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Sample records for bunyaviridae infections

  1. Spatial-temporal analysis of Cache Valley virus (Bunyaviridae: Orthobunyavirus) infection in anopheline and culicine mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the northeastern United States, 1997-2012.

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    Andreadis, Theodore G; Armstrong, Philip M; Anderson, John F; Main, Andrew J

    2014-10-01

    Cache Valley virus (CVV) is a mosquito-borne bunyavirus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus) that is enzootic throughout much of North and Central America. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been incriminated as important reservoir and amplification hosts. CVV has been found in a diverse array of mosquito species, but the principal vectors are unknown. A 16-year study was undertaken to identify the primary mosquito vectors in Connecticut, quantify seasonal prevalence rates of infection, and define the spatial geographic distribution of CVV in the state as a function of land use and white-tailed deer populations, which have increased substantially over this period. CVV was isolated from 16 mosquito species in seven genera, almost all of which were multivoltine and mammalophilic. Anopheles (An.) punctipennis was incriminated as the most consistent and likely vector in this region on the basis of yearly isolation frequencies and the spatial geographic distribution of infected mosquitoes. Other species exhibiting frequent temporal and moderate spatial geographic patterns of virus isolation within the state included Ochlerotatus (Oc.) trivittatus, Oc. canadensis, Aedes (Ae.) vexans, and Ae. cinereus. New isolation records for CVV were established for An. walkeri, Culiseta melanura, and Oc. cantator. Other species from which CVV was isolated included An. quadrimaculatus, Coquillettidia perturbans, Culex salinarius, Oc. japonicus, Oc. sollicitans, Oc. taeniorhynchus, Oc. triseriatus, and Psorophora ferox. Mosquitoes infected with CVV were equally distributed throughout urban, suburban, and rural locales, and infection rates were not directly associated with the localized abundance of white-tailed deer, possibly due to their saturation throughout the region. Virus activity in mosquitoes was episodic with no consistent pattern from year-to-year, and fluctuations in yearly seasonal infection rates did not appear to be directly impacted by overall

  2. Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is not a competent vector of Cache Valley virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus)

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    We investigated the susceptibility of Culicoides sonorensis to Cache Valley virus (CVV) (family Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus) infection and the potential that it could be a vector or site of virus reassortment. CVV is native to the New World and causes disease in livestock. Infected blood mea...

  3. 布尼亚病毒科概述%An overview of Bunyaviridae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王颖; 邵柏; 于长友; 方绍庆; 刘明杰; 孙宝杰

    2012-01-01

    Bunyaviridae is one of the most important vector-borne viruses which are spread by medical arthropods and rodents including mosquitoes, sandflies, midges, rats and others, with mammals such as the human being as its host. It turned out that the "tick bite event" occurring in Henan, Shandong and other places in 2010 was human infectious diseases caused by a new Bunyaviridae spread by its tick vector. Diseases caused by the virus, if severe enough, may lead to multiple organ failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation and even death with a mortality of about 10%. In the present article, an overview is made of the studies done both at home and abroad on the pathogenicity of Bunyaviridae and the diseases, infections and the immune response associated with the virus to provide a theoretical basis for the detection and prevention of diseases caused by Bunyaviridae.%布尼亚病毒科是媒传疾病中重要的病毒科之一,传播媒介囊括了医学节肢动物和啮齿动物,如蚊虫、白蛉、蠓、鼠等,宿主动物为哺乳动物,如人类等.2010年在河南、山东等地出现的“蜱虫叮咬事件”是由蜱作为传播媒介,病原体为新型布尼亚病毒的传染疾病,该病严重者可致多脏器功能衰竭、弥漫性血管内凝血,甚至死亡,病死率高达10%.为给布尼亚病毒所致疾病的检测和防治提供理论依据,现就布尼亚病毒科病毒病原学、所致疾病及感染和免疫应答方面的国内外研究做一综述.

  4. Development of FGI-106 as a broad-spectrum therapeutic with activity against members of the family Bunyaviridae

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    Darci R Smith

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Darci R Smith1, Monica Ogg1, Aura Garrison1, Abdul Yunus2, Anna Honko1, Josh Johnson1, Gene Olinger1, Lisa E Hensley1, Michael S Kinch1United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRII D, Fort Detrick, MD, USA; 2Functional Genetics, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD, USAAbstract: The family Bunyaviridae is a diverse group of negative-strand RNA viruses that infect a wide range of arthropod vectors and animal hosts. Based on the continuing need for new therapeutics to treat bunyavirus infections, we evaluated the potential efficacy of FGI-106, a small-molecular compound that previously demonstrated activity against different RNA viruses. FGI-106 displayed substantial antiviral activity in cell-based assays of different bunyavirus family members, including Asian and South American hantaviruses (Hantaan virus and Andes virus, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, La Crosse virus, and Rift Valley fever virus. The pharmacokinetic profile of FGI-106 revealed sufficient exposure of the drug to critical target organs (lung, liver, kidney, and spleen, which are frequently the sites of bunyavirus replication. Consistent with these findings, FGI-106 treatment delivered via intraperitoneal injection prior to virus exposure was sufficient to delay the onset of Rift Valley fever virus infection in mouse-based models and to enhance survival in the face of an otherwise lethal infection. Altogether, these results suggest a potential opportunity for the use of FGI-106 to treat infections by members of the family Bunyaviridae.Keywords: Rift Valley fever virus, bunyavirus, hantavirus, antiviral, therapeutic

  5. Genomic and phylogenetic characterization of viruses included in the Manzanilla and Oropouche species complexes of the genus Orthobunyavirus, family Bunyaviridae.

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    Ladner, Jason T; Savji, Nazir; Lofts, Loreen; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia; Wiley, Michael R; Gestole, Marie C; Rosen, Gail E; Guzman, Hilda; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C; Nunes, Marcio R T; J Kochel, Tadeusz; Lipkin, W Ian; Tesh, Robert B; Palacios, Gustavo

    2014-05-01

    A thorough characterization of the genetic diversity of viruses present in vector and vertebrate host populations is essential for the early detection of and response to emerging pathogenic viruses, yet genetic characterization of many important viral groups remains incomplete. The Simbu serogroup of the genus Orthobunyavirus, family Bunyaviridae, is an example. The Simbu serogroup currently consists of a highly diverse group of related arboviruses that infect both humans and economically important livestock species. Here, we report complete genome sequences for 11 viruses within this group, with a focus on the large and poorly characterized Manzanilla and Oropouche species complexes. Phylogenetic and pairwise divergence analyses indicated the presence of high levels of genetic diversity within these two species complexes, on a par with that seen among the five other species complexes in the Simbu serogroup. Based on previously reported divergence thresholds between species, the data suggested that these two complexes should actually be divided into at least five species. Together these five species formed a distinct phylogenetic clade apart from the rest of the Simbu serogroup. Pairwise sequence divergences among viruses of this clade and viruses in other Simbu serogroup species complexes were similar to levels of divergence among the other orthobunyavirus serogroups. The genetic data also suggested relatively high levels of natural reassortment, with three potential reassortment events present, including two well-supported events involving viruses known to infect humans. PMID:24558222

  6. 布尼亚病毒及其引发的疾病%Bunyaviridae and Its Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵惠训

    2011-01-01

    The bunyaviridae family comprises more than 300 viruses. Membership is usually based on antigenic interrelatedness or morphological similarity. Disease characterized by fever, headache, weakness, myalgia, pulmonary edema. The family is divided into 5 genera; 1. Orthobunyavirus: Bunyamwera, La Cross, Tahyna virus, transmitted mainly by mosquitoes. 2. Hantavirus; Hantaan virus, transmission does not require insects. 3. Nairovirus; Dugbe virus infection of cattle in West Africa, transmitted by ticks. 4. Phlebovirus;Sandfly fever, Rift valley fever, transmitted by sandflies. 5. Tospovirus; Tomato spotted wilt virus,only infect plant and non-vertebrate. Man is not known to be a natural or reservoir for any of these viruses. Virions are 80 ~ 120 nm in diameter, 5 ~ 10 nm projections visible on the surface. Genome consists of 3 pieces of negative stranded RNA. Virion has 2 surface glycoproteins Cl and C2, with HA and virus neutralization epitopes. Bunyaviridae is a family of negative stranded RNA viruses. Though generally found in arthropode or rodents, certain viruses in this family occasionally infect humans. Bunyaviridae are vector-borne viruses. With the exception of Hantaviruses transmission occurs via an arthropod vector. Hantaviruses are transmitted through contact with mice feces. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus is associated with high levels of morbidity and mortality, consequently handling of these viruses most occurs with a biosafe level 4 laboratory. Hantavirus or Hantavirus hemorrhagic fever, common in China, Korea, Scandinavia, Russia, and the American southwest, is associated with high fever, lung edema and pulmonary failture. Mortality is around 55% of laboratory diagnosis of bunya virus infections. Virus isolation-intra-cranialinoculation of suckling mice is thought to be the most sensitive system available for virus isolation. However sensitive cell culture systems are available such as Vero, Vero E6, A549 and mosquito cells. Once isolated the

  7. PREVALENCE OF ARBOVIRUS ANTIBODIES AGAINST THE FAMILY Bunyaviridae IN WATER BUFFALOES

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    Alexandre Rosário Casseb

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The State of Pará comprises 26% of Brazilian Amazon region where a large diversity of arboviruses has been described. This study sought to assess the prevalence and distribution of haemagglutination-inhibition antibodies against antigens of nine different types of arbovirus of the Bunyaviridae family, where eight were Orthobunyavirus: Guaroa virus, Maguari virus, Tacaiuma virus, Utinga virus, Belem virus, Caraparu virus, Oropouche virus and Catu virus, and one Phlebovirus: Icoaraci virus in sera samples of water buffaloes in Pará State, Brazil. For all Arboviruses investigated there were antibodies, with the exception of Belem virus. Antibodies to Maguari virus were more prevalent (7.33%. The water buffaloes of the present study showed variable levels of antibodies in monotypic and heterotypic reactions that may indicate there are movements from most bunyavirus studied in domestic buffaloes in the state of Pará, and the Maguari virus presents the largest circulation. Therefore, further studies are needed to investigate the role of water buffalo in the maintenance and dispersal of arboviruses, as well as whether these viruses can cause disease in that species, especially in cases of birth defects and abortions.

  8. 新型布尼亚病毒及其检测研究进展%An overview of Bunyaviridae and detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董雪; 王秋雨; 李欣; 刘娜

    2013-01-01

    近年来在河南、山东等地出现的“蜱虫叮咬事件”是由蜱作为传播媒介,病原体为新型布尼亚病毒的传染疾病,该病严重者可致多脏器功能衰竭、弥漫性血管内凝血,病死率高达10%。布尼亚病毒是媒传疾病中重要的病毒类群之一,传播媒介囊括了医学节肢动物和啮齿动物,如蚊虫、白蛉、蠓、鼠等,宿主动物为哺乳动物。本文综述了新型布尼亚病毒病原学、所致疾病、感染和免疫应答以及检测的国内外研究进展,为该病毒感染的早期快速诊断、对症治疗和疾病预防等工作提供参考。%It turned out that the “tick bite event” occurring in Henan, Shandong and other places of China in recent year was human infectious diseases caused by a new Bunyaviridae spread by its tick vector. Diseases caused by the virus, if severe enough, may lead to multiple organ failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation and even death with a mortality of about 10%. Bunyaviridae is one of the most important vector-borne viruses which are spread by medical arthropods and rodents including mosquitoes, sandflies, midges, rats and others, with mammals such as the human being as its host. This review was focused on the research progress at home and abroad on etiology of Novel Bunia virus, caused-disease, infection immune response and its detection to provide reference for early and rapid diagnosis of Bunia virus and its prevention.

  9. Sequence diversity of the nucleoprotein gene of iris yellow spot virus (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) isolates from the western region of the United States.

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    Pappu, H R; du Toit, L J; Schwartz, H F; Mohan, S K

    2006-05-01

    Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV), a tentative virus species in the genus Tospovirus and family Bunyaviridae, is considered a rapidly emerging threat to onion production in the western United States (US). The present study was undertaken to determine the sequence diversity of IYSV isolates from infected onion plants grown in California, Colorado, Idaho, Oregon, Utah and Washington. Using primers derived from the small RNA of IYSV, the complete sequence of the nucleoprotein (NP) gene of each isolate was determined and the sequences compared. In addition, a shallot isolate of IYSV from Washington was included in the study. The US isolates of IYSV shared a high degree of sequence identity (95 to 99%) with one another and to previously reported isolates. Phylogenetic analyses showed that with the exception of one isolate from central Oregon and one isolate from California, all the onion and shallot isolates from the western US clustered together. This cluster also included onion and lisianthus isolates from Japan. A second distinct cluster consisted of isolates from Australia (onion), Brazil (onion), Israel (lisianthus), Japan (alstroemeria), The Netherlands (iris) and Slovenia (leek). The IYSV isolates evaluated in this study appear to represent two distinct groups, one of which largely represents isolates from the western US. Understanding of the population structure of IYSV would potentially provide insights into the molecular epidemiology of this virus. PMID:16320007

  10. Isolation of Madre de Dios Virus (Orthobunyavirus; Bunyaviridae), an Oropouche Virus Species Reassortant, from a Monkey in Venezuela.

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    Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Hernandez, Rosa; Auguste, Albert J; Tesh, Robert B; Weaver, Scott C; Montañez, Humberto; Liria, Jonathan; Lima, Anderson; Travassos da Rosa, Jorge Fernando Soares; da Silva, Sandro P; Vasconcelos, Janaina M; Oliveira, Rodrigo; Vianez, João L S G; Nunes, Marcio R T

    2016-08-01

    Oropouche virus (OROV), genus Orthobunyavirus, family Bunyaviridae, is an important cause of human illness in tropical South America. Herein, we report the isolation, complete genome sequence, genetic characterization, and phylogenetic analysis of an OROV species reassortant, Madre de Dios virus (MDDV), obtained from a sick monkey (Cebus olivaceus Schomburgk) collected in a forest near Atapirire, a small rural village located in Anzoategui State, Venezuela. MDDV is one of a growing number of naturally occurring OROV species reassortants isolated in South America and was known previously only from southern Peru. PMID:27215299

  11. Caracterização e relacionamento antigênico de três novos Bunyavirus no grupo Anopheles A (Bunyaviridae dos arbovirus Characterization and antigenic relationship of three new Bunyavirus in the Anopheles A serogroup (Bunyaviridae of arboviruses

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    Jorge Fernando Soares Travassos da Rosa

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available São descritos o isolamento e a caracterização de três novos arbovirus isolados na região da Usina Hidro-Elétrica de Tucuruí (UHE-TUC. Os três novos arbovirus pertencem ao grupo Anopheles A(ANA, gênero Bunyavirus (família Bunyaviridae. Os vírus Tucuruí (TUC, Caraipé (CPE e Arumateua (ART são relacionados entre si e com o vírus Trombetas (TBT, formando dentro do grupo ANA um complexo chamado Trombetas. Os arbovirus TUC, CPE e ART foram obtidos a partir de lotes de mosquitos Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus sp capturados em Tucuruí, nas proximidades da usina hidrelétrica de Tucuruí, Estado do Pará, nos meses de fevereiro, agosto e outubro de 1984, respectivamente. Até o final de 1990 os vírus TUC, CPE e ART foram isolados 12, 32 e 28 vezes respectivamente, sempre na região da UHE-TUC, exceção feita ao vírus TUC, do qual se obteve uma amostra procedente de Balbina, onde também foi construída uma hidroelétrica. Até o presente, esses vírus só foram isolados a partir de mosquitos do grupo An. (Nys. principalmente, a partir das espécies An. (Nys. nuneztovari e An. (Nys. triannulatus também consideradas vetores secundários da malária na Amazônia Brasileira. Testes sorológicos executados com soros humanos e de diversas espécies de animais silvestres foram negativos, com exceção de um soro de um carnívoro de espécie Nasua nasua que neutralizou a amostra TUC em títulos de 2.6 índice logaritmico de neutralização (ILN.The isolation and characterization of three new viruses obtained from the Tucuruí hydroelectric dam region is repeated. These three agents belong to the Anopheles A serogroup, genus Bunyavirus, Bunyaviridae. The Tucuruí (TUC, Caraipe (CPE and Arumateua (ART viruses have close relationships with each other and with Trombetas (TBT virus, an Anopheles A virus previously isolated in the Amazon Region of Brazil. These viruses form the "Trombetas complex". TUC, CPE and ART viruses were obtained from pools of

  12. Emergence of a new lineage of Cache Valley virus (Bunyaviridae: Orthobunyavirus) in the Northeastern United States.

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    Armstrong, Philip M; Andreadis, Theodore G; Anderson, John F

    2015-07-01

    Cache Valley virus (CVV; Family Bunyavidae, Genus Orthobunyavirus) is a mosquito-borne zoonosis that frequently infects humans and livestock in North and Central America. In the northeastern United States, CVV transmission is unpredictable from year-to-year and may derive from the periodic extinction and reintroduction of new virus strains into this region. To evaluate this possibility, we sequenced and analyzed numerous CVV isolates sampled in Connecticut during an 18-year period to determine how the virus population may change over time. Phylogenetic analyses showed the establishment of a new viral lineage during 2010 that became dominant by 2014 and appears to have originated from southern Mexico. CVV strains from Connecticut also grouped into numerous sub-clades within each lineage that included viruses from other U.S. states and Canada. We did not observe the development and stable persistence of local viral clades in Connecticut, which may reflect the episodic pattern of CVV transmission. Together, our data support the emergence of a new lineage of CVV in the northeastern United States and suggest extensive dispersal of viral strains in North America. PMID:25962774

  13. Infection

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    ... Potential Hazards Exposure of employees to community and nosocomial infections, e.g., Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) . Nosocomial infections are infections that occur from exposure to infectious ...

  14. Evaluation of the eastern cottontail Sylvilagus floridanus as an amplifying vertebrate host for Cache Valley virus (Bunyaviridae) in Indiana.

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    Blackmore, Carina G M; Grimstad, Paul R

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the importance of eastern cottontails (Sylvilagus floridanus) as amplifying hosts for Cache Valley virus (CVV), we tested hunter-provided blood samples from northern Indiana for specific neutralizing (N) antibodies against this mosquito-borne bunya-virus. Samples were collected during the winter of 1994-95. Two seronegative eastern cottontails, captured in July 1995, were also infected with CVV by subcutaneous inoculation, and two others were infected by allowing CVV-infected mosquitoes to feed on them. The results indicate that eastern cottontails probably are not important amplifying hosts for CVV. The prevalence of N antibodies against CVV was low (6.0%, n=82) among the hunter-killed animals. Low viremia (<1.8 log10 plaque-forming units/ml) of short duration (1-3 days) were seen in three of four experimentally infected eastern cottontails. The viremias were insufficient for infecting Coquillettidia perturbans, a mosquito species commonly found naturally infected with CVV. PMID:18263839

  15. [Taxonomic status of the Burana virus (BURV) (Bunyaviridae, Nairovirus, Tamdy group) isolated from the ticks Haemaphysalis punctata Canestrini et Fanzago, 1877 and Haem. concinna Koch, 1844 (Ixodidae, Haemaphysalinae) in Kyrgyzstan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'vov, D K; Al'khovskiĭ, S V; Shchelkanov, M Iu; Shchetinin, A M; Deriabin, P G; Gitel'man, A K; Aristova, V A; Botikov, A G

    2014-01-01

    Complete genome sequence of the Burana virus (BURV) was determined using the next-generation sequencing approach (ID GenBank KF801651). The prototype strain of BURV LEIV-Krg760 was originally isolated from the ticks Haemaphysalis punctata Canestrini et Fanzago, 1877 (Ixodidae, Haemaphysalinae), collected from cows in Tokmak wildlife sanctuary, eastern part of the Chu valley (43 degrees 10' N, 74 degrees 40' E) near Burana village, Kirgizia, in April 1971. Molecular genetics and phylogenetic analyses showed that the BURV belonged to the Nairovirus genus, Bunyaviridae and is related to Tamdy virus (TAMV) that is also associated with the ixodidae ticks of pasture biocenosis in Central Asia. Previous studies showed that TAMV is the prototypic virus of new phylogenetic Tamdy group in the Nairovirus genus. Thus, BURV was classified as a new virus of the Tamdy group, Nairovirus, Bunyaviridae. PMID:25549462

  16. Characterization of the Bhanja Serogroup Viruses (Bunyaviridae): a Novel Species of the Genus Phlebovirus and Its Relationship with Other Emerging Tick-Borne Phleboviruses

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    Matsuno, Keita; Weisend, Carla; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P. A.; Anzick, Sarah L.; Dahlstrom, Eric; Porcella, Stephen F.; Dorward, David W.; Yu, Xue-Jie; Tesh, Robert B.

    2013-01-01

    Bhanja virus (BHAV) and its antigenically close relatives Forecariah virus (FORV), Kismayo virus (KISV), and Palma virus (PALV) are thought to be members of the family Bunyaviridae, but they have not been assigned to a genus or species. Despite their broad geographical distribution and reports that BHAV causes sporadic cases of febrile illness and encephalitis in humans, the public health importance of the Bhanja serogroup viruses remains unclear, due in part to the lack of sequence and biochemical information for the virus proteins. In order to better define the molecular characteristics of this group, we determined the full-length sequences of the L, M, and S genome segments of multiple isolates of BHAV as well as FORV and PALV. The genome structures of these Bhanja viruses are similar to those of viruses belonging to the genus Phlebovirus. Functional domains and amino acid motifs in the viral proteins that are conserved among other known phleboviruses were also identified in proteins of the BHAV group. Phylogenetic and serological analyses revealed that the BHAVs are most closely related to the novel emerging tick-borne phleboviruses severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus and Heartland virus, which have recently been implicated as causing severe acute febrile illnesses associated with thrombocytopenia in humans in China and the United States. Our results indicate that the Bhanja serogroup viruses constitute a single novel species in the genus Phlebovirus. The results of this study should facilitate epidemiological surveillance for other, similar tick-borne phleboviruses that may represent unrecognized causes of febrile illness in humans. PMID:23325688

  17. Experimental Infections of Oryzomys couesi with Sympatric Arboviruses from Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deardorff, Eleanor R.; Forrester, Naomi L.; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P.; Estrada-Franco, Jose G.; Navarro-Lopez, Roberto; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    Coues rice rat (Oryzomys couesi), a species abundant throughout Central America, was evaluated experimentally for the ability to serve as an amplifying host for three arboviruses: Patois (Bunyaviridae, Orthobunyavirus), Nepuyo (Orthobunyavirus), and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus subtype ID (Togaviridae, Alphavirus). These three viruses have similar ecologies and are known to co-circulate in nature. Animals from all three cohorts survived infection and developed viremia with no apparent signs of illness and long-lasting antibodies. Thus, O. couesi may play a role in the general maintenance of these viruses in nature. PMID:20134016

  18. Caracterização e relacionamento antigênico de três novos Bunyavirus no grupo Anopheles A (Bunyaviridae dos arbovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Jorge Fernando Soares Travassos da

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available São descritos o isolamento e a caracterização de três novos arbovirus isolados na região da Usina Hidro-Elétrica de Tucuruí (UHE-TUC. Os três novos arbovirus pertencem ao grupo Anopheles A(ANA, gênero Bunyavirus (família Bunyaviridae. Os vírus Tucuruí (TUC, Caraipé (CPE e Arumateua (ART são relacionados entre si e com o vírus Trombetas (TBT, formando dentro do grupo ANA um complexo chamado Trombetas. Os arbovirus TUC, CPE e ART foram obtidos a partir de lotes de mosquitos Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus sp capturados em Tucuruí, nas proximidades da usina hidrelétrica de Tucuruí, Estado do Pará, nos meses de fevereiro, agosto e outubro de 1984, respectivamente. Até o final de 1990 os vírus TUC, CPE e ART foram isolados 12, 32 e 28 vezes respectivamente, sempre na região da UHE-TUC, exceção feita ao vírus TUC, do qual se obteve uma amostra procedente de Balbina, onde também foi construída uma hidroelétrica. Até o presente, esses vírus só foram isolados a partir de mosquitos do grupo An. (Nys. principalmente, a partir das espécies An. (Nys. nuneztovari e An. (Nys. triannulatus também consideradas vetores secundários da malária na Amazônia Brasileira. Testes sorológicos executados com soros humanos e de diversas espécies de animais silvestres foram negativos, com exceção de um soro de um carnívoro de espécie Nasua nasua que neutralizou a amostra TUC em títulos de 2.6 índice logaritmico de neutralização (ILN.

  19. Caracterização e relacionamento antigênico de três novos Bunyavirus no grupo Anopheles A (Bunyaviridae dos arbovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Fernando Soares Travassos da Rosa

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available São descritos o isolamento e a caracterização de três novos arbovirus isolados na região da Usina Hidro-Elétrica de Tucuruí (UHE-TUC. Os três novos arbovirus pertencem ao grupo Anopheles A(ANA, gênero Bunyavirus (família Bunyaviridae. Os vírus Tucuruí (TUC, Caraipé (CPE e Arumateua (ART são relacionados entre si e com o vírus Trombetas (TBT, formando dentro do grupo ANA um complexo chamado Trombetas. Os arbovirus TUC, CPE e ART foram obtidos a partir de lotes de mosquitos Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus sp capturados em Tucuruí, nas proximidades da usina hidrelétrica de Tucuruí, Estado do Pará, nos meses de fevereiro, agosto e outubro de 1984, respectivamente. Até o final de 1990 os vírus TUC, CPE e ART foram isolados 12, 32 e 28 vezes respectivamente, sempre na região da UHE-TUC, exceção feita ao vírus TUC, do qual se obteve uma amostra procedente de Balbina, onde também foi construída uma hidroelétrica. Até o presente, esses vírus só foram isolados a partir de mosquitos do grupo An. (Nys. principalmente, a partir das espécies An. (Nys. nuneztovari e An. (Nys. triannulatus também consideradas vetores secundários da malária na Amazônia Brasileira. Testes sorológicos executados com soros humanos e de diversas espécies de animais silvestres foram negativos, com exceção de um soro de um carnívoro de espécie Nasua nasua que neutralizou a amostra TUC em títulos de 2.6 índice logaritmico de neutralização (ILN.

  20. Schmallenberg virus infection of ruminants: challenges and opportunities for veterinarians

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    Claine F

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available François Claine, Damien Coupeau, Laetitia Wiggers, Benoît Muylkens, Nathalie Kirschvink Veterinary Department, Faculty of Sciences, Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences (NARILIS, University of Namur (UNamur, Namur, Belgium Abstract: In 2011, European ruminant flocks were infected by Schmallenberg virus (SBV leading to transient disease in adult cattle but abortions and congenital deformities in calves, lambs, and goat kids. SBV belonging to the Simbu serogroup (family Bunyaviridae and genus Orthobunyavirus was first discovered in the same region where bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8 emerged 5 years before. Both viruses are transmitted by biting midges (Culicoides spp. and share several similarities. This paper describes the current knowledge of temporal and geographical spread, molecular virology, transmission and susceptible species, clinical signs, diagnosis, prevention and control, impact on ruminant health, and productivity of SBV infection in Europe, and compares SBV infection with BTV-8 infection in ruminants. Keywords: Schmallenberg virus, Europe, ruminants, review

  1. Presence of Viral RNA and Proteins in Exosomes from Cellular Clones Resistant to Rift Valley Fever Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Ahsan, Noor A.; Sampey, Gavin C.; Lepene, Ben; Akpamagbo, Yao; Barclay, Robert A.; Iordanskiy, Sergey; Hakami, Ramin M.; KASHANCHI, FATAH

    2016-01-01

    Rift Valley Fever Virus (RVFV) is a RNA virus that belongs to the genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae. It infects humans and livestock and causes Rift Valley fever. RVFV is considered an agricultural pathogen by the USDA, as it can cause up to 100% abortion in cattle and extensive death of newborns. In addition, it is designated as Category A pathogen by the CDC and the NIAID. In some human cases of RVFV infection, the virus causes fever, ocular damage, liver damage, hemorrhagic fever, and...

  2. [Inclusion Bodies are Formed in SFTSV-infected Human Macrophages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Cong; Song, Jingdong; Han, Ying; Li, Chuan; Qiu, Peihong; Liang, Mifang

    2016-01-01

    The severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is a new member in the genus Phlebovirus of the family Bunyaviridae identified in China. The SFTSV is also the causative pathogen of an emerging infectious disease: severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome. Using immunofluorescent staining and confocal microscopy, the intracellular distribution of nucleocapsid protein (NP) in SFTSV-infected THP-1 cells was investigated with serial doses of SFTSV at different times after infection. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe the ultrafine intracellular structure of SFTSV-infected THP-1 cells at different times after infection. SFTSV NP could form intracellular inclusion bodies in infected THP-1 cells. The association between NP-formed inclusion bodies and virus production was analyzed: the size of the inclusion body formed 3 days after infection was correlated with the viral load in supernatants collected 7 days after infection. These findings suggest that the inclusion bodies formed in SFTSV-infected THP-1 cells could be where the SFTSV uses host-cell proteins and intracellular organelles to produce new viral particles.

  3. The Major Cellular Sterol Regulatory Pathway Is Required for Andes Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riblett, Amber M.; Didigu, Chukwuka A.; Wilen, Craig B.; Malani, Nirav; Male, Frances; Lee, Fang-Hua; Bushman, Frederic D.; Cherry, Sara; Doms, Robert W.; Bates, Paul; Briley, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    The Bunyaviridae comprise a large family of RNA viruses with worldwide distribution and includes the pathogenic New World hantavirus, Andes virus (ANDV). Host factors needed for hantavirus entry remain largely enigmatic and therapeutics are unavailable. To identify cellular requirements for ANDV infection, we performed two parallel genetic screens. Analysis of a large library of insertionally mutagenized human haploid cells and a siRNA genomic screen converged on components (SREBP-2, SCAP, S1P and S2P) of the sterol regulatory pathway as critically important for infection by ANDV. The significance of this pathway was confirmed using functionally deficient cells, TALEN-mediated gene disruption, RNA interference and pharmacologic inhibition. Disruption of sterol regulatory complex function impaired ANDV internalization without affecting virus binding. Pharmacologic manipulation of cholesterol levels demonstrated that ANDV entry is sensitive to changes in cellular cholesterol and raises the possibility that clinically approved regulators of sterol synthesis may prove useful for combating ANDV infection. PMID:24516383

  4. The major cellular sterol regulatory pathway is required for Andes virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiah Petersen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Bunyaviridae comprise a large family of RNA viruses with worldwide distribution and includes the pathogenic New World hantavirus, Andes virus (ANDV. Host factors needed for hantavirus entry remain largely enigmatic and therapeutics are unavailable. To identify cellular requirements for ANDV infection, we performed two parallel genetic screens. Analysis of a large library of insertionally mutagenized human haploid cells and a siRNA genomic screen converged on components (SREBP-2, SCAP, S1P and S2P of the sterol regulatory pathway as critically important for infection by ANDV. The significance of this pathway was confirmed using functionally deficient cells, TALEN-mediated gene disruption, RNA interference and pharmacologic inhibition. Disruption of sterol regulatory complex function impaired ANDV internalization without affecting virus binding. Pharmacologic manipulation of cholesterol levels demonstrated that ANDV entry is sensitive to changes in cellular cholesterol and raises the possibility that clinically approved regulators of sterol synthesis may prove useful for combating ANDV infection.

  5. Molecular and biochemical studies of the evolution, infection and transmission of insect bunyaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, D H; Beaty, B J

    1988-10-31

    Members of the Bunyaviridae family of RNA viruses (bunyaviruses, hantaviruses, nairoviruses, phleboviruses and uukuviruses) have been studied at the molecular and genetic level to understand the basis of their evolution and infection in vertebrate and invertebrate (arthropod) hosts. With the exception of the hantaviruses, these viruses infect and are transmitted by a variety of blood-sucking arthropods (mosquitoes, phlebotomines, gnats, ticks, etc.). The viruses are responsible for infection of various vertebrate species, occasionally causing human disease, morbidity and mortality (e.g. Rift Valley fever, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, Korean haemorrhagic fever). Genetic and molecular analyses of bunyaviruses have established the coding assignments of the three viral RNA species and documented which viral gene products determine host range and virulence. Ecological studies, with molecular techniques, have provided evidence for bunyavirus evolution in nature through genetic drift (involving the accumulation of point mutations) and shift (RNA-segment reassortment).

  6. Perspectives of antiviral RNA interference (RNAi pathway of insects with special reference to mosquito in the context of dengue infection: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Probal Basu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available RNA interference is a post-transcriptional sequence selective gene control mechanism. Antiviral RNA interference (RNAi pathway is one of the most momentous constituents of the insect innate immune system that can stymie versatile range of RNA virus like flavivirus. It has been demonstrated that RNA production by alphavirus replication is higher in proportion compared to flavivirus replication in mosquito cells. Studies demonstrated that infection by virus from Togaviridae and Bunyaviridae family of arbovirus to mosquito cells causes defect in RNAi response in-vitro but interestingly, it has also been stated that Dengue virus (DENV could be actively inhibited by RNA interference (RNAi. This article is an endeavor to review the perspectives of the functional significance of antiviral RNA interference as a potent agent of controlling dengue infection in the vector.

  7. Risk assessment of human infection with a novel bunyavirus in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamano Matsui

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the public health risk of human infection from a novel bunyavirus – severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV – in China.Methods: The likelihood of disease spread and the magnitude of public health impact were assessed to clarify overall risk. Literature about hazard, exposure and contextual factors associated with SFTSV infection was collected and reviewed. Information on SFTSV cases and the population in six provinces under surveillance was compared.Results: SFTSV is a member of the Phlebovirus genus of the Bunyaviridae family. A widely distributed tick species, Haemaphysalis longicornis, can act as the vector; thus the disease is likely to spread in China. Symptoms of SFTSV infection are nonspecific, but have led to multiorgan dysfunction in severe cases. High-risk populations include farmers and older females. Evidence of human-to-human transmission within family and hospital has been reported. The capacity for treatment and diagnosis of SFTSV are adequate in rural communities in China, and community awareness of the disease should be high. Discussion: There is a low to moderate public health risk related to SFTSV human infection in China. There is potential for an increase in the number of cases reported as awareness increases and when surveillance is expanded.

  8. Tinea Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the body they infect. Tinea corporis is a fungal infection of the skin on the body. ("Corporis" is ... Causes & Risk Factors How did I get a fungal infection? You can get a fungal infection by touching ...

  9. Serological evidence of hantavirus infection in rural and urban regions in the state of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Bosco Lima Gimaque

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Hantavirus disease is caused by the hantavirus, which is an RNA virus belonging to the family Bunyaviridae. Hantavirus disease is an anthropozoonotic infection transmitted through the inhalation of aerosols from the excreta of hantavirus-infected rodents. In the county of Itacoatiara in the state of Amazonas (AM, Brazil, the first human cases of hantavirus pulmonary and cardiovascular syndrome were described in July 2004. These first cases were followed by two fatal cases, one in the municipality of Maués in 2005 and another in Itacoatiara in 2007. In this study, we investigated the antibody levels to hantavirus in a population of 1,731 individuals from four different counties of AM. Sera were tested by IgG/IgM- enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay using a recombinant nucleocapsid protein of the Araraquara hantavirus as an antigen. Ten sera were IgG positive to hantavirus (0.6%. Among the positive sera, 0.8% (1/122, 0.4% (1/256, 0.2% (1/556 and 0.9% (7/797 were from Atalaia do Norte, Careiro Castanho, Itacoatiara and Lábrea, respectively. None of the sera in this survey were IgM-positive. Because these counties are distributed in different areas of AM, we can assume that infected individuals are found throughout the entire state, which suggests that hantavirus disease could be a local emerging health problem.

  10. La Crosse virus infectivity, pathogenesis, and immunogenicity in mice and monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy Brian R

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background La Crosse virus (LACV, family Bunyaviridae, was first identified as a human pathogen in 1960 after its isolation from a 4 year-old girl with fatal encephalitis in La Crosse, Wisconsin. LACV is a major cause of pediatric encephalitis in North America and infects up to 300,000 persons each year of which 70–130 result in severe disease of the central nervous system (CNS. As an initial step in the establishment of useful animal models to support vaccine development, we examined LACV infectivity, pathogenesis, and immunogenicity in both weanling mice and rhesus monkeys. Results Following intraperitoneal inoculation of mice, LACV replicated in various organs before reaching the CNS where it replicates to high titer causing death from neurological disease. The peripheral site where LACV replicates to highest titer is the nasal turbinates, and, presumably, LACV can enter the CNS via the olfactory neurons from nasal olfactory epithelium. The mouse infectious dose50 and lethal dose50 was similar for LACV administered either intranasally or intraperitoneally. LACV was highly infectious for rhesus monkeys and infected 100% of the animals at 10 PFU. However, the infection was asymptomatic, and the monkeys developed a strong neutralizing antibody response. Conclusion In mice, LACV likely gains access to the CNS via the blood stream or via olfactory neurons. The ability to efficiently infect mice intranasally raises the possibility that LACV might use this route to infect its natural hosts. Rhesus monkeys are susceptible to LACV infection and develop strong neutralizing antibody responses after inoculation with as little as 10 PFU. Mice and rhesus monkeys are useful animal models for LACV vaccine immunologic testing although the rhesus monkey model is not optimal.

  11. Hookworm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hookworm disease; Ground itch; Ancylostoma duodenale infection; Necator americanus infection; Parasitic infection - hookworm ... with any of the following roundworms: Necator americanus Ancylostoma ... Ancylostoma ceylanicum Ancylostoma braziliense The first 2 ...

  12. Pneumococcal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pneumococci are a type of streptococcus bacteria. The bacteria spread through contact with people who are ill or by healthy people who carry the bacteria in the back of their nose. Pneumococcal infections can be mild or severe. The most common types of infections are Ear infections Sinus infections ...

  13. Staph Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... staph food poisoning, and these infections: Folliculitis and Boils Folliculitis is an infection of hair follicles, tiny ... But sometimes it goes on to become a boil (also called a furuncle). With a boil, the ...

  14. Campylobacter Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter infection is a common foodborne illness. You get it from eating raw or undercooked poultry. You ... whether you need to take antibiotics. To prevent campylobacter infection, cook poultry thoroughly. Use a separate cutting ...

  15. Rotavirus Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotavirus is a virus that causes gastroenteritis. Symptoms include severe diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and dehydration. Almost all ... the U.S. are likely to be infected with rotavirus before their 5th birthday. Infections happen most often ...

  16. Campylobacter infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infection occurs in the small intestine from a bacteria called Campylobacter jejuni . It is a type of food poisoning. ... Campylobacter enteritis is a common cause of intestinal infection . ... of traveler's diarrhea or food poisoning . People most often ...

  17. Modulation of La Crosse virus infection in Aedes albopictus mosquitoes following larval exposure to coffee extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole E. Eastep

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The mosquito-borne La Crosse virus (LACV; Family Bunyaviridae may cause encephalitis, primarily in children, and is distributed throughout much of the eastern United States. No antivirals or vaccines are available for LACV, or most other mosquito-borne viruses, and prevention generally relies on mosquito control. We sought to determine whether coffee extracts could interfere with LACV replication and vector mosquito development. Both regular and decaffeinated coffee demonstrated significant reductions in LACV replication in direct antiviral assays. This activity was not due to the presence of caffeine, which did not inhibit the virus life cycle. Aedes albopictus (Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae mosquito larvae suffered near total mortality when reared in high concentrations of regular and decaffeinated coffee and in caffeine. Following larval exposure to sublethal coffee concentrations, adult Ae. albopictus mosquitoes had signficantly reduced whole-body LACV titers five days post-infection, compared to larvae reared in distilled water. These results suggest that it may be possible to both control mosquito populations and alter the vector competence of mosquitoes for arthropod-borne viruses by introducing antiviral compounds into the larval habitat.

  18. Genomic Characterization of the Genus Nairovirus (Family Bunyaviridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Jens H.; Wiley, Michael R.; Rodriguez, Sergio E.; Bào, Yīmíng; Prieto, Karla; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P. A.; Guzman, Hilda; Savji, Nazir; Ladner, Jason T.; Tesh, Robert B.; Wada, Jiro; Jahrling, Peter B.; Bente, Dennis A.; Palacios, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Nairovirus, one of five bunyaviral genera, includes seven species. Genomic sequence information is limited for members of the Dera Ghazi Khan, Hughes, Qalyub, Sakhalin, and Thiafora nairovirus species. We used next-generation sequencing and historical virus-culture samples to determine 14 complete and nine coding-complete nairoviral genome sequences to further characterize these species. Previously unsequenced viruses include Abu Mina, Clo Mor, Great Saltee, Hughes, Raza, Sakhalin, Soldado, and Tillamook viruses. In addition, we present genomic sequence information on additional isolates of previously sequenced Avalon, Dugbe, Sapphire II, and Zirqa viruses. Finally, we identify Tunis virus, previously thought to be a phlebovirus, as an isolate of Abu Hammad virus. Phylogenetic analyses indicate the need for reassignment of Sapphire II virus to Dera Ghazi Khan nairovirus and reassignment of Hazara, Tofla, and Nairobi sheep disease viruses to novel species. We also propose new species for the Kasokero group (Kasokero, Leopards Hill, Yogue viruses), the Ketarah group (Gossas, Issyk-kul, Keterah/soft tick viruses) and the Burana group (Wēnzhōu tick virus, Huángpí tick virus 1, Tǎchéng tick virus 1). Our analyses emphasize the sister relationship of nairoviruses and arenaviruses, and indicate that several nairo-like viruses (Shāyáng spider virus 1, Xīnzhōu spider virus, Sānxiá water strider virus 1, South Bay virus, Wǔhàn millipede virus 2) require establishment of novel genera in a larger nairovirus-arenavirus supergroup. PMID:27294949

  19. Biofilm Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Moser, Claus Ernst;

    such as diagnostics, pathogenesis, treatment regimes and in vitro and in vivo models for studying biofilms. This is the first scientific book on biofilm infections, chapters written by the world leading scientist and clinicians. The intended audience of this book is scientists, teachers at university level as well...... as being important in chronic infection. In 1993 the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) recognized that the biofilm mode of growth was relevant to microbiology. This book covers both the evidence for biofilms in many chronic bacterial infections as well as the problems facing these infections......, especially the central role of aggregating bacteria in chronic infections. He has a combined position at University of Copenhagen and Copenhagen University Hospital. Due to this Thomas has both a scientific and applied approach to the role of biofilms in chronic infections. This has also been his approach...

  20. Epidemiology and laboratory diagnosis of Hantavirus (HTV) infections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P.G. Clement; P. McKenna; J. Groen (Jan); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); P. Colson; T. Vervoort; G. van der Groen (Guido); H.W. Lee

    1995-01-01

    textabstractHantavirus (HTV) is recently discovered "hemorrhagic fever virus" belonging to the Bunyaviridae family, which is spread throughout the world by wild rodents and/or laboratory rats. During an epidemic in the Belgian-French Ardennes in 1993, more than 200 acute cases were recorded of the m

  1. Tahyna virus genetics, infectivity, and immunogenicity in mice and monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitehead Stephen S

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tahyna virus (TAHV is a human pathogen of the California encephalitis virus (CEV serogroup (Bunyaviridae endemic to Europe, Asia, and Africa. TAHV maintains an enzootic life cycle with several species of mosquito vectors and hares, rabbits, hedgehogs, and rodents serving as small mammal amplifying hosts. Human TAHV infection occurs in summer and early fall with symptoms of fever, headache, malaise, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, and nausea. TAHV disease can progress to CNS involvement, although unlike related La Crosse virus (LACV, fatalities have not been reported. Human infections are frequent with neutralizing antibodies present in 60-80% of the elderly population in endemic areas. Results In order to determine the genomic sequence of wild-type TAHV, we chose three TAHV isolates collected over a 26-year period from mosquitoes. Here we present the first complete sequence of the TAHV S, M, and L segments. The three TAHV isolates maintained a highly conserved genome with both nucleotide and amino acid sequence identity greater than 99%. In order to determine the extent of genetic relatedness to other members of the CEV serogroup, we compared protein sequences of TAHV with LACV, Snowshoe Hare virus (SSHV, Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV, and Inkoo virus (INKV. By amino acid comparison, TAHV was most similar to SSHV followed by LACV, JCV, and INKV. The sequence of the GN protein is most conserved followed by L, N, GC, NSS, and NSM. In a weanling Swiss Webster mouse model, all three TAHV isolates were uniformly neurovirulent, but only one virus was neuroinvasive. In rhesus monkeys, the virus was highly immunogenic even in the absence of viremia. Cross neutralization studies utilizing monkey immune serum demonstrated that TAHV is antigenically distinct from North American viruses LACV and JCV. Conclusions Here we report the first complete sequence of TAHV and present genetic analysis of new-world viruses, LACV, SSHV, and JCV with old

  2. Nail infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, K T; Bonar, P L

    1989-04-01

    Nail infections are and will continue to be a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to all foot physicians. Attention to basic concepts of accurate detailed history and physical examination will aid in the determination of the etiology of these infections. Following basic guidelines of incision and drainage, gram stain, soaks, and antibiotics will be the cornerstone of initial treatment of pyogenic infections. Upon resolution of the acute infection a permanent treatment plan can be constituted based on the etiology. Nail infections of mycotic nature require an understanding by both patient and doctor as to the difficulty and resistance to treatment of this problem. It is the authors' opinion that aggressive persistent treatment will provide the best long-term result when dealing with mycotic infections. This may require nail removal, local and systemic treatment as well as change in shoe environment. As we have seen and is stated throughout this text, the nail and its pathologic processes can be a mirror of systemic disease. Many times a dystrophic infected nail may be the initial clinical presentation of a much more involved disease process. It is the responsibility and duty of all foot physicians to have a total understanding of knowledge of normal and pathologic process that affect the nail plates, nail bed, and surrounding nail proper. I hope this article will stimulate the foot physician to approach the disease of the nail with a high index of suspicion and respect. PMID:2650850

  3. Rotavirus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Surendran, Sankar

    2008-01-01

    Rotavirus infection causing gastroenteritis is one of the major health concerns throughout the world. Millions of children are affected by the disease. Studying molecular mechanism and pathophysiology of the disease is important to understand and interpret possible therapeutical targets. Studies suggest that rotavirus infection alters phosphorylation of p70S6K, mitogen activated kinase (MAPK/ERK) and myosin light chain; induced inflammatory agents such as prostaglandin E2 and nitric oxide lev...

  4. Anthrax Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Sweeney, Daniel A.; Caitlin W. Hicks; Cui, Xizhong; Li, Yan; Eichacker, Peter Q.

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis infection is rare in developed countries. However, recent outbreaks in the United States and Europe and the potential use of the bacteria for bioterrorism have focused interest on it. Furthermore, although anthrax was known to typically occur as one of three syndromes related to entry site of (i.e., cutaneous, gastrointestinal, or inhalational), a fourth syndrome including severe soft tissue infection in injectional drug users is emerging. Although shock has been described ...

  5. [Hantavirus infection: two case reports from a province in the Eastern Black Sea Region, Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Selçuk; Yılmaz, Gürdal; Erensoy, Sükrü; Yağçı Çağlayık, Dilek; Uyar, Yavuz; Köksal, Iftihar

    2010-07-01

    Hantaviruses which are the members of Bunyaviridae, differ from other members of this family since they are transmitted to humans by rodents. More than 200.000 cases of hantavirus infections are reported annually worldwide. Hantaviruses can lead to two different types of infection in humans, namely, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). HFRS is the most common type of hantavirus infection in Europe and Asia and the most common virus types are Dobrava, Puumala, Hantaan and Seoul. A total of 25 hantavirus suspected cases have been reported from the Western Black Sea region of Turkey and 12 of these were confirmed serologically as "Puumala" subtype. Serological tests such as indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), are used for diagnosis and typing of the hantaviruses, however, since cross-reactions are common between the subtypes, the results of these tests should be confirmed by other methods. In this report two cases with hantavirus infection defined serologically were presented. Two male patients, 55 and 50 years old, respectively, living in Giresun province of Eastern Black Sea region, Turkey, were admitted to the State Hospital with the complaints of fever, sweating and diarrhoea without blood or mucus. Since thrombocytopenia and renal failure were detected in these two cases, they were transferred to the University Hospital. Presence of fever, thrombocytopenia and renal failure, with no laboratory findings of a bacterial infection and no growth of microoorganisms in the clinical specimens, admittance of the patients during summer and history of being present in the fields, necessitated to rule out leptospirosis, Crimean Kongo hemorrhagic fever and hantavirus infection which were all endemic in our area. Further investigation of the serum samples at the National Reference Virology Laboratory by IFA (Hantavirus Mosaic-1, Euroimmun, Germany) revealed hantavirus IgM and IgG antibodies ≥ 1:100 titer and the results

  6. [Serological monitoring of arbovirus infections in the estuary of the Kuban River (the 2006-2007 data)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'vov, D K; Shchelkanov, M Iu; Kolobukhina, L V; L'vov, D N; Galkina, I V; Aristova, V A; Morozova, T N; Proshina, E S; Kulikov, A G; Kogdenko, N V; Andronova, O V; Pronin, N I; Shevkoplias, V N; Fontanetskiĭ, A S; Vlasov, N A; Nepoklonov, E A

    2008-01-01

    Solid-phase enzyme immunoassay, neutralization test, and the hemagglutination-inhibition test were used to study the sera from human beings (152 samples), agricultural animals (n = 77), hares (n = 3), and wild birds (n = 69), collected in 2006-2007 in the Kuban River estuary (Temryuk District, Krasnodar Territory). There were specific antibodies against viruses of West Nile (WH), tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) (Flaviviridae, Flavivirus), Sindbis (Togaviridae, Alphavirus), the antigenic complex of California, Batai (Bunyaviridae, Orthobunyavirus), Dhori (Orthomyxoviridae, Thogotovirus). The findings suggest the presence of arboviruses from 6 transmitting mosquitoes and ticks in the study area and human infection by the viruses of the antigenic complex of California (20-47%), Batai (3-15%), West Nile (3-12%), Dhori (2%). The index agricultural animals (horses, cattle) were observed to have specific antibodies to the viruses of WN (8-15%), TBE (0-2%), Sindbis (2-9%), the antigenic complex of California (27-54%). Out of the representatives of the wild fauna, virus-neutralizing antibodies to Sindbis virus were found in European hares (Lepus europaeus), California complex virus in gulls (Larus argentatus) and terns (Sterna hirundo), WN and Sindbis viruses in herons (Ardea purpurea), and WN and California complex viruses in bald-coots (Fulica atra). PMID:18756814

  7. Ear Infections in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Ear Infections in Children On this page: What is an ear infection? ... their hearing. How can I tell if my child has an ear infection? Most ear infections happen ...

  8. Spinal infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tali, E. Turgut E-mail: turguttali@gazi.edu.tr

    2004-05-01

    Spinal infections can be thought of as a spectrum of disease comprising spondylitis, discitis, spondylodiscitis, pyogenic facet arthropathy, epidural infections, meningitis, polyradiculopathy and myelitis. Radiological evaluations have gained importance in the diagnosis, treatment planning, treatment and treatment monitoring of the spinal infections. Conventional radiographs are usually the initial imaging study. The sensitivity and specificity of the plain radiographs are very low. The sensitivity of CT is higher while it lacks of specificity. Conventional CT has played minor role for the diagnosis of early spondylitis and disc space infection and for follow-up, researches are going on the value of MDCT. MRI is as sensitive, specific and accurate as combined nuclear medicine studies and the method of choice for the spondylitis. Low signal areas of the vertebral body, loss of definition of the end plates and interruption of the cortical continuity, destruction of the cortical margins are typical on T1WI whereas high signal of affected areas of the vertebral body and disc is typical on T2WI. Contrast is mandatory and increases conspicuity, specificity, and observer confidence in the diagnosis and facilitates the treatment planning. Contrast enhancement is the earliest sign and pathognomonic in the acute inflammatory episode and even in the subtle infection then persists to a varying degree for several weeks or months. The outcome of the treatment is influenced by the type of infection and by the degree of neurologic compromise before treatment. There is an increasing move away from surgical intervention towards conservative therapy, percutaneous drainage of abscess or both. It is therefore critical to monitor treatment response, particularly in the immuno-deficient population.

  9. Lung infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    2009188 Multi-slice spiral CT appearances of pulmonary infections after liver transplantation.XIE Lixuan(谢丽璇),et al.Dept Imaging,Changzheng Hosp,2nd Milit Med Univ,Shanghai 200003.Chin J Radiol,2009;43(1):8-11.

  10. Baylisascaris Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-08-27

    This podcast will educate health care providers on diagnosing baylisascariasis and on providing patients at risk of Baylisascaris infection with prevention messages.  Created: 8/27/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria.   Date Released: 8/28/2012.

  11. Vaginal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ll know that you’re drinking enough if your urine (pee) is light yellow or almost clear. Avoid scented hygiene products like bubble bath, sprays, scented pads, and scented tampons. They can be irritating. Having sex may increase your odds of some infections even if they’re ...

  12. Fungal nail infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nails - fungal infection; Onychomycosis; Infection - fungal - nails; Tinea unguium ... the hair, nails, and outer skin layers. Common fungal infections include: Athlete's foot Jock itch Ringworm on the ...

  13. Infective endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, José M; Fonseca, Ana Catarina

    2014-01-01

    Infective endocarditis is a serious disease of the endocardium of the heart and cardiac valves, caused by a variety of infectious agents, ranging from streptococci to rickettsia. The proportion of cases associated with rheumatic valvulopathy and dental surgery has decreased in recent years, while endocarditis associated with intravenous drug abuse, prosthetic valves, degenerative valve disease, implanted cardiac devices, and iatrogenic or nosocomial infections has emerged. Endocarditis causes constitutional, cardiac and multiorgan symptoms and signs. The central nervous system can be affected in the form of meningitis, cerebritis, encephalopathy, seizures, brain abscess, ischemic embolic stroke, mycotic aneurysm, and subarachnoid or intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke in endocarditis is an ominous prognostic sign. Treatment of endocarditis includes prolonged appropriate antimicrobial therapy and in selected cases, cardiac surgery. In ischemic stroke associated with infective endocarditis there is no indication to start antithrombotic drugs. In previously anticoagulated patients with an ischemic stroke, oral anticoagulants should be replaced by unfractionated heparin, while in intracranial hemorrhage, all anticoagulation should be interrupted. The majority of unruptured mycotic aneurysms can be treated by antibiotics, but for ruptured aneurysms, endovascular or neurosurgical therapy is indicated. PMID:24365290

  14. Anthrax infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Daniel A; Hicks, Caitlin W; Cui, Xizhong; Li, Yan; Eichacker, Peter Q

    2011-12-15

    Bacillus anthracis infection is rare in developed countries. However, recent outbreaks in the United States and Europe and the potential use of the bacteria for bioterrorism have focused interest on it. Furthermore, although anthrax was known to typically occur as one of three syndromes related to entry site of (i.e., cutaneous, gastrointestinal, or inhalational), a fourth syndrome including severe soft tissue infection in injectional drug users is emerging. Although shock has been described with cutaneous anthrax, it appears much more common with gastrointestinal, inhalational (5 of 11 patients in the 2001 outbreak in the United States), and injectional anthrax. Based in part on case series, the estimated mortalities of cutaneous, gastrointestinal, inhalational, and injectional anthrax are 1%, 25 to 60%, 46%, and 33%, respectively. Nonspecific early symptomatology makes initial identification of anthrax cases difficult. Clues to anthrax infection include history of exposure to herbivore animal products, heroin use, or clustering of patients with similar respiratory symptoms concerning for a bioterrorist event. Once anthrax is suspected, the diagnosis can usually be made with Gram stain and culture from blood or surgical specimens followed by confirmatory testing (e.g., PCR or immunohistochemistry). Although antibiotic therapy (largely quinolone-based) is the mainstay of anthrax treatment, the use of adjunctive therapies such as anthrax toxin antagonists is a consideration. PMID:21852539

  15. Fish tapeworm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with the tapeworm parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ) is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw ...

  16. Clinical features and factors associated with severity and fatality among patients with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome Bunyavirus infection in Northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baocheng Deng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2009, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV was identified as a novel member of the genus phlebovirus in the Bunyaviridae family in China. The detailed clinical features of cases with SFTSV infection have not been well described, and the risk factors for severity among patients and fatality among severe patients remain to be determined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Clinical and laboratory features of 115 hospitalized patients with SFTSV infection during the period from June 2010 to December 2011 in Northeast China were retrospectively reviewed. We assessed the risk factors associated with severity in confirmed cases and fatality in severe cases by multivariate analysis. One hundred and three (89.6% of 115 patients presented with multiple organ dysfunction, and 22 (19.1% of 115 proceeded to the stage of life threatening multiple organ failure. Of the 115 patients, 14 fatalities (12.2% were reported. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the independent predictors of risk for severity were: albumin ≤ 30 g/l (OR, 8.09; 95% CI, 2.58-25.32, APTT ≥ 66 seconds (OR, 14.28; 95% CI, 3.28-62.24, sodium ≤ 130 mmol/l (OR, 5.44; 95% CI, 1.38-21.40, and presence of neurological manifestations (OR, 7.70; 95% CI, 1.91-31.12. Among patients with severe disease, presence of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (HR, 4.59; 95% CI, 1.48-14.19 and disseminated intravascular coagulation (HR, 4.24; 95% CI, 1.38-13.03 were independently associated with fatality. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: SFTSV infection may present with more severe symptoms and laboratory abnormalities than hitherto reported. Due to infection with a novel bunyavirus, the patients may sufferer multiple organ dysfunction and die of multiple organ failure. In the clinical assessment of any case of SFTS, independent factors relating to prognosis need to be taken into account by clinicians.

  17. Serologic evidence of Jamestown Canyon and Keystone virus infection in vertebrates of the DelMarVa Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, D M; LeDuc, J W; Bailey, C L; Dalrymple, J M; Gargan, T P

    1982-11-01

    Serological data accumulated during the past decade indicated that a variety of feral and domestic animals of the Delaware-Maryland-Virginia (DelMarVa) Peninsula were infected with Jamestown Canyon (JC) and/or Keystone (KEY) viruses (Bunyaviridae, California serogroup). Neutralizing (N) antibody to JC virus was most prevalent in white-tailed deer, sika deer, cottontail rabbits and horses. KEY virus N antibody was detected most frequently in gray squirrels and domestic goats. N antibody indicative of past infection by one or both viruses also was found in raccoons, horses and humans. JC and/or KEY virus N antibodies were not demonstrable in sera of several other species of small mammals and reptiles. Investigations were extended to evaluate the role of domestic goats as an amplifying host of JC and KEY viruses and to assess their potential as sentinels of virus transmission. Goats maintained in the Pocomoke Cypress Swamp during the summer season of 1978, acquired N antibodies to JC and KEY viruses. Following experimental inoculation with either JC or KEY virus, all goats developed N antibody despite the absence of a demonstrable viremia in most animals. Goats proved to be effective as sentinels for monitoring the transmission of JC and KEY viruses; however, the exceptionally low titers or absence of viremia following inoculation with these viruses would seem to preclude a potential virus-amplifying role for this species. Although findings implicated primarily gray squirrels and white-tailed deer as possible amplifying hosts of KEY and JC virus, respectively, further investigations will be required to clarify their role, particularly since both viruses may be maintained entirely by transovarial transmission. PMID:7149110

  18. Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Abe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Of 168 patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection-related liver disease, 20 patients who had received 100 mg of lamivudine plus 10 mg/day of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV (ADV group and 124 patients who had received 0.5 mg/day of entecavir or 100 mg/day of lamivudine (non-ADV group for >1 year were enrolled. For comparative analyses, 19 well-matched pairs were obtained from the groups by propensity scores. At the time of enrollment, serum creatinine and phosphate concentrations were similar between the ADV and non-ADV groups; however, urinary phosphate ( and serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP ( concentrations were significantly higher in the ADV group than in the non-ADV group. Serum BAP was significantly higher at the time of enrollment than before ADV administration in the ADV group (, although there was no significant change in serum BAP concentration in the non-ADV group. There was a significant positive correlation between the period of ADV therapy and ΔBAP (, . Serum BAP concentration increased before increase in serum creatinine concentration and was useful for early detection of adverse events and for developing adequate measures for continuing ADV for chronic HBV infection-related liver disease.

  19. Shigella infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shears, P

    1996-04-01

    Shigella dysentery is a major public-health problem in many tropical areas. Despite improvements in water supplies and sanitation, it continues to be a disease of poor rural and urban communities and in populations affected by migration and crowding following disasters. Pathogenesis is due to colonic invasion, endotoxin, and, in Shigella dysenteriae 1, shiga toxin. As well as the local manifestations of dysentery, systemic complications include convulsions, haemolytic-uraemic syndrome, hyponatraemia and hypoglycaemia. The spread of shigella infection is most commonly person-person, although water and food-borne outbreaks have been reported. Since 1970, multiple antimicrobial resistance, particularly in Sh. dysenteriae 1, has complicated strategies for management. Multiply resistant strains have occurred in Latin America, Central Africa and southern and south-eastern Asia. No vaccines are currently available, and prevention and control will depend on public-health improvements and improved case management. PMID:8762400

  20. Lung infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930120 A clinical study of 50 cases of legion-naires disease.WANG Baofa(王保法),et al.Dept Intern Med,2nd Affili Hosp,Hehei MedColl,Shijiazhuang,050000.Chin J Tuberc &Respir Dis 1992;15(5):266-268.The clinical features and X-ray manifesta-tions of 50 cases of legionnaires disease wereanalysed.8 cases might be due to nosocomial in-fection through breathing in flying particles ofthe saliva or phlegm.According to the mainclinical features,this disease could be dividedinto common pneumonia type,acute gastroen-teritis type,encephalopathy type,shock type,and acute renal insufficiency type.The differen-

  1. Psychosis in mycoplasma infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Moor, S.; Skrine, H.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes a patient with psychosis due to a Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. Although he received specific treatment for this infection, the diagnosis was only confirmed after clinical recovery. The neuropsychiatric complications of mycoplasma infection are discussed.

  2. Infective endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herregods, M-C

    2011-01-01

    Despite the progress in medicine, infectious endocarditis is often diagnosed late, as its symptomatology is subject to a high variability. The clinical features are usually atypical. Since the introduction of the Duke criteria, clinical, bacteriological and echocardiographical findings are being integrated, allowing an earlier definitive diagnosis. The incidence remains practically stable. The decrease in post-rheumatic valvular heart disease at population level is compensated by an increase in degenerative valvular heart disease as predisposing factor. Moreover, the share of patients with intravascular foreign material is increasing. Endocarditis is usually characterized by a complicated development. About half of the patients develop heart failure as a consequence of the destruction of the affected valve with serious valvular insufficiency. One third of the patients present cerebral or peripheral embolization. Embolization predominantly occurs at the beginning, until the first two weeks of antibiotic treatment. Abscess formation occurs more frequently than is suspected based on echographical examinations. Particularly a Staphylococcus aureus infection in the presence of an artificial valve leads to extravalvular extension with abscess formation around the artificial valve. Treatment should be initiated promptly. High doses of antibiotics, tailored to the microorganism and the valve type (native or artificial valve), are administered intravenously during four, or more frequently, six weeks. In more than half of the patients cardiac surgery is also required. As soon as an indication for cardiac surgery is present, the operation should not be postponed. Experience learns that a smaller risk is associated with an early intervention. The operation is performed in a technically easier way. Eventually, also the total duration of hospitalization is shorter. Despite the available antibiotics and the technical progress in cardiac surgery, mortality remains high. This is

  3. Pityrosporum Infection In HIV Infected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaviarasan P K

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An increased colonization of Malassezia furfur organism has been reported in patients with HIV infection. Pityriasis versicolour and pityrosporum folliculitis arise from overgrowth of M. furfur. It is also thought to have a significant role in the pathogenesis of seborrhoeic dermatitis and is one of the earliest clinical markers of HIV infection. The present study was to note the occurrence and significance of these infections in HIV infected patients. The present study was to note the occurrence and significance of these infections in HIV infected patients. The occurrence of pityrosporum infection was 13.5% (25 cases amongst 185 HIV serpositive patients in HIV infected cases in our study. Mean age of the affected patients was 31.7 years and male to female ratio was 1.5:1. The main mode of acquisition of HIV infection was heterosexual (19 cases. Tinea versicolour was seen in 10 (40% cases, seborrhoeic was found to be more explosive in onset and involving extensive areas with severe inflammation. Extensive tinea versicolour and seborrhoeic dermatitis were seen in three cases with pityrosporum infections. Nine of the pityrosporum infections were observed in HIV group IV, which is equivalent of AIDS. To conclude, seborrhoeic dermatitis in patients with HIV/AIDS may have some unique features and may be used as a clinical marker of AIDS.

  4. Epidemiologic relationship between Toscana virus infection and Leishmania infantum due to common exposure to Phlebotomus perniciosus sandfly vector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Bichaud

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Sand flies are recognised vectors of parasites in the genus Leishmania and a number of arthropod-borne viruses, in particular viruses within the genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae. In southern France, Toscana phlebovirus (TOSV is recognized as a prominent cause of summer meningitis. Since Leishmania and TOSV have a common vector (Phlebotomus perniciosus, an epidemiologic link has been assumed for a long time. However, there is no scientific evidence of such a link between human leishmaniosis and phleboviral infections. To identify a possible link, we investigated the presence and distribution of antibodies against these two microorganisms (i in individuals and (ii at a spatial level in the city of Marseille (south-eastern France. Five hundred sera were selected randomly in the biobank of the Department of Parasitology of the Public Hospitals of Marseille. All sera were previously tested for IgG against Leishmania by Western Blotting, and TOSV IgG were detected by indirect immunofluorescence. The seropositivity rates were 21.4% for TOSV and 28% for Leishmania. Statistical analysis demonstrated that seropositivity for one pathogen was significantly associated with seropositivity to the other pathogen. This result provided the first robust evidence for the existence of an epidemiological relationship between Leishmania infantum and TOSV. Addresses of tested patients were geolocalized and integrated into Geographical Information System software, in order to test spatial relationship between the two pathogens. Spatial analysis did not allow to identify (i specific patterns for the spatial distribution of positive serological results for TOSV or Leishmania, and (ii a spatial relationship between Leishmania and TOSV positive serological results. This may reflect the fact that the sample studied was not powerful enough to demonstrate either a spatial clustering or co-location, i.e. that the actual risk exposure area is smaller than the mean of

  5. Fungal toenail infections

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, Jill

    2008-01-01

    Fungal toenail infection (onychomycosis) is characterised as infection of part or all of the toenail unit, which includes the nail plate, the nail bed, and the nail matrix. Over time, the infection causes discoloration and distortion of part or all of the nail unit. Fungal infections are reported to cause 23% of foot diseases and 50% of nail conditions in people seen by dermatologists, but are less common in the general population, affecting 3% to 12% of people.Infection can cause discomfo...

  6. Infection and stillbirth

    OpenAIRE

    McClure, Elizabeth M; Goldenberg, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Infection may cause stillbirth by several mechanisms, including direct infection, placental damage, and severe maternal illness. Various organisms have been associated with stillbirth, including many bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. In developed countries, between 10% and 25% of stillbirths may be caused by an infection, whereas in developing countries, which have much higher stillbirth rates, the contribution of infection is much greater. In developed countries, ascending bacterial infection...

  7. Musculoskeletal infections: ultrasound appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, C.L.F. [Department of Radiology, North District Hospital, NTEC, Fanling, NT, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: c8681@yahoo.com; Griffith, J.F. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Prince of Wales Hospital, NTEC, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-02-01

    Musculoskeletal infections are commonly encountered in clinical practice. This review will discuss the ultrasound appearances of a variety of musculoskeletal infections such as cellulitis, infective tenosynovitis, pyomyositis, soft-tissue abscesses, septic arthritis, acute and chronic osteomyelitis, and post-operative infection. The peculiar sonographic features of less common musculoskeletal infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis, and rice body formation in atypical mycobacterial tenosynovitis, and bursitis will also be presented.

  8. Differential expression of tomato spotted wilt virus-derived viral small RNAs in infected commercial and experimental host plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neena Mitter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Viral small RNAs (vsiRNAs in the infected host can be generated from viral double-stranded RNA replicative intermediates, self-complementary regions of the viral genome or from the action of host RNA-dependent RNA polymerases on viral templates. The vsiRNA abundance and profile as well as the endogenous small RNA population can vary between different hosts infected by the same virus influencing viral pathogenicity and host response. There are no reports on the analysis of vsiRNAs of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV, a segmented negative stranded RNA virus in the family Bunyaviridae, with two of its gene segments showing ambisense gene arrangement. The virus causes significant economic losses to numerous field and horticultural crops worldwide. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV-specific vsiRNAs were characterized by deep sequencing in virus-infected experimental host Nicotiana benthamiana and a commercial, susceptible host tomato. The total small (s RNA reads in TSWV-infected tomato sample showed relatively equal distribution of 21, 22 and 24 nt, whereas N. benthamiana sample was dominated by 24 nt total sRNAs. The number of vsiRNA reads detected in tomato was many a magnitude (~350:1 higher than those found in N. benthamiana, however the profile of vsiRNAs in terms of relative abundance 21, 22 and 24 nt class size was similar in both the hosts. Maximum vsiRNA reads were obtained for the M RNA segment of TSWV while the largest L RNA segment had the least number of vsiRNAs in both tomato and N. benthamiana. Only the silencing suppressor, NSs, of TSWV recorded higher antisense vsiRNA with respect to the coding frame among all the genes of TSWV. SIGNIFICANCE: Details of the origin, distribution and abundance of TSWV vsiRNAs could be useful in designing efficient targets for exploiting RNA interference for virus resistance. It also has major implications toward our understanding of the differential processing of vsi

  9. CLONING AND EXPRESSION OF THE CRIMEAN-CONGO HEMORRHAGIC FEVERVIRUS GLYCOPROTEINS

    OpenAIRE

    Sliwa, Mariam

    2009-01-01

    Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a worldwide tick-borne disease that originally belongs to the Bunyaviridae family, the genus Nairovirus. In addition to infection from ticks, humans become infected if any contact with infected blood or tissue material occurs. To study the disease, several methods such as real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Immunofluorescence assay are used for detection of the virus. All viruses in Bunyaviridae consists of three...

  10. Middle Ear Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Middle Ear Infections Page Content Article Body What are ... serious illness. What if a child with a middle ear infection is in great pain and discomfort? ...

  11. Ear Infection and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...

  12. Urinary tract infection - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infection spreads to your kidneys, symptoms may include: Chills and shaking or night sweats Fatigue and a ... kidney infection, such as: Back or side pain Chills Fever Vomiting Also call if UTI symptoms come ...

  13. C. difficile Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include fever and abdominal distension and/or tenderness. Screening/Diagnosis C. difficile infection requires documenting the presence ... First, it would be ideal to stop the antibiotic that led to the infection in the first ...

  14. Urinary tract infection - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    UTI - children; Cystitis - children; Bladder infection - children; Kidney infection - children; Pyelonephritis - children ... They may occur often around age 3, as children begin toilet training. Boys who are not circumcised ...

  15. Vaginal yeast infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeast infection - vagina; Vaginal candidiasis; Monilial vaginitis ... Most women have a vaginal yeast infection at some time. Candida albicans is a common type of fungus. It is often found in small amounts in the vagina , ...

  16. Yeast Infection (Candidiasis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Yeast Infection (Candidiasis) Information for adults A A A This is a candida (yeast) infection of the skin folds of the abdomen. Overview ...

  17. Infections in spinal instrumentation

    OpenAIRE

    Gerometta, Antoine; Olaverri, Juan Carlos Rodriguez; Bitan, Fabian

    2012-01-01

    Surgical-site infection (SSI ) in the spine is a serious postoperative complication. Factors such as posterior surgical approach, arthrodesis, use of spinal instrumentation, age, obesity, diabetes, tobacco use, operating-room environment and estimated blood loss are well established in the literature to affect the risk of infection. Infection after spine surgery with instrumentation is becoming a common pathology. The reported infection rates range from 0.7% to 11.9%, depending on the diagnos...

  18. Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders; Bruun, Niels Eske

    2013-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis (IE) is a disease of increasing importance, with more patients infected, increasing frequency of health-care associated infections and increasing incidence of antimicrobial resistances. The typical clinical presentation is a subacute course with fever...... or ceftriaxone. E. faecalis infective endocarditis continues to be a very serious disease with considerable percentages of high-level gentamicin resistant strains and in-hospital mortality around 20%. Strategies to prevent E. faecalis IE, improve diagnostics, optimize treatment and reduce morbidity...

  19. Primary disseminated fusarial infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Madhavan, M.; Ratnakar, C.; Veliath, A. J.; Kanungo, R.; Smile, S. R.; Bhat, S

    1992-01-01

    Among the fungal pathogens the species Fusariam solani causing systemic infection is very rare and generally causes systemic infection only in an immuno-compromised host. We report a systemic infection caused by F. solani in a non-immunocompromised adult male, to our knowledge the first such case report.

  20. Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can usually be found and treated before the kidneys become infected. If your doctor treats a urinary tract infection early and ... Tips on preventing urinary tract infections Drink plenty of water to flush out bacteria. Drinking cranberry juice may also help ...

  1. Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders; Rasmussen, Rasmus V; Bundgaard, Henning;

    2013-01-01

    Because of the nephrotoxic effects of aminoglycosides, the Danish guidelines on infective endocarditis were changed in January 2007, reducing gentamicin treatment in enterococcal infective endocarditis from 4 to 6 weeks to only 2 weeks. In this pilot study, we compare outcomes in patients...... with Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis treated in the years before and after endorsement of these new recommendations....

  2. Brucella Infection in HIV Infected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the possible correlation between Brucella and HIV infections. Iran is a country where HIV infection is expanding and Brucellosis is prevalent. In the present study, 184 HIV infected patients were assigned and for all of them HIV infection was confirmed by western blot test. In order to identify the prevalence rate of Brucella infection and systemic brucellosis in these subjects, sera samples were obtained and Brucella specific serological tests were performed to reveal antibody titers. Detailed history was taken and physical examination was carried out for all of patients. 11 (6% subjects had high titers but only 3 of them were symptomatic. Most of these subjects were injection drug user (IDU men and one was a rural woman. Considering both prevalence rates of Brucella infection (3% and symptomatic brucellosis (0.1% in Iran, our HIV positive patients show higher rates of Brucella infection and systemic brucellosis. Preserved cellular immunity of participants and retention of granulocytes activity may explain this poor association; whereas other explanations such as immunological state difference and non-overlapping geographical distribution of the 2 pathogens have been mentioned by various authors.

  3. Inflammation, Infection, and Future Cardiovascular Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Myocardial Infarction; Venous Thromboembolism; Heart Diseases; Infection; Chlamydia Infections; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Helicobacter Infections; Herpesviridae Infections; Inflammation

  4. Middle Ear Infections (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Middle Ear Infections KidsHealth > For Parents > Middle Ear Infections ... eventually leading to an ear infection. continue About Middle Ear Infections Inflammation in the middle ear area ...

  5. Diabetic foot infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemechu, Fassil W; Seemant, Fnu; Curley, Catherine A

    2013-08-01

    Diabetic foot infection, defined as soft tissue or bone infection below the malleoli, is the most common complication of diabetes mellitus leading to hospitalization and the most frequent cause of nontraumatic lower extremity amputation. Diabetic foot infections are diagnosed clinically based on the presence of at least two classic findings of inflammation or purulence. Infections are classified as mild, moderate, or severe. Most diabetic foot infections are polymicrobial. The most common pathogens are aerobic gram-positive cocci, mainly Staphylococcus species. Osteomyelitis is a serious complication of diabetic foot infection that increases the likelihood of surgical intervention. Treatment is based on the extent and severity of the infection and comorbid conditions. Mild infections are treated with oral antibiotics, wound care, and pressure off-loading in the outpatient setting. Selected patients with moderate infections and all patients with severe infections should be hospitalized, given intravenous antibiotics, and evaluated for possible surgical intervention. Peripheral arterial disease is present in up to 40% of patients with diabetic foot infections, making evaluation of the vascular supply critical. All patients with diabetes should undergo a systematic foot examination at least once a year, and more frequently if risk factors for diabetic foot ulcers exist. Preventive measures include patient education on proper foot care, glycemic and blood pressure control, smoking cessation, use of prescription footwear, intensive care from a podiatrist, and evaluation for surgical interventions as indicated.

  6. Infections following epidural catheterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, MS; Andersen, SS; Andersen, Ove;

    1995-01-01

    of central nervous system infection of at least 0.7% at Odense University Hospital. This degree of infection is of the same magnitude as that reported for intravascular devices. We found that the patients with generalized symptoms of infection had been catheterized for a longer time, and were older than......Seventy-eight patients with culture-positive epidural catheters, were studied. Fifty-nine had symptoms of exit site infection and 11 patients had clinical meningitis, two of whom also had an epidural abscess. This corresponds to a local infection incidence of at least 4.3% and an incidence...... patients with only local symptoms of infection. The microorganisms isolated from the tips of the epidural catheters were coagulase-negative staphylococci (41%), Staphylococcus aureus (35%), Gram-negative bacilli (14%) and others (10%). The Gram-negative bacilli and S. aureus caused serious infections more...

  7. Periprosthetic Joint Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lucia L. Lima

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Implantation of joint prostheses is becoming increasingly common, especially for the hip and knee. Infection is considered to be the most devastating of prosthesis-related complications, leading to prolonged hospitalization, repeated surgical intervention, and even definitive loss of the implant. The main risk factors to periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs are advanced age, malnutrition, obesity, diabetes mellitus, HIV infection at an advanced stage, presence of distant infectious foci, and antecedents of arthroscopy or infection in previous arthroplasty. Joint prostheses can become infected through three different routes: direct implantation, hematogenic infection, and reactivation of latent infection. Gram-positive bacteria predominate in cases of PJI, mainly Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. PJIs present characteristic signs that can be divided into acute and chronic manifestations. The main imaging method used in diagnosing joint prosthesis infections is X-ray. Computed tomography (CT scan may assist in distinguishing between septic and aseptic loosening. Three-phase bone scintigraphy using technetium has high sensitivity, but low specificity. Positron emission tomography using fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET presents very divergent results in the literature. Definitive diagnosis of infection should be made by isolating the microorganism through cultures on material obtained from joint fluid puncturing, surgical wound secretions, surgical debridement procedures, or sonication fluid. Success in treating PJI depends on extensive surgical debridement and adequate and effective antibiotic therapy. Treatment in two stages using a spacer is recommended for most chronic infections in arthroplasty cases. Treatment in a single procedure is appropriate in carefully selected cases.

  8. Imaging of hepatic infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, D.J. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada)]. E-mail: doyledj@hotmail.com; Hanbidge, A.E. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada); O' Malley, M.E. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    Imaging plays a significant role in the detection, characterization and treatment of hepatic infections. Infectious diseases of the liver include pyogenic and amoebic abscesses and parasitic, fungal, viral and granulomatous infections. With increases in worldwide travel, immunosuppression and changing population demographics, identification of cases of hepatic infection is becoming more common in daily practice. Knowledge of the imaging features seen with hepatic infections can assist in early diagnosis and timely initiation of appropriate therapy. This review presents the imaging appearances of hepatic infections, emphasizing specific features that may contribute to the diagnosis. Examples of the imaging findings seen with pyogenic and amoebic abscesses, infection with Echinococcus granulosus (Hydatid), schistosomiasis, candidiasis and tuberculosis (TB) are presented.

  9. Imaging of hepatic infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaging plays a significant role in the detection, characterization and treatment of hepatic infections. Infectious diseases of the liver include pyogenic and amoebic abscesses and parasitic, fungal, viral and granulomatous infections. With increases in worldwide travel, immunosuppression and changing population demographics, identification of cases of hepatic infection is becoming more common in daily practice. Knowledge of the imaging features seen with hepatic infections can assist in early diagnosis and timely initiation of appropriate therapy. This review presents the imaging appearances of hepatic infections, emphasizing specific features that may contribute to the diagnosis. Examples of the imaging findings seen with pyogenic and amoebic abscesses, infection with Echinococcus granulosus (Hydatid), schistosomiasis, candidiasis and tuberculosis (TB) are presented

  10. MP-12 virus containing the Clone 13 deletion in the NSs gene prevents lethal disease when administered after Rift Valley fever virus infection in hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian B Gowen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV; Bunyaviridae, Phlebovirus causes a range of illnesses that include retinitis, fulminant hepatitis, neurologic disease, and hemorrhagic fever. In hospitalized individuals, case fatality rates can be as high as 10-20%. There are no vaccines or antivirals approved for human use to prevent or treat severe RVFV infections. We previously tested the efficacy of the MP-12 vaccine strain and related variants with NSs truncations as a post-exposure prophylaxis in mice infected with wild-type pathogenic RVFV strain ZH501. Post-exposure efficacy of the rMP12-C13type, a recombinant MP-12 vaccine virus which encodes an in-frame truncation removing 69% of the NSs protein, resulted in 30% survival when administering the virus within 30 minutes of subcutaneous ZH501 challenge in mice, while the parental MP-12 virus conferred no protection by post-exposure vaccination. Here, we demonstrate uniform protection of hamsters by post-exposure vaccination with rMP12-C13type administered 6 h post-ZH501 infection while no efficacy was observed with the parental MP-12 virus. Notably, both the MP-12 and rMP12-C13type viruses were highly effective (100% protection when administered 21 days prior to challenge. In a subsequent study delaying vaccination until 8, 12 and 24 h post-RVFV exposure, we observed 80, 70 and 30% survival, respectively. Our findings indicate that the rapid protective innate immune response elicited by rMP12-C13type may be due to the truncated NSs protein, suggesting that the resulting functional inactivation of NSs plays an important role in the observed post-exposure efficacy. Taken together, the data demonstrate that post-exposure vaccination with rMP12-C13type is effective in limiting ZH501 replication and associated disease in standard pre-exposure vaccination and post-challenge treatment models of RVFV infection, and suggest an extended post-exposure prophylaxis window beyond that initially observed in mice.

  11. Clostridium difficile infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Geller

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile infection (CDI is a significant and increasing medical problem, surpassing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as the most common hospital-onset or facility-associated infection, and a key element in the challenging battle against hospital-acquired infections. This Gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming colonizes the intestinal tract after antibiotics have altered the normal intestinal flora.

  12. Influenza infection and COPD

    OpenAIRE

    Mallia, Patrick; Johnston, Sebastian L.

    2007-01-01

    Influenza is a disease with global impact that causes enormous morbidity and mortality on an annual basis. It primarily infects the respiratory tract and causes a broad range of illness ranging from symptomless infection to fulminant primary viral and secondary bacterial pneumonia. The severity of infection depends on both the virus strain and a number of host factors, primarily age and the presence of comorbid conditions such as cardiopulmonary disease. The mortality and utilization of healt...

  13. Microbiome in HIV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Salas, January T; Chang, Theresa L

    2014-01-01

    HIV primary infection occurs at mucosa tissues, suggesting an intricate interplay between microbiome and HIV infection. Recent advanced technologies of high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics allow researchers to explore nonculturable microbes including bacteria, virus and fungi and their association with diseases. HIV/SIV infection is associated with microbiome shifts and immune activation that may affect the outcome of disease progression. Similarly, altered microbiome and inflammatio...

  14. Imaging of Periprosthetic Infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carty, Fiona

    2013-05-22

    Periprosthetic infection is one of the most challenging and difficult complications in orthopaedics. It can result in significant patient distress and disability, with repeated surgeries, increased cost and utilization of medical resources, and in rare cases even mortality. The biggest challenge to date is the correct diagnosis of periprosthetic infection and implementation of effective treatment regimens capable of eradicating the organism. This article reviews the various modalities used in the imaging of periprosthetic and post-arthroplasty infection.

  15. [ZIKA--VIRUS INFECTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velev, V

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes the knowledge of the scientific community for Zika-virus infection. It became popular because of severe congenital damage causes of CNS in newborns whose mothers are infected during pregnancy, as well as the risk of pandemic distribution. Discusses the peculiarities of the biology and ecology of vectors--blood-sucking mosquitoes Aedes; stages in the spread of infection and practical problems which caused during pregnancy. Attention is paid to the recommendations that allow leading national and international medical organizations to deal with the threat Zika-virus infection.

  16. [ZIKA--VIRUS INFECTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velev, V

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes the knowledge of the scientific community for Zika-virus infection. It became popular because of severe congenital damage causes of CNS in newborns whose mothers are infected during pregnancy, as well as the risk of pandemic distribution. Discusses the peculiarities of the biology and ecology of vectors--blood-sucking mosquitoes Aedes; stages in the spread of infection and practical problems which caused during pregnancy. Attention is paid to the recommendations that allow leading national and international medical organizations to deal with the threat Zika-virus infection. PMID:27509655

  17. Feline immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, N C; Yamamoto, J K; Ishida, T; Hansen, H

    1989-05-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) (formerly feline T-lymphotropic lentivirus or FTLV) was first isolated from a group of cats in Petaluma, California in 1986. The virus is a typical lentivirus in gross and structural morphology. It replicates preferentially but not exclusively in feline T-lymphoblastoid cells, where it causes a characteristic cytopathic effect. The major structural proteins are 10, 17 (small gag), 28 (major core), 31 (endonuclease?), 41 (transmembrane?), 52 (core precursor polyprotein), 54/62 (reverse transcriptase?), and 110/130 (major envelope) kilodaltons in size. The various proteins are antigenically distinguishable from those of other lentiviruses, although serum from EIAV-infected horses will cross-react with some FIV antigens. Kittens experimentally infected with FIV manifest a transient (several days to 2 weeks) fever and neutropenia beginning 4 to 8 weeks after inoculation. This is associated with a generalized lymphadenopathy that persists for up to 9 months. Most cats recover from this initial phase of the disease and become lifelong carriers of the virus. Complete recovery does not occur to any extent in nature or in the laboratory setting. One experimentally infected cat died from a myeloproliferative disorder several months after infection. The terminal AIDS-like phase of the illness has been seen mainly in naturally infected cats. It appears a year or more following the initial infection in an unknown proportion of infected animals. FIV has been identified in cats from all parts of the world. It is most prevalent in high density populations of free roaming cats (feral and pet), and is very uncommon in closed purebred catteries. Male cats are twice as likely to become infected as females. Older male cats adopted as feral or stray animals are at the highest risk of infection, therefore. The infection rate among freely roaming cats rises throughout life, and reaches levels ranging from less than 1% to 12% or more depending on the

  18. Surgical infections with Mycoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Prag, Jørgen Brorson; Jensen, J S;

    1997-01-01

    Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum are common inhabitants of the human genital tract. Evidence for an aetiological role in pyelonephritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, post-abortion and post-partum fever has been presented. There are sporadic reports of Mycoplasma causing serious extra...... extragenital infection such as septicemia, septic arthritis, neonatal meningitis and encephalitis. We review 38 cases of surgical infections with Mycoplasma....

  19. Congenital CMV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infect the baby. This can happen when a pregnant woman experiences a first-time infection, a reinfection with a different CMV strain (variety), ... passed their newborn hearing test. Diagnosis Congenital CMV ... newborn baby’s saliva, urine, or blood. Such specimens must be collected for ...

  20. [Emergent viral infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galama, J.M.D.

    2001-01-01

    The emergence and re-emergence of viral infections is an ongoing process. Large-scale vaccination programmes led to the eradication or control of some viral infections in the last century, but new viruses are always emerging. Increased travel is leading to a rise in the importation of exotic infecti

  1. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Movie: Digestive System Winter Sports: Sledding, ... a Booger? Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth > For Kids > Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) Print A A A ...

  2. Diagnosing BVDV infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infections with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are widespread among the U.S. cattle population and it is generally accepted that these infections result in substantial economic loss for producers. There is a push in the U.S. to design BVDV control programs that will curb these losses. While ...

  3. [Nosocomial urinary infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butreau-Lemaire, M; Botto, H

    1997-09-01

    The concept of nosocomial urinary tract infection now corresponds to a precise definition. It is generally related to bladder catheterization, constitutes the most frequent form of nosocomial infection (30 to 50% of infections), and represents the third most frequent portal of entry of bacteraemia. The organism most frequently isolated is Escherichia coli; but the flora is changing and the ecological distribution is continually modified. Despite their usually benign nature, these nosocomial infections can nevertheless influence hospital mortality; they increase the hospital stay by an average of 2.5 days and their treatment represents a large share of the antibiotic budget. Prevention of these infections is therefore essential, with particular emphasis on simple and universally accessible measures: very precise indications for vesical catheterization, use of closed circuit drainage, maximal asepsis when handling catheters, after washing the hands.

  4. Key aspects congenital infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Lobzin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The key questions to solve the problem of congenital infection in the Russian Federation are: using in national practice over world accepted terminology adapted to the recommendations of the World Health Organization; representation of the modern concepts of an infectious process in the classification of congenital infections; scientific development and introducing in clinical practice the «standard case definitions», applied to different congenital infections; optimization of protocols and clinical guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of congenital infections; improvement a knowledge in the infectious disease for all  pecialists involved in the risk assessment of congenital infections, manage pregnancy and children. Based on our experience and analysis of publications, the authors suggest possible solutions.

  5. Bacteriophage secondary infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen; T; Abedon

    2015-01-01

    Phages are credited with having been first described in what we now, officially, are commemorating as the 100 th anniversary of their discovery. Those one-hundred years of phage history have not been lacking in excitement, controversy, and occasional convolution. One such complication is the concept of secondary infection, which can take on multiple forms with myriad consequences. The terms secondary infection and secondary adsorption, for example, can be used almost synonymously to describe virion interaction with already phage-infected bacteria, and which can result in what are described as superinfection exclusion or superinfection immunity. The phrase secondary infection also may be used equivalently to superinfection or coinfection, with each of these terms borrowed from medical microbiology, and can result in genetic exchange between phages, phage-on-phage parasitism, and various partial reductions in phage productivity that have been termed mutual exclusion, partial exclusion, or the depressor effect. Alternatively, and drawing from epidemiology, secondary infection has been used to describe phage population growth as that can occur during active phage therapy as well as upon phage contamination of industrial ferments. Here primary infections represent initial bacterial population exposure to phages while consequent phage replication can lead to additional, that is, secondary infections of what otherwise are not yet phage-infected bacteria. Here I explore the varying meanings and resultant ambiguity that has been associated with the term secondary infection. I suggest in particular that secondary infection, as distinctly different phenomena, can in multiple ways influence the success of phage-mediated biocontrol of bacteria, also known as, phage therapy.

  6. PREVALENCE OF PARAGONIMUS INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nworie Okoro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Paragonimiasis (human infections with the lung fluke Paragonimus westermani is an important public health problem in parts of Africa. This study was aimed at assessing the prevalence of Paragonimus infection in Ebonyi State. Deep sputum samples from 3600 individuals and stool samples from 900 individuals in nine Local Government Areas in Ebonyi State, Nigeria were examined for Paragonimus ova using concentration technique. The overall prevalence of pulmonary Paragonimus infection in the area was 16.30%. Six foci of the infection were identified in Ebonyi North and Ebonyi Central but none in Ebonyi South. The intensity of the infection was generally moderate. Of the 720 individuals examined, 16 (12.12% had less than 40 ova of Paragonimus in 5 mL sputum and 114 (86.36% had between 40 and 79 ova of Paragonimus in 5 mL sputum. While 2 individuals (1.52% had over 79 ova of Paragonimus in 5 mL Sputum. Furthermore, there was higher prevalence of paragonimiasis in rainy season than in dry season. The results of this study indicated the growing public health threat posed by paragonimiasis in Ebonyi North and Ebonyi Central. A combination of chemotherapy, to bring relief to persons already infected by the disease and public health education related to paragonimiasis transmission to increase awareness of the infection in the areas is recommended.

  7. HPV Infection in Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel M. Palefsky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available While much is known about the natural history of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV infection and its consequences, including cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer, relatively little is known about the natural history of anogenital HPV infection and diseases in men. In part this reflects difficulties in penile sampling and visual assessment of penile lesions. Anal HPV infection and disease also remain poorly understood. Although HPV is transmitted sexually and infects the genitals of both sexes, the cervix remains biologically more vulnerable to malignant transformation than does the penis or anus in men. An understanding of male HPV infection is therefore important in terms of reducing transmission of HPV to women and improving women's health. However, it is also important due to the burden of disease in men, who may develop both penile and anal cancer, particularly among HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Improved sampling techniques of the male genitalia and cohort studies in progress should provide important information on the natural history of anogenital HPV infection and disease in men, including risk factors for HPV acquisition and transmission. The impact of HPV vaccination in women on male anogenital HPV infection will also need to be assessed.

  8. Leishmaniasis in HIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paredes R

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein we review the particular aspects of leishmaniasis associated with HIV infection. The data in this review are mainly from papers identified from PubMed searches and from papers in reference lists of reviewed articles and from the authors′ personal archives. Epidemiological data of HIV/Leishmania co-infection is discussed, with special focus on the influence of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART on incidence of leishmaniasis and transmission modalities. Microbiological characteristics, pathogenesis, clinical presentation and specific treatment of the co-infection are also presented.

  9. Imaging infection and inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text. The use of nuclear medicine techniques to image infection has been with us for over 20 years, indeed this year sees the 20th anniversary of the publication of Matthew Thakur's paper of the use of In-111 oxime labelled leukocytes in imaging infection. Without doubt this technique has stood the test of time and has been used to save many lives in infected patients worldwide. As we approach the 21st century we are faced with new problems which will need new solutions. Infections themselves have changed their very nature, HIV a benign virus which only infected monkeys in central Africa in 1977 has now spread throughout the globe and unfortunately few societies have remained free of its ravages. In its wake tuberculosis continues to infect both the poor and weak but also has started to re-infect more affluent societies. In its wake tuberculosis continues to infect both both the poor and weak but also has started to re-infect more affluent societies. The use of immuno suppressive therapy in many patients with transplants or cancer has lead to new infections in a wider group of patients. The wide spread use of antibiotics has lead to the emergence of antibiotic resistant organisms. The old approach of widespread antibiotic treatment in patients with suspected infection is not acceptable. If possible organisms must be isolated. Normally imaging is required to localize infection and it is important to realize that a combination or anatomical imaging with CT, ultrasound or MRI and nuclear medicine is often the only way to determine the site of infection. Allied to this a new educated public has demanded that diagnostic tests be accurate and non-invasive, particularly in non-fatal inflammatory disease. All these challenges has lead us to a new frontier in nuclear medicine. In some ways we have had to rediscover the old. For example the use of Ga-67 citrate in imaging tuberculosis or infection in patients with Aids. The use of Tc-99 m HMPAO labelled leukocytes in

  10. Aguacate virus, a new antigenic complex of the genus Phlebovirus (family Bunyaviridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Gustavo; da Rosa, Amelia Travassos; Savji, Nazir; Sze, Wilson; Wick, Ivan; Guzman, Hilda; Hutchison, Stephen; Tesh, Robert; Lipkin, W Ian

    2011-06-01

    Genomic and antigenic characterization of Aguacate virus, a tentative species of the genus Phlebovirus, and three other unclassified viruses, Armero virus, Durania virus and Ixcanal virus, demonstrate a close relationship to one another. They are distinct from the other nine recognized species within the genus Phlebovirus. We propose to designate them as a new (tenth) serogroup or species (Aguacate virus) within the genus. The four viruses were all isolated from phlebotomine sandflies (Lutzomyia sp.) collected in Central and South America. Aguacate virus appears to be a natural reassortant and serves as one more example of the high frequency of reassortment in this genus.

  11. Bacterial Nasal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Nose Sinusitis Bacteria may cause pimples and boils (furuncles) to form just inside the opening of ... weeks. Nasal furuncles More serious infections result in boils (furuncles) in the nasal vestibule. Boils may develop ...

  12. Healthcare Associated Infections - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare-Associated Infection (HAI) measures - provider data. These measures are developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and...

  13. [Update on infective endocarditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parize, P; Mainardi, J-L

    2011-10-01

    Infective endocarditis has continuously evolved since its first clinical description by William Osler in the late 19th century. The epidemiological and microbiological profile of the disease has changed as the result of the progress of the medical care and demographic mutation in industrialized countries. Furthermore, advances in anti-infective therapy and in cardiovascular surgery have contributed to an improvement in the management and the prognosis of this severe infectious disease. During the past decade, the recommendations on antibiotic prophylaxis against infective endocarditis have changed dramatically. Guidelines on management of infective endocarditis and state-of-the-art articles have been published recently and this work aims to outline current recommendations about this evolving disease.

  14. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Other Kids Are Reading Movie: Digestive System Winter Sports: Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? ... a bladder infection, your doctor will order some medicine for you to take to kill the bacteria. ...

  15. Healthcare Associated Infections - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI) measures - national data. These measures are developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and...

  16. Healthcare Associated Infections - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI) measures - state data. These measures are developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and collected...

  17. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... frye -tus), or a kidney infection, and it's serious because it can damage the kidneys and make ... For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting Contact ...

  18. Neuroinvasive flavivirus infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sips, Gregorius J.; Wilschut, Jan; Smit, Jolanda M.

    2012-01-01

    Flaviviruses, including Dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis, and Tick-borne encephalitis virus, are major emerging human pathogens, affecting millions of individuals worldwide. Many clinically important flaviviruses elicit CNS diseases in infected hosts, including traditional "hemorrhagic" viru

  19. Necrotizing soft tissue infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necrotizing fasciitis; Fasciitis - necrotizing; Flesh-eating bacteria; Soft tissue gangrene; Gangrene - soft tissue ... severe and usually deadly form of necrotizing soft tissue infection is due to the bacteria Streptococcus pyogenes , ...

  20. Fungal Eye Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Zoonotic Infectious Disease Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Fungal Eye Infections Recommend on ... Zoonotic Infectious Disease Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch File Formats Help: How do ...

  1. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a bladder infection, your doctor will order some medicine for you to take to kill the bacteria. ... the hospital. At the hospital, the germ-fighting medicine can be delivered more effectively through a tiny ...

  2. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your pee smells bad. These changes occur because bacteria have caused an infection somewhere in your urinary ... shorter than boys' urethras. The shorter urethra means bacteria can get up into the bladder more easily ...

  3. Infection Prevention in Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergam, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    The number of patients undergoing hematopoietic cell and solid organ transplantation are increasing every year, as are the number of centers both transplanting and caring for these patients. Improvements in transplant procedures, immunosuppressive regimens, and prevention of transplant-associated complications have led to marked improvements in survival in both populations. Infections remain one of the most important sources of excess morbidity and mortality in transplant, and therefore, infection prevention strategies are a critical element for avoiding these complications in centers caring for high-risk patients. This manuscript aims to provide an update of recent data on prevention of major healthcare-associated infections unique to transplantation, reviews the emergence of antimicrobial resistant infections, and discusses updated strategies to both identify and prevent transmission of these pathogens in transplant recipients.

  4. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rybtke, Morten; Hultqvist, Louise Dahl; Givskov, Michael;

    2015-01-01

    Studies of biopsies from infectious sites, explanted tissue and medical devises have provided evidence that biofilms are the underlying cause of a variety of tissue-associated and implant-associated recalcitrant human infections. With a need for novel anti-biofilm treatment strategies, research...... in biofilm infection microbiology, biofilm formation mechanisms and biofilm-associated antimicrobial tolerance has become an important area in microbiology. Substantial knowledge about biofilm formation mechanisms, biofilm-associated antimicrobial tolerance and immune evasion mechanisms has been obtained...... through work with biofilms grown in in vitro experimental setups, and the relevance of this information in the context of chronic infections is being investigated by the use of animal models of infection. Because our current in vitro experimental setups and animal models have limitations, new advanced...

  5. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... kidney infection and you should see a doctor right away. previous continue What Will the Doctor Do? ... consult your doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, ...

  6. Viruses Infecting Reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Marschang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch’s postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  7. Skin infections in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müllegger, Robert R; Häring, Nina S; Glatz, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A wide array of infectious diseases can occur in pregnancy. Their acquisition, clinical presentation, and course during gestation may be altered due to an impairment of the maternal cellular immunity. Some infectious diseases can lead to serious consequences for the mother or the offspring, including congenital malformations. This review describes in detail the clinical presentation, course, management, and associated maternal and fetal risks of selected viral (varicella-zoster virus infections, condylomata acuminata), fungal (candida vulvovaginitis), bacterial (Lyme borreliosis), and parasitic (scabies) infections. The treatment options are critically reviewed. First-line therapies include acyclovir and varicella-zoster virus immunoglobulin for varicella-zoster virus infections, surgical modalities for genital warts, topical clotrimazole and oral fluconazole for Candida vulvovaginitis, amoxicillin and cefuroxime for Lyme borreliosis, and permethrin for scabies. A synopsis of maternal and fetal risks of other important infections is also included. PMID:27265075

  8. Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infections Page Content Article Body Some lung ... walking pneumonia), are caused by an organism called Mycoplasma pneumoniae. It is spread from person to person ...

  9. Fungal Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin Infections Medical Dictionary Also of Interest (Quiz) Vitiligo (Video) Hives Additional Content Medical News Overview of ... Professional Version Also of Interest Test your knowledge Vitiligo is a loss of melanocytes (cells that produce ...

  10. Necrotizing soft tissue infections

    OpenAIRE

    Holtom, P D

    1999-01-01

    Necrotizing soft tissue infections are a group of highly lethal infections that typically occur after trauma or surgery. Many individual infectious entities have been described, but they all have similar pathophysiologies, clinical features, and treatment approaches. The essentials of successful treatment include early diagnosis, aggressive surgical debridement, antibiotics, and supportive intensive treatment unit care. The two commonest pitfalls in management are failure of early diagnosis a...

  11. Clostridium difficile infection

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2011-01-01

    This leaflet provides healthcare patients, their families and carers with comprehensive information on Clostridium difficile (C. diff) infection. It provides some background on the infection�and highlights a range of key factors, including the symptoms to look out for, common causes of contamination, the appropriate course of action should you become infected, and possible treatment options. It also offers advice to visitors and carers on precautions and rules they should follow when in the p...

  12. Clostridium difficile infection

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2011-01-01

    This leaflet provides healthcare patients, their families and carers with comprehensive information on Clostridium difficile (C. diff) infection. It provides some background on the infectionand highlights a range of key factors, including the symptoms to look out for, common causes of contamination, the appropriate course of action should you become infected, and possible treatment options. It also offers advice to visitors and carers on precautions and rules they should follow when in the pr...

  13. Clostridium difficile Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Geller, Stephen A.; Fernando Peixoto Ferraz de Campos

    2010-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of hospital-acquired diarrhea in Europe and North America and is a serious re-emerging pathogen. Recent outbreaks have led to increasing morbidity and mortality and have been associated with a new strain (BI/NAP1/027) of C. difficile that produces more toxin than historical strains. With the increasing incidence of C. difficile infection, clinicians have also seen a change in the epidemiology with increased infections in previously low-risk populatio...

  14. Viruses Infecting Reptiles

    OpenAIRE

    Marschang, Rachel E.

    2011-01-01

    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The ...

  15. An Infected Mediastinal Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay M Lawson

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe a 43-year-old patient who had a mediastinal mass that became infected after a transbronchial needle aspirate biopsy. A paraspinal, extrapleural window with a saline-lidocaine mixture was created that allowed the placement of a percutaneous drainage catheter into the infected lesion. This procedure resulted in an excellent clinical outcome, and obviated the need for a thoracotomy and more invasive surgical management.

  16. Infected cardiac hydatid cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Ceviz, M; Becit, N; Kocak, H.

    2001-01-01

    A 24 year old woman presented with chest pain and palpitation. The presence of a semisolid mass—an echinococcal cyst or tumour—in the left ventricular apex was diagnosed by echocardiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. The infected cyst was seen at surgery. The cyst was removed successfully by using cardiopulmonary bypass with cross clamp.


Keywords: cardiac hydatid cyst; infected cardiac hydatid cyst

  17. Detection and Characterization of Infections and Infection Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-31

    Immune Disorders; Chronic Granulomatous Disease; Genetic Immunological Deficiencies; Hyperimmunoglobulin-E Recurrent Infection Syndrome; Recurrent Infections; Unknown Immune Deficiency; GATA2 Deficiency (MonoMAC),; Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections; Hyper IgE (Job s) Syndrome; Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency; Susceptibility to Disseminated Infections; Primary Immune Deficiency Disease (PIDD)

  18. Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LE Nicolle

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections (STIs other than HIV have reappeared as an important public health problem in developed countries (1. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, research and treatment of the 'classic' STIs - gonorrhea, syphilis and chlamydia - were a major focus of infectious diseases practice and research. There were large outbreaks of syphilis in parts of Canada (2, penicillin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae was a concern (3, and high rates of Chlamydia trachomatis infection with complications of pelvic inflammatory disease and ectopic pregnancy were being reported (4,5. Then, HIV infection emerged, with its spectre of a wasting, early death. There was no effective treatment, and safe sexual practices were embraced and adhered to by high-risk populations as the only effective way to avoid infection. These practices effectively prevented other STIs; rates of syphilis, gonorrhea and chlamydia infection plummeted in developed countries (5. For at least a decade, it appeared that HIV might be an end to all STIs, at least for some parts of the world. STIs continued unabated in developing countries, as many epidemiological and therapeutic studies explored the association of STIs with HIV infection.

  19. Current management of fungal infections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meis, J.F.G.M.; Verweij, P.E.

    2001-01-01

    The management of superficial fungal infections differs significantly from the management of systemic fungal infections. Most superficial infections are treated with topical antifungal agents, the choice of agent being determined by the site and extent of the infection and by the causative organism,

  20. Hospitalized Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Med 1998;24:206-16. Alangaden GJ. Nosocomial Fungal Infections: Epidemiology, Infection Control, and Prevention. Infectious Disease Clinics ... 25:201-25. Zilberberg MD, Shorr AF. Fungal infections in the ICU. Infect Dis ... D. Nosocomial aspergillosis and building construction. Med Mycol 2009;47 ...

  1. Epidemiology of HCV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldo, V; Baldovin, T; Trivello, R; Floreani, A

    2008-01-01

    It is estimated that approximately 130-170 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). According to data from WHO community and blood donor surveys, the African and Eastern Mediterranean countries report the highest prevalence rates (>10%). The rates of infection in the general population and the incidence of newly-acquired cases indicate an appreciable change in the epidemiology of the infection in recent years. Prior to the widespread screening of blood donations, infected blood and blood products represented a common source of infection. On the other hand, the high peak in HCV antibodies among the elderly in Italian epidemiological studies on the population at large reflects a cohort effect due to an epidemic of HCV infection occurring after the Second World War. According to data reported by the CDC Surveillance System, the incidence of acute hepatitis C has declined since the late 1980s. In 2005, as in previous years, the majority of such cases in North America and Northern Europe occurred among young adults and injected drug use was the most common risk factor. Other, less commonly reported modes of HCV acquisition are occupational exposure to blood, high-risk sexual activity, tattooing, body piercing and other forms of skin penetration. Finally, the overall rate of mother-to-child transmission from HCV-infected, HIV-negative mothers has been estimated at around 5% (coinfection with HIV raises this figure to 19.4%). HCV prevention relies on identifying and counseling uninfected persons at risk of contracting hepatitis C. PMID:18673187

  2. [Atherosclerosis and infection?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, K

    2006-09-01

    Atherosclerosis is guided by chronicle inflammation process. In the last decades of the 20th century, studies considering infection another possible risk factor of atherosclerosis development were written. Helicobacter pylori, Porphyromas gingivalis, some viruses but most frequently Chlamydia pneumonie are infection agens mentioned in these studies. Some of them emphasize also combined infections caused by more pathogenic factors having influence on vascular inflammation. Serological, epidemiological, histological and imunological studies show the pathogenic influence of acute or chronic infections. Many studies selected makrolid antibiotics as treatment in patients with ischaemic heart disease. However, existing experience with antibiotics did not bring clear results. These studies have mentioned the fact antibiotics have not been indicated as treatment in patients with acute or chronic vascular system infliction by atherosclerosis. Since the experimental and clinical research of influence of inflammations on the development of atherosclerosis moved forward a lot, no exact evidence of this complicated pathogenic mechanism was given. It will obviously take some time to confirm whether the relation between infections and artherosclerosis is causal, i.e. initiating the pathogenic process, accelerating it or keeping it alive. PMID:17091609

  3. Dengue viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurugama Padmalal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito-borne diseases in the world. Presently dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. It has been estimated that almost 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF occur worldwide. An increasing proportion of DHF is in children less than 15 years of age, especially in South East and South Asia. The unique structure of the dengue virus and the pathophysiologic responses of the host, different serotypes, and favorable conditions for vector breeding have led to the virulence and spread of the infections. The manifestations of dengue infections are protean from being asymptomatic to undifferentiated fever, severe dengue infections, and unusual complications. Early recognition and prompt initiation of appropriate supportive treatment are often delayed resulting in unnecessarily high morbidity and mortality. Attempts are underway for the development of a vaccine for preventing the burden of this neglected disease. This review outlines the epidemiology, clinical features, pathophysiologic mechanisms, management, and control of dengue infections.

  4. HPV Infections in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Barbara Moscicki

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents who are sexually active have the highest rates of prevalent and incident HPV infection rates with over 50–80% having infections within 2–3 years of initiating intercourse. These high rates reflect sexual behavior and biologic vulnerability. Most infections are transient in nature and cause no cytologic abnormality. However, a small number of adolescents will not clear the infection. Persistence of HPV is strongly linked to the development of high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions (HSIL and invasive cancer. The HSIL detected, however, does not appear to progress rapidly to invasive cancer. Understanding the natural history of HPV in adolescents has shed light into optional treatment strategies which include watchful observation of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS and low grade (LSIL. The association between age of first intercourse and invasive cancer cannot be ignored. Consequently, initiating screening at appropriate times in this vulnerable group is essential. In addition, with the advent of the HPV vaccine, vaccination prior to the onset of sexual activity is critical since most infections occur within a short time frame post initiation.

  5. The Biophysics of Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Mark C

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of the processes involved in infection has grown enormously in the past decade due in part to emerging methods of biophysics. This new insight has been enabled through advances in interdisciplinary experimental technologies and theoretical methods at the cutting-edge interface of the life and physical sciences. For example, this has involved several state-of-the-art biophysical tools used in conjunction with molecular and cell biology approaches, which enable investigation of infection in living cells. There are also new, emerging interfacial science tools which enable significant improvements to the resolution of quantitative measurements both in space and time. These include single-molecule biophysics methods and super-resolution microscopy approaches. These new technological tools in particular have underpinned much new understanding of dynamic processes of infection at a molecular length scale. Also, there are many valuable advances made recently in theoretical approaches of biophysics which enable advances in predictive modelling to generate new understanding of infection. Here, I discuss these advances, and take stock on our knowledge of the biophysics of infection and discuss where future advances may lead.

  6. Chlamydiaceae infections in pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schautteet Katelijn

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chlamydiaceae are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria. They are responsible for a broad range of diseases in animals and humans. In pigs, Chlamydia suis, Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia psittaci have been isolated. Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs are associated with different pathologies such as conjunctivitis, pneumonia, pericarditis, polyarthritis, polyserositis, pseudo-membranous or necrotizing enteritis, periparturient dysgalactiae syndrome, vaginal discharge, return to oestrus, abortion, mummification, delivery of weak piglets, increased perinatal and neonatal mortality and inferior semen quality, orchitis, epididymitis and urethritis in boars. However, Chlamydiaceae are still considered as non-important pathogens because reports of porcine chlamydiosis are rare. Furthermore, Chlamydiaceae infections are often unnoticed because tests for Chlamydiaceae are not routinely performed in all veterinary diagnostic laboratories and Chlamydiaceae are often found in association with other pathogens, which are sometimes more easily to detect. However, recent studies have demonstrated that Chlamydiaceae infections in breeding sows, boars and piglets occur more often than thought and are economically important. This paper presents an overview on: the taxonomy of Chlamydiaceae occurring in pigs, diagnostic considerations, epidemiology and pathology of infections with Chlamydiaceae in pigs, public health significance and finally on prevention and treatment of Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs.

  7. CIED infection with either pocket or systemic infection presentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ihlemann, Nikolaj; Møller-Hansen, Michael; Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) infections are increasing in numbers. The objective was to review the clinical presentation and outcome in patients affected with CIED infections with either local pocket or systemic presentation. DESIGN: All device removals due to CIED...... infection during the period from 2005 to 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. CIED infections were categorized as systemic or pocket infections. Treatment included complete removal of the device, followed by antibiotic treatment of six weeks. RESULTS: Seventy-one device removals due to infection (32 systemic......-up no relapses and two cases of new infections were noted (2.8%). CONCLUSIONS: CIED infection with systemic or pocket infection was difficult to distinguish in clinical presentation and outcome. Complete device removal and antibiotic treatment of long duration was safe and without relapses....

  8. Zika virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laval, F; Leparc-Goffart, I; Meynard, J-B; Daubigny, H; Simon, F; Briolant, S

    2016-05-01

    Since its discovery in 1947 in Uganda, the Zika virus (ZIKV) remained in the shadows emerging in 2007 in Micronesia, where hundreds of dengue-like syndromes were reported. Then, in 2013-2014, it was rife in French Polynesia, where the first neurological effects were observed. More recently, its arrival in Brazil was accompanied by an unusually high number of children with microcephaly born to mothers infected with ZIKV during the first trimester of pregnancy. In 2016, the World Health Organization declared ZIKV infection to be a public health emergency and now talks about a ZIKV pandemic. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge about ZIKV infection, successively addressing its transmission, epidemiology, clinical aspects, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention before discussing some perspectives. PMID:27412976

  9. Apoptosis in Pneumovirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinout A. Bem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumovirus infections cause a wide spectrum of respiratory disease in humans and animals. The airway epithelium is the major site of pneumovirus replication. Apoptosis or regulated cell death, may contribute to the host anti-viral response by limiting viral replication. However, apoptosis of lung epithelial cells may also exacerbate lung injury, depending on the extent, the timing and specific location in the lungs. Differential apoptotic responses of epithelial cells versus innate immune cells (e.g., neutrophils, macrophages during pneumovirus infection can further contribute to the complex and delicate balance between host defense and disease pathogenesis. The purpose of this manuscript is to give an overview of the role of apoptosis in pneumovirus infection. We will examine clinical and experimental data concerning the various pro-apoptotic stimuli and the roles of apoptotic epithelial and innate immune cells during pneumovirus disease. Finally, we will discuss potential therapeutic interventions targeting apoptosis in the lungs.

  10. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria in natural, industrial and clinical settings predominantly live in biofilms, i.e., sessile structured microbial communities encased in self-produced extracellular matrix material. One of the most important characteristics of microbial biofilms is that the resident bacteria display...... a remarkable increased tolerance toward antimicrobial attack. Biofilms formed by opportunistic pathogenic bacteria are involved in devastating persistent medical device-associated infections, and chronic infections in individuals who are immune-compromised or otherwise impaired in the host defense. Because...... the use of conventional antimicrobial compounds in many cases cannot eradicate biofilms, there is an urgent need to develop alternative measures to combat biofilm infections. The present review is focussed on the important opportunistic pathogen and biofilm model organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Initially...

  11. Mycobacterial Infections in AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ross Hill

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains uniquely important among acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS-associated opportunistic infections: it presents the greatest public health hazard worldwide, is the most readily curable, and is largely preventable with existing means. Given the expanding pool of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV seropositive persons, particularly in developing nations where Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a leading health problem, one can expect a continued rise in TB cases during the 1990s. Global efforts to eliminate TB are now inextricably entwined with the effectiveness of measures to curtail the HIV epidemic. Mycobacterium avium complex infection, currently an intractable late complication of aids, may increase in clinical importance as success in managing other opportunistic infections and HIV disease itself improves. Understanding of the pathogenesis and management of mycobacterial diseases should increase rapidly given the renewed research spurred on by the advent of HIV.

  12. Immunopathology of Brucella infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Pablo C; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H

    2013-04-01

    In spite of the protean nature of the disease, inflammation is a hallmark of brucellosis and affected tissues usually exhibit inflammatory infiltrates. As Brucella lacks exotoxins, exoproteases or cytolysins, pathological findings in brucellosis probably arise from inflammation-driven processes. The cellular and molecular bases of immunopathological phenomena probably involved in Brucella pathogenesis have been unraveled in the last few years. Brucella-infected osteoblasts, either alone or in synergy with infected macrophages, produce cytokines, chemokines and matrixmetalloproteinases (MMPs), and similar phenomena are mounted by fibroblast-like synoviocytes. The released cytokines promote the secretion of MMPs and induce osteoclastogenesis. Altogether, these phenomena may contribute to the bone loss and cartilage degradation usually observed in brucellar arthritis and osteomyelitis. Proinflammatory cytokines may be also involved in the pathogenesis of neurobrucellosis. B. abortus and its lipoproteins elicit an inflammatory response in the CNS of mice, leading to astrogliosis, a characteristic feature of neurobrucellosis. Heat-killed bacteria (HKBA) and the L-Omp19 lipoprotein elicit astrocyte apoptosis and proliferation (two features of astrogliosis), and apoptosis depends on TNF-α signaling. Brucella also infects and replicates in human endothelial cells, inducing the production of chemokines and IL-6, and an increased expression of adhesion molecules. The sustained inflammatory process derived from the longlasting infection of the endothelium may be important for the development of endocarditis. Therefore, while Brucella induces a low grade inflammation as compared to other pathogens, its prolonged intracellular persistence in infected tissues supports a long-lasting inflammatory response that mediates different pathways of tissue damage. In this context, approaches to avoid the invasion of host cells or limit the intracellular survival of the bacterium may be

  13. Lymphangiosarcoma after filarial infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sordillo, E.M.; Sordillo, P.P.; Hajdu, S.I.; Good, R.A.

    1981-03-01

    A case of lymphangiosarcoma of a lower extremity is described in a patient with chronic lymphedema of that leg from a filarial infection in childhood. Histologically, the neoplasm resembled lymphangiosarcomas that arise in arms that become lymphedematous after mastectomies, but was different in that it also contained areas of calcification consistent with prior filarial infection. Calcifications were also present in muscle uninvolved by the lymphangiosarcoma of this case. The prolonged survival of this patient is unlike that of most patients with lymphangiosarcoma, which is generally shorter. Although lymphedema after filariasis is common, this is the first case of a lymphangiosarcoma arising in chronic lymphedema of filarial origin.

  14. Neglected Parasitic Infections: Toxocariasis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-05

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States. Neglected Parasitic Infections are a group of diseases that afflict vulnerable populations and are often not well studied or diagnosed. A subject matter expert from CDC's Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria describes the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of toxocariasis.  Created: 1/5/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria (DPDM); Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB)/Joint Information Center (JIC), Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 1/9/2012.

  15. Imaging spinal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Acharya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Infection involving the vertebral column, including the bone, intervertebral disk, and paravertebral soft tissues is critical and early diagnosis and directed treatment is paramount. Different infectious organisms present with variable imaging characteristics, which when examined in conjunction with the clinical history, can facilitate early diagnosis and treatment and ultimately prevent patient morbidity and mortality. This article discusses the pathophysiology of infection of the vertebral column, as well as the imaging findings of bacterial, tuberculous, and fungal spondylitis/spondylodiskitis. We review the imaging findings utilizing plain radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, as well as a discussion regarding advanced imaging techniques.

  16. Herpes zoster infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Bansal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Herpes zoster (HZ or ′shingles′ results from reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV. Developmental anomalies, osteonecrosis of jaw bones, and facial scarring are the other complications associated with it. Primary VZV infections in sero-negative individuals are known as varicella or chicken pox. Secondary or reactivated disease is known as shingles or herpes zoster. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of the disease in the prodromal phase by the use of antiviral agents should be the mainstay of its management. This paper presents a case report of such an infection and its management.

  17. Viral infections in pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlier, D; Vindevogel, H

    2006-07-01

    This review provides a current update on the major viral diseases of the domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica), based on scientific reports and clinical experience. Paramyxovirus 1, adenovirus, rotavirus, herpesvirus 1, poxvirus and circovirus infections are described according to common clinical signs and target tissues. Since pigeons are sometimes treated as if they were poultry, the review also summarises the common viral infections of poultry for which pigeons are considered resistant. It is hoped that the review will provide a useful reference for veterinarians and others and offer advice on the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of the major infectious diseases of pigeons.

  18. [Focal infections in otorhinolaryngology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal'chun, V T

    2016-01-01

    This publication is focused on the mechanisms underlying the clinical course of acute focal infections concomitant with ENT pathology, factors responsible for their chronization and the development of complications. Also discussed are the methods for the early adequate conservative and surgical treatment of these conditions. Special emphasis is placed on the principles of management of chronic tonsillitis. PMID:26977559

  19. Fungal Wound Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-01-28

    Dr. David Tribble, acting director of the infectious disease clinical research program at Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, discusses fungal wound infections after combat trauma.  Created: 1/28/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/28/2016.

  20. Vimentin in Bacterial Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mak, Tim N; Brüggemann, Holger

    2016-01-01

    filaments (IFs). IFs have not only roles in maintaining the structural integrity of the cell, but they are also involved in many cellular processes including cell adhesion, immune signaling, and autophagy, processes that are important in the context of bacterial infections. Here, we summarize the knowledge...

  1. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2014-01-01

    use of conventional antimicrobial compounds in many cases cannot eradicate biofilms, there is an urgent need to develop alternative measures to combat biofilm infections. The present review is focussed on the important opportunistic pathogen and biofilm model organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Initially...

  2. Investigating Shigella sonnei Infections

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-17

    Dr. Nancy Strockbine, Chief of the Escherichia and Shigella Reference Unit at CDC, discusses Shigella sonnei infections.  Created: 11/17/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/21/2011.

  3. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics ePublications News About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Skip left navigation ePublications Our ePublications For health professionals Federal ... a UTI treated? Will a UTI hurt my kidneys? How can I keep from getting ... infection Nancy's story It was a normal day at work, but I was tired and ...

  4. Parainfluenza Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branche, Angela R; Falsey, Ann R

    2016-08-01

    Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are single-stranded, enveloped RNA viruses of the Paramyoviridaie family. There are four serotypes which cause respiratory illnesses in children and adults. HPIVs bind and replicate in the ciliated epithelial cells of the upper and lower respiratory tract and the extent of the infection correlates with the location involved. Seasonal HPIV epidemics result in a significant burden of disease in children and account for 40% of pediatric hospitalizations for lower respiratory tract illnesses (LRTIs) and 75% of croup cases. Parainfluenza viruses are associated with a wide spectrum of illnesses which include otitis media, pharyngitis, conjunctivitis, croup, tracheobronchitis, and pneumonia. Uncommon respiratory manifestations include apnea, bradycardia, parotitis, and respiratory distress syndrome and rarely disseminated infection. Immunity resulting from disease in childhood is incomplete and reinfection with HPIV accounts for 15% of respiratory illnesses in adults. Severe disease and fatal pneumonia may occur in elderly and immunocompromised adults. HPIV pneumonia in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is associated with 50% acute mortality and 75% mortality at 6 months. Though sensitive molecular diagnostics are available to rapidly diagnose HPIV infection, effective antiviral therapies are not available. Currently, treatment for HPIV infection is supportive with the exception of croup where the use of corticosteroids has been found to be beneficial. Several novel drugs including DAS181 appear promising in efforts to treat severe disease in immunocompromised patients, and vaccines to decrease the burden of disease in young children are in development. PMID:27486735

  5. Vaginal Yeast Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... oral and vaginal mucosa in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women . Mycopathologia; 176(3–4): 175–81. Return to top This fact sheet was reviewed by: Michail S. Lionakis, M.D., Sc.D., Clinical Investigator, Chief, Fungal Pathogenesis Unit, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institute ...

  6. Parasite infections revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegertjes, G.F.; Forlenza, M.; Joerink, M.; Scharsack, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    Studying parasites helps reveal basic mechanisms in immunology. For long this has been recognized for studies on the immune system of mice and man. But it is not true for immunological studies on fish. To support this argument we discuss selected examples of parasite infections not only in warm-bloo

  7. [Infections of the hand].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troeger, H

    1995-01-01

    The possibilities of hand injuries lead to the higher incidence of hand infections. The clinical signs of inflammation (pain, swelling, heat, loss of function and red colour) are found in near all cases. The start of pain and its localisation help to find quickly the layer of the inflammatory process. Bites, foreign bodies, puncture wounds and open wounds especially those acquired in slaughterhouse or agriculture are in most cases the predisposing conditions. Treatment of hand infections demands a consequent protocol consisting in: exact diagnostics including clinical picture, laboratory investigation, bacteriology and in some cases X-ray-examination; operative treatment including incision, irrigation, drainage, excision of necrosis and foreign bodies under the rules of hand surgery (i.g. blood--[without exsanguination] and painfree operation field, magnifying lenses, correct incision avoiding scar contractures); immobilisation (dressing or splinting) in intrinsic-plus-position while acute inflammation is going on, early movement combined with ergotherapy and physiotherapy after this. Use of antibiotics is indicated in septic cases or in cases of complications (sepsis, lymphangitis, osteomyelitis) in concordance with bacteriology but it cannot compensate mistakes in treatment. The most common infections are placed around and under nail (paronychia) and in the subcutaneous space of the distal phalanx (felon). They are treated by incision and spontaneous drainage. More severe are infections of tendon sheath, joint, web space and deep palmar space. If pus is present in such cases there is no place for conservative treatment but operative treatment under clinical conditions is imperative. PMID:7855753

  8. Pathogenesis of gastrointestinal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Alan

    2008-06-01

    The last 30 years has seen the recognition of many intestinal pathogens, through a combination of microscopy, tissue availability and open minds. In the developing world the challenge to eradicate such infections continues, especially in infancy and early childhood. In developed communities, however, the challenge is shifting to pathogens ('super bugs') arising from our own interventions and lifestyles which will occupy many future careers.

  9. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your lower belly? Is there blood in your pee? Is your pee cloudy? Does it smell bad when you pee? ... your body. If the doctor finds germs in your pee, it's a sign of infection and he or ...

  10. Re: Infection control in burn patients: are fungal infections underestimated?

    OpenAIRE

    Dries David J

    2009-01-01

    Abstract A response to Struck MF. Infection control in burn patients: are fungal infections underestimated? Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2009 Oct 9;17(1):51. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 19818134.

  11. Mycobacterium avium infection improved by microbial substitution of fungal infection

    OpenAIRE

    Yano, Shuichi

    2010-01-01

    We reported a case of Mycobacterium avium infection in which disease activity appeared to have been suppressed after fungal infection. After the increase in β-D-glucan, her symptoms of fever and chest pain disappeared. We think this phenomenon may be microbial substitution and mild fungal infection may improve the activity due to M avium.

  12. Herpesvirus infection of eye and brain in HIV infected patients

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, R.; Howard, M; Frith, P.; Perrons, C.; Pecorella, I.; Lucas, S.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: To compare histological with genome detection methods for diagnosis of herpesvirus infection in eye and brain of HIV infected patients undergoing necropsy and to correlate these findings with both antemortem clinical findings and postmortem evidence of extraocular herpesvirus infection, especially in the CNS.

  13. Zika Virus Infection and Microcephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millichap, J Gordon

    2016-01-01

    A Task Force established by the Brazil Ministry of Health investigated the possible association of microcephaly with Zika virus infection during pregnancy and a registry for microcephaly cases among women suspected to have had Zika virus infection during pregnancy.

  14. Infective endocarditis, 1984 through 1993

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Marianne; Hagelskjaer, L H; Tvede, M

    1997-01-01

    To characterize the epidemiology and the clinical and microbiological spectrum of infective endocarditis in a Danish population.......To characterize the epidemiology and the clinical and microbiological spectrum of infective endocarditis in a Danish population....

  15. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2014 Fact sheets Features Commentaries 2014 Multimedia Contacts Soil-transmitted helminth infections Fact sheet Updated March 2016 Key facts Soil-transmitted helminth infections are caused by different species ...

  16. Thrush and Other Candida Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Thrush and Other Candida Infections Page Content Article Body The fungus Candida is ... thrush, frequently occurs in infants and toddlers. If Candida infections become chronic or occur in the mouth of ...

  17. Vaginal Yeast Infections (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infection caused by a type of fungus called candida albicans . Yeast infections usually happen in warm, moist parts of the ... fungus can grow. Doctors call this candida overgrowth candidiasis (pronounced: can-dih-DYE-uh-sis) Candida can ...

  18. Candida infection of the skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000880.htm Candida infection of the skin To use the sharing features ... of the warm, moist conditions inside the diaper. Candida infection is particularly common in people with diabetes and ...

  19. Helicobacter pylori infection in pediatrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, Anne Vibeke; Kalach, Nicolas

    2003-01-01

    A high prevalence and early colonization of Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood was described again this year in developing countries in contrast to developed ones. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy including gastric biopsies remains the diagnostic gold standard method for this infection...

  20. Rheumatoid arthritis and bacterial infections

    OpenAIRE

    N L Prokopjeva; N N Vesikova; I M Marusenko; V A Ryabkov

    2008-01-01

    To study features of bacterial infections course in pts with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and changes of laboratory measures after focus of infection sanation. Material and methods. 46 pts with definite rheumatoid arthritis were examined at the time of comorbid infection (Cl) detection and after infection focus sanation. Bacteriological test with evaluation of flora sensitivity to antibiotics by disco-diffusion method was performed at baseline and after the course of antibacterial therapy to ass...

  1. Hand infections: a retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Türker

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Hand infections are common, usually resulting from an untreated injury. In this retrospective study, we report on hand infection cases needing surgical drainage in order to assess patient demographics, causation of infection, clinical course, and clinical management. Methods. Medical records of patients presenting with hand infections, excluding post-surgical infections, treated with incision and debridement over a one-year period were reviewed. Patient demographics; past medical history; infection site(s and causation; intervals between onset of infection, hospital admission, surgical intervention and days of hospitalization; gram stains and cultures; choice of antibiotics; complications; and outcomes were reviewed. Results. Most infections were caused by laceration and the most common site of infection was the palm or dorsum of the hand. Mean length of hospitalization was 6 days. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, beta-hemolytic Streptococcus and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus were the most commonly cultured microorganisms. Cephalosporins, clindamycin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, penicillin, vancomycin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole were major antibiotic choices. Amputations and contracture were the primary complications. Conclusions. Surgery along with medical management were key to treatment and most soft tissue infections resolved without further complications. With prompt and appropriate care, most hand infection patients can achieve full resolution of their infection.

  2. Herpesvirus infections in childhood: 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathwani, D; Wood, M J

    Infections due to herpesviruses have received increasing attention over the past decade, culminating in the isolation in 1986 of human herpesvirus-6. This is the second of two articles in which we examine the clinical spectrum of acquired herpesvirus infections in children and review developments in our understanding of the molecular biology, pathogenesis, treatment and prevention of these infections. PMID:8242213

  3. Nosocomial viral respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graman, P S; Hall, C B

    1989-12-01

    Nosocomial infections with respiratory tract viruses, particularly influenza and respiratory syncytial viruses, account for the majority of serious nosocomial viral disease. Chronically ill, immunocompromised, elderly, and very young hosts are especially vulnerable to potentially life-threatening involvement of the lower respiratory tract. Effective preventive strategies are based upon early accurate viral diagnosis and an appreciation of the epidemiology and mechanisms of transmission for each viral agent. Influenza viruses spread via airborne dispersion of small particle aerosols, resulting in explosive outbreaks; control measures emphasize immunization and chemoprophylaxis of susceptible patients and personnel, and isolation of those already infected. Transmission of respiratory syncytial virus, in contrast, seems to require closer contact, with virus passed on hands, fomites, or in large droplets inoculated into the eyes and nose at close range. Strategies for control of nosocomial respiratory syncytial virus are designed to interrupt hand carriage and inoculation of virus onto mucous membranes.

  4. Varicella infection modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Katherine A.; Finley, Patrick D.; Moore, Thomas W.; Nozick, Linda Karen; Martin, Nathaniel; Bandlow, Alisa; Detry, Richard Joseph; Evans, Leland B.; Berger, Taylor Eugen

    2013-09-01

    Infectious diseases can spread rapidly through healthcare facilities, resulting in widespread illness among vulnerable patients. Computational models of disease spread are useful for evaluating mitigation strategies under different scenarios. This report describes two infectious disease models built for the US Department of Veteran Affairs (VA) motivated by a Varicella outbreak in a VA facility. The first model simulates disease spread within a notional contact network representing staff and patients. Several interventions, along with initial infection counts and intervention delay, were evaluated for effectiveness at preventing disease spread. The second model adds staff categories, location, scheduling, and variable contact rates to improve resolution. This model achieved more accurate infection counts and enabled a more rigorous evaluation of comparative effectiveness of interventions.

  5. Fusobacterium infections in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arane, Karen; Goldman, Ran D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Question A 2-year-old patient in my practice with acute otitis media that has progressed to mastoiditis with a high fever returns with positive culture results for Fusobacterium. What should I do next? Answer Fusobacterium is a genus of anaerobic bacteria. Although Fusobacterium infections are rare, they can become severe if not treated promptly. Appropriate treatment is combination antibiotic therapy consisting of a β-lactam (penicillin, cephalosporin) and an anaerobic antimicrobial agent (metronidazole, clindamycin). At times surgical involvement is required for mastoiditis such as drainage of abscesses or insertion of a ventilation tube. Delayed treatment of an infection caused by Fusobacterium can lead to serious complications, including Lemierre syndrome. Children should be seen in a hospital for close monitoring. PMID:27737977

  6. Third molar infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Pérez, José Luis

    2004-01-01

    Pericoronitis is an infectious disease often associated with the eruption of a third molar. It can be either acute (serous and suppurative) or chronic. Pain is usually the predominant symptom in acute stages, whereas chronic forms of the disease may display very few symptoms. Both present exudate. The infection is multimicrobial, predominantly caused strictly by betalactamase-producing anaerobeic microorganisms. Treatment measures are symptomatic, antimicrobial and surgical. Antimicrobial treatment is indicated for preoperative prophylaxis when there is a high risk of postoperative infection and, during the acute stages of suppurative pericoronitis when surgery must be postponed. First-line treatment in this case consists of amoxicillin with associated clavulanic acid. Although surgical treatment of pericoronitis presenting at the third molar is indicated as a Grade C recommendation for extraction, it is the most common indication for extraction of a retained third molar, owing to the improved quality of life it can offer the patient.

  7. Postcircumcision urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, H A; Drucker, M M; Vainer, S; Ashkenasi, A; Amir, J; Frydman, M; Varsano, I

    1992-06-01

    The possible association of urinary tract infection (UTI) with ritual circumcision on the eighth day of life was studied by analyzing the epidemiology of urinary tract infections during the first year of life in 169 children with UTI (56 males and 113 females) born in Israel from 1979 to 1984. Forty-eight percent of the episodes of UTI occurring in males appeared during the 12 days following circumcision, and the increased incidence during that period was highly significant. The median age of the males at the time of the UTI was 16 days, compared with seven months in females. Ritual Jewish circumcision as practiced in Israel may be a predisposing factor for UTI during the 12-day period following that procedure.

  8. Dengue viral infections

    OpenAIRE

    Malavige, G; Fernando, S; Fernando, D; Seneviratne, S.

    2004-01-01

    Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito borne diseases in the world. They may be asymptomatic or may give rise to undifferentiated fever, dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), or dengue shock syndrome. Annually, 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of DHF occur worldwide. Ninety percent of DHF subjects are children less than 15 years of age. At present, dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. No vaccine is available for preventing...

  9. Prevent Infections During Chemotherapy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-24

    This podcast discusses the importance of preventing infections in cancer patients who are undergoing chemotherapy. Dr. Lisa Richardson, CDC oncologist, talks about a new Web site for cancer patients and their caregivers.  Created: 10/24/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 10/24/2011.

  10. Herpes zoster infection

    OpenAIRE

    Mohit Bansal; Sunint Singh; Saryu Arora; Sanjeev Laller; Manpeet Walia

    2012-01-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) or ′shingles′ results from reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV). Developmental anomalies, osteonecrosis of jaw bones, and facial scarring are the other complications associated with it. Primary VZV infections in sero-negative individuals are known as varicella or chicken pox. Secondary or reactivated disease is known as shingles or herpes zoster. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of the disease in the prodromal phase by the use of antiviral agents should be t...

  11. Stop C. difficile Infections

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-06

    This podcast is based on the March 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. C. difficile is a germ that causes diarrhea linked to 14,000 deaths in the US each year. This podcast helps health care professionals learn how to prevent C. difficile infections.  Created: 3/6/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 3/6/2012.

  12. Infection and Pulp Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahng G. Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The regeneration of the pulp-dentin complex has been a great challenge to both scientists and clinicians. Previous work has shown that the presence of prior infection may influence the characteristics of tissues formed in the root canal space after regenerative endodontic treatment. The formation of ectopic tissues such as periodontal ligament, bone, and cementum has been observed in the root canal space of immature necrotic teeth with apical periodontitis, while the regeneration of dentin and pulp has been identified in previously non-infected teeth. The current regenerative endodontic therapy utilizes disinfection protocols, which heavily rely on chemical irrigation using conventional disinfectants. From a microbiological point of view, the current protocols may not allow a sufficiently clean root canal microenvironment, which is critical for dentin and pulp regeneration. In this article, the significance of root canal disinfection in regenerating the pulp-dentin complex, the limitations of the current regenerative endodontic disinfection protocols, and advanced disinfection techniques designed to reduce the microorganisms and biofilms in chronic infection are discussed.

  13. Vimentin in Bacterial Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim N. Mak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite well-studied bacterial strategies to target actin to subvert the host cell cytoskeleton, thus promoting bacterial survival, replication, and dissemination, relatively little is known about the bacterial interaction with other components of the host cell cytoskeleton, including intermediate filaments (IFs. IFs have not only roles in maintaining the structural integrity of the cell, but they are also involved in many cellular processes including cell adhesion, immune signaling, and autophagy, processes that are important in the context of bacterial infections. Here, we summarize the knowledge about the role of IFs in bacterial infections, focusing on the type III IF protein vimentin. Recent studies have revealed the involvement of vimentin in host cell defenses, acting as ligand for several pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system. Two main aspects of bacteria-vimentin interactions are presented in this review: the role of vimentin in pathogen-binding on the cell surface and subsequent bacterial invasion and the interaction of cytosolic vimentin and intracellular pathogens with regards to innate immune signaling. Mechanistic insight is presented involving distinct bacterial virulence factors that target vimentin to subvert its function in order to change the host cell fate in the course of a bacterial infection.

  14. Hyperbilirubinemia and Neonatal Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholmali Maamouri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hyperbilirubinemia is a relatively common disorder among infants in Iran. Bacterial infection and jaundice may be associated with higher morbidity. Previous studies have reported that jaundice may be one of the signs of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence rate, presentation time, severity of jaundice, signs and complications of infection within neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.   Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted between 2003 and 2011, at Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad- Iran. We prospectively evaluated 1763 jaundiced newborns. We Finally found 434 neonates who were categorized into two groups.131 neonates as case group (Blood or/and Urine culture positive or sign of pneumonia and 303 neonates with idiopathic jaundice as control group. Demographic data including prenatal, intrapartum, postnatal events and risk factors were collected by questionnaire. Biochemical markers including bilirubin level, urine and blood cultures were determined at the request of the clinicians.   Results: Jaundice presentation time, age on admission, serum bilirubin value and hospitalization period were reported significantly higher among case group in comparison with control group (p

  15. Modeling intraocular bacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astley, Roger A; Coburn, Phillip S; Parkunan, Salai Madhumathi; Callegan, Michelle C

    2016-09-01

    Bacterial endophthalmitis is an infection and inflammation of the posterior segment of the eye which can result in significant loss of visual acuity. Even with prompt antibiotic, anti-inflammatory and surgical intervention, vision and even the eye itself may be lost. For the past century, experimental animal models have been used to examine various aspects of the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of bacterial endophthalmitis, to further the development of anti-inflammatory treatment strategies, and to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and efficacies of antibiotics. Experimental models allow independent control of many parameters of infection and facilitate systematic examination of infection outcomes. While no single animal model perfectly reproduces the human pathology of bacterial endophthalmitis, investigators have successfully used these models to understand the infectious process and the host response, and have provided new information regarding therapeutic options for the treatment of bacterial endophthalmitis. This review highlights experimental animal models of endophthalmitis and correlates this information with the clinical setting. The goal is to identify knowledge gaps that may be addressed in future experimental and clinical studies focused on improvements in the therapeutic preservation of vision during and after this disease. PMID:27154427

  16. Infections in open heart surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddour, L M; Kluge, R M

    1989-01-01

    More than 250,000 open heart surgical procedures are performed annually in the United States. The majority of these procedures are coronary artery bypass grafts (CABG) and valve replacements. In this forum our authors discuss the kinds of infections that occur in patients following open heart surgery, as well as the documented risk factors and microbiology of these infections. We also asked each author to outline the criteria used to diagnose post open heart surgery infections, and to address associated consequences and complications. Finally, we were interested in each author's definition of the infection control practitioner's role in the prevention of this particular subset of nosocomial infections.

  17. Organ Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Organ Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir As an ... fungal infections. What you need to know about fungal infections Fungal infections can range from mild to life- ...

  18. New ecological aspects of hantavirus infection: a change of a paradigm and a challenge of prevention--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeier, Martin; Handermann, Michaela; Bahr, Udo; Rensch, Baldur; Müller, Sandra; Kehm, Roland; Muranyi, Walter; Darai, Gholamreza

    2005-03-01

    In the last decades a significant number of so far unknown or underestimated pathogens have emerged as fundamental health hazards of the human population despite intensive research and exceptional efforts of modern medicine to embank and eradicate infectious diseases. Almost all incidents caused by such emerging pathogens could be ascribed to agents that are zoonotic or expanded their host range and crossed species barriers. Many different factors influence the status of a pathogen to remain unnoticed or evolves into a worldwide threat. The ability of an infectious agent to adapt to changing environmental conditions and variations in human behavior, population development, nutrition, education, social, and health status are relevant factors affecting the correlation between pathogen and host. Hantaviruses belong to the emerging pathogens having gained more and more attention in the last decades. These viruses are members of the family Bunyaviridae and are grouped into a separate genus known as Hantavirus. The serotypes Hantaan (HTN), Seoul (SEO), Puumala (PUU), and Dobrava (DOB) virus predominantly cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), a disease characterized by renal failure, hemorrhages, and shock. In the recent past, many hantavirus isolates have been identified and classified in hitherto unaffected geographic regions in the New World (North, Middle, and South America) with characteristic features affecting the lungs of infected individuals and causing an acute pulmonary syndrome. Hantavirus outbreaks in the United States of America at the beginning of the 10th decade of the last century fundamentally changed our knowledge about the appearance of the hantavirus specific clinical picture, mortality, origin, and transmission route in human beings. The hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) was first recognized in 1993 in the Four Corners Region of the United States and had a lethality of more than 50%. Although the causative virus was first termed in

  19. Diagnosis of hantavirus infection in humans and rodents in Ribeirão Preto, State of São Paulo, Brazil Diagnóstico de infecção por hantavírus em humanos e roedores em Ribeirão Preto, Estado de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauciane Garcia de Figueiredo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Hantavirus pulmonary and cardiovascular syndrome (HPCS is an emerging serious disease in the Americas. Hantaviruses (Bunyaviridae are the causative agents of this syndrome and are mainly transmitted through inhalation of aerosols containing the excreta of wild rodents. In the Ribeirão Preto region (state of São Paulo, Brazil, HPCS has been reported since 1998, caused by the Araraquara virus (ARAV, for which Necromys lasiurus is the rodent reservoir. This study aimed to show diagnostic results relating to infection in humans and rodents, obtained at the Virology Research Center of the Ribeirão Preto School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, between 2005 and 2008. METHODS: HPCS was diagnosed by means of ELISA and/or RT-PCR in 11 (21.2% out of 52 suspected cases, and 54.4% of these were fatal. Furthermore, 595 wild rodents (Necromys lasiurus, Akodon sp, Calomys tener and Oligoryzomys sp were caught between 2005 and 2008. RESULTS: Fifteen (2.5% of these rodents presented antibodies for hantavirus, as follows: Necromys lasiurus (4%, Calomys tener (1.9% and Akodon sp (1.5%. Nucleotide sequences obtained through RT-PCR from one HPCS patient and one Calomys tener rodent were compared with hantavirus sequences from GenBank, which showed that both were homologous with ARAV. CONCLUSIONS: This work corroborates previous studies showing that ARAV is the hantavirus causing HPCS in the Ribeirão Preto region. It also shows that rodents infected with hantavirus represent a constant risk of transmission of this virus to man.INTRODUÇÃO: A síndrome pulmonar e cardiovascular por hantavírus é uma doença grave emergente nas Américas. Os hantavírus, Bunyaviridae, são os agentes causadores desta síndrome, causadas, principalmente, pela inalação de aerossóis dos dejetos de roedores silvestres. Na região de Ribeirão Preto, a SPCVH, causada pelo vírus Araraquara, tem sido diagnosticada, desde 1998. O roedor-reservatório do ARAV é o

  20. Interaction of obesity and infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhurandhar, N V; Bailey, D; Thomas, D

    2015-12-01

    There is evidence that certain infections may induce obesity. Obese persons may also have more severe infections and have compromised response to therapies. The objective of this study is to review the available literature identifying infections that potentially contribute to greater body mass index (BMI) and differential responses of overweight and obese persons to infections. A systematic literature review of human studies examining associations between infections and weight gain, differential susceptibility, severity, and response to prevention and treatment of infection according to BMI status (January 1980-July 2014) was conducted. Three hundred and forty-three studies were eligible for inclusion. Evidence indicated that viral infection by human adenovirus Ad36 and antibiotic eradication of Helicobacter pylori were followed by weight gain. People who were overweight or obese had higher susceptibility to developing post-surgical infections, H1N1 influenza and periodontal disease. More severe infections tended to be present in people with a larger BMI. People with a higher BMI had a reduced response to vaccinations and antimicrobial drugs. Higher doses of antibiotics were more effective in obese patients. Infections may influence BMI, and BMI status may influence response to certain infections, as well as to preventive and treatment measures. These observations have potential clinical implications. PMID:26354800

  1. [Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Masumi; Fukuda, Yoshihiro

    2009-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is mainly acquired in the first 2 or 3 years and the risk of infection declines rapidly after 5 years of age. In developing countries, acquisition age of the infection is probably lower than in developed countries. In Japan, main transmission route is intrafamilial and mother to children infection is most important. But in developing countries, some reports suggest that extrafamilial infection is more important. The famous paper revealed that H. pylori can be cultivated from vomitus, saliva and cathartic stools and the possibility of source of H. pylori infection. Bed sharing, large number of family members, delayed weaning from a feeding bottle, regurgitated gastric juice in the mother's mouth are reported as risk factors of the infection. PMID:19999106

  2. SPHINGOMONAS PAUCIMOBILIS INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN: NOSOCOMIAL VERSUS COMMUNITY ACQUIRED INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri Bayram

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sphingomonas paucimobilis is a causative agent of infection in immunocompromised patients, and healthcare-associated infections. Although the infections associated with S.paucimobilis occurs rarely, it has been encountered with increasing frequency in clinical settings. In the current study we noted the risk factors and clinical features of the children with S.paucimobilis infections, and the antimicrobial susceptibilities of the isolated strains among the patients. This study was conducted in Dr. Behçet Uz Children’s Hospital, Turkey, during the period of January 2005 and December 2012. The medical records of pediatric patients with positive cultures for S.paucimobilis were reviewed. Sphingomonas paucimobilis isolates were recovered from 24 pediatric patients. The median age was 4 years (ranging from 3 days infant to 15 years and 58,3% were male. Eight (33,3% of the patients were under 1 months of age. Among the patients; 13 (54,2% infections were community related however 11(45.8% infections were nosocomial infection. The median duration of hospital stay was 7 days (ranging from 4 to 22 days. The most effective antibiotics were fluoroquinolones, carbapenems, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. This is the first largest study in children to evaluate the clinical features of S. paucimobilis infections. Sphingomonas paucimobilis may cause infections in both previously healthy and immunocompromised children. Although variable antimicrobial regimens were achieved to the patients, there was no attributable fatality due to S.paucimobilis infections due to the low virulence of the bacteria.

  3. Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei infection in non-HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jasper F W; Lau, Susanna K P; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2016-01-01

    Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei is an important pathogenic thermally dimorphic fungus causing systemic mycosis in Southeast Asia. The clinical significance of T. marneffei became evident when the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic arrived in Southeast Asia in 1988. Subsequently, a decline in the incidence of T. marneffei infection among HIV-infected patients was seen in regions with access to highly active antiretroviral therapy and other control measures for HIV. Since the 1990s, an increasing number of T. marneffei infections have been reported among non-HIV-infected patients with impaired cell-mediated immunity. Their comorbidities included primary adult-onset immunodeficiency due to anti-interferon-gamma autoantibodies and secondary immunosuppressive conditions including other autoimmune diseases, solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantations, T-lymphocyte-depleting immunsuppressive drugs and novel anti-cancer targeted therapies such as anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies and kinase inhibitors. Moreover, improved immunological diagnostics identified more primary immunodeficiency syndromes associated with T. marneffei infection in children. The higher case-fatality rate of T. marneffei infection in non-HIV-infected than HIV-infected patients might be related to delayed diagnosis due to the lack of clinical suspicion. Correction of the underlying immune defects and early use of antifungals are important treatment strategies. Clinicians should be familiar with the changing epidemiology and clinical management of T. marneffei infection among non-HIV-infected patients. PMID:26956447

  4. Cardiac Implantable Electronic Device Infection: From an Infection Prevention Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, Sangeeta; Rahman, Riaz; Yassin, Mohamed H.

    2015-01-01

    A cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) is indicated for patients with severely reduced ejection fraction or with life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. Infection related to a CIED is one of the most feared complications of this life-saving device. The rate of CIED infection has been estimated to be between 2 and 25; though evidence shows that this rate continues to rise with increasing expenditure to the patient as well as healthcare systems. Multiple risk factors have been attributed to the increased rates of CIED infection and host comorbidities as well as procedure related risks. Infection prevention efforts are being developed as defined bundles in numerous hospitals around the country given the increased morbidity and mortality from CIED related infections. This paper aims at reviewing the various infection prevention measures employed at hospitals and also highlights the areas that have relatively less established evidence for efficacy. PMID:26550494

  5. Cytomegalovirus infection with lissencephaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Leena

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Lissencephaly is a malformation of the brain in which the brain surface is smooth, rather than convoluted. Among the various causes of lissencephaly, infection by a virus during pregnancy plays an important role. Cytomegalovirus (CMV is an important pathogen causing this anomaly. We present this case of a young female with 24-week-gestation diagnosed on ultrasound as carrying an anomalous fetus with lissencephalic features. At autopsy, there were multiple intra-nuclear CMV inclusions in the brain and the kidneys. This case is presented for its rarity and for the documentation of the tissue localization of CMV inclusions at autopsy.

  6. Paediatric respiratory infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L. Everard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary infections remain a major cause of infant and child mortality worldwide and are responsible for a substantial burden of morbidity. During the 2015 European Respiratory Society International Congress in Amsterdam, some of the main findings from peer-reviewed articles addressing this topic that were published in the preceding 12 months were reviewed in a Paediatric Clinical Year in Review session. The following article highlights some of the insights provided by these articles into the complex interactions of the human host with the extensive and dynamic populations of microorganisms that call an individual “home”.

  7. [Oral viral infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Dominique

    2016-02-01

    Exclude herpes infection in the presence of acute oral ulcers of unknown origin, particularly in patients in poor general condition. Remember that asymptomatic HSV-1 shedding in saliva may result in an oral-genital transmission. Perform an anogenital examination and a screening for other sexually transmitted diseases when oral warts are diagnosed. Search for immunosuppression and monitor the patient (screening for a potential associated carcinoma) when there is rapid growth of oral warts. Consider all the clinical signs (systemic, skin, other mucosa, immunity...) when a patient has an enanthem or oral ulcerations. Ask for a HIV test when an oral Kaposi's sarcoma, a hairy leukoplakia or major aphthae are diagnosed. PMID:26854091

  8. Tropheryma whipplei infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hugh James Freeman

    2009-01-01

    Whipple's disease was initially described in 1907. Over the next century, the clinical and pathological features of this disorder have been better appreciated. Most often, weight loss, diarrhea, abdominal and joint pain occur. Occasionally, other sites of involvement have been documented, including isolated neurological disease, changes in the eyes and culture-negative endocarditis. In the past decade, the responsible organism Tropheryma whipplei has been cultivated, its genome sequenced and its antibiotic susceptibility defined. Although rare, it is a systemic infection that may mimic a wide spectrum of clinical disorders and may have a fatal outcome. If recognized, prolonged antibiotic therapy may be a very successful form of treatment.

  9. Congenital and perinatal cytomegalovirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Soo Kim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV is currently the most common agent of congenital infection and the leading infectious cause of brain damage and hearing loss in children. Symptomatic congenital CMV infections usually result from maternal primary infection during early pregnancy. One half of symptomatic infants have cytomegalic inclusion disease (CID, which is characterized by involvement of multiple organs, in particular, the reticuloendothelial and central nervous system (CNS. Moreover, such involvement may or may not include ocular and auditory damage. Approximately 90% of infants with congenital infection are asymptomatic at birth. Preterm infants with perinatal CMV infection can have symptomatic diseases such as pneumonia, hepatitis, and thrombocytopenia. Microcephaly and abnormal neuroradiologic imaging are associated with a poor prognosis. Hearing loss may occur in both symptomatic and asymptomatic infants with congenital infection and may progress through childhood. Congenital infection is defined by the isolation of CMV from infants within the first 3 weeks of life. Ganciclovir therapy can be considered for infants with symptomatic congenital CMV infection involving the CNS. Pregnant women of seronegative state should be counseled on the importance of good hand washing and other control measures to prevent CMV infection. Heat treatment of infected breast milk at 72?#608;for 5 seconds can eliminate CMV completely.

  10. Characterizing Internet Worm Infection Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Qian; Chen, Chao

    2010-01-01

    Internet worm infection continues to be one of top security threats. Moreover, worm infection has been widely used by botnets to recruit new bots and construct P2P-based botnets. In this work, we attempt to characterize the network structure of Internet worm infection and shed light on the micro-level information of "who infects whom." Our work quantifies the infection ability of individual hosts and reveals the key characteristics of the underlying topologies formed by worm infection, i.e., the number of children and the generation of the Internet worm infection family tree. Specifically, we first analyze the infection tree of a wide class of worms, for which a new victim is compromised by each existing infected host with equal probability. We find that the number of children has asymptotically a geometric distribution with parameter 0.5. We also discover that the generation follows closely a Poisson distribution and the average path length of the worm infection family tree increases approximately logarithmi...

  11. [Associated infections in acute bronchopulmonary infections in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykova, E A; Vorob'ev, A A; Bokovoĭ, A G; Karazhas, N V; Evseeva, L F

    2003-01-01

    A total of 189 children with bacterial complications of the acute respiratory viral infection (ARVI)--primarily with pneumonia and bronchitis--were dynamically examined for typical and atypical pneumotropic causative agents of the infection process (Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia spp., Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Pneumocystis carini, and Citomegalovirus). A high frequency rate of the associative infection involving mycoplasmas and pneumocysts was registered (45-50%); it was lower in the cases involving Chlamydias, hemophilic bacteria, pneumococcus, and cytomegalovirus--up to 25-30%. No sharp difference was found between the indices of an infection degree and those of an active clinical infectious process involving the same pneumotropic agent: the biggest difference was observed in Chlamydia infections (9.4%) and the lowest one--in mycoplasma infections (3%). A dynamic comparison of different classes of immunoglobulins revealed that, in acute bronchitis and pneumonias, the Chlamydia and cytomegalovirus infections are, primarily, of the persistent nature; the hemophilic and pneumocystic infections are of a mixed nature; and the pneumococcus one is of the acute nature. The Mycoplasma infection, which is more often encountered in pre-school children, is of the primary type with a trend towards a prolonged clinical course. All pneumonias had a typical clinical course; the clinical picture was compared in 128 patients with the etiological factor (including a description of characteristic symptoms). PMID:12861708

  12. Submasseteric Infection: A Rare, Deep Space Cheek Infection Causing Trismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Richard H; Bahadori, Robert S; Willis, Andrea

    2015-11-01

    Submasseteric space infections are rare at any age but particularly so in primary school children. The origin of the infection is usually odontogenic, from pericoronitis in a third molar. Submasseteric inflammation is a deep facial space inflammation, often progressing to mature abscess, and usually misdiagnosed as staphylococcal or streptococcal lymphadenitis or pyogenic parotitis. The hallmark of a masticatory space infection is trismus. The cardinal signs of this infection include a firm mass in the body of the masseter muscle with overlying cellulitis with trismus.

  13. Enterovirus D68 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Esposito

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available First described in 1962 in children hospitalized for pneumonia and bronchiolitis, the Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68 is an emergent viral pathogen. Since its discovery, during the long period of surveillance up to 2005, EV-D68 was reported only as a cause of sporadic outbreaks. In recent years, many reports from different countries have described an increasing number of patients with respiratory diseases due to EV-D68 associated with relevant clinical severity. In particular, an unexpectedly high number of children have been hospitalized for severe respiratory disease due to EV-D68, requiring intensive care such as intubation and mechanical ventilation. Moreover, EV-D68 has been associated with acute flaccid paralysis and cranial nerve dysfunction in children, which has caused concerns in the community. As no specific antiviral therapy is available, treatment is mainly supportive. Moreover, because no vaccines are available, conventional infection control measures (i.e., standard, for contacts and droplets in both community and healthcare settings are recommended. However, further studies are required to fully understand the real importance of this virus. Prompt diagnosis and continued surveillance of EV-D68 infections are essential to managing and preventing new outbreaks. Moreover, if the association between EV-D68 and severe diseases will be confirmed, the development of adequate preventive and therapeutic approaches are a priority.

  14. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarguna P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system (CNS shunt infection is a cause of significant morbidity, causing shunt malfunction and chronic ill health. This study was carried out to evaluate the infection rate associated with CNS shunts, assess the frequency of the pathogens as well as their antibiotic sensitivity pattern aiming at suitable prophylaxis. A retrospective analysis of 226 CSF cerebrospinal fluid (CSF shunt procedures sent for bacteriological work up over a period of one year and six months was undertaken. Laboratory diagnosis was established by subjecting the CSF to cell count, biochemical tests, bacteriological culture and antibiotic susceptibility test. Nine out of 226(3.98% of the CSF samples were culture positive. Coagulase negative Staphylococcus was the most common isolate accounting for 36.36%. Majority of the isolates were sensitive to the thirdgeneration cephalosporins and quinolones. The antibiotic sensitivity pattern suggests cephalosporins and quinolones to be a better choice of antibiotics either prophylactically or therapeutically, which may result in effective and rapid sterilisation of the CSF.

  15. Ocular manifestations of HIV infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Jabs, D A

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency of ocular complications and the clinical outcomes of these complications in patients with various stages of HIV infection. METHODS: Retrospective review of all HIV-infected patients seen in an AIDS ophthalmology clinic from November 1983 through December 31, 1992. RESULTS: Eleven-hundred sixty-three patients were seen for ophthalmologic evaluation. Of these, 781 had the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), 226 had symptomatic HIV infection (AIDs-rel...

  16. Prevention of Chlamydia trachomatis infections

    OpenAIRE

    Boman, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Urogenital chlamydia infection, caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection in Sweden. In 2008 it was estimated by WHO that there were 105.7 million new cases of CT worldwide, an increase by 4.2 million cases (4.1%) compared to 2005. If untreated, CT infections can progress to serious reproductive health problems, especially in women. These complications include subfertility/infertility, ectopic pregnancy and chronic pain. Th...

  17. CNS infections in immunocompromised patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CNS infections caused by infective agents are rare in immunocompetent hosts, but more frequent in immunocompromised patients. In addition, the spectrum of causative agents is completely different. There are no pathognomonic alterations in radiologic imaging, even in clinically severely ill patients imaging is often non-specific or inconspicious. This article gives a review of the most frequent infective agents and image alterations. Modern radiology is not yet able to replace the gold standard of pathogen detection. (orig.)

  18. Photochemotherapeutic Strategy against Acanthamoeba Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Aqeel, Yousuf; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Anwar, Ayaz; Shah, Muhammad Raza; Khoja, Shahrukh; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Acanthamoeba is a protist pathogen that can cause serious human infections, including blinding keratitis and a granulomatous amoebic encephalitis that almost always results in death. The current treatment for these infections includes a mixture of drugs, and even then, a recurrence can occur. Photochemotherapy has shown promise in the treatment of Acanthamoeba infections; however, the selective targeting of pathogenic Acanthamoeba has remained a major concern. The mannose-binding protein is a...

  19. [Pathogenesis of invasive fungal infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Vidal, Carolina; Carratalà, Jordi

    2012-03-01

    Invasive fungal infections remain a life-threatening disease. The development of invasive fungal disease is dependent on multiple factors, such us colonization and efficient host immune response. We aimed to review the pathogenesis of invasive fungal infections, in particular, those caused by Candida and Aspergillus. For this we propose, to describe the fungal characteristics, to detail the host defence mechanisms against fungus and to analyse the host risk factors for invasive fungal infection.

  20. Fungal infection of the colon

    OpenAIRE

    Praneenararat S

    2014-01-01

    Surat PraneenararatDivision of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, ThailandAbstract: Fungi are pathogens that commonly infect immunocompromised patients and can affect any organs of the body, including the colon. However, the literature provides limited details on colonic infections caused by fungi. This article is an intensive review of information available on the fungi that can cause colon infections. It uses a comparative style so that its con...

  1. SECONDARY INFECTIONS IN SWINE FLU

    OpenAIRE

    Duthade Mangala; Damle Ajit; Bhakare Jayshree; Bajaj.Jyoti

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE : Swine influenza is respiratory disease of pigs ca used by type A influenza virus that causes regular outbr eak in pigs. Human to human transmission occurs. Some people develop severe respiratory symptoms and need ventilator. Patients can get secondary bacterial infections in the form of pneumonia if vi ral infections persist. Death of swine flu occurs d ue to secondary bacterial infections leading to bacter ial pneumonia...

  2. Genetic susceptibility to Candida infections

    OpenAIRE

    Smeekens, S P; Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Kullberg, B J; Netea, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Candida spp. are medically important fungi causing severe mucosal and life-threatening invasive infections, especially in immunocompromised hosts. However, not all individuals at risk develop Candida infections, and it is believed that genetic variation plays an important role in host susceptibility. On the one hand, severe fungal infections are associated with monogenic primary immunodeficiencies such as defects in STAT1, STAT3 or CARD9, recently discovered as novel clinical entities. On the...

  3. Respiratory tract infection during Hajj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzeer Abdulaziz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory tract infection during Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca is a common illness, and it is responsible for most of the hospital admissions. Influenza virus is the leading cause of upper respiratory tract infection during Hajj, and pneumonia can be serious. Taking into account the close contacts among the pilgrims, as well as the crowding, the potential for transmission of M. tuberculosis is expected to be high. These pilgrims can be a source for spreading infection on their return home. Although vaccination program for influenza is implemented, its efficacy is uncertain in this religious season. Future studies should concentrate on prevention and mitigation of these infections.

  4. [Zika virus infection during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picone, O; Vauloup-Fellous, C; D'Ortenzio, E; Huissoud, C; Carles, G; Benachi, A; Faye, A; Luton, D; Paty, M-C; Ayoubi, J-M; Yazdanpanah, Y; Mandelbrot, L; Matheron, S

    2016-05-01

    A Zika virus epidemic is currently ongoing in the Americas. This virus is linked to congenital infections with potential severe neurodevelopmental dysfunction. However, incidence of fetal infection and whether this virus is responsible of other fetal complications are still unknown. National and international public health authorities recommend caution and several prevention measures. Declaration of Zika virus infection is now mandatory in France. Given the available knowledge on Zika virus, we suggest here a review of the current recommendations for management of pregnancy in case of suspicious or infection by Zika virus in a pregnant woman.

  5. Helicobacter pylori infection in pediatrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, Anne Vibeke; Kalach, Nicolas

    2003-01-01

    A high prevalence and early colonization of Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood was described again this year in developing countries in contrast to developed ones. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy including gastric biopsies remains the diagnostic gold standard method for this infection...... in gastric manifestations is the subject of conflicting reports. Extra-digestive manifestations are also reported in the course of this infection. The treatment of H. pylori infection is influenced by resistance of the bacteria to the antibiotics used. We suggest that eradication of H. pylori should take...

  6. Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Maria Ruiz Lopes

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is caused by an intracellular protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii, which has a wide geographical distribution. The main infection routes are ingestion of cysts from raw or badly-cooked meat, ingestion of oocysts from substrates contaminated with the feces of infected felines and congenital transmission by tachyzoites. The congenital form results in a severe systemic disease, because if the mother is infected for the first time during gestation, she can present a temporary parasitemia that will infect the fetus. Many of the clinical symptoms are seen in congenitally-infected children, from a mild disease to serious signs, such as mental retardation. Early diagnosis during the pregnancy is highly desirable, allowing prompt intervention in cases of infection, through treatment of pregnant women, reducing the probability of fetal infection and consequent substantial damage to the fetus. Conventional tests for establishment of a fetal diagnosis of toxoplasmosis include options from serology to PCR. Prevention of human toxoplasmosis is based on care to avoid infection, understanding the disease and serological exams during gestation. Pregnant women should be tested serologically from three months gestation, until one month after childbirth. Inclusion of serology for congenital toxoplasmosis along with the basic Guthrie test for PKU is of fundamental importance for early diagnosis of infection and so that treatment is initiated, in order to avoid possible sequels in the infant.

  7. Negative -strand tospoviruses and tenuiviruses carry a gene for a suppressor of gene silencing at analogous genomic positions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucher, E.C.; Sijen, T.; Haan, de P.; Goldbach, R.W.; Prins, M.W.

    2003-01-01

    Posttranscriptional silencing of a green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgene in Nicotiana benthamiana plants was suppressed when these plants were infected with Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), a plant-infecting member of the Bunyaviridae. Infection with TSWV resulted in complete reactivation of GF

  8. Infection control in burn patients: are fungal infections underestimated?

    OpenAIRE

    Struck Manuel F

    2009-01-01

    Abstract With great interest, I read the paper of David J. Dries about recent developments, infection control and outcomes research in the management of burn injuries 1. I have some comments about an important, however missing, topic in the paragraphs concerning infection control.

  9. Bacteriophages Infecting Propionibacterium acnes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Brüggemann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Viruses specifically infecting bacteria, or bacteriophages, are the most common biological entity in the biosphere. As such, they greatly influence bacteria, both in terms of enhancing their virulence and in terms of killing them. Since the first identification of bacteriophages in the beginning of the 20th century, researchers have been fascinated by these microorganisms and their ability to eradicate bacteria. In this review, we will cover the history of the Propionibacterium acnes bacteriophage research and point out how bacteriophage research has been an important part of the research on P. acnes itself. We will further discuss recent findings from phage genome sequencing and the identification of phage sequence signatures in clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs. Finally, the potential to use P. acnes bacteriophages as a therapeutic strategy to combat P. acnes-associated diseases will be discussed.

  10. Morbillivirus Infections: An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory D. de Vries

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Research on morbillivirus infections has led to exciting developments in recent years. Global measles vaccination coverage has increased, resulting in a significant reduction in measles mortality. In 2011 rinderpest virus was declared globally eradicated – only the second virus to be eradicated by targeted vaccination. Identification of new cellular receptors and implementation of recombinant viruses expressing fluorescent proteins in a range of model systems have provided fundamental new insights into the pathogenesis of morbilliviruses, and their interactions with the host immune system. Nevertheless, both new and well-studied morbilliviruses are associated with significant disease in wildlife and domestic animals. This illustrates the need for robust surveillance and a strategic focus on barriers that restrict cross-species transmission. Recent and ongoing measles outbreaks also demonstrate that maintenance of high vaccination coverage for these highly infectious agents is critical. This introduction briefly summarizes the most important current research topics in this field.

  11. Bacteriophages infecting Propionibacterium acnes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, Holger; Lood, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    Viruses specifically infecting bacteria, or bacteriophages, are the most common biological entity in the biosphere. As such, they greatly influence bacteria, both in terms of enhancing their virulence and in terms of killing them. Since the first identification of bacteriophages in the beginning of the 20th century, researchers have been fascinated by these microorganisms and their ability to eradicate bacteria. In this review, we will cover the history of the Propionibacterium acnes bacteriophage research and point out how bacteriophage research has been an important part of the research on P. acnes itself. We will further discuss recent findings from phage genome sequencing and the identification of phage sequence signatures in clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs). Finally, the potential to use P. acnes bacteriophages as a therapeutic strategy to combat P. acnes-associated diseases will be discussed.

  12. Asymptomatic infection with Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steere, Allen C; Sikand, Vijay K; Schoen, Robert T; Nowakowski, John

    2003-08-15

    The natural history of asymptomatic seroconversion to Borrelia burgdorferi has been unclear. We report here, on the basis of a post hoc assessment, the frequency and outcome of asymptomatic seroconversion to B. burgdorferi in participants of a large Lyme disease vaccine trial. We show that infection with B. burgdorferi may be asymptomatic but that asymptomatic infection is unusual in the United States.

  13. Zika Virus Infection and Microcephaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gordon Millichap

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A Task Force established by the Brazil Ministry of Health investigated the possible association of microcephaly with Zika virus infection during pregnancy and a registry for microcephaly cases among women suspected to have had Zika virus infection during pregnancy.

  14. Urinary tract infections and pyelonephritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    970374 The relationship between chronic pyelitis andcytomegalovirus infection: a primary study. LI Na(李娜), et al. 81021st Milit Hosp, Changchun,130021. Chin J Med Lab Sci 1997; 20(1): 26-27. Objective: To research the relationship betweenchronic pyelitis and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection.

  15. Serious complications after infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gill, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to review all cases of infective endocarditis at our hospital between 2002 and 2006 concerning the bacteriological aetiology and outcomes.......The objective of the present study was to review all cases of infective endocarditis at our hospital between 2002 and 2006 concerning the bacteriological aetiology and outcomes....

  16. Transmission of Helicobacter pylori Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Oderda

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common bacterial infections worldwide. It is accepted as the major cause of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, carcinoma of the distal part of the stomach and gastric lymphoma. However, how and when the infection is acquired remain largely unknown. Identification of mode of transmission is vital for developing preventive measures to interrupt its spread, but studies focused on this issue are difficult to implement. From epidemiological studies, it is known that there are great differences in the prevalence of infection in different populations and in ethnic groups originating from high prevalence regions. This is likely related to inferior hygienic conditions and sanitation. In developing countries, infection occurs at a much earlier age. In developed countries, the prevalence of infection is related to poor socioeconomic conditions, particularly density of living. Humans seem to be the only reservoir of H pylori, which spread from person to person by oral-oral, fecal-oral or gastro-oral routes. Most infections are acquired in childhood, possibly from parents or other children living as close contacts. Infection from the environment or from animals cannot be entirely excluded.

  17. Imaging fungal infections in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ankrah, Alfred O.; Sathekge, Mike M; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Glaudemans, Andor W.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Fungal infections in children rarely occur, but continue to have a high morbidity and mortality despite the development of newer antifungal agents. It is essential for these infections to be diagnosed at the earliest possible stage so appropriate treatment can be initiated promptly. The addition of

  18. Genetic susceptibility to Candida infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeekens, S.P.; Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Kullberg, B.J.; Netea, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Candida spp. are medically important fungi causing severe mucosal and life-threatening invasive infections, especially in immunocompromised hosts. However, not all individuals at risk develop Candida infections, and it is believed that genetic variation plays an important role in host susceptibility

  19. Raccoon Roundworm Infection PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-08-27

    This 60 second PSA describes the signs and symptoms of and ways to prevent Baylisascaris infection, a parasitic roundworm infection that is spread through raccoon feces.  Created: 8/27/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/28/2012.

  20. Epidemiology of oral human papillomavirus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Christine H.; Bagheri, Ashley; D'Souza, Gypsyamber

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is known to cause a subset of oropharyngeal cancers. Data regarding oral HPV infection is limited but emerging. HPV infection of the genital tract has been more thoroughly researched and helps inform our understanding of oral HPV infection. In this article we review current data on HPV prevalence, natural history, mode of acquisition, and risk factors for oral HPV infection.

  1. Vascular graft infections with Mycoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Skov Jensen, J; Prag, J;

    1995-01-01

    Vascular graft infection is one of the most serious complications in vascular surgery. It is associated with mortality rates ranging from 25% to 75% and with morbidity in the form of amputation in approximately 30% of patients. Staphylococcus aureus is the leading pathogen. With conventional...... laboratory techniques, the percentage of culture-negative yet grossly infected vascular grafts seems to be increasing and is not adequately explained by the prior use of antibiotics. We have recently reported the first case of aortic graft infection with Mycoplasma. We therefore suggest the hypothesis...... that the large number of culture-negative yet grossly infected vascular grafts may be due to Mycoplasma infection not detected with conventional laboratory technique....

  2. Testing for Occult Heartworm Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stogdale, L.

    1984-01-01

    Heartworm infection in dogs is endemic in southern Ontario but occurs only sporadically throughout the remainder of Canada. The disease may either be associated with microfilariae in the patient's blood, a patent infection, or it may be occult. This paper describes a case of occult dirofilariasis in a dog, with emphasis on the diagnosis. A patent infection could be missed if the clinician tests an insufficient amount of blood. He should perform multiple concentration tests using either the modified Knott's technique or a filtration method. Occult infections occur in prepatent or unisexual infections, when the worms become sterile following therapy, or when the host produces antibodies that result in the destruction of the microfilariae. The recent release of a kit which detects the presence of antibodies to the adult heartworms now enables veterinarians to make an accurate diagnosis in the vast majority of dogs. PMID:17422386

  3. Malassezia infections: a medical conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa, Ana Filipa; Lisboa, Carmen; Gonçalves Rodrigues, Acácio

    2014-07-01

    Malassezia yeasts have long been considered commensal fungi, unable to elicit significant damage. However, they have been associated with a diversity of cutaneous diseases, namely pityriasis versicolor, Malassezia folliculitis, seborrheic dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, and confluent and reticulate papillomatosis. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the pathogenic mechanisms of these fungi, but none have been confirmed. More recently, such organisms have been increasingly isolated from bloodstream infections raising serious concern about these fungi. Given the difficulty to culture these yeasts to proceed with speciation and antimicrobial susceptibility tests, such procedures are most often not performed and the cutaneous infections are treated empirically. The recurring nature of superficial skin infections and the potential threat of systemic infections raise the need of faster and more sensitive techniques to achieve isolation, identification, and antimicrobial susceptibility profile. This article reviews and discusses the latest available data concerning Malassezia infections and recent developments about diagnostic methods, virulence mechanisms, and susceptibility testing. PMID:24569116

  4. Genetic susceptibility to Candida infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeekens, Sanne P; van de Veerdonk, Frank L; Kullberg, Bart Jan; Netea, Mihai G

    2013-06-01

    Candida spp. are medically important fungi causing severe mucosal and life-threatening invasive infections, especially in immunocompromised hosts. However, not all individuals at risk develop Candida infections, and it is believed that genetic variation plays an important role in host susceptibility. On the one hand, severe fungal infections are associated with monogenic primary immunodeficiencies such as defects in STAT1, STAT3 or CARD9, recently discovered as novel clinical entities. On the other hand, more common polymorphisms in genes of the immune system have also been associated with fungal infections such as recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and candidemia. The discovery of the genetic susceptibility to Candida infections can lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease, as well as to the design of novel immunotherapeutic strategies. This review is part of the review series on host-pathogen interactions. See more reviews from this series. PMID:23629947

  5. Infections and autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Jean-François

    2005-01-01

    The high percentage of disease-discordant pairs of monozygotic twins demonstrates the central role of environmental factors in the etiology of autoimmune diseases. Efforts were first focussed on the search for triggering factors. The study of animal models has clearly shown that infections may trigger autoimmune diseases, as in the case of Coxsackie B4 virus in type I diabetes and the encephalomyocarditis virus in autoimmune myositis, two models in which viruses are thought to act by increasing immunogenicity of autoantigens secondary to local inflammation. The induction of a Guillain-Barré syndrome in rabbits after immunization with a peptide derived from Campylobacter jejuni is explained by mimicry between C. jejuni antigens and peripheral nerve axonal antigens. Other models involve chemical modification of autoantigens, as in the case of iodine-induced autoimmune thyroiditis. These mechanisms have so far only limited clinical counterparts (rheumatic fever, Guillain-Barré syndrome and drug-induced lupus or myasthenia gravis) but one may assume that unknown viruses may be at the origin of a number of chronic autoimmune diseases, such as type I diabetes and multiple sclerosis) as illustrated by the convergent data incriminating IFN-alpha in the pathophysiology of type I diabetes and systemic lupus erythematosus. Perhaps the difficulties met in identifying the etiologic viruses are due to the long lag time between the initial causal infection and onset of clinical disease. More surprisingly, infections may also protect from autoimmune diseases. Western countries are being confronted with a disturbing increase in the incidence of most immune disorders, including autoimmune and allergic diseases, inflammatory bowel diseases, and some lymphocyte malignancies. Converging epidemiological evidence indicates that this increase is linked to improvement of the socio-economic level of these countries, posing the question of the causal relationship and more precisely the

  6. Concurrent infection of Japanese encephalitis and mixed plasmodium infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Chandra Bhatt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis (JE and malaria would coexist in the areas where both illnesses are endemic with overlapping clinical pictures, especially in a case of febrile encephalopathy with hepatosplenomegaly. However, there are no published data till date showing concurrent infection of these two agents despite both diseases being coendemic in many areas. We report a case of concurrent infection of JE and mixed plasmodium infection, where the case, initially diagnosed as cerebral malaria did not improve on antimalarials and alternative diagnosis of JEV encephalitis was thought which was confirmed by a serological test. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of concurrent Japanese encephalitis with mixed plasmodium infection. We report a case of 3-year-old male child, who presented with febrile encephalopathy with hepatosplenomegaly. Based on a rapid diagnostic test and peripheral smear examination, a diagnosis of mixed P.Vivax and P.falciparum infection was made and the patient was treated with quinine and doxycycline. However, besides giving antimalarials the patient did not improve and an alternative diagnosis of JE was considered as the patient was from the endemic zone of Japanese encephalitis. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of the patient was sent for a virological study which came out to be positive for JE IgM in CSF, which is confirmatory of JE infection. In a patient with febrile encephalopathy with hepatosplenomegaly especially in areas coendemic for JE and malaria, the possibility of mixed infection should be kept in mind.

  7. Dengue Virus Infection Perturbs Lipid Homeostasis in Infected Mosquito Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perera, Rushika M.; Riley, Catherine; Isaac, Georgis; Hopf- Jannasch, Amber; Moore, Ronald J.; Weitz, Karl K.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Metz, Thomas O.; Adamec, Jiri; Kuhn, Richard J.

    2012-03-22

    Dengue virus causes {approx}50-100 million infections per year and thus is considered one of the most aggressive arthropod-borne human pathogen worldwide. During its replication, dengue virus induces dramatic alterations in the intracellular membranes of infected cells. This phenomenon is observed both in human and vector-derived cells. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry of mosquito cells, we show that this membrane remodeling is directly linked to a unique lipid repertoire induced by dengue virus infection. Specifically, 15% of the metabolites detected were significantly different between DENV infected and uninfected cells while 85% of the metabolites detected were significantly different in isolated replication complex membranes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that intracellular lipid redistribution induced by the inhibition of fatty acid synthase, the rate-limiting enzyme in lipid biosynthesis, is sufficient for cell survival but is inhibitory to dengue virus replication. Lipids that have the capacity to destabilize and change the curvature of membranes as well as lipids that change the permeability of membranes are enriched in dengue virus infected cells. Several sphingolipids and other bioactive signaling molecules that are involved in controlling membrane fusion, fission, and trafficking as well as molecules that influence cytoskeletal reorganization are also up regulated during dengue infection. These observations shed light on the emerging role of lipids in shaping the membrane and protein environments during viral infections and suggest membrane-organizing principles that may influence virus-induced intracellular membrane architecture.

  8. Autophagy in infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deretic, Vojo

    2010-04-01

    Autophagy is a ubiquitous eukaryotic cytoplasmic quality and quantity control pathway. The role of autophagy in cytoplasmic homeostasis seamlessly extends to cell-autonomous defense against intracellular microbes. Recent studies also point to fully integrated, multitiered regulatory and effector connections between autophagy and nearly all facets of innate and adaptive immunity. Autophagy in the immune system as a whole confers measured immune responses; on the flip side, suppression of autophagy can lead to inflammation and tissue damage, as evidenced by Crohn's disease predisposition polymorphisms in autophagy basal apparatus (Atg16L) and regulatory (IRGM) genes. Polymorphisms in the IRGM gene in human populations have also been linked to predisposition to tuberculosis. There are several areas of most recent growth: first, links between autophagy regulators and infectious disease predisposition in human populations; second, demonstration of a role for autophagy in infection control in vivo in animal models; third, the definition of specific antiautophagic defenses in highly evolved pathogens; and fourth, recognition of connections between the ubiquitin system and autophagy of bacteria (and interestingly mitochondria, which are incidentally organelles of bacterial evolutionary origin) via a growing list of modifier and adapter proteins including p62/SQSTM1, NDP52, Atg32, Parkin, and Nix/BNIP3L. PMID:20116986

  9. Infective Endocarditis during Pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Infective Endocarditis (IE) during pregnancy is a rare but grave condition. The diagnosis and management can be challenging, especially when the pregnant patient warrants a cardiac operation under cardiopulmonary bypass. The present article describes IE during pregnancy based on a series of published case reports in the literature. IE during pregnancy often causes embolic events and mycotic aneurysms. Two-thirds of IE in the pregnant patients requires timely or urgent cardiac surgery to alleviate patients deterioration. At least a 3-week antibiotic therapy is mandatory before cardiac surgery aiming at improving the patients. Conditions. During cardiac surgery, fetal heart rates may temporarily be slowed down but may gradually recover to normal after the operation. The fetal and maternal mortalities were 16.7% and 3.3%, respectively. The fetal deaths were apparently associated with a cardiac surgery during early pregnancy. Cardiopulmonary bypass, hypothermia and rewarming can adversely affect both the mother and the fetus by triggering placental deficits, fetal hypoxia and uterine contraction. Avoidance of cardiac operations before 24th gestation week and preferably deferred until after 28th gestation week have been a plausible argument as per the possible fetal deaths related to immaturity. (author)

  10. Tecovirimat for smallpox infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolken, T C; Hruby, D E

    2010-02-01

    SIGA Technologies, Inc. is a small biotech company committed to developing novel products for the prevention and treatment of serious viral diseases, with an emphasis on products to combat outbreaks that could result from bioterrorism. With government support, SIGA has developed the necessary infrastructure to successfully advance new antiviral drugs from the discovery stage through to licensing. Currently, there is a need to develop safe and effective inhibitors for poxvirus-induced diseases such as smallpox caused by variola, which is a potential biological warfare agent. Likewise emerging zoonotic infections due to cowpox virus and monkeypox virus require the development of effective countermeasures. Tecovirimat, also known as ST-246, has shown efficacy in all small animal and nonhuman primate prophylaxis and therapeutic efficacy models of poxvirus-induced disease tested to date. Phase I clinical trials and new drug application-enabling toxicology studies have been completed with tecovirimat. A phase II clinical study is being run and SIGA has initiated commercial scale-up manufacturing and preparation for the pivotal safety and efficacy studies. SIGA is committed to getting approval for tecovirimat and supplying it to the Strategic National Stockpile, the Department of Defense and global health authorities. PMID:20393639

  11. EBV CHRONIC INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Racciatti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    The infection from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV or virus of infectious mononucleosis, together with other herpesviruses’ infections, represents a prototype of persistent viral infections characterized by the property of the latency. Although the reactivations of the latent infection are associated with the resumption of the viral replication and eventually with the “shedding”, it is still not clear if this virus can determine chronic infectious diseases, more or less evolutive. These diseases could include some pathological conditions actually defined as “idiopathic”and characterized by the “viral persistence” as the more credible pathogenetic factor. Among the so-called idiopathic syndromes, the “chronic fatigue syndrome” (CFS aroused a great interest around the eighties of the last century when, just for its relationship with EBV, it was called “chronic mononucleosis” or “chronic EBV infection”.

    Today CFS, as defined in 1994 by the CDC of Atlanta (USA, really represents a multifactorial syndrome characterized by a chronic course, where reactivation and remission phases

  12. Middle ear infection (otitis media) (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is an inflammation and/or infection of the middle ear. Acute otitis media (acute ear infection) occurs ... or viral infection of the fluid of the middle ear, which causes production of fluid or pus. ...

  13. Group B Strep Infection in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptoms. Bacteremia and sepsis (blood infections) symptoms include: Fever Chills Low alertness Pneumonia (lung infection) symptoms include: Fever ... in the infected area and might also include: Fever Chills Swilling Stiffness or inability to use affected limb ...

  14. Streptococcal Infections: Not A or B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Print Share Streptococcal Infections: Not A or B Page Content Article Body While many streptococcal infections can be categorized as Group A or B, other streptococcal infections do not fall into either ...

  15. Candida Infection of the Bloodstream - Candidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candida Infection of the Bloodstream– Candidemia Fungal Disease Series #4 Candida is the single most important cause of ... Where in my body can I get a Candida infection? Candida infection can happen in almost any part ...

  16. Helicobacter pylori Infection in Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roma, Eleftheria; Miele, Erasmo

    2015-09-01

    This review includes the main pediatric studies published from April 2014 to March 2015. The host response of Treg cells with increases in FOXP3 and TGF-β1 combined with a reduction in IFN-γ by Teff cells may contribute to Helicobacter pylori susceptibility in children. Genotypic variability in H. pylori strains influences the clinical manifestation of the infection. Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with variables indicative of a crowded environment and poor living conditions, while breast-feeding has a protective effect. Intrafamilial infection, especially from mother to children and from sibling to sibling, is the dominant transmission route. Studies showed conflicting results regarding the association between H. pylori infection and iron deficiency anemia. One study suggests that H. pylori eradication plays a role in the management of chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura in H. pylori-infected children and adolescents. The prevalence of H. pylori was higher in chronic urticaria patients than in controls and, following H. pylori eradication, urticarial symptoms disappeared. An inverse relationship between H. pylori infection and allergic disease was reported. Antibiotic resistance and insufficient compliance to treatment limit the efficacy of eradication therapy. Sequential therapy had no advantage over standard triple therapy. In countries where H. pylori infection is prevalent, studies focusing on virulence factors and antibiotic susceptibility may provide anticipation of the prognosis and may be helpful to reduce morbidity and mortality.

  17. The Nef-Infectivity Enigma: Mechanisms of Enhanced Lentiviral Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeire, Jolien; Vanbillemont, Griet; Witkowski, Wojciech; Verhasselt, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    The Nef protein is an essential factor for lentiviral pathogenesis in humans and other simians. Despite a multitude of functions attributed to this protein, the exact role of Nef in disease progression remains unclear. One of its most intriguing functions is the ability of Nef to enhance the infectivity of viral particles. In this review we will discuss current insights in the mechanism of this well-known, yet poorly understood Nef effect. We will elaborate on effects of Nef, on both virion biogenesis and the early stage of the cellular infection, that might be involved in infectivity enhancement. In addition, we provide an overview of different HIV-1 Nef domains important for optimal infectivity and briefly discuss some possible sources of the frequent discrepancies in the field. Hereby we aim to contribute to a better understanding of this highly conserved and therapeutically attractive Nef function. PMID:22103831

  18. Trichinella infection and clinical disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, M R; Meyer, C N; Krantz, T;

    1996-01-01

    Trichinellosis is caused by ingestion of insufficiently cooked meat contaminated with infective larvae of Trichinella species. The clinical course is highly variable, ranging from no apparent infection to severe and even fatal disease. We report two illustrative cases of trichinellosis. Returning....... Life-threatening cardiopulmonary, renal and central nervous system complications developed. The patient recovered after several months. Her husband, who also ate the pork, did not have clinical symptoms, but an increased eosinophil count and a single larva in a muscle biopsy confirmed infection....... The epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of trichinellosis are reviewed....

  19. Pulmonary infections in immunocompromised patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Introduction: The lung is one of the most commonly affected organs in immunocompromised patients. Primary complication is pulmonary infection which is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Although radiography and CT, as main diagnostic tools are reliable and credible methods, often there is difficulty with the correct diagnose. The reasons for this are that immunocompromised patients are potentially susceptible to infection by various microorganisms and that the radiographic findings are rarely specific for detecting a particular pathogen. What you will learn : Our objective is to present general nosological classification of pulmonary infections in immunocompromised patients, and to evaluate and analyze new imaging methods and discuss their correlation with the clinical setting, which aims to facilitate the diagnosis and to take a decision for the treatment. The experience indicates that a clinical environment conducive the immunocompromised patients to infection with certain pathogens, thereby changing the frequency of their occurrence. The most commonly cited fungal infections, cytomegalovirus infections, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) of which convincing is the Imaging diagnosis primarily in fungal infections, and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and less accurate - in bacterial and viral infections. Discussion: The term 'immunocompromised' describes a subject with an increased risk for life-threatening infection as a result of congenital or acquired abnormalities of the immune system. Over the past few decades, the number of immunocompromised patients has grown considerably, reflecting the increased use of immunosuppressive drugs, and the syndrome of acquired immunodeficiency. Given the high incidence of pulmonary infections in immunocompromised patients (lung is one of the most commonly affected organs, such as lung infection is about 75% of pulmonary complications), rapid and accurate diagnosis is important

  20. Intraabdominal Infections in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Ana; Johanning, Jason Michael

    2016-08-01

    Intraabdominal infections represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in the elderly population. Atypical presentations, diagnostic delays, additional comorbidities, and decreased physiologic reserve contribute to high morbidity and mortality, particularly among frail patients undergoing emergency abdominal surgery. While many infections are the result of age-related inflammatory, mechanical, or obstructive processes, infectious complications of feeding tubes are also common. The pillars of treatment are source control of the infection and judicious use of antibiotics. A patient-centered approach considering the invasiveness, risk, and efficacy of a procedure for achieving the desired outcomes is recommended. Structured communication and time-limited trials help ensure goal-concordant treatment. PMID:27394019

  1. Prediction of eyespot infection risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Váòová

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to design a prediction model for eyespot (Tapesia yallundae infection based on climatic factors (temperature, precipitation, air humidity. Data from experiment years 1994-2002 were used to study correlations between the eyespot infection index and individual weather characteristics. The model of prediction was constructed using multiple regression when a separate parameter is assigned to each factor, i.e. the frequency of days with optimum temperatures, humidity, and precipitation. The correlation between relative air humidity and precipitation and the infection index is significant.

  2. Hepatitis B Infection and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güçlü E et al.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B is one of the most common infectious diseases globally. The prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection varies geographically, from high (>8%, intermediate (2-7% to low (<2% prevalence. The predominant routes of transmission vary according to the endemicity of the HBV infection. In areas with high HBV endemicity, perinatal transmission is the main route of transmission, whereas in areas with low HBV endemicity, sexual contact amongst high-risk adults and using shared needles amongst injection drug users are the predominant route. Three main strategies have been approved to be effective in preventing HBV infection. They are behavior modification, passive immunoprophylaxis, and active immunization.

  3. Riemerella Anatipestifer Infection in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. X. Li*, Y. Tang, J. Y. Gao, C. H. Huang1 and M. J. Ding

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Riemerella anatipestifer (RA is the causative agent of septicemic and exudative disease for a variety of bird species. Although RA had been isolated from chickens, whether can bring damages to them is not unrevealed yet. In this study, we report a flock of SanHuang chickens infected by RA with 15% morbidity and less than 8% mortality. The infection is further substantiated by case duplicate. The tested chickens demonstrate typical signs of pericarditis, air sacculitis and perihepatitis that are completely consistent with the field outbreak. The results suggest that RA is pathogenic to SanHuang chickens, which can then be theoretically and practicably incorporated into its infection spectrum.

  4. BK virus infection in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, J; Muñoz, P; Garcia de Viedma, D; Cabrero, I; Loeches, B; Montilla, P; Gijon, P; Rodriguez-Sanchez, B; Bouza, E

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of BK virus (BKV) infection in HIV-positive patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in our hospital. The presence of BKV was analysed in urine and plasma samples from 78 non-selected HIV-infected patients. Clinical data were recorded using a pre-established protocol. We used a nested PCR to amplify a specific region of the BKV T-large antigen. Positive samples were quantified using real-time PCR. Mean CD4 count in HIV-infected patients was 472 cells/mm3 and median HIV viral load was 500 cells/mm3 (74.3% vs 25.7%; p=0.007). Viruria was present in 21.7% of healthy controls (5 out of 23 samples, p=0.02). All viral loads were low (<100 copies/mL), and we could not find any association between BKV infection and renal or neurological manifestations. We provide an update on the prevalence of BKV in HIV-infected patients treated with HAART. BKV viruria was more common in HIV-infected patients; however, no role for BKV has been demonstrated in this population.

  5. Obesity and risk of infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Kathrine Agergård; Pedersen, Ole Birger; Petersen, Mikkel Steen;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that obesity complicates the course of several diseases. However, it is unknown whether obesity affects the risk of infection among healthy individuals. METHODS: We included 37,808 healthy participants from the Danish Blood Donor Study, who completed a questionnaire...... on health-related items. Obesity was defined as a body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2). Infections among participants were identified by relevant ICD-10 codes in the Danish National Patient Register and Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) codes in the Danish Prescription Register. Multivariable Cox proportional...... prescription of antimicrobials. Obesity was associated with risk of hospital-based treatment for infection (women: hazard ratio [HR] = 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1, 1.9; men: HR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2, 1.9). For specific infections, obesity was associated with increased risk of abscesses (both sexes...

  6. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... matter how busy you are. Water and cranberry juice are two good choices. Those trips to the ... wash bacteria out of your body and cranberry juice may actually help prevent another infection. If you' ...

  7. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... kidney infection and you should see a doctor right away. previous continue What Will the Doctor Do? ... consult your doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, ...

  8. Seasonal Flu and Staph Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medscape Podcasts Public Service Announcements (PSAs) Virus Images Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Seasonal Flu and Staph Infection Questions & Answers Language: English Españ ...

  9. Management of Helicobacter pylori infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abadi, Amin Talebi Bezmin; Kusters, Johannes G

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infection with Helicobacter pylori is associated with severe digestive diseases including chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric cancer. Successful eradication of this common gastric pathogen in individual patients is known to prevent the occurrence of peptic ulcer disease

  10. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your pee smells bad. These changes occur because bacteria have caused an infection somewhere in your urinary ... shorter than boys' urethras. The shorter urethra means bacteria can get up into the bladder more easily ...

  11. What Is an Ear Infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Back-to-School Butterflies? ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes What Is an Ear Infection? KidsHealth > For Kids > What ...

  12. [INFECTIONS IN THE TRANSPLANT PATIENT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Pourcher, Valérie

    2015-10-01

    Infections in the transplant patient are common. There are infections related to the host (recipient), those related to the graft and the related donor. Infectious risk factors depend on the history of the underlying disease of the transplanted organ, the donor, the immunosuppressive treatment. All pathogens, bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites are possible but their frequency varies according to the transplanted organ, the selected immunosuppressive therapy and prophylaxis. Indeed, it is important to detect and treat latent infections in pro-transplant and prevent post-transplant infections by lifestyle and dietary measures, vaccinations, intraoperative antibiotic, antiviral, antifugal, antiparasitic treatments according graft and a variable length depending on the immunosuppression and donor-recipient status. PMID:26749711

  13. Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Taskesen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTI are frequent conditions in children. Untreated urinary tract infections can lead to serious kidney problems that could threaten the life of the child. Therefore, early detection and treatment of urinary tract infection is important. In older children, urinary tract infections may cause obvious symptoms such as stomach ache and disuria. In infants and young children, UTIs may be harder to detect because of less specific symptoms. Recurrences are common in children with urinary abnormalities such as neurogenic bladder, vesicourethral reflux or those with very poor toilet and hygiene habits. This article reviews the diagnostic approach and presents the current data related to the roles of radiologic imaging, surgical correction and antibiotic prophylaxis of UTIs in children. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(2.000: 57-69

  14. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a bladder infection, your doctor will order some medicine for you to take to kill the bacteria. ... the hospital. At the hospital, the germ-fighting medicine can be delivered more effectively through a tiny ...

  15. Treatment of Infected Facial Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Kriti; Cox, Joshua A; Dickey, Ryan M; Gravina, Paula; Echo, Anthony; Izaddoost, Shayan A; Nguyen, Anh H

    2016-05-01

    Alloplastic facial implants have a wide range of uses to achieve the appropriate facial contour. A variety of materials such as metals, polymers, ceramics and synthetic injectable fillers are available to the reconstructive and aesthetic surgeon. Besides choosing the right surgical technique and the adequate material, the surgeon must be prepared to treat complications. Infection is an uncommon but serious complication that can cause displeasing consequences for the patient. There are few references in literature regarding treatment and management of facial implant-related infections. This study aims to discuss the role of biofilm in predisposing alloplastic materials to infection, to provide a review of literature, to describe our own institutional experience, and to define a patient care pathway for facial implant-associated infection. PMID:27152100

  16. Helicobacter pylori infection in pediatrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, Anne Vibeke; Kalach, Nicolas

    2003-01-01

    A high prevalence and early colonization of Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood was described again this year in developing countries in contrast to developed ones. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy including gastric biopsies remains the diagnostic gold standard method for this infection. A...... place only after susceptibility testing. The association of a proton pump inhibitor and two antibiotics for 1 or 2 weeks gives the best eradication rates. The crucial question to elucidate is whether asymptomatic children should be treated to prevent cancer in the future.......A high prevalence and early colonization of Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood was described again this year in developing countries in contrast to developed ones. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy including gastric biopsies remains the diagnostic gold standard method for this infection...

  17. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... stick into your cup of urine. The stick has specially treated paper on it and if it ... making you even more uncomfortable. A kid who has a kidney infection — with chills and a high ...

  18. Cancer Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... site. Top of Page Preventing fungal infections in cancer patients Fungi are difficult to avoid because they are a natural part of the environment. Fungi live outdoors in soil, on plants, trees, and other vegetation. They are also on ...

  19. Joint Infection (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for some deep joints (eg, hip, shoulder), surgical placement of a drainage tube. ARTIFICIAL JOINT INFECTION — People ... medications, the user is advised to check the product information sheet accompanying each drug to verify conditions ...

  20. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... these questions and share your answers with your mom or dad: Does it hurt or sting when ... bladder infection, so based on your answers, your mom or dad may decide to call your doctor ...

  1. Epidemiology of Clostridium difficile Infection

    OpenAIRE

    DePestel, Daryl D.; David M. Aronoff

    2013-01-01

    There has been dramatic change in the epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) since the turn of the 21st Century noted by a marked increase in incidence and severity, occurring at a disproportionately higher frequency in older patients. Historically considered a nosocomial infection associated with antibiotic exposure, CDI has now also emerged in the community in populations previously considered low risk. Emerging risk factors and disease recurrence represent continued challeng...

  2. Viral infection, inflammation and schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Kneeland, Rachel E.; Fatemi, S. Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder with genetic and environmental etiologies. Prenatal viral/bacterial infections and inflammation play major roles in the genesis of schizophrenia. In this review, we describe a viral model of schizophrenia tested in mice whereby the offspring of mice prenatally infected with influenza at E7, E9, E16, and E18 show significant gene, protein, and brain structural abnormalities postnatally. Similarly, we describe data on rodents exposed to bact...

  3. Systems Biology of Fungal Infection

    OpenAIRE

    FabianHorn; ThorstenHeinekamp; JohannesPollmächer; AxelABrakhage

    2012-01-01

    Elucidation of pathogenicity mechanisms of the most important human pathogenic fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans, has gained great interest in the light of the steadily increasing number of cases of invasive fungal infections. A key feature of these infections is the interaction of the different fungal morphotypes with epithelial and immune effector cells in the human host. Because of the high level of complexity, it is necessary to describe and understand invasive fungal i...

  4. Severe acute malnutrition and infection

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Kelsey D. J.; Berkley, James A

    2014-01-01

    Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is associated with increased severity of common infectious diseases, and death amongst children with SAM is almost always as a result of infection. The diagnosis and management of infection are often different in malnourished versus well-nourished children. The objectives of this brief are to outline the evidence underpinning important practical questions relating to the management of infectious diseases in children with SAM and to highlight research gaps. Over...

  5. Management of Helicobacter pylori infections

    OpenAIRE

    Abadi, Amin Talebi Bezmin; Kusters, Johannes G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Infection with Helicobacter pylori is associated with severe digestive diseases including chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric cancer. Successful eradication of this common gastric pathogen in individual patients is known to prevent the occurrence of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. Discussion With half of the world’s population being infected with H, pylori and only few antibiotics result in an effective eradication, a successful antibiotic driven worldwide...

  6. Prevention of Infection in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Ledger

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available We believe the prevention of infection-related adverse pregnancy outcome is the most important focus for obstetricians today. An emphasis upon immunization of susceptible women, prevention of transmissible disease by modification of patient behavior, and identification and treatment of silent infections should become standards of practice. This will require educational initiatives for physicians and their patients as well as continued clinical trials to determine costs and effectiveness.

  7. Trichinella infection in Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Jarošová, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Sumary This work deals with issues of trichinosis, gender Trichinella in Czech Republic, describes the best-known types of trichinosis, their occurrence, adaptation mechanisms important for survival, real danger of disease and preventative measures aimed at protection against the infection. Trichinellas are parasites that may cause a very dangerous disease called trichinelosa which can be fatal to humans. It occurs mainly in carnivores and humans may be infected by ingestion of under ...

  8. Chronic Infection and Severe Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Tara F; Kraft, Monica

    2016-08-01

    Chronic bacterial infection is implicated in both the development and severity of asthma. The atypical bacteria Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae have been identified in the airways of asthmatics and correlated with clinical features such as adult onset, exacerbation risks, steroid sensitivity, and symptom control. Asthmatic patients with evidence of bacterial infection may benefit from antibiotic treatment directed towards these atypical organisms. Examination of the airway microbiome may identify microbial communities that confer risk for or protection from severe asthma. PMID:27401621

  9. Cytomegalovirus infection in transplant recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo*, Luiz Sergio; Pierrotti, Lígia Camera; Abdala, Edson; Costa, Silvia Figueiredo; Strabelli, Tânia Mara Varejão; Campos, Silvia Vidal; Ramos, Jéssica Fernandes; Latif, Acram Zahredine Abdul; Litvinov, Nadia; Maluf, Natalya Zaidan; Filho, Helio Hehl Caiaffa; Pannuti, Claudio Sergio; Lopes, Marta Heloisa; dos Santos, Vera Aparecida; da Cruz Gouveia Linardi, Camila; Yasuda, Maria Aparecida Shikanai; de Sousa Marques, Heloisa Helena

    2015-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus infection is a frequent complication after transplantation. This infection occurs due to transmission from the transplanted organ, due to reactivation of latent infection, or after a primary infection in seronegative patients and can be defined as follows: latent infection, active infection, viral syndrome or invasive disease. This condition occurs mainly between 30 and 90 days after transplantation. In hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in particular, infection usually occurs within the first 30 days after transplantation and in the presence of graft-versus-host disease. The major risk factors are when the recipient is cytomegalovirus seronegative and the donor is seropositive as well as when lymphocyte-depleting antibodies are used. There are two methods for the diagnosis of cytomegalovirus infection: the pp65 antigenemia assay and polymerase chain reaction. Serology has no value for the diagnosis of active disease, whereas histology of the affected tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage analysis are useful in the diagnosis of invasive disease. Cytomegalovirus disease can be prevented by prophylaxis (the administration of antiviral drugs to all or to a subgroup of patients who are at higher risk of viral replication) or by preemptive therapy (the early diagnosis of viral replication before development of the disease and prescription of antiviral treatment to prevent the appearance of clinical disease). The drug used is intravenous or oral ganciclovir; oral valganciclovir; or, less frequently, valacyclovir. Prophylaxis should continue for 90 to 180 days. Treatment is always indicated in cytomegalovirus disease, and the gold-standard drug is intravenous ganciclovir. Treatment should be given for 2 to 3 weeks and should be continued for an additional 7 days after the first negative result for viremia. PMID:26222822

  10. Cytomegalovirus infection in transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Sergio Azevedo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus infection is a frequent complication after transplantation. This infection occurs due to transmission from the transplanted organ, due to reactivation of latent infection, or after a primary infection in seronegative patients and can be defined as follows: latent infection, active infection, viral syndrome or invasive disease. This condition occurs mainly between 30 and 90 days after transplantation. In hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in particular, infection usually occurs within the first 30 days after transplantation and in the presence of graft-versus-host disease. The major risk factors are when the recipient is cytomegalovirus seronegative and the donor is seropositive as well as when lymphocyte-depleting antibodies are used. There are two methods for the diagnosis of cytomegalovirus infection: the pp65 antigenemia assay and polymerase chain reaction. Serology has no value for the diagnosis of active disease, whereas histology of the affected tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage analysis are useful in the diagnosis of invasive disease. Cytomegalovirus disease can be prevented by prophylaxis (the administration of antiviral drugs to all or to a subgroup of patients who are at higher risk of viral replication or by preemptive therapy (the early diagnosis of viral replication before development of the disease and prescription of antiviral treatment to prevent the appearance of clinical disease. The drug used is intravenous or oral ganciclovir; oral valganciclovir; or, less frequently, valacyclovir. Prophylaxis should continue for 90 to 180 days. Treatment is always indicated in cytomegalovirus disease, and the gold-standard drug is intravenous ganciclovir. Treatment should be given for 2 to 3 weeks and should be continued for an additional 7 days after the first negative result for viremia.

  11. Intrauterine Infections and Birth Defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO-YING ZHENG; XIN-MING SONG; LI-HUA PANG; YING JI; HONG-MEI SUN; LEI ZHANG; JU-FEN LIU; YAN-LING GUO; YAN ZHANG; TING ZHANG; YI-FEI WANG; CHEN XU; GONG CHEN; RUOLEI XIN; JIA-PENG CHEN; XU-MEI HU; QING YANG

    2004-01-01

    Intrauterine infection is an important cause of some birth defects worldwide. The most common pathogens include rubella virus, cytomegaloviurs, ureaplasma urealyticum, toxoplasma, etc. General information about these pathogens in epidemiology, consequence of birth defects, and the possible mechanisms in the progress of birth defects, and the interventions to prevent or treat these pathogens' infections are described. The infections caused by rubella virus, cytomegaloviurs, ureaplasma urealyticum, toxoplasma, etc. are common, yet they are proved to be fatal during the pregnant period, especially during the first trimester. These infections may cause sterility, abortion, stillbirth, low birth weight, and affect multiple organs that may induce loss of hearing and vision, even fetal deformity and the long-term effects. These pathogens' infections may influence the microenvironment of placenta, including levels of enzymes and cytokines, and affect chondriosome that may induce the progress of birth defect. Early diagnosis of infections during pregnancy should be strengthened. There are still many things to be settled, such as the molecular mechanisms of birth defects, the effective vaccines to certain pathogens. Birth defect researches in terms of etiology and the development of applicable and sensitive pathogen detection technology and methods are imperative.

  12. HIV infection in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Nguyen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Nancy Nguyen1, Mark Holodniy21University of the Pacific School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Stockton, CA, USA; 2VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA, USAAbstract: In the US, an estimated 1 million people are infected with HIV, although one-third of this population are unaware of their diagnosis. While HIV infection is commonly thought to affect younger adults, there are an increasing number of patients over 50 years of age living with the condition. UNAIDS and WHO estimate that of the 40 million people living with HIV/AIDS in the world, approximately 2.8 million are 50 years and older. With the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in the mid-1990s, survival following HIV diagnosis has risen dramatically and HIV infection has evolved from an acute disease process to being managed as a chronic medical condition. As treated HIV-infected patients live longer and the number of new HIV diagnoses in older patients rise, clinicians need to be aware of these trends and become familiar with the management of HIV infection in the older patient. This article is intended for the general clinician, including geriatricians, and will review epidemiologic data and HIV treatment as well as provide a discussion on medical management issues affecting the older HIV-infected patient.Keywords: HIV, epidemiology, treatment, aging, review

  13. Synanthropic Trichinella infection in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oivanen, Leena; Oksanen, Antti

    2009-02-23

    The first three human trichinellosis cases in Finland were recorded around 1890, and altogether eight cases were registered until 2008. The first infected Finnish swine was found in 1954. From the early 1980s, an increasing trend in the number of infected swine was seen, with the highest number registered in 1996, after which a decrease has been observed. Infected pigs were found yearly until 2004. Since 1954, all slaughtered pigs have been tested for Trichinella, regardless of subsequent export or domestic consumption purpose. All Trichinella infections revealed in pigs are, since 1998, analysed for species by multiplex PCR. So far, all larvae from pig infections have been identified as Trichinella spiralis. During the recent decreasing trend in prevalence, the number of pig farms has also decreased, while the yearly number of slaughtered pigs has remained stable or even slightly increased. For many decades, the Trichinella prevalence in Finnish wildlife has remained high. Foxes, raccoon dogs, wolves, and lynx in the southern part of the country exhibit prevalence exceeding 50%. The most common species in wildlife is Trichinella nativa, a species with very low infectivity to swine, but also, T. spiralis, Trichinella britovi, and Trichinella pseudospiralis occur in wildlife. PMID:19054618

  14. Opportunistic ocular infections in AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shikha Baisakhiya DOMS; FGO

    2008-01-01

    As the number of HIV infected patients is multiplying exponentially day by day so are the associated ocular complications.The increasing longevity of individuals with HIV disease has resulted in greater numbers of pa-tients with ocular opportunistic infection.By the means of this article we describe various opportunistic ocular infections in AIDS and their clinical manifestations,discussed under four headings;1 )adnexal manifestation;2)anterior segment manifestation;3)posterior segment manifestation;4)neuro ophthalmic manifestation . Herpes zoster ophthalmicus,molluscum contagiosum and Kaposi sarcoma are common adnexal manifestations. Molluscum contagiosum being the commonest.Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV)and herpes simplex virus (HSV) most commonly cause infectious keratitis in HIV-positive patients .As compared to the immunocompetent indi-viduals the frequency of bacterial and fungal keratitis is not more in HIV patients,but it tends to be more se-vere.Posterior segment structures involved in HIV-positive patients include the retina,choroid,and optic nerve head.The herpesvirus family is implicated most commonly in infections of the retina and choroid in HIV positive patients.CMV is the most common cause of retinitis and the commonest intraocular infection in AIDS. Atypical presentations resistance to conventional treatment and higher rate of recurrence make the diagnosis and therapeutic intervention more difficult and challenging.In addition,in one eye,several infections may occur at the same time,rendering the situation more difficult.

  15. Rheumatoid arthritis and bacterial infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N L Prokopjeva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To study features of bacterial infections course in pts with rheumatoid arthritis (RA and changes of laboratory measures after focus of infection sanation. Material and methods. 46 pts with definite rheumatoid arthritis were examined at the time of comorbid infection (Cl detection and after infection focus sanation. Bacteriological test with evaluation of flora sensitivity to antibiotics by disco-diffusion method was performed at baseline and after the course of antibacterial therapy to assess its efficacy. Hemogram, serum fibrinogen, rheumatoid factor, circulating immune complexes (CIC, C-reactive protein levels were assessed. Serum interleukin (IL 1(3, IL6 and neopterin concentrations were examined by immune-enzyme assay in a part of pts. Typical clinical features of Cl were present in only 28 (60,9% pts. 13 (28,3% pts had fever, 12 (26,0% — leukocytosis, 15 (32,6% — changes of leucocyte populations. Some laboratory measures (thrombocytes, fibrinogen, CIC, neopterin levels significantly decreased (p<0,05 after infection focus sanation without correction of disease modifying therapy. Cl quite often develop as asymptomatic processes most often in pts with high activity and can induce disturbances promoting appearance of endothelial dysfunction, atherothrombosis and reduction of life duration. So timely detection and proper sanation of infection focuses should be performed in pts with RA

  16. Cladosporium scalp infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Erwin Eduardo Argueta; Cohen, Philip R; Tschen, Jaime A

    2012-01-01

    An 11-year-old healthy red-haired girl presented with a 3-year history of hair loss and mild pruritus of her scalp. She had previously been diagnosed with trichotillomania. Cutaneous examination showed scant hair loss with neither crusting nor scaly lesions. The scalp hair was diffusely thin, dry, and brittle on the frontal, mid-parietal, and anterior occipital scalp (Figure 1A). A pull test was negative, and a significant number of hair shafts were not detached on repeated traction. Closer examination using a dermatoscope showed follicles with broken hair shafts. The dermatoscopic evaluation also showed frequent pinpoint black dots scattered among the terminal hair shafts at their bases. No scale, scar, or inflammatory changes were seen in the involved areas (Figure 1B). A 20% potassium hydroxide (KOH) preparation of material obtained after gentle scrapping of the black dots on the scalp provided fragments of hair fibers containing aggregates of pigmented yeast forms (Figure 2A) and brown septate hyphae (Figure 2B). Two samples were sent for fungal culture and both showed dark brown colonies on the surface and black coloration when viewed from the reverse side (Figure 3A). Lactophenol cotton blue preparation of the fungal colonies revealed long and septate hyphae with laterally branching conidiophores ending in round-shaped conidia (Figure 3B). The microorganism was identified by the reference laboratory as Cladosporium species. The conidia were usually noted to be single-celled with a distinct dark hilum. They also exhibited prominent attachment scars that caused the cells to appear "shield-shaped." These features were considered to be diagnostic for Cladosporium; however, the reference laboratory could not identify the organism to the species level. The girl's Cladosporium scalp infection was treated with itraconazole at an oral daily dose of 200 mg for 2 months. Upon re-evaluation, she showed significant improvement with not only discontinuation of her alopecia

  17. Immune response to fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Jose L; Garcia, Marta E

    2008-09-15

    The immune mechanisms of defence against fungal infections are numerous, and range from protective mechanisms that were present early in evolution (innate immunity) to sophisticated adaptive mechanisms that are induced specifically during infection and disease (adaptive immunity). The first-line innate mechanism is the presence of physical barriers in the form of skin and mucous membranes, which is complemented by cell membranes, cellular receptors and humoral factors. There has been a debate about the relative contribution of humoral and cellular immunity to host defence against fungal infections. For a long time it was considered that cell-mediated immunity (CMI) was important, but humoral immunity had little or no role. However, it is accepted now that CMI is the main mechanism of defence, but that certain types of antibody response are protective. In general, Th1-type CMI is required for clearance of a fungal infection, while Th2 immunity usually results in susceptibility to infection. Aspergillosis, which is a disease caused by the fungus Aspergillus, has been the subject of many studies, including details of the immune response. Attempts to relate aspergillosis to some form of immunosuppression in animals, as is the case with humans, have not been successful to date. The defence against Aspergillus is based on recognition of the pathogen, a rapidly deployed and highly effective innate effector phase, and a delayed but robust adaptive effector phase. Candida albicans, part of the normal microbial flora associated with mucous surfaces, can be present as congenital candidiasis or as acquired defects of cell-mediated immunity. Resistance to this yeast is associated with Th1 CMI, whereas Th2 immunity is associated with susceptibility to systemic infection. Dermatophytes produce skin alterations in humans and other animals, and the essential role of the CMI response is to destroy the fungi and produce an immunoprotective status against re-infection. The resolution

  18. Acute focal infections of dental origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olsen, Ingar; van Winkelhoff, Arie J.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the most important pus-producing acute oral infections (dental infections) that can spread extra-orally. Most of these infections are spread by bacteria entering the bloodstream. However, dental infections have a number of other pathways for dissemination. By forming abscesses

  19. Early infection and prognosis after acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, L P; Jørgensen, H S; Reith, J;

    2001-01-01

    Infection is a frequent complication in the early course of acute stroke and may adversely affect stroke outcome. In the present study, we investigate early infection developing in patients within 3 days of admission to the hospital and its independent relation to recovery and stroke outcome. In...... addition, we identify predictors for early infections, infection subtypes, and their relation to initial stroke severity....

  20. Neonatal Staphylococcus lugdunensis urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Itaru; Hataya, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Hanako; Sakakibara, Hiroshi; Terakawa, Toshiro

    2015-08-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a known pathogen of infective endocarditis, but not of urinary tract infection. We report a previously healthy neonate without congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract who developed urinary tract infection due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis, illustrating that Staphylococcus lugdunensis can cause urinary tract infection even in those with no urinary tract complications. PMID:26177232

  1. Immunity to Trichinella spiralis muscle infection

    OpenAIRE

    Fabre, M.V.; Beiting, D.P.; Bliss, S.K.; Appleton, J. A.

    2008-01-01

    Trichinella spiralis larvae establish chronic infections in skeletal muscles of immunocompetent hosts. Muscle infection is crucial to transmission and survival of the parasite in nature. Chronic infections by this highly immunogenic parasite are associated with modulation or escape from potentially destructive immune responses. This review summarizes our current knowledge of immunity to muscle infection with T. spiralis.

  2. Nocardia pulmonary infection, Case report and review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nocardia infections are an important cause of pulmonary morbidity, in part associated with the use of immunosuppressant therapy in patients with hematological neoplasia, organ transplants and in patients with HIV infection. In this article we report a case of nocardia infection in a patient with high doses of steroids and diabetes mellitus, and make a review of the literature of nocardia infections

  3. Modeling Zika Virus Infection in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Shannan L; Vasilakis, Nikos

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the link between Zika virus (ZIKV) infection and microcephaly requires in vivo models of ZIKV infection in pregnant adults and fetuses. Three studies recently generated such mouse models of ZIKV infection, which corroborate previous in vitro evidence linking ZIKV infection and apoptosis induction in neurons and progenitors to microcephaly. PMID:27392219

  4. Early Bunyavirus-Host Cell Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelina Albornoz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Bunyaviridae is the largest family of RNA viruses, with over 350 members worldwide. Several of these viruses cause severe diseases in livestock and humans. With an increasing number and frequency of outbreaks, bunyaviruses represent a growing threat to public health and agricultural productivity globally. Yet, the receptors, cellular factors and endocytic pathways used by these emerging pathogens to infect cells remain largely uncharacterized. The focus of this review is on the early steps of bunyavirus infection, from virus binding to penetration from endosomes. We address current knowledge and advances for members from each genus in the Bunyaviridae family regarding virus receptors, uptake, intracellular trafficking and fusion.

  5. INFECTIONS IN THALASSEMIA AND HEMOGLOBINOPATHIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Rund

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available

     

    The clinical approach to thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies, specifically Sickle Cell Disease (SCD, based on transfusions, iron chelation and bone marrow transplantation has ameliorated their prognosis. Nevertheless, infections still may cause serious complications in these patients. The susceptibility to infections in thalassemia and SCD arises both from a large spectrum of immunological abnormalities and from exposure to specific infectious agents. Four fundamental issues will be focused upon as central causes of immune dysfunction: the diseases themselves; iron overload, transfusion therapy and the role of the spleen. Thalassemia and SCD differ in their pathogenesis and clinical course. It will be outlined how these differences affect immune dysfunction, the risk of infections and the types of most frequent infections in each disease. Moreover, since transfusions are a fundamental tool for treating these patients, their safety is paramount in reducing the risks of infections. In recent years, careful surveillance worldwide and improvements in laboratory tests reduced greatly transfusion transmitted infections, but the problem is not completely resolved. Finally, selected topics will be discussed regarding Parvovirus B19 and transfusion transmitted infections as well as the prevention of infectious risk postsplenectomy or in presence of functional asplenia.

  6. Cytomegalovirus infection in infertile women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Yossif Saour

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cytomegalovirus (CMV is a virus that can be transmitted to a developing child before birth. For most healthy persons who acquire CMV after birth, there are few symptoms. Once a person becomes infected, the virus remains alive, but usually dormant within that person’s body for life. There are two different types of infection: primary CMV and recurrent CMV infection. Primary infection can cause more serious problems in pregnancy than recurrent infection can. However, if a person's immune system is seriously weakened in any way, the virus can become active and cause CMV disease. The aim of this study is to evaluate CMV infection, antisperm antibodies in infertile women and its relation to other parameters. Method: Fifty infertile women who presented at the Infertility Clinic of Kammal Al-Sammaree Hospital from May 2008 to July 2009 and thirty fertile control group were included in this study. CMV IgG and IgM measurements were performed by ELISA and antisperm antibody was measured by immunofluorescence test. High vaginal and cervical swabs taken for wet mount, Gram stain and culture. Results: There was no significant difference between infertile and control group regarding CMV IgG. The presence of CMV IgG in the serum was significantly related with previous genital infection of infertility (p<0.001 and previous abortion (p=0.032. Seropositive CMV IgG did not reflect a significant relation with leukocytes number, type of bacteria and antisperm antibody. Conclusion: CMV IgG was detected in infertile women and had no significant relation with antisperm antibodies and other parameters. [J Exp Integr Med 2011; 1(4.000: 273-276

  7. Autistic disorder and viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libbey, Jane E; Sweeten, Thayne L; McMahon, William M; Fujinami, Robert S

    2005-02-01

    Autistic disorder (autism) is a behaviorally defined developmental disorder with a wide range of behaviors. Although the etiology of autism is unknown, data suggest that autism results from multiple etiologies with both genetic and environmental contributions, which may explain the spectrum of behaviors seen in this disorder. One proposed etiology for autism is viral infection very early in development. The mechanism, by which viral infection may lead to autism, be it through direct infection of the central nervous system (CNS), through infection elsewhere in the body acting as a trigger for disease in the CNS, through alteration of the immune response of the mother or offspring, or through a combination of these, is not yet known. Animal models in which early viral infection results in behavioral changes later in life include the influenza virus model in pregnant mice and the Borna disease virus model in newborn Lewis rats. Many studies over the years have presented evidence both for and against the association of autism with various viral infections. The best association to date has been made between congenital rubella and autism; however, members of the herpes virus family may also have a role in autism. Recently, controversy has arisen as to the involvement of measles virus and/or the measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine in the development of autism. Biological assays lend support to the association between measles virus or MMR and autism whereas epidemiologic studies show no association between MMR and autism. Further research is needed to clarify both the mechanisms whereby viral infection early in development may lead to autism and the possible involvement of the MMR vaccine in the development of autism.

  8. Genital tract infections and infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellati, Donatella; Mylonakis, Ioannis; Bertoloni, Giulio; Fiore, Cristina; Andrisani, Alessandra; Ambrosini, Guido; Armanini, Decio

    2008-09-01

    Infectious agents can impair various important human functions, including reproduction. Bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites are able to interfere with the reproductive function in both sexes. Infections of male genito-urinary tract account for about 15% of the case of male infertility. Infections can affect different sites of the male reproductive tract, such as the testis, epididymis and male accessory sex glands. Spermatozoa themselves subsequently can be affected by urogenital infections at different levels of their development, maturation and transport. Among the most common microorganisms involved in sexually transmitted infections, interfering with male fertility, there are the Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Less frequently male infertility is due to non-sexually transmitted epididymo-orchitis, mostly caused by Escherichia coli. In female, the first two microorganisms are certainly involved in cervical, tubal, and peritoneal damage, while Herpes simplex cervicitis is less dangerous. The overall importance of cervical involvement is still under discussion. Tubo-peritoneal damage seems to be the foremost manner in which microorganisms interfere with human fertility. C. trachomatis is considered the most important cause of tubal lacerations and obstruction, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and adhesions. N. gonorrhoeae, even though its overall incidence seems to decline, is still to be considered in the same sense, while bacterial vaginosis should not be ignored, as causative agents can produce ascending infections of the female genital tract. The role of infections, particularly co-infections, as causes of the impairment of sperm quality, motility and function needs further investigation. Tropical diseases necessitate monitoring as for their diffusion or re-diffusion in the western world. PMID:18456385

  9. Protective immune responses in lawsonia intracellularis infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordes, Henriette; Riber, Ulla; Boutrup, Torsten;

    , that a primary L. intracellularis experimental infection in pigs protects against re-colonisation (re-infection) with a virulent L. intracellularis isolate. After re-infection the animals had reduced L. intracellularis colonisation of the intestinal mucosa compared to controls, no bacterial shedding......, but exhibited a high, but short-lasting peak after re-infection. Specific IFN responses were also measured using a whole blood IFN-γ assay. These were very high in challenge infected and re-infected animals as compared to controls. These specific immune responses may contribute to the explanation of mechanisms...... behind the observed protection against re-infection with L. intracellularis....

  10. Prosthesis infections after orthopedic joint replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Zhijun; Borgwardt, Lotte; Høiby, Niels;

    2013-01-01

    Prosthesis-related infection is a serious complication for patients after orthopedic joint replacement, which is currently difficult to treat with antibiotic therapy. Consequently, in most cases, removal of the infected prosthesis is the only solution to cure the infection. It is, therefore......, important to understand the comprehensive interaction between the microbiological situation and the host immune responses that lead to prosthesis infections. Evidence indicates that prosthesis infections are actually biofilm-correlated infections that are highly resistant to antibiotic treatment...... microbiological and surgical measures. Recent progress in research into bacterial biofilm and possible future treatment options of prosthesis-related infections are discussed....

  11. Mouse Adenovirus Type 1 Infection of Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Ashley, Shanna L.; Welton, Amanda R.; Harwood, Kirsten M.; van Rooijen, Nico; Spindler, Katherine R.

    2009-01-01

    Mouse adenovirus type 1 (MAV-1) causes acute and persistent infections in mice, with high levels of virus found in the brain, spinal cord and spleen in acute infections. MAV-1 infects endothelial cells throughout the mouse, and monocytes/macrophages have also been implicated as targets of the virus. Here we determined the extent and functional importance of macrophage infection by MAV-1. Bone marrow-derived macrophages expressed MAV-1 mRNAs and proteins upon ex vivo infection. Adherent perito...

  12. Urinary tract infections: epidemiology, mechanisms of infection and treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Mireles, Ana L; Walker, Jennifer N; Caparon, Michael; Hultgren, Scott J

    2015-05-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a severe public health problem and are caused by a range of pathogens, but most commonly by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. High recurrence rates and increasing antimicrobial resistance among uropathogens threaten to greatly increase the economic burden of these infections. In this Review, we discuss how basic science studies are elucidating the molecular details of the crosstalk that occurs at the host-pathogen interface, as well as the consequences of these interactions for the pathophysiology of UTIs. We also describe current efforts to translate this knowledge into new clinical treatments for UTIs. PMID:25853778

  13. Ecopathology of ranaviruses infecting amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Debra; Gray, Matthew; Storfer, Andrew

    2011-11-01

    Ranaviruses are capable of infecting amphibians from at least 14 families and over 70 individual species. Ranaviruses infect multiple cell types, often culminating in organ necrosis and massive hemorrhaging. Subclinical infections have been documented, although their role in ranavirus persistence and emergence remains unclear. Water is an effective transmission medium for ranaviruses, and survival outside the host may be for significant duration. In aquatic communities, amphibians, reptiles and fish may serve as reservoirs. Controlled studies have shown that susceptibility to ranavirus infection and disease varies among amphibian species and developmental stages, and likely is impacted by host-pathogen coevolution, as well as, exogenous environmental factors. Field studies have demonstrated that the likelihood of epizootics is increased in areas of cattle grazing, where aquatic vegetation is sparse and water quality is poor. Translocation of infected amphibians through commercial trade (e.g., food, fish bait, pet industry) contributes to the spread of ranaviruses. Such introductions may be of particular concern, as several studies report that ranaviruses isolated from ranaculture, aquaculture, and bait facilities have greater virulence (i.e., ability to cause disease) than wild-type isolates. Future investigations should focus on the genetic basis for pathogen virulence and host susceptibility, ecological and anthropogenic mechanisms contributing to emergence, and vaccine development for use in captive populations and species reintroduction programs.

  14. Ecopathology of Ranaviruses Infecting Amphibians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Storfer

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Ranaviruses are capable of infecting amphibians from at least 14 families and over 70 individual species. Ranaviruses infect multiple cell types, often culminating in organ necrosis and massive hemorrhaging. Subclinical infections have been documented, although their role in ranavirus persistence and emergence remains unclear. Water is an effective transmission medium for ranaviruses, and survival outside the host may be for significant duration. In aquatic communities, amphibians, reptiles and fish may serve as reservoirs. Controlled studies have shown that susceptibility to ranavirus infection and disease varies among amphibian species and developmental stages, and likely is impacted by host-pathogen coevolution, as well as, exogenous environmental factors. Field studies have demonstrated that the likelihood of epizootics is increased in areas of cattle grazing, where aquatic vegetation is sparse and water quality is poor. Translocation of infected amphibians through commercial trade (e.g., food, fish bait, pet industry contributes to the spread of ranaviruses. Such introductions may be of particular concern, as several studies report that ranaviruses isolated from ranaculture, aquaculture, and bait facilities have greater virulence (i.e., ability to cause disease than wild-type isolates. Future investigations should focus on the genetic basis for pathogen virulence and host susceptibility, ecological and anthropogenic mechanisms contributing to emergence, and vaccine development for use in captive populations and species reintroduction programs.

  15. Neurological manifestations of filarial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Devender; Dumas, Michel; Preux, Pierre-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Filarial infections cause a huge public health burden wherever they are endemic. These filaria may locate anywhere in the human body. Their manifestations and pathogenic mechanisms, except the most common ones, are rarely investigated systematically. Their neurological manifestations, however, are being increasingly recognized particularly with onchocerciasis or Loa loa infections, Wuchereria bancrofti, or Mansonella perstans. The risk of developing these manifestations may also increase in cases that harbor multiple filariasis or coinfections, for instance as with Plasmodium. The microfilaria of Onchocerca and Loa loa are seen in cerebrospinal fluid. The pathogenesis of neurological manifestations of these infections is complex; however, pathogenic reactions may be caused by mechanical disruption, e.g., degeneration often followed by granulomas, causing fibrosis or mass effects on other tissues, vascular lesions, e.g., vascular block of cerebral vessels, or disordered inflammatory responses resulting in meningitis, encephalitis or localized inflammatory responses. The chances of having neurological manifestations may also depend upon the frequency and"heaviness"of infection over a lifetime. Hence, this type of infection should no longer be considered a disease of the commonly affected areas but one that may produce systemic effects or other manifestations, and these should be considered in populations where they are endemic. PMID:23829914

  16. Dentists and cross-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, S

    1997-03-01

    A structured questionnaire was administered to a random sample of general dental practitioners in Natal, South Africa in 1994, to ascertain the precautions they use against cross-infection and to gauge the attitudes and behaviour towards the treatment of HIV-infected individuals. An interview was conducted covering 5 broad topics: demographic details, personal barrier protection, instrument sterilization and disinfection, sharps disposal and incidence of needlestick injuries and the extent of the knowledge, attitude and behaviour of the practitioners toward the treatment of HIV-infected individuals. The key findings were: routine glove wearing, for all patients, was practised by 87 per cent. The most common heat sterilization method was by autoclave (68 per cent), although a dry heat sterilizer and water boiler were used by 22 per cent of the respondents. Of the 18 respondents reporting a needlestick injury in the past 6 months only one sought after-care. 42 per cent of the respondents would continue to treat carriers of HIV in their practices. This survey shows that a significant number of dentists are using unacceptable cross-infection control procedures. Educational efforts should be made to improve their knowledge and to alleviate anxiety of health workers to treat HIV-infected patients. PMID:9461908

  17. Antigenic drift, antigenic shift and interferon antagonists: how bunyaviruses counteract the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Friedemann; Elliott, Richard M

    2002-09-01

    Members of the Bunyaviridae family are amongst the most widespread viruses in the world. They can be found on every inhabited continent at virtually every latitude, and are able to infect a wide range of arthropods, plants and mammals including humans. More than 300 named viruses are contained within the family Bunyaviridae (Virus Taxonomy: Seventh Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (2000) 599), and several members cause significant disease in humans or domestic animals. Despite being recognised as an emerging threat, relatively little is known about their virulence mechanisms. Here, we try to summarise the current state of knowledge about how the viruses of the Bunyaviridae succeed in establishing infection in the face of a powerful immune system. PMID:12297332

  18. Radionuclide imaging of musculoskeletal infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palestr, Christopher J. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhasset and New Hyde Park, NY (United States). Div. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; E-mail: palestro@lij.edu; Love, Charito [North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhasset and New Hyde Park, NY (United States). Div. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

    2007-09-15

    Radionuclide imaging studies are routinely used to evaluate patients suspected of having musculoskeletal infection. Three-phase bone imaging is readily available, relatively inexpensive, and very accurate in the setting of otherwise normal bone. Labeled leukocyte imaging should be used in cases of 'complicating osteomyelitis' such as prosthetic joint infection. This test also is useful in clinically unsuspected diabetic pedal osteomyelitis as well as in the neuropathic joint. It is often necessary, however, to perform complementary bone marrow imaging, to maximize the accuracy of labeled leukocyte imaging. In contrast to other regions in the skeleton, labeled leukocyte imaging is not useful for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis. At the moment, gallium is the preferred radionuclide procedure for this condition and is a useful adjunct to magnetic resonance imaging. FDG-PET likely will play an important role in the evaluation of musculoskeletal infection, especially spinal osteomyelitis, and may replace gallium imaging for this purpose. (author)

  19. Biomarkers of latent TB infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhwald, Morten; Ravn, Pernille

    2009-01-01

    For the last 100 years, the tuberculin skin test (TST) has been the only diagnostic tool available for latent TB infection (LTBI) and no biomarker per se is available to diagnose the presence of LTBI. With the introduction of M. tuberculosis-specific IFN-gamma release assays (IGRAs), a new area of...... in vitro immunodiagnostic tests for LTBI based on biomarker readout has become a reality. In this review, we discuss existing evidence on the clinical usefulness of IGRAs and the indefinite number of potential new biomarkers that can be used to improve diagnosis of latent TB infection. We also...... present early data suggesting that the monocyte-derived chemokine inducible protein-10 may be useful as a novel biomarker for the immunodiagnosis of latent TB infection....

  20. [Sexually transmitted infections and spermicides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driák, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Incidence of sexually transmitted infections (diseases) has been already increasing again for more than one decade; the world number of 125-340 millions of new cases a year is estimated. Fifteen thousands of new HIV-positive persons daily present a substantial contribution to the total amount. Besides an increasing number of unplanned pregnancies, the huge spreading of sexually transmitted infections predominantly of the second generation is the main reason for a renewed interest in search of local contraceptives, i.e. spermicides. An urgent need for a new, non-detergent, synthetic or natural spermicide emerged to replace the traditional nonoxynol-9. New preparation of microbicidal spermicide should offer dual protection against both unplanned conception and sexually transmitted infections. PMID:23256629

  1. [Microbiological diagnosis of HIV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bernaldo de Quirós, Juan Carlos; Delgado, Rafael; García, Federico; Eiros, José M; Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raúl

    2007-12-01

    Currently, there are around 150,000 HIV-infected patients in Spain. This number, together with the fact that this disease is now a chronic condition since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, has generated an increasing demand on the clinical microbiology laboratories in our hospitals. This increase has occurred not only in the diagnosis and treatment of opportunistic diseases, but also in tests related to the diagnosis and therapeutic management of HIV infection. To meet this demand, the Sociedad de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clinica (Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology) has updated its standard Procedure for the microbiological diagnosis of HIV infection. The main advances related to serological diagnosis, plasma viral load, and detection of resistance to antiretroviral drugs are reviewed in this version of the Procedure.

  2. Adenovirus infection in immunocompromised patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Rynans

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Human adenoviruses belong to the Adenoviridae family and they are divided into seven species, including 56 types. Adenoviruses are common opportunistic pathogens that are rarely associated with clinical symptoms in immunocompetent patients. However, they are emerging pathogens causing morbidity and mortality in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell and solid organ transplants, HIV infected patients and patients with primary immune deficiencies. Clinical presentation ranges from asymptomatic viraemia to respiratory and gastrointestinal disease, haemorrhagic cystitis and severe disseminated illness. There is currently no formally approved therapy for the treatment of adenovirus infections.This article presents current knowledge about adenoviruses, their pathogenicity and information about available methods to diagnose and treat adenoviral infections.

  3. Transfusion-transmitted parasitic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gagandeep; Sehgal, Rakesh

    2010-07-01

    The transmission of parasitic organisms through transfusion is relatively rare. Of the major transfusion-transmitted diseases, malaria is a major cause of TTIP in tropical countries whereas babesiosis and Chagas' disease pose the greatest threat to donors in the USA In both cases, this is due to the increased number of potentially infected donors. There are no reliable serologic tests available to screen donors for any of these organisms and the focus for prevention remains on adherence to donor screening guidelines that address travel history and previous infection with the etiologic agent. One goal is the development of tests that are able to screen for and identify donors potentially infectious for parasitic infections without causing the deferral of a large number of non-infectious donors or significantly increasing costs. Ideally, methods to inactivate the infectious organism will provide an element of added safety to the blood supply. PMID:20859503

  4. Liver involvement in systemic infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masami; Minemura; Kazuto; Tajiri; Yukihiro; Shimizu

    2014-01-01

    The liver is often involved in systemic infections,resulting in various types of abnormal liver function test results.In particular,hyperbilirubinemia in the range of 2-10 mg/dL is often seen in patients with sepsis,and several mechanisms for this phenomenon have been proposed.In this review,we summarize how the liver is involved in various systemic infections that are not considered to be primarily hepatotropic.In most patients with systemic infections,treatment for the invading microbes is enough to normalize the liver function tests.However,some patients may show severe liver injury or fulminant hepatic failure,requiring intensive treatment of the liver.

  5. Suramin inhibits EV71 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaxin; Qing, Jie; Sun, Yuna; Rao, Zihe

    2014-03-01

    Enterovirus-71 (EV71) is one of the major causative reagents for hand-foot-and-mouth disease. In particular, EV71 causes severe central nervous system infections and leads to numerous dead cases. Although several inactivated whole-virus vaccines have entered in clinical trials, no antiviral agent has been provided for clinical therapy. In the present work, we screened our compound library and identified that suramin, which has been clinically used to treat variable diseases, could inhibit EV71 proliferation with an IC50 value of 40 μM. We further revealed that suramin could block the attachment of EV71 to host cells to regulate the early stage of EV71 infection, as well as affected other steps of EV71 life cycle. Our results are helpful to understand the mechanism for EV71 life cycle and provide a potential for the usage of an approved drug, suramin, as the antiviral against EV71 infection.

  6. Prions, proteinase K and infectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajnani, Gustavo; Requena, Jesús R

    2012-01-01

    It has been described that the breakdown of β-sheets in PrP (Sc) by denaturation results in loss of infectivity and PK-sensitivity, suggesting a relationship between the structure and PK-resistance. It is also known that an important fraction of total PrP (Sc) is PK-sensitive and can be isolated by the method we already described. Consequently, we decided to employ the PK-sensitive fraction of PrP (Sc) as a potential and useful tool for structural studies. Thus, two essential questions were addressed in our recent article. First, the difference in the infectivity between the sensitive and resistant fractions and second, whether sensitive and resistant PrP (Sc) shared the same conformation or were only different size multimers with the same basic conformation. Here we discuss our latest data in light of recent infectivity studies and their possible implications on the conformation of the prion.

  7. Influenza infection in wild raccoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Raccoons (Procyon lotor) are common, widely distributed animals that frequently come into contact with wild waterfowl, agricultural operations, and humans. Serosurveys showed that raccoons are exposed to avian influenza virus. We found antibodies to a variety of influenza virus subtypes (H10N7, H4N6, H4N2, H3, and H1) with wide geographic variation in seroprevalence. Experimental infection studies showed that raccoons become infected with avian and human influenza A viruses, shed and transmit virus to virus-free animals, and seroconvert. Analyses of cellular receptors showed that raccoons have avian and human type receptors with a similar distribution as found in human respiratory tracts. The potential exists for co-infection of multiple subtypes of influenza virus with genetic reassortment and creation of novel strains of influenza virus. Experimental and field data indicate that raccoons may play an important role in influenza disease ecology and pose risks to agriculture and human health.

  8. Pseudotyped retroviruses for infecting axolotl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Tzu-Hsing; Whited, Jessica L

    2015-01-01

    The ability to introduce DNA elements into host cells and analyze the effects has revolutionized modern biology. Here we describe a protocol to generate Moloney murine leukemia virus (MMLV)-based, replication-incompetent pseudotyped retrovirus capable of infecting axolotls and incorporating genetic information into their genome. When pseudotyped with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-G glycoprotein, the retroviruses can infect a broad range of proliferative axolotl cell types. However, if the retrovirus is pseudotyped with an avian sarcoma leukosis virus (ASLV)-A envelope protein, only axolotl cells experimentally manipulated to express the cognate tumor virus A (TVA) receptor can be targeted by infections. These strategies enable robust transgene expression over many cell divisions, cell lineage tracing, and cell subtype targeting for gene expression.

  9. Transfusion-transmitted parasitic infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Gagandeep

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of parasitic organisms through transfusion is relatively rare. Of the major transfusion-transmitted diseases, malaria is a major cause of TTIP in tropical countries whereas babesiosis and Chagas′ disease pose the greatest threat to donors in the USA In both cases, this is due to the increased number of potentially infected donors. There are no reliable serologic tests available to screen donors for any of these organisms and the focus for prevention remains on adherence to donor screening guidelines that address travel history and previous infection with the etiologic agent. One goal is the development of tests that are able to screen for and identify donors potentially infectious for parasitic infections without causing the deferral of a large number of non-infectious donors or significantly increasing costs. Ideally, methods to inactivate the infectious organism will provide an element of added safety to the blood supply.

  10. Infection control in operating theatres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Benna, Sammy

    2012-10-01

    The operating theatre complex is the heart of any major surgical hospital. Good operating theatre design meets the functional needs of theatre care professionals. Operating theatre design must pay careful consideration to traffic patterns, the number and configuration of nearby operating rooms, the space required for staff, administration and storage, provisions for sterile processing and systems to control airborne contaminants (Wan et al 2011). There have been infection control issues with private finance initiative built operating theatres (Unison 2003, Ontario Health Coalition 2005). The aim of this article is to address these issues as they relate to infection control and prevention. PMID:23162994

  11. Mechanism of human rhinovirus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaas, Dieter; Fuchs, Renate

    2016-12-01

    About 150 human rhinovirus serotypes are responsible for more than 50 % of recurrent upper respiratory infections. Despite having similar 3D structures, some bind members of the low-density lipoprotein receptor family, some ICAM-1, and some use CDHR3 for host cell infection. This is also reflected in the pathways exploited for cellular entry. We found that even rhinovirus serotypes binding the same receptor can travel along different endocytic pathways and release their RNA genome into the cytosol at different locations. How this may account for distinct immune responses elicited by various rhinoviruses and the observed symptoms of the common cold is briefly discussed. PMID:27251607

  12. Oral infections and systemic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrup, Palle; Poulsen, Anne Havemose; Andersen, Lone;

    2003-01-01

    An association between periodontal infection and CVD has been revealed in some epidemiologic studies, whereas other studies were unable to demonstrate such an association. A link between the two diseases may be explained by shared established or nonestablished risk factors. Future studies...... with extended control of confounding factors and intervention studies may add to the understanding of a possible relationship between the diseases. In some cases, IE is caused by dental plaque bacteria. Several studies are suggestive of oral bacteria causing respiratory infection. The pathogenesis and course...... of a number of other diseases including DM and rheumatoid arthritis have been associated wish periodontitis, but more research is necessary to elucidate possible pathogenic interactions....

  13. Deep space infections of neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluskar, S; Bajaj, P; Bane, P

    2007-03-01

    A retrospective study was performed on fourteen cases of deep cervical space infections in the neck admitted for diagnosis and treatment to the ENT Department, during a period of seven years from 1989-1997. Of the fourteen, four patients had Ludwig's angina and of the fourteen, one had a very serious complication resulting in death. Early diagnosis and adequate treatment were of paramount importance. The role of tracheostomy and management of airway in deep cervical space infections of the neck is discussed to gether with bacteriology, antibiotic treatment and surgical management.

  14. Optimum management of Citrobacter koseri infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveci, Aydin; Coban, Ahmet Yilmaz

    2014-09-01

    Low virulent Citrobacter koseri can cause life threatening infections. Neonates and other immunocompromised patients are particularly susceptible to infection from C. koseri. Any infection due to C. koseri mandates antimicrobial therapy based on the sensitivity of the pathogen microorganism. Various types of antibiotics, including aminoglycosides carbapenems, cephalosporins, chloramphenicol and quinolones, are used for the treatment of C. koseri infections. The rational choice of antimicrobial therapy for Citrobacter infections is a challenge for clinicians because there is a sustained increase in antibacterial resistance. We reviewed antimicrobial agents used for C. koseri infections in this review.

  15. Emerging infections - implications for dental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, N P

    2016-07-01

    Over the last 20 years the majority of emerging infections which have spread rapidly across the globe have been respiratory infections that are spread via droplets, a trend which is likely to continue. Aerosol spray generation in the dental surgery has the potential to spread such infections to staff or other patients. Although the diseases may differ, some common approaches can reduce the risk of transmission. Dental professionals should be aware of areas affected by emerging infections, the incubation period and the recent travel history of patients. Elective dental care for those returning from areas affected by emerging infections should be delayed until the incubation period for the infection is over. PMID:27388077

  16. Host response to Eimeria infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels, W.J.C.

    2008-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Eimeria is responsible for the disease coccidiosis and has a worldwide distribution. Intestinal Eimeria infections are the dominating class of diseases in poultry causing great economical damage and considerably affecting animal welfare. In the Netherlands in chickens raised f

  17. Candida infections : detection and epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, A. (Annemarie)

    2002-01-01

    Despite the fact that the yeast Candida is the number 4 cause of bloodstream infections in the United States and ranks number 8 in Europe, adequate detection methods are lacking. Furthermore, relatively little is known about the epidemiology of Candida. Our aim was to improve the detection and ident

  18. Reiter's syndrome after salmonella infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čanović Predrag S.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Two patients with Reiter's syndrome, after Salmonella infection were treated on the Infections disease ward at Clinical hospital center in Kragujevac. In the first patient, ten days after the onset of Salmonella infection, signs of edema and pain in the right ankle occurred, accompanied by expressed conjunctivitis. Within next two months consecutive metatarsophalanges changes joint of the right foot have appeared. In the second patient, two weeks after the onset of Salmonella infection, edema of the left hand joints and a week later edema of the right hand and right ankle joints appeared. In both patients inflammatory syndrome was expressed (high erythrocyte sedimentation rates, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein along with negative rheumatoid factors and positive antigen HLA-B27. Outcome of the disease in both cases was favorable upon receiving nonsteroid antirheumatic therapy. Signs of arthritis disappeared after three months. No signs of recurrent arthritis have been seen during the next four years in the first and next two years in the second patient.

  19. Treatment of primary HIV infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. Grijsen

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we studied the treatment of PHI. Early cART transiently lowered the viral setpoint and deferred the need for restart of cART during chronic HIV infection, which was most likely caused by the effects of the CD4 gain during treatment and the transient lowering of the viral setpoint. Eve

  20. The future of infection imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past 10 years, there has been an unprecedented explosion in new agents suggested for imaging infection. These agents have been based on our understanding of the processes involved in invasive infection of the body by microorganisms and the body's response to them. Work with antibodies has traditionally yielded the most likely candidates, 3 of which have entered clinical use in Europe and the USA. However, the expense and limitations of producing antibodies have resulted in investigations into the use of cytokine and anti-microbial radiolabelled peptides. This work is very promising in that these types of tracers may be more specific for infection than labelled leukocytes. There remains a big question mark, however, as to whether or not these will progress from phase 1./2. trials to phase 3. trials and, ultimately, to clinical use. Finally, the investigation of radiolabelled anti-microbial continues and may prove to be most useful with anti-fungal especially in the immuno-suppressed host. We live in exciting times in the evolution of infection imaging; time and commercial constraints will determine which, if any of these tracers make it to the market and will they do so before PET rules all nuclear medicine?

  1. Cellular immunity in Pneumovirus infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, E.A.W.

    2006-01-01

    Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is the leading cause of viral respiratory tract infection in infants worldwide. In the developed world viral bronchiolitis is the most common cause of hospitalization among infants, 70% of these are associated with RSV. In recent years the realization is growi

  2. Morbillivirus infections in aquatic mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.K.G. Visser (Ilona); M.F. van Bressem; T. Barrett (Thomas); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Ab)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractInfections with morbilliviruses have caused heavy losses among different populations of aquatic mammals during the last 5 years. Two different morbilliviruses were isolated from disease outbreaks among seals in Europe and Siberia: phocid distemper virus-1 (PDV-1) and phocid distemper vir

  3. Toenail infection by Cladophialophora boppii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Brasch; S. Dressel; K. Müller-Wening; R. Hügel; D. von Bremen; G.S. de Hoog

    2011-01-01

    Cladophialophora boppii is a black yeast-like fungus that up to now has been only rarely described as a cause of human infection and whose role as a pathogen was not established despite its repeated isolation and genetic identification in these reports. Here we report the first case of a verified to

  4. Halitosis and Helicobacter pylori infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tangerman, A.; Winkel, E. G.; de Laat, L.; van Oijen, A. H.; de Boer, W. A.

    2012-01-01

    There is disagreement about a possible relationship between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and objective halitosis, as established by volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in the breath. Many studies related to H. pylori used self-reported halitosis, a subjective and unreliable method to detec

  5. Clinical Pearls in pediatric infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhi, Sunit; Mathew, Joseph; Jindal, Atul; Verma, Sanjay

    2011-12-01

    This series of Clinical Pearls presents four cases presenting with infection. Each of these cases had clinical clues to the correct diagnosis, which could be picked up on meticulous history, clinical examination, or basic laboratory investigations. The authors highlight the important lessons to be learnt from each case. The first is a 7 year old boy with recurrent respiratory tract infections since early life. Clinical examination revealed the presence of dextrocardia and situs inversus and bronchiectasis leading to a diagnosis of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia. The second case is a 1.5-month-old infant who presented with meningitis and increasing head size since birth. CSF examination and CT scanning led to the correct diagnosis of congenital Toxoplasmosis. The next case is an infant with high grade fever and neck swelling. He had the rare Lemierre's syndrome comprising of oro-pharyngeal infection, suppurative thrompbophlebitis of the internal jugular vein and systemic dissemination of septic emboli. The fourth case is a 2-year-old infant with recurrent respiratory tract infections and discharging neck swellings from early life. Repeated testing for tuberculosis was negative. The diagnosis was Chronic granulomatous disease. The authors describe the clinical approach and investigations in these cases; along with an outline of the management.

  6. Vaccination against feline retrovirus infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horzinek, M.C.

    1996-01-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), both of veterinary importance, their antigenic and genetic variability as well as their pathogenicity are described. Disease following FeLV infection is interpreted as a consequence of genetic recombination, as a result of viral e

  7. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your pee smells bad. These changes occur because bacteria have caused an infection somewhere in your urinary tract. Let's ... near your body, especially when it's hot outside. Bacteria love to grow in warm, moist places. Gross! Reviewed by: T. Ernesto Figueroa, ... Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting Contact ...

  8. Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-06-13

    In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Chris Van Beneden discusses the dangers of group A strep infections.  Created: 6/13/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/13/2011.

  9. Genetic Determinants of Enterovirus Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witsø, Elisabet; Cinek, Ondrej; Tapia, German;

    2015-01-01

    Enteroviruses have been suggested as triggers of type 1 diabetes (T1D). We aimed to assess whether established T1D susceptibility single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and candidate SNPs in innate immune genes were associated with the frequency of enterovirus infection in otherwise healthy child...

  10. ANTIBIOTIC THERAPY FOR ENT INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Turovsky

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines basic principles of and new approaches to antibiotic therapy for ENT and upper respiratory tract infections, from point of view of the authors, on the basis of the data available in Russian and foreign literature.

  11. Clostridium difficile Infection in Outpatients

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-07

    Dr. Jon Mark Hirshon, Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine at the University of Maryland School of Medicine, discusses Clostridium difficile infection in outpatients.  Created: 11/7/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/21/2011.

  12. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a lot. Why? Because it stings when you go — yow! You also might have the feeling that you need to go to the bathroom all the time. And when ... the urethra to the bladder. If the bacteria go there, they can cause a bladder infection, which ...

  13. Infection control in Indonesian Hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duerink, Daphne Offra

    2009-01-01

    The studies in this thesis were performed as part of the AMRIN (Antimicrobial Resistance in Indonesia) study that addressed antimicrobial resistance, antibiotic usage and infection control in Indonesia. They are the first studies that give insight into the incidence of healthcare-associated infectio

  14. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eusebi, Leonardo H; Zagari, Rocco M; Bazzoli, Franco

    2014-09-01

    Medline and PubMed databases were searched on epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori for the period of April 2013-March 2014. Several studies have shown that the prevalence of H. pylori is still high in most countries. In north European and North American populations, about one-third of adults are still infected, whereas in south and east Europe, South America, and Asia, the prevalence of H. pylori is often higher than 50%. H. pylori remains highly prevalent in immigrants coming from countries with high prevalence of H. pylori. However, the lower prevalence of infection in the younger generations suggests a further decline of H. pylori prevalence in the coming decades. Low socioeconomic conditions in childhood are confirmed to be the most important risk factors for H. pylori infection. Although the way the infection is transmitted is still unclear, interpersonal transmission appears to be the main route. Finally, H. pylori recurrence after successful eradication can still occur, but seems to be an infrequent event.

  15. Radionuclide imaging of spinal infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemmel, Filip [Ghent Maria-Middelares, General Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium); Medical Center Leeuwarden (MCL), Division of Nuclear Medicine, Henri Dunantweg 2, Postbus 888, Leeuwarden (Netherlands); Dumarey, Nicolas [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Hopital Erasme, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Brussels (Belgium); Palestro, Christopher J. [Long Island Jewish Medical Center, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Long Island, NY (United States)

    2006-10-15

    The diagnosis of spinal infection, with or without implants, has been a challenge for physicians for many years. Spinal infections are now being recognised more frequently, owing to aging of the population and the increasing use of spinal-fusion surgery. The diagnosis in many cases is delayed, and this may result in permanent neurological damage or even death. Laboratory evidence of infection is variable. Conventional radiography and radionuclide bone imaging lack both sensitivity and specificity. Neither in vitro labelled leucocyte scintigraphy nor {sup 99m}Tc-anti-granulocyte antibody scintigraphy is especially useful, because of the frequency with which spinal infection presents as a non-specific photopenic area on these tests. Sequential bone/gallium imaging and {sup 67}Ga-SPECT are currently the radionuclide procedures of choice for spinal osteomyelitis, but these tests lack specificity, suffer from poor spatial resolution and require several days to complete. [{sup 18}F]Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) PET is a promising technique for diagnosing spinal infection, and has several potential advantages over conventional radionuclide tests. The study is sensitive and is completed in a single session, and image quality is superior to that obtained with single-photon emitting tracers. The specificity of FDG-PET may also be superior to that of conventional tracers because degenerative bone disease and fractures usually do not produce intense FDG uptake; moreover, spinal implants do not affect FDG imaging. However, FDG-PET images have to be read with caution in patients with instrumented spinal-fusion surgery since non-specific accumulation of FDG around the fusion material is not uncommon. In the future, PET-CT will likely provide more precise localisation of abnormalities. FDG-PET may prove to be useful for monitoring response to treatment in patients with spinal osteomyelitis. Other tracers for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis are also under investigation, including

  16. Cytokine expression during syphilis infection in HIV-1-infected individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Andreas; Benfield, Thomas; Kofoed, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about cytokine responses to syphilis infection in HIV-1-infected individuals. METHODS: We retrospectively identified patients with HIV-1 and Treponema pallidum coinfection. Plasma samples from before, during, and after coinfection were analyzed for interleukin (IL)-2, IL...... syphilis.IL-10 and TNF-alpha levels correlated positively with plasma HIV RNA values at the time of diagnosis (r = 0.38, P = 0.023, and r = 0.64, P HIV-1 and early...... stage syphilis coinfection were associated with an increase in IL-10. IL-10 and TNF-alpha both decreased after treatment of syphilis. TNF-alpha and IL-10 correlated with low CD4 T cell counts and high plasma HIV RNA values....

  17. Occult HBV infection and HCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Chemin

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available

    A number of risk factors appear to play a role in Hepatocellularcinoma (HCC, HBV infection being one of the most important. Chronic inflammation and cytokines are key determinants in the development of fibrosis and liver cell proliferation. HBV DNA integration into host cellular DNA, has been extensively studied and may disrupt or promote expression of cellular genes that are important in cell growth and differentiation. Moreover, expression of HBV proteins may have a direct effect on cellular functions, and some of these gene products may lead to malignant transformation. Several HBV genes have been frequently found in infected tissues including truncated pre-S2/S, hepatitis B X gene, and a novel spliced transcript of HBV (hepatitis B spliced protein. The proteins expressed from these integrated genes have been shown to have intracellular activities, including effects on cellular growth and apoptosis. Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is characterized by persistence of HBV DNA into the tissue of hep atitis B surface antigen-negative individuals. The clinical relevance of this peculiar infection, in particular, the impact of occult HBV infection in cases of HCC has been a matter of debate. Prevalence and molecular status of occult HBV in patients with HCC has been investigated in several studies. HCC patients from Italy, France, Japan, Morocco, the United States, Canada etc…..who had no detectable HBsAg in their serum have been studied. In these HBsAg-negative HCC patients, HBV DNA was detected in tumorous and/or in adjacent non tumorous liver tissue using polymerase chain reaction (PCR in almost half of the patients, being anti-HCV positive or not. Some of the patients are positive for anti-HBc antibodies as the only marker of HBV infection, but not all. Covalently closed circular HBV DNA may be detected indicating that at least some of these patients

  18. Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Newsletters Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... A Viruses Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Although avian influenza A viruses usually do not ...

  19. Rotavirus Infections - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Rotavirus Infections URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Rotavirus Infections - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  20. Year in review 2010: Critical Care - infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagani, Leonardo; Afshari, Arash; Harbarth, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Infections remain among the most important concerns in critically ill patients. Early and reliable diagnosis of infection still poses difficulties in this setting but also represents a crucial step toward appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Increasing antimicrobial resistance challenges ...

  1. HIV Infection Seems to Affect Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_159344.html HIV Infection Seems to Affect Nervous System But symptoms tend to subside once antiretroviral drugs ... mild, it is clear that HIV affects the nervous system within days of infection," she said in a ...

  2. Effect of infection on nutritional status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All infections no matter how mild decrease nutrient intakes and increase nutrient losses even when subclinical. The losses include decreased intestinal absorption, direct loss of nutrient in the gut, internal diversion for metabolic responses to infection and increased BMR when fever is present. Infection influences in this way not only protein and energy status but also that of most other nutrients. The clinical importance of these consequences of infection depends on the prior state of the individual, the nature and duration of the infection and the diet of the individual during the infection, particularly dietary intake during the convalescent period and whether full recovery takes place before another infection occurs. In industrialized countries particular attention must be paid to the nutrition of hospitalized patients since they are frequently debilitated by their primary disease, morbidity, and their nutritional status. Morbidity and mortality are increased by nosocomial infections to which the poorly nourished individual is more susceptible. (author). Refs, 9 figs, 4 tabs

  3. Research on HIV Co-Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page Get email updates Order publications Featured Research The Path to a Cure for Hepatitis C ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Research on HIV Co-Infections HIV-infected people are ...

  4. Zika Infection May Bring Future Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161496.html Zika Infection May Bring Future Immunity: Study Individuals, and ... HealthDay News) -- People who've been infected with Zika face a low risk for another bout with ...

  5. Comparison of serum procalcitonin in respiratory infections and bloodstream infections

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yanhui; Yuan, Yulin; Huang, Huayi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study observed the relationship between procalcitonin (PCT) and results of sputum culture, the relationship between PCT and results of blood culture to evaluate and compare the value of PCT in respiratory and bloodstream infections. Methods: We analyzed 1616 patients in which PCT and sputum culture were concurrently ordered and analyzed, and 1096 patients in which PCT and blood culture were concurrently ordered and analyzed from January 2014 to May 2015. PCT concentrations were ...

  6. Emerging Microsporidian Infections in Russian HIV-Infected Patients▿

    OpenAIRE

    Sokolova, Olga I.; Demyanov, Anton V.; Bowers, Lisa C.; Didier, Elizabeth S.; Yakovlev, Alexei V.; Skarlato, Sergei O.; Sokolova, Yuliya Y.

    2011-01-01

    Microsporidia were identified in stool specimens by histochemistry and PCR of 30 (18.9%) of 159 HIV-infected patients presenting to the S. P. Botkin Memorial Clinical Hospital of Infectious Diseases, St. Petersburg, Russia. The higher prevalence of Encephalitozoon intestinalis, in 21 (12.8%) patients, than of Enterocytozoon bieneusi, in 2 patients (1.2%), was unexpected. Encephalitozoon cuniculi was detected in three patients: one with strain I and two with strain II. Encephalitozoon hellem w...

  7. Management of diabetic foot infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the infecting agent in diabetic food infection with the susceptibility pattern, and to evaluate the effect of wound infection, was culopathy, neuropathy and control of diabetes mellitus on the outcome of the patients. Design: A descriptive and observational study. Place and duration of study: Patients with diabetic foot, admitted in surgical unit 1, B.V. Hospital Bahawalpur, from April 1999 to April 2000, were included in this study. Subject and methods: A total of 60 known diabetic patients were studied, out of these 47 were males and 13 females. They were assessed for angiopathy, neuropathy and extend of foot involvement. Necessary investigations, including x-ray foot, ECG, serum urea and creatinine, pus culture and sensitivity were carried out. Diabetes was controlled on insulin of the basis of serum sugar and urine sugar chart and treated accordingly. Results: The most common age of foot involvement was between 40-70 years. Right side was involved more often than the left (67%: 37%). Most of the infections were due to staphylococcus (50%), pseudomonas (25%) and streptococci (8%). Antibiotic was started based on sensitivity report. Fluoro quinolone plus clindamycin was used in 50%, fluoro quinolone plus metronidazole in 20% and amoxicillin/clavulanate in 23%. Most of the patients (61.7%) were in grade iii or iv of Meggit wagner classification of diabetic foot. Three patients (5%) were treated by below knee amputations while 1.7% patient by above knee amputation. In twenty-four (40%) patients some form of to amputation/ray amputation had to be done,while 32(53.3%) patients had complete healing of would without any amputation. Mortality was 3.33% all the 4 patients (6.7%) who presented late, having uncontrolled diabetes, with angiopathy (absent foot pulses), neuropathy, infection of the foot (grade iii or above) resulted in major amputation sooner or latter. The 32 patients (53.3%) having controlled diabetes mellitus with no angiopathy or

  8. An atypical mycobacterial infection of the shoulder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L Talbot

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium malmoense is an acid-fast non-tuberculous organism that most commonly causes pulmonary infection. Extrapulmonary infection has also been reported. With an increased emphasis being placed on the clinical importance of this organism, especially within Europe, we report the first case of septic arthritis of the shoulder caused by this organism. We also highlight the importance of considering atypical mycobacterium infection in the differential diagnosis of shoulder infection and issues surrounding the management of this entity.

  9. Periprosthetic Joint Infections: Clinical and Bench Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Legout

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prosthetic joint infection is a devastating complication with high morbidity and substantial cost. The incidence is low but probably underestimated. Despite a significant basic and clinical research in this field, many questions concerning the definition of prosthetic infection as well the diagnosis and the management of these infections remained unanswered. We review the current literature about the new diagnostic methods, the management and the prevention of prosthetic joint infections.

  10. Extraneural Prion Neuroinvasion without Lymphoreticular System Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Bartz, Jason C.; DeJoia, Crista; Tucker, Tammy; Kincaid, Anthony E.; Bessen, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    While prion infection of the lymphoreticular system (LRS) is necessary for neuroinvasion in many prion diseases, in bovine spongiform encephalopathy and atypical cases of sheep scrapie there is evidence to challenge that LRS infection is required for neuroinvasion. Here we investigated the role of prion infection of LRS tissues in neuroinvasion following extraneural inoculation with the HY and DY strains of the transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) agent. DY TME agent infectivity was not de...

  11. Prevention and Control of MRSA Infection

    OpenAIRE

    藤田, 信一; 井上, 正樹

    2003-01-01

    Many efficacious antimicrobial agents have beem developed in the latter half of the 20th century, and this has enabled us to overcome bacterial infections. However, various drug-resistant bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been emerging. MRSA strains used to be isolated not only from compromised patients with nosocomial infection but also from patients with community-acquired infection. MRSA infection is difficult to treat because of the strong pathogen...

  12. Infection control in severely burned patients

    OpenAIRE

    Coban, Yusuf Kenan

    2012-01-01

    In the last two decades, much progress has been made in the control of burn wound infection and nasocomial infections (NI) in severely burned patients. The continiually changing epidemiology is partially related to greater understanding of and improved techniques for burn patient management as well as effective hospital infection control measures. With the advent of antimicrobial chemotherapeutic agents, infection of the wound site is now not as common as, for example, urinary and blood strea...

  13. Modeling the three stages in HIV infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez-Vargas, Esteban A.; Middleton, Richard H.

    2013-01-01

    A typical HIV infection response consists of three stages: an initial acute infection, a long asymptomatic period and a final increase in viral load with simultaneous collapse in healthy CD4+T cell counts. The majority of existing mathematical models give a good representation of either the first two stages or the last stage of the infection. Using macrophages as a long-term active reservoir, a deterministic model is proposed to explain the three stages of the infection including the progress...

  14. [Surgical indication and timing in infective endocarditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Eusanio, Marco; Murana, Giacomo; Viale, Pierluigi; Rapezzi, Claudio; Di Bartolomeo, Roberto

    2014-12-01

    Infective endocarditis is a complex disease to treat. Despite considerable improvements in diagnostic and therapeutic management, mortality in infective endocarditis remains high. Recent data converge in giving a central role to surgery that, within a multidisciplinary approach and with earlier timing, primarily aims to eradicate the infection rather than to treat its acute or chronic complications. In this paper, we sought to review and comment on current available data and last recommendations for the management of patients with infective endocarditis.

  15. Medley of infections-a diagnostic challenge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raghavendra; Bhat; Parul; Kodan; Meenakshi; A; Shetty

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of multiple infections coexisting together. This is one of the rarest cases of four infections which coexisted together in our patient. It is an alarming for the physicians to be aware of such infections as early prompt diagnosis can be lifesaving.

  16. Competitive advantages of Caedibacter-infected Paramecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusch, Jürgen; Czubatinski, Lars; Wegmann, Silke; Hubner, Markus; Alter, Margret; Albrecht, Petra

    2002-03-01

    Intracellular bacteria of the genus Caedibacter limit the reproduction of their host, the freshwater ciliate Paramecium. Reproduction rates of infected strains of paramecia were significantly lower than those of genetically identical strains that had lost their parasites after treatment with an antibiotic. Interference competition occurs when infected paramecia release a toxic form of the parasitic bacterium that kills uninfected paramecia. In mixed cultures of infected and uninfected strains of either P tetraurelia or of P novaurelia, the infected strains outcompeted the uninfected strains. Infection of new host paramecia seems to be rare. Infection of new hosts was not observed in either mixtures of infected with uninfected strains, or after incubation of paramecia with isolated parasites. The competitive advantages of the host paramecia, in combination with their vegetative reproduction, makes infection of new hosts by the bacterial parasites unnecessary, and could be responsible for the continued existence of "killer paramecia" in nature. Caedibacter parasites are not a defensive adaptation. Feeding rates and reproduction of the predators Didinium nasutum (Ciliophora) and Amoeba proteus (Amoebozoa, Gymnamoebia) were not influenced by whether or not their paramecia prey were infected. Infection of the predators frequently occurred when they preyed on infected paramecia. Caedibacter-infected predators may influence competition between Paramecium strains by release of toxic parasites into the environment that are harmful to uninfected strains.

  17. Mouse adenovirus type 1 infection of macrophages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashley, S.L.; Welton, A.R.; Harwood, K.M.; Rooijen, van N.; Spindler, K.R.

    2009-01-01

    Mouse adenovirus type 1 (MAV-1) causes acute and persistent infections in mice, with high levels of virus found in the brain, spinal cord and spleen in acute infections. MAV-1 infects endothelial cells throughout the mouse, and monocytes/macrophages have also been implicated as targets of the virus.

  18. Intrauterine infections with nonimmune hydrops fetalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kolobov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonimmune hydrops fetalis (NIHF may be due to congenital infections. This article examines the congenital infections associated with NIHF – parvovirus and syphilis. Particular attention is paid to data verification infection and specificity of morphological changes in the placenta.

  19. 38 CFR 52.190 - Infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Infection control. 52.190... FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 52.190 Infection control. The program management must establish and maintain an infection control program designed to prevent the development...

  20. 38 CFR 51.190 - Infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Infection control. 51.190... FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.190 Infection control. The facility management must establish and maintain an infection control program designed to provide a safe, sanitary,...

  1. 42 CFR 460.74 - Infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Infection control. 460.74 Section 460.74 Public...) PACE Administrative Requirements § 460.74 Infection control. (a) Standard procedures. The PACE organization must follow accepted policies and standard procedures with respect to infection control,...

  2. 42 CFR 483.65 - Infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Infection control. 483.65 Section 483.65 Public... Care Facilities § 483.65 Infection control. The facility must establish and maintain an infection control program designed to provide a safe, sanitary, and comfortable environment and to help prevent...

  3. Hepatic disorder in Zika virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus infection is the present global problem. This arbovirus infection can cause acute ilness and affect fetus in utero. However, there can be other additional clinical manifestation including to the hepatic disorder. In this short commentary article, the author brielfy discusses on the liver problem due to Zika virus infection.

  4. Glomerulonephritis secondary to Barmah Forest virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, I A; Hale, G E; Hudson, B J; Ibels, L S; Eckstein, R P; Dermott, P L

    1997-07-01

    Clinical infection with Barmah Forest virus (BFV) is becoming increasingly recognised with serological testing. We report the first case of glomerulonephritis after BFV infection. The patient required diuretic and antihypertensive therapy, but made an almost complete recovery. BFV infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of glomerulonephritis. PMID:9236755

  5. Serious infection caused by group C streptococci.

    OpenAIRE

    Ghoneim, A T; Cooke, E M

    1980-01-01

    Group C streptococci commonly cause infection in animals but only occasionally give rise to severe infection in man. We report here three cases of serious human infection due to this organism and discuss its pathogenicity in relation to the clinical manifestations of the disease.

  6. Complicated Urinary Tract Infection in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LE Nicolle

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Complicated urinary tract infection occurs in individuals with functional or structural abnormalities of the genitourinary tract.OBJECTIVE: To review current knowledge relevant to complicated urinary tract infection, and to provide evidence-based recommendations for management.METHODS: The literature was reviewed through a PubMed search, and additional articles were identified by journal reference review. A draft guideline was prepared and critically reviewed by members of the Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada Guidelines Committee, with modifications incorporated following the review.RESULTS: Many urological abnormalities may be associated with complicated urinary infection. There is a wide spectrum of potential infecting organisms, and isolated bacteria tend to be more resistant to antimicrobial therapy. Morbidity and infection outcomes in subjects with complicated urinary infection are principally determined by the underlying abnormality rather than the infection. Principles of management include uniform collection of a urine specimen for culture before antimicrobial therapy, characterization of the underlying genitourinary abnormality, and nontreatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria except before an invasive genitourinary procedure. The antimicrobial regimen is determined by clinical presentation, patient tolerance, renal function and known or anticipated infecting organisms. If the underlying abnormality contributing to the urinary infection cannot be corrected, then early post-treatment recurrence of infection is anticipated.CONCLUSIONS: The management of complicated urinary infection is individualized depending on patient variables and the infecting organism. Further clinical investigations are necessary to assist in determining optimal antimicrobial regimens.

  7. Mosquitoborne infections after Hurricane Jeanne, Haiti, 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Beatty, Mark E.; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Long, Earl; Schürch, Julia; Jain, Seema; Colindres, Rom; Lerebours, Gerald; Bernard, Yves-Marie; Dobbins, James Goodman; Brown, Mathew; Clark, Gary G.

    2007-01-01

    After Hurricane Jeanne in September 2004, surveillance for mosquitoborne diseases in Gonaïves, Haiti, identified 3 patients with malaria, 2 with acute dengue infections, and 2 with acute West Nile virus infections among 116 febrile patients. These are the first reported human West Nile virus infections on the island of Hispaniola.

  8. Sustainable strategies for treatment of bacterial infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molin, Søren

    2014-01-01

    not in a foreseeable future develop novel approaches and strategies to combat bacterial infections, many people will be at risk of dying from even trivial infections for which we until recently had highly effective antibiotics. We have for a number of years investigated chronic bacterial lung infections in patients...

  9. Common oral lesions associated with HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navazesh, M; Lucatorto, F

    1993-09-01

    More than 40 different lesions involving head and neck areas have been associated with HIV infection. The oral cavity may manifest the first sign of HIV infection. Early detection of these conditions can lead to early diagnosis of HIV infection and subsequent appropriate management. Signs, symptoms and management of the most common HIV-associated oral lesions are discussed.

  10. Interferon effects on protozoan infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, G.; Wirth, J.; Kierszenbaum, F.; Degee, A. L. W.; Mansfield, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of interferon (IFN) on mice infected with two different parasitic protozoans, Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, are investigated experimentally. The preparation of the cell cultures, IFN and assays, antibody, and the experimental procedures are described. It is observed that in cells treated with IFN-gamma there is an increased association of T. cruzi with murine macrophages and an increase in the killing of T. cruzi by IFN-gamma-treated murine macrophages. For spleen cells infected with T.b. rhodesiense in vitro, it is detected that live trypanosomes cannot induce IFN in cells from normal mice, but can in cells from immunized mice; and that trypanosome-lysates induce IFN in vitro in cells from normal mice. The data suggest that there is a two-step mechanism for mice against T. cruzi and T.b. rhodesiense.

  11. Gout: radiographic findings mimicking infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseau, I.; Raymond-Tremblay, D. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Centre Hospitalier de l' Univ. de Montreal, Que. (Canada); Cardinal, E. [Dept. of Radiology, Centre Hospitalier de l' Univ. de Montreal, Que. (Canada); Beauregard, C.G. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Hopital du Sacre-Coeur de Montreal,Que. (Canada); Braunstein, E.M. [Dept. of Radiology, Indiana University Hospital (United States); Saint-Pierre, A. [Rheumatology Unit, Centre Hospitalier de l' Univ. de Montreal, Que. (Canada)

    2001-10-01

    Objective: To describe radiographic features of gout that may mimic infection. Design and patients: We report five patients with acute bacterial gout who presented with clinical as well as radiological findings mimicking acute bacterial septic arthritis or osteomyelitis. Three patients had delay in the appropriate treatment with the final diagnosis being established after needle aspiration and identification of urate crystals under polarized light microscopy. Two patients underwent digit amputation for not responding to antibiotic treatment and had histological findings confirming the diagnosis of gout. Conclusion: It is important for the radiologist to be aware of the radiological manifestations of acute gout that can resemble infection in order to avoid inappropriate diagnosis and delay in adequate treatment. The definitive diagnosis should rely on needle aspiration and a specific search for urate crystals. (orig.)

  12. Cidofovir Activity against Poxvirus Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Snoeck

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cidofovir [(S-1-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropylcytosine, HPMPC] is an acyclic nucleoside analog approved since 1996 for clinical use in the treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV retinitis in AIDS patients. Cidofovir (CDV has broad-spectrum activity against DNA viruses, including herpes-, adeno-, polyoma-, papilloma- and poxviruses. Among poxviruses, cidofovir has shown in vitro activity against orthopox [vaccinia, variola (smallpox, cowpox, monkeypox, camelpox, ectromelia], molluscipox [molluscum contagiosum] and parapox [orf] viruses. The anti-poxvirus activity of cidofovir in vivo has been shown in different models of infection when the compound was administered either intraperitoneal, intranasal (aerosolized or topically. In humans, cidofovir has been successfully used for the treatment of recalcitrant molluscum contagiosum virus and orf virus in immunocompromised patients. CDV remains a reference compound against poxviruses and holds potential for the therapy and short-term prophylaxis of not only orthopox- but also parapox- and molluscipoxvirus infections.

  13. Ocular features of hantavirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta Salil

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Hantavirus infections are an emerging infectious disease that is beginning to be recognized both worldwide and in India as a cause of hemorrhagic fever that may present as a pulmonary syndrome or as a renal syndrome. Reports of ocular involvement are rare and include transient myopia, low intraocular pressure, conjunctival hemorrhages and changes of intraocular dimensions. Eleven patients (10 males, one female, mean age 37.6 years were admitted to the intensive care unit for pyrexia of unknown origin or hemorrhagic fever following exposure to flood waters. Five male patients (mean age 31.6 years were identified as suffering from hantavirus infection. In one patient, dot and blot intraretinal hemorrhages were seen in the macula of one eye and streak hemorrhages of the disc in the other. In the remaining four, no fundus abnormalities were seen. Ophthalmologists should be aware of these features.

  14. Distinguishing infective versus noninfective keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of this symposium, the term "keratitis" implies suppurative nonviral and viral keratitis. Corneal ulcers have been described in ancient literature. But even today, despite the availability of a wide range of newer antimicrobials and new diagnostic techniques, infective keratitis continues to pose a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. This article focuses on the key diagnostic clinical features of the most common organisms causing infective keratitis - bacteria, fungi, viruses, nocardia and acanthamoeba - in India. While the clinical features in some cases are fairly straightforward, most cases challenge the clinician. We describe the salient clinical features which can help arrive at a diagnosis to begin appropriate treatment immediately, prior to the laboratory report.

  15. Models of dengue virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bente, Dennis A; Rico-Hesse, Rebeca

    2006-01-01

    The need for models of dengue disease has reached a pinnacle as the transmission of this mosquito-borne virus has increased dramatically. Little is known about the mechanisms that lead to dengue fever and its more severe form, dengue hemorrhagic fever; this is owing to the fact that only humans show signs of disease. In the past 5 years, research has better identified the initial target cells of infection, and this has led to the development of models of infection in primary human cell cultures. Mouse-human chimeras, containing these target cells, have also led to progress in developing animal models. These advances should soon end the stalemate in testing antivirals and vaccine preparations that had necessarily been done in incomplete or irrelevant models. PMID:18087566

  16. Eradication of Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Elizabeth A; Sachs, George; Scott, David R

    2016-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori infects about 50 % of the world's population, causing at a minimum chronic gastritis. A subset of infected patients will ultimately develop gastric or duodenal ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma, or MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue) lymphoma. Eradication of H. pylori requires complex regimens that include acid suppression and multiple antibiotics. The efficacy of treatment using what were once considered standard regimens have declined in recent years, mainly due to widespread development of antibiotic resistance. Addition of bismuth to standard triple therapy regimens, use of alternate antibiotics, or development of alternative regimens using known therapies in novel combinations have improved treatment efficacy in specific populations, but overall success of eradication remains less than ideal. Novel regimens under investigation either in vivo or in vitro, involving increased acid suppression ideally with fewer antibiotics or development of non-antibiotic treatment targets, show promise for future therapy. PMID:27177639

  17. Dengue Virus Infection in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Amarasinghe, Ananda; Kuritsky, Joel N.; Letson, G. William; Margolis, Harold S

    2011-01-01

    Reported incidence of dengue has increased worldwide in recent decades, but little is known about its incidence in Africa. During 1960–2010, a total of 22 countries in Africa reported sporadic cases or outbreaks of dengue; 12 other countries in Africa reported dengue only in travelers. The presence of disease and high prevalence of antibody to dengue virus in limited serologic surveys suggest endemic dengue virus infection in all or many parts of Africa. Dengue is likely underrecognized and u...

  18. Multispecies Plasmodium Infections of Humans

    OpenAIRE

    McKenzie, F. Ellis; Bossert, William H.

    1999-01-01

    We analyzed point-prevalence data from 19 recent studies of human populations in which either Plasmodium ovale or Plasmodium vivax co-occur with Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium malariae. Although the only statistical interactions among sympatric congeners are pairwise, the frequencies of mixed-species infections relative to standard hypotheses of species sampling independence show no strong relation to overall malaria prevalence. The striking difference between the P. falciparum–P. malar...

  19. Helicobacter pylori infection in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajindrajith Shaman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori infection is a common problem in pediatric practice, and its acquisition is related with poor socioeconomic conditions. Although the organism is thought to be responsible for many diseases, only a handful of them have a direct causal relationship. At present, only a small number of children with well-defined clinical syndromes are benefited from testing and treatment. The treatment should include at least two antibiotics with a proton pump inhibitor.

  20. Tracking adenovirus infections in reptiles

    OpenAIRE

    Ball, Inna

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to screen reptiles for the presence of adenovirus (AdV) infection, develop serological tests for the detection of antibodies against AdVs in squamate reptiles and to examine the serological relationships between lizard and snake AdVs, helping to ensure the establishment and maintenance of healthy populations. An additional aim of the project was the establishment of an agamid cell line and isolation of adenoviruses from bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps). A...

  1. Chickenpox infection after renal transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Kaul, Anupma; Sharma, Raj K.; Bhadhuria, Dharmendra; Gupta, Amit; Prasad, Narayan

    2012-01-01

    Background. Chicken pox, although a common infection among children, is rare in immunocompromised patients, particularly renal transplant recipients, and carries a very high incidence of morbidity and mortality There is little data on chickenpox in adult renal transplant recipients, although reports have suggested that it may follow a virulent course requiring frequent hospitalization, and in severe cases can cause death. Aims. To evaluate the incidence, severity and complications of a varice...

  2. Streptococcus suis infection: Clinical manifestations

    OpenAIRE

    Dragojlović Julijana; Milošević Branko; Šašić Neda; Pelemiš Miomir; Šašić Milan

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Streptococcus suis is a bacterium causing a disease in pigs and rarely in humans. This zoonosis is mostly found as a sporadic disease in individuals that were in contact with the affected or infected pigs: farmers, veterinarians and workers engaged in fresh pork processing. It is assumed that the bacterium enters the body through a cut abrasion in the skin. Initially, the condition resembles a flu, followed by signs of bacteriemia and sepsis. The most frequent clinical manifestat...

  3. Management of postoperative spinal infections

    OpenAIRE

    Hegde, Vishal; Meredith, Dennis S; Kepler, Christopher K.; Huang, Russel C.

    2012-01-01

    Postoperative surgical site infection (SSI) is a common complication after posterior lumbar spine surgery. This review details an approach to the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of SSIs. Factors contributing to the development of a SSI can be split into three categories: (1) microbiological factors; (2) factors related to the patient and their spinal pathology; and (3) factors relating to the surgical procedure. SSI is most commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus. The virulence of the or...

  4. Sarcocystis spp. in Human Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Fayer, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    Sarcocystis species are intracellular protozoan parasites with an intermediate-definitive host life cycle based on a prey-predator relationship. Asexual stages develop in intermediate hosts after they ingest the oocyst stage from definitive-host feces and terminate with the formation of intramuscular cysts (sarcocysts). Sarcocysts in meat eaten by a definitive host initiate sexual stages in the intestine that terminate in oocysts excreted in the feces. Most Sarcocystis species infect specific...

  5. Force spectroscopy in studying infection

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Zhaokun; Leake, Mark C.

    2016-01-01

    Biophysical force spectroscopy tools - for example optical tweezers, magnetic tweezers, atomic force microscopy, - have been used to study elastic, mechanical, conformational and dynamic properties of single biological specimens from single proteins to whole cells to reveal information not accessible by ensemble average methods such as X-ray crystallography, mass spectroscopy, gel electrophoresis and so on. Here we review the application of these tools on a range of infection-related question...

  6. MRSA: treating people with infection

    OpenAIRE

    Nathwani, Dilip; Davey, Peter Garnet; Marwick, Charis Ann

    2010-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has a gene that makes it resistant to methicillin as well as other beta-lactam antibiotics including flucloxacillin, cephalosporins, and carbapenems. MRSA can be part of the normal body flora (colonisation), especially in the nose, but it can cause infection, especially in people with prolonged hospital admissions, with underlying disease, or after antibiotic use.About 20% of S aureus in blood cultures in England, Wales, and Northern Irela...

  7. BACTERIOLOGICAL STUDY OF BURNS INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shareen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A burn is a wound in which there is coagulative necrosis of the tissue, majority of which are caused by heat. Burn injury is a major public health problem in many areas of the world. Burns predispose to infection by damaging the protective barrier function of the skin, thus facilitating the entry of pa thogenic microorganisms and by inducing systemic immunosuppression . (1 OBJECTIVE : The present study was therefore undertaken to isolate and identify the aerobic bacterial flora in burn patients and its antibiotic susceptibility pattern. MATERIAL & METHODS : A total of 100 patients admitted with different degree of burns were studied. Wound swabs were taken with aseptic precautions by dry sterile cotton swab sticks. These swabs were transported to the microbiology laboratory and the isolates were identified based on standard microbiological methods. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done by Kirby Bauer’s disc diffusion method. RESULT : A total of 127 bacterial pathogens were isolated from 100 patients. Of these, 69% were monomicrobial in nature and 28% wer e polymicrobial. The most frequent cause of infection was found to be Staphylococcus aureus (39.4%, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (14.2%, Klebsiella pneumonia (13.4%, E.coli (8.7% and Acinetobacter species (7.9%.Out of the total Staphylococcus au reus isolates, 19 were Methicillin sensitive and 31 were Methicillin resistant (MRSA. All the MRSA strains were 100% sensitive to Vancomycin and Linezolid. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were most sensitive to Amikacin (9 4.4%, Fluroquinolones (61.1% . CONCLUSION : Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were major causes of infection in burn wounds. Therefore it is necessary to implement urgent measures for restriction of nosocomial infections, sensible limitation on the use of antimicrobial agents, strict disinfection and hygiene.

  8. Therapeutic Vaccines for Chronic Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autran, Brigitte; Carcelain, Guislaine; Combadiere, Béhazine; Debre, Patrice

    2004-07-01

    Therapeutic vaccines aim to prevent severe complications of a chronic infection by reinforcing host defenses when some immune control, albeit insufficient, can already be demonstrated and when a conventional antimicrobial therapy either is not available or has limited efficacy. We focus on the rationale and challenges behind this still controversial strategy and provide examples from three major chronic infectious diseases-human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and human papillomavirus-for which the efficacy of therapeutic vaccines is currently being evaluated.

  9. Peritoneal manifestations of parasitic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Yeon; Ha, Hyun Kwon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe of peritoneal manifestations of parasitic infection at CT. A broad spectrum of CT findings can be seen in the peritoneal cavity, including a varying degree of omental or mesenteric infiltration, single or multiple peritoneal mass or nodule, and peritoneal thickening or stranding. Recognition of these findings are crucial for establish an early diagnosis and helps avoid unnecessary surgery. PMID:17924162

  10. Mast cells in bacterial infections

    OpenAIRE

    Rönnberg, Elin

    2014-01-01

    Mast cells are implicated in immunity towards bacterial infection, but the molecular mechanisms by which mast cells contribute to the host response are only partially understood. Previous studies have examined how mast cells react to purified bacterial cell wall components, such as peptidoglycan and lipopolysaccharide. To investigate how mast cells react to live bacteria we co-cultured mast cells and the gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus equi (S. equi) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)...

  11. Mast cells in viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Witczak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available  There are some premises suggesting that mast cells are involved in the mechanisms of anti-virus defense and in viral disease pathomechanisms. Mast cells are particularly numerous at the portals of infections and thus may have immediate and easy contact with the external environment and invading pathogens. These cells express receptors responsible for recognition of virus-derived PAMP molecules, mainly Toll-like receptors (TLR3, TLR7/8 and TLR9, but also RIG-I-like and NOD-like molecules. Furthermore, mast cells generate various mediators, cytokines and chemokines which modulate the intensity of inflammation and regulate the course of innate and adaptive anti-viral immunity. Indirect evidence for the role of mast cells in viral infections is also provided by clinical observations and results of animal studies. Currently, more and more data indicate that mast cells can be infected by some viruses (dengue virus, adenoviruses, hantaviruses, cytomegaloviruses, reoviruses, HIV-1 virus. It is also demonstrated that mast cells can release pre formed mediators as well as synthesize de novo eicosanoids in response to stimulation by viruses. Several data indicate that virus-stimulated mast cells secrete cytokines and chemokines, including interferons as well as chemokines with a key role in NK and Tc lymphocyte influx. Moreover, some information indicates that mast cell stimulation via TLR3, TLR7/8 and TLR9 can affect their adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins and chemotaxis, and influence expression of some membrane molecules. Critical analysis of current data leads to the conclusion that it is not yet possible to make definitive statements about the role of mast cells in innate and acquired defense mechanisms developing in the course of viral infection and/or pathomechanisms of viral diseases.

  12. Mucorales between food and infection

    OpenAIRE

    Hoog, de, G.S.; Menken, S. B. J.; Dolatabadi, S.

    2015-01-01

    Today, members of Mucoromycotina are ubiquitous organisms present all over the world in the soil, infecting and decomposing plants, animals, and other fungi. In daily practice they are renowned for two reasons. (1) Species of Mucorales have been used by humanity already for thousands of years in the preparation of fermented foodstuffs, particularly in Asia and Africa (Nout & Aidoo 2010). (2) During the last decades, with the emergence of hospitalized populations suffering from severe immune a...

  13. NK Cells and Poxvirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah N. Burshtyn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years our understanding of the role of NK cells in the response to viral infection has grown rapidly. Not only do we realize viruses have many immune evasion strategies to escape NK cell responses, but that stimulation of NK cell subsets during an antiviral response occurs through receptors seemingly geared directly at viral products and that NK cells can provide a memory response to viral pathogens. Tremendous knowledge has been gained in this area through the study of Herpes viruses, but appreciation for the significance of NK cells in the response to other types of viral infections is growing. The function of NK cells in defense against poxviruses has emerged over several decades beginning with the early seminal studies showing the role of NK cells and the NK gene complex in susceptibility of mouse strains to Ectromelia, a poxvirus pathogen of mice. More recently, greater understanding has emerged of the molecular details of the response. Given that human diseases caused by poxviruses can be as lethal as smallpox or as benign as Molluscum contagiosum, and that Vaccinia virus, the prototypic member of the pox family, persists as a mainstay of vaccine design and has potential as an oncolytic virus for tumor therapy, further research in this area remains important. This review focuses on recent advances in understanding the role of NK cells in the immune response to poxviruses, the receptors involved in activation of NK cells during poxvirus infection, and the viral evasion strategies poxviruses employ to avoid the NK response.

  14. Immunologic evaluation in infective endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma C. Neves Forte

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the immune response in peripheral blood of patients with infective endocarditis. METHODS: We studied 10 patients with infective endocarditis, age range from 20 to 50 years-old, males and females, and 20 healthy subjects in the same age range. The diagnosis of the disease was based on the clinical picture, echocardiogram, and hemoculture based upon samples drawn and tested before the treatment started. The were no history of atopy or malnutrition, no autoimmune disease, and they were not using any immunosuppressant or antibiotic medication. RESULTS: The patients with endocarditis had significantly higher T and B lymphocyte, CD4+ and CD8+ cell counts, IgM and IgG serum levels, and C4 component of the complement than the control group; no significant difference concerning serum IgA and neutrophil oxidative metabolism; a significant decrease in C3, chemotaxis, and monocyte phagocytosis;cryoglobulins were detected in 66.6% of patients and they were formed by IgG, IgM, IgA, C3, and C4. CONCLUSION: The patients with infective endocarditis were immunocompetent in most sectors of immune response and, at a certain moment, an autoimmune component may be present.

  15. Climate Change and Respiratory Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsaeidi, Mehdi; Motahari, Hooman; Taghizadeh Khamesi, Mojdeh; Sharifi, Arash; Campos, Michael; Schraufnagel, Dean E

    2016-08-01

    The rate of global warming has accelerated over the past 50 years. Increasing surface temperature is melting glaciers and raising the sea level. More flooding, droughts, hurricanes, and heat waves are being reported. Accelerated changes in climate are already affecting human health, in part by altering the epidemiology of climate-sensitive pathogens. In particular, climate change may alter the incidence and severity of respiratory infections by affecting vectors and host immune responses. Certain respiratory infections, such as avian influenza and coccidioidomycosis, are occurring in locations previously unaffected, apparently because of global warming. Young children and older adults appear to be particularly vulnerable to rapid fluctuations in ambient temperature. For example, an increase in the incidence in childhood pneumonia in Australia has been associated with sharp temperature drops from one day to the next. Extreme weather events, such as heat waves, floods, major storms, drought, and wildfires, are also believed to change the incidence of respiratory infections. An outbreak of aspergillosis among Japanese survivors of the 2011 tsunami is one such well-documented example. Changes in temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, and air pollution influence viral activity and transmission. For example, in early 2000, an outbreak of Hantavirus respiratory disease was linked to a local increase in the rodent population, which in turn was attributed to a two- to threefold increase in rainfall before the outbreak. Climate-sensitive respiratory pathogens present challenges to respiratory health that may be far greater in the foreseeable future. PMID:27300144

  16. Systems biology of fungal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian eHorn

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Elucidation of pathogenicity mechanisms of the most important human pathogenic fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans, has gained great interest in the light of the steadily increasing number of cases of invasive fungal infections.A key feature of these infections is the interaction of the different fungal morphotypes with epithelial and immune effector cells in the human host. Because of the high level of complexity, it is necessary to describe and understand invasive fungal infection by taking a systems biological approach, i.e., by a comprehensive quantitative analysis of the non-linear and selective interactions of a large number of functionally diverse, and frequently multifunctional, sets of elements, e.g., genes, proteins, metabolites, which produce coherent and emergent behaviours in time and space. The recent advances in systems biology will now make it possible to uncover the structure and dynamics of molecular and cellular cause-effect relationships within these pathogenic interactions.We review current efforts to integrate omics and image-based data of host-pathogen interactions into network and spatio-temporal models. The modelling will help to elucidate pathogenicity mechanisms and to identify diagnostic biomarkers and potential drug targets for therapy and could thus pave the way for novel intervention strategies based on novel antifungal drugs and cell therapy.

  17. Platelets in inflammation and infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenne, Craig N; Kubes, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Although platelets are traditionally recognized for their central role in hemostasis, many lines of research clearly demonstrate these rather ubiquitous blood components are potent immune modulators and effectors. Platelets have been shown to directly recognize, sequester and kill pathogens, to activated and recruit leukocytes to sites of infection and inflammation, and to modulate leukocyte behavior, enhancing their ability to phagocytose and kill pathogens and inducing unique effector functions, such as the production of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs). This multifaceted response to infection and inflammation is due, in part, to the huge array of soluble mediators and cell surface molecules expressed by platelets. From their earliest origins as primordial hemocytes in invertebrates to their current form as megakaryocyte-derived cytoplasts, platelets have evolved to be one of the key regulators of host intravascular immunity and inflammation. In this review, we present the diverse roles platelets play in immunity and inflammation associated with autoimmune diseases and infection. Additionally, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of platelet behavior made possible through the use of advanced imaging techniques that allow us to visualize platelets and their interactions, in real-time, within the intact blood vessels of a living host.

  18. Eosinophilic fasciitis after parasite infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Marta; Patinha, Fabia; Marinho, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic fasciitis is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by symmetrical swelling and skin induration of the distal portions of the arms and/or legs, evolving into a scleroderma-like appearance, accompanied by peripheral blood eosinophilia. It is a rare disease with a poorly understood etiology. Corticosteroid treatment remains the standard therapy, either taken alone or in association with an immunosuppressive drug. This paper presents a case of a male patient with palpebral edema and marked eosinophilia, diagnosed with intestinal parasitic infection in October 2006. He was treated with an antiparasitic drug, but both the swelling and the analytical changes remained. This was followed by a skin and muscle biopsy, which turned out to be compatible with eosinophilic fasciitis. There was progressive worsening of the clinical state, with stiffness of the abdominal wall and elevated inflammatory parameters, and the patient was referred to the Immunology Department, medicated with corticosteroids and methotrexate. Over the years there were therapeutic adjustments and other causes were excluded. Currently the patient continues to be monitored, and there is no evidence of active disease. The case described in this article is interesting because of the diagnosis of eosinophilic fasciitis probably associated/coexisting with a parasite infection. This case report differs from others in that there is an uncommon cause associated with the onset of the disease, instead of the common causes such as trauma, medication, non-parasitic infections or cancer. PMID:27407276

  19. Procalcitonin levels in salmonella infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Procalcitonin (PCT as a diagnostic marker for bacteremia and sepsis has been extensively studied. We aimed to study PCT levels in Salmonella infections whether they would serve as marker for early diagnosis in endemic areas to start empiric treatment while awaiting blood culture report. Materials and Methods: BACTEC blood culture was used to isolate Salmonella in suspected enteric fever patients. Serum PCT levels were estimated before starting treatment. Results: In 60 proven enteric fever patients, median value of serum PCT levels was 0.22 ng/ml, values ranging between 0.05 and 4 ng/ml. 95% of patients had near normal or mild increase (<0.5 ng/ml, only 5% of patients showed elevated levels. Notably, high PCT levels were found only in severe sepsis. Conclusion: PCT levels in Salmonella infections are near normal or minimally increased which differentiates it from other systemic Gram-negative infections. PCT cannot be used as a specific diagnostic marker of typhoid.

  20. Neuropathology of Zika Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Isaac H; Milner, Danny A; Folkerth, Rebecca D

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a member of the Flaviviridae family that had been associated only with mild disease prior to the 2015 outbreak in Brazil. A dramatic increase in reported cases of microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome during this time prompted significant research into possible associations with ZIKV and its neurotropic properties. Infection of neural progenitor cells and organoids have been shown to induce apoptosis and dysregulation of growth, and mouse studies have demonstrated viral replication in brain tissue in adults, as well as vertical transmission resulting in embryonic brain abnormalities. Large case series of clinical and radiological findings of congenital ZIKV infection have begun to be published; however, pathology reports have been limited to two case reports and two small case series. Thus far, the findings have largely been restricted to the brain and include diffuse grey and white matter involvement consisting of dystrophic calcifications, gliosis, microglial nodules, neuronophagia, and scattered lymphocytes. Mild chronic villitis was observed in the placental tissue in some cases, and the remaining organs were essentially uninvolved. Larger, systematic studies, including correlation of histological findings with gestational age at the time of maternal infection, will be required to determine the full range of Zika virus-induced abnormalities and to help guide future clinical decision making. PMID:27525286

  1. Aspergillus infections in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jill; Brunel, Shan F; Warris, Adilia

    2016-07-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) suffer from chronic lung infection and airway inflammation. Respiratory failure secondary to chronic or recurrent infection remains the commonest cause of death and accounts for over 90% of mortality. Bacteria as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia complex have been regarded the main CF pathogens and their role in progressive lung decline has been studied extensively. Little attention has been paid to the role of Aspergillus spp. and other filamentous fungi in the pathogenesis of non-ABPA (allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis) respiratory disease in CF, despite their frequent recovery in respiratory samples. It has become more apparent however, that Aspergillus spp. may play an important role in chronic lung disease in CF. Research delineating the underlying mechanisms of Aspergillus persistence and infection in the CF lung and its link to lung deterioration is lacking. This review summarizes the Aspergillus disease phenotypes observed in CF, discusses the role of CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator)-protein in innate immune responses and new treatment modalities. PMID:27177733

  2. Eosinophilic fasciitis after parasite infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Marta; Patinha, Fabia; Marinho, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic fasciitis is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by symmetrical swelling and skin induration of the distal portions of the arms and/or legs, evolving into a scleroderma-like appearance, accompanied by peripheral blood eosinophilia. It is a rare disease with a poorly understood etiology. Corticosteroid treatment remains the standard therapy, either taken alone or in association with an immunosuppressive drug. This paper presents a case of a male patient with palpebral edema and marked eosinophilia, diagnosed with intestinal parasitic infection in October 2006. He was treated with an antiparasitic drug, but both the swelling and the analytical changes remained. This was followed by a skin and muscle biopsy, which turned out to be compatible with eosinophilic fasciitis. There was progressive worsening of the clinical state, with stiffness of the abdominal wall and elevated inflammatory parameters, and the patient was referred to the Immunology Department, medicated with corticosteroids and methotrexate. Over the years there were therapeutic adjustments and other causes were excluded. Currently the patient continues to be monitored, and there is no evidence of active disease. The case described in this article is interesting because of the diagnosis of eosinophilic fasciitis probably associated/coexisting with a parasite infection. This case report differs from others in that there is an uncommon cause associated with the onset of the disease, instead of the common causes such as trauma, medication, non-parasitic infections or cancer.

  3. The Andes Hantavirus NSs Protein Is Expressed from the Viral Small mRNA by a Leaky Scanning Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Vera-Otarola, Jorge; Solis, Loretto; Soto-Rifo, Ricardo; Ricci, Emiliano P.; Pino, Karla; Tischler, Nicole D.; Ohlmann, Théophile; Darlix, Jean-Luc; López-Lastra, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    The small mRNA (SmRNA) of all Bunyaviridae encodes the nucleocapsid (N) protein. In 4 out of 5 genera in the Bunyaviridae, the smRNA encodes an additional nonstructural protein denominated NSs. In this study, we show that Andes hantavirus (ANDV) SmRNA encodes an NSs protein. Data show that the NSs protein is expressed in the context of an ANDV infection. Additionally, our results suggest that translation initiation from the NSs initiation codon is mediated by ribosomal subunits that have bypa...

  4. Post liposuction infections by rapidly growing mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zosso, Caroline; Lienhard, Reto; Siegrist, Hans H; Malinverni, Raffaele; Clerc, Olivier

    2015-02-01

    Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are recognized agents of surgical site infections. Recently, RGM skin and soft tissue infections have been increasingly reported. As symptoms, clinical signs and disease latency remain non-specific and microbiological detection requires targeted growth media, RGM diagnosis remains challenging for clinicians. Appropriate management is often delayed due to lack of awareness of these infections. RGM infections after plastic surgery have also been described in the setting of interventions performed in developing countries, a growing phenomenon commonly known as medical tourism. We describe a case of Mycobacterium chelonae/abscessus infection following liposuction and liposculpture procedures performed in the Dominican Republic and review the literature on this subject.

  5. Tobacco use increases susceptibility to bacterial infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demuth Donald R

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Active smokers and those exposed to secondhand smoke are at increased risk of bacterial infection. Tobacco smoke exposure increases susceptibility to respiratory tract infections, including tuberculosis, pneumonia and Legionnaires disease; bacterial vaginosis and sexually transmitted diseases, such as chlamydia and gonorrhoea; Helicobacter pylori infection; periodontitis; meningitis; otitis media; and post-surgical and nosocomial infections. Tobacco smoke compromises the anti-bacterial function of leukocytes, including neutrophils, monocytes, T cells and B cells, providing a mechanistic explanation for increased infection risk. Further epidemiological, clinical and mechanistic research into this important area is warranted.

  6. Reducing urinary tract infections in catheterised patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Pam; Adams, John

    2015-01-20

    Urinary tract infections in catheterised patients continue to present a challenge in reducing healthcare-associated infection. In this article, an infection prevention and control team in one NHS trust reports on using audit results to focus attention on measures to reduce bacterial infections. Educational initiatives have an important role in reducing infection, but there is no single solution to the problem. Practice can be improved using a multi-targeted approach, peer review and clinical audit to allow for shared learning and experiences. These, along with informal education in the clinical area and more formal classroom lectures, can ultimately lead to improved patient outcomes. PMID:25585767

  7. Streptococcus suis infection: Clinical manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragojlović Julijana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Streptococcus suis is a bacterium causing a disease in pigs and rarely in humans. This zoonosis is mostly found as a sporadic disease in individuals that were in contact with the affected or infected pigs: farmers, veterinarians and workers engaged in fresh pork processing. It is assumed that the bacterium enters the body through a cut abrasion in the skin. Initially, the condition resembles a flu, followed by signs of bacteriemia and sepsis. The most frequent clinical manifestation of Streptococcus suis infection is meningitis, leading to hearing loss in over 75% of patients, and subsequent arthritis, endophtalmitis, endocarditis and pneumonia. Toxic shock syndrome with hemorhagic manifestations rarely develops. Material and methods This study included five male patients aged 22 to 63 years treated in the Intensive Care Unit of the Institute of Infectious and Tropical Diseases in Belgrade, due to Streptococcus suis infection. The aim of this study was to point to the existence of this bacteria in our environment, to describe clinical manifestations of the disease and to point out the importance of its prevention. Results All patients had epidemiological evidence of being in contact with pork meat. There were no data about diseased pigs. The estimated incubation period was 4 to 8 days. All patients had meningeal signs. Clinical symptoms included shivering, fever, vomiting, headache, malaise, vertigo and tinitus. Three patients presented with alerterd level of awareness. Four patients developed very severe bilateral hearing impairemnt, whereas one endophtalmtis and one developed endocarditis. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF was opalescent in four patients, and only one patient presented with clear CSF. CSF examination showed typical changes characeteristic for bacterial meningitis. Streptoccocus suis was isolated in CSF in all patients, and in one patient the bacteria was isolated in blood as well. All patients underwent treatment with

  8. IMPORTANT NEMATODE INFECTIONS IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Oemijati

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available At least 13 species of intestinal nematodes and 4 species of blood and tissue nematodes have been reported infecting man in Indonesia. Five species of intestinal nematodes are very common and highly prevalent, especially in the rural areas and slums of the big cities. Those species are Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, Trichuris trichiura and Oxyuris vermicularis, while Strongyloides stercoralis is disappearing. The prevalence of the soil transmitted helminths differs from place to place, depending on many factors such as the type of soil, human behaviour etc. Three species of lymph dwelling filarial worms are known to be endemic, the urban Wuchereria bancrofti is low endemic in Jakarta and a few other cities along the north coast of Java, with Culex incriminated as vector, high endemicity is found in Irian Jaya, where Anopheline mosquitoes act as vectors. Brugia malayi is widely distributed and is still highly endemic in many areas. The zoonotic type is mainly endemic in swampy areas, and has many species of Mansonia mosquitoes as vectors. B.timori so far has been found only in the south eastern part of the archipelago and has Anopheles barbirostris as vector. Human infections with animal parasites have been diagnosed properly only when adult stages were found either in autopsies or removed tissues. Cases of infections with A. caninum, A.braziliense, A.ceylanicum, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, T.axei and Oesophagostomum apiostomum have been desribed from autopsies, while infections with Gnathostoma spiningerum have been reported from removed tissues. Infections with the larval stages such as VLM, eosinophylic meningitis, occult filanasis and other could only be suspected, since the diagnosis was extremely difficult and based on the finding and identification of the parasite. Many cases of creeping eruption which might be caused by the larval stages of A.caninum and A.braziliense and Strongyloides stercoralis

  9. [Intestinal parasitic infections in Serbia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, A; Djurković-Djaković, O; Bobić, B

    1998-01-01

    To determine the public health significance of intestinal parasitism in Serbia today, systematic parasitologic examination of 16 regions (Kragujevac, Luchani, Zhagubica, Bor, Sjenica, Novi Pazar, Valjevo, Aleksandrovac, Pirot, Bosilegrad, Ivanjica, Golubac, Uzhice, Kladovo, Negotin, Beograd) in central Serbia were carried out over the period 1984-1993. The study involved a total of 5981 schoolchildren (2887 F, 3094 M), 7-11 years old representing 10% of the total age-matched population (N = 58,228) of the examined regions, residing in 91 settlements. Field parasitological examinations included the examination of perianal swabs for E. vermicularis and Taenia sp., and examination of a single feces sample by direct saline smear and Lugol stained smear for intestinal protozoa, and the Kato and Lörincz methods for intestinal helminths. Nine species of intestinal parasites were detected, of which five protozoan: Entamoeba histolytica (0.02%), Entamoeba hartmanni (0.02%), Entamoeba coli (1.3%), Iodamoeba bütschlii (0.02%), Giardia lamblia (6.8%), and four helminthic: Hymenolepis nana (0.06%), Enterobius vermicularis (14.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (3.3%), Trichuris trichiura (1.8%). The overall prevalence of intestinal parasite infections amounted to 24.6% (1207/4913), with a highly significant difference (p hartmanni, I. bütschlii, H. nana) were each found in a single region (Figure 2). The predominant species (E. coli, G. lamblia, E. vermicularis, A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura) were distributed at considerably different prevalence rates, with a significant difference between the minimal and maximal values (p < 0.01). Of 91 settlements examined, intestinal parasites were found in all but one. However, the prevalence rates in 90 settlements varied significantly (p = 0.0004), from a low of 5.9% to a high of 66.7%. Thus, according to the World Health Organization criteria [19], infections with the four clinically relevant species (G. lamblia, E. vermicularis, A

  10. Differential spirochetal infectivities to vector ticks of mice chronically infected by the agent of Lyme disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Shih, C M; L. P. LIU; Spielman, A.

    1995-01-01

    We determined whether the infectivity of the Lyme disease spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi) to vector ticks varies with the duration of infection in laboratory mice. Thus, noninfected nymphal deer ticks were permitted to feed on two strains of early (2 months after infection) and late (8 months after infection) spirochete-infected mice. The attached ticks were removed from their hosts at specified time intervals and were thereafter examined for spirochetes by direct immunofluorescence microsc...

  11. 75 FR 3912 - Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID), regarding: (1) The practice of hospital infection control; (2) strategies for surveillance, prevention, and control of infections (e.g., nosocomial infections... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Healthcare Infection Control...

  12. 75 FR 29772 - Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee, (HICPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) regarding (1) The practice of healthcare infection control; (2) strategies for surveillance, prevention, and control of infections (e.g., nosocomial infections... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Healthcare Infection Control...

  13. Improving Diagnosis and Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus Infections : Experimental Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van den Berg (Sanne)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that causes a variety of infections, ranging from mild skin infections like furuncles and impetigo, to severe, lifethreatening infections including endocarditis, osteomyelitis and pneumonia. Invasive infections are freq

  14. 75 FR 63844 - Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Healthcare Infection Control Practices... healthcare infection control and strategies for surveillance, prevention, and control of healthcare-associated infections (e.g., nosocomial infections), antimicrobial resistance, and related events in...

  15. 75 FR 22816 - Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Healthcare Infection Control Practices...), regarding the practice of hospital infection control and strategies for surveillance, prevention, and control of healthcare-associated infections (e.g., nosocomial infections), antimicrobial resistance,...

  16. 75 FR 50770 - Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Healthcare Infection Control Practices... Infectious Diseases (NCEZID), regarding: (1) The practice of hospital infection control; strategies for surveillance, prevention, and control of infections (e.g., nosocomial infections), antimicrobial...

  17. Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... Tests A Directory of Medical Tests Basic Blood Chemistry Tests Blood Culture Blood Test: Complete Blood Count ...

  18. Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930176 Immunodiagnosis of tuberculousmeningitis.WANG Yongjun(王拥军),et al.Xuanwu Hosp,Capital Med Instit,Beijing,100053.Chin J Intern Med 1992;31(9):549-551.The detection of special anti-mycobacterialantibodies in cerebrospinal fluid(CSF)was e-valuated.Among all the common coated anti-gens,it was found that PPD was the most poten-tial one.Seven detecting methods were com-pared.It was shown that the classic ELISA tec-nique was worth recommending.The results ofthe experiments revealed that absorbancemethod was better than titration method.IgG

  19. Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    920737 Acute herpes simplex encephalitispatients treated with acyclovia-a reportof five cases.HOU Xide(侯熙德), et al. DeptNeurol, 1st Affil Hosp, Nanjing Med Coll, 210029.Chin J Neurol & Psychiat 1992; 25(3): 143-145. Five cases of acute herpes simplex encephalitiswere verified by specific IgG antibodies in cere-brospinal fluid and serum among 31 cases with

  20. Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    2010373 Eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis:a clinical and cerebrospinal fluid cytology report of 9 cases. GUAN Hongzhi(关鸿志),et al. Dept Neurol,PUMC & CAMS,Bejing 100730. Chin J Neurol 2010;43(4):268-271. Objective To report 9 cases of eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Beijing,and to evaluate

  1. Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008350 A comparative evaluation of enzyme linked immunospot assay and IS6110 polymerase chain reaction for early diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis. QUAN Chao(全超), et al. Dept Neurol, Huashan Hosp, Shanghai, Med Coll, Fudan Univ, Shanghai 200040. Chin J Neurol 2008;41(3):176-179.Objective To establish an early diagnostic testfor tuberculous meningitis(TBM)with good sensitivity and specificity.Methods Twenty-five patients with a clinical

  2. Hepatitis Virus Infections in Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yugo, Danielle M; Hauck, Ruediger; Shivaprasad, H L; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2016-09-01

    Viral hepatitis in poultry is a complex disease syndrome caused by several viruses belonging to different families including avian hepatitis E virus (HEV), duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV), duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV-1, -2, -3), duck hepatitis virus Types 2 and 3, fowl adenoviruses (FAdV), and turkey hepatitis virus (THV). While these hepatitis viruses share the same target organ, the liver, they each possess unique clinical and biological features. In this article, we aim to review the common and unique features of major poultry hepatitis viruses in an effort to identify the knowledge gaps and aid the prevention and control of poultry viral hepatitis. Avian HEV is an Orthohepevirus B in the family Hepeviridae that naturally infects chickens and consists of three distinct genotypes worldwide. Avian HEV is associated with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome or big liver and spleen disease in chickens, although the majority of the infected birds are subclinical. Avihepadnaviruses in the family of Hepadnaviridae have been isolated from ducks, snow geese, white storks, grey herons, cranes, and parrots. DHBV evolved with the host as a noncytopathic form without clinical signs and rarely progressed to chronicity. The outcome for DHBV infection varies by the host's ability to elicit an immune response and is dose and age dependent in ducks, thus mimicking the pathogenesis of human hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections and providing an excellent animal model for human HBV. DHAV is a picornavirus that causes a highly contagious virus infection in ducks with up to 100% flock mortality in ducklings under 6 wk of age, while older birds remain unaffected. The high morbidity and mortality has an economic impact on intensive duck production farming. Duck hepatitis virus Types 2 and 3 are astroviruses in the family of Astroviridae with similarity phylogenetically to turkey astroviruses, implicating the potential for cross-species infections between strains. Duck astrovirus (DAstV) causes

  3. Infection and childhood leukemia: review of evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel da Rocha Paiva Maia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : To analyze studies that evaluated the role of infections as well as indirect measures of exposure to infection in the risk of childhood leukemia, particularly acute lymphoblastic leukemia. METHODS : A search in Medline, Lilacs, and SciELO scientific publication databases initially using the descriptors “childhood leukemia” and “infection” and later searching for the words “childhood leukemia” and “maternal infection or disease” or “breastfeeding” or “daycare attendance” or “vaccination” resulted in 62 publications that met the following inclusion criteria: subject aged ≤ 15 years; specific analysis of cases diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia or total leukemia; exposure assessment of mothers’ or infants’ to infections (or proxy of infection, and risk of leukemia. RESULTS : Overall, 23 studies that assessed infections in children support the hypothesis that occurrence of infection during early childhood reduces the risk of leukemia, but there are disagreements within and between studies. The evaluation of exposure to infection by indirect measures showed evidence of reduced risk of leukemia associated mainly with daycare attendance. More than 50.0% of the 16 studies that assessed maternal exposure to infection observed increased risk of leukemia associated with episodes of influenza, pneumonia, chickenpox, herpes zoster, lower genital tract infection, skin disease, sexually transmitted diseases, Epstein-Barr virus, and Helicobacter pylori . CONCLUSIONS : Although no specific infectious agent has been identified, scientific evidence suggests that exposure to infections has some effect on childhood leukemia etiology.

  4. Nosocomial infections and their control strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan Ahmed Khan; Aftab Ahmad; Riffat Mehboob

    2015-01-01

    Nosocomial infections are also known as hospital-acquired/associated infections. National Healthcare Safety Network along with Centers for Disease Control for surveillance has classified nosocomial infection sites into 13 types with 50 infection sites, which are specific on the basis of biological and clinical criteria. The agents that are usually involved in hospital-acquired infections include Streptococcus spp., Acinetobacter spp., enterococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Legionella and Enterobacteriaceae family members, namely, Proteus mirablis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens. Nosocomial pathogens can be transmitted through person to person, environment or contaminated water and food, infected individuals, contaminated healthcare personnel’s skin or contact via shared items and surfaces. Mainly, multi-drug-resistant nosocomial organisms include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia, whereas Clostridium dififcile shows natural resistance. Excessive and improper use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, especially in healthcare settings, is elevating nosocomial infections, which not only becomes a big health care problem but also causes great economic and production loss in the community. Nosocomial infections can be controlled by measuring and comparing the infection rates within healthcare settings and sticking to the best healthcare practices. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provides the methodology for surveillance of nosocomial infections along with investigation of major outbreaks. By means of this surveillance, hospitals can devise a strategy comprising of infection control practices.

  5. Nosocomial infections and their control strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan; Ahmed; Khan; Aftab; Ahmad; Riffat; Mehboob

    2015-01-01

    Nosocomial infections are also known as hospital-acquired/associated infections. National Healthcare Safety Network along with Centers for Disease Control for surveillance has classified nosocomial infection sites into 13 types with 50 infection sites, which are specific on the basis of biological and clinical criteria. The agents that are usually involved in hospitalacquired infections include Streptococcus spp., Acinetobacter spp., enterococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Legionella and Enterobacteriaceae family members, namely, Proteus mirablis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens. Nosocomial pathogens can be transmitted through person to person, environment or contaminated water and food, infected individuals, contaminated healthcare personnel’s skin or contact via shared items and surfaces. Mainly, multi-drug-resistant nosocomial organisms include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia, whereas Clostridium difficile shows natural resistance. Excessive and improper use of broadspectrum antibiotics, especially in healthcare settings, is elevating nosocomial infections, which not only becomes a big health care problem but also causes great economic and production loss in the community. Nosocomial infections can be controlled by measuring and comparing the infection rates within healthcare settings and sticking to the best healthcare practices. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provides the methodology for surveillance of nosocomial infections along with investigation of major outbreaks. By means of this surveillance, hospitals can devise a strategy comprising of infection control practices.

  6. [Aftereffects of congenital infections in infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdzenidze, E; Zhvania, M

    2006-12-01

    Congenital infections are among the most pressing health care problems. Congenital infections are not reason of congenital malformation and perinatal mortality only, but also pathologies that can be revealed during first year of life. Frequency for congenital viral infection displayed from birth varies between 23% and 92%. The aim of the study was the investigation of inherent infection consequences (citomegaloviral infection, herpes infection and chlamidia) in children in different age groups. Under our observation were 81 children with congenital infections. Among them 29 were with citomegaloviral infection, 17 with herpes infection; 15 chlamidia infection and 22 infections mix (citomegalovirus + herpes, citomegalovirus + chlamidia and chlamidia + herpes). In all observed children neurological simptomatic such as neuro-reflectory hyperexcitability syndrom, hypertension-hydrocephalic syndrom, musculary dystonia syndrom, hydrocephaly, retardation of psychomotor development etc. were present. After birth the worst prevalent are pathologies of cardiovascular system: functional cardiopathy, carditis, congenital heart disease (among them multivalvular disease), affection of hepatobilliar system, organs of vision and hearing etc are present also. PMID:17261890

  7. Ebola Virus Infection Modelling and Identifiability Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van-Kinh eNguyen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The recent outbreaks of Ebola virus (EBOV infections have underlined the impact of the virus as a major threat for human health. Due to the high biosafety classification of EBOV (level 4, basic research is very limited. Therefore, the development of new avenues of thinking to advance quantitative comprehension of the virus and its interaction with the host cells is urgently neededto tackle this lethal disease. Mathematical modelling of the EBOV dynamics can be instrumental to interpret Ebola infection kinetics on quantitative grounds. To the best of our knowledge, a mathematical modelling approach to unravel the interaction between EBOV and the host cells isstill missing. In this paper, a mathematical model based on differential equations is used to represent the basic interactions between EBOV and wild-type Vero cells in vitro. Parameter sets that represent infectivity of pathogens are estimated for EBOV infection and compared with influenza virus infection kinetics. The average infecting time of wild-type Vero cells in EBOV is slower than in influenza infection. Simulation results suggest that the slow infecting time of EBOV could be compensated by its efficient replication. This study reveals several identifiability problems and what kind of experiments are necessary to advance the quantification of EBOV infection. A first mathematical approach of EBOV dynamics and the estimation of standard parametersin viral infections kinetics is the key contribution of this work, paving the way for future modelling work on EBOV infection.

  8. Molecular epidemiology of selected sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, Hamid; Delaney, Andrew; Bentley, Neil; Sonnex, Christopher; Carne, Christopher A

    2013-01-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) are established pathogens for human genital tract. However, the role of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) and Ureaplasma parvum (UP) in genital pathology is poorly unerstood. A prospective study to investigate the prevalence of above infections was performed on a cohort of 1,718 consecutive patients attending a Genitourinary Medicine (GUM) clinic. A previously published in-house real-time PCR assay, for the detection of CT DNA in genital swabs, was modified for this study. Two amplification reactions detected the DNAs of TV, NG, MG, CT, UU and UP in genital swabs from 4 (0.2%), 11 (0.6%), 17 (1%), 129 (8%), 282 (16%) and 636 (37%) patients, respectively. 594 (70%) of 848 women and 333 (38%) of 870 men were infected with at least one type of microorganism. Among 594 infected females, 485 (82%) had a single infection, 97 (16%) had a double infection, and 12 (2%) had a triple infection. Of the 333 infected men, 304 (91%) had a single infection, 27 (8%) had a double infection, and 2 (1%) had a triple infection. The prevalence of infection in both genders decreased with increasing age. The prevalence proportion of UP was significantly higher in women (54%) compared with men (18%). The high prevalence of UU and UP suggests that these bacteria are commensals of genital tract. PMID:24046809

  9. Polymicrobial-Host Interactions during Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Wei Hong; Chong, Kelvin Kian Long; Kline, Kimberly A

    2016-08-28

    Microbial pathogenesis research has, historically, focused on the study of infections as monomicrobial events. However, the advent of next generation sequencing and culture-independent identification methods has revealed that many, if not most, infections are polymicrobial either in origin or in manifestation. Polymicrobial infections are often associated with increased infection severity and poorer patient outcome. Multiple infecting microbes can interact synergistically to induce virulence traits, alter the infected niche, or modulate the host immune response, all of which can promote polymicrobial infection. Importantly, a polymicrobial environment at the time of inoculation, consisting of multiple pathogens or pathogens in combination with the native microbiota, can contribute to the pathogenic progression of a single predominant organism at the time of diagnosis. Hence, in order to completely understand and elucidate the impact of these polymicrobial interactions on infection outcomes, a thorough examination of the entire microbial community present throughout the pathogenic cascade is required: from the time of inoculation to symptomology to resolution. In this review, we highlight the themes of metabolite exploitation, immune modulation, niche optimization, and virulence induction that contribute to polymicrobial infections. We focus on recent literature about microbe-microbe and microbe-host interactions that promote polymicrobial infections with an emphasis on understanding these interactions to identify better interventions for these sometimes complex infections. PMID:27170548

  10. [Nosocomial infections in intensive care units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragoza, Rafael; Ramírez, Paula; López-Pueyo, María Jesús

    2014-05-01

    Nosocomial infections (NI) still have a high incidence in intensive care units (ICUs), and are becoming one of the most important problems in these units. It is well known that these infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients, and are associated with increases in the length of stay and excessive hospital costs. Based on the data from the ENVIN-UCI study, the rates and aetiology of the main nosocomial infections have been described, and include ventilator-associated pneumonia, urinary tract infection, and both primary and catheter related bloodstream infections, as well as the incidence of multidrug-resistant bacteria. A literature review on the impact of different nosocomial infections in critically ill patients is also presented. Infection control programs such as zero bacteraemia and pneumonia have been also analysed, and show a significant decrease in NI rates in ICUs.

  11. Protective immune responses in lawsonia intracellularis infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordes, Henriette; Riber, Ulla; Boutrup, Torsten;

    , that a primary L. intracellularis experimental infection in pigs protects against re-colonisation (re-infection) with a virulent L. intracellularis isolate. After re-infection the animals had reduced L. intracellularis colonisation of the intestinal mucosa compared to controls, no bacterial shedding...... infected piglets where after it levelled off. There was no boost in this response after re-infection, but boosting was observed with serum IgG, resulting in an increasing IgG/IgA index. Local secretory IgA, on the other hand were low following a primary infection, probably due to age-related effects...... behind the observed protection against re-infection with L. intracellularis....

  12. [Nosocomial infections: definition, frequence and risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diouf, E; Bèye, M D; Diop, Ndoye M; Kane, O; Ka, Sall B

    2007-01-01

    Infection is nosocomial if it missed at the time patient admission in the health establishment. When infectious status of the patient on admission is unknown, infection is generally regarded as nosocomial if it appears after a time of at least 48 hours of hospitalization. For surgical site infection, the commonly allowed time is 30 days, or, in case of prosthesis or an implant, one year after surgical intervention. Nosocomial infections (NI) constitute major health care problem from their frequency, their cost, their gravity. Mortality related to NI can attempt 70% in certain units like intensive care units. Two ways of contamination are possible: the endogenous way is responsible of majority of hospital infections. The normally sterile sites are contaminated then colonized by the flora which is carrying the patient himself, with the favor of a rupture of the barriers of defense. The exogenic way is associated colonization, possibly followed by infection, of the patient by external bacteria, coming from others patients or from environment, transmitted in an indirect way (aerosols, manuportage, materials). Whatever its mode of transmission, apparition of nosocomial infection can be related to several supporting factors: age and pathology, certain treatments (antibiotic which unbalance patients' flora and select resistant bacteria, immunosuppressive treatments), invasive practices necessary to the patient treatment. The prevalence of nosocomial infections is higher in the intensive care units where certain studies bring back rates of 42.8% versus 12.1% in others services. The four sites of nosocomial infection most frequently concerned are: the respiratory site, urinary infections, bloodstream infections (Catheters related bloodstream infections in particular), and surgical sites infections. The relative proportion of these infections varies according to principal activity of the unity. PMID:19102097

  13. Neonatal intensive care unit nosocomial bacterial infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazvini

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nosocomial infections increase patients' morbidity, mortality and length of hospital stay especially in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs and have become a matter of major concern. Controlling and preventing nosocomial infections need enough information about epidemiology of these infections. This study aims at estimating the incidence rate and the most frequent bacteria which cause these infections in neonatal intensive care unit of Ghaem university hospital, Mashhad. Methods: In this study which is performed during a twelve month period in 2004 and 2005 at neonatal intensive care unit of Ghaem hospital, 971 hospitalized neonates were studied. Data were collected considering the standard surveillance protocols. Early onset neonatal nosocomial infections and late onset neonatal infections were defined as illness appearing from birth to seven days and from eight to twenty-eight days postnatal age respectively. Statistical analysis was performed using the χ2 test. Results: In this study 32 cases of nosocomial infections were identified so the incidence rate of nosocomial infection in this ward was 3.29%. Fifteen babies identified with early onset neonatal nosocomial infection and the rest have presented with late onset neonatal infections. In order of frequency, the sites of infection were: primary bloodstream (84.4% and pneumonia (15.62%. Coagulase negative staphylococci were the most common bacteria (43.74% isolated in these patients. Other isolated bacteria were Klebsiella pneumonia (31.42% and other gram negative bacilli such as E.coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa and Acintobacter spp. The mechanical ventilation and umbilical catheter were associated with nosocomial infections as risk factors in our study (p<0.01. Conclusion: Our findings show that the neonatal intensive care unit of Ghaem hospital has low rate of nosocomial infections. However, as neonatal intensive care unit is an area of great concern in terms of nosocomial

  14. Postoperative Staphylococcus aureus infections in Medicare beneficiaries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moaven Razavi

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus infections are important because of their increasing frequency, resistance to antibiotics, and high associated rates of disabilities and deaths. We examined the incidence and correlates of S. aureus infections following 219,958 major surgical procedures in a 5% random sample of fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries from 2004-2007. Of these surgical patients, 0.3% had S. aureus infections during the hospitalizations when index surgical procedures were performed; and 1.7% and 2.3%, respectively, were hospitalized with infections within 60 days or 180 days following admissions for index surgeries. S. aureus infections occurred within 180 days in 1.9% of patients following coronary artery bypass graft surgery, 2.3% following hip surgery, and 5.9% following gastric or esophageal surgery. Of patients first hospitalized with any major infection reported during the first 180 days after index surgery, 15% of infections were due to S. aureus, 18% to other documented organisms, and no specific organism was reported on claim forms in 67%. Patient-level predictors of S. aureus infections included transfer from skilled nursing facilities or chronic hospitals and comorbid conditions (e.g., diabetes, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and chronic renal disease. In a logarithmic regression, elective index admissions with S. aureus infection stayed 130% longer than comparable patients without that infection. Within 180 days of the index surgery, 23.9% of patients with S. aureus infection and 10.6% of patients without this infection had died. In a multivariate logistic regression of death within 180 days of admission for the index surgery with adjustment for demographics, co-morbidities, and other risks, S. aureus was associated with a 42% excess risk of death. Due to incomplete documentation of organisms in Medicare claims, these statistics may underestimate the magnitude of S. aureus infection

  15. Rheumatoid Case with HCV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Behnava

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Case Presentation:A 46-year-old woman referred to our center due to abnormality in aminotransferase level during check up. She had a history of blood transfusion 12 years ago. Anti-HCV Ab by ELISA method and HCV RNA by RT-PCR were positive. HCV RNA by Amplicor HCV monitor test counted 800,000 IU/ml and the genotype was 3a by Specific Primer-Targeted Region Core method. Laboratory evaluation revealed: Hb 11.9 mg/dl, WBC 5000 /ml, platelet count 190,000/ ml, ALT 70 IU/ml, AST 65 IU/ml, Alk phosphatase 210, PT 13 second, total protein 7.2 g/dl, albumin 4 g/dl, gama globulin 1.6 g/dl, HBsAg negative and RF positive. She had a history of symmetrical polyarthritis of small joints of upper extremities and morning stiffness for 3 years ago and had been managed as rheumatoid arthritis (RA since then. She was managed with corticosteroids and methotrexate. Are there any relations between RA disease and HCV infection?HCV-related ArthritisRheumatologic complications of HCV infection are common and include mixedcryoglobulinemia, vasculitis, Sjogren’s syndrome, arthritis and fibromyalgia(1, 2. There is a welldefined picture of arthritis associated with the presence of mixed cryoglobulinemia that consists of an intermittent mono or oligoarticular,nondestructive arthritis affecting large and mediumsize joints(1. 2% to 20% of HCV-infected patients experience arthritis and as 50% experience arthralgia(3Clinical ManifestationsHCV-related arthritis (HCVra commonly presents as rheumatoid-like, symmetrical inflammatory polyarthritis involving mainly small joints or less commonly as mono- or oligoarthritis of large joints. The joints involved in HCV-related arthritis are similar to RA(4. In about two thirds of the affected individuals, morning stiffness may be severe, resolving after more than an hour(5. Clinical picture of arthritis associated with the presence of mixed cryoglobulinemia in patients with HCV infection consists of an intermittent, mono or

  16. Sexually transmitted infections-microbial infections, 2007 update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Human sexual behavior required for the continuation of humankind nevertheless has its downsides, among them sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The treatment of microbial STIs is challenging but not in itself essentially very difficult. Controlling STIs, on the other hand, is like the task of Sisyphus, a king in Greek mythology who was forced forever to roll a block of stone to the top of a steep hill, only to see it roll back to the valley, where he started the toilsome task again. This is how many a venereologist must view the day's practice, supervising patients with STIs. Yes, there are newcomers, many of them very young, but there are many others, the recidivists, whom the physician and health care staff know only too well. "You don't mind seeing me again, doc. You (collectively) were so good to me last time"--as though catching a chlamydial infection 3 or 4 times, gonorrhea 20 or 30 times, and syphilis on occasion were badges of virility or part of life's natural progression. This is the pattern of STIs in 2007. PMID:17786104

  17. Avian Influenza infection in Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan. M

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks caused by the H5N1 strain are presently of the greatest concern for human health. In assessing risks to human health, it is important to know exactly which avian virus strains are causing the outbreaks in birds.All available evidence points to an increased risk of transmission to humans when outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza are widespread in poultry. There is mounting evidence that this strain has a unique capacity to jump the species barrier and cause severe disease, with high mortality, in humans. There is no evidence, to date that efficient human to human transmission of H5N1 strain has occurred and very often. Efficient transmission among humans is a key property of pandemic strains and a property that the avian H5N1 and H9N2 viruses apparently lacked. The biological and molecular basis for effective aerosol transmission among humans is not known. The virus can improve its transmissibility among humans via two principal mechanisms. The first is a “reassortment” event, in which genetic material is exchanged between human and avian viruses during co-infection of a human or pig.Reassortment could result in a fully transmissible pandemic virus, announced by a sudden surge of cases with explosive spread. The second mechanism is a more gradual process of adaptive mutation, whereby the capability of the virus to bind to human cells increases during subsequent infections of humans. Adaptive mutation, expressed initially as small clusters of human cases with some evidence of human-to-human transmission, would probably give the world some time to take defensive action, if detected sufficiently early. As the number of human infections grows, the risk increases that a new virus subtype could emerge, triggering an influenza pandemic. Humans as well as swine must now be considered a potential mixing vessel for the generation of such a virus. This link between widespread infection in poultry and increased risk of human

  18. Occurrence of Tomato spotted wilt virus in Stevia rebaudiana and Solanum tuberosum in Northern Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatzivassiliou, E.K.; Peters, D.; Lolas, P.

    2007-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) was first reported in Greece during 1972 (3) and currently is widespread in the central and northern part of the country infecting several cultivated and wild plant species (1,2). In June 2006, virus-like symptoms similar to th

  19. Towards understanding TSWW particle assembly: analysis of the intracellular behavior of the viral structural proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro, D.M.O.G.

    2007-01-01

    At the onset of the studies presented in this thesis, it was already known that the assembly of the enveloped particle of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV; family Bunyaviridae) in the infected plant cell was featured by a number of interesting phenomena. This process involves enwrapment of the viral

  20. Ghrelin and Helicobacter pylori infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroyuki Osawa

    2008-01-01

    Ghrelin is primarily secreted from the stomach and has been implicated in the coordination of eating behavior and weight regulation. Ghrelin also plays an essential role in the mechanism of gastric mucosal defense. Thus, it is important to clarify which diseases primar-ily influence changes in plasma ghrelin concentrations. Helicobacter pylori(H pylori infection is involved in the pathogenesis of gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcer, gastric carcinoma, and mucosa-associated lym-phoid tissue lymphorna. H pylori eradication is related to body weight change. Compared, H pylori infected and negative subjects with normal body mass index, plasma ghrelin concentration, gastric ghrelin mRNA, and the number of ghrelin producing cells in gastric mucosa are significantly lower in Hpylori injected sub-jects than in H pylori-negative controls. Plasma ghrelin concentration decreases with the progression of gastric atrophy. Impaired gastric ghrelin production in associa-tion with atrophic gastritis induced by Hpylori infection accounts for the decrease in plasma ghrelin concentra-tion. However, the ratio of plasma acylated ghrelin to total ghrelin levels is higher in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis than in healthy subjects. This may re-sult from the compensatory increase in plasma active ghrelin concentration in response to gastric atrophy. After H pylori eradication, gastric preproghrelin mRNA expression is increased nearly 4-fold in most cases. However, changes in plasma ghrelin concentrations be-fore and after H pylori cure are not associated with the gastric ghrelin production. Plasma ghrelin changes are inversely correlated with both body weight change and initial plasma ghrelin levels.

  1. [Molecular diagnosis of mycobacterial infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fend, F; Langer, R; Hann von Weyhern, C W; Schulz, S; Miethke, T

    2007-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. A rapid and reliable diagnosis and discrimination from infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is critical. Frequently, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues remain the only source for detection of micro-organisms in suspected cases of mycobacterial infection. Recently, numerous methods, including PCR assays, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry have been developed for detection of mycobacteria in FFPE samples. PCR-based assays are directed either against M.tbc.-specific sequences, such as IS6110, or amplify regions common to many mycobacterial species, e.g. the 65 kDa antigen, and then require sequencing or restriction fragment length polymorphism for species identification. Whereas the detection of DNA of M.tbc. in the correct setting is always of clinical relevance, the presence of various NTM species has to be interpreted with great caution due to their ubiquitous nature. However, the routine application of molecular tests has demonstrated that NTM infections are more common than previously thought, even in non-immunosuppressed hosts. The introduction of real-time PCR technology allows precise quantification of mycobacterial DNA and can be used for species identification through melting point analysis or appropriate DNA probes. Application of these assays originally developed for clinical microbiology offer a great opportunity for diagnostic improvement in molecular pathology as compared to qualitative PCR, mainly due to an increased specificity and a lower risk of contamination. Given the clinical impact of a positive molecular result for M. tbc., future efforts have to be aimed at standardization and quality control. PMID:18314607

  2. [Molecular diagnosis of mycobacterial infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fend, F; Langer, R; Hann von Weyhern, C W; Schulz, S; Miethke, T

    2007-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. A rapid and reliable diagnosis and discrimination from infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is critical. Frequently, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues remain the only source for detection of micro-organisms in suspected cases of mycobacterial infection. Recently, numerous methods, including PCR assays, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry have been developed for detection of mycobacteria in FFPE samples. PCR-based assays are directed either against M.tbc.-specific sequences, such as IS6110, or amplify regions common to many mycobacterial species, e.g. the 65 kDa antigen, and then require sequencing or restriction fragment length polymorphism for species identification. Whereas the detection of DNA of M.tbc. in the correct setting is always of clinical relevance, the presence of various NTM species has to be interpreted with great caution due to their ubiquitous nature. However, the routine application of molecular tests has demonstrated that NTM infections are more common than previously thought, even in non-immunosuppressed hosts. The introduction of real-time PCR technology allows precise quantification of mycobacterial DNA and can be used for species identification through melting point analysis or appropriate DNA probes. Application of these assays originally developed for clinical microbiology offer a great opportunity for diagnostic improvement in molecular pathology as compared to qualitative PCR, mainly due to an increased specificity and a lower risk of contamination. Given the clinical impact of a positive molecular result for M. tbc., future efforts have to be aimed at standardization and quality control.

  3. A Mathematical Model of Baculovirus Infection on Insect Cells at Low Multiplicity of Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You-Hong ZHANG; Josée C. MERCHUK

    2004-01-01

    The expression efficiency of the insect cells-baculovirus system used for insecticidal virus production and the expression of medically useful foreign genes is closely related with the dynamics of infection. The present studies develop a model of the dynamic process of insect cell infection with baculovirus at low multiplicity of infection (MOI), which is based on the multi-infection cycles of insect cell infection at low MOI. A mathematical model for the amount of viruses released from primary infected cells and the amount of free viruses before secondary infected cells release viruses has been developed. Comparison of the simulation results with the experimental data confirms qualitatively that this model is highly reasonable before secondary infected cells release viruses. This model is considered as a base for further modeling the entire complicated infection process.

  4. Interferon Response in Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection: Lessons from Cell Culture Systems of HCV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Pil Soo; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Yoon, Seung Kew

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a positive-stranded RNA virus that infects approximately 130-170 million people worldwide. In 2005, the first HCV infection system in cell culture was established using clone JFH-1, which was isolated from a Japanese patient with fulminant HCV infection. JFH-1 replicates efficiently in hepatoma cells and infectious virion particles are released into the culture supernatant. The development of cell culture-derived HCV (HCVcc) systems has allowed us to understand how hosts respond to HCV infection and how HCV evades host responses. Although the mechanisms underlying the different outcomes of HCV infection are not fully understood, innate immune responses seem to have a critical impact on the outcome of HCV infection, as demonstrated by the prognostic value of IFN-λ gene polymorphisms among patients with chronic HCV infection. Herein, we review recent research on interferon response in HCV infection, particularly studies using HCVcc infection systems.

  5. High prevalence of human parvovirus 4 infection in HBV and HCV infected individuals in shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xuelian; Zhang, Jing; Hong, Liang; Wang, Jiayu; Yuan, Zhengan; Zhang, Xi; Ghildyal, Reena

    2012-01-01

    Human parvovirus 4 (PARV4) has been detected in blood and diverse tissues samples from HIV/AIDS patients who are injecting drug users. Although B19 virus, the best characterized human parvovirus, has been shown to co-infect patients with hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus (HBV, HCV) infection, the association of PARV4 with HBV or HCV infections is still unknown.The aim of this study was to characterise the association of viruses belonging to PARV4 genotype 1 and 2 with chronic HBV and HCV infection in Shanghai.Serum samples of healthy controls, HCV infected subjects and HBV infected subjects were retrieved from Shanghai Center for Disease Control and Prevention (SCDC) Sample Bank. Parvovirus-specific nested-PCR was performed and results confirmed by sequencing. Sequences were compared with reference sequences obtained from Genbank to derive phylogeny trees.The frequency of parvovirus molecular detection was 16-22%, 33% and 41% in healthy controls, HCV infected and HBV infected subjects respectively, with PARV4 being the only parvovirus detected. HCV infected and HBV infected subjects had a significantly higher PARV4 prevalence than the healthy population. No statistical difference was found in PARV4 prevalence between HBV or HCV infected subjects. PARV4 sequence divergence within study groups was similar in healthy subjects, HBV or HCV infected subjects.Our data clearly demonstrate that PARV4 infection is strongly associated with HCV and HBV infection in Shanghai but may not cause increased disease severity.

  6. Oncogenic Brain Metazoan Parasite Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela N. Spurgeon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple observations suggest that certain parasitic infections can be oncogenic. Among these, neurocysticercosis is associated with increased risk for gliomas and hematologic malignancies. We report the case of a 71-year-old woman with colocalization of a metazoan parasite, possibly cysticercosis, and a WHO grade IV neuroepithelial tumor with exclusively neuronal differentiation by immunohistochemical stains (immunopositive for synaptophysin, neurofilament protein, and Neu-N and not for GFAP, vimentin, or S100. The colocalization and temporal relationship of these two entities suggest a causal relationship.

  7. Retroperitoneal and pelvic infections complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retroperitoneal and pelvic infections complications are the major types of genito-urinary complications in Crohn's disease. CT has been shown to be a sensitive, non invasive method of documenting these infectious complications. On the other hand, conventional studies are more sensitive than CT to detect genitourinary fistulae. Some complications may manifest few or no symptom as urinary obstruction and nephrolithiasis, detected easily by sonography. For these reasons, it is important for radiologists to be aware of the genito-urinary complications of Crohn's disease. (authors). 42 refs., 20 figs

  8. The teeth and infective endocarditis.

    OpenAIRE

    Bayliss, R.; Clarke, C.; Oakley, C.; Somerville, W; Whitfield, A. G.

    1983-01-01

    During 1981 and 1982 544 cases of infective endocarditis were investigated retrospectively by means of a questionnaire. Only 13.7% had undergone any dental procedure within three months of the onset of the illness, and in 42.5% there was no known cardiac abnormality before the onset of the disease. Furthermore, the number of cases occurring annually was about the same as or more than it was before the introduction of penicillin. The mouth and nasopharynx were the most likely sources of the co...

  9. Bromodomain Proteins in HIV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Ott

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bromodomains are conserved protein modules of ~110 amino acids that bind acetylated lysine residues in histone and non-histone proteins. Bromodomains are present in many chromatin-associated transcriptional regulators and have been linked to diverse aspects of the HIV life cycle, including transcription and integration. Here, we review the role of bromodomain-containing proteins in HIV infection. We begin with a focus on acetylated viral factors, followed by a discussion of structural and biological studies defining the involvement of bromodomain proteins in the HIV life cycle. We end with an overview of promising new studies of bromodomain inhibitory compounds for the treatment of HIV latency.

  10. Skin Infections Due to Corynebacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Türkmen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Corynebacteria are Gram-positive, non-sporulated, non-capsulated, aerobic diphtheroid bacteria accounting for nearly 50%of the natural skin biocene. This bacterial family is responsible for various skin diseases such as cutaneous diphteria, cromhydrosis, bromhydrosis but the most common of them are pitted keratolysis, trichobacteriosis and erythrasma. A warm and moist environment and poor hygiene are the predisposition factors for these three diseases. Although this skin diseases are seen more frequently, they usually mistaken for a mycotic infection by general practitioners, with subsequent antimycotic treatment. Here skin diseases compromised with Corynebacterium are presented with their demographic features and discussed on the basis of a literature review.

  11. Mucin dynamics in intestinal bacterial infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara K Lindén

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bacterial gastroenteritis causes morbidity and mortality in humans worldwide. Murine Citrobacter rodentium infection is a model for gastroenteritis caused by the human pathogens enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli. Mucin glycoproteins are the main component of the first barrier that bacteria encounter in the intestinal tract. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using Immunohistochemistry, we investigated intestinal expression of mucins (Alcian blue/PAS, Muc1, Muc2, Muc4, Muc5AC, Muc13 and Muc3/17 in healthy and C. rodentium infected mice. The majority of the C. rodentium infected mice developed systemic infection and colitis in the mid and distal colon by day 12. C. rodentium bound to the major secreted mucin, Muc2, in vitro, and high numbers of bacteria were found in secreted MUC2 in infected animals in vivo, indicating that mucins may limit bacterial access to the epithelial surface. In the small intestine, caecum and proximal colon, the mucin expression was similar in infected and non-infected animals. In the distal colonic epithelium, all secreted and cell surface mucins decreased with the exception of the Muc1 cell surface mucin which increased after infection (p<0.05. Similarly, during human infection Salmonella St Paul, Campylobacter jejuni and Clostridium difficile induced MUC1 in the colon. CONCLUSION: Major changes in both the cell-surface and secreted mucins occur in response to intestinal infection.

  12. Management of Infections with Rapidly Growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Hwan Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Infection caused by rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM is not uncommon, andthe prevalence of RGM infection has been increasing. Clinical diagnosis is difficult becausethere are no characteristic clinical features. There is also no standard antibiotic regimenfor treating RGM infection. A small series of patients with RGM infections was studied toexamine their treatments and outcomes.Methods A total of 5 patients who had developed postoperative infections from January2009 to December 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were initially screened using amycobacteria rapid screening test (polymerase chain reaction [PCR]-reverse blot hybridizationassay. To confirm mycobacterial infection, specimens were cultured for nontuberculousmycobacteria and analyzed by 16 S ribosomal RNA and rpoB gene PCR.Results The patients were treated with intravenous antibiotics during hospitalization,and oral antibiotics were administered after discharge. The mean duration of follow-upwas 9 months, and all patients were completely cured of infection with a regimen of acombination of antibiotics plus surgical treatment. Although none of the patients developedrecurrence, there were complications at the site of infection, including hypertrophic scarring,pigmentation, and disfigurement.Conclusions Combination antibiotic therapy plus drainage of surgical abscesses appeared tobe effective for the RGM infections seen in our patients. Although neither the exact dosagenor a standardized regimen has been firmly established, we propose that our treatment canprovide an option for the management of rapidly growing mycobacterial infection.

  13. Fungal infections of the folds (intertriginous areas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metin, Ahmet; Dilek, Nursel; Demirseven, Duriye Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Superficial fungal infections are widespread, regardless of age and gender, in populations all around the world and may affect the skin and skin appendages. Although there are thousands of fungal infections from various genera and families in nature, those that are pathogenic for humans and nesting in skin folds are limited in number. The prevalence and distribution of these fungi vary according to the patients and certain environmental factors. Because the areas including the lids, external auditory canal, behind the ears, navel, inguinal region, and axillae, also called flexures, are underventilated and moist areas exposed to friction, they are especially sensitive to fungal infections. Fungi can both directly invade the skin, leading to infections, and indirectly stimulate immune mechanisms due to tissue interaction and their antigenic character and contribute to the development or exacerbation of secondary bacterial infections, seborrheic dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, and psoriasis. Superficial fungal infections can be classified and studied as dermatophyte infections, candidal infections, Malassezia infections, and other superficial infections independently from the involved skin fold areas. PMID:26051058

  14. Experimental feline enteric coronavirus infection reveals an aberrant infection pattern and shedding of mutants with impaired infectivity in enterocyte cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Desmarets, Lowiese M B; Vermeulen, Ben L; Sebastiaan Theuns; Nádia Conceição-Neto; Mark Zeller; Inge D. M. Roukaerts; Acar, Delphine D; Dominique A. J. Olyslaegers; Marc Van Ranst; Jelle Matthijnssens; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2016-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) results from mutations in the viral genome during a common feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) infection. Since many virological and immunological data on FECV infections are lacking, the present study investigated these missing links during experimental infection of three SPF cats with FECV strain UCD. Two cats showed mild clinical signs, faecal shedding of infectious virus from 4 dpi, a cell-associated viraemia at inconsistent time points from 5 dpi, a high...

  15. Trypanosoma cruzi-Trypanosoma rangeli co-infection ameliorates negative effects of single trypanosome infections in experimentally infected Rhodnius prolixus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jennifer K; Graham, Andrea L; Elliott, Ryan J; Dobson, Andrew P; Triana Chávez, Omar

    2016-08-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, causative agent of Chagas disease, co-infects its triatomine vector with its sister species Trypanosoma rangeli, which shares 60% of its antigens with T. cruzi. Additionally, T. rangeli has been observed to be pathogenic in some of its vector species. Although T. cruzi-T. rangeli co-infections are common, their effect on the vector has rarely been investigated. Therefore, we measured the fitness (survival and reproduction) of triatomine species Rhodnius prolixus infected with just T. cruzi, just T. rangeli, or both T. cruzi and T. rangeli. We found that survival (as estimated by survival probability and hazard ratios) was significantly different between treatments, with the T. cruzi treatment group having lower survival than the co-infected treatment. Reproduction and total fitness estimates in the T. cruzi and T. rangeli treatments were significantly lower than in the co-infected and control groups. The T. cruzi and T. rangeli treatment group fitness estimates were not significantly different from each other. Additionally, co-infected insects appeared to tolerate higher doses of parasites than insects with single-species infections. Our results suggest that T. cruzi-T. rangeli co-infection could ameliorate negative effects of single infections of either parasite on R. prolixus and potentially help it to tolerate higher parasite doses. PMID:27174360

  16. Helicobacter pylori infection in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, G; Acuña, R; Troncoso, M; Portell, D P; Toledo, M S; Valenzuela, J

    1997-11-01

    This article summarizes studies designed to evaluate the role of Helicobacter pylori infection in Chile, described in 21 reports from nine centers in various Chilean regions published between 1985 and 1995. According to their data, H. pylori infection is quite frequent among patients with a variety of gastric conditions, including adults (43%-92%) and children (6%-100%). Levels of specific IgG antibodies to H. pylori are also elevated among patients with duodenal ulcers (100%) and gastritis (86%) as well as asymptomatic adults (75%). Combination therapy with three (but not two) drugs has been proved effective, with clinical improvement, ulcer cure, and H. pylori eradication occurring in well-controlled studies. Available evidence suggests that antibiotic resistance is not a major problem in treatment. The H. pylori reinfection rate is low (4.2% per year), suggesting that combination therapy with three drugs constitutes a cost-effective alternative for treating colonized symptomatic patients. Concurrent preliminary studies revealed that antibodies to VacA but not CagA proteins correlate with disease severity in Chilean patients. It can be concluded that local research assists local administrators of health resources to implement adequate policies to prevent, control, and treat H. pylori-related pathologies.

  17. Phaeohyphomycosis infection in the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadigursky, David; Nogueira E Ferreira, Luisa; Moreno de Oliveira Corrêa, Liz

    2016-01-01

    Phaeohyphomycosis is caused by cutaneous fungi and rarely affects large joints. This is a case report on phaeohyphomycosis in the left knee of an elderly individual without immunosuppression. It was accompanied by pain and swelling the anterior knee. The case was first suspected to be suprapatellar bursitis, and was treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, without remission of symptoms. Surgical treatment was performed, with resection of the suprapatellar bursa and anterior region of the quadriceps tendon. The material was sent for anatomopathological examination and culturing. The pathological examination showed phaeohyphomycosis. The treatment instituted consisted of itraconazole, 200 mg/day for six weeks, and complete remission of symptoms was achieved. The physical examination remained normal after one year of follow-up. This is the first published case of phaeohyphomycosis infection in the suprapatellar region of the knee. Although almost all the cases reported have been associated with immunosuppressed patients, this was an exception. It is important to suspect phaeohyphomycosis in cases of knee infection, in the area of the suprapatellar bursa, when the symptoms do not resolve after clinical treatment. PMID:27069894

  18. Phaeohyphomycosis infection in the knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sadigursky

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Phaeohyphomycosis is caused by cutaneous fungi and rarely affects large joints. This is a case report on phaeohyphomycosis in the left knee of an elderly individual without immunosuppression. It was accompanied by pain and swelling the anterior knee. The case was first suspected to be suprapatellar bursitis, and was treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, without remission of symptoms. Surgical treatment was performed, with resection of the suprapatellar bursa and anterior region of the quadriceps tendon. The material was sent for anatomopathological examination and culturing. The pathological examination showed phaeohyphomycosis. The treatment instituted consisted of itraconazole, 200 mg/day for six weeks, and complete remission of symptoms was achieved. The physical examination remained normal after one year of follow-up. This is the first published case of phaeohyphomycosis infection in the suprapatellar region of the knee. Although almost all the cases reported have been associated with immunosuppressed patients, this was an exception. It is important to suspect phaeohyphomycosis in cases of knee infection, in the area of the suprapatellar bursa, when the symptoms do not resolve after clinical treatment.

  19. Ecg manifestations in dengue infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the frequency of ECG changes in patients with dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever. Place of study: Department of Medicine, Mayo Hospital Lahore Duration of study: September to November 201 Study design: Cross sectional analytical study Patient and methods: 116 patients with dengue infection were enrolled in the study. Their clinical presentation and examination was duly noted. Each patient had baseline and then regular monitoring of blood counts, metabolic profile and fluid status. Patients with Dengue Hemorrhagic fever underwent radiological examination in form of chest radiograph and ultrasound abdomen. ECG was carried out in all patients. Results: Out of 116 patients, 61(52.6%) suffered from Dengue Fever and 55(47.4%) had Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever. Overall 78 patients had normal ECG. Abnormal ECG findings like tachycardia, bradycardia, supraventricular tachycardia, left bundle branch block, ST depression, poor progression of R wave were noted. There was no significant relationship of ECG findings with the disease. Conclusion: ECG changes can occur in dengue infection with or without cardiac symptoms. Commonly noted findings were ST depression and bradycardia. (author)

  20. Microbiological diagnostics of fungal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Girmenia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory tests for the detection of fungal infections are easy to perform. The main obstacle to a correct diagnosis is the correlation between the laboratory findings and the clinical diagnosis. Among pediatric patients, the most common fungal pathogen is Candida. The detection of fungal colonization may be performed through the use of chromogenic culture media, which allows also the identification of Candida subspecies, from which pathogenicity depends. In neonatology, thistest often drives the decision to begin a empiric therapy; in this regard, a close cooperation between microbiologists and clinicians is highly recommended. Blood culture, if positive, is a strong confirmation of fungal infection; however, its low sensitivity results in a high percentage of false negatives, thus decreasing its reliability. Molecular diagnostics is still under evaluation, whereas the detection of some fungal antigens, such as β-D-glucan, galactomannan, mannoprotein, and cryptococcal antigen in the serum is used for adults, but still under evaluations for pediatric patients.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v4i1S.862

  1. Phialophora richardsiae infection in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitrak, D L; Koneman, E W; Estupinan, R C; Jackson, J

    1988-01-01

    Phialophora richardsiae infection in humans is rare. The first human isolate was recovered from a patient with a phaeomycotic cyst in 1968. Since 1975 seven other cases have appeared in the world literature, and an additional case is reported here. The mean age of these nine patients was 61.4 years. Two patients had diabetes mellitus, one had diabetes mellitus and disseminated adrenocortical carcinoma, and one had a myeloproliferative disorder. The mode of acquisition was presumed to be inoculation with contaminated plant material, but a history consistent with an inoculation injury was obtained in only four patients and a retained splinter was found in the lesion of only one patient. Infection with P. richardsiae was not associated with systemic symptoms or signs. Six patients presented with a single subcutaneous cystic granulomatous lesion. One patient had chronic dacryocystitis. More extensive or invasive disease occurred in two patients, both with an ultimately fatal underlying neoplastic process. A specific etiologic diagnosis was made by culture of purulent material obtained by excisional biopsy in six patients, incision and drainage in one patient, aspiration in one, and spontaneous drainage in one. Subcutaneous nodules were cured with surgical excision. There is insufficient information concerning antifungal therapy to recommend its use.

  2. Surgical infections: a microbiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Saini

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Surgical infections are mostly polymicrobial, involving both aerobes and anaerobes. One hundred seventeen cases comprised of abscesses (n=51, secondary peritonitis (n=25, necrotizing fascitis (n=22 and wounds with devitalized tissues (n=19 were studied. The number of microorganisms isolated per lesion was highest in secondary peritonitis (2.32. The aerobe/ anaerobe ratio was 0.81 in secondary peritonitis and 1.8 in necrotizing fascitis. Most secondary peritonitis (80%, necrotizing fascitis (75% and wounds with devitalized tissues (66.7% were polymicrobial. Common microorganisms isolated in our study were E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacteroides fragilis and Peptostreptococcus spp. The most effective antibiotics for S. aureus were clindamycin (79.1% and cefuroxime (70.8%. For Gram-negatives (Klebsiella spp., E. coli and Proteus spp., the most effective antibiotics were cefotaxime, ceftizoxime, amikacin and ciprofloxacin. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was maximally sensitive to amikacin (35.2% and ciprofloxacin (35.2%. The greatest degree of multidrug resistance to all the drugs was found in P. aeruginosa (52.9%, followed by Klebsiella spp. (33.3%, Proteus spp. (33.3%, E. coli (22.2%, and S. aureus (12.5%. All the anaerobes that we isolated were 100% sensitive to metronidazole and chloramphenicol, followed by clindamycin (95% to 100%. Apart from antibiotic therapy, non-antimicrobial methods, such as hyperbaric oxygen therapy and debridement also play an important role in the treatment of surgical infections.

  3. Phaeohyphomycosis infection in the knee☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadigursky, David; Nogueira e Ferreira, Luisa; Moreno de Oliveira Corrêa, Liz

    2016-01-01

    Phaeohyphomycosis is caused by cutaneous fungi and rarely affects large joints. This is a case report on phaeohyphomycosis in the left knee of an elderly individual without immunosuppression. It was accompanied by pain and swelling the anterior knee. The case was first suspected to be suprapatellar bursitis, and was treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, without remission of symptoms. Surgical treatment was performed, with resection of the suprapatellar bursa and anterior region of the quadriceps tendon. The material was sent for anatomopathological examination and culturing. The pathological examination showed phaeohyphomycosis. The treatment instituted consisted of itraconazole, 200 mg/day for six weeks, and complete remission of symptoms was achieved. The physical examination remained normal after one year of follow-up. This is the first published case of phaeohyphomycosis infection in the suprapatellar region of the knee. Although almost all the cases reported have been associated with immunosuppressed patients, this was an exception. It is important to suspect phaeohyphomycosis in cases of knee infection, in the area of the suprapatellar bursa, when the symptoms do not resolve after clinical treatment. PMID:27069894

  4. Recycling Endosomes and Viral Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Vale-Costa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Many viruses exploit specific arms of the endomembrane system. The unique composition of each arm prompts the development of remarkably specific interactions between viruses and sub-organelles. This review focuses on the viral–host interactions occurring on the endocytic recycling compartment (ERC, and mediated by its regulatory Ras-related in brain (Rab GTPase Rab11. This protein regulates trafficking from the ERC and the trans-Golgi network to the plasma membrane. Such transport comprises intricate networks of proteins/lipids operating sequentially from the membrane of origin up to the cell surface. Rab11 is also emerging as a critical factor in an increasing number of infections by major animal viruses, including pathogens that provoke human disease. Understanding the interplay between the ERC and viruses is a milestone in human health. Rab11 has been associated with several steps of the viral lifecycles by unclear processes that use sophisticated diversified host machinery. For this reason, we first explore the state-of-the-art on processes regulating membrane composition and trafficking. Subsequently, this review outlines viral interactions with the ERC, highlighting current knowledge on viral-host binding partners. Finally, using examples from the few mechanistic studies available we emphasize how ERC functions are adjusted during infection to remodel cytoskeleton dynamics, innate immunity and membrane composition.

  5. [Human papillomavirus infection and adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam Soto, Selene; de la Peña y Carranza, Alejandro Ortiz; Plascencia, Josefina Lira

    2011-04-01

    Infection with human papillomavirus has increased dramatically in recent years. The highest prevalence rates are among adolescents and young women, reflecting changes in sexual behavior associated with biological factors in adolescent development. Adolescents who begin sexual activity early are at greater risk of precursor lesions and cervical cancer. There are adolescents with special circumstances, where no early decision should be delayed cervical cytology and in whom it is important to initiate consultations and periodic reviews with a preventive approach. Cervical cancer can be avoided when the diagnosis and treatment of precursor lesions is early. Despite efforts at sex education based on "safe sex" with the correct use of condoms has not been able to reduce the incidence of infections with human papillomavirus in adolescents. While better than nothing, condom use is not 100% reliable. Studies show that consistent and correct use provides protection against the human papillomavirus only 70%. In Mexico, reported an overall ratio of actual use of condoms from 24.6%. It is clear that the physician who provides care for adolescents plays a fundamental role in sex education. The key to future prevention of cervical cancer and its precursor lesions could be the vaccination. PMID:21966809

  6. Novel strategies to fight Candida species infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Maria Elisa; Silva, Sónia; Azeredo, Joana; Henriques, Mariana

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the incidence of human fungal infections. The increase in cases of infection caused by Candida species, and the consequent excessive use of antimicrobials, has favored the emergence of resistance to conventional antifungal agents over the past decades. Consequently, Candida infections morbidity and mortality are also increasing. Therefore, new approaches are needed to improve the outcome of patients suffering from Candida infections, because it seems unlikely that the established standard treatments will drastically lower the morbidity of mucocutaneous Candida infections and the high mortality associated with invasive candidiasis. This review aims to present the last advances in the traditional antifungal therapy, and present an overview of novel strategies that are being explored for the treatment of Candida infections, with a special focus on combined antifungal agents, antifungal therapies with alternative compounds (plant extracts and essential oils), adjuvant immunotherapy, photodynamic therapy and laser therapy. PMID:25383647

  7. Modeling Infection with Multi-agent Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Wen; Pentland, Alex "Sandy"

    2012-01-01

    Developing the ability to comprehensively study infections in small populations enables us to improve epidemic models and better advise individuals about potential risks to their health. We currently have a limited understanding of how infections spread within a small population because it has been difficult to closely track an infection within a complete community. The paper presents data closely tracking the spread of an infection centered on a student dormitory, collected by leveraging the residents' use of cellular phones. The data are based on daily symptom surveys taken over a period of four months and proximity tracking through cellular phones. We demonstrate that using a Bayesian, discrete-time multi-agent model of infection to model real-world symptom reports and proximity tracking records gives us important insights about infec-tions in small populations.

  8. IgA nephropathy and infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollino, Cristiana; Vischini, Gisella; Coppo, Rosanna

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we concentrate on the role of infections in IgA nephropathy both from a pathogenetic and clinic point of view. The current hypotheses as regards the role of infections in the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy are: (a) role of particular pathogens, (b) chronic exposure to mucosal infections, (c) abnormal handling of commensal microbes (gut microbiota). We also focus on particular infections reported in association with classic IgA nephropathy (HIV, malaria, Chlamydia, Lyme disease), as well as on IgA dominant-infection-associated glomerulonephritis. This is a unique form of glomerulonephritis, where IgA deposition is dominant. It is mostly recognized in old, diabetic patients and in association with staphylococcal infection. PMID:26800970

  9. Modeling the three stages in HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Vargas, Esteban A; Middleton, Richard H

    2013-03-01

    A typical HIV infection response consists of three stages: an initial acute infection, a long asymptomatic period and a final increase in viral load with simultaneous collapse in healthy CD4+T cell counts. The majority of existing mathematical models give a good representation of either the first two stages or the last stage of the infection. Using macrophages as a long-term active reservoir, a deterministic model is proposed to explain the three stages of the infection including the progression to AIDS. Simulation results illustrate how chronic infected macrophages can explain the progression to AIDS provoking viral explosion. Further simulation studies suggest that the proposed model retains its key properties even under moderately large parameter variations. This model provides important insights on how macrophages might play a crucial role in the long term behavior of HIV infection. PMID:23238280

  10. Viral Infection in Renal Transplant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana Cukuranovic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are among the most common causes of opportunistic infection after transplantation. The risk for viral infection is a function of the specific virus encountered, the intensity of immune suppression used to prevent graft rejection, and other host factors governing susceptibility. Although cytomegalovirus is the most common opportunistic pathogen seen in transplant recipients, numerous other viruses have also affected outcomes. In some cases, preventive measures such as pretransplant screening, prophylactic antiviral therapy, or posttransplant viral monitoring may limit the impact of these infections. Recent advances in laboratory monitoring and antiviral therapy have improved outcomes. Studies of viral latency, reactivation, and the cellular effects of viral infection will provide clues for future strategies in prevention and treatment of viral infections. This paper will summarize the major viral infections seen following transplant and discuss strategies for prevention and management of these potential pathogens.

  11. Stable multi-infection of splenocytes during SIV infection - the basis for continuous recombination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schultz Anke

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recombination is an important mechanism in the generation of genetic diversity of the human (HIV and simian (SIV immunodeficiency viruses. It requires the co-packaging of divergent RNA genomes into the same retroviral capsid and subsequent template switching during the reverse transcription reaction. By HIV-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, we have previously shown that the splenocytes from 2 chronically infected patients with Castelman's disease were multi-infected and thus fulfill the in vivo requirements to generate genetic diversity by recombination. In order to analyze when multi-infection first occurs during a lentivirus infection and how the distribution of multi-infection evolves during the disease course, we now determined the SIV copy numbers from splenocytes of 11 SIVmac251-infected rhesus macaques cross-sectionally covering the time span of primary infection throughout to end-stage immunodeficiency. Results SIV multi-infection of single splenocytes was readily detected in all monkeys and all stages of the infection. Single-infected cells were more frequent than double- or triple- infected cells. There was no strong trend linking the copy number distribution to plasma viral load, disease stage, or CD4 cell counts. Conclusions SIV multi-infection of single cells is already established during the primary infection phase thus enabling recombination to affect viral evolution in vivo throughout the disease course.

  12. Human herpesvirus 6 infections after liver transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel Massih, Rima Camille; Razonable, Raymund R.

    2009-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) infections occur in > 95% of humans. Primary infection, which occurs in early childhood as an asymptomatic illness or manifested clinically as roseola infantum, leads to a state of subclinical viral persistence and latency. Reactivation of latent HHV-6 is common after liver transplantation, possibly induced and facilitated by allograft rejection and immunosuppressive therapy. Since the vast majority of humans harbor the virus in a latent state, HHV-6 infections aft...

  13. Minimally invasive treatment of infected pancreatic necrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Wroński, Marek; Cebulski, Włodzimierz; Słodkowski, Maciej; Krasnodębski, Ireneusz W.

    2014-01-01

    Infected pancreatic necrosis is a challenging complication that worsens prognosis in acute pancreatitis. For years, open necrosectomy has been the mainstay treatment option in infected pancreatic necrosis, although surgical debridement still results in high morbidity and mortality rates. Recently, many reports on minimally invasive treatment in infected pancreatic necrosis have been published. This paper presents a review of minimally invasive techniques and attempts to define their role in t...

  14. Towards multiscale modeling of influenza infection

    OpenAIRE

    Murillo, Lisa N.; Murillo, Michael S.; Alan S Perelson

    2013-01-01

    Aided by recent advances in computational power, algorithms, and higher fidelity data, increasingly detailed theoretical models of infection with influenza A virus are being developed. We review single scale models as they describe influenza infection from intracellular to global scales, and, in particular, we consider those models that capture details specific to influenza and can be used to link different scales. We discuss the few multiscale models of influenza infection that have been dev...

  15. Clostridium difficile infections in China ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Ke; Wang, Shixia; Huang, Zuhu; Lu, Shan

    2010-01-01

    Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infection has become one of the major hospital-associated infections in Western countries in the last two decades. However, there is limited information on the status of C. difficile infection in Chinese healthcare settings. Given the large and increasing elderly population and the well-recognized problem of over-prescribing of broad spectrum antibiotics in China, it is critical to understand the epidemiology and potential risk factors that may contribute ...

  16. Neurologic Parasitic Infections in Immigrants and Travelers

    OpenAIRE

    Thakur, Kiran; Zunt, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Infectious diseases are increasingly common in modern clinical practice and the contemporary neurologist must be aware of the clinical manifestations, potential complications, and management of common travel-related infections. The authors provide an approach to patients who present with neurologic symptoms, with a history of travel to or residence in tropical and developing countries. Although many other infections are important in this demographic, they focus on three parasitic infections t...

  17. Infected total knee arthroplasty treatment outcome analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Radoičić Dragan; Popović Zoran; Barjaktarović Radoslav; Marinković Jugoslav

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aim. Infected total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a topic of great importance, because its diagnosing and treatment requires a lot of resources, and often has an unsatisfactory outcome. The aim of this study was to analyze the outcome of the treatment of infection developed following TKA. Methods. This retrospective study of infected TKAs was performed in the period from 1998 to 2008 in the Orthopedics & Traumatology Clinic of the Military Medical Academy (MMA) in Belgrade. ...

  18. Infections acquired in clinical laboratories in Utah.

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobson, J.T.; Orlob, R B; Clayton, J L

    1985-01-01

    We reviewed laboratory-acquired infections occurring in Utah from 1978 through 1982. Written and telephone interviews of supervisors of 1,191 laboratorians revealed an estimated annual incidence of 3 laboratory-acquired infections per 1,000 employees. Infections, in order of frequency, included hepatitis B (clinical cases), shigellosis, pharyngitis, cellulitis, tuberculosis (skin test conversion), conjunctivitis, and non-A, non-B hepatitis. One-half of large laboratories (over 25 employees), ...

  19. Protective immune responses to fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, A

    2014-09-01

    The incidence of fungal infections has been on the rise over several decades. Fungal infections threaten animals, plants and humans alike and are thus of significant concern to scientists across disciplines. Over the last decade, significant advances on fungal immunology have lead to a better understanding of important mechanisms of host protection against fungi. In this article, I review recent advances of relevant mechanisms of immune-mediated protection to fungal infections.

  20. HIV: Neuropsychiatric Aspects of Infection and Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rute Alves

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since its recognition in the 80s, HIV infection has reached 65 million people worldwide. The presence of the virus in CNS occurs in most patients, increasingly being identified neuropsychiatric disorders associated with infection and / or treatment with ARV. This article intends to briefly review the neuro-pathogenesis and neuropsychiatric disorders associated with HIV infection and treatment with HAART, as well as its therapeutic approach.