the top ten of economically most important plant viruses. Tospoviruses cause significant yield losses in agricultural crops such as tomato,

  6. Viral RNA silencing suppression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hedil, Marcio; Kormelink, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The Bunyaviridae is a family of arboviruses including both plant-and vertebrate-infecting representatives. The Tospovirus genus accommodates plant-infecting bunyaviruses, which not only replicate in their plant host, but also in their insect thrips vector during persistent propagative

  7. Emerging new poleroviruses and tospoviruses affecting vegetables in Asia and breeding for resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Relevante, C.; Cheewachaiwit, S.; Chuapong, J.; Stratongjun, M.; Salutan, V.E.; Peters, D.; Balatero, C.H.; Hoop, de S.J.

    2012-01-01

    The diseases caused by aphid-borne poleroviruses (genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae) and thrips-borne tospoviruses (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) are emerging threats to the production of economically important vegetable and fruit crops in tropical and sub-tropical Asia. To date, at

  8. Molecular epidemiology of Crimean- Congo hemorrhagic fever virus genome isolated from ticks of Hamadan province of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahmasebi, F; Ghiasi, Seyed Mojtaba; Mostafavi, E

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus is a tick-borne member of the genus Nairovirus, family Bunyaviridae. CCHFV has been isolated from at least 31 different tick species. The virus is transmitted through the bite of an infected tick, or by direct contact with CCHF...

  9. Severe Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever presented with massive retroperitoneal haemorrhage that recovered without antiviral treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gharabaghi, Mehrnaz Asadi; Chinikar, Sadegh; Ghiasi, Seyyed Mojtaba

    2011-01-01

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tickborne viral zoonosis with up to 50% mortality in humans caused by CCHF virus belonging to the genus Nairovirus, family Bunyaviridae. The geographical distribution of CCHF cases corresponds closely with the distribution of principle tick vectors...

  10. Disease: H00389 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ndrome (HFRS) is a group of diseases caused by hantaviruses which are members of family Bunyaviridae. HFRS i...s characterized by renal failure, hemorrhages, and shock and is caused by the serotypes Hantaan, Seoul, Puum...ala, and Dobrava-Belgrade viruses. The serotype Puumala virus also causes nephrop

  11. Occurrence of Tomato spotted wilt virus in Stevia rebaudiana and Solanum tuberosum in Northern Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatzivassiliou, E.K.; Peters, D.; Lolas, P.

    2007-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) was first reported in Greece during 1972 (3) and currently is widespread in the central and northern part of the country infecting several cultivated and wild plant species (1,2). In June 2006, virus-like symptoms similar to

  12. Four-segmented Rift Valley fever virus induces sterile immunity in sheep after a single vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wichgers Schreur, P.J.; Kant-Eenbergen, H.C.M.; Keulen, van L.J.M.; Moormann, R.J.M.; Kortekaas, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a mosquito-borne virus in the Bunyaviridae family, causes recurrent outbreaks with severe disease in ruminants and occasionally humans. The virus comprises a segmented genome consisting of a small (S), medium (M) and large (L) RNA segment of negative polarity. The

  13. Viral haemorrhagic fevers in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    transmission that occurs from contact of the virus with the face or neck, most ... of PPE or on inadvertently touching the face. In Africa, the HF viruses belong to one of three families, namely the Arenaviridae (Lassa and Lujo viruses), Bunyaviridae (Crimean- ... setting, and delay in recognition may have dire effects.[1] A small.

  14. Editorial: Identification and incidence of iris yellow spot virus, a new pathogen in onion and leek in Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatzivassiliou, E.K.; Giavachtsia, V.; Hassani-Mehraban, A.; Hoedjes, K.; Peters, D.

    2009-01-01

    Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV; genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) is an emerging and serious pathogen affecting several Allium spp. worldwide (2). The virus causes straw-colored, chlorotic or necrotic lesions that coalesce, occasionally resulting in an extensive necrosis on onion (A. cepa L.)

  15. Teóride de Sición y la δίκη παρανοιάς contra Sófocles

    OpenAIRE

    Librán Moreno, Miryam

    2006-01-01

    Indagación en las fuentes que han transmitido noticias sobre la δίκη παρανοιάς contra Sófocles: el personaje de Teóride de Sición puede haber sido una simple personificación cómica de la pasión de Sófocles por el arte teatral.

  16. Esclerosis lateral amiotrófica: un diagnóstico incierto

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fernández-Lerones, M.J; de la Fuente-Rodríguez, A

    2010-01-01

    ... de las motoneuronas cerebrales (motoneuronas superiores [MNS]) son transmitidos a las motoneuronas en la médula espinal (motoneuronas inferiores [MNI]) y de allí a cada músculo 1 . Se distinguen tres formas clínicas de la enfermedad: común , que suele iniciarse de forma asimétrica por una extremidad superior; pseudopolineurítica , de in...

  17. Estudio de las actividades físico-recreativos-deportivas, los estereotipos y roles de género en el aula de Primaria

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Matesanz, Estela I.

    2013-01-01

    Con este Trabajo Fin de Grado pretendemos analizar en qué medida los estereotipos de género transmitidos en distintos ámbitos (familia, escuela, medios de comunicación) son asimilados por el alumnado de Educación Primaria. Más concretamente estudiaremos su presencia en el caso de las actividades físico-recreativas-deportivas desarrolladas por un grupo de alumnos/as de segundo curso de Educación Primaria

  18. La memoria biocultural

    OpenAIRE

    Halffter Salas, Gonzalo

    2009-01-01

    En los últimos años se ha manifestado una tendencia creciente a valorizar el conocimiento tradicional de la naturaleza, incluyendo su manejo y conservación. Este conocimiento, transmitido en forma oral en aquellos pueblos que conservan su estructura social y tradiciones, constituye un verdadero patrimonio o memoria biocultural. Para los ideólogos y ecólogos profesionales puede resultar especialmente interesante conocer y aprender a valorar esta memoria biocultural. En esta nota comentamos dos...

  19. Diffusion and Home Range Parameters for Rodents: Peromyscus maniculatus in New Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Abramson, G.; Giuggioli, L.; Kenkre, V. M.; Dragoo, J. W.; Parmenter, R. R.; Parmenter, C. A.; Yates, T. L.

    2005-01-01

    We analyze data from a long term field project in New Mexico, consisting of repeated sessions of mark-recaptures of Peromyscus maniculatus (Rodentia: Muridae), the host and reservoir of Sin Nombre Virus (Bunyaviridae: Hantavirus). The displacements of the recaptured animals provide a means to study their movement from a statistical point of view. We extract two parameters from the data with the help of a simple model: the diffusion constant of the rodents, and the size of their home range. Th...

  20. Development of a microarray for simultaneous detection and differentiation of different tospoviruses that are serologically related to Tomato spotted wilt virus

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Lu-Yuan; Ye, He-Yi; Chen, Tsang-Hai; Chen, Tsung-Chi

    2017-01-01

    Background Tospoviruses, the plant-infecting genus in the family Bunyaviridae, are thrips borne and cause severe agricultural losses worldwide. Based on the serological relationships of the structural nucleocapsid protein (NP), the current tospoviruses are divided into six serogroups. The use of NP-antisera is convenient for virus detection, but it is insufficient to identify virus species grouped in a serogroup due to the serological cross-reaction. Alternatively, virus species can be identi...

  1. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus in Kazakhstan (1948-2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Nurmakhanov, Talgat; Sansyzbaev, Yerlan; Atshabar, Bakhyt; Deryabin, Pavel; Kazakov, Stanislav; Zholshorinov, Aitmagambet; Matzhanova, Almagul; Sadvakassova, Alya; Saylaubekuly, Ratbek; Kyraubaev, Kakimzhan; Hay, John; Atkinson, Barry; Hewson, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a pathogenic and often fatal arboviral disease with a distribution spanning large areas of Africa, Europe and Asia. The causative agent is a negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus classified within the Nairovirus genus of the Bunyaviridae family. Cases of CCHF have been officially recorded in Kazakhstan since the disease was first officially reported in modern medicine. Serological surveillance of human and animal populations provide evidence th...

  2. Emerging new poleroviruses and tospoviruses affecting vegetables in Asia and breeding for resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Relevante, C.; Cheewachaiwit, S.; Chuapong, J.; Stratongjun, M.; Salutan, V.E.; Peters, D.; Balatero, C.H.; Hoop, de, D.W.

    2012-01-01

    The diseases caused by aphid-borne poleroviruses (genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae) and thrips-borne tospoviruses (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) are emerging threats to the production of economically important vegetable and fruit crops in tropical and sub-tropical Asia. To date, at least 13 different polerovirus species have been characterized. In Asia, the reported poleroviruses include Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV), Melon aphid-borne yellows virus (MABYV) and Sua...

  3. Characterization of Bean Necrotic Mosaic Virus: A Member of a Novel Evolutionary Lineage within the Genus Tospovirus

    OpenAIRE

    Athos Silva de Oliveira; Fernando Lucas de Melo; Alice Kazuko Inoue-Nagata; Tatsuya Nagata; Elliot Watanabe Kitajima; Renato de Oliveira Resende

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tospoviruses (Genus Tospovirus, Family Bunyaviridae) are phytopathogens responsible for significant worldwide crop losses. They have a tripartite negative and ambisense RNA genome segments, termed S (Small), M (Medium) and L (Large) RNA. The vector-transmission is mediated by thrips in a circulative-propagative manner. For new tospovirus species acceptance, several analyses are needed, e.g., the determination of the viral protein sequences for enlightenment of their evolutionary h...

  4. Temporal Dynamics of Iris Yellow Spot Virus and Its Vector, Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), in Seeded and Transplanted Onion Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Cynthia L.; Hoepting, Christine A.; Fuchs, Marc; Shelton, Anthony M.; Nault, Brian A.

    2017-01-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci (Lindeman) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), can reduce onion bulb yield and transmit iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) (Bunyaviridae: Tospovirus), which can cause additional yield losses. In New York, onions are planted using seeds and imported transplants. IYSV is not seed transmitted, but infected transplants have been found in other U.S. states. Transplants are also larger than seeded onions early in the season, and thrips, some of which may be viruliferous, may preferent...

  5. Expression and Characterization of a Soluble Form of Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Glycoprotein GN

    OpenAIRE

    Whitfield, Anna E.; Ullman, Diane E.; German, Thomas L

    2004-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), a member of the Tospovirus genus within the Bunyaviridae, is an economically important plant pathogen with a worldwide distribution. TSWV is transmitted to plants via thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), which transmit the virus in a persistent propagative manner. The envelope glycoproteins, GN and GC, are critical for the infection of thrips, but they are not required for the initial infection of plants. Thus, it is assumed that the envelope glycoproteins play ...

  6. Manual of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-01

    studies of antibody avidities in IAHA through the course of infection were carried out with rotavirus and togavirus systems (122), and the mechanism...IAHA buffer. a. Blood is collected from several candidate donors in volumes of 5 ml and the IAHA sensitivity is tested by box titration. The blood...syndrome as candidate members of the Bunyaviridae family. Arch Virol 78 : 137-144, 1983 50. Martin ML, Regnery HL, Sasso DR, McCormick JB, Palmer EL

  7. World Reference Center for Arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-31

    Kannamangalam Punto Toro Oripouche (TR 9760) KFD Duvenhage BeAn 109303 Pongola (SA Ar 1) Mucambo (BeAn 8) Nkolbisson (YM 31) BeAr 41067 BeAn 174214 Aura Naple...Phlebovirus *SLE (BeAr 23379) 5/1/84 Candiru (BeH22511) 11/19/65 yellow fever (F2015) 9/4/67 Chagres 8/8/68 *Powassan 7/1/75 Punto Toro 11/7/69 Tyuleniy...are shown in Table 24. Positive reactions were found for all antigens tested. There was focal distribution of some positive reactions; Ilesha reactions

  8. [Isolation of influenza virus A (Orthomyxoviridae, Influenza A virus), Dhori virus (Orthomyxoviridae, Thogotovirus), and Newcastle's disease virus (Paromyxoviridae, Avulavirus) on the Malyi Zhemchuzhnyi Island in the north-western area of the Caspian Sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iashkulov, K B; Shchelkanov, M Iu; L'vov, S S; Dzhambinov, S D; Galkina, I V; Fediakina, I T; Bushkieva, B Ts; Morozova, T N; Kireev, D E; Akanina, D S; Litvin, K E; Usachev, E V; Prilipov, A G; Grebennikova, T V; Gromashevskiĭ, V L; Iamnikova, S S; Zaberezhnyĭ, A D; L'vov, D K

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the 2003 and 2006 environmental virological monitoring surveys on the Malyi Zhemchuzhnyi Island where a large breeding colony of sea gull (Laridae) is located. In the past several years, expansion of cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) has enhanced the intensity of populational interactions. The investigators isolated 13 strains of influenza A virus (Orthomyxoviridae, Influenza A virus) subtype H13N1 (from sea gulls (n = 4), cormorants (n = 9) 1 strain of Dhori virus (Orthomyxoviridae, Thogotovirus) from a cormorantwith clinical symptoms of the disease, 3 strains of Newcastle disease virus (Paramyxoviridae, Avulavirus) from cormorants. RT-PCR revealed influenza A virus subtype H5 in 3.1% of the cloacal lavages from cormorants. Neutralization test indicated that sera from cormorants contained specific antibodies against West Nile (Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) (15.0%), Sindbis (Togaviridae, Alphavirus) (5.0%), Dhori (10.0%), and Tahini (Bunyaviridae, Orthobunyavirus) (5.0%); sera from herring gulls had antibodies against Dhori virus (16.7%); there were no specific antibodies to Inco (Bunyaviridae, Orthobunyavirus) and mountain hare (Lepus timidus) (Bunyaviridae, Orthobunyavirus) virus.

  9. The first phlebo-like virus infecting plants: a case study on the adaptation of negative-stranded RNA viruses to new hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Beatriz; Minutolo, Maria; De Stradis, Angelo; Palmisano, Francesco; Alioto, Daniela; Di Serio, Francesco

    2017-07-28

    A novel negative-stranded (ns) RNA virus associated with a severe citrus disease reported more than 80 years ago has been identified. Transmission electron microscopy showed that this novel virus, tentatively named citrus concave gum-associated virus, is flexuous and non-enveloped. Notwithstanding, its two genomic RNAs share structural features with members of the genus Phlebovirus, which are enveloped arthropod-transmitted viruses infecting mammals, and with a group of still unclassified phlebo-like viruses mainly infecting arthropods. CCGaV genomic RNAs code for an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, a nucleocapsid protein and a putative movement protein showing structural and phylogenetic relationships with phlebo-like viruses, phleboviruses and the unrelated ophioviruses, respectively, thus providing intriguing evidence of a modular genome evolution. Phylogenetic reconstructions identified an invertebrate-restricted virus as the most likely ancestor of this virus, revealing that its adaptation to plants was independent from and possibly predated that of the other nsRNA plant viruses. These data are consistent with an evolutionary scenario in which trans-kingdom adaptation occurred several times during the history of nsRNA viruses and followed different evolutionary pathways, in which genomic RNA segments were gained or lost. The need to create a new genus for this bipartite nsRNA virus and the impact of the rapid and specific detection methods developed here on citrus sanitation and certification are also discussed. © 2017 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  10. Efecto leishmanicida in vitro e in vivo de extractos derivados de Ocotea macrophylla y Zanthoxyllum monophyllum

    OpenAIRE

    Chávez Enciso, Norberto Andrey

    2013-01-01

    El parásito protozoario conocido como Leishmania Spp. es el causante de una enfermedad infecciosa definida como leishmaniosis. Este parásito es transmitido por vectores hematófagos del género Lutzomia y Phlebotomus (de alta incidencia en los países en desarrollo como Colombia); manifestándose en mayor proporción en las zonas rurales y en la población más vulnerable, lo cual dificulta en ocasiones, el acceso tanto al diagnóstico a tiempo y consecuentemente limita el inicio del tratamiento. Est...

  11. Construcción del mito de hidalgo

    OpenAIRE

    Peredo, Carlos Herrejón

    2013-01-01

    Note portant sur l’auteur El culto a los héroes rebasa el campo de la historia y cae dentro de los mitos. Así ocurre con Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla. Entiendo por mito el relato fundador transmitido de generación en generación, relato cuyos personajes son seres extraordinarios, sobrehumanos o casi sobrehumanos con acciones portentosas a las cuales se trasladan hechos históricos o ficticios. Como relato fundador el mito se ubica en el tiempo primordial de tal o cual sociedad que lo considera com...

  12. Control domótico de temperatura mediante Arduino UNO

    OpenAIRE

    Cabello Chacón, Rubén

    2014-01-01

    Desarrollo de un control automático de temperatura. Mediante unos valores fijados se realiza la conmutación entre calefacción y aire acondicionado. Los datos obtenidos por el nodo remoto son transmitidos al nodo central por ZigBee y filtrados mediante un lazo PID. Desenvolupament d'un control automàtic de temperatura. Mitjançant uns valors fixats es realitza la commutació entre calefacció i aire condicionat. Les dades obtingudes pel node remot són transmesos al node central per ZigBee i fi...

  13. Libros y lecturas para jóvenes. (La transmisión de valores a través de la literatura infantil y juvenil : el caso de la lij catalana 1939- 1985)

    OpenAIRE

    Ramón BASSA i MARTÍN

    2010-01-01

    RESUMEN: La finalidad principal de este trabajo es analizar el mensaje educativo que durante casi medio siglo ha transmitido la literatura infantil y juvenil en lengua catalana, a partir de un análisis del contenido de una muestra representativa de libros, agrupando los campos léxico-semánticos de los textos en torno a diez grandes bloques (o sistemas ideológico-conceptuales), al tiempo que descubrir el modelo de intervención socioeducativa que esta literatura tuvo que construir históricament...

  14. Estudio de aislamientos nacionales y desarrollo de una vacuna a subunidad, direccionada a células presentadoras de antígenos, para el Virus de la Lengua Azul

    OpenAIRE

    Legisa, Danilo Mario

    2014-01-01

    La Lengua Azul es una enfermedad que afecta principalmente rumiantes salvajes y doméstico, y representa una importante barrera para el comercio internacional de animales y sus subproductos. El Virus de la Lengua Azul es el causante etiológico de la enfermedad y es transmitido por insectos hematófagos del género Culicoides. El Virus de la Lengua Azul , es el miembro prototipo del género Orbivirus dentro de la familia Reoviridae. El virión está compuesto por una doble capa proteica desnuda que ...

  15. El diablo en el Paraíso. Derecho, teología y literatura en el Processus Satane (s. XIV)

    OpenAIRE

    Pasciuta, Beatrice

    2017-01-01

    Prefacio de Alain Boureau. Traducción de Marta Madero El Diablo entra en el Paraíso, con la intención de apropiarse de la humanidad utilizando un nuevo y formidable instrumento: el proceso. Compuesto en el siglo XIV, transmitido como obra jurídica falsamente atribuida a Bartolo da Sassoferrato, el “Proceso entre el Diablo y la Virgen María” es un proceso simulado, en forma de diálogo, entre el Diablo, Cristo y la Virgen. Considerado como obra menor y casi ignorado por la historiografía, la...

  16. Comparação de três receptores GPS para uso em agricultura de precisão Comparison of three GPS receiver for precision agriculture uses

    OpenAIRE

    Stabile, Marcelo C. C.; Luiz A. Balastreire

    2006-01-01

    Diversos equipamentos que se utilizam dos sinais transmitidos pelo Sistema de Posicionamento Global (GPS) têm sido empregados na Agricultura de Precisão. Neste estudo, foi feita uma comparação de três receptores comerciais no intuito de verificar suas acurácias. As principais qualidades medidas foram a repetibilidade dos dados e a estabilidade do sistema. O estudo foi conduzido em campo aberto, na área experimental da ESALQ/USP, com três linhas paralelas de 50 m espaçadas 10 m entre si. A col...

  17. O PAPEL IMUNOLÓGICO E SOCIAL DO LEITE MATERNO NA PREVENÇÃO DE DOENÇAS INFECCIOSAS E ALÉRGICAS NA INFÂNCIA

    OpenAIRE

    MÁRCIO FLÁVIO MOURA DE ARAÚJO; THIAGO MOURA DE ARAÚJO; EVELINE PINHEIRO BESERRA; EMILIA SOARES CHAVES

    2006-01-01

    Estudio reflexivo que tuvo como objetivo analizar la contribución inmunológica y social de la leche materna en la prevención de enfermidades infecciosas y alérgicas . El proceso de amamantamiento repercute de forma biopsicosocial en el desarrollo del niño, especialmente, en la prevención de enfermedades como las diarreas, las IRAs y las alergias que son asociadas como causa de morbimortalidad pediátrica. Esa inmunidad es conferida por los anticuerpos maternos transmitidos durante la lactancia...

  18. Lo ambiental y lo social de la aspersión en Colombia. ¿Política ambiental o estrategia antinarcóticos?

    OpenAIRE

    Londoño Zapata, Nery

    2010-01-01

    En este artículo se revisan y analizan algunos aspectos del Programa de Erradicación de Cultivos Ilícitos con Glifosato (PECIG) y su Plan de Manejo Ambiental, con el ánimo de demostrar que no consideran de manera adecuada los componentes ambiental y social. Desde la perspectiva de las políticas públicas se demuestra que se ajustan más a una estrategia militar-antinarcóticos que social y medioambiental, contrario al querer transmitido en la definición del instrumento, que habla de la compensac...

  19. O segredo no cadomblé: relações de poder e crise de autoridade

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Patrício Carneiro

    2011-01-01

    Este trabalho trata da relação entre conhecimento, segredo ritual e poder no candomblé. Ao longo da história das religiões afro-brasileiras, podemos perceber que o segredo ritual assume diferentes configurações. Ao observarmos a vida religiosa do povo do santo, podemos perceber que a prática do segredo ritual constitui um poderoso mecanismo de elaboração e manutenção do poder. O conhecimento religioso tradicional, que geralmente é transmitido no contexto iniciático, funciona en...

  20. Generación de cuadrados latinos de orden 256 utilizando un grafo de reemplazos

    OpenAIRE

    Gallego Sagastume, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Los cuadrados Latinos (LSs) son estructuras algebraicas con aplicaciones en criptografía. Si los LSs son aleatorios y uniformemente distribuidos, pueden ser usados como claves para algoritmos de encriptación simétricos. En el contexto de un protocolo de comunicación seguro, debe generarse un nuevo LS cada cierta cantidad de tiempo o cantidad de datos transmitida para no correr el riesgo de que un atacante lo deduzca y pueda así descifrar los mensajes transmitidos. El tiempo y recursos requeri...

  1. La hipocresía y sus peligros. El sermón Attendite a falsis de Tomás de Aquino

    OpenAIRE

    Roszak, P. (Piotr)

    2012-01-01

    Los sermones universitarios de santo Tomás de Aquino muestran el enfoque de su exégesis y al mismo tiempo la dimensión pastoral de su actividad como magister in Sacra Pagina. El sermón Attendite a falsis tiene especial interés porque se ha transmitido completo, con su triple estructura (prothema, sermo y collatio) de forma que permite analizar todos los aspectos del género de la predicación. A ello se une, naturalmente, la importancia del tema: la hipocresía, con su...

  2. Theoretical knowledge versus practical performance in dental sculpting – preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Moretto, Simone Gonçalves; Anfe, Taciana Emília de Almeida; Nagase, Denis Yudi; Kuguimiya, Rosiane Nogueira; Lago, Adréa Dias Neves; Freitas, Patricia Moreira; Oda, Margareth; Vieira, Glauco Fioranelli

    2014-01-01

    Conhecer a anatomia dos dentes é de fundamental importância na prática das diversas especialidades Odontológicas. Todas as escolas de Odontologia possuem obrigatoriamente em sua grade curricular uma disciplina responsável pelo ensino da anatomia dental, na qual um conteúdo teórico é transmitido aos alunos para reprodução na escultura em cera. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar se o conteúdo teórico programático está sendo aplicado na escultura prática. Para isso 76 provas teóricas, pl...

  3. Estereotipos y roles de género utilizados en la publicidad transmitida a través de la televisión

    OpenAIRE

    Velandia-Morales, Andrea; Konrad Lorenz Fundación Universitaria; Rincón, Juan Carlos; Fundación Universitaria Konrad Lorenz. Maestría es Psicología del Consumidor. Carrera 9 bis No 62 – 43. Bogotá Colombia.

    2013-01-01

    Esta investigación tiene por objeto identificar las representaciones y estereotipos de género utilizados en los comerciales transmitidos por televisión, así como las posibles relaciones entre estos, las categorías de producto, los roles, el género y el nivel de sexismo de los comerciales. Se diseñó un instrumento basado en la Escala de Sexismo en Publicidad de Pingree, Parker, Butler y Paisley (1976), incorporando además las categorías de análisis de McArthur y Resko (1975), el cual se aplicó...

  4. Miocardiopatía Chagásica con taquicardia ventricular: Hospital Obrero Nº 2 “Caja Nacional de Salud”

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Raúl Arnez Terrazas; Condori Paxi Jiovana Mariela; Condori Pardo Nancy

    2012-01-01

    La miocardiopatía chagásica es la inflamación del músculo cardiaco producida por el Trypanosoma cruzi. Los parásitos que se encuentran en los excrementos de la vinchuca (Tripanosoma infestans) son transmitidos al organismo luego de la alimentación del vector. Afecta varias áreas del organismo humano como son los nervios periféricos y las paredes del intestino grueso entre otros, sin embargo el corazón es uno de los órganos que con mayor frecuencia es afectado una vez producida la infección. O...

  5. Los manuales escritos por matronas europeas (1609-1710); el origen de cuidados humanizados en el embarazo

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Rojo, Carmen; José SILES GONZÁLEZ; Martínez Roche, María Emilia

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo principal: Analizar los cuidados administrados por matronas a mujeres en su embarazo en el siglo XVII transmitidos a través de los manuales escritos por las mismas parteras. Metodología: Metodología cualitativa, desde la hermenéutica y la historia cultural a través de técnicas etnográfico-narrativas mediante la lectura de cinco manuales (1609-1710), categorizando los textos siguiendo el modelo dialéctico de construcción-deconstrucción. Resultados principales: Obtuvimos como resultado...

  6. Sistema de autenticidad para aplicaciones de análisis de eventos para seguridad.

    OpenAIRE

    ESCAMILLA PARDO, TONI

    2017-01-01

    [ES] En este proyecto se afronta la creación de un sistema distribuido capaz de garantizar, en aplicaciones empleadas para el análisis de eventos de seguridad, la autenticidad de los datos transmitidos entre el host cliente y servidor con el fin de asegurar la integridad de los mismos en la transmisión entre ambas partes, así como evitar la posible alteración en el destino. Para ello, se utilizará la tecnología blockchain a modo de base de datos en la que se almacenen los hashe...

  7. EL CONOCIMIENTO TÁCITO Y LA FORMACIÓN DE LAS CIUDADES

    OpenAIRE

    Liz Mabel Chaparro Flórez

    2007-01-01

    De acuerdo a diferentes teorías las aglomeraciones, como lo son las ciudades, se han formado para permitir el intercambio de bienes y servicios, reduciendo costos y tiempos de diferentes procesos productivos. Sin embargo, parece existir una fuerza mayor que determina la formación de las aglomeraciones, siendo esta el conocimiento tácito, un conocimiento que no es fácilmente codificable y que requiere de un contacto directo entre los individuos para ser transmitido. Este producto de investigac...

  8. Necesidad de normalización en ilustración científica

    OpenAIRE

    Óscar Hernández-Muñoz; Ana Rosa Barrio de Santos

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar las nociones o conceptos transmitidos habitualmente mediante símbolos en las ciencias de la vida, así como determinar cuáles son las combinaciones de signos más utilizadas actualmente para expresar dichos conceptos y establecer cuáles de ellas se podrían considerar consolidadas por el uso repetido. Con dicho fin, se analizó una muestra de 3894 figuras extraídas de aquellos tratados científicos de carácter generalista que habían sido objeto de présta...

  9. Transtorno Alimentar e Transmissão Psíquica Transgeracional em um Adolescente do Sexo Masculino

    OpenAIRE

    Valdanha-Ornelas,Élide Dezoti; Santos,Manoel Antônio dos

    2017-01-01

    Resumo A anorexia nervosa (AN) é um transtorno alimentar de etiopatogenia multifatorial. Cuidados maternos e a configuração vincular mãe-filho são considerados fatores primordiais para o desenvolvimento psicoemocional e podem influenciar no aparecimento e curso do transtorno. Este estudo teve por objetivo investigar a transmissão psíquica dos cuidados em três gerações de uma família que tinha um de seus membros acometidos, buscando identificar os conteúdos transmitidos transgeracionalmente e ...

  10. Valoración de alumnos universitarios sobre la deontología profesional: Un estudio realizado en la Licenciatura de Pedagogía de la Universidad de Granada (España)

    OpenAIRE

    JOSÉ ÁLVAREZ; CLEMENTE RODRÍGUEZ; LUCÍA HERRERA; OSWALDO LORENZO

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo principal de este trabajo ha sido profundizar en el estudio de los códigos deontológicos transmitidos por el docente de educación superior, a partir de la opinión y percepción sobre éstos que tienen los estudiantes de la Licenciatura en Pedagogía, quienes participaron en la investigación (N = 190), sobre la necesidad de implementar en su formación universitaria y expectativas de futuro laboral determinados contenidos relativos a la ética profesional. Este estudio permitió detectar...

  11. Situación del tifus exantemático en el departamento del Cuzco

    OpenAIRE

    Instituto Nacional de Salud

    1999-01-01

    Fuente : Dirección de Salud Cusco El Tifus Exantemático es una enfermedad producida por un microbio denominado Rickettsia prowazeki, que es transmitido a través de piojos. Su presencia es de carácter endémico en muchas zonas del departamento y está asociado a la sobrepoblación estacional de piojos, a condiciones de hacinamiento y fundamentalmente a la falta de higiene personal, del vestido y de la ropa de cama (condiciones propicias para la sobrepoblación del mencionado insecto).

  12. La publicidad de moda dirigida a los jóvenes: ¡mírame a los ojos!, la persuasión silenciosa

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo Pina, Helena

    2016-01-01

    La presente investigación tiene como objetivo ofrecer una clara contribución al estudio de la problemática sobre los efectos que tienen en los jóvenes las imágenes de los medios de comunicación. Los ideales de belleza y los valores transmitidos por la cultura de los medios de comunicación tienen consecuencias sociales importantes, especialmente en lo que dice respecto al autoconcepto y a la imagen corporal de los adolescentes y jóvenes adultos, creando grandes discrepancias entre el “self” ac...

  13. Estudios sobre la transmisión por "moscas blancas" (homoptera: aleyrodidae) de virus asociados con el "cuero de sapo" en yuca (manihot esculenta crantz)

    OpenAIRE

    Angel S. Juan C.; Pineda L. Benjamín; Nolt Barry L.

    2010-01-01

    Estudios realizados en la zona endémica al "cuero de sapo" (Quilcacé, Cauca), encaminados a determinar la presencia de vectores de la enfermedad mostraron la existencia de dos virus asociados con "moscas blancas". El primero denominado "agente mosaico" fue transmitido por Bemisia tuberculata, el segundo asintomático, por Aleurotrachelus socialis. El 3.3% de la población de B. tuberculata utilizada transmitió el "agente mosaico" al clón M Col 2063 (Secundina) y no a M Col 113: el 2.4 % de A. s...

  14. Consultoría para la determinación de brechas de seguridad en una red inalámbrica

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo Mora, Anabel Fernanda; Cabezas Cabezas, Roberto; Escalante, Jose

    2009-01-01

    Las redes inalámbricas cuentan con una excelente acogida gracias a sus características de flexibilidad y movilidad. Su falencia se encuentra en su medio de transmisión. El aire es un medio abierto que permite que cualquier receptor tenga acceso a los datos transmitidos en una WLAN. Existen muchos métodos para combatir los problemas de seguridad de las redes inalámbricas. El problema surge al momento de seleccionar la más adecuada. En este proyecto se realiza un análisis de los diferen...

  15. Tópicos y mistificaciones orientalistas del cine colonial español en el escenario de Marruecos

    OpenAIRE

    Marín Molina, Cristóbal

    2017-01-01

    Actas del V Congreso Internacional de Historia y Cine celebrado en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid del 5 al 7 de Septiembre de 2016. El Orientalismo ha transmitido e impuesto imágenes (una escenografía) de Oriente cargada de tópicos mistificados que en el siglo XX fueron plenamente asumidas por el cine. En España. documentales de propaganda militar de la guerra del Rif, películas que situaban su trama en el pasado histórico, y films realizados después de la Guerra Civil, y que hablaban...

  16. Determinación de la actividad biológica de las plantas Conyza confusa y Echeveria leucotricha

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Ruiz, María Graciela

    2009-01-01

    De acuerdo con la Organización mundial de la Salud (OMS), la medicina tradicional se considera como la suma de todos los conocimientos teóricos y prácticos explicables o no, empleados para el diagnóstico, la prevención y la eliminación de trastornos físicos, mentales o sociales, teniendo como única base la experiencia y la observación. Dichos conocimientos son transmitidos verbalmente o por escrito de una generación a otra. Por esto, la medicina tradicional une la práctic...

  17. Microorganismos indicadores de la calidad del agua potable en cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Marlen Robert Pullés

    2014-01-01

    Los agentes patógenos transmitidos por el agua constituyen un problema mundial que demanda un urgente control. Las bacterias, virus y parásitos causan enfermedades que varían en severidad. La determinación de microorganismos en el agua de consumo y su concentración proporcionan herramientas de control, indispensables para la toma de decisiones. Los controles rutinarios de todos los microorganismos, potencialmente riesgosos para la salud, resultan difíciles de llevar a cabo, debido a que ello ...

  18. Um Estudo Comparativo entre algoritmos de criptografia DES – Lucifer (1977) e AES – Rijndael (2000)

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Vinicius Gadis

    2001-01-01

    A criptografia está diretamente relacionada á segurança; com ela busca-se garantir que, mesmo que uma informação seja acessada por uma pessoa não-autorizada, dificilmente o conteúdo será conhecido. A criptografia é a forma mais antiga de escrevemos uma mensagem de maneira que apenas pessoas autorizadas - normalmente o emissor e o receptor - tenham conhecimento do conteúdo que está sendo transmitido. O uso da criptografia antecede o trabalho com o computador, desde a Roma Antiga os imperadores...

  19. Grade ionosférica para aplicações em posicionamento e navegação com GNSS

    OpenAIRE

    De Aguiar, Claudinei Rodrigues [UNESP

    2010-01-01

    O efeito da ionosfera é a maior fonte de erro sistemático nos sinais transmitidos pelos satélites do GNSS (Sistema Global de Navegação por Satélite), o qual afeta principalmente a acurácia do posicionamento e navegação pelo GNSS quando se utiliza de receptores de simples frequência. Este erro sistemático é diretamente proporcional ao TEC (Conteúdo Total de Elétrons) presente ao longo do caminho percorrido pelo sinal na ionosfera e inversamente proporcional ao quadrado da frequência deste sina...

  20. Conhecimento testemunhal: a visão não reducionista = Knowledge by testimony: the non-reductionist view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller, Felipe de Matos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste ensaio, consideramos a possibilidade de o conhecimento ser transmitido ou transferido via testemunho. Apresentamos inicialmente uma introdução à epistemologia do testemunho, indicando a sua origem em uma tradição que tem John Locke, David Hume e Thomas Reid como seus representantes. Apresentamos uma versão da tese não-reducionista. Mostramos que o não-reducionista acerca do conhecimento testemunhal deve requerer um desempenho epistêmico conducente à verdade por parte do falante e a integridade intelectual do ouvinte

  1. O papel de insetos (Blattodea, Diptera e Hymenoptera) como possíveis vetores mecânicos de helmintos em ambiente domiciliar e peridomiciliar

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Jacqueline Thyssen; Thiago de Carvalho Moretti; Marlene Tiduko Ueta; Odair Benedito Ribeiro

    2004-01-01

    Os helmintos podem ser transmitidos ao homem de várias maneiras, mas pouca ênfase é dada para a transmissão vetorial ou mecânica das formas infectantes por insetos. Neste estudo, procurou-se fazer um levantamento das espécies de helmintos presentes em três ordens de insetos que convivem próximo ao ambiente humano. Foram coletados e examinados, externa e individualmente, 700 exemplares sendo 54 pertencentes à ordem Blattodea, 275 à ordem Diptera e 371 à ordem Hymenoptera. Com relação à Blattod...

  2. Planta de lacado de perfiles de aluminio

    OpenAIRE

    García Parra, David

    2013-01-01

    En proyecto se ha resuelto la cimentación de forma directa con pozos mediante zapatas aisladas y arriostramiento perimetral con objeto de soportar los esfuerzos transmitidos por los pilares, con las dimensiones descritas en planos. El apoyo de la cimentación se hará en el seno de la unidad resistente, la cual asegure una tensión admisible de trabajo de 2,00 kg/cm2. El solar se encuentra nivelado, a una cota superior a la de la calle de acceso, por lo que se procederá al desbroce y...

  3. Aislamiento de Candida spp. y otras levaduras en el personal que labora en áreas críticas del Hospital San Juan de Dios

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Carrillo-Dover; Carolina Álvarez-Vega; Ingrid Salas-Campos; Nury Mora-Brenes

    2009-01-01

    Justificación y objetivos: Los pacientes internados en hospitales, principalmente aquellos que se encuentran severamente enfermos, son más susceptibles a las infecciones por hongos oportunistas, en comparación con la población general. El personal hospitalario puede ser fuente potencial de infección para estos pacientes, ya que normalmente actúa como portador de gérmenes, que eventualmente podrían ser transmitidos a los pacientes. Se describe, en esta investigación, el aislamiento de hongos l...

  4. Factibilidad del empleo de hongos entomopatógenos en el control de Musca domestica l. en paisajes antropizados del Noroeste de Michoacán, México.

    OpenAIRE

    García Munguía, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo de la presente investigación fue seleccionar aislamientos de los hongos M. anisopliae y B. bassiana capaces de colonizar y controlar adultos y larvas de Musca domestica e identificar las condiciones ambientales de temperatura y humedad relativa favorables para su empleo. B. bassiana y M. anisopliae fueron transmitidos sexualmente en M. domestica usando 1, 5 y 10 machos vírgenes de 3 dias de edad, expuestos a 6 x 108 conidias mL- 1 de hongos los cuales fueron confinados con 30 hemb...

  5. AUTOAPRENDIZAJE DE ÉTICA EN HISTORIA DE LA MEDICINA. UNA EXPERIENCIA ATRACTIVA

    OpenAIRE

    José Jara Rascon

    2014-01-01

    Introducción. El concepto de Medicina basada en la persona puede ser transmitido desde los estudios de pregrado. La asignatura de Historia de la Medicina puede ser un buen lugar para ello si se involucra al alumnado confrontándole con los protagonistas y las acciones que dieron lugar a diferentes avances científicos. Material y Método. En este trabajo se muestra la experiencia metodológica de la transmisión de conocimientos de Historia de la Medicina siguiendo un modelo de enseñanza compartid...

  6. DETECCIÓN DE Staphylococcus aureus ORSA/MRSA EN QUESOS FRESCOS ARTESANALES COMERCIALIZADOS EN MERCADOS POPULARES EN EL VALLE DE TOLUCA

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz González, Edaena Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus es considerado la tercer causa más importante entre los patógenos transmitidos por alimentos y rápidamente ha adquirido resistencia a los antibióticos por lo que la portación asintomática en humanos y animales lo convierte en un serio problema cuando es transferido a los alimentos. El queso es un alimento listo para consumir que tiene una importante calidad nutricional y es un vehículo de crecimiento eficiente para transmitir enfermedades bacterianas cuando son consumido...

  7. BABESIOSES EM POTROS NEONATOS-ASPECTOS CLÍNICOS

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, Mariane

    2014-01-01

    As babesioses são doenças amplamente discutidas nos meios acadêmicos, uma vez que são consideradas as hemoparasitoses de maior importância na equinocultura, isso pelos prejuízos diretos e indiretos que podem acarretar aos equinos, muares e zebras. Estas doenças também são conhecidas como nutaliose, febre biliar além de piroplasmose equina. Os protozoários Theileria equi (antigamente chamada de Babesia equi), e Babesia caballi são transmitidos pelos carrapatos e causam a única doença parasitár...

  8. La comedia humanística latina "Dolos". Introducción y traducción

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Arbea

    2004-01-01

    A pesar de su relieve histórico-literario –como probable antecedente de "La Celestina", particularmente de la figura de la tercera en amores–, la comedia humanística latina "Dolos", escrita en Italia hacia el año 1432, no ha sido hasta ahora ni editada ni traducida a ninguna lengua y solo se la puede leer en los manuscritos renacentistas que la han transmitido. Ofrecemos aquí, acompañada de una introducción, la primera traducción al español de esta interesante pieza del Humanismo latino. (In ...

  9. Exéresis quirúrgica radical como único tratamiento del condiloma acuminado gigante: a propósito de un caso

    OpenAIRE

    Indalecio Parapar; Noel Taboada

    2007-01-01

    Los condilomas o verrugas genitales son producidos por el virus del papiloma humano del que existen más de 100 genotipos distintos. De ellos, cerca de 40 son transmitidos sexualmente. Se presenta el caso de una mujer con condiloma acuminado gigante de localización vulvo perineal y perianal, de cinco años de evolución que le dificultaba la micción, las relaciones sexuales, e incluso la marcha; además había fetidez, prurito y en ocasiones dolor. El examen histopatológico fue compatible con co...

  10. Desarrollo de agentes inmunizantes contra el dengue

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco J. López Antuñano; Javier Mota

    2000-01-01

    El complejo de los cuatro flavivirus del dengue es transmitido principalmente por el mosquito Aedes aegypti. Se han atribuido epidemias a la actividad de A. albopictus, A. polynesiensis y a varias especies del complejo A. scutellaris. Los factores de riesgo que determinan la probabilidad de enfermar o morir por dengue están relacionados tanto con el huésped (características genéticas, estado inmunitario, forma de vida y condiciones de salud, saneamiento básico de la vivienda y abastecimiento ...

  11. Algunas vidas de Aristóteles en la tradición árabe

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero, Rafael Ramón

    2007-01-01

    Las obras de Aristóteles ejercieron una profunda influencia en el mundo árabe. Pero también los árabes se interesaron por su biografía. Varios autores han transmitido “Vidas” de Aristóteles, cuyo origen está en textos perdidos de la antigüedad griega. Gracias a esta transmisión se han podido recuperar noticias desconocidas, no referidas en otras fuentes. Se ofrecen aquí dos de las vidas de Aristóteles transmitidas por autores árabes. Aristotle’s works exercised a deep influence in the Arab...

  12. Estudio de la interacción hospedante-patógeno entre el Mal de Río Cuarto virus (MRCV) y el delfácido transmisor Delphacodes kuscheli

    OpenAIRE

    Maroniche, Guillermo Andrés

    2011-01-01

    El virus del Mal de Río Cuarto (MRCV, Reoviridae, Fijivirus) causa la principal enfermedad que afecta al maíz en la Argentina. Su genoma consiste en diez segmentos de ARN de doble cadena (S1 a S10) que codifican para un total de trece proteínas. El virus es transmitido de manera persistente y propagativa por insectos de la familia Delphacidae. Luego de adquirir el virus, sólo una pequeña proporción de los insectos vectores pueden transmitir la enfermedad al alimentarse de plantas sanas. Se de...

  13. Enseñanza formal y no formal: una experiencia sobre formación de conceptos

    OpenAIRE

    Benítez Roca, María Victoria

    1997-01-01

    Este artículo tiene como objetivo explorar las relaciones existentes entre las estructuras lógicas y los componentes intelectivos que subyacen en la configuración de las ideas y los conceptos transmitidos por la enseñanza (formal y no formal) en sujetos de 6-7 años de edad. Mediante el dibujo y el lenguaje se analiza el concepto «escuela», llegándose a varias conclusiones. La más importante es que existe una reducción en el campo de la representación gráfica con respecto a la formul...

  14. Consumo da experiência em revistas brasileiras: Nova, Claudia, Boa Forma, Você S/A e Viagem e Turismo

    OpenAIRE

    Trindade, Thaís Hoehne Peres Polato

    2010-01-01

    O tema desta pesquisa é o consumo da experiência no jornalismo de revista. Experiência no capitalismo globalizado é entendida como conjunto de práticas ligadas à vida cotidiana dos consumidores e a atos de conhecimento transmitidos pelos sentidos, aspectos que no neoliberalismo ganham ampla ligação com o consumo/consumismo. Identificaremos em que medida estas novas relações entre experiência e consumo afetam e são afetadas pelo jornalismo e estudaremos os contratos comunicaci...

  15. Caracterización etnográfica de la cocina cultural de los municipios turísticos de la Ruta de las Flores

    OpenAIRE

    Ventura Santos, Salomé Danilo

    2015-01-01

    La cocina, la gastronomía y la hotelería en su conjunto son pilares en el que se asientan las actividades turísticas; En El Salvador existe una gran variedad de platillos que se han convertido en símbolos de identidad cultural de los salvadoreños. Muchos de estos platillos se remontan a épocas prehispánicas. Sin embargo la gastronomía en la época pre-colonial ha sido la base alimentaria de pueblos enteros, ha sido producto de intercambio entre culturas muy diferentes, se ha transmitido a t...

  16. Evolución desarrollo embrionario y psiquismo

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Germán Pérez Villamarín

    2009-01-01

    El siguiente artículo intenta establecer nexos y relaciones que se dan entre la evolución del homínido prehumano como la base del psiquismo propiamente humano y mostrar cómo los cambios que son hereditariamente transmitidos, han de producirse físicamente en el plasma germinal, pues de las estructuras morfológicas surge el psiquismo propio de la nueva especie. Se trata de un proceso de potencialidades no meramente biológicas sino metafísicas, en las que las estructuras bioquímicas exigirán par...

  17. Enunciación, aserción y modalidad, tres clásicos

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes Rodríguez, Catalina

    2004-01-01

    Enunciación, modalidad y aserción son conceptos que aluden a facetas distintas del acto de comunicar. Locutor y enunciador deben repartirse estas funciones del siguiente modo: las dos primeras corresponden al locutor, y la última el enunciador. Asimismo, para marcar todo este espacio periférico que rodea al contenido transmitido, a la oración en sí con su estructura verbal, aparecen diversas estructuras sintácticas hasta ahora no consideradas. Así, realizan las funciones atribuibles al locuto...

  18. Anomic conflicts in terms of identity in the Republic of Bolivia. The influence of social processes stemming from ethnicity and identity on Bolivian foreign policy

    OpenAIRE

    Giusiano, Juan Emilio

    2011-01-01

    Los cambios revolucionarios que hoy vive Bolivia solo pueden ser entendidos poniendo la mirada en la conformación de las comunidades, cuyos principios heredados y transmitidos de generación en generación, propios de la cosmovisión andina y basados en la relacionalidad de los seres en el universo, la complementariedad entre los mismos y la reciprocidad entendida en términos de justicia y equidad, son los elementos que se constituyen en el hilo conductor de dichos cambios. Son estos elementos, ...

  19. Pesquisa de listeria monocytogenes em linguiças do tipo frescal

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida,Thatyana Lacerda de

    2014-01-01

    Estudos conduzidos no Brasil demonstram a presença de bactérias patogênicas nos alimentos, cujo consumo pode causar doenças e transtornos de origem alimentar. Em geral, os consumidores têm expectativas em consumir alimentos seguros e as doenças transmitidas por alimentos são altamente desagradáveis, gerando desconfianças na qualidade dos produtos alimentícios no mercado. Listeria monocytogenes é um patógeno relevante transmitido por alimentos, cuja identificação precisa é impor...

  20. Listeria monocytogenes en comidas preparadas

    OpenAIRE

    Vila Brugalla, Montserrat

    2013-01-01

    Tradicionalmente Listeria monocytogenes no era considerado como un importante patógeno transmitido a través de los alimentos y, en consecuencia, no había recibido mucha atención por parte de la industria alimentaria. Los índices de listeriosis en la población humana siempre habían estado enormemente ensombrecidos por otras enfermedades transmitidas por los alimentos como la salmonelosis o la campilobacterosis, y la confirmación de brotes era poco frecuente. Sin embargo, los brotes de listerio...

  1. Etnoecologia do cipó-titica [Heteropsis flexuosa (H.B.K) G.S. Bunting] e sua relação com os sistemas produtivos do Amapá

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Luciano Araujo

    2004-01-01

    Disseratação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa catarina, Centro de Ciências Agrárias. Programa de Pós-graduação em Agroecossistemas. Estudar comunidades tradicionais e o conhecimento transmitido no dia-a-dia por produtores rurais é uma tarefa que requer muito cuidado e atenção. Estes conhecimentos constituem o corpus e a práxis dos produtores rurais, acumulando-se e transformando-se com o passar do tempo, em práticas que vão passando de pai para filho, definindo regras de manejo e...

  2. "Amóstrame Gan 'Eden'". Pautas formales de lo sapiencial en las Biblias judeoespañolas de la Edad Media

    OpenAIRE

    Alba Cecilia, Amparo; Sainz de la Maza, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    El corpus sapiencial recogido en el texto hebreo de la Biblia representa uno de los legados más antiguos que de esta materia se han transmitido hasta nuestros días. Nuestro trabajo se centra en el análisis de la poética que los libros sapienciales bíblicos ofrecen a la Edad Media hispánica a través de las traducciones castellanas del Antiguo Testamento salidas de manos judías entre los siglos XIII y XV. The wisdom corpus in the Hebrew text of the Bible represents one of t...

  3. Cable y satélite: equipamiento del hogar y consumo televisivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Emilio Fernández Peña

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Los servicios de difusión de canales de televisión de pago por satélite (Canal Satélite Digital y Vía Digital y cable son ya una realidad con importante presencia en el sistema televisivo español. Un millón cuatrocientos mil hogares reciben estos servicios con una preponderancia clara de los transmitidos por satélite respecto a los que usan el cable (1,2 millones.

  4. Molecular evolution of Puumala hantavirus in Fennoscandia: phylogenetic analysis of strains from two recolonization routes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asikainen, Kari; Hänninen, Tarja; Henttonen, Heikki

    2000-01-01

    Like other members of the genus Hantavirus in the family Bunyaviridae, Puumala virus (PUUV) is thought to be co-evolving with its natural host, the bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus. To gain insight into the evolutionary history of PUUV in northern Europe during the last post-glacial period, we...... relatedness to any of the known PUUV strains and formed a distinct phylogenetic lineage on trees calculated for both S and M segment sequences. Although no direct link between the Danish PUUV strains and those of the southern Scandinavian lineage was found, within the S segment of Danish PUUV strains, two...

  5. Arbovirosis y operación ATALANTA: riesgo para viajeros y medidas de prevención y control

    OpenAIRE

    JF. Plaza Torres; R. Navarro Suay

    2014-01-01

    El término arbovirosis se utiliza para definir a un grupo de enfermedades producidas por virus, que tiene en común la utilización de artrópodos como vectores para su transmisión. Se han reconocido más de 500 arbovirus pertenecientes en su mayoría a 5 familias: Flaviviridae, Togaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Reoviridae y Rhabdoviridae. Pese a su naturaleza mayoritariamente zoonótica, al menos un 25% de ellas afectan al hombre, siendo responsables de enfermedades como la fiebre amarilla, dengue o la f...

  6. Evidence of an autochthonous Toscana virus strain in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punda-Polić, Volga; Mohar, Bojana; Duh, Darja; Bradarić, Nikola; Korva, Miša; Fajs, Luka; Saksida, Ana; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana

    2012-09-01

    Phleboviruses are large and widespread group of viruses that are transmitted by arthropods and they have been reported to circulate in endemic regions of Mediterranean Basin, including Croatia. To investigate the role of Toscana virus, as a cause of the aseptic meningitis, in summer months in Croatia. Samples from 30 patients with aseptic meningitis were retrospectively tested by serology and RT-PCR for TOSV. TOSV RNA was detected in 2/30 and TOSV IgM antibodies were found in 4/30 of patients. Phylogenetic analysis of partial L and S segments suggests that TOSV from Croatia represents an autochthonous strain. The study has confirmed the role of TOSV as an agent that causes aseptic meningitis in Croatia, therefore it should be considered by physicians when encountering meningitis or febrile illness among indigenous population or travellers during the summer months. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A review of mosquitoes associated with Rift Valley fever virus in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantely, Luciano M; Boyer, Sébastien; Fontenille, Didier

    2015-04-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a viral zoonotic disease occurring throughout Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, and Madagascar. The disease is caused by a Phlebovirus (RVF virus [RVFV]) transmitted to vertebrate hosts through the bite of infected mosquitoes. In Madagascar, the first RVFV circulation was reported in 1979 based on detection in mosquitoes but without epidemic episode. Subsequently, two outbreaks occurred: the first along the east coast and in the central highlands in 1990 and 1991 and the most recent along the northern and eastern coasts and in the central highlands in 2008 and 2009. Despite the presence of 24 mosquitoes species potentially associated with RVFV transmission in Madagascar, little associated entomological information is available. In this review, we list the RVFV vector, Culex antennatus, as well as other taxa as candidate vector species. We discuss risk factors from an entomological perspective for the re-emergence of RVF in Madagascar. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  8. Acute viral infections of the central nervous system, 2014-2016, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Anna; Papadopoulou, Elpida

    2017-11-23

    In order to investigate the viral etiology of acute infections of central nervous system (CNS), multiplex and single PCRs combined with serology for arboviruses were applied on samples from 132 hospitalized patients in Greece during May 2014-December 2016. A viral pathogen was detected in 52 of 132 (39.4%) cases with acute CNS infection. Enteroviruses predominated (15/52, 28.8%), followed by West Nile virus (9/52, 17.3%). Phleboviruses, varicella-zoster virus, and Epstein-Barr virus accounted for 15.4%, 13.5%, and 11.5% of the cases, respectively. The study gives an insight into the etiology of viral CNS infections in a Mediterranean country, where arboviruses should be included in the differential diagnosis of acute CNS infections. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Serological association between Leishmania infantum and sand fly fever Sicilian (but not Toscana) virus in sheltered dogs from southern Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Carla; Alwassouf, Sulaf; Cristóvão, José Manuel; Ayhan, Nazli; Pereira, André; Charrel, Remi N; Campino, Lenea

    2017-03-13

    Phlebotomine sand fly-borne diseases such as leishmanioses and phleboviruses are emerging threats to animal and public health. Canine leishmaniosis caused by Leishmania infantum is an endemic zoonosis in Portugal. Antibodies to Toscana virus (TOSV) and sand fly fever Sicilian virus (SFSV) were also reported in dogs from the south of the country. The aim of this work was to evaluate a possible association between exposure to L. infantum, TOSV and SFSV in sheltered dogs from the south of Portugal. Seventy-six (13.1%) out of 581 dogs were seropositive for L. infantum, 327 (56.3%) for SFSV and 36 (6.2%) for TOSV. Six dogs were co-exposed with L. infantum and TOSV, 51 with L. infantum and SFSV and 25 with TOSV and SFSV. One dog had antibodies to the three pathogens. Leishmania infantum seroprevalence was significantly higher in pure breed dogs than in mongrels and in dogs with clinical signs while SFSV positivity was significantly higher in males, in pure and cross-breed dogs than in mongrels and in those not treated with insecticides. Seroprevalence for both viruses was significantly higher in dogs over than 7 years-old than in those aged 1-7. A significant association was observed between the presence of antibodies to L. infantum and SFSV. The presence of antibodies to several phlebotomine sand fly-borne pathogens in dogs, reinforces the need to implement efficient prophylactic measures to prevent infection among vertebrate hosts including humans. The results also indicate that dogs are good sentinels for assessing human exposure to TOSV and SFSV. Further studies must be performed to elucidate the role of dogs in the dynamics of transmission and if they can play a role as amplifying or reservoir hosts in the natural cycle of these viruses. Public and animal health impacts of these phleboviruses in Portugal should be addressed via serological and virological studies on both phlebotomine sand flies and vertebrate hosts, especially on humans.

  10. Co-circulation of Toscana virus and Punique virus in northern Tunisia: a microneutralisation-based seroprevalence study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Sakhria

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In northern Tunisia, the co-circulation of two related sand fly-borne phleboviruses, Toscana virus (TOSV and Punique virus (PUNV was previously demonstrated. In contrast to TOSV, a prominent human pathogen, there is no data supporting that PUNV is capable to infect and cause disease to humans. We studied the respective involvement of TOSV and PUNV in human infections in northern Tunisia through a seroprevalence study. METHODS: The presence of TOSV and PUNV neutralising antibodies (NT-Ab was tested in human sera collected from 5 districts of the governorate of Bizerte, and the titres of NT-Ab were estimated by microneutralisation (MN assay. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 1,273 sera were processed. TOSV and PUNV NT-Ab were detected in 522 (41% and 111 sera (8.72% respectively. TOSV seroprevalence varied from 17.2% to 59.4% depending on the district. Analysis of TOSV geometric mean titre values demonstrated a constant increase according to the age. The vast majority of sera containing NT-Ab were found to be more reactive toward TOSV than PUNV. Indeed, past infections with PUNV and TOSV were undisputable for 5 and 414 sera, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: PUNV may be capable to infect humans but at a low rate. TOSV is responsible for the vast majority of human infections by sand fly-borne phleboviruses in northern Tunisia. TOSV must be considered by physician and tested in diagnostic laboratories for patients with meningitis and unexplained fever in northern Tunisia.

  11. Role of DC-SIGN in Lassa Virus Entry into Human Dendritic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Ana-Rita; Moraz, Marie-Laurence; Pasquato, Antonella; Helenius, Ari; Lozach, Pierre-Yves

    2013-01-01

    The arenavirus Lassa virus (LASV) causes a severe hemorrhagic fever with high mortality in humans. Antigen-presenting cells, in particular dendritic cells (DCs), are early and preferred targets of LASV, and their productive infection contributes to the virus-induced immunosuppression observed in fatal disease. Here, we characterized the role of the C-type lectin DC-specific ICAM-3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) in LASV entry into primary human DCs using a chimera of the prototypic arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) expressing the LASV glycoprotein (rLCMV-LASVGP). We found that differentiation of human primary monocytes into DCs enhanced virus attachment and entry, concomitant with the upregulation of DC-SIGN. LASV and rLCMV-LASVGP bound to DC-SIGN via mannose sugars located on the N-terminal GP1 subunit of LASVGP. We provide evidence that DC-SIGN serves as an attachment factor for rLCMV-LASVGP in monocyte-derived immature dendritic cells (MDDC) and can accelerate the capture of free virus. However, in contrast to the phlebovirus Uukuniemi virus (UUKV), which uses DC-SIGN as an authentic entry receptor, productive infection with rLCMV-LASVGP was less dependent on DC-SIGN. In contrast to the DC-SIGN-mediated cell entry of UUKV, entry of rLCMV-LASVGP in MDDC was remarkably slow and depended on actin, indicating the use of different endocytotic pathways. In sum, our data reveal that DC-SIGN can facilitate cell entry of LASV in human MDDC but that its role seems distinct from the function as an authentic entry receptor reported for phleboviruses. PMID:23966408

  12. Emergence of sandflies (Phlebotominae) in Austria, a Central European country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeppl, Wolfgang; Obwaller, Adelheid G; Weiler, Martin; Burgmann, Heinz; Mooseder, Gerhard; Lorentz, Susanne; Rauchenwald, Friedrich; Aspöck, Horst; Walochnik, Julia; Naucke, Torsten J

    2013-12-01

    The possible existence of autochthonous sandfly populations in Central Europe north of the Alps has long been excluded. However, in the past years, sandflies have been documented in Germany, Belgium, and recently, also in Austria, close to the Slovenian border. Moreover, autochthonous human Leishmania and Phlebovirus infections have been reported in Central Europe, particularly in Germany. From 2010 to 2012, sandfly trapping (740 trap nights) was performed at 53 different capture sites in Austria using battery-operated CDC miniature light traps. Sites were chosen on the basis of their climate profile in the federal states Styria, Burgenland, and Lower Austria. Sandfly specimens found were transferred to 70% ethanol for conservation. Identification was based on morphological characters of the male genitalia and the female spermathecae, respectively. Altogether, 24 specimens, 22 females and 2 males, all identified as Phlebotomus (Transphlebotomus) mascittii Grassi, 1908, were found at six different sampling sites in all three federal states investigated. The highest number of catches was made on a farm in Lower Austria. Altogether, the period of sandfly activity in Austria was shown to be much longer than presumed, the earliest capture was made on July 3rd and the latest on August 28th. Sandflies have been autochthonous in Austria in small foci probably for long, but in the course of global warming, further spreading may be expected. Although P. mascittii is only an assumed vector of Leishmania spp.-data on its experimental transmission capacity are still lacking-the wide distribution of sandflies in Austria, a country thought to be free of sandflies, further supports a potential emergence of sandflies in Central Europe. This is of medical relevance, not only with respect to the transmission of Leishmania spp. for which a reservoir is given in dogs, but also with respect to the phleboviruses.

  13. The NSs protein of tomato spotted wilt virus is required for persistent infection and transmission by Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaria, P; Bosco, L; Vallino, M; Ciuffo, M; Mautino, G C; Tavella, L; Turina, M

    2014-05-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is the type member of tospoviruses (genus Tospovirus), plant-infecting viruses that cause severe damage to ornamental and vegetable crops. Tospoviruses are transmitted by thrips in the circulative propagative mode. We generated a collection of NSs-defective TSWV isolates and showed that TSWV coding for truncated NSs protein could not be transmitted by Frankliniella occidentalis. Quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and immunostaining of individual insects detected the mutant virus in second-instar larvae and adult insects, demonstrating that insects could acquire and accumulate the NSs-defective virus. Nevertheless, adults carried a significantly lower viral load, resulting in the absence of transmission. Genome sequencing and analyses of reassortant isolates showed genetic evidence of the association between the loss of competence in transmission and the mutation in the NSs coding sequence. Our findings offer new insight into the TSWV-thrips interaction and Tospovirus pathogenesis and highlight, for the first time in the Bunyaviridae family, a major role for the S segment, and specifically for the NSs protein, in virulence and efficient infection in insect vector individuals. Our work is the first to show a role for the NSs protein in virus accumulation in the insect vector in the Bunyaviridae family: demonstration was obtained for the system TSWV-F. occidentalis, arguably one of the most damaging combination for vegetable crops. Genetic evidence of the involvement of the NSs protein in vector transmission was provided with multiple approaches.

  14. Interaction of Tomato Spotted Wilt Tospovirus (TSWV) Glycoproteins with a Thrips Midgut Protein, a Potential Cellular Receptor for TSWV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandla, M D; Campbell, L R; Ullman, D E; Sherwood, J L

    1998-02-01

    ABSTRACT Interactions between viral and cellular membrane fusion proteins mediate virus penetration of cells for many arthropod-borne viruses. Electron microscope observations and circumstantial evidence indicate insect acquisition of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) is receptor mediated, and TSWV membrane glycoproteins (GP1 and GP2) serve as virus attachment proteins. The tospoviruses are plant-infecting members of the family Bunyaviridae and are transmitted by several thrips species, including Frankliniella occidentalis. Gel overlay assays and immunolabeling were used to investigate the putative role of TSWV GPs as viral attachment proteins and deter mine whether a corresponding cellular receptor may be present in F. occidentalis. A single band in the 50-kDa region was detected with murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to the TSWV-GPs when isolated TSWV or TSWV-GPs were used to overlay separated thrips proteins. This band was not detected when blots were probed with antibody to the non-structural protein encoded by the small RNA of TSWV or the TSWV nucleocapsid protein, nor were proteins from nonvector insects labeled. Anti-idiotype antibodies prepared to murine MAbs against GP1 or GP2 specifically labeled a single band at 50 kDa in Western blots and the plasmalemma of larval thrips midguts. These results support the putative role of the TSWV GPs as viral attachment proteins and identified potential cellular receptor(s) in thrips.

  15. Characterization of Botrytis cinerea negative-stranded RNA virus 1, a new mycovirus related to plant viruses, and a reconstruction of host pattern evolution in negative-sense ssRNA viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaire, Livia; Pagán, Israel; Ayllón, María A

    2016-12-01

    The molecular characterization of a novel negative single-stranded RNA virus infecting the plant pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea is reported here. Comparison of the sequence of Botrytis cinerea negative-stranded RNA virus 1 (BcNSRV-1) showed a strong identity with RNA dependent RNA polymerases (RdRps) of plant pathogenic emaraviruses and tospoviruses. We have also found all the molecular signatures present in the RdRp of the genus Emaravirus and in other genera of family Bunyaviridae: the conserved TPD triplet and RY dinucleotide, the three basic residues in premotif A and the conserved motifs A, B, C, D, and E. Our results showed that BcNSRV-1 is phylogenetically close to members of the genus Emaravirus and of the family Bunyaviridae, and an ancestral state reconstruction using the conserved RdRp motifs of type members of each family of (-)ssRNA viruses indicated that BcNSRV-1 could possibly derive from an invertebrate and vertebrate-infecting virus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Transmisión de Anaplasma marginale por garrapatas

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    Kelly A. Brayton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma marginale, patógeno de distribución mundial, es transmitido por garrapatas Ixódidas. Comprender su complejo desarrollo dentro de la garrapata vector, permitirá la predicción de brotes y ofrecerá oportunidades para controlar su transmisión. En este trabajo se revisa su ciclo básico de desarrollo junto con los estudios recientes acerca de las diferencias de transmisión entre cepas, que delinean aspectos de la interacción patógeno - vector. Bacterias, virus o protozoarios transmitidos por artrópodos causan enfermedades severas, tanto en humanos como en animales. Las enfermedades infecciosas transmitidas por garrapatas, entre las que incluimos a la Anaplasmosis (A. marginale, babesiosis (Babesia bigemina, B. bovis, B. divergens y Theileriosis (Theileria annulata, T. parva, se encuentran entre las más importantes en el ámbito mundial, con pérdidas cercanas a los siete mil millones de dólares anualmente; y, a pesar de su impacto, permanecen escasamente bajo control, basado primordialmente en la aplicación de acaricidas, para interrumpir su transmisión. La aparición de garrapatas resistentes a múltiples sustancias acaricidas, representa una amenaza en este tipo de control y, como resultado, hay un resurgimiento de la investigación para el desarrollo de nuevas estrategias para su control. Nuevas opciones para prevenir la transmisión de patógenos de animales por garrapatas, será el resultado de entender las interacciones garrapata patógeno; proceso que culmina con el desarrollo de la infección y transmisión exitosa. En todos los casos de patógenos transmitidos por garrapatas, el desarrollo de la infección se realiza coordinamente a los momentos de adhesión y alimentación del vector sobre el animal. Esto sucede por la interdependencia en la señalización entre el patógeno y el vector al alimentarse y, por ello, será susceptible de intervención.

  17. Rice Stripe Tenuivirus NSvc2 Glycoproteins Targeted to the Golgi Body by the N-Terminal Transmembrane Domain and Adjacent Cytosolic 24 Amino Acids via the COP I- and COP II-Dependent Secretion Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Min; Liu, Xiaofan; Li, Shuo; Xu, Yi; Zhou, Yijun

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The NSvc2 glycoproteins encoded by Rice stripe tenuivirus (RSV) share many characteristics common to the glycoproteins found among Bunyaviridae. Within this viral family, glycoproteins targeting to the Golgi apparatus play a pivotal role in the maturation of the enveloped spherical particles. RSV particles, however, adopt a long filamentous morphology. Recently, RSV NSvc2 glycoproteins were shown to localize exclusively to the ER in Sf9 insect cells. Here, we demonstrate that the amino-terminal NSvc2 (NSvc2-N) targets to the Golgi apparatus in Nicotiana benthamiana cells, whereas the carboxyl-terminal NSvc2 (NSvc2-C) accumulates in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Upon coexpression, NSvc2-N redirects NSvc2-C from the ER to the Golgi bodies. The NSvc2 glycoproteins move together with the Golgi stacks along the ER/actin network. The targeting of the NSvc2 glycoproteins to the Golgi bodies was strictly dependent on functional anterograde traffic out of the ER to the Golgi bodies or on a retrograde transport route from the Golgi apparatus. The analysis of truncated and chimeric NSvc2 proteins demonstrates that the Golgi targeting signal comprises amino acids 269 to 315 of NSvc2-N, encompassing the transmembrane domain and 24 adjacent amino acids in the cytosolic tail. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that the glycoproteins from an unenveloped Tenuivirus could target Golgi bodies in plant cells. IMPORTANCE NSvc2 glycoprotein encoded by unenveloped Rice stripe tenuivirus (RSV) share many characteristics in common with glycoprotein found among Bunyaviridae in which all members have membrane-enveloped sphere particle. Recently, RSV NSvc2 glycoproteins were shown to localize exclusively to the ER in Sf9 insect cells. In this study, we demonstrated that the RSV glycoproteins could target Golgi bodies in plant cells. The targeting of NSvc2 glycoproteins to the Golgi bodies was dependent on active COP II or COP I. The Golgi targeting signal was mapped to the

  18. Encuesta de parásitos intestinales en 615 escolares del Rímac

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    Luis Gonzales-Mugaburu

    1956-12-01

    Full Text Available El examen microscópico de una sola muestra de heces de cada uno de 615 escolares del Rímac, ha mostrado: 1. El elevado porcentaje de protozoarios intestinales encontrados, sugiere una alta contaminación fecal. 2. La alta frecuencia de H. nana 166 (27.0% constituye un problema al que hay que prestar atención. 3. El hallazgo de Strongyloides stercoralis y Ancylostoma o Necator sólo en sujetos que habían estado algún tiempo en la Selva del Perú, sugiere una vez más, que dichos parásitos no son transmitidos en esta parte de la Costa. 4. La presencia de tres casos de Isospora belli nos indica que esta coccidia es más frecuente de lo que se suponía.

  19. Linguagem verbal e não verbal na malha discursiva

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    Elisa Guimarães

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem em mira explorar os efeitos do sentido decorrentes da intermediação entre linguagem verbal e não verbal no processo de constituição do texto/discurso. Baseia-se a pesquisa na seguinte indagação: “A combinação palavra e imagem é complementar na conformação do texto?” “Existe autonomia da imagem?” A investigação conclui ser a associação entre as duas linguagens o meio mais eficaz para interpretação dos sentidos transmitidos pelo texto/discurso.

  20. spots de campaña

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    Julio Juárez Gámiz

    2007-01-01

    publicidad política en televisión. Ilustrado por los spots televisivos, el debate se ha centrado en el alto costo que representa para los contribuyentes, a través de los partidos políticos, la producción y transmisión de estos mensajes. El presente trabajo consiste en un análisis de contenido de una muestra de spots transmitidos por las tres principales fuerzas electorales en México durante la campaña presidencial de 2006. El objetivo es identificar, de manera sistemática, características particulares en el formato y contenido de estos mensajes a la luz de su función persuasiva e informativa.

  1. CONTEXTO HISTÓRICO, USO POPULAR E CONCEPÇÃO CIENTÍFICA SOBRE PLANTAS MEDICINAIS

    OpenAIRE

    Firmo, Wellyson da Cunha Araújo; Menezes, Valéria de Jesus Menezes de; Passos, Carlos Eduardo de Castro; Dias, Clarice Noleto; Alves, Luciana Patrícia Lima; Dias, Isabel Cristina Lopes; Santos Neto, Marcelino; Olea, Roberto Sigfrido Gallegos

    2012-01-01

    As plantas medicinais são elementos que constituem parte da biodiversidade e são largamente utilizadas desde os primórdios da civilização por vários povos e de diversas maneiras. Atualmente, cerca de 80% da população utiliza recursos da medicina popular para tratamento de alguma doença, sendo que os conhecimentos das técnicas utilizadas e o emprego são transmitidos por gerações de forma oral. Estas informações são preocupantes no meio científico, pois pouco se sabe sobre a confiabilidade e  s...

  2. A cultura organizacional: o impacto visível de uma dimensão invisível

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    Santos, Joana Vieira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available No quotidiano, muitas vezes sem que se apercebam, os sujeitos são influenciados pelas características culturais do meio em que vivem. A cultura é considerada toda a totalidade dos padrões de comportamento socialmente transmitidos, artes, crenças e muitos outros processos considerados a expressão de um determinado período, classe, comunidade ou população (Choudhry, Fang e Mohamed, 2007. Ao nível organizacional encontramos um conjunto de valores, normas e padrões de comportamento que influenciam os diversos membros. Este leque de valores varia consoante a organização, correspondendo à Cultura Organizacional. O presente artigo teórico constitui uma singela análise em torno da temática, com vista a despertar reflexão e, eventualmente, futuros estudos

  3. Madonna e os meios massivos de comunicação: pactos para a construção de uma persona

    OpenAIRE

    Nakad, Valeska Fonseca

    2008-01-01

    Este estudo tem como objetivo apresentar a comunicação contemporânea, como foco de uma pesquisa que aborda a mídia, a moda, enquanto um processo de mudanças constantes. Com premissa o estudo da construção imagética do ícone Madonna por meio desses veículos. São abordadas hipóteses para a construção de sua persona, um construto que se deu pela inovação visual em seus produtos transmitidos nos meios massivos de comunicação. A moda é tratada como um processo mediático que transite e capta influê...

  4. Seguridad en WLAN IEEE 802.11: Evaluación de los mecanismos de cifrado y autenticación

    OpenAIRE

    Mediavilla Urra, Dídac

    2009-01-01

    Uno de los campos de investigación más activos actualmente, es el de las redes inalámbricas. Durante más de 30 años se ha venido trabajando en este tipo de redes, pero ha sido en los últimos años cuando el auge de la tecnología inalámbrica y su bajo coste han provocado el mayor avance en el desarrollo de la investigación en este campo. Este auge ha hecho necesaria la adopción y el desarrollo de herramientas de seguridad que protejan los datos transmitidos y de posibles ataqu...

  5. A influência do ambiente familiar e escolar na aquisição e no desenvolvimento da linguagem: revisão de literatura

    OpenAIRE

    Scopel,Ramilla Recla; Souza,Valquíria Conceição; Lemos,Stela Maris Aguiar

    2012-01-01

    TEMA: o termo linguagem é definido como organizado sistema de símbolos, com propriedades particulares que desempenham a função de codificação, estruturação e consolidação dos dados sensoriais, o que permite que experiências sejam comunicadas e seus conteúdos transmitidos. O desenvolvimento da linguagem depende não somente das condições biológicas inatas de cada indivíduo, como também sofre influência de fatores ambientais presentes nos meios em que as crianças estão inseridas, como por exempl...

  6. Análise do comportamento e esporte : capacitação comportamental com uso de feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Lays Fernanda Belineli

    2013-01-01

    A psicologia no esporte, como estudo e prática, aplica-se a uma extensa faixa populacional e é um campo que possui muitos temas a serem investigados, entre eles cita-se a interação entre treinador e atleta. A importância do treinador remete-se a maneira de estruturar a situação esportiva, as metas estabelecidas e os valores transmitidos, os quais podem influenciar não só a participação da criança no esporte, como em outras áreas da vida. Assim, para ser um bom treinador, o indivíduo além de s...

  7. Entre el público y el privado. Un análisis comparativo de la cobertura de ciencia de los telediarios brasileños Repórter Brasil y Jornal Nacional

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    Marina Ramalho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio compara la cobertura de ciencia y tecnología de dos noticieros de televisión brasileños: Jornal Nacional, de la principal cadena privada del país, y Repórter Brasil, transmitido por una emisora pública. En el período analizado -abril 2009 a marzo 2010- el noticiero privado emitió más noticias de CyT y le dio mayor destaque. Los noticieros siguieron diferentes agendas de cobertura, aunque las cuestiones médicas y de salud han sido las más comunes. En ambos noticieros, el encuadre narrativo principal fue “nueva investigación”, las investigaciones nacionales fueron priorizadas y, entre los científicos entrevistados, las mujeres fueron minoría.

  8. Soroproteção de pacientes com doenças reumáticas autoimunes em uso de imunomoduladores ou imunossupressores inadvertidamente revacinados contra a febre amarela

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Ana Cristina Vanderley

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: O Brasil possui a maior área endêmica de febre amarela (FA) do mundo. A doença é produzida por vírus de RNA transmitido pela picada de insetos hematófagos culicídeos. Trata-se de doença com significativa morbidade e letalidade e os casos suspeitos devem ser notificados em 24 horas às autoridades sanitárias, tamanha é seu potencial endêmico. O quadro clínico varia de formas assintomáticas até a chamada forma hemorrágica, com letalidade em torno de 50%. Não há tratamento específico ...

  9. Utilização de Bloquinhos de Montagem LEGO® para o Ensino dos Conceitos do Sistema Toyota de Produção

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    Alexandre Pinho

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo mostra como é possível facilitar  o aprendizado dos conceitos sobre o Sistema Toyota de Produção. É utilizada uma dinâmica de ensino através de bloquinhos de montagem LEGO® batizada de MIB – Montagem Interativa de Bloquinhos. Esta dinâmica além de abordar os principais conceitos sobre o Sistema de Toyota de Produção, também utiliza os conceitos sobre Just-in-time (JIT, tempo de setup, metodologia  5S e nivelamento de produção (Heijunka. O artigo descreve as quatro rodadas utilizadas na dinâmica MIB e como os conceitos descritos anteriormente são transmitidos aos alunos.

  10. Soroepidemiologia da piroplasmose equina em equinos de assentamento rural e carroceiros em regiões do Paraná

    OpenAIRE

    Thállitha Samih Wischral Jayme Vieira

    2013-01-01

    A piroplasmose equina é causada por Theileria equi e Babesia caballi, que são importantes hemoprotozoários transmitidos por carrapatos, e causam impacto mundial na indústria equina. A enfermidade pode ocorrer de forma aguda, subaguda ou crônica. A infecção subclínica é frequente em áreas endêmicas e os animais que se recuperam da infecção primária usualmente tornam-se portadores e atuam como disseminadores da doença. Devido à importância dos cavalos na manutenção da piroplasmose equina, bem c...

  11. Industrias culturales y de la comunicación: Mito y lógica de la creatividad y del empresario innovador

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    R de Mateo Pérez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción – Los discursos de los políticos, de los poderes económicos, de instituciones diversas como la Universidad, e incluso del lenguaje publicitario, y transmitidos por los medios de comunicación, se hacen eco del mantra del emprendedor y la innovación como fórmulas sagradas que, repetidas hasta la saciedad, hagan desaparecer la crisis del sistema económico, político y social en la que está inmerso el mundo globalizado. En este artículo se esclarecen el mito y la lógica de esos conceptos con análisis de caso en las industrias culturales y de comunicación.

  12. Universitarios y universitarias de México y el cuerpo simbólico como construcción de género

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    Martha Patricia Zarza Delgado

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo de investigación es el estudio de los mensajes de género transmitidos a partir de la estética del cuerpo, su adorno y sus movimientos entre la población juvenil universitaria de la ciudad de Toluca. A partir de entrevistas en profundidad y observación participante, identifico que el cuerpo se vuelve un medio simbólico a través del cual los jóvenes y las jóvenes de este estudio muestran ciertas relaciones de poder entre lo femenino y lo masculino, de manera diferenciada dependiendo del estilo juvenil al que se adhieren. En este sentido, encuentro múltiples y variadas posturas que en ocasiones parecen aceptar y en otras impugnar el orden social de género que los controla.

  13. Construcción de la memoria oficial en el Centenario de la Independencia: el Compendio de Historia de Colombia de Henao y Arrubla

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    Sandra Patricia Rodriguez Ávila

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los referentes de la memoria oficial, transmitidos en el texto escolar de Henao y Arrubla, que fue premiado durante las celebraciones   del   Centenario de  la Independencia de Colombia en 1910 y se mantuvo en circulación hasta los años sesenta, por efecto  de  la  articulación  de dispositivos mnemotécnicos, de  memorización  y  rememoración, que establecieron  los  principios  de  orden, verdad y valores hispánicos, desde los cuales se construyó la memoria dominante durante la primera mitad del siglo XX.

  14. Las empresas multinivel como modelo distópico: estudio de representaciones sociales

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    Mónica Maisterrena González

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio muestra las estrategias utilizadas por las empresas multinivel para ejercer un esquema homogéneo de representaciones sociales entre los asociados de las mismas. Se ha determinado la inevitabilidad de mantener un control "ideológico” sobre los asociados para el correcto funcionamiento de la empresa. La dinámica empresarial de estas compañías propone un modelo de satisfacción personal que debe ser transmitido y no puede ser cuestionado y que, por tanto, violenta la individualidad de los asociados. Se han utilizado, a manera de analogía, las novelas 1984 de George Orwell y Un mundo feliz de Aldous Huxley como modelos de una sociedad distópica que han sido llevadas a la práctica por las empresas multinivel.

  15. De criados mudos, jóvenes sordas y otros estereotipos. Las personas con problemas de audición y lenguaje en el cine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David APARICIO SÁNCHEZ

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos de este trabajo han sido analizar la imagen que el cine ha transmitido de las personas sordas y mudas a lo largo de la historia e identificar películas que transmitan una imagen positiva y real de estas personas y aquellas otras que reflejan imágenes negativas y estereotipadas. Se han analizado 53 filmes que abarcan el periodo comprendido entre 1929 y 2006. El análisis se ha centrado fundamentalmente en la imagen que se transmite de la persona con problemas de audición y/o lenguaje y en el uso cinematográfico que se hace de la discapacidad.

  16. La educación pública en el legado de Condorcet

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    María Ángeles Abellán López

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Los conceptos que utilizamos sobre la educación como servicio público, universal, obligatorio, gratuito, laico, y libre fueron desarrollados durante la Revolución Francesa y su impacto en Europa se produjo a través de los ideales de libertad e igualdad. Condorcet representa el enlace entre la Ilustración y la Revolución francesa y nos ha transmitido un ideario político pedagógico que perdura en la actualidad. Los principios de la UNESCO, de la UNICEF, la Declaración de la Sorbona (1998, la Declaración de Bolonia (1999, la política educativa de la Unión Europea y los textos constitucionales, contienen muchas de las ideas que hace más de dos siglos defendió Condorcet.

  17. El rigor: garantía para los periodistas, credibilidad para los medios y esperanza para los ciudadanos

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús Erney Torres Loaiza

    2004-01-01

    El artículo plantea un análisis profundo sobre la necesidad del rigor en la información y la verificación de las fuentes. Según el autor, no basta que un periodista cubra la información con la premisa de divulgar la verdad, es necesario que a la hora de publicarla tenga presente que el rigor es fundamental. La advertencia de cómo se consiguió la información y el contexto de los hechos, deben ser transmitidos al público, sobretodo en los casos donde está de por medio la condición humana, porqu...

  18. El rigor: garantía para los periodistas, credibilidad para los medios y esperanza para los ciudadanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Erney Torres Loaiza

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo plantea un análisis profundo sobre la necesidad del rigor en la información y la verificación de las fuentes. Según el autor, no basta que un periodista cubra la información con la premisa de divulgar la verdad, es necesario que a la hora de publicarla tenga presente que el rigor es fundamental. La advertencia de cómo se consiguió la información y el contexto de los hechos, deben ser transmitidos al público, sobretodo en los casos donde está de por medio la condición humana, porque al omitir estos detalles el periodista caería en la desinformación y no estaría entregando integralmente la noticia.

  19. Viajes del andalusí Ibn Ŷubayr al Oriente

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    Maíllo Salgado, Felipe

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available La Rihla o relación de viaje del andalusí Ibn Ŷubayr es la obra maestra de ese género en las letras árabes. Nadie ha transmitido un cuadro tan vivo y acabado de los principales centros del oriente árabe, ni ha dejado descripciones más precisas de los lugares visitados, ni ha evocado de modo tan personal los hechos y los gestos de los hombres. Es también documento esencial para la arqueología islámica, pues tiene especial cuidado en describir y situar los principales monumentos de las ciudades, adobado todo con datos de tipo geográfico, histórico, etnológico, folclórico...; nada importante escapa a su mirada.…

  20. Hearing loss related to mitochondrial DNA changes

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Maria F. P. de; Ribeiro, Fernando A. Quintanilha

    2002-01-01

    A deficiência auditiva é sintoma comum que pode apresentar várias etiologias, entre elas as causadas por alterações genéticas. As mutações genéticas podem ocorrer em genes nucleares e mitocondriais. A mitocôndria, uma organela intracelular, tem o seu próprio genoma (DNA), que é uma molécula circular e é transmitido exclusivamente pela mãe. As mutações do DNA mitocondrial são transmitidas pela linhagem materna, mas podem ocorrer mutações espontâneas. O fenótipo, ou expressão clínica, da mutaçã...

  1. As deficiências auditivas relacionadas às alterações do DNA mitocondrial.

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho Maria F. P. de; Ribeiro Fernando A. Quintanilha

    2002-01-01

    A deficiência auditiva é sintoma comum que pode apresentar várias etiologias, entre elas as causadas por alterações genéticas. As mutações genéticas podem ocorrer em genes nucleares e mitocondriais. A mitocôndria, uma organela intracelular, tem o seu próprio genoma (DNA), que é uma molécula circular e é transmitido exclusivamente pela mãe. As mutações do DNA mitocondrial são transmitidas pela linhagem materna, mas podem ocorrer mutações espontâneas. O fenótipo, ou expressão clínica, da mutaçã...

  2. Estudios sobre la transmisión por "moscas blancas" (Homoptera: aleyrodidae de virus asociados con el "cuero de sapo" en yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz

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    Angel S. Juan C.

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudios realizados en la zona endémica al "cuero de sapo" (Quilcacé, Cauca, encaminados a determinar la presencia de vectores de la enfermedad mostraron la existencia de dos virus asociados con "moscas blancas". El primero denominado "agente mosaico" fue transmitido por Bemisia tuberculata, el segundo asintomático, por Aleurotrachelus socialis. El 3.3% de la población de B. tuberculata utilizada transmitió el "agente mosaico" al clón M Col 2063 (Secundina y no a M Col 113: el 2.4 % de A. socialis transmitió el asintomático al clón Secundina y el 4.7% a M Col 113. El "agente mosaico", no fue identificado, pero si se demostró que el asintomático presente era CsXV; este sería el primer registro de un potexvirus transmitido por "moscas blancas". El papel de los dos virus en la etiología del “cuero de sapo” continúa en estudio.Whiteflies collected from a frogskin infested field in Quilcacé (Cauca were caged individually on M Col 2063 (Secundina and M Col 113 plants. It was possible to identify the species (Aleurotrachelus socialis, Trialeurodes variabilis and Bemisia tuberculata from pupae present on over 50% of the plants. A. socialis was found most f frequently and B. tuberculata the least com mom of the species. A. socialis was associated with the transmission of both CsXV and a serologically related strain, identified on the basis of symptoms produced on Nicotiana bentamiana, B. tuberculata was associated with the transmission of a mosaic agent to Secundina. The identify of the mosaic agent is unknown.

  3. Insect-Specific Viruses: A Historical Overview and Recent Developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roundy, Christopher M; Azar, Sasha R; Rossi, Shannan L; Weaver, Scott C; Vasilakis, Nikos

    2017-01-01

    Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) have in recent years become a tremendous global health concern resulting in substantial human morbidity and mortality. With the widespread utilization of molecular technologies such as next-generation sequencing and the advancement of bioinformatics tools, a new age of viral discovery has commenced. Many of the novel agents being discovered in recent years have been isolated from mosquitoes and exhibit a highly restricted host range. Strikingly, these insect-specific viruses have been found to be members of viral families traditionally associated with human arboviral pathogens, including but not limited to the families Flaviviridae, Togaviridae, Reoviridae, and Bunyaviridae. These agents therefore present novel opportunities in the fields of viral evolution and viral/vector interaction and have tremendous potential as agents for biocontrol of vectors and or viruses of medical importance. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sequence analysis of the medium RNA segment of three Simbu serogroup viruses, Akabane, Aino, and Peaton viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanase, Tohru; Yoshida, Kazuo; Ohashi, Seiichi; Kato, Tomoko; Tsuda, Tomoyuki

    2003-05-01

    The sequence analysis was carried out for the medium (M) RNA segment of the Akabane virus (AKAV), Aino virus (AINV), and Peaton virus (PEAV) of the Simbu serogroup of the genus Orthobunyavirus of the family Bunyaviridae. The complementary sequences of the M RNA segments of AKAV, AINV, and PEAV contain a single large open reading frame (ORF), like other orthobunyaviruses. The ORFs potentially encode 1401 amino acids (aa), 1404 aa, and 1400 aa polypeptides, respectively. The identity of the M segment among these viruses is remarkably low, although previous researchers reported that the small RNA segments are highly conserved. Because the M segment codes for the viral surface glycoproteins G1 and G2, the variability of the M segment may affect the antigenicity of these viruses. Phylogenetic studies based on the M and S segment sequences suggested that genetic reassortment has been occurring among ancestral viruses of the three Simbu serogroup viruses throughout their evolution.

  5. Detection of Orthobunyavirus in mosquitoes collected in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauro, L B; Batallan, G P; Rivarola, M E; Visintin, A; Berrón, C I; Sousa, E C; Diaz, L A; Almiron, W R; Nunes, M R; Contigiani, M S

    2015-09-01

    Bunyamwera virus (BUNV) (Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus, serogroup Bunyamwera) is considered an emerging pathogen for humans and animals in American countries. The CbaAr-426 strain of BUNV was recovered from mosquitoes Ochlerotatus albifasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) collected in Córdoba province (Argentina), where serological studies detected high seroprevalences in humans and animals. Molecular detection of Orthobunyavirus was performed in mosquitoes collected in Córdoba province. Seventeen mosquito pools of Oc. albifasciatus, Ochlerotatus scapularis and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) showed positive results; four of these positive pools, all of Oc. scapularis, were sequenced. All amplicons grouped with BUNV in the Bunyamwera serogroup. The findings highlight the circulation of BUNV in Córdoba province and represent the first report of BUNV-infected Oc. scapularis mosquitoes in Argentina. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.

  6. Isolation of Kaeng Khoi virus from dead Chaerephon plicata bats in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, J C; Rupprecht, C E; Olson, J G; Ksiazek, T G; Rollin, P E; Niezgoda, M; Goldsmith, C S; An, U S; Nichol, S T

    2003-10-01

    A virus isolated from dead Chaerephon plicata bats collected near Kampot, Cambodia, was identified as a member of the family Bunyaviridae by electron microscopy. The only bunyavirus previously isolated from Chaerephon species bats in South-East Asia is Kaeng Khoi (KK) virus (genus Orthobunyavirus), detected in Thailand over 30 years earlier and implicated as a public health problem. Using RT-PCR, nucleotide sequences from the M RNA segment of several virus isolates from the Cambodian C. plicata bats were found to be almost identical and to differ from those of the prototype KK virus by only 2.6-3.2 %, despite the temporal and geographic separation of the viruses. These results identify the Cambodian bat viruses as KK virus, extend the known virus geographic range and document the first KK virus isolation in 30 years. These genetic data, together with earlier serologic data, show that KK viruses represent a distinct group within the genus Orthobunyavirus.

  7. Schmallenberg virus infection of ruminants: challenges and opportunities for veterinarians

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    Claine F

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available François Claine, Damien Coupeau, Laetitia Wiggers, Benoît Muylkens, Nathalie Kirschvink Veterinary Department, Faculty of Sciences, Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences (NARILIS, University of Namur (UNamur, Namur, Belgium Abstract: In 2011, European ruminant flocks were infected by Schmallenberg virus (SBV leading to transient disease in adult cattle but abortions and congenital deformities in calves, lambs, and goat kids. SBV belonging to the Simbu serogroup (family Bunyaviridae and genus Orthobunyavirus was first discovered in the same region where bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8 emerged 5 years before. Both viruses are transmitted by biting midges (Culicoides spp. and share several similarities. This paper describes the current knowledge of temporal and geographical spread, molecular virology, transmission and susceptible species, clinical signs, diagnosis, prevention and control, impact on ruminant health, and productivity of SBV infection in Europe, and compares SBV infection with BTV-8 infection in ruminants. Keywords: Schmallenberg virus, Europe, ruminants, review

  8. The major cellular sterol regulatory pathway is required for Andes virus infection.

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    Josiah Petersen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Bunyaviridae comprise a large family of RNA viruses with worldwide distribution and includes the pathogenic New World hantavirus, Andes virus (ANDV. Host factors needed for hantavirus entry remain largely enigmatic and therapeutics are unavailable. To identify cellular requirements for ANDV infection, we performed two parallel genetic screens. Analysis of a large library of insertionally mutagenized human haploid cells and a siRNA genomic screen converged on components (SREBP-2, SCAP, S1P and S2P of the sterol regulatory pathway as critically important for infection by ANDV. The significance of this pathway was confirmed using functionally deficient cells, TALEN-mediated gene disruption, RNA interference and pharmacologic inhibition. Disruption of sterol regulatory complex function impaired ANDV internalization without affecting virus binding. Pharmacologic manipulation of cholesterol levels demonstrated that ANDV entry is sensitive to changes in cellular cholesterol and raises the possibility that clinically approved regulators of sterol synthesis may prove useful for combating ANDV infection.

  9. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Tajikistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishkova, Farida H; Belobrova, Evgeniya A; Valikhodzhaeva, Matlyuba; Atkinson, Barry; Hewson, Roger; Mullojonova, Manija

    2012-09-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a pathogenic tick-borne disease caused by a single-stranded negative-sense RNA virus classified within the Nairovirus genus of the family Bunyaviridae. Cases of CCHF have been registered in Tajikistan since the disease was first brought to medical attention in 1944. However, historical Tajik manuscripts describe the features of hemorrhagic fever associated with ticks, indicating that the disease might have been known in this region for many years before it was officially characterized. Here we review the historical context of CCHF in Tajikistan, much of which has been described over several decades in the Russian literature, and include reports of recent outbreaks in Tajikistan.

  10. Evidence of segment reassortment in Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, Roger; Gmyl, Anatoly; Gmyl, Larissa; Smirnova, Svetlana E; Karganova, Galina; Jamil, Bushra; Hasan, Rumina; Chamberlain, John; Clegg, Christopher

    2004-10-01

    The complete nucleotide sequences of the small (S) and medium (M) segments of three independent strains of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus isolated in Uzbekistan, Iraq and Pakistan have been determined. Partial S and M segment sequences from two additional strains and partial large segment sequences from five strains of CCHF virus have also been obtained. These data have been compiled and compared with published full-length and partial sequences of other CCHF virus strains. Analysis of virus strains for which complete and partial S and M segment sequences are available reveals that the phylogenetic grouping of some strains differ between these two segments. Data provided in this report suggest that this discrepancy is not the result of recombination, but rather the consequence of reassortment events that have occurred in some virus lineages. Although described in other genera of the Bunyaviridae family, this is the first report of segment reassortment occurring in the Nairovirus genus.

  11. Co-evolutionary patterns of variation in small and large RNA segments of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, John; Cook, Nicola; Lloyd, Graham; Mioulet, Valerie; Tolley, Howard; Hewson, Roger

    2005-12-01

    The genus Nairovirus of the family Bunyaviridae includes the Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) species group. The species is predominated by the hazard-group 4 pathogens, from which the name and majority of strain entries are derived. Additionally, the species embraces hazard-group 2 viruses that are classified as members by antigenic cross-reactivity. CCHF viruses have a tripartite RNA genome consisting of large (L), medium (M) and small (S) segments. Here, the sequence characterization of previously undescribed L and S segments from novel strains originating in the Middle East and Africa is reported. Further scrutiny of this data with phylogenetic tools, in the context of other publicly available sequence information, reveals analogous grouping patterns between the L and S segments. These groups correlate with the geographical distribution of strain isolation and indicate that the L and S segments of CCHF viruses have evolved together.

  12. The Genus Tospovirus: Emerging Bunyaviruses that Threaten Food Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, J E; Whitfield, A E

    2016-09-29

    The genus Tospovirus is unique within the family Bunyaviridae in that it is made up of viruses that infect plants. Initially documented over 100 years ago, tospoviruses have become increasingly important worldwide since the 1980s due to the spread of the important insect vector Frankliniella occidentalis and the discovery of new viruses. As a result, tospoviruses are now recognized globally as emerging agricultural diseases. Tospoviruses and their vectors, thrips species in the order Thysanoptera, represent a major problem for agricultural and ornamental crops that must be managed to avoid devastating losses. In recent years, the number of recognized species in the genus has increased rapidly, and our knowledge of the molecular interactions of tospoviruses with their host plants and vectors has expanded. In this review, we present an overview of the genus Tospovirus with particular emphasis on new understandings of the molecular plant-virus and vector-virus interactions as well as relationships among genus members.

  13. Comparative phylogenetic analysis of Dobrava-Belgrade virus L and S genetic segments isolated from an animal reservoir in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Valentina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV is a member of the Bunyaviridae family, genus Hantavirus, possessing a single-stranded RNA genome consisting of three segments, designated L (large, M (medium and S (small. In this study, we present phylogenetic analysis of a newly detected DOBV strain isolated from Apodemus agrarius. Analysis was based on partial L and S segment sequences, in comparison to previously published DOBV sequences from Serbia and elsewhere. A phylogenetic tree based on partial S segment revealed local geographical clustering of DOBV sequences from Serbia, unrelated to host (rodent or human. The topology of the phylogenetic tree was confirmed with a high percent of completely or partially resolved quartets in likelihood-mapping analysis, whereas no evidence of possible recombination in the examined S segment data set was found.

  14. An update on crimean congo hemorrhagic fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suma B Appannanavar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF is one of the deadly hemorrhagic fevers that are endemic in Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe, and the Middle East. It is a tick-borne zoonotic viral disease caused by CCHF virus of genus Nairovirus (family Bunyaviridae. CCHF not only forms an important public health threat but has a significant effect on the healthcare personnel, especially in resource-poor countries. India was always a potentially endemic area until an outbreak hit parts of Gujarat, taking four lives including the treating medical team. The current review is an attempt to summarize the updated knowledge on the disease particularly in modern era, with special emphasis on nosocomial infections. The knowledge about the disease may help answer certain questions regarding entry of virus in India and future threat to community.

  15. Searching for cellular partners of hantaviral nonstructural protein NSs: Y2H screening of mouse cDNA library and analysis of cellular interactome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuomas Rönnberg

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses (Bunyaviridae are negative-strand RNA viruses with a tripartite genome. The small (S segment encodes the nucleocapsid protein and, in some hantaviruses, also the nonstructural protein (NSs. The aim of this study was to find potential cellular partners for the hantaviral NSs protein. Toward this aim, yeast two-hybrid (Y2H screening of mouse cDNA library was performed followed by a search for potential NSs protein counterparts via analyzing a cellular interactome. The resulting interaction network was shown to form logical, clustered structures. Furthermore, several potential binding partners for the NSs protein, for instance ACBD3, were identified and, to prove the principle, interaction between NSs and ACBD3 proteins was demonstrated biochemically.

  16. The major cellular sterol regulatory pathway is required for Andes virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Josiah; Drake, Mary Jane; Bruce, Emily A; Riblett, Amber M; Didigu, Chukwuka A; Wilen, Craig B; Malani, Nirav; Male, Frances; Lee, Fang-Hua; Bushman, Frederic D; Cherry, Sara; Doms, Robert W; Bates, Paul; Briley, Kenneth

    2014-02-01

    The Bunyaviridae comprise a large family of RNA viruses with worldwide distribution and includes the pathogenic New World hantavirus, Andes virus (ANDV). Host factors needed for hantavirus entry remain largely enigmatic and therapeutics are unavailable. To identify cellular requirements for ANDV infection, we performed two parallel genetic screens. Analysis of a large library of insertionally mutagenized human haploid cells and a siRNA genomic screen converged on components (SREBP-2, SCAP, S1P and S2P) of the sterol regulatory pathway as critically important for infection by ANDV. The significance of this pathway was confirmed using functionally deficient cells, TALEN-mediated gene disruption, RNA interference and pharmacologic inhibition. Disruption of sterol regulatory complex function impaired ANDV internalization without affecting virus binding. Pharmacologic manipulation of cholesterol levels demonstrated that ANDV entry is sensitive to changes in cellular cholesterol and raises the possibility that clinically approved regulators of sterol synthesis may prove useful for combating ANDV infection.

  17. Synthesis of bunyavirus-specific proteins in a continuous cell line (XTC-2) derived from Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watret, G E; Pringle, C R; Elliott, R M

    1985-03-01

    The XTC-2 cell line, derived from Xenopus laevis, supported the replication of representative viruses from each of the four genera in the family Bunyaviridae. Generally, viral titres were higher in XTC-2 cells than in other susceptible cell lines, and for some viruses plaques were detected earlier in XTC-2 cells. The XTC-2 cell line permitted comparative analyses of bunyavirus-specific protein synthesis. The patterns of synthesis of viral proteins, characteristic of each of the genera, were observed with representative viruses. These studies provided biochemical characterization of two Scottish isolates, which support the inclusion of Clo Mor virus in the Nairovirus genus and St Abb's Head (M349) virus in the Uukuvirus genus.

  18. Non-Structural Proteins of Arthropod-Borne Bunyaviruses: Roles and Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Kohl

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Viruses within the Bunyaviridae family are tri-segmented, negative-stranded RNA viruses. The family includes several emerging and re-emerging viruses of humans, animals and plants, such as Rift Valley fever virus, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, La Crosse virus, Schmallenberg virus and tomato spotted wilt virus. Many bunyaviruses are arthropod-borne, so-called arboviruses. Depending on the genus, bunyaviruses encode, in addition to the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and the different structural proteins, one or several non-structural proteins. These non-structural proteins are not always essential for virus growth and replication but can play an important role in viral pathogenesis through their interaction with the host innate immune system. In this review, we will summarize current knowledge and understanding of insect-borne bunyavirus non-structural protein function(s in vertebrate, plant and arthropod.

  19. Molecular Assay on Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Ticks (Ixodidae) Collected from Kermanshah Province, Western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadian, Maria; Chinikar, Sadegh; Telmadarraiy, Zakkyeh; Vatandoost, Hassan; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi; Noroozi, Mehdi; Faghihi, Faezeh; Jalali, Tahmineh; Khakifirouz, Sahar; Shahhosseini, Nariman; Farhadpour, Firoozeh

    2016-09-01

    Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a feverous and hemorrhagic disease endemic in some parts of Iran and caused by an arbovirus related to Bunyaviridae family and Nairovirusgenus. The main virus reservoir in the nature is ticks, however small vertebrates and a wide range of domestic and wild animals are regarded as reservoir hosts. This study was conducted to determine the infection rate of CCHF virus in hard ticks of Sarpole-Zahab County, Kermanshah province, west of Iran. From total number of 851 collected ticks from 8 villages, 131 ticks were selected randomlyand investigated for detection of CCHF virus using RT-PCR. The virus was found in 3.8% of the tested ticks. Hyalommaanatolicum, H. asiaticum and Rhipicephalus sanguineus species were found to have viral infection, with the highest infection rate (11.11%) in Rh. sanguineus. These findings provide epidemiological evidence for planning control strategies of the disease in the study area.

  20. Transmission of Iris yellow spot virus by Frankliniella fusca and Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Rajagopalbabu; Sundaraj, Sivamani; Pappu, Hanu R; Diffie, Stan; Riley, David G; Gitaitis, Ron D

    2012-02-01

    Thrips-transmitted Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) (Family Bunyaviridae, Genus Tospovirus) affects onion production in the United States and worldwide. The presence of IYSV in Georgia was confirmed in 2003. Two important thrips species that transmit tospoviruses, the onion thrips (Thrips tabaci (Lindeman)) and the tobacco thrips (Frankliniella fusca (Hinds)) are known to infest onion in Georgia. However, T. tabaci is the only confirmed vector of IYSV. Experiments were conducted to test the vector status of F. fusca in comparison with T. tabaci. F. fusca and T. tabaci larvae and adults reared on IYSV-infected hosts were tested with antiserum specific to the nonstructural protein of IYSV through an antigen coated plate ELISA. The detection rates for F. fusca larvae and adults were 4.5 and 5.1%, respectively, and for T. tabaci larvae and adults they were 20.0 and 24.0%, respectively, indicating that both F. fusca and T. tabaci can transmit IYSV. Further, transmission efficiencies of F. fusca and T. tabaci were evaluated by using an indicator host, lisianthus (Eustoma russellianum (Salisbury)). Both F. fusca and T. tabaci transmitted IYSV at 18.3 and 76.6%, respectively. Results confirmed that F. fusca also can transmit IYSV but at a lower efficiency than T. tabaci. To attest if low vector competency of our laboratory-reared F. fusca population affected its IYSV transmission capability, a Tomato spotted wilt virus (Family Bunyaviridae, Genus Tospovirus) transmission experiment was conducted. F. fusca transmitted Tomato spotted wilt virus at a competent rate (90%) suggesting that the transmission efficiency of a competent thrips vector can widely vary between two closely related viruses.

  1. Viral metagenomic analysis of feces of wild small carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodewes, Rogier; Ruiz-Gonzalez, Aritz; Schapendonk, Claudia M E; van den Brand, Judith M A; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Smits, Saskia L

    2014-05-15

    Recent studies have clearly demonstrated the enormous virus diversity that exists among wild animals. This exemplifies the required expansion of our knowledge of the virus diversity present in wildlife, as well as the potential transmission of these viruses to domestic animals or humans. In the present study we evaluated the viral diversity of fecal samples (n = 42) collected from 10 different species of wild small carnivores inhabiting the northern part of Spain using random PCR in combination with next-generation sequencing. Samples were collected from American mink (Neovison vison), European mink (Mustela lutreola), European polecat (Mustela putorius), European pine marten (Martes martes), stone marten (Martes foina), Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) and Eurasian badger (Meles meles) of the family of Mustelidae; common genet (Genetta genetta) of the family of Viverridae; red fox (Vulpes vulpes) of the family of Canidae and European wild cat (Felis silvestris) of the family of Felidae. A number of sequences of possible novel viruses or virus variants were detected, including a theilovirus, phleboviruses, an amdovirus, a kobuvirus and picobirnaviruses. Using random PCR in combination with next generation sequencing, sequences of various novel viruses or virus variants were detected in fecal samples collected from Spanish carnivores. Detected novel viruses highlight the viral diversity that is present in fecal material of wild carnivores.

  2. An Assembly Model of Rift Valley Fever Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Mirabela; Bonneau, Richard; Holbrook, Michael R.; Watowich, Stanley J.; Birmanns, Stefan; Wriggers, Willy; Freiberg, Alexander N.

    2012-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a bunyavirus endemic to Africa and the Arabian Peninsula that infects humans and livestock. The virus encodes two glycoproteins, Gn and Gc, which represent the major structural antigens and are responsible for host cell receptor binding and fusion. Both glycoproteins are organized on the virus surface as cylindrical hollow spikes that cluster into distinct capsomers with the overall assembly exhibiting an icosahedral symmetry. Currently, no experimental three-dimensional structure for any entire bunyavirus glycoprotein is available. Using fold recognition, we generated molecular models for both RVFV glycoproteins and found significant structural matches between the RVFV Gn protein and the influenza virus hemagglutinin protein and a separate match between RVFV Gc protein and Sindbis virus envelope protein E1. Using these models, the potential interaction and arrangement of both glycoproteins in the RVFV particle was analyzed, by modeling their placement within the cryo-electron microscopy density map of RVFV. We identified four possible arrangements of the glycoproteins in the virion envelope. Each assembly model proposes that the ectodomain of Gn forms the majority of the protruding capsomer and that Gc is involved in formation of the capsomer base. Furthermore, Gc is suggested to facilitate intercapsomer connections. The proposed arrangement of the two glycoproteins on the RVFV surface is similar to that described for the alphavirus E1-E2 proteins. Our models will provide guidance to better understand the assembly process of phleboviruses and such structural studies can also contribute to the design of targeted antivirals. PMID:22837754

  3. An assembly model of Rift Valley fever virus

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    Mirabela eRusu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV is a bunyavirus endemic to Africa and the Arabian Peninsula that infects humans and livestock. The virus encodes two glycoproteins, Gn and Gc, which represent the major structural antigens and are responsible for host cell receptor binding and fusion. Both glycoproteins are organized on the virus surface as cylindrical hollow spikes that cluster into distinct capsomers with the overall assembly exhibiting an icosahedral symmetry. Currently, no experimental three-dimensional structure for any entire bunyavirus glycoprotein is available. Using fold recognition, we generated molecular models for both RVFV glycoproteins and found significant structural matches between the RVFV Gn protein and the influenza virus hemagglutinin protein and a separate match between RVFV Gc protein and Sindbis virus envelope protein E1. Using these models, the potential interaction and arrangement of both glycoproteins in the RVFV particle was analyzed, by modeling their placement within the cryo-electron microscopy density map of RVFV. We identified four possible arrangements of the glycoproteins in the virion envelope. Each assembly model proposes that the ectodomain of Gn forms the majority of the protruding capsomer and that Gc is involved in formation of the capsomer base. Furthermore, Gc is suggested to facilitate intercapsomer connections. The proposed arrangement of the two glycoproteins on the RVFV surface is similar to that described for the alphavirus E1-E2 proteins. Our models will provide guidance to better understand the assembly process of phleboviruses and such structural studies can also contribute to the design of targeted antivirals.

  4. Professional knowledge and MSD prevention: portrait of their transmission during training and the intervention perspective Savoirs professionnels et prévention des TMS : portrait de leur transmission durant la formation et perspectives d’intervention Saberes profesionales y prevención de las LMS : un retrato de su transmisión durante la formación y perspectivas de intervención

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    Sylvie Ouellet

    2009-11-01

    perspectives d’intervention sont proposées.Durante la organización de formaciones en empresas donde el trabajo es considerado manual y repetitivo, el formador es generalmente elegido entre los trabajadores experimentados que poseen un saber-hacer reconocido. Este estudio cuyo objetivo es de prevenir las lesiones músculo esqueléticas, analiza los tipos de saberes transmitidos a los aprendices por los trabajadores-formadores en una empresa del sector agroalimenticio. El análisis de los sabers transmitidos verbalmente por los formadores fue efectuada a partir de grabaciones audio provenientes del seguimiento cotidiano de las formaciones. El proceso ergonómico que se desarrolló en este estudio permitió mostrar que los saberes relacionados con la protección de la salud, el porqué de los gestos y los puntos de referencia para el trabajo son más difícilmente transmitidos que los otros saberes. Se puso en evidencia que el fenómeno de transmisión es complejo y que los formadores necesitan ser acompañados en el desarrollo de competencias para transmitir los saberes . Proponemos perspectivas de intervención.

  5. Savoirs professionnels et prévention des TMS : portrait de leur transmission durant la formation et perspectives d’intervention Professional knowledge and MSD prevention: portrait of their transmission during training and the intervention perspective Saberes profesionales y prevención de las LMS : un retrato de su transmisión durante la formación y perspectivas de intervención

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    Sylvie Ouellet

    2009-11-01

    demonstrated. Intervention scenarios are proposed.Durante la organización de formaciones en empresas donde el trabajo es considerado manual y repetitivo, el formador es generalmente elegido entre los trabajadores experimentados que poseen un saber-hacer reconocido. Este estudio cuyo objetivo es de prevenir las lesiones músculo esqueléticas, analiza los tipos de saberes transmitidos a los aprendices por los trabajadores-formadores en una empresa del sector agroalimenticio. El análisis de los sabers transmitidos verbalmente por los formadores fue efectuada a partir de grabaciones audio provenientes del seguimiento cotidiano de las formaciones. El proceso ergonómico que se desarrolló en este estudio permitió mostrar que los saberes relacionados con la protección de la salud, el porqué de los gestos y los puntos de referencia para el trabajo son más difícilmente transmitidos que los otros saberes. Se puso en evidencia que el fenómeno de transmisión es complejo y que los formadores necesitan ser acompañados en el desarrollo de competencias para transmitir los saberes. Proponemos perspectivas de intervención.

  6. Campañas de prevención del cáncer en el contexto de la Publicidad de Servicio Público: un análisis de los mensajes y de los recursos creativos.Campanhas de prevenção do cancro no contexto da Publicidade de Serviço Púbico: uma análise das mensagens e dos recursos criativos.Campaigns for cancer prevention in the context of Public Service Advertising: an analysis of messages and creative resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria van Schoor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to understand the structure of preventive campaigns against cancer focusing on the arguments that are used and the way they are transmitted. The research work comprised a content analysis of 72 advertising films produced in various continents representing, in general, the different approaches used nowadays in this field. We can point out, as main conclusions, that the cancer prevention campaigns use a considerable percentage of positive approaches, do not use fear appeals or display the shocking consequences as a result of negligent behaviour. The main messages emphasize prevention through creative formats that intend to establish an empathy and proximity with the target audience.Con este trabajo pretendemos comprender la estructura de las campañas de prevención del cáncer a nivel internacional, incidiendo en el análisis de los argumentos utilizados y la forma en la que estos son transmitidos. Realizamos un análisis de contenido de 72 anuncios publicitarios audiovisuales procedentes de diversos continentes y que ilustran, en gran parte, los diferentes abordajes utilizados actualmente en este campo. Fue posible constatar que las campañas de prevención del cáncer utilizan un porcentaje considerable de anuncios desde una perspectiva positiva, en los cuales no se utiliza el miedo ni consecuencias impactantes como resultado de los comportamientos de riesgo. En su mayoría, los anuncios utilizan un abordaje positivo, desde una óptica preventiva, a través de formatos creativos que procuran una gran empatía y proximidad con los destinatarios del mensaje.Este estudo tem como objectivo comprender a estrutura das campanhas de prevenção contra o cancro, a nível internacional, incidindo a sua análise sobre os argumentos utilizados e sobre a forma como são transmitidos. Na componente empírica do trabalho, realizou-se uma análise de conteúdo de 72 filmes publicitários provenientes de diversos continentes e que

  7. La Geometría Entretejida

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    Mónica Lorena Micelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo recopila el conocimiento geométrico plasmado a través de diseños textiles de diferentes pueblos nativos de América. Puede verse cómo en el arte del tejido en telar, se transmiten distintos conocimientos, muchos de ellos asociados a sus creencias, a ideas religiosas, estatus social o político. El marco, en el cual se ha realizado la presente investigación, es la etnomatemática, estudiando así los conocimientos matemáticos transmitidos en forma oral y plasmados en las prendas tejidas. Es así como se estudiarán los tejidos guatemaltecos, realizados por descendientes del pueblo Maya, transmitiendo en ellos parte de su cultura, también se incluirá un análisis de la obra textil incaica, para luego finalizar con los diseños realizados por el pueblo Mapuche que habitan el sur del territorio argentino.

  8. La Geometría Entretejida

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    Mónica Lorena Micelli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo recopila el conocimiento geométrico plasmado a través de diseños textiles de diferentes pueblos nativos de América. Puede verse cómo en el arte del tejido en telar, se transmiten distintos conocimientos, muchos de ellos asociados a sus creencias, a ideas religiosas, estatus social o político. El marco, en el cual se ha realizado la presente investigación, es la etnomatemática, estudiando así los conocimientos matemáticos transmitidos en forma oral y plasmados en las prendas tejidas. Es así como seestudiarán los tejidos guatemaltecos, realizados por descendientes del pueblo Maya, transmitiendo en ellos parte de su cultura, también se incluirá un análisis de la obra textil incaica, para luego finalizar con los diseños realizados por el pueblo Mapuche que habitan el sur del territorio argentino

  9. Do encanto ao encontro de vozes afro-brasileiras na tradição oral

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    Josiley Francisco de Souza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Ao longo da história, é possível perceber que, em todas as sociedades, a arte de contar sempre fez parte da nossa vida e garantiu a manutenção de memórias e saberes transmitidos no tecido das narrativas. Um dos lugares onde essa arte se faz presente com vigor é a África. As tradições orais têm sido apontadas por diversos pesquisadores como um traço distintivo da cultura africana. E, no exercício dessa arte, é possível ouvir diálogos e ressonâncias entre vozes africanas e brasileiras. Por intermédio de uma arte marcada pelo exercício do contar de novo, percebe-se contatos entre vozes que não se calam, que se traduzem e se inscrevem em histórias que se transmitem de boca a ouvido e da letra ao verbo. Portanto, o que se pretende neste artigo é, no processo de intensos entrecruzamentos de vozes e culturas que permeiam a tradição oral, analisar diálogos e ressonâncias transtextuais entre contos orais registrados no Brasil e em Angola.Palavras-chave: Tradição; Arte de contar; Conto oral; Memória; África; Brasil; Chatelain.

  10. The transmission of suprapylarian Leishmania by bite of experimentally infected sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae A trasnmissão de Leishmania suprapilária pela picada do flebotomíneo infectado experimentalmente

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    L. Ryan

    1987-09-01

    Full Text Available Lutzomyia furcata transmitted Leishmania chagasi to a hamster 10 days after being experimentally fed on an infected spleen. An individual female Psychodopygus carrerai carrerai that had fed on a hamster lesion caused by Leishmania mexicana amazonensis transmitted this parasite 6 days later to another hamster. Transmission electron microscopy of this fly's head revealed a small number of degenerate promastigotes in the foregut, but only a few were attached.O protozoário Leishmania (L. chagasi foi transmitido experimentalmente a um hamster pela picada do flebotomíneo Lutzomyia furcata. Os insetos foram infectados através de uma membrana (pele de pinto, utilizando-se formas amastigotas provenientes do baço de um hamster infectado. O baço foi triturado em sangue de coelho. A L. (L. amazonensis foi transmitida a um hamster pela picada do flebotomíneo Psychodopygus c. carrerai, previamente alimentado em lesão de pele de um outro hamster infectado com o parasita. O exame desse flebotomíneo, através de microscópio eletrônico, revelou um número pequeno de flagelados degenerados, livres no lumen do intestino anterior.

  11. Lugares e objetos de memória no batuque gaúcho

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    Cauê Fraga Machado

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O artigo aborda a mediação de objetos e lugares para o aprendizado da hierarquia religiosa e como fonte de registro de memória na tradição oral do batuque gaúcho. Apresento relato etnográfico sobre os antepassados na Nação Oyó, demonstrando como a geografia porto-alegrense faz memorá-los e saudá-los em seu sentido mais genérico, como orixás e escravos da África. Em sentido específico, são os objetos, sagrados ou não, que remetem aos parentes de santo mais “antigos”, vivos ou mortos. Os ensinamentos transmitidos por pais de santo a seus filhos são mediados por passeios em pontos específicos da cidade e pela utilização desses objetos, fazendo com que a memória conecte corpo e mente e também objetos e lugares.

  12. O PAPEL IMUNOLÓGICO E SOCIAL DO LEITE MATERNO NA PREVENÇÃO DE DOENÇAS INFECCIOSAS E ALÉRGICAS NA INFÂNCIA

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    MÁRCIO FLÁVIO MOURA DE ARAÚJO

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudio reflexivo que tuvo como objetivo analizar la contribución inmunológica y social de la leche materna en la prevención de enfermidades infecciosas y alérgicas . El proceso de amamantamiento repercute de forma biopsicosocial en el desarrollo del niño, especialmente, en la prevención de enfermedades como las diarreas, las IRAs y las alergias que son asociadas como causa de morbimortalidad pediátrica. Esa inmunidad es conferida por los anticuerpos maternos transmitidos durante la lactancia materna, principalmente, por la IgA( principal anticuerpo de la leche que irán a habitar el trato digestivo del niño, impidiendo así que microorganismos patógenos colonicen el trato enterogástrico infantil, produciendo enfermedades. El enfermero teñie tido realce en lo aconsejamento de gestantes y puerperas para asegurar lo amamantamiento hasta lo período de seis meses. Se señala que el amamantamiento maternal debido a sus características inmunológicas y sociales que previenen varias enfermedades infecciosas y alérgicas se constituye en una acción de promoción de la salud.

  13. Ideais das crianças mineiras no século XX: mudanças e continuidades

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    Lourenço Érika

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi feita, em 1998, a réplica de uma pesquisa realizada entre 1929 e 1944 por Helena Antipoff e em 1993 por Regina Helena de Freitas Campos, com o objetivo de investigar o impacto, nos ideais das crianças de Belo Horizonte, da ênfase que a mídia vem dando ao consumismo na sociedade contemporânea. Um questionário aberto foi aplicado a 307 crianças (151 meninas e 156 meninos da quarta série das escolas públicas e particulares de Belo Horizonte. Os dados referentes aos ideais destas crianças foram submetidos à análise de conteúdo, por gênero, e comparados com os dados das pesquisas anteriores. Foi comprovada a hipótese de que os valores transmitidos pela mídia vêm contribuindo para mudanças nos ideais infantis ao longo do século.

  14. Ideais das crianças mineiras no século XX: mudanças e continuidades

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    Érika Lourenço

    Full Text Available Foi feita, em 1998, a réplica de uma pesquisa realizada entre 1929 e 1944 por Helena Antipoff e em 1993 por Regina Helena de Freitas Campos, com o objetivo de investigar o impacto, nos ideais das crianças de Belo Horizonte, da ênfase que a mídia vem dando ao consumismo na sociedade contemporânea. Um questionário aberto foi aplicado a 307 crianças (151 meninas e 156 meninos da quarta série das escolas públicas e particulares de Belo Horizonte. Os dados referentes aos ideais destas crianças foram submetidos à análise de conteúdo, por gênero, e comparados com os dados das pesquisas anteriores. Foi comprovada a hipótese de que os valores transmitidos pela mídia vêm contribuindo para mudanças nos ideais infantis ao longo do século.

  15. La mujer y las plantas sagradas en el Mundo Antiguo

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    Daniel Becerra Romero

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available En etapas anteriores, el conocimiento de hierbas y plantas quedó, tradicionalmente, en manos de las mujeres que las recolectaban a modo de complemento de la dieta diaria. En su búsqueda debieron de aprender a distinguir otras que servirían como remedios medicinales y aquellas que definimos como drogas, algunas de las cuales acabaría formando parte de determinadas creencias. En el presente artículo hemos querido acercarnos a ellas, destacando el papel que ha jugado la mujer con relación a este tipo de substancias como conocedora de un saber transmitido a lo largo de generaciones.In previous stages, the knowledge of grasses and plants it was, traditionally, in the women’s hands that gathered them by way of complement of the daily diet. In their search they should learn how to distinguish others that would serve as medicinal remedies and those that we define like drugs, some of which it would finish being part of certain beliefs. Presently article has wanted to come closer to them, the paper that the woman has played with relationship to this type of substances like expert of a knowledge transmitted along generations highlighting.

  16. Los antroponimos griegos y su presencia en los cultos indígenas peninsulares

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    Arminda LOZANO VELILLA

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Antes de considerar el tema que nos ocupa conviene hacer ciertas precisiones sobre la valoración de la antroponomia griega, importante faceta de la historia antigua de la Península Ibérica. Los antropónimos griegos, conocidos y transmitidos bajo su forma latina a través de la Epigrafía romana en Hispania, constituyen una parte considerable y significativa de la onomástica peninsular. Un estudio de conjunto sobre ella no había sido acometido hasta ahora. De ahí, que no harta frecuencia se lea todavía, incluso en trabajos de alta especialización, la afirmación de que los portadores de antropónimos griegos en Hispania procedían de otra áreas geográficas, en concreto de las situadas en el Mediterráneo oriental. No obstante, la paciente labor de algunos investigacores, especialmente H. Solin centrada en la antroponimia griega de Roma, permitió conocer sin ningún género de dudas que tal suposición es errónea para la práctica totalidad de los casos, mientras que los antropónimos griegos sí son altamente representativos para conocer la extracción social de sus portadores.

  17. Sistema de aquisição de sinais ECG processado pelo LabVIEW com comunicação wi-fi por meio do módulo ESP8266

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    Anamaria Coutinho Fernandes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available O Eletrocardiograma (ECG é um procedimento clínico que mede a atividade elétrica gerada pelo coração, monitorando e diagnosticando as condições cardíacas. O ECG é adquirido, normalmente, por eletrodos em contato com a pele, havendo elementos de condicionamento, processamento e registro do sinal. Com o avanço das áreas de telemedicina e sistemas embarcados, os sistemas de aquisição de sinais ECG tem se miniaturizado, vem sendo propostos para uso em lugares remotos e incorporam técnicas de Internet das Coisas (IoT – Internet of Things habilitando a visualização dos sinais por dispositivos portáteis (smartphones e tablets e pela internet. O sistema de aquisição de sinais ECG aqui proposto é um eletrocardiógrafo que integra elementos de aquisição, condicionamento, processamento e visualização dos sinais ECG usando componentes analógico-digitais e transmitido a frequência cardíaca através da internet usando o módulo WiVi ESP8266. Filtros digitais desenvolvidos com LabVIEW® foram também implementados e visam avaliar a possibilidade do condicionamento analógico, visando a miniaturização.

  18. Morel e a questão da degenerescência

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    Mário Eduardo Costa Pereira

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O Traité des Dégénérescences, de Benedict-Augustin Morel, publicado em 1857, expõe uma teoria da hereditariedade dos transtornos mentais que teria grande influência no pensamento psiquiátrico até o início do século XX. Segundo sua proposição, fortemente impregnada de uma perspectiva religiosa católica, o homem teria sido criado, perfeito, por Deus. A degeneração, correlativa do pecado original, consistiria na transmissão à descendência das taras, vícios e traços mórbidos adquiridos pelos antecessores. À medida que esses estigmas fossem sendo transmitidos através das gerações, seus efeitos tenderiam a se acentuar, levando à completa desnaturação daquela linhagem, chegando até sua extinção pela esterilidade. Em decorrência dessa teoria, muitos projetos de intervenção social de cunho higienista foram desenvolvidos, de modo a impedir a propagação da degeneração da raça.

  19. A EDUCAÇÃO AMBIENTAL E OS INSETOS: APRENDIZADO INTERATIVO NAS ESCOLAS PÚBLICAS DE CAMPOS DOS GOYTACAZES, RJ.

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    Thais Berçot Pontes Teodoro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A inclusão de valores ambientais pode despertar nos indivíduos um potencial transformador, permitindo que este contribua para um mundo mais ético e sustentável. De forma a suprir parte da lacuna na educação básica, este projeto objetivou a difusão da entomologia para os alunos da rede pública de ensino de Campos dos Goytacazes – RJ. Através de atividades como exposição de coleção entomológica, palestras interativas, mostra de vídeos e aplicação de questionários, são transmitidos os conceitos, importâncias e curiosidades dos principais grupos de inseto. Os alunos puderam ver e sentir a textura dos exemplares de perto. Isso entusiasma e instiga a curiosidade das crianças, o que torna o aprendizado mais divertido e ajuda na fixação. Os questionários iniciais e finais avaliaram a mudança de pensamento sobre os assuntos abordados. Os resultados demonstram progresso no conhecimento de alguns aspectos importantes dos insetos.

  20. Magical fetish about prosperity Os fetiches mágicos da prosperidade

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    José de Arimathéia Cordeiro Custódio

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This study turns its attention to an arranged set of arbitrated signs – a code – quite specific: the typically neopentecostal stage objects used on Igreja Universal do Reino de Deus´ TV programs. Such objects are divided in two categories – sacred and profane – and analyzed according its outcome meaning. Firstly, in order to give the aspect of sanctity and spirituality, even with magical powers. Profane´ signs symbolize the prosperity of the ones whom embraced the church. Nine programs broadcasted at night were analyzed in different channels, besides the consultation of IURD´s sites in the search for complementary information. Este estudo volta sua atenção para um conjunto sistematizado de signos arbitrados – um código – bastante específicos: os objetos de cena de programas de TV da Igreja Universal do Reino de Deus, tipicamente neopentecostal. São objetos aqui divididos em duas categorias – sagrados e profanos – e analisados conforme o sentido gerado. No primeiro caso, para revestir os programas com uma aura de sacralidade e espiritualidade, e até poderes mágicos. Os signos profanos simbolizam a prosperidade de quem aderiu à igreja. Foram observados nove programas transmitidos na madrugada, em canais diferentes, além de consultados sites da IURD, para informações complementares.

  1. Ability of Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae to Transmit Cucumber mosaic virus in Single and Mixed Infection with Two Potyviruses to Zucchini Squash Eficiência dos afídeos Aphis gossypii e Myzus persicae na transmissão do Cucumber mosaic virus em infecção simples e mista com dois Potyvirus para abobrinha de moita

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    Zayame Vegette Pinto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was to investigate the ability of Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae to transmit Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV singly and mixed with two potyviruses (Papaya ringspot virus - type W, PRSV-W and Zucchini yellow mosaic virus, ZYMV, to zucchini squash plants (Cucurbita pepo. The results showed that the potyviruses in general were more efficiently transmitted by both species of aphids as compared to CMV. The transmission of PRSV-W, ZYMV and CMV separately was more efficient than in mixture.O objetivo desse trabalho foi estudar a eficiência de Aphis gossypii e Myzus persicae na transmissão do vírus do mosaico do pepino (Cucumber mosaic virus, CMV, isoladamente e em mistura com duas espécies de potyvirus (Vírus do mosaico do mamoeiro = Papaya ringspot virus - type W, PRSV-W e Vírus do mosaico amarelo da abobrinha = Zucchini yellow mosaic virus, ZYMV, para planta-testes de abobrinha de moita (Cucurbita pepo. Os dois potyvirus em geral foram transmitidos com mais eficiência pelas duas espécies de afídeos do que o CMV. A transmissão do PRSV-W, ZYMV e CMV, separadamente, foi mais eficiente do que em mistura.

  2. Creencias y prácticas de la sexualidad en adolescentes embarazadas en Cartagena, Colombia - 2014

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    Celia Castillo Torres

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio analiza cómo las adolescentes de niveles socioeconómicos bajos en la ciudad de Cartagena, Colombia, han construido sus creencias y prácticas sobre la sexualidad. El diseño de la investigación es de tipo cualitativo, específicamente con un enfoque etnográfico centrado en lo que las participantes expresaron en cuanto a sus experiencias, actitudes, valores, roles, tradiciones y creencias. Igualmente, se analizó la apropiación de conductas que generan estilos de vida y formas de relacionamiento que inciden sobre la presencia del embarazo a temprana edad. Se observó que las creencias y prácticas de sexualidad de estas jóvenes adolescentes se han construido de lo que culturalmente se ha transmitido de generación en generación, ejerciendo una gran influencia la dinámica social, los mecanismos de ocio y esparcimiento.

  3. Tabaco y cambio social: la construcción del tabaquismo como conducta desviada

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    SUSANA RODRÍGUEZ DÍAZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se propone un análisis de algunas de las estrategias que se han utilizado para convertir al tan extendido y popular hábito de fumar en una conducta desviada en el contexto de lo que se ha venido en llamar «cruzada antitabaco ». Esto abarca tanto la creciente regulación y normalización del mundo del tabaco como la elaboración de un nuevo sistema ideológico, transmitido a través de campañas diseñadas para marcar negativamente a esta sustancia y a los que la consumen. Agruparemos tales estrategias en cinco dimensiones, que nos remiten a distintos ámbitos o niveles de análisis. Así, hablaremos de una patologización en términos médicos, de una segregación espacial, de una estigmatización que obedece a una lógica religiosa, de una criminalización que nos remite al campo de lo bélico, así como de una desviación de la norma que nos remite al terreno de lo social.

  4. Libros y lecturas para jóvenes. (La transmisión de valores a través de la literatura infantil y juvenil : el caso de la lij catalana 1939- 1985

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    Ramón BASSA i MARTÍN

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La finalidad principal de este trabajo es analizar el mensaje educativo que durante casi medio siglo ha transmitido la literatura infantil y juvenil en lengua catalana, a partir de un análisis del contenido de una muestra representativa de libros, agrupando los campos léxico-semánticos de los textos en torno a diez grandes bloques (o sistemas ideológico-conceptuales, al tiempo que descubrir el modelo de intervención socioeducativa que esta literatura tuvo que construir históricamente en un determinado espacio social y cultural para sus jóvenes lectores. ABSTRACT: The primary aim of this paper is to analyse the educational message transmitted for almost half a century through children's literature in Catalan, based on an analysis of the content of a representative sample of books by grouping the texts' lexical-semantical fields around ten large blocks (or conceptual-ideological systems, while discovering the model of socioeducational intervention this literature historically had to construct within a determined social and cultural space for its young readers.

  5. Recomendaciones para la vigilancia de Aedes aegypti

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    Roberto Barrera

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedades causadas por arbovirus transmitidos por Aedes aegypti, como el dengue, el chikungunya y el zika, continúan aumentando en incidencia anual y expansión geográfica. Una limitación clave para el control de A. aegypti ha sido la ausencia de herramientas eficaces para vigilar su población y poder determinar las medidas de control que realmente funcionan. La vigilancia de A. aegypti se ha basado principalmente en la obtención de los índices aédicos, los cuales guardan poca relación con el número de hembras del mosquito, que son las responsables de la transmisión de los virus. El reciente desarrollo de técnicas de muestreo de adultos de este vector promete facilitar las labores de vigilancia y control. En esta revisión se presentan las diversas técnicas de vigilancia del mosquito, así como una discusión sobre su utilidad, con recomendaciones para lograr una vigilancia entomológica más efectiva.

  6. Suscetibilidade de genótipos de feijão ao vírus-do-mosaico-dourado

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    Lemos Leandro Borges

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a suscetibilidade de diversos genótipos de feijão ao vírus-do-mosaico-dourado (VMDF, transmitido pela mosca branca (Bemisia tabaci. A semeadura foi realizada na época da seca e das águas, com e sem aplicação do inseticida granulado Aldicarb (3,0 kg ha-1 do i.a. no sulco de semeadura. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados disposto em esquema fatorial 14x2, representado por genótipos e inseticida, respectivamente, com quatro repetições. A maior infestação de mosca-branca e incidência do vírus ocorreu na época da seca, causando prejuízos à produção do feijoeiro. Os genótipos apresentaram diferentes graus de suscetibilidade ao vírus e ao inseto vetor. Os genótipos mais tolerantes foram IAPAR 57, IAPAR 65, IAPAR 72, Ônix, Aporé e 606 (5(214-17. A aplicação do inseticida sistêmico controla o vetor em ambas as épocas de cultivo, proporcionando aumentos da produtividade.

  7. Sexo oral e HIV entre homens que fazem sexo com homens Oral sex and HIV among men who have sex with men

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    Sergio Luis Funari

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A transmissão sexual do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana (HIV representa um problema de saúde pública em todo o mundo, e homens que fazem sexo com homens encontram-se sob risco diferenciado para essa infecção. Ainda que existam evidências suficientes para se afirmar que o HIV pode ser transmitido via sexo oral, a percepção desse risco é ambígua, e relaciona-se de forma paradoxal com mudanças de atitude. Novos modelos de percepção de risco devem ser desenvolvidos em diversas áreas de conhecimento para se alcançar compreensão aprofundada desse fenômeno.Sexual transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV continues to pose a public health problem worldwide. Men who have sex with men are still at differential risk of infection. Although there is evidence to claim that HIV can be transmitted by oral sex, the perception of this risk is ambiguous and relates paradoxically to behavior change. New models of risk perception must be developed in various areas of knowledge to obtain a fuller understanding of this phenomenon.

  8. Ética y Liderazgo. La neutralidad no existe. Leadership and ethics. Neutrality does not exist

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    Carlos David Simonetta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo pone en revisión la forma neutral en que ciertos modelos de liderazgo son diseñados, transmitidos, aceptados y practicados dentro del campo de la administración y la gestión de organizaciones. Dicha neutralidad implica un marco que suspende la definición y evaluación de valores y principios y sus impactos. Esta aparente neutralidad se extiende a través de toda la descripción y la normativa de los modelos, y naturalmente deriva en una práctica despojada de valoración ética o de responsabilidad social. El objetivo del estudio del liderazgo en gran parte de la bibliografía administrativa es el rendimiento mediante más y mejores resultados. El afán en la consecución de objetivos financieros, u operativos, hace que las formas de influencia del líder queden en segundo plano mientras conduzcan al resultado esperado. A partir del análisis de un modelo de liderazgo muy difundido, se propone a continuación el estudio de sus riesgos éticos, a partir del trabajo de diversos autores que pugnan por discutir la supuesta neutralidad de valores y principios.

  9. Las postales: ¿un instrumento de divulgación del patrimonio arqueológico?

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    Ana Ma. Mansilla Castaño

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza el discurso divulgativo del patrimonio arqueológico, en su dimensión visual principalmente, tomando como objeto de estudio las postales. La muestra analizada recoge un conjunto representativo procedente de museos arqueológicos, yacimientos y aulas arqueológicas de la Comunidad Autónoma de Castilla y León. El objetivo es valorar qué imagen del patrimonio arqueológico se está transmitiendo a través de este tipo de producto. La disciplina arqueológica ha prestado poca atención a este tipo de discursos no oficiales transmitidos a través de los objetos que forman parte de la cultura popular y de la industria del recuerdo, sin embargo desempeñan un papel importante en la transmisión de determinadas imágenes sobre el pasado

  10. El juramento de fidelidad a Octaviano del año 32 a. C.

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    María Concepción Rosado Martín

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available El juramento de fidelidad del año 32 a. C. situó a Octaviano al frente de un bloque, liderado por Italia y secundado por las provincias occidentales, preparado para enfrentarse a Marco Antonio, quien estaba secundado por Cleopatra y por los territoriosorientales. Suetonio, Dión Casio y el propio Augusto en las Res Gestae Divi Augusti nos han transmitido la existencia de este juramento. El texto original no se conserva por lo quese ha comparado con otros juramentos de fidelidad, tanto de época republicana como imperial. Nuestro objetivo es estudiar cómo se gestó este juramento, en qué consistía y analizar otros juramentos de fidelidad parecidos al del año 32 a. C. Con este juramento, Italia y Occidente quedaron unidos políticamente a Octaviano de cara al inminente enfrentamiento de éste contra Marco Antonio cuya consecuencia será el paso de la República al Principado.

  11. Sugerencias a partir del análisis de sensibilidad de un modelo matemático de transmisión de chikungunya

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    David Requena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La fiebre chikungunya afecta seriamente la salud de las personas, causando dolores articulares crónicos e incluso discapacidad. Es transmitida por picadura de los mosquitos Aedes aegypti y Aedes albopictus. Se han reportado brotes en diversas partes del mundo, incluyendo Latinoamérica. Estudios de modelamiento matemático de dichos brotes han calculado valores de parámetros epidemiológicos. En base a ellos, se elaboró un modelo matemático para simular un brote epidémico de chikungunya en una población local, transmitido desde una población vecina infectada. Mediante análisis de sensibilidad e incertidumbre se obtuvo que la tasa de transmisión mosquito-humano y humano-mosquito son las variables con mayor correlación con la cantidad de infectados, la cual se pierde significativamente a partir de los 60 días del primer caso en la población vecina. Se recomienda tomar esto en cuenta al planificar medidas de control sobre dichas variables como aislamiento de infectados, repartición de mosquiteros y repelentes, fumigación, entre otras.

  12. Artefatos de gênero na arte do barro: masculinidades e femininidades

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    MATOS SÔNIA MISSAGIA DE

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Este é um estudo sobre gênero na produção artística de peças de cerâmica em algumas comunidades de artesãos do Vale do Jequitinhonha, Minas Gerais, onde tradicionalmente apenas as mulheres chamadas "paneleiras" praticavam esse ofício, que era transmitido de mãe para filha. Naquela região, assim que a arte do barro se tornou uma fonte alternativa de renda, vários homens decidiram entrar para o ofício. A entrada de homens na arte do barro provocou reconfigurações nas relações de gênero. Um ponto muito importante a ser observado aqui é que apesar de tradicionalmente transmitida por mulheres e pela ação feminina, a arte do barro tem incorporado valores de masculinidade: ao se aproximarem de um ofício tradicionalmente feminino, os homens passaram a retirar dele recursos simbólicos de representação de masculinidade.

  13. O que é o cibersexo? Uma arqueologia em três tempos

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    William Araujo Rezende

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza el objeto cibersexo partindo del contexto discursivo que involucró el concepto. Para este propósito, partimos del cuestionamiento de su especificidad mediante el análisis de las definiciones actuales en el ámbito científico. Después, trazamos la arqueología de su aparición en el campo del conocimiento, basado en un levantamiento del discurso transmitido por los medios de comunicación y revistas científicas, en tres momentos diferentes. En un primer momento, se analiza su emergencia como un problema de identidad que luego toma un tono peligroso marcado por el discurso de los medios de comunicación. Entonces vemos cómo el cibersexo comienza a ser conjurado por la dimensión jurídica a través de la sospecha permanente de crimen potencial. Finalmente, se investiga su inclusión en el ámbito de la Psicología, principalmente a través de discursos de patologización. Llegamos a la conclusión de que el concepto de cibersexo no se limita a este marco epistemológico que no contempla las experiencias únicas que revelan su dimensión molecular.

  14. Caracterización molecular de un begomovirus del tomate en el Valle del Cauca, Colombia, y búsqueda de fuentes de resistencia para el mejoramiento de la variedad Unapal Maravilla

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    Ana Karine Martínez A

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizó un virus transmitido por la mosca blanca Bemisia tabaci al tomate en el Valle del Cauca como una variante del Virus del mosaico amarillo del tomate (Tomato yellow mosaic virus = ToYMV. Plantas de tomate (FLA 496-11-6-1-0, FLA 478-6-3-1-11, FLA 456-4 y FLA 653-3-1-0 de 20 días de edad se confinaron en jaulas individuales con 10 individuos virulíferos de B. tabaci (biotipo B por planta, en condiciones de invernadero. La infección por el virus se confirmó por el desarrollo de los síntomas y las pruebas moleculares de PCR e hibridación dot blot. Las características agromorfológicas se evaluaron en campo en un diseño de bloques completos al azar con tres repeticiones. Las líneas FLA 653-3-1-0, FLA 496-11-6-1-0 y FLA 478-6-3-1-11 desarrollaron síntomas muy leves; el ADN viral fue apenas detectable para algunos individuos y presentaron características del fruto y rendimientos deseables.

  15. Los Juegos Paralímpicos de Londres 2012: los Juegos de la inclusión

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    Miguel Ángel Torralba

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Los Juegos Paralímpicos de Londres 2012 han sido excelentes, sin duda los mejores juegos de la historia, pero si por algo se han caracterizado ha sido por el nivel de inclusión desarrollado. Siguiendo el modelo de los Juegos Olímpicos, los organizadores han dado rienda suelta a todos los valores que posee el pueblo británico y, como fundadores del movimiento paralímpico en Stoke Mandeville por el Dr. Guttmann, han sabido conjugar el espectáculo deportivo con la difusión de las capacidades de los deportistas discapacitados. Las proezas de los deportistas paralímpicos han transmitido a toda la sociedad, a través de los medios de comunicación, los valores que tan magníficamente encarnan. La participación ha sido numerosa, 166 países y mas de 4.000 atletas, lo que convierte estos Juegos en la segunda manifestación deportiva de la Tierra. España representa una de las potencias del movimiento Paralímpico, estando presente en los primeros puestos del medallero y siendo punteros en la difusión de modelos educativos y participando en las investigaciones auspiciadas por el Comité Paralímpico Internacional.

  16. Las industrias informativas: ¿tienen futuro?

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    Robert Picard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La abundancia de información, la fragmentación y polarización de las au-diencias, el desarrollo del portafolio de ofertas, los cambios en las formasde comunicar y el propio debilitamiento de las compañías mediáticas obli-gan a las industrias informativas a repensar sus modelos de negocio, anteel descenso ineludible de los ingresos provenientes del pago de los usua-rios y la venta de publicidad. Algunos observadores confunden la difícil si-tuación de los medios informativos con el periodismo. Pero estos no sonsinónimos. El periodismo no es una forma de medio de comunicación; noes una plataforma de distribución; tampoco una industria o una compañía;ni un modelo de negocio, ni un trabajo. El periodismo es una actividad, unconjunto de prácticas mediante las cuales la información y el conocimien-to son obtenidos, procesados y transmitidos. Las perspectivas económicasy empresariales resultan importantes para responder interrogantes sobreel estado actual y futuro de las industrias informativas, porque sus desafíosfundamentales involucran nuevas estrategias de!nanciamiento, costos ypolíticas públicas que permitan hacer frente a los retos ineludibles que seplantean en el siglo XXI.

  17. Família interdita: transgeracionalidade e subjetivação em três obras ficcionais

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    Fabio Scorsolini-Comin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi discutir a transmissão psíquica geracional em duas obras do escritor Mia Couto: Antes de nascer o mundo (2009 e Um rio chamado tempo, uma casa chamada terra (2003, e no conto A terceira margem do rio, de Guimarães Rosa (1962. As três obras são narradas pelos filhos e destacam a família como epicentro de uma trama de segredos, interditos e culpabilizações transmitidos de uma geração a outra, possibilitando a compreensão de que o seio familiar permite não apenas a organização das experiências emocionais, mas a também a transmissão de aspectos intersubjetivos aos quais nem sempre as personagens têm acesso. Os segredos ou a não revelação das verdadeiras histórias dos personagens são apenas uma das formas de transmissão, pois, mesmo ocultando o interditado, transfere-se algo, de modo que o não revelar também é uma maneira de destacar o interdito, aquilo que ainda não foi elaborado e que, por conseguinte, não recebeu inscrição psíquica.

  18. El Gran Rey en movimiento : banquetes y partetaš

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    Joaquín Velázquez Muñoz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La nómada y numerosa corte real, durante sus desplazamientos entre las residencias reales, se detuvo en una serie de lugares denominados por las fuentes como partetas. Los partetas también constituyeron una fuente única de placer y de deleite. Los elementos de los jardines fueron asociados con el placer sensorial. Los partetas también pudieron evocar algunas significativas conexiones religiosas como se desprende de los relatos de las fuentes greco-romanas y por las informaciones que el archivo de la Fortificación nos ha transmitido.The nomadic and numerous royal court during its displacements between the royal residences, is arrested in a series of places named by sources as partetas. The partetasalso constituted a unique source of pleasure and delight, the components of the gardens were associated with the sensory pleasure. The partetas also could evoke some significant religiors connections as can be seen from the stories of the sources greco-roman and by the information that the file of the fortification has been handed down to us.

  19. Tambores, rádios e vídeoclipes: Sobre paisagens sonoras, territórios e multiterritorialidades

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    Marcos Alberto Torres

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Os sons, transmitidos por meio de propagações ondulatórias, são produzidos e reproduzidos de diferentes formas e maneiras, seja pela natureza ou pelos seres humanos. Pela natureza têm-se os sons dos ventos, das águas, dos animais. Pelos humanos têm-se os sons das falas, do trabalho, da música, dentre outros. Os seres humanos, dessa forma, organizam sons para comunicação e, mais recentemente na história da humanidade, encontraram a possibilidade técnica do acondicionamento dos sons, para a posterior reprodução em diferentes localidades, marcando uma nova fase nas paisagens sonoras do mundo. Seja pela fala, seja pela música, a humanidade comunica ideias e valores permeados pela cultura. As mais recentes propagações musicais, que se atrelam à linguagem audiovisual, marcam a paisagem dos lugares, que comunica, retrata, e possibilita a existência de distintas territorialidades no espaço. O presente artigo objetiva tecer relações entre a paisagem sonora e a construção de multiterritorialidades, a partir de exemplos de identidades criadas com base em movimentos e estilos musicais, seus territórios e territorialidades.

  20. O ensino de Psicologia no século XIX na cidade do Rio de Janeiro

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    Marina Massimi

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available Objeto do artigo são os conhecimentos psicológicos transmitidos e produzidos em instituições de ensino superior e secundário na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, durante o século XIX (até 1870, visando-se evidenciar por meio da análise critica a significação conceituai e a função social doe mesmos no fimbito do contexto brasileiro da época. Através de um levantamento de material documentário relativo a algumas escolas importantes do Rio de Janeiro, no século XIX, foi possível reconstruir o quadro dos conteúdos e das práticas psicológicas objeto de ensino e de elaboração em tais escolas, evidenciando-se a coexistência de diferentes propostas em termos de abordagens doutrinárias, de enfoques metodológicos, de objetivos visados.

  1. Literatura de cordel como estratégia educativa para prevenção da dengue

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    Paula Marciana Pinheiro de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La finalidad fue analizar los mensajes transmitidos y discutidos en los folletos del dengue tema. Estudio exploratorio-descriptivo, documental, precedido de búsqueda sistemática de cordeles, entre abril y mayo de 2010. De los pliegos investigados, dos trataban del tema. Con el Análisis de Contenido construyó tres categorías: Conociendo al dengue, con características de la enfermedad en sí y también de sus señales y síntomas; Prevención del dengue, con énfasis en las formas de prevención a la proliferación del mosquito y su eliminación; y Literatura de cordel como estrategia educativa, retratando como el cordel representa un medio viable para la prevención del dengue. Los cordeles mostraron contenido informativo satisfactorio para producir un alerta favorable a medidas contra el dengue, aliando informaciones a los costumbres culturales regionales.

  2. Transmissão do Trypanosoma cruzi em três gerações de Cavia porcellus sem a participação de triatomíneos

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    Ítalo A. Sherlock

    1976-02-01

    Full Text Available Foi verificada a transmissão sucessiva do T. cruzi em três gerações da cobaia Cavia porcellus sem a participação de triatomíneos. Embora não fosse determinado qual das vias, se placentária, leite, excreções ou contágio direto pelo qual o protozoário foi transmitido para os descendentes, chama-se atenção para a importância da manutenção de reservatórios da Doença de Chagas, mesmo na ausência de vetores invertebrados.The sucessive transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi among three generations of the guinea pig Cavia porcellus without the participation of triatomine bugs is verified. Although the mode of transmission, such as congenital, infected milk or other excretion or direct contagion was not defined, this maybe of importance in natural maintenance of reservoirs of T. cruzi without the invertebrate vectors.

  3. A memória dos Açores na escrita de Cecília Meireles = The memory of the Azores in Cecilia Meireles’ writings

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    Mello, Ana Maria Lisboa de

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo visa discutir sobre a herança açoriana de Cecília Meireles. De um lado, a escritora recuperou o legado familiar transmitido pela avó materna e a memória coletiva dos ilhéus, projetada no folclore, área de interesse de pesquisa da escritora, que escreveu Panorama Folclórico dos Açores, especialmente da Ilha de São Miguel (1958 e Notas do Folclore Gaúcho-Açoriano (1968. De outro, Cecília Meireles transfigurou a insularidade e os elementos marítimos em símbolos que aludem aos sentimentos do exilado, ao sonho de regresso e à ânsia por uma realidade absoluta. Fechamento e introspecção, apego à terra e, ao mesmo tempo, abertura e impulso para a viagem são movimentos característicos do ilhéu

  4. Psicodinâmica das relações incestuosas: assassinato e renascimento da alma em Preciosa

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    Tales Vilela Santeiro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A linguagem dos filmes é vigorosa em facilitar processos formativos na clínica de orientação psicanalítica, pois metaforiza situações e contextos humanos, inclusive relações familiares incestuosas (RFIs. O trabalho teve como objetivo discutir um caso fílmico que focaliza RFsI encenadas por um casal parental e por uma filha. Preciosa: uma história de esperança, filme estadunidense dirigido e produzido por Lee Daniels em 2009, foi analisado qualitativamente por meio de teorias e discussões clínicas sobre a psicodinâmica familiar. A família de Preciosa é entendida de modo integrado, havendo mutualidade de influências entre seus diferentes membros, que se relacionam conforme os limites e potencialidades impostos pelo desenvolvimento psicossexual de cada um deles. Todos os envolvidos nas RFIs precisam enfrentar a tarefa de elaborar segredos familiares, os quais são transmitidos por via inconsciente de geração a geração. Preciosa ilustra a importância das funções familiares para a constituição das subjetividades e retrata desafios contemporâneos que se apresentam ao trabalho do clínico.

  5. Psicologia e acupuntura: aspectos históricos, políticos e teóricos

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    Delvo Ferraz da Silva

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta a evolução histórica, política e teórica da acupuntura em nossa sociedade. Explora o modelo teórico proposto pela Medicina tradicional chinesa, que tem como base o conhecimento adquirido através de observações sistemáticas que ocorreram em milhares de anos e que, quando aceitos como verdades por todos os observadores, são integrados ao conjunto de conhecimentos que os orientais chamam de As Tradições. Esses conhecimentos são transmitidos de geração a geração, até o presente. Com a aproximação entre as ciências ocidentais e as tradições orientais, resultado dos esforços das Nações Unidas que culminou com a declaração de Veneza, em 1986, buscou-se apresentar, neste trabalho, como essas tradições percebem o ser humano, em particular, a psique.

  6. Criação de objetos de aprendizagem gamificados para uso em sala de treinamento

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    Maria Lúcia Gili Massi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As pessoas de todo o mundo passam bilhões de horas por semana jogando nos computadores, smartphones e videogames. Levar os elementos dos jogos, que fascinam e prendem a atenção dos indivíduos, para o contexto da educação profissional ou não pode ser uma estratégia metodológica que resulte em aumento de motivação e engajamento de aprendizes. Este estudo, baseado em pesquisa bibliográfica e documental, pretende apresentar as etapas para a criação de objetos de aprendizagem gamificados a serem utilizados pelos profissionais das áreas de treinamento, em especial, os instrutores, que desejam aumentar o envolvimento dos treinandos com os conteúdos transmitidos em sala de treinamento. Há resultados empíricos mostrando a eficácia da gamificação em treinamento e na transferência dos aprendizados para o trabalho cotidiano.

  7. Capacitação à distância de professores do ensino fundamental no Brasil Multimedia training for primary teachers in Brazil

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    Elba Siqueira de Sá Barreto

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho consiste em reflexão baseada em pesquisa de avaliação externa do programa nacional de capacitação docente transmitido via satélite: "Um salto para o futuro". Reporta-se à pesquisa de campo, abrangendo amostra de telepostos de oito estados das diferentes regiões do país, e examina os pressupostos teóricos-metodológicos e o formato do programa, a interação dos agentes educacionais, o aproveitamento dos cursistas e as condições de implementação. Conclui que o Programa inova quanto à forma e ao conteúdo, podendo vir a constituir importante veículo de atualização de professores do ensino fundamental. Está, contudo, insatisfatoriamente implementado.This article is a reflection based on a national program of external evaluation of teacher training transmitted via satellite: "A leap for the future". It contains data from a field research including sample of T.V. classrooms in eight states from different regions of the country. It examines the program's theoretical and methodological proposals and format, as well as the interaction of educational agents, the advantages gained by teachers and finally conditions for implementing the program. The evaluation concludes that the program is innovative in its form and content, and could become an important vehicle for recycling primary teachers. However, it is insufficiently implemented.

  8. Ventajas de la implementación de la práctica de gobierno corporativo en las empresas

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    Dilia Castillo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo primordial de una empresa es maximizar la riqueza corporativa. Lapráctica de Gobierno Corporativo (Corporate Governance de una organización protege los intereses de sus diversos grupos. Ésta es tarea directiva de la sentidades públicas o privadas, para asegurar la aplicación de los principios empresariales como equidad, justicia, economía, verdad, honestidad, eficacia,y responsabilidad tanto para clientes externos como internos. De igual modo, garantiza la reproducción de una información fidedigna y transparente, orientada por la Dirección, la cual estará pendiente de revisar y guiar la estrategia de la compañías, sus planes de acción, las políticas de contratación, los objetivos de desempeño, incluyendo el servicio posventa al cliente y la planeación. Así mismo, está pendiente de que la información publicitaria y de promoción sean realmente las que se estén ejecutando y cumpliendo, para garantizar que todos los esfuerzos sean transmitidos al consumidor final como valor agregado que asegura su fidelidad a la empresa.

  9. Construcción de la memoria oficial en el Centenario de la Independencia: el Compendio de Historia de Colombia de Henao y Arrubla The construction of the official memory of the Independence Centennial: The Colombian History Text Book by Henao and Arrubla

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    Sandra Patricia Rodríguez Ávila

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los referentes de la memoria oficial, transmitidos en el texto escolar de Henao y Arrubla, que fue premiado durante las celebraciones del Centenario de la Independencia de Colombia en 1910 y se mantuvo en circulación hasta los años sesenta, por efecto de la articulación de dispositivos mnemotécnicos, de memorización y rememoración, que establecieron los principios de orden, verdad y valores hispánicos, desde los cuales se construyó la memoria dominante durante la primera mitad del siglo XX.In this paper, an analysis of the official memory of Colombian history, as it is presented in the textbook by Henao y Arrubla is made. This textbook is crucial in the analysis because it was awarded during the Centennial of Independence (1910. By reviewing the conditions in which the Commission of the Centennial designed the contest, the actions taken to achieve the official adoption of this text book and the curricular strategies for the organization of a symbolic scheme in school contexts, this article shows the mnemonic devices of memorization and remembrance which Henao and Arrubla textbook exhibits, in order for the Hispanic truths and values to become the dominant referent of the Independence during the XXth Century.

  10. Microclima e produção da uva de mesa 'Niagara Rosada' conduzida em espaldeira a céu aberto e em manjedoura na forma de "Y" sob cobertura de telado plástico

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    Mário José Pedro Júnior

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi desenvolvido um experimento em vinhedos de 'Niagara Rosada', conduzidos em espaldeira e em manjedoura na forma de Y com cobertura de telado plástico, visando a comparar as alterações microclimáticas induzidas pelo sistema de condução e uso de telado plástico, e o efeito na produtividade das videiras. Entre os parâmetros microclimáticos avaliados, apenas a radiação solar foi atenuada pelo telado plástico em cerca de 20%, acima do dossel, tendo sido transmitido para a altura do cacho, cerca de 41% da radiação solar no sistema em Y sob telado plástico e 21% no espaldeira. As temperaturas máximas e mínimas foram semelhantes em ambos os sistemas. A produção por planta e a massa dos cachos foram mais elevadas no sistema em Y sob telado plástico, em comparação ao espaldeira.

  11. Transmissão de imunidade antiamarílica da mãe aos filhos, em camondongos

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    Herminio Linhares

    1943-01-01

    Full Text Available 1. Fêmeas imunizadas ativa e passivamente, podem transmitir anticorpos protetores a seus filhos. 2. Os camondongos adquirem imunidade pela placenta e principalmente após o nascimento, pos ingestão de leite de fêmea imune. 3. O virus não pode ser transmitido por qualquer das duas vias. 4. A imunidade transferida pela placenta desaparece muito mais rapidamente que a imunidade transmitida pelo leite. 5. Filhos de fêmea normal, rapidamente adquirem imunidade se forem amamentados em fêmea imune. 6. Camondongos com mais de 10 dias absorvem tão bem anticorpos como nos primeiros dias do nascimento, e o leite veicula durante todo o periodo de amamentação substâncias protetoras.1. Females rendered immune actively and passively against yellow fever virus may transmit protective antibodies to their young ones. 2. Mice acquire immunity through the placenta and principally after birth by ingestion of milk of an immune female. 3. The virus can not be transmitted by either of the two ways. 4. The immunity transferred through the placenta disappears much more rapidly than immunity transmited by milk. 5. Young ones from a normal female acquire immunity rapidly if fed by an immune female. 6. Mice of more than 10 days absorb antibodies just as well as during the first days of their birth, and the milk carries with it protective substances during the whole suckling period.

  12. Los manuales escritos por matronas europeas (1609-1710: el origen de cuidados humanizados en el embarazo

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    Carmen Martínez Rojo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo principal: Analizar los cuidados administrados por matronas a mujeres en su embarazo en el siglo XVII transmitidos a través de los manuales escritos por las mismas parteras. Metodología: Metodología cualitativa, desde la hermenéutica y la historia cultural a través de técnicas etnográfico-narrativas mediante la lectura de cinco manuales (1609-1710, categorizando los textos siguiendo el modelo dialéctico de construcción-deconstrucción. Resultados principales: Obtuvimos como resultados la identificación de cuidados impregnados en creencias populares y el modo en que estos evolucionaron hacia la ciencia a través del diagnóstico, consejos higiénico-dietéticos, controles antenatales y atención a patologías. Conclusión principal: Concluimos que las matronas del siglo XVII se cohesionaron gracias al elemento estructural de los manuales en torno a valores de respeto a la fisiología de las mujeres y serán germen de una partería humanizada que les otorga identidad como colectivo profesional.

  13. Pathogenicity of seed-borne and seedling fungi of groundnut cv. Tatu/ Patogenicidade de fungos associados às sementes e plântulas de amendoim cv. Tatu

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    Débora Cristina Santiago

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Seeds and seedlings of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea cv. Tatu were investigated under laboratory and green house conditions to detect and identify any seed-borne pathogenic fungi present, besides determining the pathogenicity and the seed damages. The fungi detected were Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Cercospora arachidicola, Rhizopus sp., Penicillium sp., Cladosporium sp. and Phoma sp.. The most frequently isolated fungi were Aspergillus niger and Penicillium sp.. These fungi were transmitted by seeds and caused damping-off before and after seedling emergence.Sementes e plântulas de amendoim (Arachis hypogaea cv. Tatu foram avaliadas em condições de laboratório e casa de vegetação com o objetivo de detectar e identificar a presença de fungos patogênicos associados às sementes, além de determinar a patogenicidade e os danos por eles causados. Os fungos detectados foram Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Cercospora arachidicola, Rhizopus sp., Penicillium sp., Cladosporium sp. e Phoma sp.. Os fungos mais freqüentes foram A. niger e Penicillium sp.. Estes fungos foram transmitidos através das sementes e causaram tombamento de pré e pósemergência nas plântulas.

  14. El Paleolítico en los dibujos animados: el universo de ficción prehistórica

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    Alberto Lombo Montañés

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo es una indagación en el universo de ficción que en torno al paleolítico se ha transmitido a través de los dibujos animados. Se integran los dibujos animados de prehistoria dentro de las investigaciones presentes sobre cine histórico o prehistórico y se lleva a cabo una clasificación previa de los mismos. Por último, se analizan las películas de dibujos (la saga Ice Age y Los Croods más relevantes para el periodo paleolítico. Todo ello nos permite reflexionar acerca del papel de la prehistoria en el mundo de las imágenes cinematográficas y concluir que la relación entre ciencia y cine es más compleja de lo que parece. En conclusión se puede decir que el cine ha inventado su propia Edad de Piedra poblada de dinosaurios y Hombres de las cavernas no sin tener en cuenta a veces las investigaciones científicas.

  15. LA RACIONALIDAD ECONÓMICA EN NUEVA PERSPECTIVA

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    Jorge Arturo Chaves

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Las amenazas a la vida en el planeta, los hechos que han “asaltado al dogma económico” (Daly y Cobb, 1993 tienen mucho que ver con una doble toma de conciencia en la sociedad contemporánea. La primera, sobre lo restringida y esterilizante que resulta una visión economicista para enfrentar los problemas que más preocupan al ser humano hoy: las heridas infligidas al ecosistema, el aumento de la pobreza y la desigualdad, y el crecimiento desproporcionado de la actividad humana en relación a las posibilidades de la biosfera.La segunda, implicada en la anterior, la de darse cuenta que esa limitación está asociada al concepto de suyo estrecho y parcial de racionalidad económica. Enfrentamos aquí el problema del reduccionismo transmitido en el discurso y en la práctica misma de la disciplina económica que, sin embargo, no es exclusivo de ésta ni es atribuible sólo a deficiencias internas de los profesionales que la practican. Existe toda una larga tradición dentro de la cual se ha ido reduciendo de manera progresiva el concepto de razón humana y se ha ido produciendo ese concepto estrecho de racionalidad del que ahora la humanidad realiza esfuerzos por librarse.

  16. El ayer, el hoy y el mañana

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    Corredor Pardo Katya Anyud

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Culturalmente, el anciano de hoy en nuestra sociedad, o en las grandes urbes, es considerado algunas veces por los jóvenes como un ser extraño y desagradable, como punto de partida de los  valores transmitidos en la familia los cuales deben ser revaluados y nosotros, los ancianos del mañana con los ancianos de hoy, cambiar de adentro hacia fuera. A su vez, evitar la transmisión generacional de estos valores a nuestros hijos realizando un análisis retrospectivo de la vida; cuando bebes, se tiene conciencia del uno al otro, y los niños en edad preescolar empiezan a conseguir compañeros, pero el grupo de amigos se fortalece a partir de los cinco o siete años, con frecuencia se escucha hablar con nostalgia de la vida en el colegio. Este lugar común es grato y feliz, adornado con carcajadas y anécdotas que despiertan e incentivan la imaginación y la realidad creada a partir del propio yo social, individual y cultural.

  17. La littérature comme voie d’accès à la culture (La literatura como vía de acceso a la cultura

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    Juan Carlos Jiménez Murillo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo procura explicar el papel que podría desempeñar la literatura como recurso pedagógico del profesor de francés como lengua extranjera. Se detiene, principalmente, en diversas teorías que analizan el lenguaje literario como medio de interpretar la alteridad y la propia identidad. Al ser un medio para acceder a los códigos culturales transmitidos por la lengua, propicia el conocimiento de distintas perspectivas que conllevan la competencia intercultural y lingüística. Le présent article vise à expliciter le rôle complémentaire de la littérature dans les classes de FLE. En s’appuyant sur théories diverses on cherche à montrer que la lecture du texte littéraire est un instrument privilégié de déchiffrage de l’altérité et l’identité propre. Voie d’accès aux codes culturels véhiculés dans la langue, elle permet l’ouverture à des perspectives favorisant l’acquisition d’une compétence interculturelle parallèlement à la compétence langagière.

  18. A marca do desejo parental

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    David Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ¿Por qué razones y por qué vías algo del deseo de los padres puede transmitirse al niño, marcar su inconsciente y dejar una marca? Al principio es debido a la entrada del niño en el lenguaje, que accedió a una pérdida de goce, que se presenta una primera posibilidad. Intérprete de lo que se esconde detrás del discurso de sus padres, poco a poco, se abre para el pequeño niño la vía de la marca del deseo de los padres. Paralelo a esta interpretación, es en la espera y en la esperanza de una respuesta a la pregunta “¿Qué soy yo para el Otro?” que encontramos las primeras marcas de una transmisión del deseo del Otro parental. Los escritos de R. Gary La promesse de l’aube y de P. Quignard Le nom sur le bout de la langue nos permiten percibir que el sujeto se coloca en el lugar de lo que falta en el Otro. Es porque el sujeto consiente a la separación de la cadena significante del Otro que el deseo de este Otro puede ser transmitido e inscrito.

  19. Educação musical e etnomusicologia: lentes interpretativas para a compreensão da formação musical na cultura popular

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    Luis Ricardo Silva Queiroz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta resultados de uma pesquisa realizada no contexto da embolada da Paraíba entre os anos de 2003 e 2015. A embolada é um gênero poético-musical característico do Nordeste brasileiro, que tem grande recorrência na cultura popular paraibana. Considerando esse contexto cultural, este artigo discute, analisa e reflete sobre sujeitos, concepções, processos, situações, conhecimentos e saberes que configuram a formação musical na embolada da Paraíba. O trabalho é fundamentado em perspectivas epistemológicas da educação musical e da etnomusicologia, tendo como suporte metodológico uma pesquisa etnográfica que possibilitou uma inserção intensa no mundo da embolada e dos emboladores. Os resultados da pesquisa evidenciaram singularidades da formação musical nesse contexto, demonstrando que sua caracterização define elementos fundamentais da performance musical nessa cultura. Elementos que, compartilhados e transmitidos pelos emboladores, mantêm a embolada viva, dinâmica e em plena atividade na contemporaneidade.

  20. Entroncamento de histórias: Registo de testemunhos orais

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    Daniela Rodrigues do Rosário

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Este pequeno texto tem como objetivo mostrar a importância da memória com recurso à recolha de testemunhos orais. Numa história que ainda tem muito por deslindar, recorrer ao saber de gentes que dedicaram a sua vida à ferrovia torna-se de extrema urgência, até pela finitude das fontes envolvidas. O projeto Entroncamento de histórias, levado a cabo pelo Museu Nacional Ferroviário, no Entroncamento, realiza-se há dois anos consecutivos e veio promover uma maior abertura à comunidade local, captando as narrativas daqueles que fazem parte da história dos caminhos de ferro. Assumindo a importância e o valor do património que é transmitido às gerações vindouras, estes testemunhos serão incorporados na futura exposição permanente do Museu Nacional Ferroviário de forma a complementar a informação sobre os objetos.

  1. O papel de insetos (Blattodea, Diptera e Hymenoptera como possíveis vetores mecânicos de helmintos em ambiente domiciliar e peridomiciliar

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    Thyssen Patricia Jacqueline

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Os helmintos podem ser transmitidos ao homem de várias maneiras, mas pouca ênfase é dada para a transmissão vetorial ou mecânica das formas infectantes por insetos. Neste estudo, procurou-se fazer um levantamento das espécies de helmintos presentes em três ordens de insetos que convivem próximo ao ambiente humano. Foram coletados e examinados, externa e individualmente, 700 exemplares sendo 54 pertencentes à ordem Blattodea, 275 à ordem Diptera e 371 à ordem Hymenoptera. Com relação à Blattodea, foi capturada apenas a espécie Periplaneta americana e, em 58,3% dos espécimes, as seguintes formas de helmintos foram encontradas: ovos de Oxyuridae (36,40%, ovos de Ascaridae (28,04%, larvas de Nematoda (4,80%, ovos de Cestoda (3,50%, Nematoda (0,08% e ovos de Toxocaridae (0,08%. Nos exemplares das ordens Diptera e Hymenoptera, não foi observada qualquer forma de parasita. Este estudo possibilitou avaliar a importância e o papel de insetos como vetores de helmintos parasitas, correlacionando-o às condições ambientais e sociais, sugerindo a aplicação destes dados para medidas profiláticas.

  2. "La ambigüedad, una forma de evidencia" en el "Prólogo general de los cuentos de Canterbury" de Geoffrey Chaucer

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    Antonio PRIETO MARTÍNEZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available La capacidad lírica de Chaucer en los Cuentos de Canterbury no se deja esperar. Los primeros versos del Prólogo General (Whan that April in hir corages, versos 1-11 son como una carta de presentación del poeta, que quiere dejar constancia de su modo de hacer, por una parte, y por otra, de su actitud de renovación con respecto a obras anteriores. Porque parece que Chaucer se hubiese sentado ante su mesa de trabajo con el mismo espíritu vivificante que Abril ha transmitido a Marzo, con la misma fuerza con la que Céfiro anima a la naturaleza, dispuesto a engendrar una obra nueva, repleta de vigor y de alegría. James Winny comparte esta idea cuando dice que «The natural forces which bring warmth and moisture to the earth, encouraging growth and fertility, stand in a direct relationship with the powerful impulse working upon the poet».

  3. Multiple virus infection in a single strain of Fusarium poae shown by deep sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaki, Hideki; Sasaki, Atsuko; Nomiyama, Koji; Tomioka, Keisuke

    2016-12-01

    Many bands were detected on an electrophoretic profile of double-stranded (ds) RNA preparation from a single strain of Fusarium poae isolated from wheat. When the purified dsRNA sample was deep-sequenced by a next-generation sequencer, sixteen virus-like assembled contigs with predicted amino acid sequences showing homologies to respective viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRps) were found by BLAST analysis. Fourteen out of sixteen sequences showed homologies to RdRps of known mycoviruses, that is, four mitoviruses, two narnaviruses, two partitiviruses, an alternavirus, a fusarivirus, a hypovirus, a victorivirus, and two unclassified mycoviruses, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum dsRNA mycovirus-L and Aspergillus foetidus slow virus 2, respectively. The other two putative viral RdRp sequences showed homologies to those of members of negative-stranded RNA viruses, the Ophiovirus and the Phlebovirus respectively, which mycoviruses had been not ever assigned to. Based on genome structure and phylogenetic analysis, both viruses were thought to be members of novel respective negative-stranded RNA virus groups. The presences of all sixteen viral RdRp sequences identified by BLAST analysis were confirmed by sequencing RT-PCR products generated from the starting dsRNA material using primers designed from the de novo assembled sequences of respective putative mycoviruses. Since the single strain of F. poae was considered to be multiply infected with mycoviruses from novel taxonomical groups in addition to many common mycoviruses, the RNA virome of the strain was found to be highly diverse.

  4. Response to Rift Valley Fever in Tanzania: Challenges and Opportunities.

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    Fyumagwa, Robert D; Ezekiel, Mangi J; Nyaki, Athanas; Mdaki, Maulid L; Katale, Zablon B; Moshiro, Candida; Keyyu, Julius D

    2011-12-01

    Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is an arthropod borne viral disease affecting livestock (cattle, sheep, goats and camels), wildlife and humans caused by Phlebovirus. The disease occurs in periodic cycles of 4-15 years associated with flooding from unusually high precipitations in many flood-prone habitats. Aedes and Culex spp and other mosquito species are important epidemic vectors. Because of poor living conditions and lack of knowledge on the pathogenesis of RVF, nomadic pastoralists and agro-pastoralists are at high risk of contracting the disease during epidemics. RVF is a professional hazard for health and livestock workers because of poor biosafety measures in routine activities including lack of proper Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). Direct exposure to infected animals can occur during handling and slaughter or through veterinary and obstetric procedures or handling of specimens in laboratory. The episodic nature of the disease creates special challenges for its mitigation and control and many of the epidemics happen when the governments are not prepared and have limited resource to contain the disease at source. Since its first description in 1930s Tanzania has recorded six epidemics, three of which were after independence in 1961. However, the 2007 epidemic was the most notable and wide spread with fatal human cases among pastoralists and agro-pastoralists concurrent with high livestock mortality. Given all the knowledge that exist on the epidemiology of the disease, still the 2006/2007 epidemic occurred when the government of Tanzania was not prepared to contain the disease at source. This paper reviews the epidemiology, reporting and outbreak-investigation, public awareness, preparedness plans and policy as well as challenges for its control in Tanzania.

  5. Unusual presentation of a severely ill patient having severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Masahiko; Maruta, Masaki; Shikata, Hisaharu; Asou, Kengo; Shinomiya, Hiroto; Suzuki, Tadaki; Hasegawa, Hideki; Shimojima, Masayuki; Saijo, Masayuki

    2017-02-03

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome is an emerging infectious disease caused by a novel phlebovirus belonging to the family Bunyaviridate. Emergence of encephalitis/encephalopathy during severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome progression has been identified as a major risk factor associated with a poor prognosis. Here we report the case of a severely ill patient with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus-associated encephalitis/encephalopathy characterized by a lesion of the splenium, which resolved later. A 56-year-old Japanese man presented with fever and diarrhea, followed by dysarthria. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated high signal intensity in the splenium of the corpus callosum. The severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus genome was detected in our patient's serum, and the clinical course was characterized by convulsion, stupor, and hemorrhagic manifestations, with disseminated intravascular coagulation and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Supportive therapy not including administration of corticosteroids led to gradual improvement of the clinical and laboratory findings, and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated resolution of the splenial lesion. The serum severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome viral copy number, which was determined with the quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, rapidly decreased despite the severe clinical course. Our patient's overall condition improved, allowing him to be eventually discharged. Patients with encephalitis/encephalopathy due to severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus infection may have a favorable outcome, even if they exhibit splenial lesions and a severe clinical course; monitoring the serum viral load may be of value for prediction of outcome and potentially enables the avoidance of corticosteroids to intentionally cause opportunistic infection.

  6. Roles of viroplasm-like structures formed by nonstructural protein NSs in infection with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus.

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    Wu, Xiaodong; Qi, Xian; Liang, Mifang; Li, Chuan; Cardona, Carol J; Li, Dexin; Xing, Zheng

    2014-06-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) virus is an emerging bunyavirus that causes a hemorrhagic fever with a high mortality rate. The virus is likely tick-borne and replicates primarily in hemopoietic cells, which may lead to disregulation of proinflammatory cytokine induction and loss of leukocytes and platelets. The viral genome contains L, M, and S segments encoding a viral RNA polymerase, glycoproteins G(n) and G(c), nucleoprotein (NP), and a nonstructural S segment (NSs) protein. NSs protein is involved in the regulation of host innate immune responses and suppression of IFNβ-promoter activities. In this article, we demonstrate that NSs protein can form viroplasm-like structures (VLSs) in infected and transfected cells. NSs protein molecules interact with one another, interact with NP, and were associated with viral RNA in infected cells, suggesting that NSs protein may be involved in viral replication. Furthermore, we observed that NSs-formed VLS colocalized with lipid droplets and that inhibitors of fatty acid biosynthesis decreased VLS formation or viral replication in transfected and infected cells. Finally, we have demonstrated that viral dsRNAs were also localized in VLS in infected cells, suggesting that NSs-formed VLS may be implicated in the replication of SFTS bunyavirus. These findings identify a novel function of nonstructural NSs in SFTSV-infected cells where it is a scaffolding component in a VLS functioning as a virus replication factory. This function is in addition to the role of NSs protein in modulating host responses that will broaden our understanding of viral pathogenesis of phleboviruses. © FASEB.

  7. Evidence for circulation of the rift valley fever virus among livestock in the union of Comoros.

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    Matthieu Roger

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV is an arthropod-borne phlebovirus reported to be circulating in most parts of Africa. Since 2009, RVFV has been suspected of continuously circulating in the Union of Comoros. To estimate the incidence of RVFV antibody acquisition in the Comorian ruminant population, 191 young goats and cattle were selected in six distinct zones and sampled periodically from April 2010 to August 2011. We found an estimated incidence of RVFV antibody acquisition of 17.5% (95% confidence interval (CI: [8.9-26.1] with a significant difference between islands (8.2% in Grande Comore, 72.3% in Moheli and 5.8% in Anjouan. Simultaneously, a longitudinal entomological survey was conducted and ruminant trade-related information was collected. No RVFV RNA was detected out of the 1,568 blood-sucking caught insects, including three potential vectors of RVFV mosquito species. Our trade survey suggests that there is a continuous flow of live animals from eastern Africa to the Union of Comoros and movements of ruminants between the three Comoro islands. Finally, a cross-sectional study was performed in August 2011 at the end of the follow-up. We found an estimated RVFV antibody prevalence of 19.3% (95% CI: [15.6%-23.0%]. Our findings suggest a complex RVFV epidemiological cycle in the Union of Comoros with probable inter-islands differences in RVFV circulation patterns. Moheli, and potentially Anjouan, appear to be acting as endemic reservoir of infection whereas RVFV persistence in Grande Comore could be correlated with trade in live animals with the eastern coast of Africa. More data are needed to estimate the real impact of the disease on human health and on the national economy.

  8. Diversity of viruses in Ixodes ricinus, and characterization of a neurotropic strain of Eyach virus

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    S. Moutailler

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ticks transmit more pathogens—including bacteria, parasites and viruses—than any other arthropod vector. Although the epidemiological status of many tick-borne bacteria is very well characterized, tick-borne viruses are still relatively under-studied. Recently, several novel tick-borne viruses have been isolated from human febrile illnesses following tick bites, indicating the existence of other potential new and unknown tick-borne viruses. We used high-throughput sequencing to analyse the virome of Ixodes ricinus, the main vector of tick-borne pathogens in Europe. The majority of collected viral sequences were assigned to two potentially novel Nairovirus and Phlebovirus viruses, with prevalence rates ranging from 3.95% to 23.88% in adults and estimated to be between 0.14% and 72.16% in nymphs. These viruses could not be isolated from the brains of inoculated immunocompromised mice, perhaps indicating that they are unable to infect vertebrates. Within the I. ricinus virome, we also identified contigs with >90% identity to the known Eyach virus. Initially isolated in the 1980s, this virus was indirectly associated with human disease, but had never been extensively studied. Eyach virus prevalence varied between 0.07% and 5.26% in ticks from the French Ardennes and Alsace regions. Eyach virus was successfully isolated following intracerebral inoculation of immunocompromised mice with Eyach virus-positive tick extracts. This virus was also able to multiply and persist in the blood of immunocompetent mice inoculated by intraperitoneal injection, and caused brain infections in three of nine juveniles, without any obvious deleterious effects.

  9. Genetic Evidence for Rift Valley Fever Outbreaks in Madagascar Resulting from Virus Introductions from the East African Mainland rather than Enzootic Maintenance▿†‡

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    Carroll, Serena A.; Reynes, Jean-Marc; Khristova, Marina L.; Andriamandimby, Soa Fy; Rollin, Pierre E.; Nichol, Stuart T.

    2011-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a mosquito-borne phlebovirus, has been detected in Madagascar since 1979, with occasional outbreaks. In 2008 to 2009, a large RVFV outbreak was detected in Malagasy livestock and humans during two successive rainy seasons. To determine whether cases were due to enzootic maintenance of the virus within Madagascar or to importation from the East African mainland, nine RVFV whole genomic sequences were generated for viruses from the 1991 and 2008 Malagasy outbreaks. Bayesian coalescent analyses of available whole S, M, and L segment sequences were used to estimate the time to the most recent common ancestor for the RVFVs. The 1979 Madagascar isolate shared a common ancestor with strains on the mainland around 1972. The 1991 Madagascar isolates were in a clade distinct from that of the 1979 isolate and shared a common ancestor around 1987. Finally, the 2008 Madagascar viruses were embedded within a large clade of RVFVs from the 2006–2007 outbreak in East Africa and shared a common ancestor around 2003 to 2004. These results suggest that the most recent Madagascar outbreak was caused by a virus likely arriving in the country some time between 2003 and 2008 and that this outbreak may be an extension of the 2006–2007 East African outbreak. Clustering of the Malagasy sequences into subclades indicates that the viruses have continued to evolve during their short-term circulation within the country. These data are consistent with the notion that RVFV outbreaks in Madagascar result not from emergence from enzootic cycles within the country but from recurrent virus introductions from the East African mainland. PMID:21507967

  10. Establishment of an antiviral assay system and identification of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Masanori; Toyama, Masaaki; Sakakibara, Norikazu; Okamoto, Mika; Arima, Naomichi; Saijo, Masayuki

    2017-12-01

    Aims Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging tick-borne infectious disease. SFTS is epidemic in Asia, and its fatality rate is around 30% in Japan. The causative virus severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is a phlebovirus of the family Phenuiviridae (the order Bunyavirales). Although effective treatments are required, there are no antiviral agents currently approved for clinical use. Ribavirin and favipiravir were examined for their anti-SFTSV activity and found to be selective inhibitors of SFTSV replication in vitro. However, their activity was not sufficient. Therefore, it is mandatory to identify novel compounds active against SFTSV. To this end, we have established a safe and rapid assay system for screening selective inhibitors of SFTSV. Methods The virus was isolated from SFTS patients treated in Kagoshima University Hospital. Vero cells were infected with SFTSV and incubated in the presence of various concentrations of test compounds. After three days, the cells were examined for their intracellular viral RNA levels by real-time reverse transcription-PCR without extracting viral RNA. The cytotoxicity of test compounds was determined by a tetrazolium dye method. Results Among the test compounds, the antimalarial agent amodiaquine was identified as a selective inhibitor of SFTSV replication. Its 50% effective concentration (EC50) and cytotoxic concentration (CC50) were 19.1 ± 5.1 and >100 µM, respectively. The EC50 value of amodiaquine was comparable to those of ribavirin and favipiravir. Conclusion Amodiaquine is considered to be a promising lead of novel anti-SFTSV agents, and evaluating the anti-SFTSV activity of its derivatives is in progress.

  11. Characterization of the genome of a phylogenetically distinct tospovirus and its interactions with the local lesion-induced host Chenopodium quinoa by whole-transcriptome analyses.

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    Wan-Chen Chou

    Full Text Available Chenopodium quinoa is a natural local lesion host of numerous plant viruses, including tospoviruses (family Bunyaviridae. Groundnut chlorotic fan-spot tospovirus (GCFSV has been shown to consistently induce local lesions on the leaves of C. quinoa 4 days post-inoculation (dpi. To reveal the whole genome of GCFSV and its interactions with C. quinoa, RNA-seq was performed to determine the transcriptome profiles of C. quinoa leaves. The high-throughput reads from infected C. quinoa leaves were used to identify the whole genome sequence of GCFSV and its single nucleotide polymorphisms. Our results indicated that GCFSV is a phylogenetically distinct tospovirus. Moreover, 27,170 coding and 29,563 non-coding sequences of C. quinoa were identified through de novo assembly, mixing reads from mock and infected samples. Several key genes involved in the modulation of hypersensitive response (HR were identified. The expression levels of 4,893 deduced complete genes annotated using the Arabidopsis genome indicated that several HR-related orthologues of pathogenesis-related proteins, transcription factors, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and defense proteins were significantly expressed in leaves that formed local lesions. Here, we also provide new insights into the replication progression of a tospovirus and the molecular regulation of the C. quinoa response to virus infection.

  12. NSs encoded by groundnut bud necrosis virus is a bifunctional enzyme.

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    Bhushan Lokesh

    Full Text Available Groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV, a member of genus Tospovirus in the family Bunyaviridae, infects a large number of leguminosae and solanaceae plants in India. With a view to elucidate the function of nonstructural protein, NSs encoded by the small RNA genome (S RNA, the NSs protein of GBNV- tomato (Karnataka was over-expressed in E. coli and purified by Ni-NTA chromatography. The purified rNSs protein exhibited an RNA stimulated NTPase activity. Further, this activity was metal ion dependent and was inhibited by adenosine 5' (beta, gamma imido triphosphate, an ATP analog. The rNSs could also hydrolyze dATP. Interestingly, in addition to the NTPase and dATPase activities, the rNSs exhibited ATP independent 5' RNA/DNA phosphatase activity that was completely inhibited by AMP. The 5' alpha phosphate could be removed from ssDNA, ssRNA, dsDNA and dsRNA thus confirming that rNSs has a novel 5' alpha phosphatase activity. K189A mutation in the Walker motif A (GxxxxGKT resulted in complete loss of ATPase activity, but the 5' phosphatase activity was unaffected. On the other hand, D159A mutation in the Walker motif B (DExx resulted in partial loss of both the activities. These results demonstrate for the first time that NSs is a bifunctional enzyme, which could participate in viral movement, replication or in suppression of the host defense mechanism.

  13. Characterization of the genome of a phylogenetically distinct tospovirus and its interactions with the local lesion-induced host Chenopodium quinoa by whole-transcriptome analyses.

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    Chou, Wan-Chen; Lin, Shih-Shun; Yeh, Shyi-Dong; Li, Siang-Ling; Peng, Ying-Che; Fan, Ya-Hsu; Chen, Tsung-Chi

    2017-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa is a natural local lesion host of numerous plant viruses, including tospoviruses (family Bunyaviridae). Groundnut chlorotic fan-spot tospovirus (GCFSV) has been shown to consistently induce local lesions on the leaves of C. quinoa 4 days post-inoculation (dpi). To reveal the whole genome of GCFSV and its interactions with C. quinoa, RNA-seq was performed to determine the transcriptome profiles of C. quinoa leaves. The high-throughput reads from infected C. quinoa leaves were used to identify the whole genome sequence of GCFSV and its single nucleotide polymorphisms. Our results indicated that GCFSV is a phylogenetically distinct tospovirus. Moreover, 27,170 coding and 29,563 non-coding sequences of C. quinoa were identified through de novo assembly, mixing reads from mock and infected samples. Several key genes involved in the modulation of hypersensitive response (HR) were identified. The expression levels of 4,893 deduced complete genes annotated using the Arabidopsis genome indicated that several HR-related orthologues of pathogenesis-related proteins, transcription factors, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and defense proteins were significantly expressed in leaves that formed local lesions. Here, we also provide new insights into the replication progression of a tospovirus and the molecular regulation of the C. quinoa response to virus infection.

  14. Phylogeography of Rift Valley Fever virus in Africa reveals multiple introductions in Senegal and Mauritania.

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    P O Ly Soumaré

    Full Text Available Rift Valley Fever (RVF virus (Family Bunyaviridae is an arthropod-borne RNA virus that infects primarily domestic ruminants and occasionally humans. RVF epizootics are characterized by numerous abortions and mortality among young animals. In humans, the illness is usually characterized by a mild self-limited febrile illness, which could progress to more serious complications. RVF virus is widespread and endemic in many regions of Africa. In Western Africa, several outbreaks have been reported since 1987 when the first major one occurred at the frontier of Senegal and Mauritania. Aiming to evaluate the spreading and molecular epidemiology in these countries, RVFV isolates from 1944 to 2008 obtained from 18 localities in Senegal and Mauritania and 15 other countries were investigated. Our results suggest that a more intense viral activity possibly took place during the last century compared to the recent past and that at least 5 introductions of RVFV took place in Senegal and Mauritania from distant African regions. Moreover, Barkedji in Senegal was possibly a hub associated with the three distinct entries of RVFV in West Africa.

  15. Rapid identification of Australian bunyavirus isolates belonging to the Simbu serogroup using indirect ELISA formats.

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    Blacksell, S D; Lunt, R A; White, J R

    1997-06-01

    The Bunyavirus genus, belonging to the Bunyaviridae family, is comprised of a large group of antigenically and geographically disparate arthropod-borne viruses of medical and veterinary significance. In Australia, viruses belonging to the Simbu serogroup of the Bunyavirus genus, Akabane, Tinaroo, Peaton, Aino, Douglas, Thimiri and Facey's Paddock have been isolated. In this communication we describe two indirect ELISAs, referred to as the Simbu serogroup ELISA (SG-ELISA), and the Simbu typing ELISA (ST-ELISA), for the identification of these Simbu serogroup viruses. Infected cell lysate antigens prepared from Simbu serogroup virus isolates were assessed in the SG-ELISA for reactivity with a mouse monoclonal antibody (4H9/B11/F1). The monoclonal antibody reacted strongly with all Australian members of Simbu serogroup reference viruses and is proposed for use as a serogrouping reagent for Simbu viruses. Furthermore, the ST-ELISA enabled specific identification of viruses from within this group by recognition of characteristic reaction patterns between infected cell lysate antigens and a panel of polyclonal antisera raised to Simbu serogroup viruses.

  16. Genetic characterization of Aino and Peaton virus field isolates reveals a genetic reassortment between these viruses in nature.

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    Yanase, Tohru; Aizawa, Maki; Kato, Tomoko; Yamakawa, Makoto; Shirafuji, Hiroaki; Tsuda, Tomoyuki

    2010-10-01

    Sequence determination and phylogenetic analysis were conducted using the S, M and L RNA segments of the 10 Aino, 6 Peaton and 1 Sango virus (AINOV, PEAV and SANV) field isolates of the genus Orthobunyavirus in the family Bunyaviridae, respectively. The Japanese AINOV strains were genetically stable, but the sequence differences between the Japanese and Australian AINOV strains were considerably larger than those among the Japanese AINOV strains. A similar result was found in the genetic relationship among Japanese and Australian PEAVs, and SANV which was isolated in Nigeria and was thought as a synonym of PEAV, suggesting that geographic separation contributed significantly to the evolution of those viruses. The Australian AINOV strain B7974 is more closely related to the Australian PEAV strain CSIRO110 than to the Japanese AINOV strains in the S and L RNA segments, while the phylogenetic position of the M RNA segment of the B7974 strain was clustered with those of the Japanese AINOV strains. Our findings indicate that the B7974 strain is a reassortment with the M RNA segment derived from AINOV and the S and L RNA segments derived from an Australian PEAV. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A large-scale serological survey of Akabane virus infection in cattle, yak, sheep and goats in China.

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    Wang, Jidong; Blasdell, Kim R; Yin, Hong; Walker, Peter J

    2017-08-01

    Akabane virus (AKAV) is a member of the Simbu serogroup, classified in the genus Orthobunyavirus, family Bunyaviridae. AKAV infection can cause abortion, stillbirth, and congenital arthrogryposis and hydranencephaly in cattle and sheep. The distribution and prevalence of AKAV infection in China is still unknown. A total of 2731 sera collected from 2006 to 2015 in 24 provinces of China from cattle, sheep, goats and yak were examined by serum neutralisation test. The overall seroprevalence rates for AKAV antibodies were 21.3% in cattle (471/2215) and 12.0% (17/142) in sheep or goats, and 0% in yak (0/374). The results indicated widespread AKAV infection in China among cattle and sheep but yak appear to have a low risk of infection. Using a selection of 50 AKAV-positive and 25 AKAV-negative cattle sera, neutralisation tests were also conducted to detect antibodies to several other Simbu serogroup bunyaviruses and closely related Leanyer virus. Although inconclusive, the data suggest that both Aino virus and Peaton virus, which have been reported previously in Japan and Korea, may also be present in cattle in China. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecular epidemiological analyses of the teratogenic Aino virus based on the sequences of a small RNA segment.

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    Yamakawa, Makoto; Yanase, Tohru; Kato, Tomoko; Tsuda, Tomoyuki

    2008-05-25

    The sequences of a small RNA segment of Aino virus isolates were analyzed to define the molecular epidemiology and genetic relationships to other species in the genus Orthobunyavirus in the family Bunyaviridae. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the segment were highly conserved among strains isolated from 1964 to 2002 in Japan. These Japanese isolates were segregated into two distinct lineages, one containing the prototype strain JaNAr28 isolated in 1964 and the other containing strains isolated after 1986, by phylogenetic analysis based on the nucleocapsid gene sequences. Japanese strains isolated after 1986 were rather more closely related to Kaikalur virus isolated in India in 1971 than to strain JaNAr28. On the other hand, an Australian strain, B7974, was closely related to Peaton virus. The B7974 strain might have been generated by inter-serotype genetic reassortment between Aino and Peaton viruses in Australia during their evolution. However, recent Aino virus strains isolated in Japan appear to be genetically stable.

  19. Intracellular localization of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF virus glycoproteins

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    Fernando Lisa

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever virus (CCHFV, a member of the genus Nairovirus, family Bunyaviridae, is a tick-borne pathogen causing severe disease in humans. To better understand the CCHFV life cycle and explore potential intervention strategies, we studied the biosynthesis and intracellular targeting of the glycoproteins, which are encoded by the M genome segment. Results Following determination of the complete genome sequence of the CCHFV reference strain IbAr10200, we generated expression plasmids for the individual expression of the glycoproteins GN and GC, using CMV- and chicken β-actin-driven promoters. The cellular localization of recombinantly expressed CCHFV glycoproteins was compared to authentic glycoproteins expressed during virus infection using indirect immunofluorescence assays, subcellular fractionation/western blot assays and confocal microscopy. To further elucidate potential intracellular targeting/retention signals of the two glycoproteins, GFP-fusion proteins containing different parts of the CCHFV glycoprotein were analyzed for their intracellular targeting. The N-terminal glycoprotein GN localized to the Golgi complex, a process mediated by retention/targeting signal(s in the cytoplasmic domain and ectodomain of this protein. In contrast, the C-terminal glycoprotein GC remained in the endoplasmic reticulum but could be rescued into the Golgi complex by co-expression of GN. Conclusion The data are consistent with the intracellular targeting of most bunyavirus glycoproteins and support the general model for assembly and budding of bunyavirus particles in the Golgi compartment.

  20. Hantaviruses: rediscovery and new beginnings.

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    Yanagihara, Richard; Gu, Se Hun; Arai, Satoru; Kang, Hae Ji; Song, Jin-Won

    2014-07-17

    Virus and host gene phylogenies, indicating that antigenically distinct hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus) segregate into clades, which parallel the molecular evolution of rodents belonging to the Murinae, Arvicolinae, Neotominae and Sigmodontinae subfamilies, suggested co-divergence of hantaviruses and their rodent reservoirs. Lately, this concept has been vigorously contested in favor of preferential host switching and local host-specific adaptation. To gain insights into the host range, spatial and temporal distribution, genetic diversity and evolutionary origins of hantaviruses, we employed reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to analyze frozen, RNAlater(®)-preserved and ethanol-fixed tissues from 1546 shrews (9 genera and 47 species), 281 moles (8 genera and 10 species) and 520 bats (26 genera and 53 species), collected in Europe, Asia, Africa and North America during 1980-2012. Thus far, we have identified 24 novel hantaviruses in shrews, moles and bats. That these newfound hantaviruses are geographically widespread and genetically more diverse than those harbored by rodents suggests that the evolutionary history of hantaviruses is far more complex than previously conjectured. Phylogenetic analyses indicate four distinct clades, with the most divergent comprising hantaviruses harbored by the European mole and insectivorous bats, with evidence for both co-divergence and host switching. Future studies will provide new knowledge about the transmission dynamics and pathogenic potential of these newly discovered, still-orphan, non-rodent-borne hantaviruses. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Ultrastructural, Antigenic and Physicochemical Characterization of the Mojuí dos Campos (Bunyavirus Isolated from Bat in the Brazilian Amazon Region

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    Wanzeller Ana LM

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mojuí dos Campos virus (MDCV was isolated from the blood of an unidentified bat (Chiroptera captured in Mojuí dos Campos, Santarém, State of Pará, Brazil, in 1975 and considerated to be antigenically different from other 102 arboviruses belonging to several antigenic groups isolated in the Amazon region or another region by complement fixation tests. The objective of this work was to develop a morphologic, an antigenic and physicochemical characterization of this virus. MDCV produces cytopathic effect in Vero cells, 24 h post-infection (p.i, and the degree of cellular destruction increases after a few hours. Negative staining electron microscopy of the supernatant of Vero cell cultures showed the presence of coated viral particles with a diameter of around 98 nm. Ultrathin sections of Vero cells, and brain and liver of newborn mice infected with MDCV showed an assembly of the viral particles into the Golgi vesicles. The synthesis kinetics of the proteins for MDCV were similar to that observed for other bunyaviruses, and viral proteins could be detected as early as 6 h p.i. Our results reinforce the original studies which had classified MDCV in the family Bunyaviridae, genus Bunyavirus as an ungrouped virus, and it may represent the prototype of a new serogroup.

  2. Development of a Rift Valley fever virus viremia challenge model in sheep and goats.

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    Weingartl, Hana M; Miller, Myrna; Nfon, Charles; Wilson, William C

    2014-04-25

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a member of the family Bunyaviridae, causes severe to fatal disease in newborn ruminants, as well as abortions in pregnant animals; both preventable by vaccination. Availability of a challenge model is a pre-requisite for vaccine efficacy trials. Several modes of inoculation with RVFV ZH501 were tested on goats and sheep. Differences in development of infectious viremia were observed between animals inoculated with RVFV produced in mosquito C6/36 cells compared to Vero E6 cell-produced inoculum. Only C6/36-RVFV inoculation led to development of viremia in all inoculated sheep and goats. The C6/36 cell-produced RVFV appeared to be more infectious with earlier onset of viremia, especially in sheep, and may also more closely represent a field situation. Goats were somewhat more resistant to the disease development with lower and shorter infectious virus viremia, and with only some animals developing transient increase in rectal temperature in contrast to sheep. In conclusion, a challenge protocol suitable for goat and sheep vaccine efficacy studies was developed using subcutaneous inoculation of 10(7)PFU per animal with RVFV ZH501 produced in C6/36 cells. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Analyses of Entry Mechanisms of Novel Emerging Viruses Using Pseudotype VSV System.

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    Tani, Hideki

    2014-06-01

    Emerging infectious diseases include newly identified diseases caused by previously unknown organisms or diseases found in new and expanding geographic areas. Viruses capable of causing clinical disease associated with fever and bleeding are referred to as viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs). Arenaviruses and Bunyaviruses, both belonging to families classified as VHFs are considered major etiologies of hemorrhagic fevers caused by emerging viruses; having significant clinical and public health impact. Because these viruses are categorized as Biosafety Level (BSL) 3 and 4 pathogens, restricting their use, biological studies including therapeutic drug and vaccine development have been impeded. Due to these restrictions and the difficulties in handling such live viruses, pseudotype viruses bearing envelope proteins of VHF viruses have been developed using vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) as a surrogate system. Here, we report the successful developments of two pseudotype VSV systems; bearing the envelope proteins of Lujo virus and severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) virus, both recently identified viruses of the family Arenaviridae and Bunyaviridae, respectively. My presentation will summarize the characterization of the envelope proteins of Lujo virus including its cellular receptor use and cell entry mechanisms. In addition, I will also present a brief introduction of SFTS reported in Japan and the diagnostic studies in progress using these newly pseudotype VSV system.

  4. A preliminary study of viral metagenomics of French bat species in contact with humans: identification of new mammalian viruses.

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    Dacheux, Laurent; Cervantes-Gonzalez, Minerva; Guigon, Ghislaine; Thiberge, Jean-Michel; Vandenbogaert, Mathias; Maufrais, Corinne; Caro, Valérie; Bourhy, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    The prediction of viral zoonosis epidemics has become a major public health issue. A profound understanding of the viral population in key animal species acting as reservoirs represents an important step towards this goal. Bats harbor diverse viruses, some of which are of particular interest because they cause severe human diseases. However, little is known about the diversity of the global population of viruses found in bats (virome). We determined the viral diversity of five different French insectivorous bat species (nine specimens in total) in close contact with humans. Sequence-independent amplification, high-throughput sequencing with Illumina technology and a dedicated bioinformatics analysis pipeline were used on pooled tissues (brain, liver and lungs). Comparisons of the sequences of contigs and unassembled reads provided a global taxonomic distribution of virus-related sequences for each sample, highlighting differences both within and between bat species. Many viral families were present in these viromes, including viruses known to infect bacteria, plants/fungi, insects or vertebrates, the most relevant being those infecting mammals (Retroviridae, Herpesviridae, Bunyaviridae, Poxviridae, Flaviviridae, Reoviridae, Bornaviridae, Picobirnaviridae). In particular, we detected several new mammalian viruses, including rotaviruses, gammaretroviruses, bornaviruses and bunyaviruses with the identification of the first bat nairovirus. These observations demonstrate that bats naturally harbor viruses from many different families, most of which infect mammals. They may therefore constitute a major reservoir of viral diversity that should be analyzed carefully, to determine the role played by bats in the spread of zoonotic viral infections.

  5. A preliminary study of viral metagenomics of French bat species in contact with humans: identification of new mammalian viruses.

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    Laurent Dacheux

    Full Text Available The prediction of viral zoonosis epidemics has become a major public health issue. A profound understanding of the viral population in key animal species acting as reservoirs represents an important step towards this goal. Bats harbor diverse viruses, some of which are of particular interest because they cause severe human diseases. However, little is known about the diversity of the global population of viruses found in bats (virome. We determined the viral diversity of five different French insectivorous bat species (nine specimens in total in close contact with humans. Sequence-independent amplification, high-throughput sequencing with Illumina technology and a dedicated bioinformatics analysis pipeline were used on pooled tissues (brain, liver and lungs. Comparisons of the sequences of contigs and unassembled reads provided a global taxonomic distribution of virus-related sequences for each sample, highlighting differences both within and between bat species. Many viral families were present in these viromes, including viruses known to infect bacteria, plants/fungi, insects or vertebrates, the most relevant being those infecting mammals (Retroviridae, Herpesviridae, Bunyaviridae, Poxviridae, Flaviviridae, Reoviridae, Bornaviridae, Picobirnaviridae. In particular, we detected several new mammalian viruses, including rotaviruses, gammaretroviruses, bornaviruses and bunyaviruses with the identification of the first bat nairovirus. These observations demonstrate that bats naturally harbor viruses from many different families, most of which infect mammals. They may therefore constitute a major reservoir of viral diversity that should be analyzed carefully, to determine the role played by bats in the spread of zoonotic viral infections.

  6. Arbovirus investigations in Argentina, 1977-1980. III. Identification and characterization of viruses isolated, including new subtypes of western and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses and four new bunyaviruses (Las Maloyas, Resistencia, Barranqueras, and Antequera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calisher, C H; Monath, T P; Mitchell, C J; Sabattini, M S; Cropp, C B; Kerschner, J; Hunt, A R; Lazuick, J S

    1985-09-01

    Forty viruses isolated from mosquitoes between 1977 and 1980 in Argentina have been identified and characterized. Nineteen strains of VEE virus, identical by neutralization (N) tests, were shown by hemagglutination-inhibition tests with anti-E2 glycoprotein sera to represent a new subtype VI of the VEE complex. RNA oligonucleotide fingerprints of this virus were distinct from subtype I viruses. The virus was not lethal for English short-haired guinea pigs, indicating that it is probably not equine-virulent. Three strains of a member of the WEE virus complex were shown to differ by N tests in 1 direction from prototype WEE virus. The new WEE subtype was also found to be distinct by RNA oligonucleotide mapping. Its vector relationships indicate that it is an enzootic virus, and it has not been associated with equine disease. A new member of the Anopheles A serogroup was identified, shown to be most closely related to Lukuni and Col An 57389 viruses, and given the name Las Maloyas virus. A strain of Para virus (Bunyaviridae, Bunyavirus) was identified. Six isolates, representing 3 new viruses morphologically resembling bunyaviruses are described; the names Antequera, Barranqueras, and Resistencia are proposed for these agents, which were all isolated from Culex (Melanoconion) delpontei in Chaco Province. No serologic relationships between these viruses and other bunyaviruses were found. Since they are antigenically interrelated, they form a new (Antequera) serogroup. Eight Gamboa serogroup viruses and 2 strains of St. Louis encephalitis virus were also identified.

  7. Management of spotted wilt vectored by Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Virginia market-type peanut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, C A; Brandenburg, R L; Jordan, D L; Kennedy, G G; Bailey, J E

    2005-10-01

    Field tests were conducted during 2001 and 2002 in northeastern North Carolina to evaluate the impact of cultural practices and in-furrow insecticides on the incidence of Tomato spotted wilt virus (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae, TSWV), which is transmitted to peanut, Arachis hypogaea L., primarily by tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca Hinds (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Treatments included in row plant populations of 7, 13, and 17 plants per meter; the virginia market-type 'NC V-11' and 'Perry'; planting dates of early and late May; and phorate and aldicarb insecticide applied in-furrow. The incidence of plants expressing visual symptoms of spotted wilt was recorded from mid-June through mid-September. Treatment factors that reduced the incidence of symptoms of plants expressing spotted wilt symptoms included establishing higher plant densities, delaying planting from early May until late May, and applying the in-furrow insecticide phorate. Peanut cultivar did not have a consistent, significant effect on the incidence of symptomatic plants in this experiment.

  8. Second generation peanut genotypes resistant to thrips-transmitted tomato spotted wilt virus exhibit tolerance rather than true resistance and differentially affect thrips fitness.

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    Shrestha, Anita; Srinivasan, Rajagopalbabu; Sundaraj, Sivamani; Culbreath, Albert K; Riley, David G

    2013-04-01

    Spotted wilt disease caused by Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) (family Bunyaviridae; genus Tospovirus) is a major constraint to peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) production in the southeastern United States. Reducing yield losses to TSWV has heavily relied on planting genotypes that reduce the incidence of spotted wilt disease. However, mechanisms conferring resistance to TSWV have not been identified in these genotypes. Furthermore, no information is available on how these genotypes influence thrips fitness. In this study, we investigated the effects of newly released peanut genotypes (Georganic, GA-06G, Tifguard, and NC94022) with field resistance to TSWV and a susceptible genotype (Georgia Green) on tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds), fitness, and TSWV incidence. Thrips-mediated transmission resulted in TSWV infection in both TSWV-resistant and susceptible genotypes and they exhibited typical TSWV symptoms. However, some resistant genotypes had reduced viral loads (fewer TSWV N-gene copies) than the susceptible genotype. F. fusca larvae acquired TSWV from resistant and susceptible genotypes indicating that resistant genotypes also can serve as inoculum sources. Unlike resistant genotypes in other crops that produce local lesions (hypersensitive reaction) upon TSWV infection, widespread symptom development was noticed in peanut genotypes. Results indicated that the observed field resistance in peanut genotypes could be because of tolerance. Further, fitness studies revealed some, but not substantial, differences in thrips adult emergence rates and developmental time between resistant and susceptible genotypes. Thrips head capsule length and width were not different when reared on different genotypes.

  9. Current status of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region: issues, challenges, and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seif S. Al-Abri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF is the most widespread, tick-borne viral disease affecting humans. The disease is endemic in many regions, such as Africa, Asia, Eastern and Southern Europe, and Central Asia. Recently, the incidence of CCHF has increased rapidly in the countries of the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region (WHO EMR, with sporadic human cases and outbreaks of CCHF being reported from a number of countries in the region. Despite the rapidly growing incidence of the disease, there are currently no accurate data on the burden of the disease in the region due to the different surveillance systems used for CCHF in these countries. In an effort to increase our understanding of the epidemiology and risk factors for the transmission of the CCHF virus (CCHFV; a Nairovirus of the family Bunyaviridae in the WHO EMR, and to identify the current knowledge gaps that are hindering effective control interventions, a sub-regional meeting was organized in Muscat, Oman, from December 7 to 9, 2015. This article summarizes the current knowledge of the disease in the region, identifies the knowledge gaps that present challenges for the prevention and control of CCHFV, and details a strategic framework for research and development activities that would be necessary to curb the ongoing and new threats posed by CCHFV.

  10. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus: sequence analysis of the small RNA segments from a collection of viruses world wide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, R; Chamberlain, J; Mioulet, V; Lloyd, G; Jamil, B; Hasan, R; Gmyl, A; Gmyl, L; Smirnova, S E; Lukashev, A; Karganova, G; Clegg, C

    2004-06-15

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFv) is a member of the genus Nairovirus in the family Bunyaviridae. It possesses a tripartite, single stranded RNA genome of negative polarity consisting of large (L), medium (M) and small (S) segments. CCHF virus is enzootic in life stock and wild animals in many parts of the Middle East, Asia and Africa and is also recognised in Southeast Europe. Severe disease, manifest as haemorrhagic fever and high mortality rates (up to 50%), is only recognised in humans. We have determined the complete sequence of the small genomic RNA segment from several strains of CCHF virus from outbreaks in Pakistan 2000, Baghdad 1976 and Uzbekistan 1967. Phylogenetic analysis of three datasets of sequences from the small genomic RNA segment available from a range of strains indicates that they can be divided into seven subtypes. Superimposed on this pattern are links between distant geographic locations, pointing to the existence of a global reservoir of CCHFv. In some cases these links may originate from trade in livestock, and long-distance carriage of virus or infected ticks during bird migration.

  11. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus in Kazakhstan (1948-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmakhanov, Talgat; Sansyzbaev, Yerlan; Atshabar, Bakhyt; Deryabin, Pavel; Kazakov, Stanislav; Zholshorinov, Aitmagambet; Matzhanova, Almagul; Sadvakassova, Alya; Saylaubekuly, Ratbek; Kyraubaev, Kakimzhan; Hay, John; Atkinson, Barry; Hewson, Roger

    2015-09-01

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a pathogenic and often fatal arboviral disease with a distribution spanning large areas of Africa, Europe and Asia. The causative agent is a negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus classified within the Nairovirus genus of the Bunyaviridae family. Cases of CCHF have been officially recorded in Kazakhstan since the disease was first officially reported in modern medicine. Serological surveillance of human and animal populations provide evidence that the virus was perpetually circulating in a local enzoonotic cycle involving mammals, ticks and humans in the southern regions of the country. Most cases of human disease were associated with agricultural professions such as farming, shepherding and fruit-picking; the typical route of infection was via tick-bite although several cases of contact transmission associated with caring for sick patients have been documented. In total, 704 confirmed human cases of CCHF have been registered in Kazakhstan from 1948-2013 with an overall case fatality rate of 14.8% for cases with a documented outcome. The southern regions of Kazakhstan should be considered endemic for CCHF with cases reported from these territories on an annual basis. Modern diagnostic technologies allow for rapid clinical diagnosis and for surveillance studies to monitor for potential expansion in known risk areas. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Current status of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region: issues, challenges, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abri, Seif S; Abaidani, Idris Al; Fazlalipour, Mehdi; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Leblebicioglu, Hakan; Pshenichnaya, Natalia; Memish, Ziad A; Hewson, Roger; Petersen, Eskild; Mala, Peter; Nhu Nguyen, Tran Minh; Rahman Malik, Mamunur; Formenty, Pierre; Jeffries, Rosanna

    2017-05-01

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is the most widespread, tick-borne viral disease affecting humans. The disease is endemic in many regions, such as Africa, Asia, Eastern and Southern Europe, and Central Asia. Recently, the incidence of CCHF has increased rapidly in the countries of the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region (WHO EMR), with sporadic human cases and outbreaks of CCHF being reported from a number of countries in the region. Despite the rapidly growing incidence of the disease, there are currently no accurate data on the burden of the disease in the region due to the different surveillance systems used for CCHF in these countries. In an effort to increase our understanding of the epidemiology and risk factors for the transmission of the CCHF virus (CCHFV; a Nairovirus of the family Bunyaviridae) in the WHO EMR, and to identify the current knowledge gaps that are hindering effective control interventions, a sub-regional meeting was organized in Muscat, Oman, from December 7 to 9, 2015. This article summarizes the current knowledge of the disease in the region, identifies the knowledge gaps that present challenges for the prevention and control of CCHFV, and details a strategic framework for research and development activities that would be necessary to curb the ongoing and new threats posed by CCHFV. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Seasonal Population Dynamics of Thrips (Thysanoptera) in Wisconsin and Iowa Soybean Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomingdale, Chris; Irizarry, Melissa D; Groves, Russell L; Mueller, Daren S; Smith, Damon L

    2017-02-01

    With the discovery of Neohydatothrips variabilis (Beach) as a vector of Soybean vein necrosis virus (Family Bunyaviridae Genus Tospovirus), a relatively new pathogen of soybean, a multiyear study was initiated in Wisconsin (2013 and 2014) and Iowa (2014 and 2015) to determine the phenology and species composition of thrips in soybean fields. Yellow sticky card traps were used to sample thrips at regular intervals in five counties within each state's primary soybean-growing region. The assemblage of species present in Wisconsin was determined in all site-years, revealing that N. variabilis and other known vectors of tospoviruses were a relatively small percentage of the total thrips captures in 2013 (1.6%) and 2014 (3.6%). A repeated measures analysis was conducted on cumulative proportion thrips capture data within each state's sampling year to investigate differences in phenology, and standardized cumulative insect days were analyzed between sampling years within each state to determine differences in the relative magnitude of populations. Distinct seasonal trends were not detected based on location, as originally hypothesized, and thrips populations varied significantly among locations and between years. These results suggest that thrips populations may be overwintering in northern climates instead of relying solely on migrations to colonize northern soybean fields. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Detection of Tomato spotted wilt virus in its vector Frankliniella occidentalis by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Giovanna; Roggero, Piero; Tavella, Luciana

    2003-04-01

    A method for rapid and reliable detection of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) (Tospovirus, Bunyaviridae) in its vector Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera Thripidae) would be a useful tool for studying the epidemiology of this virus. A RT-PCR method developed for this purpose is reported. The method was tested on thrips involved in laboratory transmission trials and on thrips collected in the field, whose capability to transmit TSWV was checked previously by leaf disk assays. The RT-PCR results were consistent with the results obtained by the leaf disk assays. Among thrips involved in laboratory experiments, 97% of the adults that transmitted TSWV were positive by RT-PCR; as did some non-transmitter adults reacted, whereas among field-collected thrips only the individuals able to transmit were positive by RT-PCR. In addition, healthy thrips were allowed to feed as adults on virus-infected leaves for 48 h, and then examined by RT-PCR immediately or after starving or feeding on virus-free plants for various times, to determine if virus ingested (but not transmissible) was also detectable. The virus was detectable immediately after the feed or within 12 and 24 h for individuals starved or fed on virus-free plants, respectively, but not after those periods. Thus, the method could detect rapidly and reliably the virus in vectors from the field, providing 24 h of starving to avoid positive RT-PCR results from thrips simply carrying the virus.

  15. Global status of tospovirus epidemics in diverse cropping systems: successes achieved and challenges ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappu, H R; Jones, R A C; Jain, R K

    2009-05-01

    The diseases caused by thrips-transmitted tospoviruses (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) are a major constraint to production of important vegetable, legume and ornamental crops in different parts of the world. Tospoviruses are characterized by having tripartite RNA genomes and utilizing both negative and ambisense genome expression strategies. Their often wide and overlapping host ranges, emergence of resistance-breaking strains, circulative and propagative relationship with polyphagous thrips vectors, and difficulties in predicting their outbreaks pose challenges to development and implementation of effective management programmes. Despite these challenges, for a few tospoviruses, considerable progress has been made in successful development and deployment of practical and effective integrated disease management programmes. This has been due to increased understanding of their molecular biology, plant-virus and virus-vector interactions and epidemiology, and to identification of risk factors that contribute to increased disease incidence and of tactics to mitigate those risk factors. However, challenges remain as resistance-breaking or other new strains of known tospoviruses and completely new tospovirus species continue to be described from various parts of the world and have the potential to cause damaging epidemics. To protect crops from the losses caused by severe tospovirus outbreaks, continued vigilance is required to identify and characterize these emerging tospoviruses, determine their impact on crop production, understand their epidemiologies and develop, evaluate and implement control measures to reduce their impact on crop production.

  16. Evolution and structure of Tomato spotted wilt virus populations: evidence of extensive reassortment and insights into emergence processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tentchev, Diana; Verdin, Eric; Marchal, Cécile; Jacquet, Monique; Aguilar, Juan M; Moury, Benoît

    2011-04-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV; genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) genetic diversity was evaluated by sequencing parts of the three RNA genome segments of 224 isolates, mostly from pepper and tomato crops in southern Europe. Eighty-three per cent of the isolates showed consistent clustering into three clades, corresponding to their geographical origin, Spain, France or the USA, for the three RNA segments. In contrast, the remaining 17% of isolates did not belong to the same clade for the three RNA segments and were shown to be reassortants. Among them, eight different reassortment patterns were observed. Further phylogenetic analyses provided insights into the dynamic processes of the worldwide resurgence of TSWV that, since the 1980s, has followed the worldwide dispersal of the western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) tospovirus vector. For two clades composed essentially of Old World (OW) isolates, tree topology suggested a local re-emergence of indigenous TSWV populations following F. occidentalis introductions, while it could not be excluded that the ancestors of two other OW clades were introduced from North America contemporarily with F. occidentalis. Finally, estimation of the selection intensity that has affected the evolution of the NSs and nucleocapsid proteins encoded by RNA S of TSWV suggests that the former could be involved in the breakdown of resistance conferred by the Tsw gene in pepper.

  17. Temporal dynamics of iris yellow spot virus and its vector, Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), in seeded and transplanted onion fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Cynthia L; Hoepting, Christine A; Fuchs, Marc; Shelton, Anthony M; Nault, Brian A

    2010-04-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci (Lindeman) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), can reduce onion bulb yield and transmit iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) (Bunyaviridae: Tospovirus), which can cause additional yield losses. In New York, onions are planted using seeds and imported transplants. IYSV is not seed transmitted, but infected transplants have been found in other U.S. states. Transplants are also larger than seeded onions early in the season, and thrips, some of which may be viruliferous, may preferentially colonize larger plants. Limited information is available on the temporal dynamics of IYSV and its vector in onion fields. In 2007 and 2008, T. tabaci and IYSV levels were monitored in six seeded and six transplanted fields. We found significantly more thrips in transplanted fields early in the season, but by the end of the season seeded fields had higher levels of IYSV. The percentage of sample sites with IYSV-infected plants remained low (thrips in August and September were better predictors of final IYSV levels than early season thrips densities. For 2007 and 2008, the time onions were harvested may have been more important in determining IYSV levels than whether the onions were seeded or transplanted. Viruliferous thrips emigrating from harvested onion fields into nonharvested ones may be increasing the primary spread of IYSV in late-harvested onions. Managing T. tabaci populations before harvest, and manipulating the spatial arrangement of fields based on harvest date could mitigate the spread of IYSV.

  18. Host plant, temperature, and photoperiod effects on ovipositional preference of Frankliniella occidentalis and Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisuekul, C; Riley, D G

    2005-12-01

    Host plant effects of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., and chickweed, Stellaria media (L.) Vill., foliage infected and uninfected with Tomato spotted wilt virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Tospovirus, TSWV) on the ovipositional preferences of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), and tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds), were investigated for whole plants in the greenhouse. In addition, the preference for leaf disks from the same host plants was investigated under a range of temperatures, 15-30 degrees C at a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D) h, and at three photoperiods, 6:18, 12:12, and 18:6, at 20 degrees C in no-choice and choice studies conducted in growth chambers. In a choice test, F. fusca oviposited significantly more eggs per whole plant foliage over a 7-d period than F. occidentalis by an average ratio of 3:1 over both tomato and chickweed. The optimum temperature for oviposition of F. occidentalis and F. fusca was 24.5 and 24.9 degrees C, respectively. Both species laid significantly more eggs under the longest daylight hours tested, 18:6, in the choice study. Temperature and photoperiod did not significantly interact in terms of thrips ovipositional preference. Ovipositional preference for chickweed or tomato foliage was different for each thrips species in the choice and no-choice tests. However, both thrips species laid significantly more eggs per square centimeter of leaf area in chickweed than in tomato in the whole plant choice test.

  19. Onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae): a global pest of increasing concern in onion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Montano, John; Fuchs, Marc; Nault, Brian A; Fail, József; Shelton, Anthony M

    2011-02-01

    During the past two decades, onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), has become a global pest of increasing concern in commercial onion (Allium cepa L.), because of its development of resistance to insecticides, ability to transmit plant pathogens, and frequency of producing more generations at high temperatures. T. tabaci feeds directly on leaves, causing blotches and premature senescence as well as distorted and undersized bulbs. T. tabaci can cause yield loss > 50% but can be even more problematic when it transmits Iris yellow spot virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Tospovirus, IYSV). IYSV was identified in 1981 in Brazil and has spread to many important onion-producing regions of the world, including several U.S. states. IYSV symptoms include straw-colored, dry, tan, spindle- or diamond-shaped lesions on the leaves and scapes of onion plants and can cause yield loss up to 100%. Here, we review the biology and ecology of T. tabaci and discuss current management strategies based on chemical, biological, and cultural control as well as host resistance. Future directions for research in integrated pest management are examined and discussed.

  20. Bell and banana pepper exhibit mature-plant resistance to tomato spotted wilt Tospovirus transmitted by Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, A L P; Kahn, N D; Kennedy, G G

    2009-02-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Tospovirus, TSWV) causes annual economic losses in pepper, Capsicum annuum L., across the southern United States and is transmitted by several species of thrips, including the tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds). Reduced virus transmission and symptom severity as plant age increases is known as mature-plant resistance. TSWV transmission to pepper plants was examined in three and four age classes in field and greenhouse trials, respectively. In the field trial, 'Camelot' bell pepper plants were exposed to potentially viruliferous F. fusca 37, 51, or 65 d postsowing. Two greenhouse trials of Camelot bell and one trial each of 'Bounty' and 'Pageant' banana pepper plants were exposed to potentially viruliferous F. fusca, 43, 57, 71, or 85; 48, 62, 75, or 90; 42, 56, 70, or 84; and 43, 57, 71, or 85 d postsowing, respectively. Linear and hyperbolic regressions of percentage of infected plants per block on days postsowing indicated mature-plant resistance in all trials. All models were significant, but hyperbolic curves better fit the data than linear models. Hyperbolic models were used to calculate the number of days posttransplant at which a 50% decrease from the predicted percentage of infected plants at transplant age (42 d postsowing) was expected. This was referred to as days posttransplant-50 (DPT50). DPRT50 occurred within 9 days posttransplant age for all trials, indicating that early TSWV management in pepper is critical.

  1. Thrips transmission of tospoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotenberg, Dorith; Jacobson, Alana L; Schneweis, Derek J; Whitfield, Anna E

    2015-12-01

    One hundred years ago, the disease tomato spotted wilt was first described in Australia. Since that time, knowledge of this disease caused by Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and transmitted by thrips (insects in the order Thysanoptera) has revealed a complex relationship between the virus, vector, plant host, and environment. Numerous tospoviruses and thrips vectors have been described, revealing diversity in plant host range and geographical distributions. Advances in characterization of the tripartite interaction between the virus, vector, and plant host have provided insight into molecular and ecological relationships. Comparison to animal-infecting viruses in the family Bunyaviridae has enabled the identification of commonalities between tospoviruses and other bunyaviruses in transmission by arthropod vectors and molecular interactions with hosts. This review provides a special emphasis on TSWV and Frankliniella occidentalis, the model tospovirus-thrips pathosystem. However, other virus-vector combinations are also of importance and where possible, comparisons are made between different viruses and thrips vectors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Haemorrhagic fevers and ecological perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Guenno, B

    1997-01-01

    Hemorrhagic fever is a clinical and imprecise definition for several different diseases. Their main common point is to be zoonoses. These diseases are due to several viruses which belong to different families. The Flaviviridae have been known for the longest time. They include the Amaril virus that causes yellow fever and is transported by mosquitoes. Viruses that have come to light more recently belong to three other families: Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae, and Filoviridae. They are transmitted by rodents (hantaviruses and arenaviruses) or from unknown reservoirs (Ebola Marburg). The primary cause of most outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever viruses is ecological disruption resulting from human activities. The expansion of the world population perturbs ecosystems that were stable a few decades ago and facilitates contacts with animals carrying viruses pathogenic to humans. Another dangerous human activity is the development of hospitals with poor medical hygiene. Lassa, Crimean-Congo or Ebola outbreaks are mainly nosocomial. There are also natural environmental changes: the emergence of Sin Nombre in the U.S. resulted from heavier than usual rain and snow during spring 1993 in the Four Corners. Biological industries also present risks. In 1967, collection of organs from monkeys allowed the discovery in Marburg of a new family of viruses, the Filoviridae. Hemorrhagic fever viruses are cause for worry, and the avenues to reduce their toll are still limited.

  3. Serosurvey of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Cattle, Mali, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiga, Ousmane; Sas, Miriam Andrada; Rosenke, Kyle; Kamissoko, Badian; Mertens, Marc; Sogoba, Nafomon; Traore, Abdallah; Sangare, Modibo; Niang, Mamadou; Schwan, Tom G; Maiga, Hamidou Moussa; Traore, Sekou F; Feldmann, Heinz; Safronetz, David; Groschup, Martin H

    2017-06-01

    AbstractCrimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever is a tick-borne disease caused by the arbovirus Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV, family Bunyaviridae, genus Nairovirus ). CCHFV can cause a severe hemorrhagic fever with high-case fatality rates in humans. CCHFV has a wide geographic range and has been described in around 30 countries in the Middle East, Asia, Europe, and Africa including Mali and neighboring countries. To date, little is known about the prevalence rates of CCHFV in Mali. Here, using banked bovine serum samples from across the country, we describe the results of a seroepidemiological study for CCHFV aimed at identifying regions of circulation in Mali. In total, 1,074 serum samples were tested by a modified in-house CCHFV-IgG-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with confirmatory testing by commercial ELISA and immunofluorescence assay. Overall, 66% of samples tested were positive for CCHFV-specific IgG antibodies. Regional seroprevalence rates ranged from 15% to 95% and seemed to correlate with cattle density. Our results demonstrate that CCHFV prevalence is high in many regions in Mali and suggest that CCHFV surveillance should be established.

  4. Evaluation of the efficacy of disinfectants against Puumala hantavirus by real-time RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Piet; Li, Sandra; Verbeeck, Jannick; Keyaerts, Els; Clement, Jan; Van Ranst, Marc

    2007-04-01

    Puumala virus, a hantavirus belonging to the Bunyaviridae family, causes a human disease known as nephropathia epidemica, a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. The implementation of effective decontamination procedures is critical in hantavirus research to minimize the risk of personnel exposure. This study investigated the efficacy of Clidox((R)), Dettol((R)), ethanol, Halamid-d((R)), peracetic acid, sodium hypochloride and Virkon((R))S for inactivating Puumala virus. A real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to quantify Puumala virus before and after treatment with these products. Inactivation of Puumala virus was effective after 10min with all products except ethanol. Inactivation with absolute ethanol was effective only after 30min. Using the qRT-PCR method, this study has shown that the commercially available products Clidox((R)), Halamid-d((R)) and Virkon((R))S in particular represent a rapid and safe way to decontaminate surfaces with possible Puumala virus contamination. These products can be used in solutions of 1-2%, with contact times greater than 10min, for inactivating effectively Puumala virus.

  5. Roles of Host Species, Geographic Separation, and Isolation in the Seroprevalence of Jamestown Canyon and Snowshoe Hare Viruses in Newfoundland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Hugh

    2012-01-01

    California serogroup viruses, including Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV) and snowshoe hare virus (SSHV), are mosquito-borne members of the Bunyaviridae family and are endemic across North America. These arboviruses are potential pathogens which occasionally cause neuroinvasive disease in humans and livestock. A neutralization assay was used to document JCV and SSHV seroprevalence using blood collected from a variety of domestic and wildlife host species. These species were sampled in an island setting, Newfoundland, which contains diverse ecoregions, ecological landscapes, and habitats. Seroprevalence rates for each virus differed significantly among host species and within certain species across different geographic areas. JCV was significantly associated with large mammals, and SSHV was significantly associated with snowshoe hares. Seroprevalence rates in the 5 species of animals tested for prior exposure to JCV ranged from 0% in snowshoe hares to 64% in horses. Seroprevalence rates for SSHV ranged from less than 1% in bovines to 55% in all snowshoe hares. The seroprevalence of SSHV differed significantly (P Newfoundland was associated with significantly lower JCV seroprevalence (P < 0.01) than that for cattle which had lived off-island. PMID:22798366

  6. Andes virus M genome segment is not sufficient to confer the virulence associated with Andes virus in Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, A K; Smith, J M; Hooper, J W; Schmaljohn, C S

    2004-08-15

    Sin Nombre virus (SNV) and Andes virus (ANDV), members of the genus Hantavirus, in the family Bunyaviridae, are causative agents of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in North and South America, respectively. Although ANDV causes a lethal HPS-like disease in hamsters, SNV, and all other HPS-associated hantaviruses that have been tested, cause asymptomatic infections of laboratory animals, including hamsters. In an effort to understand the pathogenicity of ANDV in the hamster model, we generated ANDV/SNV reassortant viruses. Plaque isolation of viruses from cell cultures infected with both parental viruses yielded only one type of stable reassortant virus: large (L) and small (S) segments of SNV and M segment of ANDV. This virus, designated SAS reassortant virus, had in vitro growth and plaque morphology characteristics similar to those of ANDV. When injected into hamsters, the SAS reassortant virus was highly infectious and elicited high-titer, ANDV-specific neutralizing antibodies; however, the virus did not cause HPS and was not lethal. These data indicate that the ANDV M genome segment is not sufficient to confer the lethal HPS phenotype associated with ANDV.

  7. Iquitos Virus: A Novel Reassortant Orthobunyavirus Associated with Human Illness in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Patricia V.; Barrett, Alan D.; Saeed, Mohammad F.; Watts, Douglas M.; Russell, Kevin; Guevara, Carolina; Ampuero, Julia S.; Suarez, Luis; Cespedes, Manuel; Montgomery, Joel M.; Halsey, Eric S.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.

    2011-01-01

    Oropouche (ORO) virus, a member of the Simbu serogroup, is one of the few human pathogens in the Orthobunyavirus genus in the family Bunyaviridae. Genetic analyses of ORO-like strains from Iquitos, Peru, identified a novel reassortant containing the S and L segments of ORO virus and the M segment of a novel Simbu serogroup virus. This new pathogen, which we named Iquitos (IQT) virus, was first isolated during 1999 from a febrile patient in Iquitos, an Amazonian city in Peru. Subsequently, the virus was identified as the cause of outbreaks of “Oropouche fever” during 2005 and 2006 in Iquitos. In addition to the identification of 17 isolates of IQT virus between 1999 and 2006, surveys for neutralizing antibody among Iquitos residents revealed prevalence rates of 14.9% for ORO virus and 15.4% for IQT virus. Limited studies indicate that prior infection with ORO virus does not seem to protect against disease caused with the IQT virus infection. Identification of a new Orthobunyavirus human pathogen in the Amazon region of Peru highlights the need for strengthening surveillance activities and laboratory capabilities, and investigating the emergence of new pathogens in tropical regions of South America. PMID:21949892

  8. The partial sequence of RNA 1 of the ophiovirus Ranunculus white mottle virus indicates its relationship to rhabdoviruses and provides candidate primers for an ophiovirus-specific RT-PCR test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaira, A M; Accotto, G P; Costantini, A; Milne, R G

    2003-06-01

    A 4018 nucleotide sequence was obtained for RNA 1 of Ranunculus white mottle virus (RWMV), genus Ophiovirus, representing an incomplete ORF of 1339 aa. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed significant similarities with RNA polymerases of viruses in the family Rhabdoviridae and a conserved domain of 685 aa, corresponding to the RdRp domain of those in the order Mononegavirales. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the genus Ophiovirus is not related to the genus Tenuivirus or the family Bunyaviridae, with which it has been linked, and probably deserves a special taxonomic position, within a new family. A pair of degenerate primers was designed from a consensus sequence obtained from a relatively conserved region in the RNA 1 of two members of the genus, Citrus psorosis virus (CPsV) and RWMV. The primers, used in RT-PCR experiments, amplified a 136 bp DNA fragment from all the three recognized members of the genus, i.e. CPsV, RWMV and Tulip mild mottle mosaic virus (TMMMV) and from two tentative ophioviruses from lettuce and freesia. The amplified DNAs were sequenced and compared with the corresponding sequences of CPsV and RWMV and phylogenetic relationships were evaluated. Assays using extracts from plants infected by viruses belonging to the genera Tospovirus, Tenuivirus, Rhabdovirus and Varicosavirus indicated that the primers are genus-specific.

  9. Movement and nucleocapsid proteins coded by two tospovirus species interact through multiple binding regions in mixed infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Diwaker; Raikhy, Gaurav; Pappu, Hanu R

    2015-04-01

    Negative-stranded tospoviruses (family: Bunyaviridae) are among the most agronomically important viruses. Some of the tospoviruses are known to exist as mixed infections in the same host plant. Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) and Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) were used to study virus-virus interaction in dually infected host plants. Viral genes of both viruses were separately cloned into binary pSITE-BiFC vectors. BiFC results showed that the N and NSm proteins of IYSV interact with their counterparts coded by TSWV in dually infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants. BiFC results were further confirmed by pull down and yeast-2-hybrid (Y2H) assays. Interacting regions of the N and NSm proteins were also identified by Y2H system and β-galactosidase activity. Several regions of the N and NSm were found interacting with each other. The regions involved in these interactions are presumed to be critical for the functioning of the tospovirus N and NSm proteins. This is the first report of in vivo protein interactions of distinct tospoviruses in mixed infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A mini-review of Bunyaviruses recorded in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragya D Yadav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Newly emerging and re-emerging viral infections are of major public health concern. Bunyaviridae family of viruses comprises a large group of animal viruses. Clinical symptoms exhibited by persons infected by viruses belonging to this family vary from mild-to-severe diseases i.e., febrile illness, encephalitis, haemorrhagic fever and acute respiratory illness. Several arthropods-borne viruses have been discovered and classified at serological level in India in the past. Some of these are highly pathogenic as the recent emergence and spread of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus and presence of antibodies against Hantavirus in humans in India have provided evidences that it may become one of the emerging diseases in this country. For many of the discovered viruses, we still need to study their relevance to human and animal health. Chittoor virus, a variant of Batai virus; Ganjam virus, an Asian variant of Nairobi sheep disease virus; tick-borne viruses such as Bhanja, Palma and mosquito-borne viruses such as Sathuperi, Thimiri, Umbre and Ingwavuma viruses have been identified as the members of this family. As Bunyaviruses are three segmented RNA viruses, they can reassort the segments into genetically distinct viruses in target cells. This ability is believed to play a major role in evolution, pathogenesis and epidemiology of the viruses. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of discovery, emergence and distribution of Bunyaviruses in India.

  11. Sequence and Structure Analysis of Distantly-Related Viruses Reveals Extensive Gene Transfer between Viruses and Hosts and among Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprari, Silvia; Metzler, Saskia; Lengauer, Thomas; Kalinina, Olga V.

    2015-01-01

    The origin and evolution of viruses is a subject of ongoing debate. In this study, we provide a full account of the evolutionary relationships between proteins of significant sequence and structural similarity found in viruses that belong to different classes according to the Baltimore classification. We show that such proteins can be found in viruses from all Baltimore classes. For protein families that include these proteins, we observe two patterns of the taxonomic spread. In the first pattern, they can be found in a large number of viruses from all implicated Baltimore classes. In the other pattern, the instances of the corresponding protein in species from each Baltimore class are restricted to a few compact clades. Proteins with the first pattern of distribution are products of so-called viral hallmark genes reported previously. Additionally, this pattern is displayed by the envelope glycoproteins from Flaviviridae and Bunyaviridae and helicases of superfamilies 1 and 2 that have homologs in cellular organisms. The second pattern can often be explained by horizontal gene transfer from the host or between viruses, an example being Orthomyxoviridae and Coronaviridae hemagglutinin esterases. Another facet of horizontal gene transfer comprises multiple independent introduction events of genes from cellular organisms into otherwise unrelated viruses. PMID:26492264

  12. [Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saijo, Masayuki; Moriikawa, Shigeru; Kurane, Ichiro

    2004-12-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an acute infectious disease caused by CCHF virus (CCHFV), a member of the family Bunyaviridae, genus Nairovirus. The case fatality rate of CCHF ranges from 10-40%. Because CCHF is not present in Japan, many Japanese virologists and clinicians are not very familiar with this disease. However, there remains the possibility of an introduction of CCHFV or other hemorrhagic fever viruses into Japan from surrounding endemic areas. Development of diagnostic laboratory capacity for viral hemorrhagic fevers is necessary even in countries without these diseases. At the National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan, laboratory-based systems such as recombinant protein-based antibody detection, antigen-capture and pathological examination have been developed. In this review article, epidemiologic and clinical data on CCHF in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, compiled through field investigations and diagnostic testing utilizing the aforementioned laboratory systems, are presented. CCHFV infections are closely associated with the environmental conditions, life styles, religion, occupation, and human economic activities. Based on these data, preventive measures for CCHFV infections are also discussed.

  13. Standardization of Immunoglobulin M Capture Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays for Routine Diagnosis of Arboviral Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Denise A.; Muth, David A.; Brown, Teresa; Johnson, Alison J.; Karabatsos, Nick; Roehrig, John T.

    2000-01-01

    Immunoglobulin M antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA) is a rapid and versatile diagnostic method that readily permits the combination of multiple assays. Test consolidation is especially important for arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) which belong to at least three virus families: the Togaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Bunyaviridae. Using prototype viruses from each of these families and a panel of well-characterized human sera, we have evaluated and standardized a combined MAC-ELISA capable of identifying virus infections caused by members of each virus family. Furthermore, by grouping antigens geographically and utilizing known serological cross-reactivities, we have reduced the number of antigens necessary for testing, while maintaining adequate detection sensitivity. We have determined that a 1:400 serum dilution is most appropriate for screening antiviral antibody, using a positive-to-negative ratio of ≥2.0 as a positive cutoff value. With a blind-coded human serum panel, this combined MAC-ELISA was shown to have test sensitivity and specificity that correlated well with those of other serological techniques. PMID:10790107

  14. Prevalence of Lettuce mosaic virus - common strain on three lettuce producing areas from São Paulo State Prevalência da estirpe comum de Lettuce mosaic virus em três regiões produtoras de alface do estado de São Paulo

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    Ana Carolina Firmino

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available LMV is one of the most important pathogens of lettuce worldwide. Based on their ability to overcome the resistance genes mo1¹ and mo1² in lettuce, isolates can be divided in two types: LMV-Most, which can infect and are seed-borne in cultivars containing the mo1 gene and LMV-Common, which do not cause symptoms on these cultivars and are seed transmitted only in susceptible cultivars. To evaluate the occurrence of these two types of LMV isolates, a survey was carried out during 2002-2005 in three lettuce production areas from São Paulo State. Total RNA was used for the diagnosis of LMV isolates by RT-PCR using universal primers for the variable N-terminus of the capsid protein, in the 3' end of the genome. Positives samples were analyzed by a second RT-PCR using specifics primers for LMV-Most isolates designed to amplify a fragment from the central region (CI-VPg of the genome. A total of 1362 samples showing mosaic symptoms were collected and 504 (37.29 % were positives for LMV. On susceptible lettuce cultivars, LMV-Common was prevalent (77.3%. LMV-Most was found frequently associated with tolerant (mo1¹ lettuce cultivars. Susceptible cultivars correspond today for most of the area of lettuce production. So, despite the ability of LMV-Most isolates to overcome the resistance provided by the recessive mo1¹ gene, they are not prevalent in the conditions of São Paulo State.O LMV ocorre em todo o mundo e é considerado um dos patógenos mais importantes para a cultura da alface. De acordo com a habilidade em contornar os genes de resistência mo1¹ e mo1² encontrados em alface, os isolados de LMV podem ser dividos em dois sub-grupos: LMV-Most, capazes de contornar a resistência propiciada por estes genes e de serem transmitidos pela semente nestas cutivares, e LMV-Common, que não são capazes de causar sintomas nestes cultivares, além de serem transmitidos pela semente somente em cultivares suscetíveis. Para avaliar a ocorrência destes

  15. Genética de Coffea. XVIII - Variegação no cafeeiro Leaf variegation in coffee plants

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    A. Carvalho

    1954-01-01

    Full Text Available A variegação das fôlhas do cafeeiro tanto em plantas novas como em plantas adultas tem sido freqüentemente observada. Plantas variegadas podem ocorrer espontaneamente nas progénies das diversas variedades de Coffea arabica L., motivo porque não devem constituir variedade distinta dessa espécie, como foi proposto por Cramer. As plantas variegadas em estudo puderam ser agrupadas em duas categorias, isto é, aquelas em que a variegação não se acha associada com anomalias na forma e textura das folhas e aquelas nas quais a variegação é acompanhada dessas anomalias. No primeiro grupo o padrão de variegação não é uniforme para tôdas as fôlhas, enquanto no segundo grupo o padrão é semelhante para tôda a planta. Usualmente apenas alguns ramos das plantas do primeiro grupo são variegados. Observou-se algumas vezes que as duas fôlhas do mesmo verticilo têm padrões semelhantes de variegação. Encontraram-se também fôlhas variegadas nas quais a metade da lâmina é variegada ou mesmo albina, enquanto a outra metade apresenta a côr verde normal. Os dados genéticos obtidos, embora preliminares para a maioria das plantas variegadas em investigação, permitiram concluir que o padrão de variegação da planta 180, pertencente ao primeiro grupo, é herdado pelo citoplasma e não é transmitido pelo pólen. O padrão de variegação da planta 253-21, pertencente ao segundo grupo, no entanto, parece ser transmitido pelo polen.Leaf variegation in coffee plants is a relatively common abnormality, and variegated seedlings have been found to occur spontaneously in progenies of most varieties of Coffea arabica L. For this reason it is thought that variegated types should not be described as distinct varieties, as it was done before by Cramer. Variegated coffee plants can be grouped in two categories : first, those in which variegated leaves are normal in shape and texture, but do not show a uniform variegation pattern; and second, those

  16. UM MUNDO DE PRINCESAS E SUPER-HERÓIS: representações de gênero em encarte publicitário

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    Patrícia Oliveira de Freitas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente texto apresenta uma reflexão sobre papéis de gênero transmitidos na publicidade direcionada ao público infantil. O material analisado foi o encarte publicitário de uma rede de lojas divulgado por ocasião do dia das crianças, em 2014. O estudo buscou perceber a maneira como são retratadas as imagens das meninas e dos meninos no referido material. A análise do material evidenciou uma forma polarizada ao retratar as crianças. A avaliação do material permitiu perceber uma associação dos meninos ao universo da aventura através de mercadorias com apelo aos super-heróis e as meninas ao universo da beleza materializado a partir de produtos ligados às princesas. Foi possível perceber que o encarte veiculou modelos estereotipados de feminilidade e de masculinidade.   PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Representações de Gênero; Publicidade; Dia das Crianças.   RESUMEN Este artículo presenta una reflexión sobre los roles de género transmitidos en la publicidad dirigida a los niños. El material analizado fue el folleto publicitário de una red de tiendas publicado em la época del Día del Niño en 2014. Esta investigación buscó comprender la forma en que se retratan imágenes de niñas y niños en el dicho material. El análisis del material mostró una manera polarizada de retratar los niños. Este material nos permitió percibir una asociación de los niños al mundo de la aventura por médio de artículos vinculados con los superhéroes y de las niñas al mundo de la belleza que se materializó en productos vinculados con las princesas. Se reveló que el folleto publicitário mostró modelos estereotipados de feminidad y masculinidad .   KEY-WORDS: Representaciones de género; Publicidad; Dia del Niño.     ABSTRACT This text presents a reflection on gender roles transmitted by publicity for infants. The material that was analyzed was an ad of a store chain, published in occasion of the kids’ day, in 2014. The study aimed to

  17. Oficina de autoexame de mamas: uma estratégia para o autoconhecimento de adolescentes Taller de autoexamen de mamas: una estrategia para el autoconocimiento de adolescentes Workshop on breast self-examination: a strategy for self-knowledge of adolescents

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    Maria da Conceição Grego

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Verificar a repercussão do conhecimento transmitido por meio da Oficina de autoexame de mamas e identificar a multiplicação de informações pelas participantes adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo quantitativo, tipo Survey, realizado com 474 adolescentes de três escolas de Ensino Médio e Fundamental do município de Embu das Artes, em 2006 e 2007. RESULTADOS: Os dados das questões estruturadas e semiestruturadas, respondidas pelas participantes, mostraram as frequências das respostas acima de 50% da estimativa sobre a "repercussão do conteúdo da oficina" e abaixo dos 50% sobre a "ação multiplicadora". CONCLUSÃO: A Oficina auxilia a elaboração do conceito de si pelas adolescentes, de seu corpo, informa sobre o câncer de mama e os benefícios da adoção de práticas e atitudes saudáveis em seu cotidiano, empregando a técnica do autoexame de mamas como instrumento pedagógico.OBJETIVOS: Verificar la repercusión del conocimiento transmitido por medio del Taller de autoexamen de mamas e identificar la multiplicación de las informaciones por las participantes adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Se trata de un estudio cuantitativo, tipo Survey, realizado con 474 adolescentes de tres escuelas de Enseñanza Media y Fundamental del municipio de Embu de las Artes, en el 2006 y 2007. RESULTADOS: Los datos de las preguntas estructuradas y semiestructuradas, respondidas por las participantes, mostraron las frecuencias de las respuestas encima del 50% de la estimativa sobre la "repercusión del contenido del Taller" y abajo del 50% sobre la "acción multiplicadora". CONCLUSIÓN: El taller auxilia en la elaboración del concepto de sí por parte de las adolescentes, de su cuerpo, informa sobre el cáncer de mama y los beneficios de la adopción de prácticas y actitudes saludables en su cotidiano, empleando la técnica del autoexamen de mamas como instrumento pedagógico.OBJECTIVES: To verify the repercussions of knowledge

  18. Spontaneous morphogenetic juvenilization observed in laboratory populations of vector species of Chagas disease (Triatominae

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    Alina Perlowagora-Szumlewicz

    1973-08-01

    èscoordenado manifestado por formas adultas grotescas, 5 por adultos supernumerários incapazes de completar sua metamorfose e 6 por adultos supernumerários completos, produzidos por ninfas de 6º estágio. A remetida ocorrência de insetos com idênticos graus de juvenilização, dentro de uma população, é uma indicação de que existe nestes casos, uma aberração hereditária. Os fatores responsáveis pela juvenilização morfogenética não podem ser transmitidos através de insetos juvenilizados, porque esses são estéreis, consequentemente foram transmitidos através de insetos normais, provavelmente como um recessivo ou um grupo de fatores recessivos. A juvenilização morfogenética espontânea, observada em populações de laboratório, tem notável similaridade com os efeitos juvenilizantes induzidos pela aplicação de hormônios juvenis análogos, descritos na literatura e também obtidos no nosso laboratório num estudo em vias de publicação. Desse modo, admite-se que, não só as alterações fenotipicas que ocorrem nas populações naturais, mas também as suas "fenocópias" induzidas pela aplicação de hormônios juvenis, sejam fenômenos produzidos por reações idênticas, geneticamente controladas.

  19. Los determinantes de la rentabilidad primaria de los bonos de titulización hipotecaria: la influencia de las estructuras multitramo

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    Miguel Á. Peña-Cerezo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza los determinantes de la rentabilidad primaria de los bonos de titulización hipotecaria (conocidos en la literatura como mortgage backed securities, o MBS emitidos en España durante el periodo 1993-2011, periodo en el que el mercado español llegó a convertirse en el más importante de Europa continental. Los resultados obtenidos sobre el análisis de la población completa de MBS emitidos (262 tramos configurados sobre 94 fondos de titulización indican que la estructuración multitramo de los MBS ha ayudado a reducir el riesgo percibido global de las emisiones de MBS, mediante la generación de mercados más completos y la reducción de los problemas derivados de la existencia de asimetrías informativas implícitas en el proceso de selección de los activos transmitidos por parte de la entidad cedente. Esta reducción del riesgo percibido ha tenido un efecto directo sobre la rentabilidad ofrecida por los bonos de titulización emitidos. Además, no se encuentran evidencias de que la emisión de MBS persiga la transmisión efectiva de riesgos, más bien al contrario. Las entidades de crédito, por lo general, han retenido los tramos de primeras pérdidas, lo que ha contribuido a mantener en niveles muy bajos (por debajo de la rentabilidad de la deuda soberana la rentabilidad ofrecida por los MBS. Precisamente, el escaso diferencial ofrecido por los bonos de titulización se debe a que los tramos retenidos no han ofrecido primas de rentabilidad ajustadas al riesgo inherente.

  20. Análisis del diseño de instrumentos de evaluación implementados desde dos contextos curriculares

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    Susana González de Galindo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación forma parte de una más abarcativa sobre la problemática de resignificar la clase magistral del Cálculo para cursos superpoblados de primer año, de una Facultad de Ciencias, recurriendo en las clases al uso de una guía elaborada según principios sostenidos por Teorías cognitivas del aprendizaje sostenidas por Piaget, Ausubel, Vigotsky, entre otros. En este trabajo se investigó si existieron diferencias significativas en el diseño de los exámenes finales que rindieron los alumnos que habían cursado la asignatura en 2001 (año en el que se implementó la nueva metodología y en 1999 (enseñanza tradicional. Se analizaron los tipos de actividades según los criterios derivados del marco teórico y de los Estándares de Evaluación para la Educación Matemática (NCTM, 1989. Se concluyó que en la enseñanza tradicional de 1999, las actividades de los exámenes pretendían verificar si los conocimientos transmitidos habían sido asimilados. Las de 2001, por el contrario, satisficieron en buena medida, las pautas establecidas en los Estándares de evaluación seleccionados, lo que significa un importante avance en el proceso de evaluación que se venía implementando. Esta conclusión ratificaría las conclusiones obtenidas del análisis de otros instrumentos diseñados para evaluar la nueva estrategia metodológica estimulando a implementarla en otros contenidos

  1. Ensino Religioso: espaço dos catecismos

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    Sergio Rogerio Junqueira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é resultado da pesquisa qualitativa histórica documental sobre a construção da disciplina do Ensino Religioso a partir dos livros didáticos. Uma das estratégias para compreender a formação dos componentes curriculares no espaço da escola, sendo uma instituição da modernidade que está intimamente relacionada ao projeto da sociedade burguesa urbano-industrial, é refletir como seus caracteres são construídos. A escola vem desempenhando a função de formar e conformar os sujeitos individuais e coletivos aos padrões de racionalização e burocratização dessa sociedade. Embora outras instituições sociais realizem a mesma tarefa, cabe à escola o papel de transmitir os saberes legitimados, fundamental para atender às demandas sociais. Os componentes curriculares colaboram nesta mediação e, dentre outros, é no Ensino Religioso que se percebe concretizado especialmente pelos livros didáticos, que por meio de seus textos e exercícios expressam saberes a serem transmitidos. Compreende-se que por meio dos livros didáticos é possível verificar o desenvolvimento desta disciplina, especialmente em sua origem quando era denominada aula de religião, e que pretendia consolidar o projeto de uma religião hegemônica do país, através de seus catecismos como instrumento de ensino de inúmeras gerações.

  2. Assimetria de transmissão de preço na comercialização da uva fina de mesa no Paraná: 1997 a 2011

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    Alexandre Florindo Alves

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O Paraná se destaca como um dos principais produtores de uva fina de mesa no Brasil, tendo como característica a presença de pequenos e médios produtores. O presente estudo objetiva analisar a assimetria na transmissão de preço entre os níveis produtor, atacado e varejo da uva fina de mesa no Paraná, no período de janeiro de 1997 a outubro de 2011. A metodologia empregada para verificar como ocorre a transmissão de preços entre os agentes foi o Vetor Autorregressivo (VAR. O modelo utilizado para mensurar Assimetria de Transmissão de Preços (ATP foi baseado na metodologia desenvolvida por Grififth e Piggott (1994. Os principais resultados foram: na análise de transmissão de preço ao varejo, o atacado apresentou um coeficiente de elasticidade maior do que o nível do produtor; o sentido unicausal atacado-varejo do teste de Granger é uma evidência de presença de informações assimétricas; e os acréscimos dos preços são transmitidos com mais rapidez do que os decréscimos, que, junto aos resultados do teste t de Griffith e Piggott (1994, comprova a existência de assimetria na transmissão de preços.

  3. Educar personas solidarias : El laberinto de la educación en valores

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    José Angel Paniego García

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available La Educación en Valores es una realidad sobre la que existen muchas propuestas pero que suelen ser bastante deficientes. Por ello, es algo mal valorado por muchos docentes y visto como una pérdida de tiempo. Este artículo intenta mostrar qué elementos tienen las propuestas que si han funcionado, desarrollando actitudes y conductas solidarias y mejorando globalmente la calidad de la enseñanza. Estas propuestas incluyen: - Unos valores cooperativos que sean válidos fuera de la escuela, para la vida. - Una mentalidad del profesorado como formador global y no como impartidor de conocimientos de una materia. - Una revisión global del quehacer educativo que incluya métodos pedagógicos y organizacionales coherentes y un análisis de valores transmitidos por el curriculum oculto. - Un modelo de creación personal de valores por el alumnado (basado en vivenciación/ problematización, análisis y actuación que evite el adoctrinamiento y enseñe a pensar autónomamente. - Un trabajo equilibrado de todos los niveles: de las realidades sociales (trabajadas de forma interrelacional, de los medios de socialización, de las habilidades instrumentales, de la dinámica del grupo clase y del desarrollo personal. El uso de este modelo permite que la Educación en Valores sea un elemento que mejore la calidad de la enseñanza, prepare a la persona para su vida futura y dote a la sociedad de las personas que necesita para ser una sociedad dinámica y de progreso

  4. A ATUAÇÃO DO PLANFOR NO COMBATE À POBREZA EM MACEIÓ

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    Laura Cristina Vieira Pizzi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo examinar as conseqüências dos cursos de qualificação profissional básica oferecidos pelo PLANFOR em Maceió/AL, considerando a eficácia em sua aplicação, verificando de que forma os alunos absorveram e avaliaram os conteúdos transmitidos durante o curso, fazendo o levantamento do perfil socioeconômico dos alunos egressos, avaliando o impacto que o curso de qualificação profissional causou na vida produtiva das pessoas que participaram do programa. Foi discutida ainda a sua vinculação aos novos conceitos de formação, qualificação e competência, de que forma está engajado as novas exigências do novo modelo de produção. Esta pesquisa é de cunho qualitativo, e a abordagem metodológica adotada foi a Análise de Conteúdo. A pesquisa foi realizada através de entrevistas com alunos egressos dos cursos e através de análise documental.  Entendemos que o PLANFOR, não atingiu seus objetivos, já que a maioria dos entrevistados se encontrava fora do mercado de trabalho. Os cursos também não conseguiram elevar significativamente o nível da renda de seus egressos. Verificamos que os conteúdos ensinados de forma transversal, de cunho mais social, foram pouco absorvidos pelos ex-alunos, mas aqueles conhecimentos diretamente ligados à profissão ainda estavam bem presentes na memória dos egressos.

  5. Edificio deportivo en Ludwigshafen, Alemania

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    Rainer, R.

    1968-10-01

    Full Text Available The project built at the Ebert Park occupies a rectangular site. A main feature of its central nucleus is a square hall, of 60 by 60 m area, which can house 2400 seated spectators. The shell roof of this ball is outstanding. It is a hyperbolic parabolid, which covers a large area with a minimum of material. Another noteworthy feature is the strong and harmonious design of this hall, which consists essentially of a monolithic rcjof, made of precast parts, and a powerful prestressed boundary girder resting oh piles, which take up the vertical loads, whilst a great prestressed concrete, tie member, of 110 m length, reacts the horizontal thrust component of the roof loads.El conjunto, edificado en el parque Ebert, ocupa una superficie rectangular en planta. En su núcleo central está ubicado el pabellón principal, de planta cuadrada (60x60 m y con capacidad para albergar 3.400 espectadores sentados. Resalta en este conjunto la cubierta del tipo laminar de dicho pabellón, con forma de «paraboloide hiperbólico», que resuelve acertadamente el problema de la cobertura de un gran espacio con un mínimo de material. Destacaremos igualmente la plástica recia y armónica del edificio, su calidad y textura y el sistema constructivo adoptado, que consiste esencialmente en una cubierta monolítica —a base de elementos prefabricados—, las poderosas vigas de borde, pretensadas, y la cimentación de pilotes que absorben la componente vertical de empujes, dejando al gran tirante inferior, de 110 m y hormigón pretensado, la misión de contrarrestar la componente horizontal del empuje transmitido por la cubierta.

  6. Desenvolvendo tecnologia para prevenção e tratamento de emergências domésticas para cegos

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    Lorita Marlena Freitag Pagliuca

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available O aprimoramento do desenvolvimento dos órgãos dos sentidos se dá pela percepção de estímulos do meio, o que leva o homem à apreensão do conhecimento. A pessoa privada da visão conta com seus sentidos remanescentes para sua relação com o que a rodeia. O cego está sujeito a emergências domésticas, comuns a todas as pessoas, mas tem dificuldades de acesso a processos educativos que abordem a prevenção e tratamento destas emergências. Em um Curso de Prevenção e Tratamento de Emergências Domésticas para Cegos, desenvolveu-se tecnologia pedagógica abordando anatomia e fisiologia dos sistemas esquelético, circulatório e pulmonar, além da prevenção e tratamento para desobstrução das vias aéreas, parada cardio-pulmonar, queimaduras, choque elétrico, traumas, hemorragias, envenenamentos, desmaios, convulsões e uso de medicação oral. Utilizou-se esqueleto humano, manequim, moldes, papéis, tubos de plástico e borracha e, principalmente, comunicação verbal e táctil. Os conteúdos transmitidos foram aplicados em situações simuladas. A tecnologia mostrou-se eficaz pela capacidade demonstrada pelos cegos através da verbalização e repetição dos procedimentos.

  7. Entre o ficcional e o documental: versões da desigualdade em Ônibus 174 (2002, de José Padilha, e Última parada 174 (2008, de Bruno Barreto

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    Ângela Srocynski da Costa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho propõe uma análise comparatista da representação da desigualdade social em sua relação com a violência no documentário Ônibus 174 (2002, de José Padilha, e no filme A última parada 174 (2008, de Bruno Barreto. Ambas as obras abordam um evento real que aconteceu no ano de 2000, no Rio de Janeiro, o sequestro do ônibus 174 realizado pelo jovem contraventor de nome Sandro. O evento foi completamente transmitido ao vivo pelas redes de televisão e culminou com o desfecho trágico e traumático da morte de uma das reféns por um tiro da polícia. Longe das câmeras, dentro do carro da polícia, no trajeto para a delegacia, Sandro é assassinado. O número do ônibus, mostrado tantas vezes durante a transmissão, está no nome das duas obras e serve de refrente para ambas as narrativas, uma vez que identifica uma região e uma realidade social. A análise dos objetos se focará na forma como são apresentados os moradores de rua e de regiões periféricas, e a forma como essas representações ajudam a constituir o discurso sobre o crime, a criminalidade e a constituição desse jovem criminoso que acaba por ser assassinado.

  8. Maneiras de fazer, modos de proceder: a tradição reinventada do pão de canela na Serra da Mantiqueira, Minas Gerais

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    Rogéria Campos de Almeida Dutra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo traz como proposta a investigação do processo de produção do pão de canela na Serra do Ibitipoca, no sudeste de Minas Gerais, através da qual se procura abordar as transformações dos saberes transmitidos entre gerações e seus novos sentidos ante as dinâmicas contemporâneas. Como parte da tradição culinária local, sua fabricação envolve modos de saber e fazer que frente ao desenvolvimento turístico são simultaneamente reafirmados e reinventados. Sua elaboração, ao abrigar segredos culinários, sistemas gestuais e combinações de sabores, expressam a matriz das formas culturais configuradas pelas disposições práticas, cenário da cultura tal como vivida, que envolvem, a partir de uma tradição oralmente transmitida, a operação de uma criatividade prática fundamentada em atos da vida cotidiana.This paper aims at investigating the production of pão de canela at the Serra do Ibitipoca region situated in the southeast of Minas Gerais, Brazil. As part of the local culinary tradition, its manufacture involves ways of knowing and doing that are reaffirmed and reinvented by tourism development. Culinary secrets, gestural systems and flavors' combinations present in this kind of bread express culture as it is lived, an orally transmitted activity supported by a practical creativity of daily life.

  9. Aspectos histopatológicos e micológicos da infecção experimental de cobaias com Microsporum canis

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    Josemara Neves Cavalcanti

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Com frequência o dermatófito Microsporum canis está envolvido na etiologia da dermatofitose, podendo ser transmitido para o homem por cães e gatos. Neste estudo foi procedida inoculação experimental de M. canis em cobaias resultando em lesões em 100 % dos animais e o curso clínico consistiu de período de incubação, fase inflamatória e fase de resolução das lesões. O exame histopatológico de biópsias cutâneas revelou presença de infiltrado neutrofílico e edema; acantose, hiperqueratose e espongiose. Estas lesões tornaram-se menos acentuadas no 30.0 dia pós-inoculação. Esporos e hifas de M. canis foram detectadas em cortes histológicos corados com PAS (Ácido Periódico de Schiff. A combinação dos corantes fluorescentes diacetato de fluoresceína (DF e brometo de etídio (BE, possibilitou uma adequada visualização das células fúngicas viáveis e não viáveis com evidenciação de seus caracteres morfológicos. Este modelo experimental representa um valioso instrumento para o estudo da patogênese da infecção por dermatófitos, para a avaliação da eficácia de drogas antifúngicas, podendo também ser utilizado em estudos sobre a imunologia das dermatofitoses e na determinação da morfogênese de dermatófitos.

  10. DESCRIPCIÓN MODULAR DE UN ESQUEMA DE CODIFICACIÓN CONCATENADO PARA CORRECCIÓN DE ERRORES CON PROGRAMACIÓN DE HARDWARE MODULAR DESIGN OF SCHEME CODING CONCATENATED FOR CORRECTION ERROR WITH PROGRAMMING OF HARDWARE

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    Cecilia E Sandoval Ruiz

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Las comunicaciones inalámbricas requieren el empleo de métodos de corrección de errores sobre los datos transmitidos, usándose generalmente técnicas de codificación Reed-Solomon & Viterbi, por razones de desempeño y seguridad es preferible implementarlos sobre hardware. En este trabajo se presenta el diseño modular de la etapa de codificación de éstos códigos para su concatenación usando VHDL (VHSIC Hardware Descriptor Language, orientado a la implementación sobre tecnología de matriz de compuertas programadas por campo (FPGA, Se inicia con una revisión de los conceptos asociados a la definición de los componentes, y el modelo, descripción del comportamiento, luego la arquitectura es diseñada usando la sintaxis en VHDL y es capturado el diseño de hardware, finalmente se presentan los resultados de síntesis.The wireless communication medium require employing forward error correction methods on the data transferred, where Reed-Solomon & Viterbi coding techniques are utilized, because of performance and security reaso. In this paper we present a modular design of phase encoding these codes for concatenation using VHDL (VHSIC Hardware Descriptor Language and oriented to implementation with field programmable gate arrays (FPGA. The work besing with a review of code concept and the definition of the components and the model and the description of the behavioral. Later, the architecture is designed and captures using syntax in VHDL, and finally presents the results of synthesis.

  11. Olive oils from Algeria: Phenolic compounds, antioxidant and antibacterial activities

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    Laincer, F.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The phenolic compositions, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities against six bacteria of phenolic extracts of olive oil varieties from eleven Algerian varieties were investigated. The antioxidant activity was assessed by determining the scavenging effect on the DPPH and ABTS.+ radicals. The antimicrobial activity was measured as a zone of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC on human harmful and foodborne pathogens. The results show that total phenols was significantly (p .+ radicals (r = 0.76. Among the bacteria tested, S. aureus and to a lesser extent B. subtilis showed the highest sensitivity; the MIC varied from 0.6 to 1.6 mg·mL-1 and 1.2 to 1.8 mg·mL-1, respectively. The results reveal that Algerian olive oils may constitute a good source of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents.Se ha estudiado la composición fenólica y las actividades antioxidante y antimicrobiana, contra seis bacterias, de extractos de aceites de oliva de once variedades argelinas. La actividad antioxidante se evaluó mediante la determinación del efecto captador de radicales de DPPH y ABTS.+. La actividad antimicrobiana se midió como zona de inhibición y como concentración inhibitoria mínima (MIC sobre bacterias perjudiciales humanas y agentes patógenos transmitidos por los alimentos. Los resultados mostraron que los fenoles totales está significativamente (p .+ (r= 0,76. Entre las bacterias ensayadas, S. aureus y, en menor grado B. subtilis mostraron la mayor sensibilidad; el MIC varió de 0,6 a 1,6 mg·mL-1 y 1,2 a 1,8 mg·mL-1 respectivamente. Los resultados muestran que los aceites de oliva argelinos pueden constituir una buena fuente de antioxidantes y agentes antimicrobianos.

  12. Integração espacial de mercados na presença de custos de transação: um estudo para o mercado de boi gordo em Minas Gerais e São Paulo

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    Leonardo Bornacki de Mattos

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available As análises de integração dos mercados de commodities agrícolas, que são baseadas apenas em informações sobre preços, são limitadas, por desconsiderarem os efeitos dos custos de transação no processo de ajustamento dos preços. O objetivo principal deste estudo foi estimar os prováveis efeitos dos custos de transação sobre a integração do mercado de boi gordo entre os estados de Minas Gerais e São Paulo. Foi estimado um Modelo de Correção de Erro Vetorial com Threshold (Modelo TVEC, sendo utilizados dados mensais dos preços dessa commodity referentes ao período de janeiro de 1972 a agosto de 2005. Os resultados obtidos indicam que os custos de transação entre os mercados estudados são significativos. Choques de preços, inferiores a cerca de 10% do preço médio, não são transmitidos entre os mercados.The analysis of market integration of agricultural commodities based on price information are limited because the effects of transaction costs are not considered in the adjustment process. The main objective of this paper was to estimate the possible transaction costs impacts on market integration of beef cattle between the states of Minas Gerais and São Paulo. It was estimated a Threshold Vector Error Correction Model (TVEC model using monthly rice data for the period from January 1972 to August 2005. The results indicated the presence of threshold cointegration implying that transaction costs have important effect on the price adjustment process.

  13. Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver Bonet, Maria; Mach, Núria

    2016-09-20

    Introducción: la infertilidad es un problema global en aumento. Se estima que aproximadamente un 15% de las parejas en edad reproductiva tiene dificultades a la hora de concebir. De estas, alrededor de la mitad presentan uno o varios factores masculinos asociados a infertilidad o subfertilidad, aislados o en combinación con problemas de origen femenino. Durante la última década se ha empezado a estudiar la infertilidad desde una perspectiva multifactorial, considerando las interacciones y conexiones entre diferentes situaciones genéticas, epigenéticas, bioquímicas y fisiológicas del paciente.Objetivo: la presente revisión pretende describir mecanismos epigenéticos que pueden ser modulados mediante aspectos nutricionales y que están relacionados con la etiología de la infertilidad masculina y con la herencia transgeneracional de este fenotipo.Material y métodos: se ha realizado una extensa búsqueda de publicaciones científicas en las principales bases de datos electrónicas especializadas: NBCI, Elsevier, Scielo, Scirus y Science Direct.Resultados y conclusión: varios trabajos que muestran la importancia del estado nutricional en la fertilidad del hombre y, más específicamente, la capacidad de los componentes de la dieta para modificar los perfiles epigenéticos que no únicamente pueden afectar a su fertilidad, sino que también pueden ser transmitidos a la descendencia mediante lo que se ha denominado herencia transgeneracional, ocasionándoles problemas de salud diversos entre los que también se hallan problemas en la fertilidad.

  14. Recuperação e transfiguração do popular e do medieval no Romanceiro de Almeida Garrett

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    Fernando Maués de Faria Jr.

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Segundo Menéndez-Pidal, o romance tradicional - que não se confunde com a acepção moderna do termo, fixada a partir do século XIX - é um poema épico-lírico breve, cantado em reuniões recreativas ou durante trabalhos comuns. Tal gênero tem sua origem na Baixa Idade Média, provavelmente derivando de excertos dos antigos cantares de gesta, de núcleos narrativos que agradavam de forma especial ao povo, que os tomava como episódios isolados. O romance, relegado pelas elites aristocráticas, sobrevivia nos cantares de uma comunidade ágrafa ,sendo transmitido pelo sistema boca-a-ouvido. No entanto, com o advento do Romantismo, no século XIX, o romance tradicional passa a ser visto como elemento representativo do nascimento dos Estados Nacionais modernos. É neste contexto que aparece o Romanceiro de Almeida Garrett. Influenciado por autores como Percy e W Scott, o poeta português investe no recolhimento e posterior recriação dos cantos tradicionais a fim de adaptá-los ao gosto do público letrado do século XIX. Garrett se a podera, assim, de um material temática e esteticamente ligado ao povo e à Idade Média. O objetivo de nosso trabalho é discutir o sentido da recuperação dos romances por Garrett, a lém de refletir sobre os mecanismos de recriação adotados pelo autor e a representatividade deste material de matiz popular e medieval no conjunto do Romantismo português.

  15. Reiko Hayama, entre los actos: el legado de Le Corbusier y Kunio Maekawa

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    Irène Vogel Chevroulet

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Filiación, o el compartir de un legado de generación a generación, es más evidente al considerar los principios específicos de la arquitectura. Este artículo examina cómo el legado de Le Corbusier fue transmitido a Reiko Hayama, mujer japonesa, pionera en arquitectura, y quien desde 1959 a 1965, forjó su carrera en Tokio trabajando para Kunio Maekawa, uno de los previos colaboradores “del Maestro” de la Rue de Sèvres 35. Posteriormente, decidió mudarse a París y trabajar para Charlotte Perriand y Jean Prouvé, previo a establecer su propio estudio de trabajo en los años 1976 a 2013. Este artículo se centra en las repercusiones del patrimonio de Le Corbusier en la práctica personal de Hayama. Sus reflexiones señalan que Maekawa y Prouvé le dieron paso a un camino que se situaba por fuera de los principios de Le Corbusier, entre los cuales se encuentran: una preocupación ética por el medio ambiente; un proceso en el diseño que deliberadamente tuvo en cuenta un contexto cultural y una forma arquitectónica derivada de un proceso tecnológico de razonamiento. El patrimonio del Modulor fue directamente asumido por Hayama, siendo este una herramienta operativa de suma importancia en la metodología Le Corbusiana.

  16. Uma curadora na amazônia: trajetória de vida e saberes da experiência

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    Maria Betania Albuquerque

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa a trajetória de vida e os saberes construídos por uma curadora na ilha de Colares, no Pará (Brasil. Com base na pesquisa de campo e apoiado nos pressupostos da história oral temática, tem como objetivos identificar os saberes construídos por Rosalina, bem como analisar os processos de construção e transmissão desses saberes. Teoricamente, apoia-se em Mafessoli (2006 acerca do conceito de socialidade; na ideia de bricolagem de Lévi-Strauss (1989; e nos saberes da experiência ou saberes ordinários de Michel de Certeau (2009. Dentre as conclusões, o artigo ressalta a mutiplicidade de saberes construídos e transmitidos oralmente por Rosalina a um grupo de pessoas que os ressignificaram de diferentes formas. Suas práticas de cura englobavam elementos de diversas tradições (umbanda, esoterismo, Nova Era configurando um hibridismo religioso e um constante processo de bricolagem de seus saberes. No contexto de uma Amazônia carente de atendimentos médicos e de serviços de orientação à população, sobressaiu-se Rosalina de dentro das matas de Colares, cuja prática de vida “alternativa” coloca-a como um sujeito singular portador de múltiplos saberes os quais, numa ampla rede de socialidade, foram postos em circulação a diversas pessoas fazendo dela uma curadora e, também, uma educadora do cotidiano.

  17. Epistemología de la enseñanza y nuevas fronteras científicas

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    Teresa González Pérez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La ciencia y la tecnología están trayendo cambios a nuestras vidas. Para afrontarlos necesitamos de una nueva escuela y de una formación diferente para los profesores. De forma común se ha pensado que la ciencia es asunto de los científicos. De hecho, se nos ha transmitido una imagen mítica de la ciencia atribuyéndole una verdad absoluta con la que se nos impone su aceptación acrítica. Sin embargo, es evidente que la ciencia ha aportado una transformación tan acelerada y repentina a la sociedad contemporánea que, de alguna forma, ha generado en ella una pasividad frente a los cambios que ha aportado. Aquí radica el problema del que nos ocupamos a lo largo del artículo. Se trata de un cambio que todavía no hemos aprendido a descifrar, que nos confunde y que nos pone frente a nuevas y cruciales cuestiones éticas. Por tal motivo, la vertiginosa innovación de nuestro tiempo nos impone preguntas y problemas frente a las cuales no estamos suficientemente equipados. De ahí la necesidad de una nueva formación de los profesores y de una educación diferente respecto a aquella que pertenece a un pasado todavía reciente, pero diferente de las simplificaciones tecnocráticas que el modelo empresarial parece sugerirnos para el futuro.

  18. LACTANCIA MATERNA: UNA REVISIÓN DE LA EVALUACIÓN DE ESTA PRÁCTICA A TRAVÉS DEL TIEMPO. EL CASO DE ALGUNAS COMUNIDADES INDÍGENAS EN COLOMBIA

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    Fabiola Becerra Bulla

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available La lactancia materna es una función innata de todo mamífero y el hombre como tal no es la excepción; el presente artículo se basa en una revisión de fuentes secundarias relacionadas con la evolución histórica de la práctica de la lactancia materna en diferentes contextos y momentos históricos. Realiza una aproximación a la información de tipo histórico que existe sobre dicha práctica, desde la civilización egipcia y en la Europa antes de Cristo, hasta el siglo XX, haciendo mención a las evidencias sobre los conocimientos y creencias en torno a la lactancia materna. Posteriormente se presenta un panorama del contexto colombiano desde la preconquista, la Colonia y la Independencia, hasta nuestros días; no obstante, es preciso y de gran importancia resaltar la continuidad de esta práctica bajo la influencia de la cultura indígena colombiana, motivo por el cual al final del mismo se señalan las características de las prácticas de la alimentación al seno y alimentación complementaria en algunas comunidades indígenas colombianas. Se parte del hecho de que la alimentación al pecho ha sido durante centenares de años una práctica eminentemente biocultural porque, además de ser un proceso biológico, es un comportamiento determinado por la cultura el cual sido transmitido de madres a hijas a través de generaciones.

  19. Diagnóstico de la ehrlichiosis monocítica canina: una revisión actualizada

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    Roger Iván Rodríguez-Vivas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La ehrlichiosis monocítica canina (EMC es causada por la infección de una rickettsia denominada Ehrlichia canis; este microorganismo se reproduce solamente en el citoplasma de los monocitos sanguíneos y macrófagos tisulares. La EMC ha sido reportada en todo el mundo, pero las frecuencias más altas se reportan en las regiones tropicales y subtropicales. La EMC no siempre es reconocida clínicamente, pues es difícil de diagnosticar debido a que los signos clínicos son variables, a que se presenta en diferentes fases y a la existencia de coinfecciones con otros patógenos transmitidos por garrapatas y otros agentes infecciosos. Las manifestaciones clínicas y las técnicas de diagnóstico tradicionales, como el diagnóstico hematológico y la demostración típica de mórulas de E. canis en el citoplasma de monocitos en frotis sanguíneos, se han utilizado para el diagnóstico de la EMC; sin embargo, las pruebas de diagnóstico por PCR y la serología mediante el uso de antígenos específicos son las pruebas más sensibles y específicas para el diagnóstico de la enfermedad. Este artículo presenta una revisión actualizada sobre el diagnóstico de la infección por E. canis en perros.

  20. Gestos

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    Antoni Muntadas

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Gestos é uma série de fotos que o artista catalão Antoni Muntadas realizou, durante a guerra do Iraque. Trata-se da reciclagem de fotos veiculadas em jornais aos quais o artista teve acesso. O recorte é preciso: gestos e poses através das quais George W. Bush, Tony Blair, Saddam Hussein, Collin Powell, Jacques Chirac, Gerhard Schroeder, S. Berlusconi, e tantos outros polí­ticos, que marcaram sua presença e identificaram seus posicionamentos em relação ao conflito. Gestos reproduz, assim, a "paisagem midiática" da guerra do ponto de vista dos pronunciamentos dos estadistas nos ambientes da mí­dia e no espaço público igualmente mediado. Para Muntadas, televisão, ví­deo, instalações e Internet são os ambientes preferenciais de suas "paisagens midiáticas" - metáfora conceitual que procura configurar os diferentes efeitos de sentido que a incorporação dos meios de comunicação provoca na obra de arte e, conseqüentemente, na cultura. Em Gestos há o rebatimento dos meios e um reprocessamento contí­nuo da informação. As personalidades se pronunciam em espaços públicos e em eventos transmitidos pelas televisões; a fala é traduzida em gestos que são fotografados pela mí­dia impressa e rigorosamente recortados em sua articulação mais elementar desvinculando-se do corpo que os enunciam para, em seguida, transformar-se num produto artí­stico com a intervenção do artista.

  1. Caracterización molecular de un begomovirus del tomate en el Valle del Cauca, Colombia, y búsqueda de fuentes de resistencia para el mejoramiento de la variedad Unapal Maravilla

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    Martínez Ana Karine

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizó un virus transmitido por la mosca blanca Bemisia tabaci al tomate en el Valle del Cauca como una variante del Virus del mosaico amarillo del tomate (Tomato yellow mosaic virus = ToYMV. Plantas de tomate (FLA 496-11-6-1-0, FLA 478-6-3-1-11, FLA 456-4 y FLA 653-3-1-0 de 20 días de edad se confinaron en jaulas individuales con 10 individuos virulíferos de B. tabaci (biotipo B por planta, en condiciones de invernadero. La infección por el virus se confirmó por el desarrollo de los síntomas y las pruebas moleculares de PCR e hibridación dot blot. Las características agromorfológicas se evaluaron en campo en un diseño de bloques completos al azar con tres repeticiones. Las líneas FLA 653-3-1-0, FLA 496-11-6-1-0 y FLA 478-6-3-1-11 desarrollaron síntomas muy leves; el ADN viral fue apenas detectable para algunos individuos y presentaron características del fruto y rendimientos deseables.

  2. Pliny’s Natural History: a medium for preservation and a cause of loss of knowledge

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    Jacob Isager

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A História Natural de Plínio: meio de conservação e causa de perda de conhecimento. A História Natural de Plínio pretende ser um inventário do mundo conhecido para os romanos. Este artigo discute, na sua primeira parte, as razões desse projeto. Foi um enorme trabalho coletar e organizar o material, e como exemplo de metodologia, escolhi os capítulos de arte grega e romana (ou arte greco-romana que tiveram grande impacto nas posteriores histórias da arte. Uma análise da exposição de Plínio sobre a história da arte romana e grega revela que ele tinha diferentes motivos para estabelecer essas histórias da arte. O que liga as duas partes como uma uma unidade é o impacto das peças de arte grega e romana no espaço urbano de Roma. Templos e outros prédios públicos funcionavam como galerias de arte, com variadas coleções de obras-primas da arte grega, com isso elevando Roma à posição de grande centro do mundo. Assim como as coleções de estátuas, a História Natural de Plínio, com sua coleção de memórias do Império Romano, preserva conhecimento esquecido. Tornou-se um monumento ao conhecimento do mundo inteiro e foi transmitido a nós em sua totalidade

  3. Literatura infantil portuguesa en tiempos de la Dictadura: censura y voces de resistencia

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    Angela Balça

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza cómo autores de literatura infantil portuguesa consiguieron eludir la censura en tiempos de la Dictadura (1926-1974 y publicar obras cuyos mensajes, que no podían ser discutidos libremente, fueron transmitidos a los jóvenes lectores del momento. Los objetivos de este estudio son dar a conocer obras de literatura infantil editadas durante la Ditadura y leídas por las jóvenes generaciones de antaño y actuales; establecer qué temas y valores son presentados en estas obras y comprender qué mecanismos fueron usados por los escritores para eludir la censura. Como metodología de estudio, empleamos el análisis hermenéutico a partir de una lectura crítica y reflexiva de los textos. De este análisis concluímos que estas obras abordan cuestiones relacionadas con el racismo y la promoción de la igualdad entre los hombres, la apología de libertad, la resistencia a la opresión y la exhortación a la paz. Los autores aquí estudiados emplean un lenguaje simbólico, cargado de metáforas, ambigüedades, humor e ironía, mecanismos todos ellos retóricos que fueron usados para transmitir su mensaje a los lectores y eludir así la censura del régimen vigente.

  4. Identificación de virus en el cultivo de camote (Ipomoea batatas L. en Costa Rica

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    Rodrigo Valverde

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Identificación de virus en el cultivo de camote (Ipomoea batatas L. en Costa Rica. En el período entre febrero y mayo del 2002, se realizó un reconocimiento de los virus del cultivo de camote (Ipomoea batatas L., en cinco plantaciones comerciales ubicadas en las principales regiones productoras de este cultivo en Costa Rica. Previo al muestreo, en cada plantación se evaluó la incidencia de plantas con síntomas de enfermedades virales. Para la identificación de los virus, se recolectaron secciones apicales de tallo de plantas de camote con síntomas las cuales se injertaron sobre las plantas indicadoras de virus, de la especia Ipomoea setosa para inocularlas. Las muestras foliares de plantas inoculadas fueron analizadas serológicamente para el virus del moteado plumoso del camote (SPFMV y el virus del mosaico del pepino (CMV; con la reacción en cadena de polimerasa de transcripción reversa (RT-PCR para el virus del enanismo clorótico del camote (SPCSV y por hibridación molecular para el virus del enrollamiento de la hoja del camote (SPLCV. Las plantaciones ubicadas en el Cacao y el Coyol de Alajuela, y San Pedro de Santa Bárbara, presentaron las mayores incidencias de plantas con síntomas virales; a saber: 30, 90 y 90% respectivamente. El SPFMV, transmitido por los áfidos fue el virus más común. Otros virus detectados fueron el SPCSV y el SPLCV. El CMV, no se encontró en ninguna de las muestras analizadas.

  5. Las traducciones en la antigüedad

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    Fernández Marcos, Natalio

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A large part of the Western cultural heritage has been transmitted through translation. The author analyses the translation phenomenon in Antiquity, emphasizing the significance of the first translation of the Hebrew Bible into Greek in Ptolemaic Alexandria. This translation is the major literary corpus translated into Greek in Antiquity and, probably, the most important as well, due to the impact it had on the West once Christianity adopted the Greek version as the official Bible. He also describes the context in which the translation was carried out, the different models utilized for the Pentateuch, its reception and influence on other translations. Finally, he points out other processes of cultural transmission through translation in late Antiquity.

    Gran parte del legado cultural de Occidente se nos ha transmitido en traducciones. El autor analiza el fenómeno de la traducción en la Antigüedad, deteniéndose en la primera traducción de la Biblia hebrea al griego en la Alejandría ptolemaica. Esta traducción es el mayor corpus de litert ratura traducido al griego en la Antigüedad y, tal vez, el más importante por el impacto que tuvo en Occidente al ser adoptada la Biblia griega como Biblia oficial del cristianismo. Describe tambt bién el contexto en el que se llevó a cabo la traducción, los modelos utilizados en el Pentateuco, la recepción y los efectos de la misma en otras traducciones. Señala por fin otros procesos de trasvase cultural mediante la traducción en la Antigüedad tardía.

  6. Identificación de virus que afectan el Loroco (Fernaldia pundurata en el Valle de Zapotitán, El Salvador

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    Reina Flor Guzm\\u00E1n de Serrano

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El loroco (Fernaldia pandurata es una especie hortícola de gran valor comercial y consumo en la dieta del pueblo salvadoreño y guatemalteco. Desafortunadamente, esta especie es afectada por diversas plagas entre las que se encuentran la mosca blanca Bemisia tabaci, áfidos y enfermedades de aparente naturaleza viral. En esta investigación se examinaron plantas de loroco con síntomas de mosaico y deformación foliar e inflorescencias cloróticas con el fin de determinar su etiología y posibles agentes vectores. Las muestras se examinaron mediante microscopía electrónica y serología. La observación de las muestras en el microscopio electrónico reveló la presencia de partículas filamentosas (600-700 nm e isométricas (30 nm de aparente naturaleza viral. Las pruebas serológicas demostraron que el virus filamentoso es una especie del género Potyvirus, y el virus isométrico es una especie del género Cucumovirus. No se encontraron virus del género Begomovirus transmitidos por mosca blanca. Se concluye aquí que este insecto actúa solamente como plaga directa del loroco, mientras que los áfidos se comportan como plaga y posibles vectores de los virus detectados. Este es el primer informe sobre patógenos virales del loroco

  7. LAS GASTROENTERITIS VÍRICAS: UN PROBLEMA DE SALUD PÚBLICA

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    Angela Domínguez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Las gastroenteritis agudas (GA constituyen un problema de salud importante, pudiendo estar causadas por bacterias, parásitos y virus enteropatógenos, entre los que se han reconocido hasta la actualidad rotavirus, astrovirus, adenovirus y calicivirus. La frecuencia de rotavirus como causa de casos esporádicos de GA oscila entre el 17,3% y el 37,4%. Aunque se ha sugerido que la exposición común no tiene mucha importancia para la difusión de este virus, resulta difícil relacionar casos aparentemente esporádicos, por lo que probablemente haya brotes que no llegan a detectarse. Los astrovirus causan GA con una frecuencia que oscila entre un 2 y un 26% y se han descrito brotes en escuelas y guarderías, pero también en población adulta y en ancianos. La frecuencia con que se identifican los adenovirus 40 y 41 como causa de GA esporádica en niños no inmunodeprimidos oscila entre 0,7% y 31,5%, aunque probablemente haya subdetección debido a que la sensibilidad de las técnicas convencionales es baja. Los calicivirus se separan filogenéticamente en dos géneros: Norovirus y Sapovirus. Los Norovirus se asocian frecuentemente con brotes de GA transmitidos por agua y alimentos . Se estima que el 40% de los casos de GA por Norovirus están vehiculados por alimentos. En Suecia y en algunas zonas de Estados Unidos es la primera causa de brotes de toxiinfecciones alimentarias. Recientemente se han descrito en Canadà y Japón brotes de transmisión persona a persona y también de transmisión alimentaria causados por Sapovirus, afectando tanto a población infantil como adulta.

  8. VIRUS DEL OESTE DEL NILO: PERSPECTIVAS EN EL MUNDO VERTEBRADO

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    José Peña

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El virus del Oeste del Nilo (VON pertenece a la familia Flaviviridae, género Flavivirus, es transmitido porartrópodos en un ciclo que involucra a mosquitos y aves. Por muchas décadas había sido reconocido enÁfrica, Asia y el sur de Europa. El virus apareció por primera vez en Estados Unidos en año de 1999 y seha documentado su circulación en México, Islas Caimán, Jamaica, República Dominicana, Martinica,Guadalupe, Cuba, Puerto Rico, El Salvador y Colombia. Sólo recientemente fue asociado con un crecientenúmero de brotes de encefalitis en humanos y equinos, además de infecciones en vertebrados de una granvariedad de especies. Muchos animales, incluyendo más de 150 especies de aves y al menos 30 vertebradosde otras especies son susceptibles a la infección por VON. El resultado de las infecciones depende de laespecie, la edad del animal, su estado inmune y la patogenicidad de la cepa del virus. La infección ocurreen aves, como passeriformes, pollos jóvenes y gansos domésticos, lo que resulta en altos títulos de viremiaque permite la transmisión a los artrópodos. Está menos caracterizado el rol de los vertebrados en latransmisión indirecta, como por órganos contaminados, tejidos o excreciones. La creciente importancia dela infección por VON ha conducido al desarrollo de vacunas veterinarias con virus muertos, atenuados,quiméricos y vacunas de ADN recombinante. En esta revisión se discute en forma general la importanciade infección por VON en vertebrados, su rol en medicina veterinaria y su posible impacto en salud animalpor su reciente introducción a Colombia.

  9. Articulación entre comercio internacional y tecnología.

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    Sonia María Amador Berrocal

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Los acuerdos comerciales negociados en el ámbito internacional a partir de la segunda mitad de la década de 1980, enfatizaron cada vez más en la protección de las nuevas variedades de seres vivos obtenidas por manejo genético. El método difundido para asegurar esa protección a la propiedad de las mismas, guarda gran paralelismo con el sistema de patentes, lo cual evidencia el interés por proteger los productos de la mente humana, como una forma de asegurar ganancias económicas al inventor, sin importar la naturaleza de la innovación, ni sus efectos. Como resultado de dichos intereses, se provoca un acercamiento entre dos actividades humanas tan distantes en épocas anteriores: el comercio y la manipulación genética de los seres vivos. Esta defensa de la propiedad intelectual es comandada por algunos países desarrollados, que desde décadas atrás invirtieron fuertes sumas de dinero en investigación biotecnológica y ahora se interesan en recuperarlas con réditos. Mientras los pueblos indígenas y campesinos de países pobres donaron gratuitamente los conocimientos milenarios conservados y transmitidos a lo largo de muchas generaciones, así como la biodiversidad genética de sus ambientes natales, los inversionistas de países ricos cobran jugosas cantidades por el material biológico que devuelven, con alto valor agregado, en forma de semillas patentadas. Consecuentemente se da una clara ausencia de equidad y un aumento progresivo de la subordinación a los países más avanzados, tanto en el campo económico como en el científico-tecnológico.

  10. De genotipos e isonimias: análisis de correlación entre el apellido y el patrimonio genético heredado en el cromosoma Y en la población de tres departamentos del suroccidente colombiano

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    Alberto Gómez

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Es bien sabido que, entre los caracteres transmitidos por la línea paterna, el apellido se ha configurado en diferentes culturas como un carácter semejante a un alelo genético neutral asociado al cromosoma Y. Objetivo. En este estudio se determinaron las frecuencias en la población de 17 STR del cromosoma Y en 308 individuos provenientes de las poblaciones de los departamentos del Valle del Cauca, Cauca y Nariño. Además, se propuso definir la correlación de los haplotipos obtenidos en cada individuo con su apellido paterno, para comparar estos dos códigos de identidad. Materiales y métodos. Se extrajo el ADN de cada individuo a partir de sangre periférica y se utilizó el estuche comercial AmpFLSTR® Yfiler™ (Applied Biosystems para tipificarlo. Los resultados de los haplotipos moleculares se compararon con los apellidos reportados por cada individuo y se asociaron apellidos amerindios y europeos con haplotipos que incluyeran o no el marcador DYS19/13, característico de la población amerindia. Resultados. Se reportan las frecuencias alélicas de cada uno de los 17 marcadores del cromosoma Y analizados en esta región de Colombia, así como la diversidad génica y haplotípica hallada en los tres departamentos. Al comparar los resultados obtenidos a nivel molecular con los apellidos de origen europeo o amerindio reportados por cada uno de los individuos, se encontró cerca de 40% de inconsistencia de linaje. Conclusiones. La utilización del apellido como marcador de población debe hacerse con cautela, por cuanto las genealogías fundamentadas en éstos pueden no corresponder al origen biológico de sus portadores.

  11. Broadcast yourself: ¿oxímoron o confusión entre medios? Broadcast Yourself: Oxymoron or Media Mistake?

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    José Luis Fernández

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analiza el hecho de que Internet ofrezca la posibilidad de seleccionar los contenidos que construirían radios individualizadas. Cada usuario de la Red podría ahora seleccionar contenidos radiofónicos reemplazando a las emisoras de radio tradicionales que siempre han transmitido en modelo «broadcasting». Se exponen resultados previos de nuestras investigaciones que permiten comparar la radio todavía existente con algunas de las ofertas presentes en la Red. La comparación permite en las conclusiones establecer la presencia de dos procedimientos de escucha de radio en la Red: el habitual, que permite la coexistencia entre escucha y práctica social paralela (trabajo, conducción de automóviles, etc. y el propio de Internet, frente en la web de la emisora, que obliga a la atención visual además de la sonora. Resulta inevitable considerar a este último como una pérdida, frente la independencia visual que la radio siempre ha permitido. This article analyses the possibility offered by the Internet to select radio content to build customized radios. Each internet user could select radio content, replacing the traditional radio stations that have always broadcasted. Previous results from our investigations are presented to allow us to compare the still-existing traditional radio to some of the offers on the Internet. Such a comparison will allow us to determine two different ways of listening to the radio on the Internet: the usual one, which allows the coexistence of listening and any parallel social practice (work, driving, etc., and another one, appropriate to the internet, that adds visual attention to hearing. It is unavoidable to consider this as a loss compared to the visual independence that radio has always allowed.

  12. Distribución de Lutzomyia longipalpis en el Chaco Argentino, 2010

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    Oscar D. Salomón

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El riesgo de leishmaniasis visceral (LV urbana epidémica se registró por primera vez en la Argentina en el año 2004, por presencia del vector Lutzomyia longipalpis en la provincia de Formosa, la provincia de Misiones registra casos de LV humana, LV canina y vector en el año 2006, y la provincia de Corrientes en el verano 2008-2009. En la provincia de Santiago del Estero los casos de LV humana y LV canina en el año 2008 estuvieron asociados posiblemente a vectores secundarios. Por ello, para conocer la distribución del riesgo en la región del Chaco, entre enero y abril del 2010 se realizó la búsqueda sistemática del vector de LV en 30 localidades de las provincias de Formosa, Chaco y en la ciudad de Reconquista, Santa Fe (224 trampas/noche. Se comprobó la presencia de Lu. longipalpis, por primera vez, en las localidades de Resistencia y Puerto Antequera (Chaco. En Clorinda y Puerto Pilcomayo (Formosa se obtuvieron las trampas con más ejemplares, 158 y 241 Lu. longipalpis trampa/sitio/noche respectivamente. Los resultados muestran que el vector de la LV urbana epidémica continúa dispersándose en el territorio argentino, habiendo ingresado a la provincia de Chaco. La notificación de casos esporádicos en la región chaqueña, transmitidos por vectores secundarios, como Lu. migonei, podría aumentar también debido a la vigilancia intensificada, y a la dispersión del parásito asociada al tránsito de perros infectados, sintomáticos o asintomáticos.

  13. Beberagens Tupinambá e processos educativos no Brasil Colonial Tupinambá beverages and educational process in Colonial Brasil

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    Maria Betânia Barbosa Albuquerque

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo a descrição das diversas ocasiões sociais em que estava presente o consumo de bebidas fermentadas entre os índios Tupinambá, considerados por cronistas e viajantes como grandes amantes das beberagens. Resultado de uma pesquisa documental e bibliográfica, são priorizadas como fontes crônicas de viagens; cartas e informações de missionários que presenciaram as beberagens, sobretudo, nos séculos XVI e XVII; estudos antropológicos e históricos interessados nas práticas do beber indígenas; além de estudos arqueológicos que registram a cultura material dos Tupinambá. Teoricamente, o trabalho baseiase em pressupostos da História Cultural, em particular da História da Alimentação, na qual se podem inserir os rituais de beberagens. Argumentase que, por meio das práticas de beber, ensinamentos eram transmitidos e apreendidos, configurandoas como situação de comunicação e aprendizagem.This article describes various social gathering where fermented beverages were consumed by Tupinambá Indians, considered by chroniclers and travelers as beverages lovers. A result of document and bibliographic research, it prioritizes sources as travel chronicles; letters and information from missionaries who witnessed beverage feasts, especially during sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; anthropologic and historic studies interested in indigenous practices of drinking as well as archaeologic studies registering Tupinambá's material culture. Its theoretical framework is based on assumptions of Cultural History, particularly on History of Food where beverages rituals can be placed. I argue that the practice of drinking can be configured as communication and learning situation because they were a way to teach and learn.

  14. Actividades extraescolares de los adolescentes útiles para programas de prevención del tabaquismo

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    López González Mª Luisa

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: La prevalencia del tabaquismo en los adolescentes sigue indeseablemente elevada. Se precisan programas preventivos novedosos. Este estudio descriptivo transversal establece las variables conductuales asociadas al tabaquismo y las actividades más frecuentes de los adolescentes fuera de la escuela, útiles para plantear programas de prevención extraescolares. MÉTODO: Los datos se recogieron con un cuestionario validado en una muestra representativa de escolares asturianos de 10-11 y 13-14 años. Mediante regresión logística se estudiaron las variables asociadas al consumo de tabaco. RESULTADOS: El porcentaje de inicio del consumo oscila entre el 14,5% y el 42,5%, y el de fumadores regulares entre el 1,1% y el 12,4%, respectivamente. Se construyeron 2 modelos con las variables asociadas significativamente a la conducta de fumar, los cuales clasifican correctamente en fumador/no fumador al 98,85% y 91,39% de los niños, según la edad. Las variables ambientales (accesibilidad al tabaco y al alcohol y frecuentación de lugares de riesgo son las primeras integrantes del modelo. Las actividades extraescolares más frecuentes son: ver TV, leer y escuchar música y ver o practicar deporte. CONCLUSIÓN: Los resultados proporcionan claves para el diseño de programas extraescolares "a medida" de las actividades de los adolescentes: publicidad en TV y en soportes musicales (discos, cintas, etc., e información escrita personalizada en el hogar, con mensajes transmitidos por líderes juveniles del deporte, la canción y la televisión.

  15. Televisión, clima familiar y percepción de valores en adolescentes con TDA-H y adolescentes estándar

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    C Medrano Samaniego

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La cultura multimedia en la que vivimos ofrece pocas oportunidades para entrenar la atención y puede dificultar la construcción del sentido de los mensajes transmitidos, por lo que, en esta investigación el objetivo general fue determinar las semejanzas y diferencias entre adolescentes con TDAH y estándar en el perfil de consumo televisivo en relación con el clima familiar y los valores percibidos. La muestra total es de 209 adolescentes con TDAH y estándar con edades comprendidas entre los 14 y 18 años. Se utilizaron los cuestionarios CH-TV 0.2 y VAL.TV.02. Los resultados indican que, en general, los adolescentes se concentran en dos perfiles televisivos mayoritarios diferenciados por el grado de elección de géneros televisivos y la relevancia otorgada al atractivo físico del personaje relacionado con los valores de apertura al cambio y autopromoción, junto a la cohesión y expresividad familiar. Sin embargo, existen diferencias destacables entre el grupo con TDAH y estándar respecto a dichos perfiles. Estos datos tienen su interés por contribuir al estudio de las diferencias individuales en relación con el consumo mediático, y por sentar las bases para la elaboración de programas de competencia mediática que se ajusten a las características de los colectivos a los que van dirigidos.

  16. Dengue en el Perú: a un cuarto de siglo de su reemergencia

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    César Cabezas

    Full Text Available Un problema sanitario cada vez más frecuente y disperso en áreas tropicales y subtropicales del mundo, incluido el Perú donde ingresó en 1990, es el dengue. Es producido por el virus del dengue con cuatro serotipos y transmitido por el Aedes aegypti, vector que convive con los humanos y cuya presencia es favorecida por deficientes condiciones sanitarias, sociales y económicas. Manifestaciones de formas severas de la enfermedad como el choque y sangrado, están relacionadas con la frecuente cocirculación de los cuatro serotipos y la aparición de nuevos genotipos como el americano/asiático del serotipo 2. La nueva clasificación de la enfermedad por la OMS como dengue con o sin signos de alarma y dengue grave, está contribuyendo a un diagnóstico y tratamiento más oportunos, permitiendo reducir la letalidad. Debe destacarse la necesidad de la vigilancia del síndrome febril y los índices aédicos que contribuyan a un diagnóstico oportuno y orienten las medidas de control vectorial mediante educación sanitaria y manejo ambiental con participación comunitaria e intersectorial, de manera creativa según los nichos ecológicos. Una alternativa de prevención complementaria sería la vacunación utilizando vacunas tetravalentes cuya seguridad y eficacia deben estar garantizadas antes de su uso poblacional en el marco de estrategias integrales.

  17. Parasitosis intestinales en relación con la cultura higiénica de poblaciones rurales de Catamarca.

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    Monferrán, M. C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios realizados sobre prevalencia de parasitosis intestinales humanas en comunidades urbanas y rurales en la provincia de Catamarca, revela altos índices. Las causas son múltiples, entre las que se encuentran factores ecológicos y sociales. Las condiciones climáticas imperantes en una zona geográfica resultaran favorables o no a la presentación de algunas parasitosis como por ejemplo las geohelmintiasis.Se atribuye igual importancia a la educación, vivienda, alimentación, recursos económicos, falta de higiene, contaminación ambiental, etc.. Se realizan estudios de prevalencia de parasitosis intestinales en pobladores de dos regiones climáticamente diferentes de nuestra provincia como son los Dptos. La Paz y Paclín detectándose en algunas comunidades índices altos de hasta el 81 %.También se ha notado la influencia climática regional sobre la distribución de las parasitosis intestinales .En La Paz, existe un predominio de las protozoosis y en Paclín las geohelmintiasis son frecuentes y diversas. Las parasitosis detectadas estarían relacionadas en un alto grado a la denominada cultura higiénica, pues las prácticas de la higiene individual y familiar, la deposición de sus excretas, la convivencia con animales domésticos, el manejo de sus rebaños, son costumbres regionales que se han transmitido por generaciones e influyen notablemente en la difusión y la conservación de estos altos índices de parasitosis intestinales en detrimento de la salud de los habitantes.

  18. Aids e controle de infecção cruzada na prática odontológica: percepção e atitudes dos pacientes

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    DISCACCIATI José Augusto César

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a percepção dos pacientes quanto ao risco de se contrair o vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV durante o atendimento odontológico e suas atitudes em relação a continuar ou não o seu tratamento caso venham a saber que seu cirurgião-dentista (CD atende pacientes com AIDS ou que seja HIV soropositivo, foram realizadas 518 entrevistas entre militares da Polícia Militar de Minas Gerais e seus dependentes, que haviam terminado tratamento com 233 CD diferentes. Observou-se que a grande maioria dos participantes (88,4% acredita que o HIV possa ser transmitido durante o tratamento odontológico e que muitos entrevistados não continuariam o tratamento se seu CD atendesse pacientes com AIDS (42,9% ou fosse HIV soropositivo (45%. Aqueles entrevistados que haviam sido atendidos por profissionais que utilizavam os artigos do equipamento para proteção individual (EPI de forma adequada se mostraram mais dispostos a continuar o tratamento caso viessem a saber que seu CD atende pacientes com AIDS. No entanto, o uso adequado do EPI não é um fator encorajador para que os pacientes continuem tratando-se com seu CD caso venham a saber que ele é HIV soropositivo. Estes achados sugerem que maiores informações devem ser repassadas para o público leigo, informando-o sobre os verdadeiros riscos de se infectar pelo HIV e suas formas de prevenção na Odontologia.

  19. Estudo ao microscópio electrônico de tecidos de plantas infetadas pelo vírus do mosaico comum e mosaico amarelo do feijoeiro Electron microscopy of common and yellow bean mosaic viruses in infected tissues

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    I. J. B. de Camargo

    1968-01-01

    Full Text Available Exames ao microscópio electrônico de tecidos foliares e radiculares de plantas infetadas pelo vírus do mosaico comum ou do mosaico amarelo do feijoeiro, mostraram a presença de dois tipos de inclusões no cito-plasma: filamentosas, consideradas como partículas de vírus, e lamelares, típicas dos vírus do grupo Y. Essas inclusões não foram encontradas no pólen ou no óvulo de feijoeiros infetados. Como o vírus do mosaico comum do feijoeiro é transmitido pelo pólen, sugere-se que êle ocorre nestas células em concentração muito baixa, ou mesmo na forma de ácido nucléico.Two types of cytoplasmic inclusions were observed in leaf and root tissues of host plants infected with the common and yellow bean mosaic viruses: (1 filamentous inclusions considered as an aggregate of virus particles and (2 lamellar inclusions which appeared with varied configurations that represent sections at different angles of the same cylindrical structure. No type of inclusion or virus particle was seen in pollen and ovule from bean plants infected with each of the two viruses. Since, however, the common bean mosaic virus is transmitted through the pollen it is suggested that it occurs in very low concentration in this structure or else as viral nucleic acid.

  20. The politics of the self: psychological science and bourgeois subjectivity in 19th century Spain

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    Novella, Enric J.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers an analysis of the process of institutionalization of psychological knowledge in Spain following the educative reforms implemented during the second third of the 19th century, which prescribed its inclusion in the curricular program of the new secondary education. After a detailed examination of the theoretical orientation, the ideological assumptions and the sociopolitical connections of the contents transmitted to the students throughout the century, its militant spiritualism is interpreted as a highly significant attempt on the part of the liberal elites to articulate a pedagogy of subjectivity intended to counteract the trends toward reduction, naturalization and fragmentation of psychic life inherent to the development of modern science.

    En este artículo se ofrece un análisis del proceso de institucionalización del conocimiento psicológico en España por obra de las reformas educativas implementadas durante el segundo tercio del siglo XIX, que prescribieron su inclusión en el programa curricular de la nueva educación secundaria. Tras un examen detenido de la orientación doctrinal, los supuestos ideológicos y la filiación sociopolítica de los contenidos transmitidos a los alumnos durante la mayor parte de la centuria, se interpreta su espiritualismo militante como un intento muy significativo por parte de las élites liberales de articular una pedagogía de la subjetividad destinada a contrarrestar las tendencias de reducción, naturalización y fragmentación del psiquismo alentadas por el desarrollo de la ciencia moderna.

  1. Transmissible venereal tumor in the palpebral conjunctiva of a dog: case reportTumor venéreo transmissível na conjuntiva palpebral de um cão – relato de caso

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    Luciane de Albuquerque

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The transmissible venereal tumor (TVT is a contagious neoplasm that occurs in sexually mature dogs, usually transmitted by coitus. This tumor normally affects the genital mucosa and is rarely found in any other part of the body. A case of transmissible venereal tumor in the palpebral conjunctiva of a 3-year old, crossbreed, male dog with a history of an abnormal mass in the right eye was presented. Ophthalmic examination revealed a mass originated from the lower eyelid conjunctiva of the right eye. No other ocular abnormalities were detected. Cytological examination was carried out and the diagnosis was TVT. The dog was treated with lyophilized vincristine sulphate intravenously, once a week, for four weeks. Despite the atypical clinical presentation, the response to chemotherapy with vincristine was excellent leading to complete regression of the neoplasm and no relapse after a year.O tumor venéreo transmissível (TVT é uma neoplasia contagiosa que ocorre em cães sexualmente maduros, sendo geralmente transmitido pelo coito. A neoplasia normalmente afeta a mucosa genital e é raramente encontrada em outras partes do corpo. Apresentamos um caso de tumor venéreo transmissível na conjuntiva palpebral de um cão macho, sem raça definida, com três anos de idade e histórico de presença de uma massa na conjuntiva palpebral inferior do olho direito. Não foram detectadas outras alterações oculares. O diagnóstico citológico da massa foi TVT. O cão foi tratado com sulfato de vincristina por via intravenosa, uma vez por semana, durante quatro semanas. Embora a apresentação do caso seja atípica, a resposta à quimioterapia foi excelente, levando a regressão completa da neoplasia, sem recorrência após um ano.

  2. Modelo de asignación predictivo de longitudes de ondas en redes WDM teniendo en cuenta dispersión residual y tráficos unicast/multicast con QoS

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    Javier Sierra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El tráfico de Internet está en constante crecimiento y con él las aplicaciones del tipo unicast/multicast con diferentes requerimientos de Calidad de Servicio (QoS. Esto es motivo para que las Redes de Transporte Ópticas (OTN deban continuar su evolución hacia redes completamente ópticas (sin conversiones Óptico-Electrónico-Óptico: OEO. S/G Light-tree es una arquitectura de los nodos de las redes all-OTN que permite el optimo enrutamiento y/o manejo de tráficos unicast/multicast empleando el concepto de Traffic Grooming (TG, granularidad de tráfico en un ambiente óptico. Las técnicas de grooming así como los algoritmos de asignación y enrutamiento propuestos hasta el momento no tienen en cuenta los fenómenos que se pueden prestar en la fibra óptica, los cuales atenúan o alteran las diferentes longitudes de onda en las redes WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing. La dispersión cromática es un fenómeno que deforma los pulsos transmitidos en una fibra óptica y el efecto depende de la longitud de onda empleada en la transmisión. En este artículo, se propone un modelo predictivo de asignación de longitudes de ondas basado en cadenas de Markov que tiene en cuenta la dispersión residual en redes WDM que soportan traffic grooming y tráficos unicast/multicast con requerimientos de QoS. Los resultados de las simulaciones realizadas muestran que el modelo propuesto mejora la probabilidad de bloqueo de tráficos con requerimientos de QoS.

  3. Necesidad de normalización en ilustración científica

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    Óscar Hernández-Muñoz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar las nociones o conceptos transmitidos habitualmente mediante símbolos en las ciencias de la vida, así como determinar cuáles son las combinaciones de signos más utilizadas actualmente para expresar dichos conceptos y establecer cuáles de ellas se podrían considerar consolidadas por el uso repetido. Con dicho fin, se analizó una muestra de 3894 figuras extraídas de aquellos tratados científicos de carácter generalista que habían sido objeto de préstamo más frecuente en las bibliotecas de las facultades de Medicina, Biología y Veterinaria. Para cada una de las ilustraciones contenidas en ellos se identificaron los diferentes conceptos que habían sido representados mediante símbolos y se organizaron en una tabla. Posteriormente se analizaron para cada uno de estos conceptos los símbolos y recursos gráficos empleados para su representación, determinando las combinaciones más prevalentes. Entre las conclusiones de este estudio cabe destacar la falta de homogeneidad en los símbolos utilizados para expresar un determinado concepto, existiendo notables diferencias entre ellos incluso dentro de un mismo tratado, lo que podría disminuir su efectividad. Por otra parte, también se detectó un uso abusivo de algunos símbolos para representar conceptos muy distintos entre sí, lo que puede conducir a una mayor ambigüedad en su interpretación. Por estas razones se hace aconsejable establecer unas normas en la utilización de símbolos en el dibujo científico.

  4. El papel de la mujer en las ilustraciones de los libros de texto de Educación Primaria

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    María Teresa Terrón Caro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo es resultado de una investigación realizada en el marco del Grupo de Investigación de Educación Comparada de Sevilla, con el objetivo de estudiar el papel otorgado a la mujer a través de las ilustraciones, en los textos esco- lares correspondientes a las áreas de conocimiento del medio natural, social y cultural; lengua castellana y literatura, así como matemáticas del ciclo de educación primaria. Con el análisis del rol de la mujer y el hombre en los manuales, podemos cono- cer no sólo las ideas, los valores o las actitudes latentes en una sociedad, sino además la forma en la que los conocimientos son transmitidos en las aulas tanto a niños como a niñas. Los textos escolares se muestran así como mecanismos invisibles a través de los cuales aparecen y se refuerzan desigualdades. Conscientes de esta realidad, en estos momentos las ilustraciones recogidas en los textos escolares deben ser lo suficiente- mente representativas de los cambios sociales que se producen en los distintos con- textos y capaces de plasmar modelos reales y no estereotipados. Esta reflexión debe ser un reflejo en la práctica educativa de cada uno de los niveles educativos y de cada uno de los cursos; y así lo hemos querido comprobar analizando algunas de las herramien- tas educativas utilizadas en el nivel de primaria. Palabras clave: Educación, Género, Escuela, Desigualdad, Libros de texto. 

  5. El Auto de los Reyes Magos en Támara (Palencia

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    Rey García, Emilio

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The Mystery play of the «Three Kings» that was performed in the village of Támara (Palencia corresponds to a type of text that we could properly cali «leonés» because it is there in some of the villages of the oíd diocese of León where we can still find this tradition, although in this case it is a little farther from the supposed issuing focus. Due to its textual characteristics it is believed that it might have been written by a learned writer at the end of the 17th century or beginning of the 18th, though it was thoroughly assimilated and performed by the people. In the singing parts melodies, that are briefly commented, there is a style that goes from the archaic and modal to the most tonal, recent and popularizing.El Auto popular de los Reyes Magos que se representaba en el pueblo palentino de Támara responde a un modelo que bien podríamos denominar «leonés», por ser en pueblos de la antigua diócesis de León donde todavía pervive la tradición, aunque en este caso se encuentre algo más alejado del supuesto foco emisor. Por las características del texto, creemos que pudo ser compuesto por pluma culta a finales del siglo XVII o comienzos del XVIII, si bien el auto fue perfectamente asimilado por el pueblo y transmitido también por los cauces de la oralidad. En las melodías de las partes cantadas, que son brevemente comentadas, aparece desde lo arcaico y modal hasta lo más tonal, reciente y de estilo popularizante.

  6. Influência familiar na anorexia nervosa: em busca das melhores evidências científicas

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    Élide Dezoti Valdanha

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar as evidências científicas sobre a influência do grupo familiar na sintomatologia da anorexia nervosa (AN. MÉTODOS: Revisão sistemática da literatura no período de 2000 a 2012, utilizando as bases PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Lilacs e os descritores: "transtornos da alimentação", "relações familiares", "relação entre gerações" e "relação mãe-filho". RESULTADOS: Com base nos critérios de inclusão e exclusão, foram selecionadas e analisadas 20 publicações na íntegra. A maior parte dessas publicações focaliza mulheres diagnosticadas com transtornos alimentares (TA ou com comportamento alimentar de risco, tem delineamento quantitativo e utiliza escalas padronizadas para coleta de dados. Predominou o Nível de Evidência 4, que corresponde a estudos de desenho não experimental, como pesquisa descritiva correlacional e qualitativa, ou estudos de caso. As evidências encontradas indicam que os relacionamentos familiares exercem impacto significativo tanto no desenvolvimento como na manutenção de sintomas de TA. Padrões relacionados à alimentação e ao alimento são transmitidos entre as gerações, bem como aspectos não elaborados do funcionamento psíquico materno. CONCLUSÕES: Os estudos sugerem a necessidade de ampliar o foco da atenção para incluir os familiares no tratamento, bem como incorporar os achados de transmissão psíquica intergeracional como subsídios norteadores do planejamento e qualificação do cuidado oferecido nos TA.

  7. ‘Everybody knows’, but the rest of the world: the case of a caterpillar-borne reproductive loss syndrome in dromedary camels observed by Sahrawi pastoralists of Western Sahara

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    Volpato Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    mundo: el caso de un síndrome de pérdida reproductiva en dromedarios transmitido por orugas y observado por pastores nómadas saharauis del Sáhara Occidental. Antecedentes Los conocimientos tradicionales de las comunidades locales de todo el mundo son una valiosa fuente de nuevas ideas e información para la ciencia. En este estudio, se utilizaron los conocimientos de etnoveterinaria de pastores saharauis del Sáhara Occidental con el fin de proponer una hipótesis científica sobre las interacciones competitivas entre los camellos y las orugas en el ecosistema del Sáhara. Métodos Entre los años 2005 y 2009, se realizaron 44 entrevistas semi-estructuradas a los pastores saharauis en los territorios administrados por la República Árabe Saharaui Democrática, Sáhara Occidental, mediante un diseño de muestreo por bola de nieve. Resultados Los pastores nómadas saharauis describieron un síndrome reproductivo transmitido por orugas, llamado duda, entre sus camellas. Sobre la base de los conocimientos saharauis sobre el duda y una revisión literaria exhaustiva, se propuso la siguiente hipótesis: 1 brotes esporádico de orugas de la familia Lasiocampidae (géneros Lasiocampa, Psilogaster o Streblote en árboles de Acacia se pueden presentar después de fuertes lluvias en el ecosistema del Sáhara Occidental; 2 durante estos brotes, los camellos ingieren las orugas durante el pastoreo; 3 como consecuencia de esta ingestión, se producen abortos repentinos o partos de crías debilitadas. Apoyamos esta hipótesis mediante razonamiento inductivo basado en evidencia circunstancial y razonamiento analógico con síndromes similares en yeguas de los Estados Unidos y Australia. Conclusiones Este es el primer reporte de la posible existencia de un síndrome de pérdida reproductiva en camellos, transmitido por orugas. Se insinúa que estos síndromes son más comunes que lo que actualmente se conoce. Se sugieren investigaciones adicionales para poner a prueba nuestra hip

  8. ‘Everybody knows’, but the rest of the world: the case of a caterpillar-borne reproductive loss syndrome in dromedary camels observed by Sahrawi pastoralists of Western Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    índrome de pérdida reproductiva en dromedarios transmitido por orugas y observado por pastores nómadas saharauis del Sáhara Occidental. Antecedentes Los conocimientos tradicionales de las comunidades locales de todo el mundo son una valiosa fuente de nuevas ideas e información para la ciencia. En este estudio, se utilizaron los conocimientos de etnoveterinaria de pastores saharauis del Sáhara Occidental con el fin de proponer una hipótesis científica sobre las interacciones competitivas entre los camellos y las orugas en el ecosistema del Sáhara. Métodos Entre los años 2005 y 2009, se realizaron 44 entrevistas semi-estructuradas a los pastores saharauis en los territorios administrados por la República Árabe Saharaui Democrática, Sáhara Occidental, mediante un diseño de muestreo por bola de nieve. Resultados Los pastores nómadas saharauis describieron un síndrome reproductivo transmitido por orugas, llamado duda, entre sus camellas. Sobre la base de los conocimientos saharauis sobre el duda y una revisión literaria exhaustiva, se propuso la siguiente hipótesis: 1) brotes esporádico de orugas de la familia Lasiocampidae (géneros Lasiocampa, Psilogaster o Streblote) en árboles de Acacia se pueden presentar después de fuertes lluvias en el ecosistema del Sáhara Occidental; 2) durante estos brotes, los camellos ingieren las orugas durante el pastoreo; 3) como consecuencia de esta ingestión, se producen abortos repentinos o partos de crías debilitadas. Apoyamos esta hipótesis mediante razonamiento inductivo basado en evidencia circunstancial y razonamiento analógico con síndromes similares en yeguas de los Estados Unidos y Australia. Conclusiones Este es el primer reporte de la posible existencia de un síndrome de pérdida reproductiva en camellos, transmitido por orugas. Se insinúa que estos síndromes son más comunes que lo que actualmente se conoce. Se sugieren investigaciones adicionales para poner a prueba nuestra hipótesis. Finalmente, se

  9. Gene S characterization of Hantavirus species Seoul virus isolated from Rattus norvegicuson an Indonesian island

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    Dian Perwitasari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Hantavirus hidup dan berkembang biak di tubuh hewan pengerat, salah satunya Rattus norvegicus yang banyak ditemukan di daerah kepulauan di Indonesia. Hantavirus spesies Seoul virus (SEOV adalah virus RNA negatif rantai tunggal yang termasuk dalam keluarga Bunyaviridae, mempunyai beberapa gen spesifik terutama gen S yang dapat dikembangkan untuk uji diagnostik. Tujuan penelitian ini ialah untuk mengetahui karakter dari gen S dari Hantavirus spesies Seoulvirus.Metode:Pada penelitian ini dilakukan sekuensing gen S yang berasal dari jaringan paru-paru rodensia.  Fragmen DNA yang disekuensing menggunakan primer DNA SEOS-28F danSEOS -360R,VNS-1501F dan VNS-CSR. Hasil sekuensing dianalisis menggunakan program seqscapedan dianalisis menggunakan program Bioedit dan Mega5. Analisis filogenetik untuk homologi nukleotida dan asam amino dari ketiga strain Kepulauan Seribu tersebut dibandingkan dengan spesies hantavirus lainnya yang diambil dari genebank. Hasil:Analisis Homologi nukleotida dan asam amino antara strain Kepulauan Seribu dengan SEOV menunjukkan homologi nukleotida tertinggi pada strain KS74 (88,4% dan terendah pada KS90 (87,2%, sedangkan homologi asam amino tertinggi adalah strain KS74 (91.3% dan terendah pada strain KS90 (89,5%. Kesimpulan:Karakter gen S virus yang ditemukan di Kepulauan Seribu sebanding dengan virus SEOV yang ditemukan di Singapura dan Korea.  (Health Science Indones 2014;1:1-6Kata kunci:Seoul virus, gen S, Kepulauan Seribu, IndonesiaAbstractBackground: Hantavirus lives and reproduces in the body of rodents. Rattus norvegicuswas one found in the Kepulauan Seribu islands of Indonesia. Hantavirus species Seoul virus (SEOV is a negative single chain RNA viruses included in the family Bunyaviridae. It has a few specific genes, especially genes S that can be developed for a diagnostic test. The aim of this study was to ascertain the character of gene S of hantavirus species Seoul virus. Methods: Gene

  10. Epidemia de febre do Oropouche em Serra Pelada, município de Curionópolis, Pará, 1994

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    Amélia P.A.T. Rosa

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available No final de novembro de 1994, o Instituto Evandro Chagas (IEC, Belém, Pará, foi notificado de um surto de doença febril na população do garimpo de Serra Pelada, município de Curionôpolis (5°35'S; 49°30'W, no Estado do Pará. Vinte amostras de soro de pessoas, com hemoscopia negativa para tnalária, foram recebidas para esclarecimento diagnóstico. Estudos laboratoriais comprovaram que os casos eram devido ao vírus Oropouche (grupo Simbu. gênero Bunyavirus, família Bunyaviridae. Esses achados, induziram d ida de um grupo de técnicos para realização de investigações ecoepidemíológicas entre 8 e 22 de dezembro. Foram coletadas 296 amostras de sangue, de 73 grupos familiares, sendo 54 para pequisa de vírus (casos febris e 242para sorologia, bem como, procedeu-se a coleta de artrópodes hematófagos. As amostras para pesquisa de vírus foram inoculadas em camundongos recém-nascidos e os soros testados por inibição da hemaglutinação (1H e MAC ELISA. Foram isoladas dez amostras do vírus Oropouche e obtidas seis soroconversões. Ademais, 245 (82,8% amostras foram positivas por sorologia e 71 (97,3% grupos familiares apresentaram pelo menos um membro positivo. Considerando a elevada positividade de anticoipos IH e IgM específica para Oropouche na população de Serra Pelada, concluímos que a epidemia foi extensa e apresentou taxa de ataque em torno de 83%, que correspondeu a infecção de cerca de 5.000 pessoas.In the final of November 1994, an outbreak of a febrile disease was observed in the Serra Pelada gold mine (5°35'S; 49°30'W in the Southeast region of Parã State. Twenty samples were collected and sent to the laboratory of Arbovirus of Instituto Evandro Chagas. The tests showed that the disease was caused by Oropouche virus (Bunyaviridae, Bunyavirus, Simbu serological group. Between 8-22 December 296 serum samples mere taken (54 from febrile patients, 16 paired samples and 242 from contacts and convalescent patients

  11. Unbiased RNA Shotgun Metagenomics in Social and Solitary Wild Bees Detects Associations with Eukaryote Parasites and New Viruses.

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    Karel Schoonvaere

    Full Text Available The diversity of eukaryote organisms and viruses associated with wild bees remains poorly characterized in contrast to the well-documented pathosphere of the western honey bee, Apis mellifera. Using a deliberate RNA shotgun metagenomic sequencing strategy in combination with a dedicated bioinformatics workflow, we identified the (micro-organisms and viruses associated with two bumble bee hosts, Bombus terrestris and Bombus pascuorum, and two solitary bee hosts, Osmia cornuta and Andrena vaga. Ion Torrent semiconductor sequencing generated approximately 3.8 million high quality reads. The most significant eukaryote associations were two protozoan, Apicystis bombi and Crithidia bombi, and one nematode parasite Sphaerularia bombi in bumble bees. The trypanosome protozoan C. bombi was also found in the solitary bee O. cornuta. Next to the identification of three honey bee viruses Black queen cell virus, Sacbrood virus and Varroa destructor virus-1 and four plant viruses, we describe two novel RNA viruses Scaldis River bee virus (SRBV and Ganda bee virus (GABV based on their partial genomic sequences. The novel viruses belong to the class of negative-sense RNA viruses, SRBV is related to the order Mononegavirales whereas GABV is related to the family Bunyaviridae. The potential biological role of both viruses in bees is discussed in the context of recent advances in the field of arthropod viruses. Further, fragmentary sequence evidence for other undescribed viruses is presented, among which a nudivirus in O. cornuta and an unclassified virus related to Chronic bee paralysis virus in B. terrestris. Our findings extend the current knowledge of wild bee parasites in general and addsto the growing evidence of unexplored arthropod viruses in valuable insects.

  12. Unbiased RNA Shotgun Metagenomics in Social and Solitary Wild Bees Detects Associations with Eukaryote Parasites and New Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonvaere, Karel; De Smet, Lina; Smagghe, Guy; Vierstraete, Andy; Braeckman, Bart P; de Graaf, Dirk C

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of eukaryote organisms and viruses associated with wild bees remains poorly characterized in contrast to the well-documented pathosphere of the western honey bee, Apis mellifera. Using a deliberate RNA shotgun metagenomic sequencing strategy in combination with a dedicated bioinformatics workflow, we identified the (micro-)organisms and viruses associated with two bumble bee hosts, Bombus terrestris and Bombus pascuorum, and two solitary bee hosts, Osmia cornuta and Andrena vaga. Ion Torrent semiconductor sequencing generated approximately 3.8 million high quality reads. The most significant eukaryote associations were two protozoan, Apicystis bombi and Crithidia bombi, and one nematode parasite Sphaerularia bombi in bumble bees. The trypanosome protozoan C. bombi was also found in the solitary bee O. cornuta. Next to the identification of three honey bee viruses Black queen cell virus, Sacbrood virus and Varroa destructor virus-1 and four plant viruses, we describe two novel RNA viruses Scaldis River bee virus (SRBV) and Ganda bee virus (GABV) based on their partial genomic sequences. The novel viruses belong to the class of negative-sense RNA viruses, SRBV is related to the order Mononegavirales whereas GABV is related to the family Bunyaviridae. The potential biological role of both viruses in bees is discussed in the context of recent advances in the field of arthropod viruses. Further, fragmentary sequence evidence for other undescribed viruses is presented, among which a nudivirus in O. cornuta and an unclassified virus related to Chronic bee paralysis virus in B. terrestris. Our findings extend the current knowledge of wild bee parasites in general and addsto the growing evidence of unexplored arthropod viruses in valuable insects.

  13. Discovery of potent broad spectrum antivirals derived from marine actinobacteria.

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    Avi Raveh

    Full Text Available Natural products provide a vast array of chemical structures to explore in the discovery of new medicines. Although secondary metabolites produced by microbes have been developed to treat a variety of diseases, including bacterial and fungal infections, to date there has been limited investigation of natural products with antiviral activity. In this report, we used a phenotypic cell-based replicon assay coupled with an iterative biochemical fractionation process to identify, purify, and characterize antiviral compounds produced by marine microbes. We isolated a compound from Streptomyces kaviengensis, a novel actinomycetes isolated from marine sediments obtained off the coast of New Ireland, Papua New Guinea, which we identified as antimycin A1a. This compound displays potent activity against western equine encephalitis virus in cultured cells with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of less than 4 nM and a selectivity index of greater than 550. Our efforts also revealed that several antimycin A analogues display antiviral activity, and mechanism of action studies confirmed that these Streptomyces-derived secondary metabolites function by inhibiting the cellular mitochondrial electron transport chain, thereby suppressing de novo pyrimidine synthesis. Furthermore, we found that antimycin A functions as a broad spectrum agent with activity against a wide range of RNA viruses in cultured cells, including members of the Togaviridae, Flaviviridae, Bunyaviridae, Picornaviridae, and Paramyxoviridae families. Finally, we demonstrate that antimycin A reduces central nervous system viral titers, improves clinical disease severity, and enhances survival in mice given a lethal challenge with western equine encephalitis virus. Our results provide conclusive validation for using natural product resources derived from marine microbes as source material for antiviral drug discovery, and they indicate that host mitochondrial electron transport is a viable

  14. Discovery of potent broad spectrum antivirals derived from marine actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveh, Avi; Delekta, Phillip C; Dobry, Craig J; Peng, Weiping; Schultz, Pamela J; Blakely, Pennelope K; Tai, Andrew W; Matainaho, Teatulohi; Irani, David N; Sherman, David H; Miller, David J

    2013-01-01

    Natural products provide a vast array of chemical structures to explore in the discovery of new medicines. Although secondary metabolites produced by microbes have been developed to treat a variety of diseases, including bacterial and fungal infections, to date there has been limited investigation of natural products with antiviral activity. In this report, we used a phenotypic cell-based replicon assay coupled with an iterative biochemical fractionation process to identify, purify, and characterize antiviral compounds produced by marine microbes. We isolated a compound from Streptomyces kaviengensis, a novel actinomycetes isolated from marine sediments obtained off the coast of New Ireland, Papua New Guinea, which we identified as antimycin A1a. This compound displays potent activity against western equine encephalitis virus in cultured cells with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of less than 4 nM and a selectivity index of greater than 550. Our efforts also revealed that several antimycin A analogues display antiviral activity, and mechanism of action studies confirmed that these Streptomyces-derived secondary metabolites function by inhibiting the cellular mitochondrial electron transport chain, thereby suppressing de novo pyrimidine synthesis. Furthermore, we found that antimycin A functions as a broad spectrum agent with activity against a wide range of RNA viruses in cultured cells, including members of the Togaviridae, Flaviviridae, Bunyaviridae, Picornaviridae, and Paramyxoviridae families. Finally, we demonstrate that antimycin A reduces central nervous system viral titers, improves clinical disease severity, and enhances survival in mice given a lethal challenge with western equine encephalitis virus. Our results provide conclusive validation for using natural product resources derived from marine microbes as source material for antiviral drug discovery, and they indicate that host mitochondrial electron transport is a viable target for the

  15. Bovine Arboviruses in Culicoides Biting Midges and Sentinel Cattle in Southern Japan from 2003 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, T; Shirafuji, H; Tanaka, S; Sato, M; Yamakawa, M; Tsuda, T; Yanase, T

    2016-12-01

    Epizootic congenital abnormalities, encephalomyelitis and febrile illnesses in cattle caused by arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are prevalent in Japan. Causative viruses including orthobunyaviruses, orbiviruses and rhabdovirus are thought to be transmitted by Culicoides biting midges. Recently, the incursions of several arboviruses, potentially Culicoides-borne, were newly confirmed in Japan. However, their spread pattern and exact vector species are currently uncertain. Attempts to isolate arboviruses from Culicoides biting midges and sentinel cattle were conducted in Kagoshima, located at the southernmost end of the main islands of Japan, a potentially high-risk area for incursion of arboviral diseases and outbreak of endemic ones. Seventy-eight isolates comprising Akabane, Peaton and Sathuperi viruses of the genus Orthobunyavirus of the family Bunyaviridae, bluetongue virus serotype 16, D'Aguilar virus, Bunyip Creek virus and epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus serotype 1 of the genus Orbivirus of the family Reoviridae, a potentially novel rhabdovirus of the genus Ephemerovirus and unidentified orbivirus-like viruses were obtained from Culicoides biting midges and sentinel cattle between 2003 and 2013. Akabane, Sathuperi, D'Aguilar and Bunyip Creek viruses were selectively isolated from Culicoides oxystoma, suggesting this vector's responsibility for these arbovirus outbreaks. The results of virus isolation also implied that C. tainanus, C. jacobsoni and C. punctatus are competent for the transmission of bluetongue virus serotype 16, Peaton virus and epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus serotype 1, respectively. Our monitoring in Culicoides biting midges and sentinel cattle detected the circulation of Akabane virus just prior to the accumulations of bovine congenital abnormalities and encephalomyelitis by it around study sites in 2003, 2006, 2008 and 2013. Silent circulations of the other arboviruses, including potentially new viruses, were also

  16. The native Wolbachia endosymbionts of Drosophila melanogaster and Culex quinquefasciatus increase host resistance to West Nile virus infection.

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    Robert L Glaser

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis has been shown to increase host resistance to viral infection in native Drosophila hosts and in the normally Wolbachia-free heterologous host Aedes aegypti when infected by Wolbachia from Drosophila melanogaster or Aedes albopictus. Wolbachia infection has not yet been demonstrated to increase viral resistance in a native Wolbachia-mosquito host system.In this study, we investigated Wolbachia-induced resistance to West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae by measuring infection susceptibility in Wolbachia-infected and Wolbachia-free D. melanogaster and Culex quinquefasciatus, a natural mosquito vector of WNV. Wolbachia infection of D. melanogaster induces strong resistance to WNV infection. Wolbachia-infected flies had a 500-fold higher ID50 for WNV and produced 100,000-fold lower virus titers compared to flies lacking Wolbachia. The resistance phenotype was transmitted as a maternal, cytoplasmic factor and was fully reverted in flies cured of Wolbachia. Wolbachia infection had much less effect on the susceptibility of D. melanogaster to Chikungunya (Togaviridae and La Crosse (Bunyaviridae viruses. Wolbachia also induces resistance to WNV infection in Cx. quinquefasciatus. While Wolbachia had no effect on the overall rate of peroral infection by WNV, Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes produced lower virus titers and had 2 to 3-fold lower rates of virus transmission compared to mosquitoes lacking Wolbachia.This is the first demonstration that Wolbachia can increase resistance to arbovirus infection resulting in decreased virus transmission in a native Wolbachia-mosquito system. The results suggest that Wolbachia reduces vector competence in Cx. quinquefasciatus, and potentially in other Wolbachia-infected mosquito vectors.

  17. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Glycoprotein Proteolytic Processing by Subtilase SKI-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Martin J.; Sanchez, Angela J.; Erickson, Bobbie R.; Basak, Ajoy; Chretien, Michel; Seidah, Nabil G.; Nichol, Stuart T.

    2003-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus is a tick-borne member of the genus Nairovirus, family Bunyaviridae. The mature virus glycoproteins, Gn and Gc (previously referred to as G2 and G1), are generated by proteolytic cleavage from precursor proteins. The amino termini of Gn and Gc are immediately preceded by tetrapeptides RRLL and RKPL, respectively, leading to the hypothesis that SKI-1 or related proteases may be involved (A. J. Sanchez, M. J. Vincent, and S. T. Nichol, J. Virol. 76:7263-7275, 2002). In vitro peptide cleavage data show that an RRLL peptide representing the Gn processing site is efficiently cleaved by SKI-1 protease, whereas an RKPL peptide representing the Gc processing site is cleaved at negligible levels. The efficient cleavage of RRLL peptide is consistent with the known recognition sequences of SKI-1, including the sequence determinants involved in the cleavage of the Lassa virus (family Arenaviridae) glycoprotein precursor. These in vitro findings were confirmed by expression of wild-type or mutant CCHF virus glycoproteins in CHO cells engineered to express functional or nonfunctional SKI-1. Gn processing was found to be dependent on functional SKI-1, whereas Gc processing was not. Gn processing occurred in the endoplasmic reticulum-cis Golgi compartments and was dependent on an R at the −4 position within the RRLL recognition motif, consistent with the known cleavage properties of SKI-1. Comparison of SKI-1 cleavage efficiency between peptides representing Lassa virus GP2 and CCHF virus Gn cleavage sites suggests that amino acids flanking the RRLL may modulate the efficiency. The apparent lack of SKI-1 cleavage at the CCHF virus Gc RKPL site indicates that related proteases, other than SKI-1, are likely to be involved in the processing at this site and identical or similar sites utilized in several New World arenaviruses. PMID:12885882

  18. Evolution of hantaviruses: co-speciation with reservoir hosts for more than 100 MYR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plyusnin, Alexander; Sironen, Tarja

    2014-07-17

    The most recent (9th) Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) lists 23 established and 30 provisional species in the genus Hantavirus (family Bunyaviridae) (Plyusnin et al., 2012). These virus species are harbored by altogether 51 species of rodents, shrews and moles and thus in most cases it is a relationship of "one hantavirus-one host". Such a tight bond between the two, in combination with the observed association between whole groups of hantaviruses and (sub)families of rodents, helped to develop the widely accepted view of a long-term co-evolution (co-speciation) of these viruses with their hosts. Accumulating evidence of host-switching events, both recent and ancient, however challenged some of the earlier views on hantavirus evolution. In this paper we discuss the concept of hantavirus-host co-speciation and propose a scenario of hantavirus evolution based on the currently available genetic information. This scenario is based on the hypothesis that hantaviruses are very ancient viruses which already existed at the estimated diversification point of major placental clades, of which one includes the ancestors of the order Rodentia and another the ancestors of both orders Eulipotyphla and Chiroptera; the diversification occurred approximately at 90-100 MYA. We also speculate that the evolutionary history of hantaviruses extents even deeper in the past, beyond this time-point, and included the transmission of a (pre)bunyavirus from an insect host to a mammal host. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Landscape, Environmental and Social Predictors of Hantavirus Risk in São Paulo, Brazil.

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    Paula Ribeiro Prist

    Full Text Available Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS is a disease caused by Hantavirus, which are negative-sense RNA viruses in the family Bunyaviridae that are highly virulent to humans. Numerous factors modify risk of Hantavirus transmission and consequent HPS risk. Human-driven landscape change can foster transmission risk by increasing numbers of habitat generalist rodent species that serve as the principal reservoir host. Climate can also affect rodent population dynamics and Hantavirus survival, and a number of social factors can influence probability of HPS transmission to humans. Evaluating contributions of these factors to HPS risk may enable predictions of future outbreaks, and is critical to development of effective public health strategies. Here we rely on a Bayesian model to quantify associations between annual HPS incidence across the state of São Paulo, Brazil (1993-2012 and climate variables (annual precipitation, annual mean temperature, landscape structure metrics (proportion of native habitat cover, number of forest fragments, proportion of area planted with sugarcane, and social factors (number of men older than 14 years and Human Development Index. We built separate models for the main two biomes of the state (cerrado and Atlantic forest. In both biomes Hantavirus risk increased with proportion of land cultivated for sugarcane and HDI, but proportion of forest cover, annual mean temperature, and population at risk also showed positive relationships in the Atlantic forest. Our analysis provides the first evidence that social, landscape, and climate factors are associated with HPS incidence in the Neotropics. Our risk map can be used to support the adoption of preventive measures and optimize the allocation of resources to avoid disease propagation, especially in municipalities that show medium to high HPS risk (> 5% of risk, and aimed at sugarcane workers, minimizing the risk of future HPS outbreaks.

  20. Polar release of pathogenic Old World hantaviruses from renal tubular epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krautkrämer, Ellen; Lehmann, Maik J; Bollinger, Vanessa; Zeier, Martin

    2012-11-30

    Epithelio- and endotheliotropic viruses often exert polarized entry and release that may be responsible for viral spread and dissemination. Hantaviruses, mostly rodent-borne members of the Bunyaviridae family infect epithelial and endothelial cells of different organs leading to organ dysfunction or even failure. Endothelial and renal epithelial cells belong to the target cells of Old World hantavirus. Therefore, we examined the release of hantaviruses in several renal epithelial cell culture models. We used Vero cells that are commonly used in hantavirus studies and primary human renal epithelial cells (HREpC). In addition, we analyzed MDCKII cells, an epithelial cell line of a dog kidney, which represents a widely accepted in vitro model of polarized monolayers for their permissiveness for hantavirus infection. Vero C1008 and primary HREpCs were grown on porous-support filter inserts for polarization. Monolayers were infected with hantavirus Hantaan (HTNV) and Puumala (PUUV) virus. Supernatants from the apical and basolateral chamber of infected cells were analyzed for the presence of infectious particles by re-infection of Vero cells. Viral antigen and infectious particles of HTNV and PUUV were exclusively detected in supernatants collected from the apical chamber of infected Vero C1008 cells and HREpCs. MDCKII cells were permissive for hantavirus infection and polarized MDCKII cells released infectious hantaviral particles from the apical surface corresponding to the results of Vero and primary human epithelial cells. Pathogenic Old World hantaviruses are released from the apical surface of different polarized renal epithelial cells. We characterized MDCKII cells as a suitable polarized cell culture model for hantavirus infection studies.

  1. C6/36 Aedes albopictus cells have a dysfunctional antiviral RNA interference response.

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    Doug E Brackney

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes rely on RNA interference (RNAi as their primary defense against viral infections. To this end, the combination of RNAi and invertebrate cell culture systems has become an invaluable tool in studying virus-vector interactions. Nevertheless, a recent study failed to detect an active RNAi response to West Nile virus (WNV infection in C6/36 (Aedes albopictus cells, a mosquito cell line frequently used to study arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses. Therefore, we sought to determine if WNV actively evades the host's RNAi response or if C6/36 cells have a dysfunctional RNAi pathway. C6/36 and Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells were infected with WNV (Flaviviridae, Sindbis virus (SINV, Togaviridae and La Crosse virus (LACV, Bunyaviridae and total RNA recovered from cell lysates. Small RNA (sRNA libraries were constructed and subjected to high-throughput sequencing. In S2 cells, virus-derived small interfering RNAs (viRNAs from all three viruses were predominantly 21 nt in length, a hallmark of the RNAi pathway. However, in C6/36 cells, viRNAs were primarily 17 nt in length from WNV infected cells and 26-27 nt in length in SINV and LACV infected cells. Furthermore, the origin (positive or negative viral strand and distribution (position along viral genome of S2 cell generated viRNA populations was consistent with previously published studies, but the profile of sRNAs isolated from C6/36 cells was altered. In total, these results suggest that C6/36 cells lack a functional antiviral RNAi response. These findings are analogous to the type-I interferon deficiency described in Vero (African green monkey kidney cells and suggest that C6/36 cells may fail to accurately model mosquito-arbovirus interactions at the molecular level.

  2. Polar release of pathogenic Old World hantaviruses from renal tubular epithelial cells

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    Krautkrämer Ellen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epithelio- and endotheliotropic viruses often exert polarized entry and release that may be responsible for viral spread and dissemination. Hantaviruses, mostly rodent-borne members of the Bunyaviridae family infect epithelial and endothelial cells of different organs leading to organ dysfunction or even failure. Endothelial and renal epithelial cells belong to the target cells of Old World hantavirus. Therefore, we examined the release of hantaviruses in several renal epithelial cell culture models. We used Vero cells that are commonly used in hantavirus studies and primary human renal epithelial cells (HREpC. In addition, we analyzed MDCKII cells, an epithelial cell line of a dog kidney, which represents a widely accepted in vitro model of polarized monolayers for their permissiveness for hantavirus infection. Results Vero C1008 and primary HREpCs were grown on porous-support filter inserts for polarization. Monolayers were infected with hantavirus Hantaan (HTNV and Puumala (PUUV virus. Supernatants from the apical and basolateral chamber of infected cells were analyzed for the presence of infectious particles by re-infection of Vero cells. Viral antigen and infectious particles of HTNV and PUUV were exclusively detected in supernatants collected from the apical chamber of infected Vero C1008 cells and HREpCs. MDCKII cells were permissive for hantavirus infection and polarized MDCKII cells released infectious hantaviral particles from the apical surface corresponding to the results of Vero and primary human epithelial cells. Conclusions Pathogenic Old World hantaviruses are released from the apical surface of different polarized renal epithelial cells. We characterized MDCKII cells as a suitable polarized cell culture model for hantavirus infection studies.

  3. In search for factors that drive hantavirus epidemics.

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    Paul eHeyman

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In Europe, hantaviruses (Bunyaviridae are small mammal-associated zoonotic and emerging pathogens that can cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS. Puumala virus, the main etiological agent carried by the bank vole Myodes glareolus is responsible for a mild form of HFRS while Dobrava virus induces less frequent but more severe cases of HFRS.Since 2000 in Europe, more than 3000 cases of HFRS have been recorded, in average, each year, which is nearly double compared to the previous decade. In addition to this upside long-term trend, significant oscillations occur. Epidemic years appear, usually every 2-4 years, with an increased incidence, generally in localised hot spots. Moreover, the virus has been identified in new areas in the recent years.A great number of surveys have been carried out in order to assess the prevalence of the infection in the reservoir host and to identify links with different biotic and abiotic factors. The factors that drive the infections are related to the density and diversity of bank vole populations, prevalence of infection in the reservoir host, viral excretion in the environment, survival of the virus outside its host, and human behaviour, which affect the main transmission virus route through inhalation of infected rodent excreta..At the scale of a rodent population, the prevalence of the infection increases with the age of the individuals but also other parameters, such as sex and genetic variability, interfere. The contamination of the environment may be correlated to the number of newly infected rodents, which heavily excrete the virus. The interactions between these different parameters add to the complexity of the situation and explain the absence of reliable tools to predict epidemics. In this review, the factors that drive the epidemics of hantaviruses in Middle Europe are discussed through a panorama of the epidemiological situation in Belgium, France and Germany.

  4. Novel camelid antibody fragments targeting recombinant nucleoprotein of Araucaria hantavirus: a prototype for an early diagnosis of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome.

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    Soraya S Pereira

    Full Text Available In addition to conventional antibodies, camelids produce immunoglobulins G composed exclusively of heavy chains in which the antigen binding site is formed only by single domains called VHH. Their particular characteristics make VHHs interesting tools for drug-delivery, passive immunotherapy and high-throughput diagnosis. Hantaviruses are rodent-borne viruses of the Bunyaviridae family. Two clinical forms of the infection are known. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS is present in the Old World, while Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS is found on the American continent. There is no specific treatment for HPS and its diagnosis is carried out by molecular or serological techniques, using mainly monoclonal antibodies or hantavirus nucleoprotein (N to detect IgM and IgG in patient serum. This study proposes the use of camelid VHHs to develop alternative methods for diagnosing and confirming HPS. Phage display technology was employed to obtain VHHs. After immunizing one Lama glama against the recombinant N protein (prNΔ₈₅ of a Brazilian hantavirus strain, VHH regions were isolated to construct an immune library. VHHs were displayed fused to the M13KO7 phage coat protein III and the selection steps were performed on immobilized prNΔ₈₅. After selection, eighty clones recognized specifically the N protein. These were sequenced, grouped based mainly on the CDRs, and five clones were analyzed by western blot (WB, surface plasmon resonance (SPR device, and ELISA. Besides the ability to recognize prNΔ85 by WB, all selected clones showed affinity constants in the nanomolar range. Additionaly, the clone KC329705 is able to detect prNΔ₈₅ in solution, as well as the native viral antigen. Findings support the hypothesis that selected VHHs could be a powerful tool in the development of rapid and accurate HPS diagnostic assays, which are essential to provide supportive care to patients and reduce the high mortality rate associated with

  5. Seed Transmission of Soybean vein necrosis virus: The First Tospovirus Implicated in Seed Transmission.

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    Carol Groves

    Full Text Available Soybean vein necrosis virus (SVNV; genus Tospovirus; Family Bunyaviridae is a negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus that has been detected across the United States and in Ontario, Canada. In 2013, a seed lot of a commercial soybean variety (Glycine max with a high percentage of discolored, deformed and undersized seed was obtained. A random sample of this seed was planted in a growth room under standard conditions. Germination was greater than 90% and the resulting seedlings looked normal. Four composite samples of six plants each were tested by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR using published primers complimentary to the S genomic segment of SVNV. Two composite leaflet samples retrieved from seedlings yielded amplicons with a size and sequence predictive of SVNV. Additional testing of twelve arbitrarily selected individual plants resulted in the identification of two SVNV positive plants. Experiments were repeated by growing seedlings from the same seed lot in an isolated room inside a thrips-proof cage to further eliminate any external source of infection. Also, increased care was taken to reduce any possible PCR contamination. Three positive plants out of forty-eight were found using these measures. Published and newly designed primers for the L and M RNAs of SVNV were also used to test the extracted RNA and strengthen the diagnosis of viral infection. In experiments, by three scientists, in two different labs all three genomic RNAs of SVNV were amplified in these plant materials. RNA-seq analysis was also conducted using RNA extracted from a composite seedling sample found to be SVNV-positive and a symptomatic sample collected from the field. This analysis revealed both sense and anti-sense reads from all three gene segments in both samples. We have shown that SVNV can be transmitted in seed to seedlings from an infected seed lot at a rate of 6%. To our knowledge this is the first report of seed-transmission of a

  6. Incidence of thrips and tomato spotted wilt Tospovirus in fluecured tobacco protected from early season insect pest infestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Robert M

    2006-06-01

    The relative impacts of early season thrips exclusion (cages) and thrips suppression (pesticides) on tomato spotted wilt (family Bunyaviridae, genus Tospovirus, TSW) Tospovirus infection in flue-cured tobacco, Nicotiana tobaccum L., were examined in field trials in 2001-2004. There were fewer TSW symptomatic plants when plants were covered by exclusion cages for 6 wk than when they were uncaged or caged for 2 or 4 wk after transplanting. Plant height, leaves per plant, and total leaf weight per plant were lower in TSW symptomatic plants compared with nonsymptomatic plants for the uncaged plus 2- and 4-wk caged duration treatments but not different when caged 6 wk. Weekly acephate (Orthene) foliar sprays for 2 or 4 wk after transplanting reduced thrips populations for up to 5 wk after transplanting, whereas the 6-wk sprays had lower thrips populations for up to 8 wk. TSW was lower in both the 4- and 6-wk acephate treatments than in the untreated. A tray drench application of imidacloprid (Admire) reduced thrips populations in early season plus lowered the percentage of TSW compared with no tray drench treatment. The tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds), was the predominate thrips species on tobacco foliage, and 1.9-4.9% tested positive for nonstructural TSW protein. The imidacloprid tray drench treatment and 6-wk acephate foliar sprays had lower densities of the tobacco-adapted form of Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Suppressing early season thrips populations with foliar acephate or imidacloprid tray drench are management option that can effectively reduce the incidence of TSW in flue-cured tobacco plus suppress aphids.

  7. Role of insecticides in reducing thrips injury to plants and incidence of tomato spotted wilt virus in Virginia market-type peanut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, D Ames; Malone, S; Aref, S; Brandenburg, R L; Jordan, D L; Royals, B M; Johnson, P D

    2007-08-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Tospovirus, TSWV), transmitted by many thrips species, is a devastating pathogen of peanut, Arachis hypogaea L. TSWV has become a serious problem in the Virginia/Carolina peanut-growing region of the United States. During 2002, TSWV was present in 47% of the North Carolina hectarage and caused a 5% yield reduction in Virginia. Factors influencing levels of TSWV in runner market-type peanut cultivars, which are primarily grown in Alabama, Flordia, Georgia, and Texas, have been integrated into an advisory to help those peanut growers reduce losses. An advisory based on the southeast runner market-type version is currently under development for virginia market-type peanut cultivars that are grown primarily in the Virginia/ Carolina region. A version based on preliminary field experiments was released in 2003. One factor used in both advisories relates to insecticide use to reduce the vector populations and disease incidence. This research elucidated the influence of insecticides on thrips populations, thrips plant injury, incidence of TSWV, and pod yield in virginia market-type peanut. Eight field trials from 2003 to 2005 were conducted at two locations. In-furrow application of aldicarb and phorate resulted in significant levels of thrips control, significant reductions in thrips injury to seedlings, reduced incidence of TSWV, and significant increases in pod yield. Foliar application of acephate after aldicarb or phorate applied in the seed furrow further reduced thrips plant injury and incidence of TSWV and improved yield. These findings will be used to improve the current virginia market-type TSWV advisory.

  8. Effects of Thrips Density, Mode of Inoculation, and Plant Age on Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Transmission in Peanut Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Anita; Sundaraj, Sivamani; Culbreath, Albert K; Riley, David G; Abney, Mark R; Srinivasan, Rajagopalbabu

    2015-02-01

    Spotted wilt caused by tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV; family Bunyaviridae; genus Tospovirus) is a serious disease of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in the southeastern United States. Peanut genotypes with field resistance to TSWV are effective in suppressing spotted wilt. All commercially available genotypes with field resistance to TSWV were developed through conventional breeding. As a part of the breeding process, peanut genotypes are regularly screened under field situations. Despite numerous advantages associated with field screening, it is often limited by inconsistent vector (thrips) and TSWV pressure. A greenhouse transmission protocol would aid in thorough screening of selected genotypes and conserve time. In this study, various parameters associated with TSWV transmission, including tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) density, mode of inoculation, and plant age, were evaluated. Greater incidences of TSWV infection were obtained with thrips-mediated inoculation when compared with mechanical inoculation. TSWV inoculation with three, five, and 10 thrips resulted in greater incidences of TSWV infection in plants than inoculation with one thrips. However, incidences of TSWV infection did not vary between plants inoculated with three, five, and 10 viruliferous thrips. With both thrips-mediated and mechanical inoculation methods, incidences of TSWV infection in 1-wk-old plants were greater than in 4-wk-old plants. TSWV copy numbers, as determined by qPCR, also decreased with plant age. Results suggest that using at least three thrips per plant and 1- to 2-wk-old plants would maximize TSWV infection in inoculated plants. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Characterization of bean necrotic mosaic virus: a member of a novel evolutionary lineage within the Genus Tospovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Athos Silva; Melo, Fernando Lucas; Inoue-Nagata, Alice Kazuko; Nagata, Tatsuya; Kitajima, Elliot Watanabe; Resende, Renato Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Tospoviruses (Genus Tospovirus, Family Bunyaviridae) are phytopathogens responsible for significant worldwide crop losses. They have a tripartite negative and ambisense RNA genome segments, termed S (Small), M (Medium) and L (Large) RNA. The vector-transmission is mediated by thrips in a circulative-propagative manner. For new tospovirus species acceptance, several analyses are needed, e.g., the determination of the viral protein sequences for enlightenment of their evolutionary history. Biological (host range and symptomatology), serological, and molecular (S and M RNA sequencing and evolutionary studies) experiments were performed to characterize and differentiate a new tospovirus species, Bean necrotic mosaic virus (BeNMV), which naturally infects common beans in Brazil. Based upon the results, BeNMV can be classified as a novel species and, together with Soybean vein necrosis-associated virus (SVNaV), they represent members of a new evolutionary lineage within the genus Tospovirus. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCES: Taken together, these evidences suggest that two divergent lineages of tospoviruses are circulating in the American continent and, based on the main clades diversity (American and Eurasian lineages), new tospovirus species related to the BeNMV-SVNaV clade remain to be discovered. This possible greater diversity of tospoviruses may be reflected in a higher number of crops as natural hosts, increasing the economic impact on agriculture. This idea also is supported since BeNMV and SVNaV were discovered naturally infecting atypical hosts (common bean and soybean, respectively), indicating, in this case, a preference for leguminous species. Further studies, for instance a survey focusing on crops, specifically of leguminous plants, may reveal a greater tospovirus diversity not only in the Americas (where both viruses were reported), but throughout the world.

  10. Characterization of bean necrotic mosaic virus: a member of a novel evolutionary lineage within the Genus Tospovirus.

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    Athos Silva de Oliveira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tospoviruses (Genus Tospovirus, Family Bunyaviridae are phytopathogens responsible for significant worldwide crop losses. They have a tripartite negative and ambisense RNA genome segments, termed S (Small, M (Medium and L (Large RNA. The vector-transmission is mediated by thrips in a circulative-propagative manner. For new tospovirus species acceptance, several analyses are needed, e.g., the determination of the viral protein sequences for enlightenment of their evolutionary history. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Biological (host range and symptomatology, serological, and molecular (S and M RNA sequencing and evolutionary studies experiments were performed to characterize and differentiate a new tospovirus species, Bean necrotic mosaic virus (BeNMV, which naturally infects common beans in Brazil. Based upon the results, BeNMV can be classified as a novel species and, together with Soybean vein necrosis-associated virus (SVNaV, they represent members of a new evolutionary lineage within the genus Tospovirus. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCES: Taken together, these evidences suggest that two divergent lineages of tospoviruses are circulating in the American continent and, based on the main clades diversity (American and Eurasian lineages, new tospovirus species related to the BeNMV-SVNaV clade remain to be discovered. This possible greater diversity of tospoviruses may be reflected in a higher number of crops as natural hosts, increasing the economic impact on agriculture. This idea also is supported since BeNMV and SVNaV were discovered naturally infecting atypical hosts (common bean and soybean, respectively, indicating, in this case, a preference for leguminous species. Further studies, for instance a survey focusing on crops, specifically of leguminous plants, may reveal a greater tospovirus diversity not only in the Americas (where both viruses were reported, but throughout the world.

  11. Seed Transmission of Soybean vein necrosis virus: The First Tospovirus Implicated in Seed Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Carol; German, Thomas; Dasgupta, Ranjit; Mueller, Daren; Smith, Damon L

    2016-01-01

    Soybean vein necrosis virus (SVNV; genus Tospovirus; Family Bunyaviridae) is a negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus that has been detected across the United States and in Ontario, Canada. In 2013, a seed lot of a commercial soybean variety (Glycine max) with a high percentage of discolored, deformed and undersized seed was obtained. A random sample of this seed was planted in a growth room under standard conditions. Germination was greater than 90% and the resulting seedlings looked normal. Four composite samples of six plants each were tested by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using published primers complimentary to the S genomic segment of SVNV. Two composite leaflet samples retrieved from seedlings yielded amplicons with a size and sequence predictive of SVNV. Additional testing of twelve arbitrarily selected individual plants resulted in the identification of two SVNV positive plants. Experiments were repeated by growing seedlings from the same seed lot in an isolated room inside a thrips-proof cage to further eliminate any external source of infection. Also, increased care was taken to reduce any possible PCR contamination. Three positive plants out of forty-eight were found using these measures. Published and newly designed primers for the L and M RNAs of SVNV were also used to test the extracted RNA and strengthen the diagnosis of viral infection. In experiments, by three scientists, in two different labs all three genomic RNAs of SVNV were amplified in these plant materials. RNA-seq analysis was also conducted using RNA extracted from a composite seedling sample found to be SVNV-positive and a symptomatic sample collected from the field. This analysis revealed both sense and anti-sense reads from all three gene segments in both samples. We have shown that SVNV can be transmitted in seed to seedlings from an infected seed lot at a rate of 6%. To our knowledge this is the first report of seed-transmission of a Tospovirus.

  12. Expression and characterization of a soluble form of tomato spotted wilt virus glycoprotein GN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Anna E; Ullman, Diane E; German, Thomas L

    2004-12-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), a member of the Tospovirus genus within the Bunyaviridae, is an economically important plant pathogen with a worldwide distribution. TSWV is transmitted to plants via thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), which transmit the virus in a persistent propagative manner. The envelope glycoproteins, G(N) and G(C), are critical for the infection of thrips, but they are not required for the initial infection of plants. Thus, it is assumed that the envelope glycoproteins play important roles in the entry of TSWV into the insect midgut, the first site of infection. To directly test the hypothesis that G(N) plays a role in TSWV acquisition by thrips, we expressed and purified a soluble, recombinant form of the G(N) protein (G(N)-S). The expression of G(N)-S allowed us to examine the function of G(N) in the absence of other viral proteins. We detected specific binding to thrips midguts when purified G(N)-S was fed to thrips in an in vivo binding assay. The TSWV nucleocapsid protein and human cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B did not bind to thrips midguts, indicating that the G(N)-S-thrips midgut interaction is specific. TSWV acquisition inhibition assays revealed that thrips that were concomitantly fed purified TSWV and G(N)-S had reduced amounts of virus in their midguts compared to thrips that were fed TSWV only. Our findings that G(N)-S binds to larval thrips guts and decreases TSWV acquisition provide evidence that G(N) may serve as a viral ligand that mediates the attachment of TSWV to receptors displayed on the epithelial cells of the thrips midgut.

  13. Evaluation of onion cultivars for resistance to onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Iris yellow spot virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Montano, John; Fuchs, Marc; Nault, Brian A; Shelton, Anthony M

    2010-06-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a worldwide pest of onion, Allium cepa L., can reduce onion yield by > 50% and be even more problematic when it transmits Iris yellow spot virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Tospovirus, IYSV). Because T. tabaci is difficult to control with insecticides and other strategies, field studies on onion, Allium cepa L., resistance to T. tabaci and IYSV were conducted in 2007 and 2008 in two locations in New York state. Forty-nine cultivars were evaluated for resistance by counting the number of larvae weekly and recording leaf damage. In another experiment, the impact of T. tabaci and IYSV on plant growth and yield was examined by spraying half of the plants with an insecticide. Eleven of the 49 cultivars had very little leaf damage and were considered resistant to T. tabaci. Visual assessment indicated that all resistant cultivars had yellow-green- colored foliage, whereas the other 38 had blue-green- colored foliage. The visual assessment of color agreed with data on color taken with a HunterLab Ultra Scan XE colorimeter. The onions 'Colorado 6' and 'NMSU 03-52-1' had the lowest numbers of T. tabaci, suggesting strong antibiosis and/or antixenosis. The other nine cultivars had variable numbers of T. tabaci, indicating a possible combination of categories of resistance. In the nonprotected treatments there were significant reductions in plant height and plant weight in most of the resistant cultivars, but there were reductions in bulb weight only in a few of them. The average of plants infected with IYSV was 10% in 2007 and 60% in 2008. Our findings indicate potential for developing onion resistance to T. tabaci as part of an overall integrated pest management strategy but suggest difficulties in identifying resistance to IYSV.

  14. Genetic Diversity of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Strains from Iran

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    Sadegh Chinikar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV is a member of the Bunyaviridae family and Nairovirus genus. It has a negative-sense, single stranded RNA genome approximately 19.2 kb, containing the Small, Medium, and Large segments. CCHFVs are relatively divergent in their genome sequence and grouped in seven distinct clades based on S-segment sequence analysis and six clades based on M-segment sequences. Our aim was to obtain new insights into the molecular epidemiology of CCHFV in Iran.Methods: We analyzed partial and complete nucleotide sequences of the S and M segments derived from 50 Iranian patients. The extracted RNA was amplified using one-step RT-PCR and then sequenced. The sequences were ana­lyzed using Mega5 software.Results: Phylogenetic analysis of partial S segment sequences demonstrated that clade IV-(Asia 1, clade IV-(Asia 2 and clade V-(Europe accounted for 80 %, 4 % and 14 % of the circulating genomic variants of CCHFV in Iran respectively. However, one of the Iranian strains (Iran-Kerman/22 was associated with none of other sequences and formed a new clade (VII. The phylogenetic analysis of complete S-segment nucleotide sequences from selected Ira­nian CCHFV strains complemented with representative strains from GenBank revealed similar topology as partial sequences with eight major clusters. A partial M segment phylogeny positioned the Iranian strains in either associa­tion with clade III (Asia-Africa or clade V (Europe.Conclusion: The phylogenetic analysis revealed subtle links between distant geographic locations, which we pro­pose might originate either from international livestock trade or from long-distance carriage of CCHFV by infected ticks via bird migration.

  15. Epidemiological survey of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in cattle in East Darfur State, Sudan.

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    Ibrahim, Alaa M; Adam, Ibrahim A; Osman, Badreldin T; Aradaib, Imadeldin E

    2015-06-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne disease caused by CCHF virus (CCHFV) of the genus Nairovirus in the family Bunyaviridae. CCHFV causes subclinical infection in domestic livestock and an often fatal hemorrhagic illness in humans, with approximately 30% mortality rates. In the present study, a cross-sectional serosurvey was conducted in a total of 282 randomly selected cattle from five localities in East Darfur State, Sudan. The exposure status to CCHF was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of CCHFV-specific IgG antibodies in cattle serum samples. The CCHFV-specific IgG antibodies were detected in 54 out of 282 animals, accounting for a 19.14% prevalence rate. Older cattle (>2 years of age) were approximately five times more likely to be infected with the virus (OR=4.90, CI=1.28-18.98, p-value=0.02). Heavily tick-infested cattle (ticks all over the body) were at 11 times higher at risk compared to tick-free animals (OR=11.11, CI=2.86-43.25, p-value=0.01). Grazing system is another factor affecting CCHF, where cattle grazing on open system were 27 times more at risk compared to other grazing systems (OR=27.22, CI=7.46-99.24, p-value=0.001). There was an association between localities and CCHF cattle (OR=0.24, CI=0.07-0.83, p-value=0.02). This study confirms the exposure of cattle to CCHF in East Darfur and identifies potential risk factors associated with the disease. Further epidemiological studies and improved surveillance are urgently needed to prevent a possible outbreak of CCHF among humans in the Darfur region of Sudan. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Complementation between two tospoviruses facilitates the systemic movement of a plant virus silencing suppressor in an otherwise restrictive host.

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    Sudeep Bag

    experimental evidence of functional complementation between two distinct tospoviruses in the Bunyaviridae family.

  17. Complementation between Two Tospoviruses Facilitates the Systemic Movement of a Plant Virus Silencing Suppressor in an Otherwise Restrictive Host

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    Eid, Sahar; Pappu, Hanu R.

    2012-01-01

    functional complementation between two distinct tospoviruses in the Bunyaviridae family. PMID:23077485

  18. First international external quality assessment of molecular detection of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.

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    Camille Escadafal

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF is a zoonosis caused by a Nairovirus of the family Bunyaviridae. Infection is transmitted to humans mostly by Hyalomma ticks and also by direct contact with the blood or tissues of infected humans or viremic livestock. Clinical features usually include a rapid progression characterized by hemorrhage, myalgia and fever, with a lethality rate up to 30%. CCHF is one of the most widely distributed viral hemorrhagic fevers and has been reported in Africa, the Middle East and Asia, as well as parts of Europe. There is no approved vaccine or specific treatment against CCHF virus (CCHFV infections. In this context, an accurate diagnosis as well as a reliable surveillance of CCHFV infections is essential. Diagnostic techniques include virus culture, serology and molecular methods, which are now increasingly used. The European Network for the Diagnostics of "Imported" Viral Diseases organized the first international external quality assessment of CCHVF molecular diagnostics in 2011 to assess the efficiency and accurateness of CCHFV molecular methods applied by expert laboratories. A proficiency test panel of 15 samples was distributed to the participants including 10 different CCHFV preparations generated from infected cell cultures, a preparation of plasmid cloned with the nucleoprotein of CCHFV, two CCHFV RNA preparations and two negative controls. Forty-four laboratories worldwide participated in the EQA study and 53 data sets were received. Twenty data sets (38% met all criteria with optimal performance, 10 (19% with acceptable performance, while 23 (43% reported results showing a need for improvement. Differences in performance depended on the method used, the type of strain tested, the concentration of the sample tested and the laboratory performing the test. These results indicate that there is still a need for improving testing conditions and standardizing protocols for the molecular detection of Crimean

  19. Structural Analysis of Monomeric RNA-Dependent Polymerases: Evolutionary and Therapeutic Implications.

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    Rodrigo Jácome

    Full Text Available The crystal structures of monomeric RNA-dependent RNA polymerases and reverse transcriptases of more than 20 different viruses are available in the Protein Data Bank. They all share the characteristic right-hand shape of DNA- and RNA polymerases formed by the fingers, palm and thumb subdomains, and, in many cases, "fingertips" that extend from the fingers towards the thumb subdomain, giving the viral enzyme a closed right-hand appearance. Six conserved structural motifs that contain key residues for the proper functioning of the enzyme have been identified in all these RNA-dependent polymerases. These enzymes share a two divalent metal-ion mechanism of polymerization in which two conserved aspartate residues coordinate the interactions with the metal ions to catalyze the nucleotidyl transfer reaction. The recent availability of crystal structures of polymerases of the Orthomyxoviridae and Bunyaviridae families allowed us to make pairwise comparisons of the tertiary structures of polymerases belonging to the four main RNA viral groups, which has led to a phylogenetic tree in which single-stranded negative RNA viral polymerases have been included for the first time. This has also allowed us to use a homology-based structural prediction approach to develop a general three-dimensional model of the Ebola virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Our model includes several of the conserved structural motifs and residues described in other viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases that define the catalytic and highly conserved palm subdomain, as well as portions of the fingers and thumb subdomains. The results presented here help to understand the current use and apparent success of antivirals, i.e. Brincidofovir, Lamivudine and Favipiravir, originally aimed at other types of polymerases, to counteract the Ebola virus infection.

  20. Mosquito-borne Inkoo virus in northern Sweden - isolation and whole genome sequencing.

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    Lwande, Olivia Wesula; Bucht, Göran; Ahlm, Clas; Ahlm, Kristoffer; Näslund, Jonas; Evander, Magnus

    2017-03-23

    Inkoo virus (INKV) is a less known mosquito-borne virus belonging to Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus, California serogroup. Studies indicate that INKV infection is mainly asymptomatic, but can cause mild encephalitis in humans. In northern Europe, the sero-prevalence against INKV is high, 41% in Sweden and 51% in Finland. Previously, INKV RNA has been detected in adult Aedes (Ae.) communis, Ae. hexodontus and Ae. punctor mosquitoes and Ae. communis larvae, but there are still gaps of knowledge regarding mosquito vectors and genetic diversity. Therefore, we aimed to determine the occurrence of INKV in its mosquito vector and characterize the isolates. About 125,000 mosquitoes were collected during a mosquito-borne virus surveillance in northern Sweden during the summer period of 2015. Of these, 10,000 mosquitoes were processed for virus isolation and detection using cell culture and RT-PCR. Virus isolates were further characterized by whole genome sequencing. Genetic typing of mosquito species was conducted by cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene amplification and sequencing (genetic barcoding). Several Ae. communis mosquitoes were found positive for INKV RNA and two isolates were obtained. The first complete sequences of the small (S), medium (M), and large (L) segments of INKV in Sweden were obtained. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the INKV genome was most closely related to other INKV isolates from Sweden and Finland. Of the three INKV genome segments, the INKV M segment had the highest frequency of non-synonymous mutations. The overall G/C-content of INKV genes was low for the N/NSs genes (43.8-45.5%), polyprotein (Gn/Gc/NSm) gene (35.6%) and the RNA polymerase gene (33.8%) This may be due to the fact that INKV in most instances utilized A or T in the third codon position. INKV is frequently circulating in northern Sweden and Ae. communis is the key vector. The high mutation rate of the INKV M segment may have consequences on virulence.

  1. Genetic Diversity and Reassortment of Hantaan Virus Tripartite RNA Genomes in Nature, the Republic of Korea.

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    Jeong-Ah Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hantaan virus (HTNV, a negative sense tripartite RNA virus of the Family Bunyaviridae, is the most prevalent hantavirus in the Republic of Korea (ROK. It is the causative agent of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS in humans and maintained in the striped field mouse, Apodemus agrarius, the primary zoonotic host. Clinical HFRS cases have been reported commonly in HFRS-endemic areas of Gyeonggi province. Recently, the death of a member of the ROK military from Gangwon province due to HFRS prompted an investigation of the epidemiology and distribution of hantaviruses in Gangwon and Gyeonggi provinces that border the demilitarized zone separating North and South Korea.To elucidate the geographic distribution and molecular diversity of HTNV, whole genome sequences of HTNV Large (L, Medium (M, and Small (S segments were acquired from lung tissues of A. agrarius captured from 2003-2014. Consistent with the clinical incidence of HFRS established by the Korea Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (KCDC, the prevalence of HTNV in naturally infected mice in Gangwon province was lower than for Gyeonggi province. Whole genomic sequences of 34 HTNV strains were identified and a phylogenetic analysis showed geographic diversity of the virus in the limited areas. Reassortment analysis first suggested an occurrence of genetic exchange of HTNV genomes in nature, ROK.This study is the first report to demonstrate the molecular prevalence of HTNV in Gangwon province. Whole genome sequencing of HTNV showed well-supported geographic lineages and the molecular diversity in the northern region of ROK due to a natural reassortment of HTNV genomes. These observations contribute to a better understanding of the genetic diversity and molecular evolution of hantaviruses. Also, the full-length of HTNV tripartite genomes will provide a database for phylogeographic analysis of spatial and temporal outbreaks of hantavirus infection.

  2. Complementation between two tospoviruses facilitates the systemic movement of a plant virus silencing suppressor in an otherwise restrictive host.

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    Bag, Sudeep; Mitter, Neena; Eid, Sahar; Pappu, Hanu R

    2012-01-01

    Bunyaviridae family.

  3. Purple coneflower viruses: species diversity and harmfulness

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    Dunich A. A.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Viral diseases became an actual problem in medicinal plants cultivation. The number of viruses known to infect purple coneflower increased significantly in the last years in many countries. However, there is no any review about the viral diseases of this valuable medicinal crop. Therefore, the aim of this article is to summarize the main information about the viruses affecting purple coneflower plants (Echinacea purpurea L. Moench.. An analysis of the literature data showed that purple coneflower could be infected by 10 viruses. These viruses belong to the families Bromoviridae, Bunyaviridae, Secoviridae, Potyviridae, Vir­ga­vi­ri­dae, and almost all of them are considered to be highly harmful plant viruses. Additionally, four of them (TMV, TSWV, CMV, PVY are in the top 10 of the most economically important plant viruses in the world and occupy the first places. Such distribution and harmfulness of these viruses are explained by a wide range of sensitive host-plants, wild plants and weeds – reservoirs of an infection, and also a large number of vectors. The data from a few countries show that the viral diseases of purple coneflower are becoming more severe from year to year. The appearance of new viruses is registered on coneflower every year that complicates prognosis and risk estimation of epiphytoties in these regions which, for example, were revealed in Bulgaria, Lithuania and Ukraine. This review presents the detailed symptoms of the viral diseases in purple coneflower, the main properties of each virus and data about their harmful effect on the quality of raw material (the concentration of biologically active substances and heavy metals in plants.

  4. Small RNA Profiling in Dengue Virus 2-Infected Aedes Mosquito Cells Reveals Viral piRNAs and Novel Host miRNAs.

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    Miesen, Pascal; Ivens, Alasdair; Buck, Amy H; van Rij, Ronald P

    2016-02-01

    In Aedes mosquitoes, infections with arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) trigger or modulate the expression of various classes of viral and host-derived small RNAs, including small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), PIWI interacting RNAs (piRNAs), and microRNAs (miRNAs). Viral siRNAs are at the core of the antiviral RNA interference machinery, one of the key pathways that limit virus replication in invertebrates. Besides siRNAs, Aedes mosquitoes and cells derived from these insects produce arbovirus-derived piRNAs, the best studied examples being viruses from the Togaviridae or Bunyaviridae families. Host miRNAs modulate the expression of a large number of genes and their levels may change in response to viral infections. In addition, some viruses, mostly with a DNA genome, express their own miRNAs to regulate host and viral gene expression. Here, we perform a comprehensive analysis of both viral and host-derived small RNAs in Aedes aegypti Aag2 cells infected with dengue virus 2 (DENV), a member of the Flaviviridae family. Aag2 cells are competent in producing all three types of small RNAs and provide a powerful tool to explore the crosstalk between arboviral infection and the distinct RNA silencing pathways. Interestingly, besides the well-characterized DENV-derived siRNAs, a specific population of viral piRNAs was identified in infected Aag2 cells. Knockdown of Piwi5, Ago3 and, to a lesser extent, Piwi6 results in reduction of vpiRNA levels, providing the first genetic evidence that Aedes PIWI proteins produce DENV-derived small RNAs. In contrast, we do not find convincing evidence for the production of virus-derived miRNAs. Neither do we find that host miRNA expression is strongly changed upon DENV2 infection. Finally, our deep-sequencing analyses detect 30 novel Aedes miRNAs, complementing the repertoire of regulatory small RNAs in this important vector species.

  5. Transmission of Rift Valley fever virus from European-breed lambs to Culex pipiens mosquitoes.

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    Rianka P M Vloet

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV is a mosquito-borne bunyavirus of the genus Phlebovirus that is highly pathogenic to ruminants and humans. The disease is currently confined to Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, but globalization and climate change may facilitate introductions of the virus into currently unaffected areas via infected animals or mosquitoes. The consequences of such an introduction will depend on environmental factors, the availability of susceptible ruminants and the capacity of local mosquitoes to transmit the virus. We have previously demonstrated that lambs native to the Netherlands are highly susceptible to RVFV and we here report the vector competence of Culex (Cx. pipiens, the most abundant and widespread mosquito species in the country. Vector competence was first determined after artificial blood feeding of laboratory-reared mosquitoes using the attenuated Clone 13 strain. Subsequently, experiments with wild-type RVFV and mosquitoes hatched from field-collected eggs were performed. Finally, the transmission of RVFV from viremic lambs to mosquitoes was studied.Artificial feeding experiments using Clone 13 demonstrated that indigenous, laboratory-reared Cx. pipiens mosquitoes are susceptible to RVFV and that the virus can be transmitted via their saliva. Experiments with wild-type RVFV and mosquitoes hatched from field-collected eggs confirmed the vector competence of Cx. pipiens mosquitoes from the Netherlands. To subsequently investigate transmission of the virus under more natural conditions, mosquitoes were allowed to feed on RVFV-infected lambs during the viremic period. We found that RVFV is efficiently transmitted from lambs to mosquitoes, although transmission was restricted to peak viremia. Interestingly, in the mosquito-exposed skin samples, replication of RVFV was detected in previously unrecognized target cells.We here report the vector competence of Cx. pipiens mosquitoes from the Netherlands for RVFV. Both

  6. Sandflies and sandfly-borne infections of humans in Central Europe in the light of climate change.

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    Aspöck, Horst; Gerersdorfer, Thomas; Formayer, Herbert; Walochnik, Julia

    2008-01-01

    Leishmania and presenting a variety of clinical symptoms are frequently brought by compassionate tourists from Mediterranean countries - often illegally - to Central Europe. Meanwhile, a flourishing market for dogs of miserable appearance suffering from leishmaniosis has been developed by profit-oriented opportunists in Mediterranean countries. With respect to the serious course of visceral leishmaniosis (particularly in infants and in immunocompromised persons) this dangerous condition merits intensive attention. Phleboviruses have not been found in Central Europe, so far. However, in the course of global warming an establishment of biological cycles after an introduction of the pathogens, particularly if vertebrates other than humans can also act as reservoir hosts, seems possible.

  7. Progreso en la interrupción de la transmisión de la enfermedad de Chagas en América Latina

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    Alvaro Moncayo

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Alrededor de 18 millones de personas estaban infectadas en América Latina con el parásito Trypanosoma cruzi, causante de la epidemia de Chagas. Estudios de prevalencia hechos en la década de los 80, mostraron además que un 25% de estas personas desarrollaron lesiones cardíacas crónicas y digestivas irreversibles.

    La Organización Mundial de la Salud y el Banco Mundial vienen adelantando invtigaciones por cerca de un cuarto de siglo, conducentes al control y eventual eliminación de esta patología en el sub-continente.

    Este artículo enumera las actividades desarrolladas por este programa hasta la fecha y describe tres iniciativas multinacionales que adelantan las actividades referentes a la Enfermedad de Chagas y que se denominan iniciativas del Cono Sur, de los países andinos y de los países centro americanos. Se calcula que un veinticinco por ciento de los 484 millones de habitantes de América Latina (1 , están en riesgo de contraer la infección por el Trypanosoma cruzi, el agente causal de la Enfermedad de Chagas que es transmitido por insectos hematófagos del género Triatoma. Estudios de prevalencia epidemiológica adelantados en la década de 1980-90, mostraron que existen en el Continente 16 – 18 millones de personas infectadas por el parásito y que cerca de un 25% de ellas desarrollará lesiones cardíacas crónicas y digestivas irreversibles.

    Desde su inicio en 1978, el componente de investigación y control de la Enfermedad de Chagas del Programa PNUD/Banco Mundial/OMS de Investigación y adiestramiento en Enfermedades Tropicales (TDR, ha financiado investigaciones conducentes al control y eventual eliminación de esta enfermedad en el Continente...

  8. Epidemiology of human papillomavirus infections: new options for cervical cancer prevention Epidemiología de las infecciones por el papilomavirus humano: nuevas opciones para la prevención del cáncer cervical

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    F. Xavier Bosch

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, the cervical cancer puzzle has become a coherent description that includes the identification of human papillomavirus (HPV as the sexually transmitted etiologic agent and the characterization of the major determinants of HPV acquisition. Triage studies have consistently shown that HPV testing is more sensitive that repeated cytology in identifying underlying high-grade lesions in women with atypical scamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS. Studies that reflect primary screening conditions have shown that the sensitivity of HPV tests is higher than standard cytology in detecting high-grade lesions whereas the specificity is similar only in women aged 30-35 and above. HPV vaccines have an intrinsic attraction as a preventive strategy in populations with limited resources. However, vaccines designed to widespread use are still in development and testing phases. Time is ripe for exploring in depth the clinical implications of current achievements and to devise novel strategies for the prevention of cervical cancer.En las ultimas dos décadas, el enigma del cáncer cervical (CaCu ha comenzado a ser dilucidado y actualmente se ha identificado a la infección por virus de papiloma humano (VPH como su agente etiológico transmitido sexualmente, y se han caracterizado los principales determinantes de infección por VPH. Estudios epidemiológicos han mostrado consistentemente que las pruebas de determinación de ADN de VPH son más sensibles que la citología repetida para la identificación de lesiones de alto grado en mujeres con diagnóstico de células escamosas atípicas de significado indeterminado (ASCUS. Diversos estudios que evalúan el tamizaje primario en CaCu, han mostrado que la sensibilidad de las pruebas de VPH es más alta que la citología estándar para detectar lesiones de alto grado, donde la especificidad es similar sólo en mujeres con edades entre 30 y 35 años o mayores. Las vacunas de VPH tienen

  9. Las políticas de justicia y paz en el reconocimiento a las víctimas del conflicto armado en Colombia

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    Yadira Esther Garcia Garcia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available   Resumen La violencia ha sido un fenómeno imborrable y polémico que ha marcado la historia de las víctimas y ha dejado un legado bélico transmitido por la misma cultura de guerra. El generar terror y ejercer coerción a través de crímenes de lesa humanidad en estado de paz o guerra en los habitantes de una región específica se convierte en el modus operandi de los grupos terroristas. Frente a estas políticas de terror los grupos rebeldes le demuestran a toda una nación su inconformismo hacia las políticas de Estado. No obstante, esta violencia ha dejado huellas imborrables en el comportamiento y en la memoria de muchas personas, por tal motivo el presente artículo está encaminado principalmente a describir los hechos violentos ocurridos a causa de la violencia política de los grupos terroristas y los avances o acuerdo po­líticos que ha logrado el gobierno colombiano en el reconocimiento a las víctimas frente a los procesos de justicia y paz, justicia transicional y ley de víctimas y restitución de tierras.   Abstract Violence has been a lasting and controversial phenomenon that has marked the history of the victims , which has left them a war légalo transmitted by the same culture war . The generating terror and coercion through crimes against humanity in a state of peace or war on the people of a specific region, becomes the modus operandi of terrorist groups . Faced with these policies of terror rebel groups will demonstrate an entire nation his nonconformity to state policies . However, this violence has left indelible marks in behavior and in the memory of many people, for that reason this article is aimed mainly to describe the vi­olent events because of the political violence of terrorist groups and the progress or agreement politicians that the Colombian government has made in recognizing the victims against the processes of justice and peace , transitional justice and law victims and land restitution .

  10. Abençoada cura: poéticas da voz e saberes de benzedeiras

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    Lidiane Alves da Cunha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo se propõe a adentrar neste duplo universo: o aspecto mágico/religioso dos saberes das benzedeiras e o papel da palavra enquanto elemento de cura. Esse conhecimento, das quais somente estas são conhecedoras, se faz presente e se performatiza no instante, em que visível e invisível irão compor a força e o poder das palavras das benzedeiras, que não podem ser ensinadas à esmo sob pena de perder sua “força”. Assim, questiono por que as benzedeiras não ensinam o significado de suas preces, a não ser em determinados contextos de transmissão do saber? Que implicações esse preceito traz para o ofício nos dias de hoje? A partir das orações pronunciadas nos rituais de cura, elas performatizam a palavra, a voz, as narrações e memórias. O objetivo é alcançarmos essa fonte de saber existente na oralidade, a benzeção, desvendando a essência existente por trás da palavra, pois mais do que o significado literal, as palavras têm o poder de curar, sem a necessidade de possuir uma função definida, bem como de ser um saber transmitido em contextos em que a poética da voz se faz presente. É através da análise teórica dos textos, da etnobiografia e observação participante que buscamos nos aproximar do campo de atuação das benzedeiras nas cidades de Natal, Parnamirim -­ RN. Como referencial teórico, a obra de Paul Zumthor será a base para a construção das categorias voz, poesia oral, performance e oralidade. Também partiremos das obras de Richard Sennett, Walter Benjamim e Maurice Halbwachs e Walter Ong como eixo norteador dos estudos sobre oralidade, memória e narração.

  11. Vivências e discursos de mulheres mastectomizadas: negociações e desafios do câncer de mama Mastectomized women's experiences and discourses: negotiations and challenges of breast cancer

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    Fabio Scorsolini-Comin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo investiga as experiências de mulheres mastectomizadas tais como estas se presentificam em seus discursos sobre a vivência do câncer de mama, bem como suas estratégias de negociação dos desafios da doença. Foram analisadas 11 sessões de um grupo de apoio ocorridas em um serviço de atendimento público. A partir da análise temática das sessões, com o auxílio dos princípios do dialogismo e da polifonia, a partir do referencial histórico-cultural, pôde ser percebida a oposição entre o saber científico ("sentença" médica e o saber popular (possibilidade de cura, bem como a questão do estigma social associado ao câncer e ao gênero feminino. O grupo constituiu-se como um espaço para que esses diferentes saberes se atualizassem e fossem transmitidos, refletindo uma construção coletiva das ideias em torno do câncer, o que permitiu ressignificar os modos de enfrentamento e as diversas vivências relacionadas à doença.This article investigates the mastectomized women's experiences and discourses about breast cancer, and also their strategies of negociation about the disease's challenges. 11 sessions of a support group for these women, carried out in a public service, were analyzed. The sessions were analyzed using thematic analysis and the dialogism and polyphony notions, within an historical and cultural approach that showed the opposition between the scientific knowledge (medical verdict and the popular knowledge (possibility of cure, also the social stigma of the disease and the feminine gender . The group offered the setting for different knowledge to be updated and conveyed, reflecting a joint construction of the ideas about cancer and giving new meanings to facing and living with the disease.

  12. Vírus da mancha anular do cafeeiro (Coffee ringspot virus - CoRSV: influência na qualidade da bebida e na produção de grãos de café Coffee ringspot virus (CoRSV: influence on the beverage quality and yield of coffee beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra de Jesus Boari

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A mancha anular do cafeeiro, causada pelo Coffee ringspot virus (CoRSV que é transmitido pelo ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes (Acari: Tenuipalpidae, tem sido observada em altas incidências em várias regiões cafeeiras do Estado de Minas Gerais. O CoRSV causa manchas cloróticas arrendondadas ou irregulares nas folhas, caules e frutos. Foi feita uma avaliação do efeito da infecção de frutos do cafeeiro pelo CoRSV na qualidade da bebida por meio de teste bioquímico e de degustação, e também na eventual perda de peso nos grãos. Testes revelaram que grãos provenientes de frutos de café infectados pelo CoRSV apresentavam menor teor de açúcares redutores e maior condutividade elétrica. Houve também depreciação na qualidade de bebida gerada pelos frutos infectados por meio do teste de degustação (teste de xícara. O peso médio dos grãos provenientes de frutos manchados foi cerca de 5% menor do que dos grãos de frutos sem sintomas.Coffee ringspot virus (CoRSV, transmitted by the tenuipalpid mite Brevipalpus phoenicis, has been found in high incidences in several regions of the state of Minas Gerais. It induces chlorotic spots on the leaves and fruits and may induce severe fall of the leaves with implication in the yield. An evaluation was made on the effects of CoRSV-infected coffee berries on the beverage quality as well as on the weight of the beans. Infected beans had less reducing sugars and presented an increase in the electrical conductivity. The quality of the beverage prepared from infected fruits was lower than that of healthy fruits. There was a reduction of about 5% in the weight of beans from infected fruits.

  13. Hierarquias escolares: desempenho e popularidade

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    José Leon Crochík

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Este artigo apresenta os resultados de uma investigação que teve como objetivo caracterizar a presença de uma dupla estrutura hierárquica na escola: a oficial e a não oficial. A hierarquia oficial se caracteriza pelo bom desempenho dos alunos nas disciplinas escolares. Por meio dela, o conhecimento é transmitido aos estudantes e são desenvolvidas habilidades/competências para o convívio social, inserção no mundo do trabalho e para o progresso. O sistema educacional, no entanto, também contribui para o surgimento e manutenção de uma hierarquia não oficial, a qual é representada pelos alunos considerados mais fortes, astutos e populares e por aqueles considerados mais frágeis, menos astutos e impopulares. Essa dupla hierarquia indica formas de competição desenvolvidas durante o período escolar, lastreada na competição própria a uma sociedade capitalista. A pesquisa buscou verificar a existência dessas hierarquias e a manutenção ou não da posição dos alunos nelas ao longo da trajetória escolar da educação básica ao ensino superior. A hierarquia oficial foi aferida por meio do desempenho escolar, e a não oficial pelo desempenho nos esportes coletivos, namoros e popularidade. Foi aplicada uma escala em 135 estudantes de universidades públicas que classificaram seus desempenhos por meio de autoavaliação. A autoavaliação sobre o desempenho nos esportes se mantém nos três níveis de ensino; já o desempenho escolar é referido de modo distinto entre o ensino fundamental e o superior. O mesmo ocorre com o desempenho afetivo e a popularidade, que parecem alterar seus atributos ao longo da escolarização. Fundamentalmente, os resultados corroboram a existência das duas hierarquias escolares, o que traz consequências para a formação individual e para a sociedade, no que tange, sobretudo, a desempenhos a serem valorizados e desvalorizados em ambas as hierarquias.

  14. 150 años construyendo nación con ingenio propio

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    Diego Fernando Hernández Losada

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo muestra el beneficio de las instituciones públicas, y los resultados del compromiso en la construcción de nación, que desde hace 150 años de vida académica emprendió la Facultad de Ingeniería de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, la cual recibió, de manos de la Escuela Politécnica, creada el 24 de agosto de 1861 y adscrita al Colegio Militar, la “posta magna” de orientar y organizar los estudios de ingeniería en Colombia. La trayectoria sesquicentenaria de esta institución demuestra que la Facultad de Ingeniería de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia ha honrado con excelencia académica este legado, creando conocimiento y liderando procesos de innovación en los campos de la formación, la investigación y la extensión, con el insigne propósito de mejorar las condiciones y la calidad de vida de la sociedad colombiana, propiciando que la población menos favorecida encuentre en la Universidad Nacional de Colombia la mejor opción para su progreso y movilidad social, que sólo son posibles con el esfuerzo, consagración y el conocimiento que se adquiere en las aulas y en los laboratorios de la Facultad de Ingeniería, y que les es transmitido por docentes de excelsas calidades técnicas y humanas. La ingeniería enfrenta en el presente siglo el reto de alcanzar el desarrollo económico que sea sostenible, por eso se presentan también en este artículo los desafíos y las oportunidades que la Facultad de Ingeniería tendrá que resolver para contribuir a al logro de dicho reto. Es innegable que para continuar su protagonismo académico y social, a la Facultad de Ingeniería le obliga perpetuar los principios de excelencia académica que la han distinguido en sus primeros 150 años de existencia, y que se deben al apoyo del Estado, y a las altísimas calidades humanas y académicas tanto de sus estudiantes como de sus profesores.

  15. Incidence and transplacental transmission of Neospora caninum in primiparous females from Bos indicus slaughtered in Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brazil / Incidência e transmissão transplacentária de Neospora caninum em fêmeas primíparas da raça Bos indicus abatidos em Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brasil

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    Sergio do Nascimento Kronka

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available To produce an epidemiological map of neosporosis in Brazil and identify the types of transmission of this disease, the present study evaluated the occurrence of Neospora caninum in Nelore cattle (Bos indicus in Presidente Prudent, west region of Sao Paulo state; its vertical transmission; and the early stage in which fetuses are infected. To achieve this, serum samples from 518 slaughtered pregnant heifers and their fetuses were tested by ELISA technique and fetal brain tissues subjected to PCR. One hundred and three heifers (19.88% had antibodies to N. caninum, as well as 38 (36.8% of fetuses from 4 months of gestation. The conventional PCR failed to detect N. caninum DNA. These findings show that neosporosis occurs in the area studied and that it may be transmitted the transplacental route, althought N. caninum had not detected in brain tissue from non-aborted fetuses. The use of nested PCR it would be applied to increase the sensitivy of test.Para produzir um mapa epidemiológico da neosporose no Brasil e identificar os tipos de transmissão dessa doença, o presente estudo avaliou a ocorrência de Neospora caninum em fêmea Nelore (Bos Indicus em Presidente Prudente, região oeste do Estado de São Paulo e o risco de infecção fetal nos estágios iniciais da gestação. Para a realização deste estudo, amostras de soro de 518 novilhas prenhas abatidas e seus fetos foram testadas pela técnica de ELISA e para avaliação de transmissão vertical, tecido cerebral fetal foi submetido à reação da polimerase em cadeia (PCR. Dessas novilhas, 103 (19,88% tinham anticorpos para N. caninum dos quais 38 (36,8% estavam no 4 mês de gestação. Esses achados mostram que a Neosporose ocorre na área estudada e que pode ser transmitido pela via placentária, embora o N. caninum não tenha sido detectado em tecido cerebral de fetos não abortado. O uso de nested PCR poderia ser aplicado como forma de aumentar a sensibilidade do teste.

  16. Riesgo de transmisión de Leishmania (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae en Mérida Venezuela

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    Elsa Nieves

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available La leishmaniasis es una enfermedad causada por la infección de un parásito protozoario del género Leishmania, transmitido por la picada de insectos hematófagos conocidos como flebotominos. El estudio tiene como objetivo determinar la presencia de flebotominos en los Distritos Sanitarios del estado Mérida y diseñar un mapa de riesgo de transmisión entomológico. Se utilizaron cuatro métodos de captura de flebotominos, los ejemplares se identificaron y se les determinó la infección natural por Leishmania. Se estimó la riqueza de especies, y se realizó un proceso analítico Jerárquico. Los resultados muestran la presencia de diversas especies de flebotominos en los Distritos Sanitarios del estado Mérida, siendo las especies de mayor frecuencia L. youngi, L. gomezi, L. ovallesi y L. walkeri. Se detectó 2,1% de infección natural con Leishmania, la cual se encontró en las 4 especies más frecuentes. Se presenta un mapa de riesgo de transmisión entomológico para el estado Mérida. El conocimiento de la situación actual de los vectores de Leishmania en el estado Mérida y el riesgo de transmisión son relevantes a la hora de considerar la prevención y posible surgimiento de nuevos brotes de leishmaniasis. Abstract (english The leishmaniasis is a disease caused by infection with a protozoan parasite of the genus Leishmania, transmitted by the bite of blood-sucking insects known as sandflies. The study aims to determine the presence of sandflies in Merida state health districts and design a map of entomological risk of transmission. Four methods capture sandflies were used, the specimens were identified and natural Leishmania infection was determined. The richness species was estimated and analityc Hierarchie procesess was performed. The results show the presence of various species of sandflies in Merida state health districts, L. youngi, L. gomezi, L. ovallesi and L. walkeri were most abundant species. The 2.1% of natural infection

  17. Etnobotanica y usos de las plantas de la comunidad rural de Sogamoso, Boyacá, Colombia

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    Manuel Galvis Rueda

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó el uso de plantas medicinales entre los habitantes de Sogamoso, población agraria en el departamento de Boyacá, Colombia,  donde campesinos en sus huertos y paisajes de zona andina y páramo preservan y usan una alta diversidad de plantas, manteniendo una cultura de saberes tradicionales,  para el  tratamiento de enfermedades humanas o de uso etno-veterinario; aprovechando así los beneficios que conlleva la conservación, para preservar y utilizar especies registradas. La metodología desarrollada fue una investigación de acción participativa, donde se realizaron  encuestas de tipo específico a 100 personas, quienes expresaron tener un uso de las plantas medicinales. Se incluyó la caracterización ecológica de la zona elegida, comprendiendo las  microcuencas de río Monquirá  y río Cusiana, donde los recursos in-situ fueron inventariados con la comunidad, recopilándose fotografías,  usos de las plantas nativas, exóticas  o cultivadas en huertos. Como resultado se obtuvo la descripción a nivel botánico, ecológico, climático, así como las prácticas para la conservación o siembra, inventariándose  más de 178 especies, en 55 familias con sus respectivos usos medicinales y formas de preparación, incluyendo la categorización de plantas frías, calientes, de aplicaciones externas o de elaboración de productos. Se  recopilo el saber popular y se rescató el uso tradicional de plantas medicinales nativas que poseen los mayores o abuelos y que es transmitido de generación en generación.

  18. Caracterização parcial de um Tymovirus isolado de tomateiros

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    Isabel Cristina Batista

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Um Tymovirus isolado de sementes de tomateiro (Solanum lycopersicum 'Paronset' com sintomas de necrose, denominado TyToRS08, foi caracterizado quanto ao círculo de hospedeiras, propriedades físico-químicas, sorológicas e moleculares. O vírus foi transmitido mecanicamente a partir de folhas, frutos e sementes infectadas. A gama de hospedeiras incluiu espécies de Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae e Solanaceae, induzindo sintomas local e sistêmicos na maior parte das espécies, exceto para Nicotiana sylvestris, N. tabacum 'Samsun', 'White Burley' e 'Xanthi' que não manifestaram sintomas. Em tomateiros 'Alambra', 'Thomas', 'Diva', 'Romana' e 'Graziela', o vírus induziu sintomas de mosaico e necrose branca. A presença do vírus foi detectada, nas sementes infectadas de todas as cultivares avaliadas, porém não se notou em plântulas após a germinação destas sementes. Foi obtida uma preparação purificada com concentração de 1,04 mg mL-1, empregada na produção de um antissoro policlonal que reagiu em PTA-ELISA com um título de 1/32768. Utilizou-se um par de oligonucleotídeos degenerados, desenhados para anelar na ORF 1 de espécies de Tymovirus, que permitiu a amplificação por RT-PCR de fragmentos com cerca de 700 pb. Após o alinhamento e a análise das sequências, verificou-se que o isolado TyToRS08 possuía valores abaixo de 70% de identidade com as espécies de Tymovirus, indicando que pode se tratar de uma espécie distinta das descritas no gênero, com potencial epidemiológico, pela sua estabilidade e disseminação por sementes de tomate.

  19. Ocorrência de raiva em ovinos no Rio Grande do Sul Occurrence of rabies in sheep in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Daniel R. Rissi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se a ocorrência de raiva em ovinos na região Central do Rio Grande do Sul em novembro de 2003. Foram afetados dois ovinos de raça mista, um macho de três meses e uma fêmea de 2,5 anos de idade que apresentaram sinais clínicos com evolução de cinco dias e caracterizados por dificuldade de locomoção, tremores musculares, decúbito lateral, convulsões, opistótono e febre. Histologicamente havia mielomeningoencefalite não-supurativa, associada a inclusões eosinofílicas intracitoplasmáticas (corpúsculos de Negri em neurônios nos dois ovinos afetados. Em um ovino em que o gânglio de Gasser foi examinado, havia ganglionite não-supurativa. As lesões concentravam-se predominantemente na substância cinzenta da medula espinhal, no tronco encefálico e no cerebelo. Antígeno viral foi detectado em seções selecionadas de ponte e bulbo submetidas ao teste de imuno-histoquímica utilizando anticorpo policlonal anti-ribonucleoproteína do vírus da raiva. Os casos ocorreram em meio a um surto de raiva bovina transmitida por morcegos e foram considerados, com bases epidemiológicas, como transmitidos da mesma forma, como ocorre na raiva endêmica de bovinos no Rio Grande do Sul.Cases of rabies in sheep occurring in November 2003, in central Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, are described. A 3-month-old male, and a 2.5-month-old female sheep were affected. Clinical signs were characterized by abnormal gait, trembling, lateral recumbency, convulsion, opisthotonus, and fever. Histological findings included a non-suppurative myelomeningoencephalitis associated with intracytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusion (Negri bodies in neurons. Lesions were predominantly observed in gray matter of the spinal cord, brainstem and cerebellum. There was non-suppurative Gasserian ganglionitis in one sheep in which this structure was examined. Immunohistochemistry using rabies virus ribonucleoprotein polyclonal antibody yelded positive result in brain

  20. Controle social exercitado nas universidades públicas de Teresina (PI: um estudo com acadêmicos de ciências contábeis

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    Anderson Rafael Costa Sousa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento transmitido e discutido em sala de aula, seja por padrões normatizados, mensurados e avaliados ou por abordagens intuitivas, tem o dever de minimamente agregar momentos de reflexão sobre sua aplicabilidade como sendo algo que sirva, inclusive, de retorno social. No Brasil, as instituições educacionais funcionam hoje não só como transmissoras de conhecimento técnico-científico – a responsabilidade ético-social torna-se base no convívio em sociedade diante do contexto de desigualdades sociais e de corrupção presentes no sistema político brasileiro. Diante disso, apresenta-se a evolução normativa e legal que propicia o controle dos gastos públicos, destacando-se, por exemplo, a Constituição Federal, a Lei de Responsabilidade Fiscal, a Lei de Acesso à Informação e as suas contribuições no processo de controle social. Desenvolveu-se essa pesquisa nas instituições públicas de ensino superior do município de Teresina, capital do estado do Piauí, na tentativa de questionar o desenvolvimento da estrutura legal do Estado no que tange aos incentivos das práticas do controle social. Por fim, segue-se, então, com um estudo que objetiva estimar o nível de acompanhamento das respectivas melhorias e dos resultados alcançados por parte dos estudantes de ciências contábeis. Busca-se, assim, apresentar a necessidade de significativas e otimistas mudanças, principalmente no que tange à participação dos discentes na gestão pública e na conscientização da importância do controle dos recursos públicos, que são escassos e visam a atender de modo satisfatório às necessidades coletivas dos cidadãos. O conteúdo deste artigo tem como referências artigos científicos, legislações e portais de informação aos cidadãos de entidades públicas competentes.

  1. Análise semiótica e formal do docudrama "Mulheres Assassinas"

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    Lucas Bonesi Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es analizar el docudrama “Mujeres Asesinas”, transmitido por el canal Discovery Channel, en el que se cuentan historias de mujeres que han cometido homicidios. Este docudrama será investigado en dos sentidos: en primer lugar, será analizado en cuanto a su forma, o sea, cuáles son los elementos visuales presentes en el programa que pueden llevarlo a ser clasificado como docudrama. Para esta investigación, se utilizarán, primordialmente, los conceptos de reproducción y representación presentada por Bill Nichols (2012. Así, después de realizar este examen, se retirarán del programa dos imágenes y a partir de ellas, se hará un análisis semiótico, considerando los diferentes signos presentes en estas imágenes. El programa, que tiene como tema central historias de mujeres que cometen homicidios, se divide también por temas, o sea, en cada capítulo se reproduce una historia diferente, mostrando los diferentes motivos que llevan a que ocurra el homicidio. En ese sentido, esta investigación analizará los capítulos de mujeres que cometieron crímenes causados por emociones fuertes como rabia, amor, desespero, lucro, etc. De igual manera, también en virtud del mismo capítulo contar tres historias distintas, solo uno de los casos será escogido para examinarlo. Por medio de este trabajo, se pretende observar que existe una libertad cinematográfica en el docudrama el volver a contar la historia según la versión del director y, mientras tanto, mantener aún el deseo de ser fiel a la realidad. Por tanto, para que esto sea posible, se necesita que el director use muchos signos indicativos para que el telespectador tenga la impresión de estar frente a una historia verdadera, ya que en realidad estas imágenes son creíbles.

  2. Anuncios y estrategias de campaña en televisión: un balance de la elección intermedia de 2015 en México

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    Oniel Francisco Díaz Jiménez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available En las campañas electorales profesionalizadas, los partidos políticos y los candidatos presentan sus propuestas ante el electorado y buscan maximizar votos, principalmente, a través de los medios de comunicación. En elecciones presidenciales, las estrategias y las tácticas de campaña se enfocan en las imágenes y las propuestas políticas de los candidatos que compiten por la Presidencia. Sin embargo, ¿qué ocurre en elecciones congresionales intermedias, donde los actores principales de la campaña son los partidos políticos y sus candidatos que compiten por cargos legislativos? Este trabajo realiza un análisis de contenido de los anuncios televisivos (spots de 30 segundos transmitidos por los partidos mexicanos durante las elecciones congresionales intermedias de 2015, con el fin de identificar sus estrategias de campaña. Los resultados muestran diferencias relevantes entre las campañas realizadas por las organizaciones nacionales de los partidos y las campañas de los candidatos individuales a nivel distrital. Sin embargo, también ponen a la vista que los anuncios de ataque fueron un componente central en las estrategias mediáticas de los partidos y los candidatos durante la campaña. / In professionalized election campaigns, political parties and candidates present their policy proposals to the electorate and seek to maximize votes, primarily through media appeals. In presidential elections, campaign tactics and strategies focus on the images and policy proposals of presidential candidates. However, what happens in congressional midterm elections, where the main campaigners are the political parties and their congressional candidates? This article analyzes the content of all television announcements (30-second spots broadcast by Mexican political parties during the 2015 mid-term congressional elections, in order to identify their campaign strategies. The results show relevant differences between the campaigns run by national

  3. FÉ E PRAGMATISMO NO SERTÃO

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    Emilio Tarlis Mendes Pontes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El imaginario de los “campesinos” es muy impregnado por figuras místico-míticas que tienen una profunda influencia en la formación de su ethos social. Folclorificadas o reales, hacen influencia individual y socialmente - aunque no necesariamente consciente de ese poder – en una miríada de “devotos”, en el sentido lato, en el cotidiano representativo de su tierra/identidad: el “campo”. Esta participación se entrelaza entre diversas corrientes: eclesial, cultural, religioso, transcendental, etc, donde no siempre hacen un dialogo conceptual, fenomenal o institucional o no están de acuerdo y luchan cuando plantean cuestiones de los dominios de territorialidad religiosas, cuyos lideres y/o portadores de “vínculos sobrenaturales” dictan lo que seguir. Esta influencia es personal o de forma remota, transmitido de generación en generación, de manera inculturada o autóctonas y tiene su origen en la Heteronomía, que forjó el imaginario religioso de lo “campesino”. El poder de persuasión es explorado en varias áreas desde la política a la religión, del académico al social, del individuo a las masas. Ha sido canalizado en el trabajo social como para influir en las campañas y mítines electorales; en la identidad del “campesino” a una cultura líquida; en la solidificación del analfabetismo político en la educación contextualizada en regiones semiáridas; una fe esclarecida a una práctica religiosa irracional e irresponsable. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo discutir la íntima relación entre estos fenómenos citados manifiesto en cálidas demostraciones públicas o en acciones individuales, que constituyen la esencia del “campesino” y sus alrededores.

  4. Detección y cuantificación del Potato mop-top virus (PMTV en Colombia mediante qRT-PCR

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    Nevar García Bastidas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El Potato mop-top virus (PMTV es uno de los virus re-emergentes en cultivos de papa en Colombia. Es transmitido por Spongospora subterranea, el agente causal de la sarna polvosa. La detección del PMTV presenta dificultades debido a su distribución irregular en las plantas, bajo título y movimiento sistémico como ARN desnudo. Con el fin de ampliar el rango de herramientas disponibles para detectar el PMTV en los programas de certificación de tubérculo-semilla, en este estudio se evaluó la prueba de RT-PCR en tiempo real (qRT-PCR en dos pasos: con los cebadores PMTV-1948F/PMTV-2017R y la sonda Taqman® PMTV-1970, dirigidos al gen CP-RT del ARN2 viral. Se construyó una curva estándar a partir de la transcripción in vitro de un fragmento de 1513 pb de este gen. Posteriormente, se evaluó la utilidad de la técnica a partir de tres tipos de muestras: plantas señuelo de Nicotiana benthamiana y Solanum phureja inoculadas con quistosoros de Sss, raíces de papa con síntomas de sarna polvosa del municipio de La Unión (Antioquia y tubérculos-semilla. Mediante qRT-PCR fue posible detectar el virus en 11 de las 20 muestras de raíz de plantas señuelo, mientras que 14 de las 15 muestras de raíces de papa resultaron positivas, estimándose una concentración entre 4.72 x 10(11 y 7.60 x 10(13 partículas virales/µl. Adicionalmente, en el ensayo de tubérculo-semilla se determinó la presencia del PMTV en una de las 16 muestras. Estos resultados indican la viabilidad de utilizar rutinariamente la técnica de qRT-PCR para la detección de PMTV en Colombia.

  5. ¿CÓMO SE HACE UN ANÁLISIS DEL ENTORNO ECONÓMICO EMPRESARIAL?

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    Carlos Parodi Trece

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available La adecuada interpretación de la evolución de la economía constituye una herramienta útil para mejorarla toma de decisiones empresariales. El objetivo del artículo es explicar, con ejemplos aplicados a larealidad económica actual, cómo se hace un análisis del entorno económico y cómo este sirve para laplanificación estratégica empresarial. Para ello, previa explicación conceptual del marco general, sedefinen el producto interno bruto, la inflación y la brecha externa como indicadores de resultados, clavesen el «lenguaje» usado por los analistas. Son indicadores económicos, relacionados entre sí, que dependende la política económica interna y de choques exógenos, definidos estos últimos como eventos que estánfuera de las manos de los diseñadores de la política económica, pero que influyen en las tres variablesmencionadas, como, por ejemplo, la crisis financiera internacional. A continuación sigue la formalizaciónpor medio de las identidades macroeconómicas, para finalizar explicando «cómo va la economía» mediantelas mismas; así como, la relación entre el entorno económico interno con el externo. Acercar la economíaa la empresa debe ser una prioridad en un contexto cada vez más integrado, caracterizado por el hecho deque lo positivo y lo negativo de lo que ocurre en la economía mundial es transmitido, mediante diversoscanales, a las empresas ubicadas en distintos países. De ahí que las empresas deban ampliar su visión,pues el entorno económico no solo incluye lo que ocurre dentro del país, sino, cada vez con mayorrelevancia, el devenir de la economía mundial.

  6. Prevalencia de anticuerpos neutralizantes contra los serotipos del virus dengue en universitarios de Tabasco, México Prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to dengue virus serotypes in university students from Tabasco, Mexico

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    Gilma Guadalupe Sánchez-Burgos

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la seroprevalencia de anticuerpos neutralizantes de los serotipos del virus dengue en estudiantes universitarios de Tabasco, México, durante los meses de septiembre a noviembre del año 2005. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se determinó la presencia de IgG contra el virus en el suero de estudiantes que acudieron al centro clínico de la universidad; en los sueros positivos se determinaron los anticuerpos neutralizantes mediante el ensayo de reducción de placa lítica. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de IgG contra el dengue fue de 9.1%; de esta proporción, los anticuerpos neutralizantes fueron DENV-1 (20%, DENV-2 (100%, DENV-3 (4% y DENV-4 (68%. CONCLUSIONES: Este estudio muestra que el serotipo transmitido con mayor frecuencia en el estado de Tabasco es el DENV-2, aunque no ha sido el aislado con más frecuencia. La elevada prevalencia de anticuerpos neutralizantes contra el DENV-4, al parecer de reacción cruzada, podría explicar la baja circulación de este serotipo en Tabasco.OBJECTIVE: Determine the seroprevalence of neutralizing antibodies to dengue virus in students from the state university of Tabasco, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A transversal study was conducted of serum collected from students between September and November, 2005. The sera were screened for anti-dengue IgG and those that had evidence of dengue antibodies were analyzed by a plaque reduction neutralization test. RESULTS: Prevalence of anti-dengue IgG was 9.1%. The frequency of neutralizing antibodies was 100% for DENV-2, 68% for DENV-4, 20% for DENV-1, and 4 % for DENV-3. CONCLUSIONS: We found that in this population, DENV-2 circulates more than DENV-3 despite the fact that DENV-3 is more frequently isolated. Unexpectedly, neutralizing antibodies against DENV-4 were frequently found even though this serotype is almost extinct; thus, it is probable that cross-immunity could suppress DEN-4 transmission, as has been suggested.

  7. Caracterización molecular de un begomovirus del tomate en el Valle del Cauca, Colombia, y búsqueda de fuentes de resistencia para el mejoramiento de la variedad Unapal Maravilla Molecular characterization of a begomovirus affecting tomato in the Cauca Valle - Colombia and identification of sources of resistance to improve the variety Unapal Maravilla

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    Ana Karine Martínez A

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizó un virus transmitido por la mosca blanca Bemisia tabaci al tomate en el Valle del Cauca como una variante del Virus del mosaico amarillo del tomate (Tomato yellow mosaic virus = ToYMV. Plantas de tomate (FLA 496-11-6-1-0, FLA 478-6-3-1-11, FLA 456-4 y FLA 653-3-1-0 de 20 días de edad se confinaron en jaulas individuales con 10 individuos virulíferos de B. tabaci (biotipo B por planta, en condiciones de invernadero. La infección por el virus se confirmó por el desarrollo de los síntomas y las pruebas moleculares de PCR e hibridación dot blot. Las características agromorfológicas se evaluaron en campo en un diseño de bloques completos al azar con tres repeticiones. Las líneas FLA 653-3-1-0, FLA 496-11-6-1-0 y FLA 478-6-3-1-11 desarrollaron síntomas muy leves; el ADN viral fue apenas detectable para algunos individuos y presentaron características del fruto y rendimientos deseables.A virus transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci to tomato was characterized in the Cauca Valley like a variant of Tomato yellow mosaic virus (ToYMV. Artificial whitefly-mediated inoculation in the greenhouse was done with 20 days-old tomato plants (FLA 496-11-6-1-0, FLA 478-6-3-1-11, FLA 456-4 y FLA 653-3-1-0 exposed to 10 viruliferous individuals of B. tabaci (biotype B per plant in individual insect-proof cages. The presence of the begomovirus was evaluated by symptoms development and was confirmed using dot blot hybridization and PCR. Agronomical characteristics were evaluated in the field in a completely randomized blocks design with 3 replications. The lines FLA 653-3-1-0, FLA 496-11-6-1-0 and FLA 478-6-3-1-11 developed mild symptoms, viral DNA was barely detectable in some individuals, and they showed characteristics of the fruit and desirable yield.

  8. Contribuição do monitor de eventos no diagnóstico de sintomas

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    Grupi Cesar J.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o poder de contribuição do monitor de eventos sintomáticos no esclarecimento de sintomas. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 64 pacientes encaminhados para esclarecimento de sintomas e que já haviam sido submetidos à gravação com Holter. Foram monitorizados, durante 15 dias, com gravador com memória circular com capacidade de registrar uma derivação do ECG (CM5, antes e após ativado pelo paciente. Na vigência de sintomas, o paciente acionava um comando do gravador que provocava a retenção do sinal do ECG, que era, posteriormente, transmitido a uma central via telefone. RESULTADOS: Em dois pacientes não foi possível a realização completa da monitorização, nos restantes, sintomas que motivaram a indicação do exame foram: palpitações (67,7%, tonturas (32,3%, síncopes (29% e outros (30,6%. Em 85,5% dos pacientes houve relato de sintomas, sendo que em 62,2% houve registro de alterações eletrocardiográficas, relacionadas aos sintomas: taquicardia sinusal, 45,5%; extra-sístoles, 30,3%; taquiarritmia supraventricular, 21,2%; taquicardia ventricular, 3% e bloqueio atrioventricular, 3%. A 1ª transmissão motivada por sintoma ocorreu: 35,5% no 1º dia, 33,9% do 2° ao 5º, 12,9% do 6º ao 10º e 3,2% do 11º ao 15º. Nos pacientes onde a gravação com Holter não permitiu esclarecimento, o gravador de eventos registrou sintomas em 35,5%. CONCLUSÃO: Trata-se de método bem aceito pelos pacientes e capaz de produzir aumento significativo no esclarecimento de sintomas em relação ao Holter.

  9. Idosos, Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis e aids: conhecimentos e percepção de risco

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    Nívea Maria Izidro de Brito

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: No contexto das doenças crônicas transmissíveis, a pandemia da aids vem gerando discussões em âmbito internacional sobre as formas de controlar seu avanço, inclusive na população idosa, a qual apresenta incidência considerável de casos. Objetivo: Investigar o conhecimento e verificar a percepção de risco de idosos quanto à contaminação por Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis (IST e HIV. Métodos: Trata-se de estudo descritivo de natureza quantitativa realizado com 55 idosos participantes de grupos em duas unidades de saúde da família interligadas à rede-escola. Resultados: A maioria dos idosos era entre 60–70 anos, sexo masculino, casados, católicos, com o nível fundamental incompleto. Além disso, 40% dos idosos citaram o uso do preservativo como principal método de prevenção às infecções sexuais, 21,9% responderam que o HIV é transmitido de uma pessoa para outra por meio do contato sexual e 38,2% citaram que a doença não tem cura. Sobre a percepção de risco, 76,4% referiram que não tinham nenhuma possibilidade de adquirir Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis ou HIV. Tal fator pode contribuir para que essa população se considere pouco vulnerável à contaminação ou não se perceba em risco, o que os torna susceptíveis ao perigo da infecção, favorecendo o aumento do índice de idosos infectados no cenário nacional. Conclusão: Cabe aos organismos governamentais e não governamentais investir em práticas educativas, onde idosos possam ser inseridos em um ambiente que aborde a sexualidade, proporcionando maior segurança e qualidade de vida aos nossos cidadãos.

  10. Ocorrência generalizada do Lettuce mottle virus em três regiões produtoras de alface comercial do Estado de São Paulo Occurrence of Lettuce mottle virus on three lettuce producing areas from São Paulo State

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    Renate Krause-Sakate

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Os sequivírus são vírus isométricos transmitidos por afídeos. Lettuce mottle virus (LeMoV, um provável sequivirus foi descrito no Brasil em 1982 e causa sintomas de mosaico semelhantes aos observados pelo Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV. Um levantamento para ocorrência do LeMoV nos campos de produção de alface de três diferentes regiões do Estado de São Paulo (Mogi das Cruzes, Campinas e Bauru foi realizado durante 2002 a 2005. RNA total foi extraído e utilizado na detecção, em RT-PCR, com oligonucleotídeos específicos para o LeMoV. Do total de 1362 amostras, 137 (10,05% foram positivas para o LeMoV. Infecção mista com o LMV foi verificada em 43 amostras (31,4%. Foi verificada a ocorrência do LeMoV nas três diferentes regiões analisadas, porém sua ocorrência foi baixa nas diferentes épocas do ano.Sequiviruses are isometric aphid-borne plant viruses. Lettuce mottle virus (LeMoV, a putative sequivirus was first described in Brazil on 1982 causing similar mosaic symptoms as Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV. A survey for the occurrence of LeMoV on open field conditions was carried out during 2002 to 2005 on Mogi das Cruzes, Campinas and Bauru in São Paulo state. Total RNA was extracted and used on RT-PCR with specific LeMoV primers. On 1362 samples tested, 137 (10,05% were positive for LeMoV. Mixed infections with LMV was observed on 43 samples (31,4%. The presence of LeMoV was observed in the three different regions, but with low incidence during the year.

  11. Influencia de las vías de inmunización mucosales sobre la protección contra herpes simple tipo 2 con el AFCo1 como adyuvante

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    Osmir Cabrera1

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Las vacunas mucosales se han planteado como una estrategia prometedora para inducir protección mucosal. El virus herpes simple tipo 2 es uno de los patógenos más frecuentes en el humano transmitidos por vía sexual. Varios candidatos vacunales contra este patógeno se han evaluado, pero no han sido efectivos, por lo que aún no se cuenta con una vacuna profiláctica ni terapéutica. La gD2 es una glicoproteína recombinante y está reportada como uno de los antígenos de importancia vacunal contra este germen. Contamos con el cocleato derivado del proteoliposoma de Neisseria meningitidis serogrupo B (AFCo1 que ha mostrado capacidades adyuvantes por varias vías de inmunización. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la protección inducida en ratones por el AFCo1-gD2, administrada por diferentes vías mucosales. Se utilizaron ratones hembras C57BL6, los cuales fueron inmunizados por vía intranasal (IN, intravaginal (IVag o intrarrectal (IR con AFCo1-gD2 o gD2 sola. Se determinó la IgG anti gD2, la proliferación celular específica, la replicación viral en lavado vaginal, los signos de la enfermedad y la protección frente al reto viral. Se obtuvo respuestas significativas de IgG anti gD2 por todas las vías, aunque la IN mostró los valores más elevados. Se observó proliferación celular en células de animales inmunizados IN e IVag, pero no por vía IR. Se observó la mayor protección (100% en los animales inmunizados por vía IN. Se concluye que la vía nasal es la más prometedora en la inducción de protección contra este reto viral.

  12. Tambores, rádios e vídeoclipes: Sobre paisagens sonoras, territórios e multiterritorialidades

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    Marcos Alberto Torres

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Os sons, transmitidos por meio de propagações ondulatórias, são produzidos e reproduzidos de diferentes formas e maneiras, seja pela natureza ou pelos seres humanos. Pela natureza têm-se os sons dos ventos, das águas, dos animais. Pelos humanos têm-se os sons das falas, do trabalho, da música, dentre outros. Os seres humanos, dessa forma, organizam sons para comunicação e, mais recentemente na história da humanidade, encontraram a possibilidade técnica do acondicionamento dos sons, para a posterior reprodução em diferentes localidades, marcando uma nova fase nas paisagens sonoras do mundo. Seja pela fala, seja pela música, a humanidade comunica ideias e valores permeados pela cultura. As mais recentes propagações musicais, que se atrelam à linguagem audiovisual, marcam a paisagem dos lugares, que comunica, retrata, e possibilita a existência de distintas territorialidades no espaço. O presente artigo objetiva tecer relações entre a paisagem sonora e a construção de multiterritorialidades, a partir de exemplos de identidades criadas com base em movimentos e estilos musicais, seus territórios e territorialidades. Abstract DRUMS, RADIOS AND VIDEO-CLIPS: ABOUT SOUNDSCAPES, TERRITORIES AND MULTITERRITORIALITIES The sounds transmitted through vibrations in air are produced in different forms and ways, by nature or by human beings. Many sounds exist in the nature like wind sounds, water sounds and animal sounds. The humans produced sounds like speech, work sounds, musics and others. Therefore, they can organize sounds to communicate and nowadays they found out the possibility of the keep sounds to reproduce it in differents places. The humanity communicate ideas and cultural values through the speech or music. The most recent spread musics that are related with audiovisual language showed the landscapes of places and it also communicate, reflect and gives rise distinct territorialities space. It research verifies the relations

  13. Efecto del extracto de paico (chenopodium ambrosioides, en parásitos gastrointestinales de gallos de pelea (gallus domesticus.

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    Paola Rodríguez

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available El uso empírico de las plantas como agentes de salud es ampliamente conocido en múltiplesculturas del mundo, conocimientos que son transmitidos de generación en generación. En la actualidad, las plantas medicinales y sus extractos, son utilizados con fines terapéuticos, instaurándose como una alternativa farmacológica, para diferentes patologías tanto en humanos como en animales. En la etnomedicina de algunas regiones de Latinoamérica, el paico (Chenopodium ambrosioides ha sido empleado en infusión de hojas y flores comocarminativo y digestivo, pero principalmente como antihelmíntico. Por lo tanto, el presenteestudio se realizó con el fin de evaluar el efecto antiparasitario del extracto de esta planta engallos de pelea (Gallus domesticus en un criadero de la ciudad de Tunja-Boyacá, ya que los propietarios de estas aves lo utilizan de manera artesanal como desparasitante natural. Para el trabajo se utilizaron 45 ejemplares, organizados en 3 grupos a los cuales, cada 15días y durante un mes, se les administró, por vía oral, 0,1 ml/ Kg de extracto de paico (grupoT2, 0.5ml/Kg de un medicamento comercial a base de Levamisol-Ivermectina (grupo T3 y0.5ml/ave de agua (grupo T1 control. Se recolectaron muestras de materia fecal con el objeto de determinar la presencia de huevos y/o larvas de parásitos, utilizando la técnica de Formol-Eter. Durante el estudio fueron identificados diferentes especies de ascaridia spp, heterakis gallinarum, eimeria sp, huevos y larvas de trichostrongylus. Posterior a la administracióndel tratamiento con extracto de paico se encontraron huevos de ascaridia galli, heterakis gallinarum, eimeria sp , y al suministrar la última dosis sólo se identificaron huevos de ascaridia galli e eimeria sp , lo que corrobora su efecto antiparasitario.

  14. El ambulantaje en imágenes : una historia de representaciones de la venta callejera en la Ciudad de México (siglos XVIII-XX

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    Arnaud Exbalin

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo es un análisis de las representaciones del ambulantaje (comercio ambulante, trabajo en la vía pública en la Ciudad de México, a través de la pintura de castas del siglo XVIII, la fotografía de finales del siglo XIX y principios del XX y la fotografía de prensa de finales del siglo XX. Este ensayo observa las transformaciones que esta actividad ha tenido en las diferentes épocas de desarrollo de la ciudad de México, a través del análisis de los productores de la imagen y del imaginario alrededor de este tipo de comercio, transmitido por medio de la pintura de castas o de la fotografía. Los tres artículos que conforman este ensayo, intentan indagar de forma general cómo se ha representado el ambulantaje en cada época, qué rasgos de esta actividad se modifican y cuáles se mantiene en el paso de un período a otro, de qué forma el análisis de las representaciones de una temporalidad nos ayuda a entender las imágenes propagadas en los siguientes periodos. Los autores abordaron principalmente tres dimensiones de la representación del ambulantaje para cada periodo: la social, la territorial y la económica. A pesar de las diferentes fuentes y perspectivas de análisis, logramos identificar aspectos que permanecen constantes en este largo periodo y que nos permiten entender la dinámica del fenómeno social de este tipo de comercio en la ciudad de México, dentro de un marco histórico y tradicional. Por otro lado, es concluyente que el ambulantaje es una actividad que se adapta a las cambiantes condiciones del espacio público, y que esta adaptabilidad hace posible su realización en los diferentes momentos del desarrollo urbano de la ciudad.

  15. PROFESORADO Y EGRESADOS ANTE LOS SISTEMAS DE EVALUACIÓN DEL ALUMNADO EN LA FORMACIÓN INICIAL DEL MAESTRO DE EDUCACIÓN INFANTIL

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    Lurdes Martínez-Mínguez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Ante la necesidad de mejorar las guías de las asignaturas, se ha investigado para conocer el estado de los sistemas de evaluación del alumnado en las últimas promociones de la formación inicial del Maestro de Educación Infantil en la Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona. La metodología utilizada ha sido cualitativa, a través de grupos de discusión de docentes y graduados de las cuatro últimas promociones (2007-2011. Los resultados muestran percepciones similares respecto a la coherencia entre los diferentes apartados de los programas de las asignaturas y la transparencia sobre el tipo de evaluación a realizar; y apuntan percepciones diferentes respecto a los instrumentos utilizados, el feedback transmitido y las capacidades cognitivas más evaluadas. Se concluye que es esencial que en las guías docentes haya coherencia entre los diferentes apartados;el estudiante conozca la evaluación con prontitud, claridad y transparencia; se contemplen sistemas de auto y coevaluación; y el profesorado guie la conexión entre teoría y práctica de forma crítica y reflexiva. ABSTRACT: In view of the need to improve course descriptions, the most recent graduate classes of initial training of Preschool Teachers at Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona have been studied in order to gain insight on the status of the student assessment systems. The methodology used was qualitative using focus groups of teachers and graduates of the last four classes (2007-2011. The results show similar perceptions regarding coherence among the different course program items and the transparency of the assessment methods applied. Some different perceptions have been noticed in respect to the instruments used, the feedback provided and the cognitive abilities more frequently assessed. The study concludes that it is essential that all teaching guides show coherence in the various items; that the students have an early knowledge of the assessments, in a clear and

  16. Aspectos epidemiológicos do câncer cervical Epidemiological aspects of cervical cancer

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    Antonio Aleixo Neto

    1991-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi efetuada revisão dos aspectos epidemiológicos do câncer cervical, um dos mais freqüentes em mulheres de países em desenvolvimento. No Brasil a incidência varia de 23,7/100.000, em Porto Alegre, a 83,2/100.000, em Recife. Nos Estados Unidos a incidência em 1978 foi de 6,8/100.000 entre as mulheres brancas e de 14,7/100.000 entre as negras. Várias observações sugerem a hipótese de que o câncer cervical esteja relacionado com algum aspecto da atividade sexual, possivelmente algum agente transmitido por via venérea. As evidências têm implicado o papilomavirus humano (HPV como o principal agente etiológico deste câncer. Vários trabalhos foram analisados quanto à validade desta hipótese etiológica, mostrando que há uma relação entre HPV e o câncer cervical. Foram analisados os fatores de risco mais conhecidos, tais como o comportamento sexual, o tabagismo e a contracepção, diante das várias possibilidades etiológicas existentes.A review concerning the epidemiological issues relating to cervical cancer, one of the most frequent in the women of developing countries, was undertaken in - Brazil, the incidence rate varies from 23.7/100,000 in Porto Alegre to 83.2/100,000 in Recife. In the United States, the 1978 incidence rate was 6.8/100,000 in white women and 14.7/100,000 among black women. Several studies have suggested the hypotheses that cervical cancer could be related to some venereal agent. The evidences have shown the human papillomavirus (HPV to be the main etiological agent. Several studies on the validity of such a hypotheses were realyzed and it became clear that there does infact exist a relationship between the HPV and cervical cancer. Finally, the better known risk factors, such as sexual behaviour, smoking and the contraception were studied in the light of the various etiological hypotheses.

  17. Mídia, violência e alteridade: um estudo de caso Media, violence and otherness: a case study

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    Fabiana Pinheiro Ramos

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho é discutir algumas representações que circularam na mídia impressa a respeito do caso de um seqüestro de ônibus que ocorreu na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, em junho do ano 2000. O seqüestro foi transmitido ao vivo pela TV e teve um desfecho trágico, tendo recebido ampla cobertura nos meios de comunicação. Foram analisadas duas matérias de revistas semanais de circulação nacional e setenta matérias de um jornal de grande circulação em São Paulo e no resto do país. A discussão é centrada na figura do agente da violência - o criminoso, a partir da perspectiva da produção da alteridade. Os resultados apontam que a mídia, na maioria das vezes, contribui para a mitificação do fenômeno da violência e para a manutenção da concepção de que a violência é um problema individual de alguém que não sabe lidar com suas emoções e dificuldades, e que merece, portanto, ser excluído do convívio social.The objective of this paper is to discuss some representations that circulated on press media about the bus kidnapping case that occurred in the city of Rio de Janeiro, in June 2000. The kidnapping was aired live on TV with a big mass media coverage, and it had a tragic end. Our analysis comprised two reports of magazines of national circulation and seventy news reports of an important newspaper from São Paulo, read all over the country. The focus of the analysis is the figure of the agent of violence - the criminal, adopting the otherness production perspective. The results showed that media contribute to mystify the violence, and to sustain the conception that violence is an individual problem of someone who cannot deal with emotions and difficulties, and therefore deserves to be excluded from social ground.

  18. A genética dos distúrbios do sono na infância e adolescência The genetics of sleep disorders in childhood and adolescence

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    Magda Lahorgue Nunes

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste artigo é revisar a literatura sobre a genética dos distúrbios do sono na infância e adolescência. FONTES DOS DADOS: As palavras-chave "sono" e "genética" foram usadas para pesquisar por artigos publicados nos últimos cinco anos no banco de dados MEDLINE. A seguir, seus resumos foram analisados. A pesquisa também incluiu artigos clássicos, com a primeira descrição dos genes. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A recorrência familiar de muitos distúrbios do sono é um achado freqüente, mas loci genéticos foram descobertos para poucos deles. Descrevemos aqui distúrbios do sono transmitidos por herança genética e também aqueles que apresentam altos índices de recorrência familiar, apesar de nenhum gene específico haver sido encontrado. CONCLUSÕES: Apesar da maioria dos distúrbios do sono ainda não terem uma base molecular identificada, técnicas modernas são cada vez mais utilizadas para determinar a contribuição dos genes ao sono e aos seus distúrbios associados. A importância clínica destas descobertas pode estar relacionada com a melhoria de métodos diagnósticos, mas também como alvo para o desenvolvimento de medicações específicas.OBJECTIVE: To review the literature regarding the genetics of sleep disorders in childhood and adolescence. SOURCES: Articles published in the past 5 years were searched on MEDLINE using the keywords sleep and genetics. Abstracts were then analyzed. Classical articles with the first description of genes were also included. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: We often find familial recurrence in many sleep disorders. However, gene loci were discovered for only a few of them. We describe sleep disorders transmitted by genetic heritance and also those in that, although a gene was not found, familial recurrence is high. CONCLUSION: Although most of the sleep disorders do not have by now an identified molecular basis, modern techniques are being increasingly applied to determine the

  19. La familia y la cultura: una conexión innovadora para el cuidado de la salud Family and culture: An innovative connection for health care

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    Luz Dary Mejía

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Caracterizar los artículos publicados en base de datos CUIDEN desde el año 2000 a 2009 que estudian la relación familia y cultura. Metodología: La revisión sistemática partió de 288 artículos. Solo 24 analizaron la temática y se ajustaron a los criterios de inclusión. Resultados: 66.7% fueron investigaciones; 20.5% revisiones de tema; 8.3% experiencias y trabajos de campo, y 4.2% reflexiones. El análisis se agrupó en tres categorías emergentes: la familia y la cultura como guía en el cuidado de la salud; la familia como factor de riesgo para sus miembros y la familia frente a los problemas de salud. Conclusión: Es un tema emergente en la literatura. Se hace evidente la relación familia y cultura en el cuidado popular vivido, construido, compartido y transmitido por la familia de generación en generación según la cultura.Objective: To characterize the articles published in CUIDEN database from 2000 to 2009 to study the relationship between family and culture. Methodology: The systematic review started with 288 papers. Only 24 items analyzed the issue and adjusted the criteria for inclusion. Results: 66.7% was research; 20.5% reviews of subject; 8.3% were experiences and fieldwork and 4.2% were reflections. The analysis was grouped into three emergent categories: family and culture as a guide for health care; the family as a risk factor for their members and the family from health problems. Conclusion: It is an emerging topic in Literature. It makes clear the relationship between family and culture. This can be seen in the popular care lived, built, shared and transmitted from the family from generation to generation according to the culture.

  20. As deficiências auditivas relacionadas às alterações do DNA mitocondrial.

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    Carvalho Maria F. P. de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A deficiência auditiva é sintoma comum que pode apresentar várias etiologias, entre elas as causadas por alterações genéticas. As mutações genéticas podem ocorrer em genes nucleares e mitocondriais. A mitocôndria, uma organela intracelular, tem o seu próprio genoma (DNA, que é uma molécula circular e é transmitido exclusivamente pela mãe. As mutações do DNA mitocondrial são transmitidas pela linhagem materna, mas podem ocorrer mutações espontâneas. O fenótipo, ou expressão clínica, da mutação mitocondrial vai depender da quantidade de DNA mitocondrial mutante existente na célula, situação conhecida como heteroplasmia. A mitocôndria tem a função de disponibilizar energia para as células sob a forma de ATP (trifosfato de adenosina. Os órgãos que requerem grande quantidade de energia são mais comumente acometidos em casos de mutações do DNA mitocondrial, como células nervosas, musculares, endócrinas, ópticas e auditivas. Como a cóclea é grande consumidora de energia, uma mutação no DNA mitocondrial de células ciliadas causa deficiência auditiva do tipo neurossensorial, bilateral, simétrica e progressiva. As deficiências auditivas causadas por mutações no DNA mitocondrial correspondem a 0,5% a 1% de todas as deficiências auditivas de origem genética. Foi realizada uma extensa revisão bibliográfica, a fim de estudar as deficiências auditivas causadas por alterações no DNA mitocondrial. A deficiência auditiva pode se apresentar na forma isolada (forma não sindrômica, como nos casos de hiper-sensibilidade aos antibióticos aminoglicosídeos e presbiacusia, ou associada a outras doenças (forma sindrômica, como na síndrome de Kearns-Sayre e diabete e surdez de herança materna.