Sample records for bunshi kyokugen sosa

  1. FY 1998 annual summary report on manipulation of atomic and molecular extremes. Development of technologies for high-efficiency analysis/manipulation of DNA and the like; 1998 nendo genshi bunshi kyokugen sosa gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. DNA nado kokoritsu kaiseki sosa gijutsu kaihatsu

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    The objectives are set to establish the techniques for observation/manipulation of atoms and molecules, as the common basic techniques for various industrial areas, e.g., new materials, electronics, biotechnology and chemical. Development of atomic field and scanning tunneling microscopes working under extreme conditions has been pursued, in order to manipulate complex systems, such as living body. For identification of molecular species, laser-excited fluorescence is combined with scanning mechanical probing to further refine the single molecule detection/identification techniques, and the objectives are set to develop a new method for evaluating molecules in a living body using a scanning probe microscope, and also to develop a novel scanning probe microscope for molecules in a living body. The other efforts were directed to R and D of the techniques for observing structures of organic molecules and the like through the measurements of adsorption process of organic molecules and clusters on semiconductor substrates and their surface reactions, and precision measurements of vibrational conditions of adsorbed molecular species reacting in the solid-liquid interfaces by high-sensitivity Raman spectroscopy to elucidate the catalysis mechanisms at the molecular level. (NEDO)

  2. Achievement report for fiscal 1998. Research and development of ultimate atom/molecule manipulating technologies (Development of technology for formation of advanced function materials for use under power generation environment); 1998 nendo genshi bunshi kyokugen sosa gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Hatsuden kankyoyo kokino sozai keisei gijutsu kaihatsu

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    The aim is to establish atom/molecule observing and manipulating technologies commonly applicable as basic technologies to industrial fields of new materials, electronics, biotechnology, chemistry, etc. The technologies to be established involve atom level observation and manipulation by mechanically probing into organic molecules such as those of solid surface DNA, microstructure formation with atoms arbitrarily arranged by use of a microfine electron beam and surface chemical properties, simulation by the first principle calculation for the theoretical prediction atom/mole surface application in a process, and new materials to replace semiconductors. The subjects of research and development selected for this fiscal year are the study of silicon nanostructure formation and physical properties, study of nanostructure formation technology based on cluster manipulation, study of nanostructure formation processes using chemical reaction control and local structure analysis, study of new properties of correlation-intensive electron based new materials, study of spin measuring technology, and the study of theoretical analysis of atom/molecule dynamic processes. (NEDO)

  3. Fiscal 1997 R an D project on industrial science and technology under a consignment from NEDO. R and D of the ultimate manipulation technology of atoms and molecules (high-efficiency and analysis and manipulation technology for DNA); 1997 nendo sangyo kagaku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo Shin energy Sangyo gijutsu Sogo Kaihatsu Kiko itaku. Genshi bunshi kyokugen sosa gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho (DNA nado kokoritsu kaiseki sosa gijutsu kaihatsu)

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    This paper describes R and D of the ultimate manipulation technology of atoms and molecules (atom technology). Through the observation of super spiral DNA fixed on a spermin or spermidine treated mica substrate by AFM (atomic force microscope), fixation of DNA without any deformation in solution was clarified, and visualization of the spiral structure of DNA were successfully achieved. Manipulation of Xe atoms adsorbed on an Si(111) surface was certainly possible by using STM (scanning tunneling microscope)/atom probe equipment. A nucleation mechanism in crystal growth was studied for various organic source-molecules/GaAs(001) surface systems, and formation of high-density nuclei on the GaAs surface was achieved by accelerating the translational energy of Ga material molecules up to 6eV or more. Ziegler- Natta catalysis important for industrial polymerization of olefin molecules was precisely analyzed by first-principle dynamic simulation. A large-scale simulation of zeolite catalyst is also in promotion for methanol to gasoline conversion. 51 refs., 87 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Fiscal 1997 R and D project on industrial science and technology under a consignment from NEDO. R and D of the ultimate manipulation technology of atoms and molecules (R and D of the formation of advanced materials for power generation environment); 1997 nendo sangyo kagaku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo Shin energy Sangyo Gijutsu Sogo Kaihatsu Kiko itaku. Genshi bunshi kyokugen sosa gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho (hatsuden kankyoyo kokino sozai keisei gijutsu kaihatsu)

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    This paper describes R and D of the ultimate manipulation technology of atoms and molecules (atom technology). Ten nanoscale Ge islands were successfully formed in proper positions on an Si substrate surface by using mask technology of nanoscale atomic layers. Growth of less-defect ZnSe films on a GaAs(110) surface was possible under various conditions. The magnetic transfer mechanism of Mn oxide with huge reluctance was clarified. Through study on selective-area deposition of Si on plasma-oxidized ultrathin SiO2 mask layers patterned by direct electron-beam exposure and an idea of SiO2/SiNx bilayer mask, direct use of the ultrathin mask layer as insulating layer in device structure was achieved. The superior property as electron beam resist of methano- fullerene composed of fullerene C60 with side chains including oxygen was clarified. The initial oxidation process of an Si(100) surface was analyzed, and the observation result by SREM was theoretically explained. Development of a high-resolution spin polarization electron microscope was also mentioned. 48 refs., 145 figs., 20 tabs.

  5. Sensor Open System Architecture (SOSA) evolution for collaborative standards development (United States)

    Collier, Charles Patrick; Lipkin, Ilya; Davidson, Steven A.; Baldwin, Rusty; Orlovsky, Michael C.; Ibrahim, Tim


    The Sensor Open System Architecture (SOSA) is a C4ISR-focused technical and economic collaborative effort between the Air Force, Navy, Army, the Department of Defense (DoD), Industry, and other Governmental agencies to develop (and incorporate) a technical Open Systems Architecture standard in order to maximize C4ISR sub-system, system, and platform affordability, re-configurability, and hardware/software/firmware re-use. The SOSA effort will effectively create an operational and technical framework for the integration of disparate payloads into C4ISR systems; with a focus on the development of a modular decomposition (defining functions and behaviors) and associated key interfaces (physical and logical) for common multi-purpose architecture for radar, EO/IR, SIGINT, EW, and Communications. SOSA addresses hardware, software, and mechanical/electrical interfaces. The modular decomposition will produce a set of re-useable components, interfaces, and sub-systems that engender reusable capabilities. This, in effect, creates a realistic and affordable ecosystem enabling mission effectiveness through systematic re-use of all available re-composed hardware, software, and electrical/mechanical base components and interfaces. To this end, SOSA will leverage existing standards as much as possible and evolve the SOSA architecture through modification, reuse, and enhancements to achieve C4ISR goals. This paper will present accomplishments over the first year of SOSA initiative.

  6. Sentiment Contagion Based on the Modified SOSa-SPSa Model

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    Zhijie Song


    Full Text Available Sentiment contagion is similar to an infectious disease that spreads in a crowd. In this study, we extend the proposed SOSa-SPSa model (susceptible-optimistic-susceptible and susceptible-pessimistic-susceptible by considering the interaction between optimists and pessimists. Simulation results show that our model is reasonable and can better explain the entire contagion process by considering three groups of people. The recovery speed of pessimists has an obvious regulative effect on the number of pessimists and the possibility of optimists coming in contact with pessimists to be infected as pessimism plays a greater role than that of reverting to susceptibility. The number of pessimists is positively related to the possibility that optimists come in contact with pessimists to become pessimistic but is negatively related to the possibility of the other way around. When the speed of spontaneous generation is slow, the number of pessimists sharply increases. However, the increase is not so apparent when the speed of spontaneous generation reaches a certain number.


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    Ignacio Pérez Abril


    Full Text Available El presente trabajo trata la determinación de las variantes de compensación del factor de potencia en la industriaquímica Cloro Sosa de Sagua. Para resolver este problema se emplea la simulación del modelo del sistema paraobtener el comportamiento del sistema de potencia y determinar los beneficios de cada variante. Para este trabajo,se han desarrollado dos programas en Matlab 5.3 para implementar el Flujo de Potencia de Armónicos y el Barridode Frecuencia.  The presented paper deals with the determination of the power factor compensation variants in the chemicalindustry Cloro Sosa of Sagua. To solve the presented problem the simulation of the system model is developed toobtain the power system performance and determine the benefices of each variant. For this work, two Matlab 5.3programs have been developed to implement de Harmonic Power Flow and the Frequency Scan procedures.

  8. SOSA – a new model to simulate the concentrations of organic vapours and sulphuric acid inside the ABL – Part 1: Model description and initial evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boy, M.; Sogachev, Andrey; Lauros, J.


    Chemistry in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is controlled by complex processes of surface fluxes, flow, turbulent transport, and chemical reactions. We present a new model SOSA (model to simulate the concentration of organic vapours and sulphuric acid) and attempt to reconstruct the emissions......, transport and chemistry in the ABL in and above a vegetation canopy using tower measurements from the SMEAR II at Hyytiälä, Finland and available soundings data from neighbouring meteorological stations. Using the sounding data for upper boundary condition and nudging the model to tower measurements...

  9. SOSA – a new model to simulate the concentrations of organic vapours and sulphuric acid inside the ABL – Part 1: Model description and initial evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boy, M.; Sogachev, Andrey; Lauros, J.


    Chemistry in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is controlled by complex processes of surface fluxes, flow, turbulent transport, and chemical reactions. We present a new model SOSA (model to simulate the concentration of organic vapours and sulphuric acid) and attempt to reconstruct the emissions......, transport and chemistry in the ABL in and above a vegetation canopy using tower measurements from the SMEAR II at Hyytiälä, Finland and available soundings data from neighbouring meteorological stations. Using the sounding data for upper boundary condition and nudging the model to tower measurements...

  10. Olhar sobre as metáforas cantadas por Mercedes Sosa e outros cantores durante as ditaduras militares na Argentina e outros países da América Latina


    Elissandro dos Santos Santana


    Esse trabalho é fruto do projeto Elaboração de Material Didático para o ensino de Língua Espanhola e o recorte é a música no ensino de espanhol como língua estrangeira (ELE): uma abordagem interdisciplinar e multicultural. O corpus de investigação, letras e biografias de cantores e cantoras censurados em ditaduras da América Latina, serviu como pano de fundo para a análise de algumas das metáforas presentes nas canções interpretadas por Mercedes Sosa e outros artistas de países latino-america...

  11. La competencia terminológica: causas lingüísticas en el auge del término sosa y el declive de barrilla en los siglos XVIII y XIX

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    Sala Caja, Lidia


    Full Text Available From the Middle Ages onwards plant ashes were commonly used throughrout Europe in the elaboration of soap and glass. These ashes were known by different names depending on the vegetables employed and the quality of the product. In Spain sosa (soda and barrilla (barilla were the most widespread.
    Due to the reconceptualization of their primary references, these two words underwent considerable semantic changes during the XVIIIth and the XIXth centuries. The aim of this paper is to survey these changes focusing on their intralinguistic factors.

    Desde la Edad Media las cenizas de las plantas solían emplearse en toda Europa en la elaboración del jabón y del vidrio. Estas cenizas eran conocidas con diferentes términos derivados de los vegetales empleados y la cualidad del producto. En España la sosa y la barrilla eran las más extendidas. Debido a la reconceptualización de sus referencias iniciales, ambas denominaciones sufrieron considerables cambios semánticos durante los siglos XVIII y XIX. El propósito de este artículo es observar estos cambios subrayando los factores intralingüísticos.

  12. Olhar sobre as metáforas cantadas por Mercedes Sosa e outros cantores durante as ditaduras militares na Argentina e outros países da América Latina

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    Elissandro dos Santos Santana


    Full Text Available Esse trabalho é fruto do projeto Elaboração de Material Didático para o ensino de Língua Espanhola e o recorte é a música no ensino de espanhol como língua estrangeira (ELE: uma abordagem interdisciplinar e multicultural. O corpus de investigação, letras e biografias de cantores e cantoras censurados em ditaduras da América Latina, serviu como pano de fundo para a análise de algumas das metáforas presentes nas canções interpretadas por Mercedes Sosa e outros artistas de países latino-americanos como Brasil, Chile e Cuba.

  13. Research on harmonized molecular materials; Bunshi kyocho zairyo ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

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    Harmonized molecular materials (HMM) were researched to create functional materials adaptable to needs such as environmental harmony and high-efficient conversion in post-industrial society and aging society. Superior mechanisms function efficiently in organisms for perception, transmission and processing of information, and transport and conversion of substances. These functions are caused by harmonization between organic molecules, or organic molecule and metal or inorganic substance. HMM is a key substance to realize these functions similar to those of organisms artificially. It is the purpose of this research to develop HMMs, reform production process by innovating separation and conversion technologies, and finally realize molecular chemical plants. This research also develops high-efficient devices to contribute to the information society, and progresses the industry of bio-functional materials such as high-sensitive bio-sensor. The functions, applications and creation technologies of three kinds of HMM such as assembly, mesophase and microporous materials were researched in fiscal 1995. 956 refs., 128 figs., 13 tabs.

  14. Research study on harmonized molecular materials (HMM); Bunshi kyocho zairyo ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

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    As functional material to satisfy various needs for environmental harmonization and efficient conversion for information-oriented and aging societies, HMM were surveyed. Living bodies effectively carry out transmission/processing of information, and transport/conversion of substances, and these functions are based on harmonization between organic molecules, and between those and metal or inorganic ones. HMM is a key substance to artificially realize these bio-related functions. Its R & D aims at (1) Making a breakthrough in production process based on innovation of material separation/conversion technology, (2) Contribution to an information-oriented society by high-efficiency devices, and (3) Growth of a functional bio-material industry. HMM is classified into three categories: (1) Assembly materials such as organic ultra-thin films (LB film, self-organizing film), and organic/inorganic hybrid materials for optoelectronics, sensors and devices, (2) Mesophase materials such as functional separation membrane and photo-conductive material, and (3) Microporous materials such as synthetic catalyst using guest/host materials. 571 refs., 88 figs., 21 tabs.

  15. Future of quantum chemistry and molecular design. Ryoshi kagaku to bunshi sekkei no shorai

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    Kashiwagi, H. (Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu (Japan))


    This paper describes a quantum chemistry approach to organism molecules being made possible from advancing electronic computers. The results of studies at the Molecular Chemistry Research Institute are presented, that have pursued out-of-plane movements of iron ions in hemoglobin's oxygen adsorption and desorption using the molecule orbital theory. Iron ions of dioxiheme not attached with oxygen molecules belong to a group with the smallest curvature and are in a state easily drawn out of the plane. When attached with oxygen, the iron ions change to a group with the largest curvature, becoming difficult to exit out of the plane. These facts revealed that the molecule called heme plays a role of translational motor in a micromachine, from which designing a micromachine in nanometer orders can be expected. The Kyushu Institute of Technology has introduced a network system for education and research of life science, and completed arranging an environment that enables executing numerical simulation of living organism systems, and homology analyses of protein and nucleic acid. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  16. An Army-Centric System of Systems Analysis (SoSA) Definition (United States)


    elements. Adaptation can be via adding new roles or by modifying current roles. 8. Support Congruence : This principle refers to the desired similarity...2001, 1, 133–45. 33. Yates, F. E. Order and Complexity in Dynamical Systems: Homeodynamics as a Generalized Mechanics for Biology. Math Comp Model

  17. Ab initio calculations for a relationship between impact sensitivity and molecular structure in HMX polymorphs. HMX kessho takei no shogeki kando to bunshi kozo tono sokan ni kansuru hi keikenteki bunshi kidoho ni yoru kenkyu

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    Kono, Y.; Tsuchioka, T.; Hashizume, T. (Chugoku Kayaku Co. Ltd., Hiroshima (Japan)); Azuma, N. (Ehime Univ., Ehime (Japan). Faculty of General Education); Maekawa, K.; Imamura, A. (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science)


    HMX, nitramine-based high performance explosive, is a ring nitramine compound called chemically octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine, and has 4 kinds of crystal polymorphs, [alpha], [beta], [gamma] and [delta]. Values of impact sensitivity of these four crystal polymorphs are different each other and the most stable [beta] is being produced. In this paper, ab initio [beta] calculations (STO-3G) based on the molecular structure in the crystal have been conducted on all of the above HMX crystal polymorphs and the X-ray structural analysis has also been done on the molecular structure of [beta]. As a result, 0.032 has been obtained as the ultimate R index for 734 independent reflections. Concerning the crystal, it is single crystal, its space group is P2[sub 1] /n, and its lattice constants are [alpha] = 6.5347(4), b=11.0296(6),c=7.3549(5), [angstrom] [beta] =102.689(5) [degree], and Zeta=2. When calculations are made on these bases, all energy and impact sensitivity correlate except[gamma]. 21 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Study on molecular controlled mining system of methane hydrate; Methane hydrate no bunshi seigyo mining ni kansuru kenkyu

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    Kuriyagawa, M.; Saito, T.; Kobayashi, H.; Karasawa, H.; Kiyono , F.; Nagaoki, R.; Yamamoto, Y.; Komai, T.; Haneda, H.; Takahashi, Y. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan); Nada, H. [Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo (Japan)


    Basic studies are conducted for the collection of methane from the methane hydrate that exists at levels deeper than 500m in the sea. The relationship between the hydrate generation mechanism and water cluster structure is examined by use of mass spectronomy. It is found that, among the stable liquid phase clusters, the (H2O)21H{sup +} cluster is the most stable. Stable hydrate clusters are in presence in quantities, and participate in the formation of hydrate crystal nuclei. For the elucidation of the nucleus formation mechanism, a kinetic simulation is conducted of molecules in the cohesion system consisting of water and methane molecules. Water molecules that array near methane molecules at the normal pressure is disarrayed under a higher pressure for rearray into a hydrate structure. Hydrate formation and breakdown in the three-phase equilibrium state of H2O, CH4, and CO2 at a low temperature and high pressure are tested, which discloses that supercooling is required for formation, that it is possible to extract CH4 first for replacement by guest molecule CO2 since CO2 is stabler than CH4 at a lower pressure or higher temperature, and that formation is easier to take place when the grain diameter is larger at the formation point since larger grain diameters result in a higher formation temperature. 3 figs.

  19. Diana Sosa Cárdenas. Los pardos. Caracas en las postrimerías de la Colonia

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    Luis Fernando Castillo Herrera


    Full Text Available La sociedad colonial, dominada por las leyes y estatutos implantados por la Corona española, estuvo marcada por una notable división social, fundamentada principalmente en las características raciales, los bienes de fortuna y la denominada limpieza de sangre. En aquel escenario, serán los pardos la clase social más controvertida, enfrentados en consecuentes litigios con la alta aristocracia criolla inferior numéricamente, pero de gran poder económico y político en algunos casos puntuales.

  20. Research and development project of ultimate working robots. ; Basic technologies. Kyokugen sagyo robot no kenkyu kaihatsu. ; Kiban gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu

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    The research results in fiscal 1989 were reported of Research and development project of basic technologies for ultimate working robots'' promoted by NEDO. The array and signal processor for a three-axis sensor of 1mm in accuracy were fabricated to evaluate their characteristics, and the inference engine recognizable slip, hardness and moment as tactile information was constructed to simulate its characteristics. The trial force control actuator with a high-sensitive torque sensor was fabricated, and its characteristics were evaluated by applying it to a three-freedom actuator for a wrist joint. The trial force controller was fabricated to compensate non-linearity of the force control actuator by softwares, and its non-interacting controllability was evaluated by applying it to a three-freedom arm. Grammar specifications of the previously developed robot language were integrated among languages for movement, manipulation and sensor systems.

  1. Acquisition method of the peculiar recognition molecule for separation and analysis; Bunri {center_dot} bunseki no tameno tokuiteki ninshiki bunshi no shutokuho

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    Kato, Shigeo; Murao, Kenji [Kobe University, Kobe (Japan)


    In this review on acquisition method of the peculiar recognition molecule for separation and analysis, the following were outlined: Protein production which fused the affinity tag for the specific separation and selection process of monoclonal antibody from combinatorial library. And, the usefulness of anti-peptide antibody in the immunisation affinity separation was described. N- of the separation object protein or anti-peptide antibody for the peptide of the C- end part adsorbed antigen peptide and object protein, and the adsorption protein was able to be eluted under the moderate condition in the eluate including the antigen peptide. (translated by NEDO)

  2. Control of population of excited nitrogen molecules by mixing hydrogen in low pressure discharge; Chisso jun`antei reiki bunshi mitsudo no quenching ni yoru seigyo no kento

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    Uematsu, K.; Yumoto, M.; Sakai, T. [Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)


    The authors have studied on surface treatment of PTFE by a low pressure discharge. It is deduced that excited nitrogen molecules contribute to introduce polar components on the surface. To confirm the speculation, we tried to change population of metastable nitrogen N2 (A{sup 3}{Sigma}u{sup +}) by quenching precursor N2 (B{sup 3}{pi}g), with hydrogen molecule. The decrease of relaxation time which indicates a change of excited molecule and measured by emission spectroscopy using a time after glow method was obtained. As a result, the relaxation times of N2 (B{sup 3}{pi}g) and N2 (A{sup 3}{Sigma}u{sup +}) decreased to 55% and 20% respectively, when mixing ratio of hydrogen was 3%. It was also deduced that hydrogen atom may take a part in a quenching process of N2 (A{sup 3}{Sigma}u{sup +}). 14 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  3. R and D project for large industrial technologies in fiscal 1990. Report on achievements in R and D of robots for critical works; 1990 nendo seika hokokusho. Ogata kogyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo. Kyokugen sagyo robot no kenkyu kaihatsu

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    Research and development have been performed on basic technologies common to different types of robots to carry out works in critical conditions. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1990. In the R and D of tactile sensors, a prototype multi-element sensor array applicable to fingers of a robot hand was produced, and the characteristics test was conducted. In the R and D of motive force technologies, a force controlled actuator for wrist containing a torque sensor was designed and produced on a trial basis, whereas evaluations were given on the size and weight reduction and the force control performance. Regarding the actuator with redundant degree of freedom, a force controlled arm was attached with an actuator with three degrees of freedom to have performed an evaluation experiment. With regard to a small size and light weight controller, fabrication was carried out on a multi-function, high-density controller which adds positional control and peripheral interface functions to the force controlling function, and an evaluation was given. In the R and D of robot language, discussions were given on robot languages related to each system of movement, manipulation, and sensors, and the grammar specifications were prepared. (NEDO)

  4. R and D project for large industrial technologies in fiscal 1989. Report on achievements in R and D of robots for critical works; 1989 nendo seika hokokusho. Ogata kogyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo. Kyokugen sagyo robot no kenkyu kaihatsu

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    Research and development have been performed on basic technologies common to different types of robots to carry out works in critical conditions. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1989. In the R and D of sensor technologies, a prototype tri-axial one-millimeter sensor array and a signal processing device were produced and evaluations were given. A prototype production and evaluations were made on a system that can recognize comprehensively the slip, hardness, and moment as the tri-axial tactile information. In the R and D of motive force technologies, discussions were given on improvement of sensitivity of the torque sensor in the actuator for force control. Design and prototype fabrication were carried out on a speed reducer integrated actuator having a torque sensor for the manipulator's elbow joint. In addition, a force controlled controller was fabricated on a trial basis, which compensates the non-linearity of the force controlled actuator by means of software control. In the R and D of the robot languages, an application program was prepared on a representative work related to movements of a critical work robot. Verification was also conducted on the reasonability of the grammar specifications. (NEDO)

  5. Molecular dynamics of the formation process of fullerene. 2nd Report. Annealing to the perfect C60 structure; Fullerene seisei katei no bunshi dorikigaku. 2. Kanzenna C60 eno annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, S.; Yamaguchi, Y. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)


    The formation of a fullerene was simulated using the molecular dynamics method. The clustering process starting from 500 isolated carbon atoms was simulated under nearly equilibrium conditions at Tc=3000 K with a density of 30 times lower than that in our previous study for investigation of the effect of annealing during collisions. The small clusters appeared in this simulation were simpler than those in the previous case; they were grown with a simple chain or ring structure for C{sub n<20}, a 3-dimensional chaotic structure for around C{sub 2040}. Since the density of carbon atoms in the simulation was still high due to the computational limitation, these clusters are expected to have a much longer collision free time in practice. For further evaluation of the effect of annealing, a C60 structure obtained from the simulation was annealed without collision at Tc=2500 K. Through successive organized network transformations known as Stone Wales rearrangement, a perfect fullerene structured C60 was finally formed in about 50 ns. From the viewpoint of the Arrehenius type reaction rate of rearrangement, the high temperature of 2500 K and the time-share of 50 ns for annealing were comparable to experimental conditions. 39 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Enhancement of hemolytic and catecholamine releasing activities of mastoparan by the dendrimeric formation; Masutoparan bunshi no jujoka ni yoru sekkekyu yoketsu sayo to katekoru amin hoshutsu sayo no kokasseika

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    Kurita, Takashi; Kosemura, Yoshiko; Ito, Hisashi [Aoyama Gakuin University, Tokyo (Japan). Department of Chemistry; Kumakura, Konosuke [Sophia University, Tokyo (Japan). Life Science Institute; Kasai, Hisataka [Tokyo Metropolitan University of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan)


    As a trial to enhance activity of bioactive peptide, the dendrimeric formation of mastoparan (MP), a wasp venom toxic peptide, was carried out. We synthesized dendrimeric MPs consisting of 2,4 and 8 MP molecules formed on a branching lysine-core, and examined the hemolytic and catecholamine releasing activities and the circular dichroism. The activities of dendrimeric MPs were higher than that of MP and the {alpha}-helical contents increased with the increase of the number of branches in the dendrimers. The most potent dendrimer in hemolytic activity, approximately 8000 times as active as MP, was octameric MP which took 35 % {alpha}-helical content even in an aqueous buffer. Our results indicated that the dendrimeric formation of an amphipathic peptide should be a useful way to obtain highly active peptide as shown already in immunogenicity. (author)

  7. Wall effect in deactivation of excited molecular oxygen {sup 1}{delta}g; Reiki sanso bunshi {sup 1}{delta}g no shikkatsu ni oyobosu hyomen hanno no eikyo

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    Takahashi, S.; Hasegawa, Y.; Yamashita, I. [Mechanical Engineering Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan)


    This paper discusses effects of surface reaction on deactivation of excited molecular oxygen in {sup 1}{Delta}g condition. Gaseous oxygen containing excited oxygen generated by microwave discharge at a concentration of less than 1% is flown into several kinds of tubes to be measured such as quartz tubes (with an inner diameter of about 10 mm), and the light emitting intensity of the excited oxygen was measured upstream and downstream of the tubes to be measured (with in-tube pressure of 1 Torr or 2 Torr) to derive its concentration change. The surface reaction on the tube wall was regarded as a primary reaction, and the concentration change of the excited oxygen in flows in the round tube (attributable to the surface reaction) was analyzed. With respect to effects of tube wall materials on deactivation of the excited molecular oxygen, the surface deactivation probability in the case of using low-activity materials has decreased in the order of Pyrex, PVC, quartz, PFA and PTFE. The surface deactivation probability in the case of using a metallic material, SUS316L, was about 1000 times larger than that in the quartz. 14 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Quantum analysis in the transition process to excited state of an oxygen molecule induced by electron collisions; Denshi shototsu ni tomonau sanso bunshi ni okeru reiki jotai sen`i no ryoshironteki kaiseki

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    Ishimaru, K. [Gifu National College of Technology, Gifu (Japan); Okazaki, K. [Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)


    For understanding of fundamental chemical reactions under a highly non equilibrium condition which is quite often used in plasma processing, the relevant atomic and molecular processes must be clarified. In this study, an analysis of the transition process to the excited state of an oxygen molecule induced by electron collisions in the oxygen plasma has been carried out. First, the electron density distribution in an oxygen molecule has been calculated using the extended Huckel molecular orbital method. Then, the electron potential energy distribution in the transition process to the excited state has been estimated. The electron behavior has been calculated using the estimated unidimensional electron potential energy distribution and unsteady quantum mechanics. As a result, the transition process to the excited state of an oxygen molecule induced by electron collisions and its conditions have been clarified qualitatively. 9 refs., 9 figs.

  9. Connected enzyme synthesis of the masking into cells precursor with the selective product separation operation; Sentakuteki seiseibutsu bunri sosa wo tomonau saibo hakai shahei pepuchido (Masking intocells) zenkutai no rensozu koso gosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Yoshihiko; Oda, Takaya; Chiba, Kazuyuki; Hirata, Akira [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan)


    By administering in vivo by using jointly with cleaning agent which is a kind of anticancer drug, Z-GlyPhe (Benzyloxycarbonyl-{sup L}-glycyl-{sup L}-phenylalanine) the disruption to the normal cell by the cleaning agent is shielded and has the action in which only the cancer cell is destroyed. Since equilibrium in reaction inclines toward the peptide decomposition side, in this study, the. Yield is about 10% of the some, when this peptide was enzymatically synthesized in. aqueous medium which examined the efficient and connected synthesis of cell disruption shielding peptide precursor (Z-GlyPheOMe) using the biocatalyst action of the enzyme. However, peptide is distributed at the organic solvent phase in the water/biphasic organic-aqueous system, since it is a nonionic material in the molecular structure without leaving group. With the enzyme reaction in water phase, by selectively separating the extraction to organic phase, equilibrium in reaction in water phase was improved, and close 100% high yield was achieved got. (translated by NEDO)

  10. Untreated surgical conditions in Malawi: A randomised cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SOSAS) was used to collect data.1,2 The authors received permission to use the SOSAS tool for no cost. This is a .... Norwegian Regional Research ethics committee (approval: .... One of the main limitations of this survey is recall of events,.

  11. Safety of Thyroidectomy at a rural District Hospital in Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jan 16, 2010 ... 55(10):693-702. 12. Sosa JA, Mehta PJ, Wang TS et al. A population-based study of outcomes from thyroidectomy in aging Americans: at what cost? J Am Coll Surg.2008 Jun;206(3):1097-105. 13. Sosa JA, Mehta PJ, Wang TS, et al. Racial disparities in clinical and economic outcomes from thyroidectomy.

  12. Macrophage Function in Early Dissemination and Dormancy of Breast Cancer (United States)


    cells.“ Nina Linde, Arthur Mortha, Nicole Saenger, Maria Soledad Sosa, Ethan Tardio, Tanja Fehm, Thomas Karn, Miriam Merad, and Julio A. Aguirre...following pages Macrophages orchestrate early dissemination of HER2+ cancer cells. Nina Linde1, Arthur Mortha2, Nicole Saenger3, Maria Soledad Sosa1, Ethan

  13. Research and development of basic technologies for next generation industries, 'high-efficiency polymeric separation membrane material'. Evaluation on second term final research and development (first report); Jisesdai sangyo kiban gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu. Kokoritsu bunshi bunrimaku zairyo (dainiki kenkyu kaihatsu hyoka)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This study is intended to establish a basic technology for innovative high-efficiency separation membrane materials that can be used in areas in which application of membrane separation has been impossible. The water/ethanol separation membrane (for water selective permeation) and water/acetic acid separation membrane (for water selective permeation) achieved separation coefficient and permeation velocity of the world's highest level. The water/ethanol separation membrane (for ethanol selective permeation), although its separation coefficient is lower than the world's highest performance, has high permeation velocity, providing the performance of the worldwide level as seen from the comprehensive viewpoint. The carbon monoxide/nitrogen separation membrane achieved separation coefficient and permeation velocity of the world's highest level. The oxygen/nitrogen separation membrane requires further enhancement in the permeation velocity and stability. Establishment has been performed on separation technologies for membrane separation of non-water soluble aqueous solutions, optical division by using chiral crown ether, high-performance liquid separation by means of plasma surface treatment, and particle separation. Basic analysis has been advanced also on evaluation technologies for gaseous body separation membrane and liquid separation membrane, of which future progress is expected. (NEDO)

  14. Test and survey on a next generation coal liquefying catalyst. Coal molecule scientific test and survey as the base for commercializing the coal liquefying technology; Jisedai sekitan ekika shokubai shiken chosa. Sekitan ekika gijutsu shogyoka kiban to shite no sekitan bunshi kagaku shiken chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The test and survey on a next generation coal liquefying catalyst present a new proposal to raise catalytic activity in coal liquefaction, and perform demonstration experiments in a laboratory scale to search for possibility of developing a new coal liquefying catalyst from various viewpoints. To explain, discussions were given on the catalyst to perform the followings: liquefaction under extremely mild conditions by using ultra strong acids not limited only to metals; ion exchange method and swell carrying method to raise catalyst dispersion very highly, enhance the catalytic activity, and reduce the amount of catalyst to be used; mechanism of producing catalyst activating species to further enhance the activity of iron catalysts; and pursuit of morphological change in the activating species. The coal molecule scientific test and survey as the base for commercializing the coal liquefying technology performed the studies on the following items: pretreatment of coal that can realize reduction of coal liquefaction cost; configuration of the liquefaction reaction, liquefying catalysts, hydrocarbon gas generating mechanism, status of catalysts after liquefaction reaction, and reduction in gas purification cost by using gas separating membranes. Future possibilities were further searched through frank and constructive opinion exchanges among the committee members. (NEDO)

  15. Dream Skepticism and the Conditionality Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Kristoffer


    Recently, Ernest Sosa (2007) has proposed two novel solutions to the problem of dream skepticism. In the present paper, I argue that Sosa's first solution falls prey to what I will refer to as the conditionality problem, i.e., the problem of only establishing a conditional---in this case, "if x......, then I am awake," x being a placeholder for a condition incompatible with dreaming---in a context where it also needs to be established that we can know that the antecedent holds, and as such can infer the consequent, i.e., "I am awake." Sosa's second solution in terms of so-called reflective knowledge......, I conclude that Sosa has not solved the problem of dream skepticism....

  16. Concentrating on the Enemy: The Transformation Under-Fire of Former Regime Militias into Post-Conflict Guerrillas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Western, Charles A


    ... (Mobilisation Resistance Force) militia in the event of a war with Iran. The author uses Dr. Joe Strange's method of identifying the "center of gravity" and consequent critical vulnerabilities overlaying a System of Systems Analysis (SoSA) framework...

  17. Surgical needs of Nepal: pilot study of population based survey in Pokhara, Nepal. (United States)

    Gupta, Shailvi; Ranjit, Anju; Shrestha, Ritesh; Wong, Evan G; Robinson, William C; Shrestha, Sunil; Nwomeh, Benedict C; Groen, Reinou S; Kushner, Adam L


    The Surgeons OverSeas assessment of surgical need (SOSAS) tool, a population-based survey on surgical conditions in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), was performed in Sierra Leone and Rwanda. This pilot study in Nepal is the initial implementation of the SOSAS survey in South Asia. A pilot study of SOSAS, modified for Nepal's needs and reprogrammed using mobile data collection software, was undertaken in Pokhara in January 2014. Cluster randomized sampling was utilized to interview 100 individuals in 50 households within two wards of Pokhara, one rural and one urban. The first portion of the survey retrieved demographic data, including household members and time to nearest health facilities. The second portion interviewed two randomly selected individuals from each household, inquiring about surgical conditions covering six anatomical regions. The pilot SOSAS in Nepal was easily completed over 3 days, including training of 18 Nepali interns over 2 days. The response rate was 100 %. A total of 13 respondents had a current surgical need (face 4, chest 1, back 1, abdomen 1, groin 3, extremity 3), although eight reported there was no need for surgical care. Five respondents (5 %) had a current unmet surgical need. The SOSAS pilot study in Nepal was successfully conducted, demonstrating the feasibility of performing SOSAS in South Asia. The estimated 5 % current unmet surgical need will be used for sample size calculation for the full country survey. Utilizing and improving on the SOSAS tool to measure the prevalence of surgical conditions in Nepal will help enumerate the global surgical burden of disease.

  18. Book Review Society and the object. Views from the identity, design and information / Reseña La sociedad y el objeto. Miradas desde la identidad, diseño e información

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Manuel Fitch Osuna


    Full Text Available Book Review: Mercedes Mercado; Álvaro Ríos; Liliana Sosa; and Gerardo Vázquez (2012 Identity, design, information. Publisher: University of Nuevo León, Monterrey (Mexico. Pages: 195. ISBN: 978-607-27-0016-1. Reseña del libro: Mercedes Mercado; Álvaro Ríos; Liliana Sosa; y Gerardo Vázquez (2012: Identidad, diseño, información. Editorial: Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Monterrey (México. Páginas: 195. ISBN: 978-607-27-0016-1.

  19. Aislamiento e identificación de los rizobios asociados a los nódulos de "Astragalus Nitidiflorus"


    Real Giménez, Noelia


    El género Astragalus es considerado el más rico dentro de las leguminosas (Gómez- Sosa, 1979) y el más numeroso de las plantas con flor. Se estima que lo conforman entre 2500 y 3000 especies (Podlech, 1986; Lock y Simpson, 1991) que se distribuye en regiones frías y áridas de casi todo el mundo, exceptuando Australia y Nueva Zelanda (Goméz-Sosa, 1979). En Norteamérica se estiman 400 a 450 especies y en los Andes de Sudamérica hay aproximadamente 100, pero es especialmente diver...

  20. Preoperatively Screened Obstructive Sleep Apnea Is Associated With Worse Postoperative Outcomes Than Previously Diagnosed Obstructive Sleep Apnea. (United States)

    Fernandez-Bustamante, Ana; Bartels, Karsten; Clavijo, Claudia; Scott, Benjamin K; Kacmar, Rachel; Bullard, Kenneth; Moss, Angela F D; Henderson, William; Juarez-Colunga, Elizabeth; Jameson, Leslie


    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects up to 26% of US adults, is often undiagnosed, and increases perioperative morbidity. We hypothesized that patients screened on the day of surgery as moderate/high risk for OSA (S-OSA) present similar perioperative respiratory complications, hospital use, and mortality than patients with previously diagnosed OSA (D-OSA). Second, we hypothesized that both OSA groups have more respiratory complications than No-OSA patients. The electronic medical database from 1 academic and 2 community hospitals was retrospectively queried to identify adults undergoing nonemergent inpatient surgery (January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2014). Based on the day-of-surgery preoperative assessment and STOP-BANG (Snoring, Tiredness, Observed apnea during sleep, high blood Pressure, Body mass index >35, Age >50 years, thick Neck, Gender male) score, they were classified as D-OSA, S-OSA, or No-OSA. Perioperative respiratory events and interventions, hospital use, and mortality were measured. The primary outcome composite (adverse respiratory events [AREs]) included perioperative hypoxemic events and difficult airway management. Hypoxemic event was defined as peripheral saturation of oxygen (SpO2) <90% by continuous pulse oximetry for ≥3 minutes, or if validated and/or manually entered into the medical chart. Hypoxemia was classified as mild (lowest SpO2 86%-89%) or moderate/severe (lowest SpO2 ≤85%). Secondary outcomes included postoperative respiratory interventions, intensive care unit admission, hospital length of stay, and 30-day and 1-year all-cause mortality. Outcomes were compared using linear and logistic regression analyses. A total of 28,912 patients were assessed: 3432 (11.9%) D-OSA; 1546 (5.3%) S-OSA; and 23,934 (82.8%) No-OSA patients. At least 1 ARE was present in 68.0% of S-OSA; 71.0% of D-OSA; and 52.1% of No-OSA patients (unadjusted P < .001), primarily ≥1 moderate/severe hypoxemic event after discharge from the postanesthesia care

  1. Fiscal 1997 project on the R and D of industrial scientific technology under consignment form NEDO. Report on the results of the R and D of technologies to invent original high-functional materials (technical development of structure control materials / R and D of molecular harmonized materials); 1997 nendo sangyo kagaku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo Shin Energy Sangyo Gijutsu Sogo Kaihatsu Kiko itaku. Dokusoteki kokino zairyo sosei gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (kozo seigyo zairyo gijutsu kaihatsu) bunshi kyocho zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    By establishing microtechnology using molecular-level bottoming-up (molecular harmonization) by imitating the system of living organism, the paper described the R and D of molecular harmonized materials aiming at developing high-functional/high-performance materials such as high-performance catalyst, photo-information functional materials and sensing materials. Under consignment from NEDO, Japan Chemical innovation Institute started the 5-year plan in fiscal 1997. Self-assembled molecular films, in which organic molecules are orderly arranged by self-assembly, aim at developing new memory/optical/sensing materials. Mesophase materials which are such materials as liquid crystal showing the intermediate state between solid and liquid, develop optical/photoconductive materials using precise molecular orientation controllability. Macroporous materials are such substances as zeolite having molecular size micro pores. The paper aims at establishment of synthesis techniques of them and development of high-performance catalyst, etc. using them. In the comprehensive investigational research, conducted was a survey of the trend overseas in addition to a study of subjects in question. Further, the supporting basic study was reconsigned to universities, etc. 57 refs., 62 figs., 17 tabs.

  2. Acute Blast Injury Reduces Brain Abeta in Two Rodent Species (United States)


    Traumatic brain injury: football , warfare, and long- term effects. N. Engl. J. Med. 363, 1293–1296. Elder, G. A., Dorr, N. P., De Gasperi, R., Gama Sosa, M. (2012). Intranasal administration of nerve growth fac - tor ameliorate beta-amyloid deposi- tion after traumatic brain injury in rats. Brain Res

  3. Environmental Analysis of U.S. Navy Submarine Solid Waste Discharges. Report of Findings (United States)


    Sosa. Pollution By Solid Wastes Carried By Marine Currents To The Caribbean Coast ofHonduras. Revista De Biologia Tropical, V38 N2, pp. 339-342...Oceanographic Institution Reference; 72-7. Dicks, B. 1986. Oil and The Black Mangrove, Avicennia Marina in The Northern Red Sea. Marine Pollution Bulletin

  4. A new species of Hemerobiella Kimmins (Neuroptera, Hemerobiidae) from Venezuela with notes on the genus. (United States)

    Sosa, Francisco; Lara, Rogéria I R; Martins, Caleb C


    Hemerobiella periotoi Sosa & Lara sp. nov. is described from Venezuela. The new species was collected at the edges of a mature cloud forest in Lara state. This is the third species known in Hemerobiella Kimmins, and the second recorded from Venezuela. Additionally, new Venezuelan records and illustrations of H. oswaldi Monserrat, as well as, a key to Hemerobiella species are provided.

  5. Démocratisation de l'information sur les marchés des produits ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Pays. Amérique du Sud, Uruguay, Amérique Nord et Centrale. Chargé(e) de projet. Andres de Sosa. Institution. Instituto Interamericano de Cooperación para la Agricultura. Pays d' institution. Costa Rica. Site internet. Chargé(e) de projet. Fernando Gemelli. Institution. Intendencia Municipal de Montevideo.

  6. International Conference on Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES) (United States)


    erate anemia is present and the patient has chronic discomfort, significant splenic enlargement, or biliary lithiasis but does not require...procedure of choice for the vast majority of individuals with symptomatic chole- lithiasis . The advantages of the laparoscopic technique include...E. Sivignon F. Sosa L. Amouyal P (2000) Choledocho- lithiasis : a prospective study of spontaneous common bile duct stone migration. Gastrointest

  7. La construcción simbólica del tejido social : adaptación y protección de la población en situación de desplazamiento forzado /


    Zapata Jiménez, Myriam Alba sustentante.


     tesis que para obtener el grado de Doctor en Estudios Latinoamericanos, presenta Myriam Alba Zapata Jiménez ; asesor Ignacio Sosa Álvarez, Horacio Crespo, Alexander Betancourt Mendieta. 344 páginas : ilustraciones. Doctorado en Estudios Latinoamericanos UNAM, Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, 2009

  8. Adhoccery in Epistemology | Brogaard | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ernest Sosa has argued that the relevant alternatives theory of knowledge has yet to overcome serious difficulties. The most serious difficulty is that of providing criteria for when a rival alternative to a claim is relevant. Without such criteria, the theory is ad hoc. I argue that most other externalist theories of knowledge, ...

  9. The great depression in Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay : revisiting vulnerabilities and policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerona Morales, Marcelo Esteban; Sosa Clavijo, Silvana Maria


    In this thesis Marcelo Gerona and Silvana Sosa undertake an analysis of the Great Depression (1928-1934) in a sample of three highly interconnected South American countries: Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay (ABU). The problem tackled in this work is the relative vulnerabilities of ABU, which

  10. Luchas campesinas e indígenas en México y Colombia en las décadas del 70 y 80 /


    Caruso López, Luisa Natalia


     tesis que para obtener el grado de Doctorado en Estudios Latinoamericanos, presenta Luisa Natalia Caruso Lopez ; asesor Raquel Sosa Elizaga230 páginas : ilustracionesDoctorado en Estudios Latinoamericanos UNAM, Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, 2012

  11. Acciones colectivas en defensa de la educación pública : Colombia-México (1987-2007) /


    Aguilera Morales, Alcira


     tesis que para obtener el grado de Doctor en Estudios Latinoamericanos, presenta Alcira Aguilera Morales ; asesor Raquel de la Luz Sosa Elízaga. XVI, 265 páginas. Doctorado en Estudios Latinoamericanos UNAM, Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, 2011

  12. Modificación estructural de la lignina extraída a partir de carbones de bajo rango para la obtención de madera sintética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Álvaro Jiménez Montoya


    Full Text Available The Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas Coal Research Group has been working with lignin extraction from peat and low rank coal and using the obtained extract for synthetic wood industry. Sosa, sulfate and bisulfite methods [1] were applied in the first research step and later they were modified with the lignine extraction process from pine and cedar. Among these, Sosa method showed asthe more efficient method, so, it was used to extract lignine from low rank coal. The extracted lignin was used to prepare lignin-phenol-formaldehide resin and it works as natural fiber binder [2].In the second research step, standarization Sosa method was made [3], were pressure was modified using an pressure reactor (autoclave for a peat sample. Efficiency was improved. The obtained lignine was used to prepare resins such as phenolformaldehide- lignin, resorcinol-formaldehydelignin and polypropilen-lignin. All of them were utilized using sugar cane bagasse as natural fiber. Currently, a third research step is being developed using Sosa method and working with a peat sample.The main purpose, is to modificate the extracted lignin structure by UV radiation (physical methot and with NaOH (Chemical method so the lignin reactivity is improved in the resins production [4] and as result, to get a better quality synthetic wood.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Steffes B, Nocton JJ, Schwabe MJ, Jacobson. RD, Drolet BA: Linear scleroderma en coup de sabre with associated neurologic abnormalities. 9. Emery H. Pediatric scleroderma. Semin Cutan Med Surg. 1998;17:41-47. 10. Orozco-Covarrubias L, Guzman-Meza A, Ridaura-Sanz. C , Carrasco DD (?) , Sosa-de-Martinez C, ...

  14. Modeling Unidirectional Composite Laminates Using XFEM (United States)


    evaluated. For example, Benvenuti et al.22 applied XFEM concepts to modeling FRP- reinforced concrete and Sosa and Karapurath23 used XFEM to model...Laminated Fibre - Reinforced Composites with Emphasis on Fibre Kinking: Part I: Development,” Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing...REFERENCES (Cont’d) 22. E. Benvenuti, O. Vitarelli, A. Tralli, “Delamination of FRP- Reinforced Concrete by Means of an eXtended Finite Element

  15. Literature Review on Systems of Systems (SoS): A Methodology With Preliminary Results (United States)


    x Acknowledgments The authors would like to acknowledge Dr. Romeo del Rosario of the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) Sensors and Electron...modified version of the supply categorization quadrant model as first proposed and used by del Rosario et al. (22), in their comprehensive assessment...conducting ARL business) of an evaluated SoS or SoSA design, we shall use one of three distinct colors:  Green indicates the SoS/SoSA technology is

  16. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vivo and in vitro antileishmanial effects of methanolic extract from bark of Bursera aptera · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. O.J. Nieto-Yañez, A.A. Resendiz-Albor, P.A. Ruiz-Hurtado, N Rivera-Yañez, M Rodriguez-Canales, M Rodriguez-Sosa, ...

  17. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 1309 ... ... vitro antileishmanial effects of methanolic extract from bark of Bursera aptera, Abstract PDF. O.J. Nieto-Yañez, A.A. Resendiz-Albor, P.A. Ruiz-Hurtado, N Rivera-Yañez, M Rodriguez-Canales, M Rodriguez-Sosa, I Juarez-Avelar, M.G. Rodriguez-Lopez, M.M. Canales-Martinez, M.A. Rodriguez-Monroy.

  18. In vivo and in vitro antileishmanial effects of methanolic extract from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vivo and in vitro antileishmanial effects of methanolic extract from bark of Bursera aptera. O.J. Nieto-Yañez, A.A. Resendiz-Albor, P.A. Ruiz-Hurtado, N Rivera-Yañez, M Rodriguez-Canales, M Rodriguez-Sosa, I Juarez-Avelar, M.G. Rodriguez-Lopez, M.M. Canales-Martinez, M.A. Rodriguez-Monroy ...

  19. Latin America Report (United States)


    Arts Council headed by two wsll-known artists whose days may be counted. The new Prime minister’s wife, Mrs. Esquivel, has been appointed...ei hteen men some 18 miles from Ridge, . have been taken to Blue Creek Village in Urbano Uck, 24 of CQUrt &nd...Cristino Pol, 23, Leonel Cansino, 34, Pedro Najern, 42, Urbano Uk, 24, Andres Sosa, 55, Edward Shaw, 49, Eloy Blanco, 24, Leobaldo Toledano, 20, and

  20. Semiannual Report to the Congress, April 1, 2011 - September 30, 2011 (United States)


    purchases of marked up items were bought from the office supply company. Result: On May 3, 2011, Cpl. Dakota Beckham , USMC, plead guilty in a special...court-martial to one count of Uniform Military Code of Justice Article 134. At sentencing Beckham received a reduction in rank to E-3, letter of...Overview: A joint investigation conducted by DCIS, ATF and DEA revealed that David Diaz-Sosa, a Mexican national, sought to ac- quire, transfer and

  1. Education (United States)


    Frank Sosa, Dept. of the Air Force Col Juan Urbano , Peruvian Army Dr. Francis A’Hearn, Faculty Prof. William Mayall, Faculty COL Mark McGuire...that the problem is a matter of inadequate funding for public schools and that particularly poor urban and rural school districts simply cannot raise...attrition and retention in seven Virginia school divisions confirmed the above reasons. The study encompassed teachers in urban, suburban, and rural

  2. Surgical need in an aging population: A cluster-based household survey in Nepal. (United States)

    Stewart, Barclay T; Wong, Evan; Gupta, Shailvi; Bastola, Santosh; Shrestha, Sunil; Kushner, Adam L; Nwomeh, Benedict C


    With an aging global population comes an obligate and substantial burden of noncommunicable disease, especially in low- and middle-income countries. An unknown proportion of this burden is treatable with surgical expertise. For health system planning, this study aimed to estimate the operative needs of individuals older than 50 of age years in Nepal. A 2-stage, cluster randomized, community-based survey was performed in Nepal using the validated Surgeons OverSeas Surgical Assessment Survey (SOSAS). SOSAS collects household demographics and selects household members randomly for verbal, head-to-toe examinations for surgical conditions; moreover, SOSAS also completes a verbal autopsy for deaths in the preceding year. Only respondents older than 50 years were included in the analysis. The survey sampled 1,350 households, totaling 2,695 individuals (97% response rate). Of these, 273 surgical conditions were reported by 507 persons ages ≥ 50 years. Extrapolating, there are potentially 2.1 million people older than 50 years of age with surgically treatable conditions who need care in Nepal (95% confidence interval 1.8-2.4 million; 46,000-62,600 per 100,000 persons). One in 5 deaths was potentially treatable or palliated by surgical care. Although growths or masses (including hernias and goiters) were the surgical condition reported most commonly (25%), injuries and fractures also were common and associated with the greatest disability. Literacy and distance to secondary and tertiary health facilities were associated with lack of care for operative conditions (P Nepal. Low literacy and distance from a capable health facility are the greatest barriers to care. As the global population ages, there is an increasing need to improve surgical services and strengthen health systems to care for this group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Efectos de la hipnosis en el dolor por punción lumbar y aspirado de médula ósea en niños y adolescentes /


    Ramírez Mora, Laura Miriam


     tesis que para obtener el grado de Doctor en Psicología, presenta Laura Miriam Ramírez Mora ; asesor Benjamín Domínguez Trejo, Juan José Sánchez Sosa, maría Antonieta Flores Muñoz, Ariel Vite Sierra, María Dolores Rodríguez Ortiz. 119 páginas : ilustraciones. Doctorado en Psicología UNAM, Facultad de Psicología, 2011

  4. Dreams, Agency, and Judgement


    Soteriou, Matthew John


    Sosa (Proc Addresses Am Philos Assoc 79(2): 7–18, 2005) argues that we should reject the orthodox conception of dreaming—the view that dream states and waking states are “intrinsically alike, though different in their causes and effects” (2005: p. 7). The alternative he proposes is that “to dream is to imagine” (2005: p. 7). According to this imagination model of dreaming, our dreamt conscious beliefs, experiences, affirmations, decisions and intentions are not “real” insofar as they are all ...

  5. Síntesis de carboximetilcelulosa (CMC) a partir de pastas de plantas anuales


    Barba Pacheco, Claudia


    Palabras clave: materiales lignocelulósicos residuales, chopo, pino, paja de trigo, plantas anuales, abacá, sisal, yute, lino, Miscanthus sinensis, bagazo de caña de azúcar, henequén, pastas de cocción rápida sosa/AQ, pastas IRSP, carboximetilcelulosa, comportamiento reológico, grado de sustitución.El presente trabajo describe la preparación y caracterización de muestras de carboximetilcelulosa (CMC) a partir de diferentes materiales lignocelulósicos tanto residuales como no madereros, así c...

  6. Un aporte de Carlos Guastavino y Lima Quintana al mundo de la Nueva Canción argentina Carlos Guastavino and Lima Quintana's contribution to the world of the Argentinean New Song

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina Luz Mansilla


    Full Text Available El artículo se refiere a la canción Hermano compuesta por el músico Carlos Guastavino sobre una poesía de Hamlet Lima Quintana. Dedicada al editor Rómulo Lagos, fue grabada por Mercedes Sosa en 1966. Incluida como pista inicial del disco de la cantante tucumana al cual le dio su nombre, la canción constituye una evidencia de la simpatía del compositor con los postulados centrales del Nuevo Cancionero argentino. El trabajo comprende una aproximación a la temática del poema, el análisis musical de la partitura, la puesta en contexto de las circunstancias de composición y difusión y la descripción de la versión grabada por Mercedes Sosa. Aplicando la noción "mundos del arte" de Howard BECKER (1982, se interpreta la red de personas ligadas a la editorial Lagos como un tejido cooperativo que funcionó con eficacia hasta mediados de la década de 1970. Un esbozo del contexto posterior, signado por la censura, permite inferir algunos factores que incidieron en el quiebre de esa red de colaboraciones. Aunque respecto de Guastavino, se habla aquí de vinculación y no de pertenencia.Study about the song Hermano by Argentinean composer Carlos Guastavino written after a poem by Hamlet Lima Quintana. Dedicated to the editor Rómulo Lagos, the song was recorded by the Argentinean singer Mercedes Sosa in 1966. Included as the first track in that record (to which it gave its name, the song constitutes an evidence of the composer's sympathy with the central postulates of the Argentinean New Song. This paper's perspective integrates the poem's subject, the score's musical analysis, the study of the context concerning with the composition and spreading circumstances and the description of the performance recorded by Mercedes Sosa. Applying the notion of "art worlds" by Howard BECKER (1982, we interpret the persons net connected with Lagos publishing, as a co-operative and interwoven fabric that effectively worked until the mid 1970s. A sketch of

  7. Ecos chamánicos en la escultura contemporánea


    Navarro Morcillo, Pablo


    En este artículo se pretende dar una visión de la influencia y la presencia del tótem en parte de la obra de diferentes escultores contemporáneos, haciendo especial hincapié en Antonio Sosa y Francisco Toledo. La pervivencia de este modelo como recurso artístico también es apreciable en la obra de otros creadores como Carlos Rojas, Jörg Immendorf o Keith Haring. The aim of this article is to give a general view of the influence and presence of totemic representations as a...

  8. Análise de risco para manejo da resistência a toxina Cryac e inseticidas convencionais e estudos de diversidade genétíca de Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner e Pseudoplusia includens (Walker) (Lepidopttera : Noctuidae) no Brasil


    Yano, Silvia Akimi Cavaguchi


    Orientador : Dr. Daniel Ricardo Sosa-Gómez Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Federal do Paraná, Setor de Ciências Biológicas, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Biológicas (Entomologia). Defesa: Curitiba, 27/02/2012 Inclui referências Área de concentração : Entomologia Resumo: Anticarsia gemmatalis Hubner e Pseudoplusia includens (Walker) sao importantes pragas da cultura da soja. A principal forma de controle dessas pragas e por meio de aplicacoes de inseticidas quimicos e...

  9. Borges caleidoscópico



    O número 26 é un monográfico adicado a Jorge Luis Borges MONOGRÁFICO BORGES CALEIDOSCÓPICO "Adeus, Georgie" por Luz Pozo Garza "Claudio Rodríguez Fer, autor de Borges y todo" por Héctor Acebo "Julio Ortega, hispanista especialista en la obra de Borges" por Cristina Fiaño "Mi recuerdo de Borges en Austin" por Lily Litvak "Recuerdo de Borges" por Claudio Pérez Míguez "Ex-Libris" por Vero Mariaka "Sueño con Borges" por Francisco Sosa "Ficciones para ...

  10. Assessing unmet anaesthesia need in Sierra Leone: a secondary analysis of a cluster-randomized, cross-sectional, countrywide survey. (United States)

    Harris, Mark J; Kamara, Thaim B; Hanciles, Eva; Newberry, Cynthia; Junkins, Scott R; Pace, Nathan L


    To determine the unmet anaesthesia need in a low resource region. Surgery and anæsthesia services in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are under-equipped, under-staffed, and unable to meet current surgical need. There is little objective measure as to the true extent and nature of unmet need. Without such an understanding it is impossible to formulate solutions. Therefore, we re-examined Surgeons OverSeas (SOSAS) unmet surgical need data to extrapolate unmet anaesthesia need. For the untreated surgical conditions identified by SOSAS, we assigned anaesthetic technique required to carry out the procedure. The chosen anaesthetic was based on common practice in the region. Procedures were categorized into minimal anaesthesia, spinal anæsthesia, regional anaesthesia, ketamine/monitored anaesthesia care (MAC), and general endotracheal anæsthesia (GETA). Ninety-two per cent (687 of 745) of untreated surgical conditions in Sierra Leone would require some form of anaesthesia. Seventeen per cent (125 of 745) would require MAC, 22% (167 of 745) would require spinal anaesthesia, and 53% (395 of 745) would require GETA. Analyses such as this can provide guidance as to the rational and efficient production and distribution of personnel, drugs and equipment.

  11. Técnica de Lindner-Guist: lo impensable en cirugía de desprendimiento de retina

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    Sergio E. Hernández Da Mota


    Lo que más llama la atención de esta técnica es que para lograr crear la cicatriz coriorretiniana alrededor de las lesiones se empleaban trepanaciones en la esclera, dentro de las cuales se vertía una solución de sosa o potasa cáustica. Por lo cruento y las obvias complicaciones que producía este método entre las que se contaba la consecuente quemadura química del ojo, pronto se abandonó. Representa sin embargo un procedimiento anecdótico en la historia de la cirugía del desprendimiento retiniano.

  12. Conservación de la Madera

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    Universidad Nacional de Colombia Facultad Nacional de Agronomía


    Full Text Available Se ha recomendado utilizar para la conservación de las maderas los bicromatos, por la propiedad que tienen de insolubilizar las gomas y la gelatina después de exposición a la luz. También se pueden conservar las maderas por medio de las sales de hierro, Sumérgense los maderos o tablas, primeramente en un baño de sulfato ferroso al 5%, donde se los tiene algunos días poro que se impregnen bien; uno vez secos, embadúrnaseles con silicato de sosa diluído de 5 grados Baumé. La madera puede conservarse de varias maneras en el presente artículo lo veremos.

  13. Efecto de los parámetros en la extracción alcalina de colorante de bija. Parte 1


    García, Y; Núñez de Villavicencio, M.; Rodríguez, J. L.; Borrego, I.; Cruz, L


    Se investigó la influencia de la temperatura (50 y 60 ºC), la relación disolvente-semillas (3:1 y 5:1), la agitación (100 y 300 rev/min) y la concentración de hidróxido de sodio (0,5 y 1,0 N) en la extracción de colorante de bija. La extracción se favoreció con el aumento de la temperatura y la disminución de la concentración de sosa. La agitación prácticamente no causó efectos en los niveles de extracción. Las relaciones disolvente-semillas ensayadas no tuvieron incidenc...

  14. A María Teresa León’s Fictional Biography: Cervantes, el soldado que nos enseñó a hablar

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    Martina Vinatea


    Full Text Available Our purpose is to study the limits between reality and fiction in the central chapters of the story of the foundation of the Convento de la Encarnación of Lima by Father Antonio de la Calancha. The convent was founded in 1556 by Leonor de Portocarrero and her daughter Doña Mencía de Sosa, widow of the crown’s traitor Francisco Hernández Girón. Despite the chronicles are consider a «hybrid genre» between literature and history by contemporary critics, Father Calancha’s story is basically historic as it follows the model of humanist histography of the XVI century. We argue that in this model aesthetic values are functional to the interpretation.

  15. Parallel Factor Analysis as an exploratory tool for wavelet transformed event-related EEG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Hansen, Lars Kai; Hermann, Cristoph S.


    -Montes, E., Valdes-Sosa, P.A., Nishiyama, N., Mizuhara, H., Yamaguchi, Y., 2004. Decomposing EEG data into space-time-frequency components using parallel factor analysis. Neuroimage 22, 1035-1045). In this article, PARAFAC is used for the first time to decompose wavelet transformed event-related EEG given...... of frequency transformed multi-channel EEG of channel x frequency x time data. The multi-way decomposition method Parallel Factor (PARAFAC), also named Canonical Decomposition (CANDECOMP), was recently used to decompose the wavelet transformed ongoing EEG of channel x frequency x time (Miwakeichi, F., Martinez......In the decomposition of multi-channel EEG signals, principal component analysis (PCA) and independent component analysis (ICA) have widely been used. However, as both methods are based on handling two-way data, i.e. two-dimensional matrices, multi-way methods might improve the interpretation...

  16. Determination of oxidative stress in wheat leaves as influenced by boron toxicity and NaCl stress. (United States)

    Masood, Sajid; Saleh, Livia; Witzel, Katja; Plieth, Christoph; Mühling, Karl H


    Boron (B) toxicity symptoms are visible in the form of necrotic spots and may worsen the oxidative stress caused by salinity. Hence, the interactive effects of combined salinity and B toxicity stress on antioxidative activities (TAC, LUPO, SOSA, CAT, and GR) were investigated by novel luminescence assays and standard photometric procedures. Wheat plants grown under hydroponic conditions were treated with 2.5 μM H₃BO₃ (control), 75 mM NaCl, 200 μM H₃BO₃, or 75 mM NaCl + 200 μM H₃BO₃, and analysed 6 weeks after germination. Shoot fresh weight (FW), shoot dry weight (DW), and relative water content (RWC) were significantly reduced, whereas the antioxidative activity of all enzymes was increased under salinity compared with the control. High B application led to necrotic leaf spots but did not influence growth parameters. Following NaCl + B treatment, shoot DW, RWC, SOSA, GR, and CAT activities remained the same compared with NaCl alone, whereas the TAC and LUPO activities were increased under the combined stress compared with NaCl alone. However, shoot FW was significantly reduced under NaCl + B compared with NaCl alone, as an additive effect of combined stress. Thus, we found an adjustment of antioxidative enzyme activity to the interactive effects of NaCl and high B. The stress factor "salt" mainly produced more oxidative stress than that of the factor "high B". Furthermore, addition of higher B in the presence of NaCl increases TAC and LUPO demonstrating that increased LUPO activity is an important physiological response in wheat plants against multiple stresses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. The spatial distribution of injuries in need of surgical intervention in Nepal

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    Shailvi Gupta


    Full Text Available Geographic information system modelling can accurately represent the geospatial distribution of disease burdens to inform health service delivery. Given the dramatic topography of Nepal and a high prevalence of unmet surgical needs, we explored the consequences of topography on the prevalence of surgical conditions. The Nepalese Surgeons OverSeas Assessment of Surgical Need (SOSAS is a validated, countrywide, cluster randomised survey that assesses surgical need in lowand middle-income countries; it was performed in Nepal in 2014. Data on conditions potentially affected by topography (e.g. fractures, hernias, injuries, burns were extracted from the database. A national digital elevation model was used to determine altitude, aspect, slope steepness and curvature of the SOSAS survey sites. Forward stepwise linear regression was performed with prevalence of each surgical condition as the response variable and topographic data as explanatory variables. The highest correlation coefficient was for models predicting hernias and fractures, both explaining 21% of the variance. The model fitted to death due to fall would become significant when an outlier was excluded (P<0.001; R2=0.27. Excluding the outlier yielded a better-fitted model to burn injury (stepwise regression without any explanatory variables. Other models trended towards a correlation, but did not have sufficient power to detect a difference. This study identified slight correlation between elevation and the prevalence of hernias and fall injuries. Further investigation on the effects of topography and geography on surgical conditions is needed to help determine if the data would be useful for directing allocation of surgical resources.

  18. «Homeland». A Monologue performed in the theatre of the city of Cadiz (19 March 1812. Edition, introduction and notes «La patria». Monólogo representado en el teatro de la ciudad de Cádiz (el 19 de marzo de 1812. Edición, introducción y notas

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    Full Text Available This play we have edited was performed to celebrate the promulgation of the Constitution on 19 March 1812 at the Teatro Principal in Cadiz. The edition includes a preliminary study that outlines the literary and journalistic productions of the author of the play, Luis de Sosa y Tovar, during his stay in Cadiz in the times of the Cortes. It also remarks on the actress who performed in the play, Agustina Torres, the Teatro Principal’s First Lady during the years of the Constitution period. The edition also includes a genre analysis, the content of the monologue and an analysis of the anthem that was the climax of the performance. Likewise, we have tried to provide explanations of its mythological and symbolic allusions, and shed light on certain verses.Esta pieza teatral que editamos se representó para celebrar la promulgación de la Constitución el 19 de marzo de 1812 en el Teatro Principal de Cádiz. La edición se acompaña de un estudio introductorio que incluye un esbozo de la actividad periodística y literaria de su autor, Luis de Sosa y Tovar, durante su estancia gaditana en los años de Cortes, y unas notas alusivas sobre la actriz que lo interpretó, Agustina Torres, primera dama del Teatro Principal durante el periodo constitucional. También se incluye el análisis del género y contenido del monólogo y se comenta el himno que sirvió de colofón a la representación. En las notas de la edición hemos intentado aclarar alusiones mitológicas y simbólicas y, de igual modo, esclarecer el sentido concreto de algunos versos.

  19. Fall Injuries in Nepal: A Countrywide Population-based Survey. (United States)

    Gupta, Shailvi; Gupta, Shyam Kumar; Devkota, Sagar; Ranjit, Anju; Swaroop, Mamta; Kushner, Adam L; Nwomeh, Benedict C; Victorino, Gregory P


    An estimated 424,000 fatal falls occur globally each year, making falls the second leading cause of unintentional injury-related deaths after road traffic injuries. More than 80% of fall-related fatalities occur in low- and middle-income countries. Data from low-income South Asian countries like Nepal are lacking, particularly at the population level. The aim of this study was to provide an estimate of fall-injury prevalence and the number of fall injury-related deaths countrywide in Nepal and to describe the epidemiology of fall injuries in Nepal at the community level. A countrywide cross-sectional study was performed in 15 of the 75 districts in Nepal using the Surgeons OverSeas Assessment of Surgical Need (SOSAS) survey tool. The SOSAS survey gathers data in 2 sections: demographic data, including the household's access to health care and recent deaths in the household, and assessment of a representative spectrum of surgical conditions, including injuries. Data was collected regarding an individuals' experience of injury including road traffic injuries, falls, penetrating trauma, and burns. Data included anatomic location, timing of injury, and whether health care was sought. If health care was not sought, the reason for barrier to care was included. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Of 2695 individuals from 1350 households interviewed, 141 reported injuries secondary to falls (5.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.4%-6.1%), with a mean age of 30.7 years; 58% were male. Falls represented 37.2% of total injuries (n = 379) reported (95% CI, 32.3%-42.3%). Twelve individuals who suffered from a fall injury were unable to access surgical care (8.5%; 95% CI, 4.5%-14.4%). Reasons for barrier to care included no money for health care (n = 3), facility/personnel not available (n = 7), and fear/no trust (n = 2). Of the 80 recent deaths reported, 7 were due to fall injury (8.8%; 95% CI, 3.6%-17.2%), and patients had a mean age of 46 years (SD 22

  20. Burns in Nepal: A population based national assessment. (United States)

    Gupta, S; Mahmood, U; Gurung, S; Shrestha, S; Kushner, A L; Nwomeh, B C; Charles, A G


    Burns are ranked in the top 15 leading causes of the burden of disease globally, with an estimated 265,000 deaths annually and a significant morbidity from non-fatal burns, the majority located in low and middle-income countries. Given that previous estimates are based on hospital data, the purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence of burns at a population level in Nepal, a low income South Asian country. A cluster randomized, cross sectional countrywide survey was administered in Nepal using the Surgeons OverSeas Assessment of Surgical Need (SOSAS) from May 25th to June 12th, 2014. Fifteen of the 75 districts of Nepal were randomly chosen proportional to population. In each district, three clusters, two rural and one urban, were randomly selected. The SOSAS survey has two portions: the first collects demographic data about the household's access to healthcare and recent deaths in the household; the second is structured anatomically and designed around a representative spectrum of surgical conditions, including burns. In total, 1350 households were surveyed with 2695 individuals with a response rate of 97%. Fifty-five burns were present in 54 individuals (2.0%, 95% CI 1.5-2.6%), mean age 30.6. The largest proportion of burns was in the age group 25-54 (2.22%), with those aged 0-14 having the second largest proportion (2.08%). The upper extremity was the most common anatomic location affected with 36.4% of burns. Causes of burns included 60.4% due to hot liquid and/or hot objects, and 39.6% due to an open fire or explosion. Eleven individuals with a burn had an unmet surgical need (20%, 95% CI 10.43-32.97%). Barriers to care included facility/personnel not available (8), fear/no trust (1) and no money for healthcare (2). Burns in Nepal appear to be primarily a disease of adults due to scalds, rather than the previously held belief that burns occur mainly in children (0-14) and women and are due to open flames. This data suggest that the demographics and


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    Alfonso García Gonzáles


    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El aprendizaje cooperativo se plantea como una de las principales medicinas de la educación: el estudiante adopta un papel activo en su proceso de aprendizaje. La cuestión metodológica es trascendental dentro de la universidad: el proyecto de construcción del Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior plantea cambios profundos en el paradigma docente, debiendo cambiar los roles del profesor y del alumno, dentro y fuera del aula. Para reforzar este argumento, se procedió a la aplicación del Cuestionario de Aprendizaje Cooperativo de Arellano, Navarro y Sosa (2007 a los 692 estudiantes matriculados en primero de Grado de Educación Primaria en el curso 2010/2011. La muestra coincidió con el universo de los estudiantes de primer año en el Grado de Educación Primaria, constituida por un 87% de mujeres y con una edad media de 19 años, lo cual permitió obtener un índice de consistencia interna de 0.83 para el instrumento. Los resultados recalcaron la importancia de potenciar el aprendizaje cooperativo en las aulas universitarias, teniendo en cuenta que son pocas las ocasiones en las que puede ponerse en juego. ABSTRACT: Cooperative learning is one of the main medicines in education: the student takes an active role in their own learning process. Methodological issues are very important within university, since the development project of the European Higher Education Area proposes very profound changes in the educational paradigm, changes in the role of teachers and students inside and outside the classroom. To give force to this argument, the implementation of Cooperative Learning Questionnaire Arellano, Navarro and Sosa (2007 was taken to 692 students enrolled in first grade of primary education in 2010-2011. The sample coincides with the universe of freshmen in the Bachelor of Primary Education, comprising 87% of women with a mean age of 19 years, which yielded an index of 0.83 for internal consistency of the instrument. The results

  2. Megamelus bellicus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae: immature stages and biology

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    Roxana MARIANI


    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran los estados inmaduros de Megamelus bellicus Remes Lenicov & Sosa (Hemiptera: Delphacidae y se presenta una clave para identificarlos. La descripción de cada estadio se realizó sobre la base de ninfas extraidas 24 horas posteriores a la eclosión, de colonias de laboratorio y criadas sobre trozos de hojas de camalote Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms Laubach. Los principales caracteres para distinguir los distintos estadios son: tamaño del cuerpo, color, número de tarsómeros, espinulación de la metatibia y número de dientes del calcar y presencia de sensorios en el pedicelo antenal. Datos biológicos basados en observaciones en el laboratorio y en el campo, muestran que M. bellicus realiza su ciclo biológico exitosamente sobre Pontederiaceae. Los huevos, dispuestos de 1 a 9 por postura, son colocados profundamente en el aerénquima del pecíolo; son más frecuentes de 3-4, menos frecuentes 5, 2 y 6, y raramente 1, 7 y 9. Se registra el porcentaje de parasitoidismo de un Hymenoptera oófilo de la familia Eulophidae, Aprostocetus (Ootetrastichus sp. Debido a que M. bellicus ocupa el mismo hábitat ecológico que M. scutellaris Berg, se resaltan las principales diferencias morfológicas y de comportamiento entre las mismas.

  3. Moralność a stronniczość (MORALITY VERSUS PARTIALITY

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    Piotr Bołtuć


    Full Text Available Patriotism is not a viable option for the traditional universalistic moral systems, including Kantian rationalism and especially for consequentialism. The author follows Sosa in claiming that not all forms of consequentialism have to lack 'deontic components'. He follows up with a stronger claim, that not all systems, deontic or consequentialist, have to accept strong universalism that precludes non-instrumental special moral concerns. He presents the main alternatives: (a Dancy's moral particularism; (b Nagel's idea of partiality based on the non-reducible difference between personal and impersonal view points; (c Scheffler's concern with non-voluntary special duties; (d a broad range of philosophies, from Aristotle's to the ethics of care that use non-homogenous models. The author closes by claiming that the non-homogenous models result in viable moral theories. Such theories treat ethics not as a source of moral recommendations to the effect of what should happen in a given situation, but rather as rules of a largely competitive game that adjudicate two things: (1 what each agent should do in a given situation; (2 what constraints should be imposed on the manner in which that moral competition is taking place.

  4. Program of energy efficiency of Mexichem Derivados Coatzacoalcos; Programas de eficiencia energetica de Mexichem Derivados Coatzacoalcos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulbarela Croda, Ruperto; Arce Vargas, Mauricio [Mexichem Derivados Coatzacoalcos (Mexico)


    Mexichem Derivados Coatzacoalcos is a producing company of chlorine, soda, sodium hypochlorite and salt. With the purpose of maintaining and consolidating its competitiveness in the international market and to contribute to the preservation of the environment, in 2004 initiated the Program of energy efficiency whose objectives are: to identify the opportunity areas to diminish the present power indexes, to use efficiently the energy sources of the productive activity of the plant and to promote the saving of energy in the companies of Mexichem. [Spanish] Mexichem Derivados Coatzacoalcos es una empresa productora de cloro, sosa, hipoclorito de sodio y sal. Con el fin de mantener y consolidar su competitividad en el mercado internacional y contribuir a la preservacion del medio ambiente, en 2004 inicio con el Programa de eficiencia energetica cuyos objetivos son: identificar las areas de oportunidad para disminuir los indices energeticos actuales, utilizar eficientemente los energeticos de la actividad productiva de la planta y promover el ahorro de energia en las empresas de Mexichem.

  5. El calendario como método de recolección de datos demográficos

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    Doris Sosa Jara


    Full Text Available Los estudios con diseño experimental son una rareza en las ciencias sociales. Ello a pesar de ser el medio idóneo para probar hipótesis o evacuar preguntas científicas de relaciones causa-efecto. La monografía “El calendario como método de recolección de datos demográficos” reimpresa en este número de la revista es un raro ejemplo de estudio experimental para determinar las ventajas y desventajas de este método de recolección de datos retrospectivos e historias de vida. El estudio demuestra la mejora en la calidad de ciertos datos con el uso del calendario, como por ejemplo un aumento de 37% en la proporción de abortos reportados en el calendario en comparación con el cuestionario tradicional. Pero, sobre todo, el estudio subraya la importancia, factibilidad y costo razonable de este tipo de diseños experimentales para poner a prueba métodos alternativos de recolección de información que permitan mejorar la calidad del dato.La monografía fue originalmente impresa por la Asociación Demográfica Costarricense en 1988 y una versión ampliada la publicó en inglés la revista Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 23(6, 1992. El experimento tuvo lugar como parte de la “Encuesta Nacional de Fecundidad y Salud, Costa Rica 1986”, llevada a cabo por dicha asociación en colaboración con los Centros para el Control de Enfermedades, de Atlanta, EEUU. La directora de la encuesta y autora del presente estudio fue Doris Sosa Jara, destacada demógrafa costarricense prematuramente fallecida el 15 de setiembre de 2013. La revista Población y Salud en Mesoamérica eligió para reproducir este documento de entre la variada producción de Doris Sosa, como una muestra de rigor científico en un estudio.En los funerales de Doris en el Auditorio de la Facultad de Ciencias Económicas de la Universidad de Costa Rica, facultad de la que hasta hace poco fue Decana durante 8 años, en medio de los discursos y palabras de aprecio, a uno de sus

  6. Two common and problematic leucochrysine species - Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) varia (Schneider) and L. (L.) pretiosa (Banks) (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae): redescriptions and synonymies. (United States)

    Tauber, Catherine A; Sosa, Francisco; Albuquerque, Gilberto S


    We dedicate this article to the memory of Sergio de Freitas, FCAV-UNESP, Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil (deceased, 2012). He was an active and enthusiastic Neuropterist and the cherished mentor and friend of Francisco Sosa. Leucochrysa McLachlan is the largest genus in the Chrysopidae, yet it has received relatively little taxonomic attention. We treat two problematic and common Leucochrysa species - Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) varia (Schneider, 1851) and Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) pretiosa (Banks, 1910). Both are highly variable in coloration and were described before the systematic importance of chrysopid genitalia was recognized. Recent studies show that these species occur within a large complex of cryptic species and that they have accumulated a number of taxonomic problems. We identify new synonymies for each of the species-for Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) varia: Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) ampla (Walker, 1853), Leucochrysa internata (Walker, 1853), and Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) walkerina Navás, 1913; for Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) pretiosa: Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) erminea Banks, 1946. The synonymy of Leucochrysa delicata Navás, 1925 with Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) pretiosa is stabilized by the designation of a neotype. The following species, which were previously synonymized with Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) varia or Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) pretiosa, are reinstated as valid: Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) phaeocephala Navás, 1929, Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) angrandi (Navás, 1911), and Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) variata (Navás, 1913). To help stabilize Leucochrysa taxonomy, lectotypes are designated for Allochrysa pretiosa and Allochrysa variata. Finally, Leucochrysa vegana Navás, 1917 is considered a nomen dubium.

  7. Geospatial analysis of unmet pediatric surgical need in Uganda. (United States)

    Smith, Emily R; Vissoci, Joao Ricardo Nickenig; Rocha, Thiago Augusto Hernandes; Tran, Tu M; Fuller, Anthony T; Butler, Elissa K; de Andrade, Luciano; Makumbi, Fredrick; Luboga, Samuel; Muhumuza, Christine; Namanya, Didacus B; Chipman, Jeffrey G; Galukande, Moses; Haglund, Michael M


    In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), an estimated 85% of children do not have access to surgical care. The objective of the current study was to determine the geographic distribution of surgical conditions among children throughout Uganda. Using the Surgeons OverSeas Assessment of Surgical Need (SOSAS) survey, we enumerated 2176 children in 2315 households throughout Uganda. At the district level, we determined the spatial autocorrelation of surgical need with geographic access to surgical centers variable. The highest average distance to a surgical center was found in the northern region at 14.97km (95% CI: 11.29km-16.89km). Younger children less than five years old had a higher prevalence of unmet surgical need in all four regions than their older counterparts. The spatial regression model showed that distance to surgical center and care availability were the main spatial predictors of unmet surgical need. We found differences in unmet surgical need by region and age group of the children, which could serve as priority areas for focused interventions to alleviate the burden. Future studies could be conducted in the northern regions to develop targeted interventions aimed at increasing pediatric surgical care in the areas of most need. Level III. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Hürthle cell carcinoma: current perspectives

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    Ahmadi S


    Full Text Available Sara Ahmadi,1 Michael Stang,2 Xiaoyin “Sara” Jiang,3 Julie Ann Sosa2,4,5 1Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, 2Section of Endocrine Surgery, Department of Surgery, 3Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, 4Duke Cancer Institute, 5Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Abstract: Hürthle cell carcinoma (HCC can present either as a minimally invasive or as a widely invasive tumor. HCC generally has a more aggressive clinical behavior compared with the other differentiated thyroid cancers, and it is associated with a higher rate of distant metastases. Minimally invasive HCC demonstrates much less aggressive behavior; lesions <4 cm can be treated with thyroid lobectomy alone, and without radioactive iodine (RAI. HCC has been observed to be less iodine-avid compared with other differentiated thyroid cancers; however, recent data have demonstrated improved survival with RAI use in patients with HCC >2 cm and those with nodal and distant metastases. Patients with localized iodine-resistant disease who are not candidates for a wait-and-watch approach can be treated with localized therapies. Systemic therapy is reserved for patients with progressive, widely metastatic HCC. Keywords: thyroid cancer, thyroid nodule, follicular cell carcinoma, Hurthle cell lesion, minimally invasive HCC

  9. Justificação, confiabilismo e virtude intelectual

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    Luz, Alexandre Meyer


    Full Text Available Este ensaio se ocupará de uma noção que debuta muito recentemente no cenário do debate epistemológico contemporâneo, a saber, a noção de virtude intelectual. Vamos discutir, aqui, uma das abordagens da noção de virtude, aquela moldada na forja confiabilista. Receberão destaque especial os trabalhos os Alvin Goldman e Ernest Sosa, nesta ordem. Veremos que 'virtude intelectual' será entendida, grosso modo, como uma evolução da noção de 'processo confiável de formação de crenças', evolução motivada por três críticas à teoria confiabilista. Pretendemos mostrar, ainda, que uma destas críticas não é resolvida, exatamente a crítica que ataca um dos pilares do programa confiabilista: a dispensa de crenças de segunda ordem sobre a justificação

  10. «La patria». Monólogo representado en el teatro de la ciudad de Cádiz (el 19 de marzo de 1812. Edición, introducción y notas

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    Full Text Available Esta pieza teatral que editamos se representó para celebrar la promulgación de la Constitución el 19 de marzo de 1812 en el Teatro Principal de Cádiz. La edición se acompaña de un estudio introductorio que incluye un esbozo de la actividad periodística y literaria de su autor, Luis de Sosa y Tovar, durante su estancia gaditana en los años de Cortes, y unas notas alusivas sobre la actriz que lo interpretó, Agustina Torres, primera dama del Teatro Principal durante el periodo constitucional. También se incluye el análisis del género y contenido del monólogo y se comenta el himno que sirvió de colofón a la representación. En las notas de la edición hemos intentado aclarar alusiones mitológicas y simbólicas y, de igual modo, esclarecer el sentido concreto de algunos versos.

  11. Two common and problematic leucochrysine species – Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) varia (Schneider) and L. (L.) pretiosa (Banks) (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae): redescriptions and synonymies (United States)

    Tauber, Catherine A.; Sosa, Francisco; Albuquerque, Gilberto S.


    Abstract We dedicate this article to the memory of Sergio de Freitas, FCAV-UNESP, Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil (deceased, 2012). He was an active and enthusiastic Neuropterist and the cherished mentor and friend of Francisco Sosa. Leucochrysa McLachlan is the largest genus in the Chrysopidae, yet it has received relatively little taxonomic attention. We treat two problematic and common Leucochrysa species – Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) varia (Schneider, 1851) and Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) pretiosa (Banks, 1910). Both are highly variable in coloration and were described before the systematic importance of chrysopid genitalia was recognized. Recent studies show that these species occur within a large complex of cryptic species and that they have accumulated a number of taxonomic problems. We identify new synonymies for each of the species–for Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) varia: Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) ampla (Walker, 1853), Leucochrysa internata (Walker, 1853), and Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) walkerina Navás, 1913; for Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) pretiosa: Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) erminea Banks, 1946. The synonymy of Leucochrysa delicata Navás, 1925 with Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) pretiosa is stabilized by the designation of a neotype. The following species, which were previously synonymized with Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) varia or Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) pretiosa, are reinstated as valid: Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) phaeocephala Navás, 1929, Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) angrandi (Navás, 1911), and Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) variata (Navás, 1913). To help stabilize Leucochrysa taxonomy, lectotypes are designated for Allochrysa pretiosa and Allochrysa variata. Finally, Leucochrysa vegana Navás, 1917 is considered a nomen dubium. PMID:23805050

  12. Traumatic Injuries in Developing Countries: Report from a Nationwide Cross-Sectional Survey of Sierra Leone (United States)

    Stewart, Kerry-Ann; Groen, Reinou S.; Kamara, Thaim B.; Farahzard, Mina; Samai, Mohamed; Yambasu, Sahr E.; Cassidy, Laura D.; Kushner, Adam L.; Wren, Sherry M.


    Objective Despite the tremendous disability and mortality caused by traumatic injuries worldwide, there is a relative dearth of information on the burden of injuries in developing countries. In an effort to document the surgical burden of disease in Sierra Leone, a nationwide survey was conducted utilizing the Surgeons OverSeas Assessment of Surgical Need (SOSAS) tool. Here, we report the injury data from this study with the aim to (1) provide an estimate of injury prevalence, (2) determine the mechanisms of injury, and (3) evaluate the degree of injury related deaths. Methods A population-based household survey was conducted in Sierra Leone in 2012. Participants were selected using a two-stage random sampling method, which generated a target population of 3750 participants across the 14 districts of Sierra Leone. Frequency distributions of mechanisms of injury based on age, sex, and urban versus rural residence were computed, and bivariate logistic regression models used to determine associations between sociodemographic factors and injury patterns. Results Data was analyzed from 1,843 households and 3,645 respondents, representing a response rate of 98.3%. Four hundred and fifty-two respondents (12.4%) reported at least one traumatic injury in the preceding year. Falls were the most common cause of non-fatal injuries, accounting for over 40% of injuries. The extremities were most commonly injured (55% of injuries) regardless of age or sex. Although motor vehicle related injuries were the 4th most common cause of injury overall, they were the leading cause of injury related deaths, accounting for almost 6% of fatal injuries. Conclusion This study provides baseline data on the burden of traumatic injuries in one of the world's poorest nations. In addition to injury prevention measures, immediate strategies to address current healthcare deficits are urgently needed in these resource poor areas. This report is an Original Article with Level I evidence. PMID:23325317

  13. A photometric search for activity among asteroids and Centaurs (United States)

    Sosa Oyarzabal, A.; Mammana, L.; Fernández, J. A.


    We present the first results of a long-term observational campaign focused on the detection of activity in selected asteroids and centaurs. Our observational targets are near-Earth asteroids in cometary orbits (cf. [2]), the so called ''main-belt comets'' or ''active asteroids'' (well-known objects as well as potential candidates), and bright centaurs with good orbits, all close to their perihelion passages. In those objects with a former detection of activity, our aim is to contribute to a better physical knowledge of them, and determine, for instance, if the observed activity is transient or permanent. To achieve our goals, we analyzed CCD-filtered images of each observable target acquired with the 2.15-m telescope ''Jorge Sahade'' at CASLEO (San Juan, Argentina), during two runs of three consecutive nights each (during August 2013 and January 2014, respectively). Our study will be completed by future runs with the same instrumentation already assigned to our campaign. As preliminary results, we observed activity in the main-belt comets P/2013 P5 (PANSTARRS) and 133P/(7968) Elst-Pizarro. We also observed the main-belt comet (596) Scheila, which showed an unequivocally stellar appearance. We observed the main-belt comet candidate (3646) Aduatiques (cf. [1]), and noticed in this object a curious feature whose connection to some kind of activity is not well determined yet. We also observed the near-Earth asteroid in cometary orbit 2006 XL_5 (cf. [3]), and the centaurs (281371) 2008 FC_{76}, (332685) 2009 HH_{36}), (382004) 2010 RM_{64}, 2010 XZ_{78}, and 2011 UR_{402}. We have not detected activity in these objects, but an improved analysis is still in progress. %Corresponding author: Andrea Sosa (

  14. Critical appraisal of rituximab in the maintenance treatment of advanced follicular lymphoma

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    Aguiar-Bujanda D


    Full Text Available David Aguiar-Bujanda, María Jesús Blanco-Sánchez, María Hernández-Sosa, Saray Galván-Ruíz, Samuel Hernández-Sarmiento Department of Medical Oncology, Hospital Universitario de Gran Canaria Doctor Negrín, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain Abstract: Rituximab is an IgG1, chimeric monoclonal antibody specifically designed to recognize the CD20 antigen expressed on the surface of normal and malignant B-lymphocytes, from the B-cell precursor to the mature B-cells of the germinal center, and by most neoplasms derived from B-cells. After 2 decades of use, rituximab is firmly positioned in the treatment of follicular lymphoma (FL, both in the front line and in the relapsing disease, improving previous results by including it in classical chemotherapy regimens. However, the pharmacology of rituximab continues to generate controversial issues especially regarding the mechanisms of action in vivo. The contribution of rituximab as a maintenance treatment in FL has been significant progress in the management of this disease without an increase in side effects or a decrease in the quality of life of patients. With the widespread use of rituximab, there are new security alerts and side effects not previously detected in the pivotal trials that clinicians should learn to recognize and manage. In this article, we will review the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of rituximab, the management issues in the treatment of advanced FL focusing on maintenance rituximab, its long-term efficacy and safety profile, and its effect on the quality of life. Keywords: follicular lymphoma, long-term efficacy, maintenance, rituximab, toxicity

  15. Oxidation of SO2 by stabilized Criegee intermediate (sCI radicals as a crucial source for atmospheric sulfuric acid concentrations

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    M. Boy


    Full Text Available The effect of increased reaction rates of stabilized Criegee intermediates (sCIs with SO2 to produce sulfuric acid is investigated using data from two different locations, SMEAR II, Hyytiälä, Finland, and Hohenpeissenberg, Germany. Results from MALTE, a zero-dimensional model, show that using previous values for the rate coefficients of sCI + SO2, the model underestimates gas phase H2SO4 by up to a factor of two when compared to measurements. Using the rate coefficients recently calculated by Mauldin et al. (2012 increases sulfuric acid by 30–40%. Increasing the rate coefficient for formaldehyde oxide (CH2OO with SO2 according to the values recommended by Welz et al. (2012 increases the H2SO4 yield by 3–6%. Taken together, these increases lead to the conclusion that, depending on their concentrations, the reaction of stabilized Criegee intermediates with SO2 could contribute as much as 33–46% to atmospheric sulfuric acid gas phase concentrations at ground level. Using the SMEAR II data, results from SOSA, a one-dimensional model, show that the contribution from sCI reactions to sulfuric acid production is most important in the canopy, where the concentrations of organic compounds are the highest, but can have significant effects on sulfuric acid concentrations up to 100 m. The recent findings that the reaction of sCI + SO2 is much faster than previously thought together with these results show that the inclusion of this new oxidation mechanism could be crucial in regional as well as global models.

  16. Blue Guardian: open architecture intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) demonstrations (United States)

    Shirey, Russell G.; Borntrager, Luke A.; Soine, Andrew T.; Green, David M.


    The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) - Sensors Directorate has developed the Blue Guardian program to demonstrate advanced sensing technology utilizing open architectures in operationally relevant environments. Blue Guardian has adopted the core concepts and principles of the Air Force Rapid Capabilities Office (AFRCO) Open Mission Systems (OMS) initiative to implement an open Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) platform architecture. Using this new OMS standard provides a business case to reduce cost and program schedules for industry and the Department of Defense (DoD). Blue Guardian is an early adopting program of OMS and provides much needed science and technology improvements, development, testing, and implementation of OMS for ISR purposes. This paper presents results and lessons learned under the Blue Guardian Project Shepherd program which conducted Multi-INT operational demonstrations in the Joint Interagency Task Force - South (JIATF-S) and USSOUTHCOM area of operations in early 2016. Further, on-going research is discussed to enhance Blue Guardian Multi-INT ISR capabilities to support additional mission sets and platforms, including unmanned operations over line of sight (LOS) and beyond line of sight (BLOS) datalinks. An implementation of additional OMS message sets and services to support off-platform sensor command and control using OMS/UCI data structures and dissemination of sensor product data/metadata is explored. Lastly, the Blue Guardian team is working with the AgilePod program to use OMS in a full Government Data Rights Pod to rapidly swap these sensors to different aircraft. The union of the AgilePod (which uses SOSA compliant standards) and OMS technologies under Blue Guardian programs is discussed.

  17. Homenaje a Julieta Quilodrán

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    Viridiana Sosa


    Full Text Available El Centro de Estudios Demográficos, Urbanos y Ambientales de El Colegio de México realizó un reconocimiento a la trayectoria de la profesora investigadora Julieta Quilodrán 1 por su destacada labor en la docencia e investigación demográficas durante más de cuatro décadas. Durante el homenaje se hizo un recuento de su sobresaliente desempeño como pro - fesora investigadora en análisis demográfico; se enfatizó que Julieta Quilodrán es pio - nera en la investigación sobre familia y nupcialidad, que ha dedicado cuarenta años a investigar las transformaciones del matrimonio, la familia y la fecundidad en México y América Latina, y que es una referencia en la investigación en la demografía mundial. Además ha formado a un gran número de generaciones de demógrafos, a quienes ha inculcado el rigor en el uso de todas las metodologías del análisis demográfico. También se presentó el libro Parejas conyugales en transformación –del cual Julieta Quilodrán es compiladora–, 2 en el que se documentan desde el punto de vista demográfico los cambios ocurridos en el ámbito de la vida conyugal y familiar a partir de varios enfoques metodológicos cuantitativos, cualitativos y jurídicos. El reconocimiento y la presentación del libro se llevaron a cabo el 23 de abril de 2012 en El Colegio de México. En la ceremonia participaron Teresa Castro, Robert McCaa, Beatriz Figueroa, Viridiana Sosa, Manuel Ordorica y Silvia Giorguli. Por úl - timo, Julieta Quilodrán emitió un breve mensaje de agradecimiento. A continuación presentamos las palabras de quienes intervinieron en el acto, precedidas por una intro - ducción elaborada por Silvia Giorguli, directora del Centro de Estudios Demográficos, Urbanos y Ambientales de El Colegio de México.

  18. Utilization of flavonoid compounds from bark and wood: a review. (United States)

    Yazaki, Yoshikazu


    Flavonoid compounds, which are extracted from bark and wood and used commercially, are flavan 3-ols as monomers and their polymers, which are called "condensed tannins". Reactions of the condensed tannins with formaldehyde are the basis for wood adhesives. In the late 1940s, tannin research for wood adhesives was begun and the world-first commercial use of wattle tannin from black wattle (Acacia mearnsii) bark as wood adhesives occurred in Australia in the 1960s. In addition, wattle tannin-based adhesives were further developed in South Africa and the uses of these adhesives have been continuing to date. The success of wattle tannin in wood adhesives is demonstrated by the collaboration of the ACIAR with the CAF in the early 1990s. Although radiata pine bark (Pinus radiata) could be a useful resource for the production of wood adhesives, three problems prevented its use in this application: low extractive yields from the bark, variable quality of the tannin extracts and excessive viscosity of the formulated tannin adhesives. In order to overcome these problems, various extraction methods have been proposed. Studies on tannin adhesives from bark of other pine species are also described. Furthermore, the use of the tannin in the bark without extraction is described as "bark adhesives" from radiata pine and black wattle. The use of radiata tannin without formaldehyde for moulded wood products is also described. Owing to the strong antioxidant activity of flavonoid compounds, bark extracts from French maritime pine (Pinus pinaster, synonym P. maritima) and radiata pine have been commercialized as nutritional supplements: Pycnogenol and Enzogenol, respectively. The background and the development of Pycnogenol and the basic difference in the preparation processes between Pycnogenol and Enzogenol are described. On the basis of the discovery that the SOSA value for wattle tannin is approximately 10 times that of extracts from pine bark supplements (Pycnogenol and Enzogenol

  19. Formalization of the engineering science discipline - knowledge engineering (United States)

    Peng, Xiao

    Knowledge is the most precious ingredient facilitating aerospace engineering research and product development activities. Currently, the most common knowledge retention methods are paper-based documents, such as reports, books and journals. However, those media have innate weaknesses. For example, four generations of flying wing aircraft (Horten, Northrop XB-35/YB-49, Boeing BWB and many others) were mostly developed in isolation. The subsequent engineers were not aware of the previous developments, because these projects were documented such which prevented the next generation of engineers to benefit from the previous lessons learned. In this manner, inefficient knowledge retention methods have become a primary obstacle for knowledge transfer from the experienced to the next generation of engineers. In addition, the quality of knowledge itself is a vital criterion; thus, an accurate measure of the quality of 'knowledge' is required. Although qualitative knowledge evaluation criteria have been researched in other disciplines, such as the AAA criterion by Ernest Sosa stemming from the field of philosophy, a quantitative knowledge evaluation criterion needs to be developed which is capable to numerically determine the qualities of knowledge for aerospace engineering research and product development activities. To provide engineers with a high-quality knowledge management tool, the engineering science discipline Knowledge Engineering has been formalized to systematically address knowledge retention issues. This research undertaking formalizes Knowledge Engineering as follows: 1. Categorize knowledge according to its formats and representations for the first time, which serves as the foundation for the subsequent knowledge management function development. 2. Develop an efficiency evaluation criterion for knowledge management by analyzing the characteristics of both knowledge and the parties involved in the knowledge management processes. 3. Propose and develop an

  20. Compensatory lengthening in the Spanish of Havana, Cuba: Acoustic analyses of word-internal, post-nuclear /l/ and /r/ (United States)

    Carlson, Kristin M.

    Given the geographic, demographic, and historical importance of Cuba vis-a-vis the dissemination of language and culture throughout the Hispanic Caribbean, one would naturally anticipate a larger corpus of scientifically-noteworthy linguistic publications on Cuban Spanish, which is far from the actual case. Moreover, the gemination of an onset positionally subsequent to the deletion of a syllable-final liquid (generally termed liquid gemination in the literature) has been repeatedly claimed yet remarkably unsubstantiated as a pervasive characteristic of Cuban Spanish, particularly of the western dialect region (cf. Alfaraz (2000, 2007, 2008), Casanellas and Alamo (1985), Choy Lopez (1985, 1988, 1989), Costa Sanchez (1987), Darias Concepcion (2001, 2005), Dohotaru (2002, 2007), Figueroa Esteva and Dohotaru (1994), Garcia Perez (2006), Garcia Riveron (1991), Haden and Matluck (1973, 1974, 1977), Isbǎsescu (1965, 1968), Lamb (1968), Levina (1970), Montero Bernal (1990, 2002, 2007a, b), Ringer Uber (1986), Ruiz Hernandez (1978), Sosa (1974), Terrell (1976), Trista and Valdes (1978), Valdes Acosta (1980), and Vera Riveron (2000)). As a result, in the interest of supplementing all antecedent work concerning the allophony of final liquids as well as affording a more descriptively-precise account of the allophony of word-internal, post-nuclear /l/ and /[Special character omitted]/ in Cuban Spanish in addition to expressly addressing the need for empirical data-collection and analysis processes, the present investigation was specifically designed and implemented to acoustically investigate the phenomenon of gemination as it is purported to occur in the Spanish of the region of Havana, Cuba: more specifically, (1) to acoustically examine the qualitative and quantitative patternings of post-nuclear /l/ and /[Special character omitted]/ within the word; and (2) to statistically evaluate the relationship between gemination and eight independent variables: gender, age group

  1. Alfabetización Estadística en los Centros de Formación Docente. Una Experiencia Realizada en la Cátedra de Matemática y su Enseñanza en el Profesorado de Educación Inicial

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    Gabriela Pilar Cabrera


    Full Text Available Se presenta una propuesta didáctica para abordar la alfabetización estadística en los centros de formación docente. Esta experiencia se desarrolla en los IFD: “Instituto Nuestra Madre de Merced” de Córdoba Capital y “Adoratrices” de Villa del Rosario, en la cátedra de Matemática y su Enseñanza I del profesorado en Educación Inicial, durante el año 2007. Se parte de la idea de que se hace imprescindible que las alumnas, futuras docentes, funden sus aprendizajes desde una construcción significativa para que puedan constituirse en los principales agentes de una alfabetización estadística y probabilista, tan necesarias en la sociedad de la información, que tienen como protagonistas a los niños; quienes deberán estar preparados para la toma de decisiones en un marco de incertidumbre, más que en ningún otro momento en la historia de la humanidad. El marco teórico en el cual se inscribe la experiencia se sustenta en la integración de los aportes de los siguientes autores: G. Brousseau, R. Douady, U.D´Ambrosio, B. D´Amore, C. Batanero, J. Godino, C. J. Wild y M. Pfannkuch, W. Kilpatrick, A.Sosa y G. Cabrera. En la primera de las macrosituaciones presentadas, las alumnas llevan a cabo el proceso estadístico que implica “Estudiar el nivel de conocimiento de las maestras a cargo de las salas de 4 y 5 años de los Jardines de Infantes observados en la materia de Práctica Docente I, acerca de la enseñanza del número, la numeración y las operaciones en edades tempranas”, simulándose una situación de consultoría estadística. En la segunda macrosituación, se abordan técnicas de conteo en un marco de contextualización apropiado, promoviendo la meta-congnición de manera que se reflexione sobre las dificultades que supone el aprendizaje de estas técnicas y la relación con los conocimientos previos, promoviéndose una mirada crítico-reflexiva que replantea el modo de enseñar.

  2. Efficacy of a short cognitive training program in patients with multiple sclerosis

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    Pérez-Martín MY


    Full Text Available María Yaiza Pérez-Martín,1 Montserrat González-Platas,1 Pablo Eguía-del Río,2 Cristina Croissier-Elías,1 Alejandro Jiménez Sosa3 1Service of Neurology, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Canarias, La Laguna, 2Service of Neurology, Doctor José Molina Orosa Hospital, Arrecife, Lanzarote, 3Unit of Research, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Canarias, La Laguna, Spain Background: Cognitive impairment is a common feature in multiple sclerosis (MS and may have a substantial impact on quality of life. Evidence about the effectiveness of neuropsychological rehabilitation is still limited, but current data suggest that computer-assisted cognitive training improves cognitive performance.Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of combined computer-assisted training supported by home-based neuropsychological training to improve attention, processing speed, memory and executive functions during 3 consecutive months.Methods: In this randomized controlled study blinded for the evaluators, 62 MS patients with clinically stable disease and mild-to-moderate levels of cognitive impairment were randomized to receive a computer-assisted neuropsychological training program (n=30 or no intervention (control group [CG]; n=32. The cognitive assessment included the Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Test. Other secondary measures included subjective cognitive impairment, anxiety and depression, fatigue and quality of life measures.Results: The treatment group (TG showed significant improvements in measures of verbal memory, working memory and phonetic fluency after intervention, and repeated measures analysis of covariance revealed a positive effect in most of the functions. The control group (CG did not show changes. The TG showed a significant reduction in anxiety symptoms and significant improvement in quality of life. There were no improvements in fatigue levels and depressive symptoms.Conclusion: Cognitive

  3. Cognitive status in patients with multiple sclerosis in Lanzarote

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    Pérez-Martín MY


    Full Text Available María Yaiza Pérez-Martín,1 Pablo Eguia-del Río,2 Montserrat González-Platas,1 Alejandro Jiménez-Sosa31Service of Neurology, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Canarias, La Laguna, 2Service of Neurology, Doctor José Molina Orosa Hospital, Arrecife, Lanzarote, 3Unit of Research, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Canarias, La Laguna, SpainObjectives: Cognitive impairment is a common feature in multiple sclerosis affecting ~43%–72% of patients, which involves cognitive functions such as memory, processing speed, attention, and executive function. The aim of this study was to describe the extent and pattern of the involvement of cognitive impairment and psychological status in all patients with multiple sclerosis on a small Spanish island.Patients and methods: In all, 70 patients and 56 healthy controls were included in the study between February 2013 and May 2013. All participants were assessed using the Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Test. The patients also completed instruments to evaluate the presence of fatigue, perceived cognitive dysfunction, and symptoms of anxiety and depression. All procedures were performed in a single session.Results: Cognitive impairment, defined as a score <1.5 standard deviation on two subtests of the battery, was present in 35% of the participants. The most frequently affected domain was working memory, followed by verbal memory and processing speed. Disease duration showed a moderate correlation with visuospatial memory and processing speed. The Expanded Disability Status Scale score correlated with verbal and processing speed. Verbal memory was correlated with depression symptoms and fatigue.Conclusion: Cognitive impairment was present in 35% of the study population. The most affected domains were working memory and verbal memory. Working memory and verbal fluency deficit are independent factors of disease evolution. Cognitive decline is related to clinical variables and

  4. Burden of road traffic injuries in Nepal: results of a countrywide population-based survey. (United States)

    Nepal, Sarthak; Gupta, Shailvi; Wong, Evan G; Gurung, Susant; Swaroop, Mamta; Kushner, Adam L; Nwomeh, Benedict C


    Road traffic injury has emerged as a leading cause of mortality, contributing to 2·1% of deaths globally and is predicted to be the third highest contributor to the global burden of mortality by 2020. This major public health problem disproportionately affects low-income and middle-income countries, where such incidents are too often underreported. Our study aims to explore the epidemiology of road traffic injurys in Nepal at a population level via a countrywide study. The Surgeons OverSeas Assessment of Surgical Need (SOSAS) tool, a cluster randomised, cross-sectional nationwide survey, was conducted in Nepal between May 25, and June 12, 2014. Two-stage cluster sampling was performed: 15 of 75 districts were chosen randomly proportional to population; within each district, after stratification for urban and rural, and three clusters were randomly chosen. Questions were structured anatomically and designed around a representative spectrum of surgical conditions. Road traffic injury-related results were reported. 1350 households and 2695 individuals were surveyed with a response rate of 97%. 75 road traffic injuries were reported in 72 individuals (2·67% [95% CI 2·10-3·35] of the study population), with a mean age of 33·2 years (SD 1·85). The most commonly affected age group was 30-44 years, with females showing significantly lower odds of sustaining a road traffic injury than men (crude odds ratio 0·29 [95% CI 0·16-0·52]). Road traffic injuries composed 19·8% of the injuries reported. Motorcycle crashes were the most common road traffic injuries (48·0%), followed by car, truck, or bus crashes (26·7%), and pedestrian or bicycle crashes (25·3%). The extremity was the most common anatomic site injured (74·7%). Of the 80 deaths reported in the previous year, 7·5% (n=6) were due to road traffic injuries. This study provides the epidemiology of road traffic injuries at a population-based level in the first countrywide surgical needs assessment in Nepal

  5. Editorial

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    Carolina Santamaría Ulloa


    ón para el monitoreo de los derechos de los adultos mayores de Argentina y Uruguay, basado en el enfoque de los derechos humanos.El quinto artículo científico realiza una evaluación de la energía y los macronutrientes de la alimentación servida a niños y niñas menores de seis años en centros de cuido y hogares comunitarios de la Gran Área Metropolitana de Costa Rica; en él, Zúñiga y Fernández concluyen que la mayoría de los platos servidos a esta población de estudio no cumplen con el aporte de energía recomendado, mientras que el aporte de carbohidratos superó las recomendaciones en todos los centros estudiados.El sexto artículo nos traslada a México; en él, Reyes y Álvarez evalúan los programas de formación de promotores para la prevención y el control de la tuberculosis en la región fronteriza de Chiapas. Las autoras elaboran sus conclusiones en torno a la importancia de la participación comunitaria para definir el problema de la tuberculosis y reflexionar sobre los posibles caminos a seguir. Se demuestra la eficacia de la capacitación de promotores y su utilidad en el proceso de tratamiento de la tuberculosis a nivel comunitario.Nuestra sección de documentos históricos es un homenaje póstumo a la Dra. Doris Sosa Jara, quien fue decana de la Facultad de Ciencias Económicas de la Universidad de Costa Rica por espacio de ocho años, además de activa colaboradora de esta revista. Luis Rosero hace una caracterización del aporte académico de la Dra. Sosa, y nos recuerda su carrera profesional y las cualidades humanas que siempre la caracterizaron.De parte del Comité Editorial de Población y Salud en Mesoamérica, les extendemos las más sinceras gracias a todos los autores por elegirnos como portal electrónico para la publicación de sus estudios académicos e investigaciones, y a los lectores, quienes son los que nos alientan a continuar trabajando para mejorar la calidad de nuestras publicaciones.

  6. (United States)

    Benítez Brito, Néstor; Oliva García, José Gregorio; Delgado Brito, Irina; Pereyra-García Castro, Francisca; Suárez Llanos, José Pablo; Leyva González, Francisco Gustavo; Palacio Abizanda, José Enrique


    Introducción: la alimentación constituye el pilar fundamental del soporte nutricional de los pacientes hospitalizados. Evaluar el grado de aceptación de la dieta es imprescindible en aras de combatir la desnutrición hospitalaria.Objetivos: a) determinar el grado de satisfacción de los pacientes en relación con las dietas; y b) analizar posibles variables asociadas a un grado de satisfacción mayor (apetito y tipo de dieta).Material y métodos: estudio descriptivo de corte transversal. Se emplea una encuesta de 17 preguntas con datos sociodemográficos, datos cualitativos, así como la valoración general del paciente. Se comparó el grado de satisfacción global en función del apetito y el tipo de dieta (terapéutica vs.basal; con sal vs.sosa) (Test no paramétric o Krustal-Wallis y T-Student para muestras independientes, respectivamente).Resultados: mil cuatrocientos trece pacientes. Edad: 53,9 ± 19 años; 51,3% mujeres. Dieta terapéutica (34,9%). Solo el 39,4% tomó dieta con sal. El 66,8% refirió ingresos previos. La alimentación del hospital para un 43% de pacientes fue ''como esperaba'', mientras que para un 44,1% fue ''mejor de lo que esperaba''. El horario de comidas era adecuado (89,1%) y el tiempo para comer, suficiente (96,4%). En cuanto a las características de la comida servida, consideraron como buenas o muy buenas la misma el porcentaje reflejado: sabor/gusto (56.3%), olor (65,5%), cocinado (69,2%), presentación (80,4%), tamaño de ración (75,9%), calidad (73%), cantidad (77,9%), variedad (67,6%), temperatura (70,4%). La valoración global de la alimentación en una escala de 1 a 10 fue de 6,8 ± 2,3. El apetito se asoció a un aumento significativo de la satisfacción global alimentaria del paciente (p dieta o la presencia de sal en la misma no se asociaron a un aumento significativo de la satisfacción con la dieta de los pacientes (p = 0,99 y 0,35, respectivamente).Conclusiones: aunque el grado de satisfacción de la dieta de nuestro

  7. Effect of the use of silver nanocrystals and silver sulfadiazine in the management of soft tissue lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tineo C


    Full Text Available Cristian Tineo,1 Cinthia M Nuñez,2–4 Ouel Sosa,1,5 Dahiana Pichardo,1 Juan Luis Hernández,1 Gustavo Collado3 1Department of Surgery, José María Cabral y Báez Regional and University Hospital (HRUJMCB, 2Department of Surgery, Dr. Arturo Grullòn University and Childrens Hospital Burn Unit (HIRUDAG, 3Department of Surgery, Santiago Metropolitan Hospital (HOMS, 4Department of Medicine, Mother and Master Pontifical and Catholic University (PUCMM, 5Department of Medicine, Santiago Thechnological University (UTESA, Santiago, Dominican Republic Background: Soft tissue lesions represent a health problem of great magnitude around the world. Multiple drugs have been used in their treatment. Silver sulfadiazine (SSD and silver nanocrystals (SNC are among the most used. The purpose of this research was to compare the effectiveness of SSD and SNC regarding the wound granulation rate, treatment time, antibiotic effect, and treatment cost and to determine the frequency of these lesions in participants of this research.Methods: Data were collected from 50 patients with soft tissue lesions in the Regional University Hospital José María Cabral y Báez (HRUJMCB, in Santiago, Dominican Republic. This study was approved by the bioethics committee of the Pontifical Catholic University Madre and Maestra (PUCMM and the HRUJMCB. Patients were followed up from August 2015 to February 2016. SPSS Statistics program was used to calculate Chi square and assess statistical significance.Results: Fifty patients were included in this study, of whom 56% had diabetic foot ulcers, 22% had vascular ulcers, and 22% had pressure ulcers. In total, 42% of the patients were treated with SSD and 58% with SNC. Granulation rate was 71.4% for SSD and 89.6% for SNC, and positive antibiotic effect was 15.9% for SSD and 25.9% for SNC. A total of 14.4% of patients treated with SSD ended their participation in the research between 8 and 14 days, 37.9% in 15–21 days, and 42.8% in

  8. Energy saving using solar filters with iron base in windows; Ahorro de energia usando filtros solares con base en hierro en ventanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez Galan, Jesus


    termico generado al interior de las edificaciones por las inadecuadas propiedades de los materiales de construccion, se desarrollaron en este trabajo filtros solares con base en hierro por medio de los cuales se logra un control selectivo de la radiacion solar que se transmite a traves de las ventanas. Estos filtros solares consisten en peliculas delgadas de FeO depositadas sobre sustratos de vidrio cal-sosa (el mas usado en nuestro pais para las edificaciones) de 600x300x3 mm, por medio de la tecnica de sputtering asistida con radiofrecuencia y magnetrones planos, partiendo de un blanco de hierro puro de 127x254 mm y usando un plasma de argon. Para obtener el grado de oxidacion deseado en el hierro, pequenas muestras (45 x 22 mm) fueron sometidas a un proceso de calentamiento en una atmosfera reductora constituida de 50% H{sub 2} + 50% N{sub 2}, durante un periodo de tiempo de 10 minutos a una temperatura de 400 C. Los filtros solares con base en FeO presentan una transmisividad de 30.2% para el intervalo visible del espectro electromagnetico (radiacion con longitud de onda de 380-780 nm), y de 39.9% para el infrarrojo cercano (radiacion con longitud de onda de 780-2500 nm); mientras que su reflectividad es de 17.5 y 19%, para los intervalos visibles e infrarrojo cercano del espectro electromagnetico respectivamente. Se realizo una simulacion, a traves del software Energy 10, del comportamiento energetico de una casa-habitacion cuando utilizan en las ventanas vidrios simples (una lamina) tipo cal-sosa, asi como tambien cuando esta misma edificacion usa en las ventanas los filtros solares con base en FeO desarrollados. Ambos casos se comparan obteniendose asi los posibles ahorros de energia por el uso de dichos filtros solares en las ventanas. Las simulaciones fueron llevadas a cabo para diferentes localidades del pais, obteniendose que los filtros solares con base en FeO desarrollados, permiten ahorros de energia principalmente por concepto de acondicionamiento de aire

  9. Hyperthyroidism and Other Causes of Thyrotoxicosis: Management Guidelines of the American Thyroid Association and American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V V Fadeyev


    Full Text Available В конце весны 2011 г. вышли новые рекомендации Американской тиреоидной ассоциации и Американской ассоциации клинических эндокринологов по диагностике и лечению тиреотоксикоза. Они озаглавлены “Гипертиреоз и другие причины тиреотоксикоза”. Bahn R.S., Burch H.B., Cooper D.S., Garber J.R., Greenlee M.C., Klein I., Laurberg P., McDougall I.R., Montori V.M., Rivkees S.A., Ross D.S., Sosa J.A., Stan M.N. Hyperthyroidism and Other Causes of Thyrotoxicosis: Management Guidelines of the American Thyroid Association and American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. Thyroid. 2011:21. Рекомендации представляют собой достаточно большой документ, изданный на 54 журнальных страницах. Важно отметить, что в его создании участвовали не только американские, но и европейские эксперты, т.е. представленные рекомендации не узкоспецифичны для США, где, как известно, есть свои особенности организации медицинской помощи. В документе сформулировано собственно 100 пунктов рекомендаций, каждому из которых представлен уровень силы рекомендации и уровень доказательности. Большая же часть объема документа представлена обсуждением и аргументацией,на основании которой были сформулированы 100 рекомендаций. В этой статье хотелось бы